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Sample records for inflammation radio-induite au

  1. Treatment of radioinduced skin burns by adult stem cells;Traitement des brulures cutanees radio-induites par cellules souches adultes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lataillade, J.J.; Prat, M. [Hopital Militaire Percy, Centre de Transfusion Sanguine des Armees, Dept. Recherches et Therapies Cellulaires, 92 - Clamart (France); Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bey, E. [Hopital Militaire Percy, Service de Chirurgie Plastique, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2009-12-15

    In the area of skin injuries caused by ionizing radiations; the recent opportunity give us the the possibility to manage victims of radiation accidents with skin acute symptoms of irradiation. The approach of cell therapy developed for these patients could be in a second time, used for other types of injuries as thermal burns and the injuries linked to overexposure in radiotherapy. In spite of the diversity of approaches of allogeneic and autologous transplantation, the prognosis of deep and extended radioinduced burns is not completely satisfying because of inflammatory recurrences, origin of graft failures. The stem cells have been used in association. The stem cells were got from sampling of autologous bone marrow after an expansion in vitro from 15 to 17 days. The cultures were realised in medium with 8% of platelet lysate (clinical grade). The cells have been given by injection in complement of epidermis auto graft. A spectacular effect was noticed the day after the injection, but disappearing in some days encouraging to realize supplementary injections. An effect of the quickness and the quality of the graft success is appeared significant too. no necrosis recurrence for the patients after four years for the first one of them. We think that the stem cells participate to the local control of inflammation. (N.C.)

  2. Radiation retinopathy; Les retinopathies radio-induites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumbroso, L.; Desjardins, L. [Institut Curie, Serv. d' Ophtalmologie, 75 - Paris (France); Dendale, R.; Fourquet, A. [Institut Curie, Serv. de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-09-01

    Radiation retinopathy is a retinal micro-angiopathy, observed after irradiation of the eye. It can rarely lead to neo-vascular glaucoma and enucleation due to pain. It is due to a progressive retinal capillary then vascular occlusion. Total irradiation dose, dose fraction, and surface of the irradiated retina seem to be strong predictive factors for radiation retinopathy. Patients who underwent an irradiation near the eye (skull base tumors, nasal and paranasal tumors, or brain tumors) should be followed by periodic ophthalmologic examination to detect and treat when necessary the non perfusion areas. (authors)

  3. Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst-Hansen, Thomas

    Inflammation is an intricate response relying on the activation and response of both the innate immune system and the infected tissue to remove a threat. The pro-inflammatory NF-kappaB pathway has been studied extensively, among others because of its key role in regulation of inflammation. However...

  4. Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst-Hansen, Thomas

    Inflammation is an intricate response relying on the activation and response of both the innate immune system and the infected tissue to remove a threat. The pro-inflammatory NF-kappaB pathway has been studied extensively, among others because of its key role in regulation of inflammation. However...

  5. Part of the oxidative stress in the development of radio-induced cell effects at cutaneous level: application to accidental localised irradiations; Role du stress oxydatif dans le developpement des effets cellulaires radio-induits au niveau cutane: application aux irradiations localisees accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carine, Laurent

    2005-10-15

    The objective of our study was to answer to the following questions: does the initial radio-induced oxidative stress lead to the accumulation of DNA damages in the low renewal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells) that could be responsible of delayed effects; does it exist delayed oxidative phenomena and era they implied in the delayed effects arising; does it exist a phenomenon of premature senescence; does it exist a premature senescence phenomenon that could lead to an accumulation of damages before the cell death; what are the action mechanisms of the association pentoxifylline/{alpha}-tocopherol. (N.C.)

  6. In vitro modulation of radiation-induced FAS-related apoptosis in CD34{sup +} progenitor cells by combination cytokines; Reduction de l'apoptose radio-induite impliquant le recepteur FAS au niveau des cellules hematopoietiques CD34{sup +} par une combinaison de cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, M.; Mathieu, J.; Grenier, N.; Soutif, A.; Herodin, F

    1998-07-01

    Combination cytokines such as SCF, Flt-3 ligand, IL-3 and thrombopoietin can modulate Fas mRNA expression by in vitro irradiated CD34{sup +} cells which results in a moderate decrease of apoptotic ratio and an improved rate of clonogenicity of the irradiated progenitors. (authors)

  7. Mechanisms of radioinduced apoptosis; Mecanismes de l'apoptose radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Derradji, H.; Petitfour, Ol.; Von Schodoletz, H.; Mergeay, M. [Lab. de Radiobiologie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, SCK-CEN, Boeretang, Mol (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    A general overview of the activation mechanisms of programmed cell death or apoptosis following an irradiation is given in this review. First, are summarized the main induction pathways of radiation-induced apoptosis by which extracellular (tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Fas ligand, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)) and intracellular (mitochondria and caspases) signals are integrated. A second part is then devoted to the importance of p53 and of its regulators (ATR, ATM, DNA-PKcs) in the process of radiation-induced apoptosis. Thereafter, signal transduction pathways and more specially the role of some protein kinases (MEKK, SAPK/JNK, p38-MAPK) is treated. At last, a chapter concerns the clinical interest of radiation-induced apoptosis and the implication of apoptosis in the treatment of certain diseases. (author)

  8. Radiation-induced pemphigus vulgaris of the breast; Pemphigus vulgaire radio-induit du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigna-Taglianti, R.; Russi, E.G. [Department of radiotherapy, Santa Croce e Carle general hospital, Via M. Coppino, 12100 Cuneo (Italy); Denaro, N. [Oncology department, university of Messina, Via consolare Valeria no 1, 98100 Messina (Italy); Numico, G. [Department of medical oncology, U. Parini hospital, 11100 Aosta (Italy); Brizio, R. [Department of histopathology, Santa Croce e Carle general hospital, Via M. Coppino, 12100 Cuneo (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare autoimmune muco-cutaneous bullous disease. Patients with a history of pemphigus vulgaris - who need radiotherapy - may show a long lasting bullous cutaneous manifestation, typical of pemphigus, within radiation fields. The literature describes fewer than 20 radio-induced cases. While systematic corticosteroid therapy has proven to be useful, topical treatment used in association with corticosteroid therapy is rarely described. To our knowledge the use of modern dressing products has never been described. We report our experience in a case in which modern dressing products were usefully associated to systemic therapy. (authors)

  9. Retroperitoneal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001255.htm Retroperitoneal inflammation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Retroperitoneal inflammation is swelling that occurs in the retroperitoneal space. ...

  10. Radiation-induced cataracts. Glance at some new data; Les catarates radio-induites. Regard sur de nouvelles donnees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassilieff, S. [Ecole des Applications Militaires de l' Energie Atomique, 50 - Cherbourg-Octeville (France)

    2009-10-15

    The radiation-induced cataract has been up to now considered as a quite rare pathology, needing high-dose radiations (beyond a dose threshold roughly estimated at 2 Grays to the lens) consisting mainly in head tumour radiotherapy complications. Several new studies on different exposed populations such as astronauts, Japanese atomic bomb survivors, people undergoing X-ray examinations, Chernobyl accident 'liquidators' as well as data from animal experiments, suggest that dose threshold for detectable opacities as well as for clinical posterior sub-capsular cataract occurring, might be far lower than those previously assumed. Even the existence of a dose threshold is no longer an absolute certitude insofar as radiation-induced cataract pathogenesis might consist not really in a deterministic effect (direct tissue harmful effect, killing or seriously injuring a critical population of cells) as believed until now, but rather in a stochastic effect (genomic damage in target-cells, altered cell division, abnormal lens fibre cell differentiation). More practically, these new data may lead us to reconsider radioprotection of specifically exposed populations : mainly patients and workers. Regarding workers, labour legislation (lens equivalent dose limit of 150 mSv during 12 consecutive months) might be, in the medium term, reassessed downwards. (author)

  11. Epidemiological data on radiation-induced breast cancer; Donnees epidemiologiques sur le cancer du sein radio-induit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telle-Lamberton, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dir. de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2008-08-15

    Background. - Female breast cancer is the most frequent cancer, both i+n incidence and mortality. It is well known that exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk, but some questions remain concerning low dose and low-dose rate effects and cofactors. These potential effects have to be taken into account to carry out adequate risk assessment on medically exposed populations. A literature review is proposed on this issue. Methods. - A Medline research was undertaken. Keywords used were ionizing radiation, breast cancer and epidemiology. More studies were added through references included in the first list of articles. The focus was placed on studies including quantitative dose-effect relationship analyses. Results. - A latency of five to 10 to 13 years is observed in the appearance of risk. The risk diminishes with age at exposure. A diminution with age at risk is also suspected. The excess relative risk per gray varies between 0.3 and 1.5 for an age at first exposure of 25 years. The study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors shows that risk is increased even if doses are restricted to below 0.5 Gy. Above high doses (20 Gy), the risk no longer increases. This can be interpreted as a cell-killing effect. The excess subsists if doses are fractionated, but a diminution of the effect is suspected. Conclusion. - The effects of exposure to levels of doses used for medical diagnostic are very difficult to study in the general population by epidemiological methods. Only studies conducted on very young children could achieve enough power, because of their high radiosensitivity. Available information on the effects of doses above 0.5 Gy allows extrapolation on maximal effects. Models deduced from existing cohorts can be used to assess risk, with their limits due to associated uncertainties. Preston et al. proposed an excess absolute-risk model, which makes estimates from the more comprehensive cohorts compatible. This model has been retained by the 2006 committee 'Biological effects of ionizing radiation' (report VII). (author)

  12. Radiation-induced cataract-genesis: pathophysiologic, radiobiological and clinical aspects; Catarate radio-induite: aspects physiopathologiques, radiobiologiques et cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Touboul, E.; Meric, J.B. [Hopital Tenon, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Rat, P.; Warnet, J.M. [Paris-5 Univ., Lab. de Toxicologie, UFR Pharmacie, Unite de Pharmacotoxicologie Cellulaire, Service Pharmacie, 75 (France)

    2001-08-01

    Cataract-genesis is a widely reported late effect of irradiated crystalline lens. In this review the authors discussed the different aspects of radiation cataract pathogenesis, and the different mechanisms involved in the lens opacification, particularly the epithelium modifications such as epithelial cell death. The authors also reported the influence of radiation exposure on cataract formation following total body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Moreover, the radiobiological parameters are not studied for the crystalline lens of human. We applied for the first time the linear quadratic (LQ) and biological effective dose (BED) concept to TBI data. The calculated value of {alpha}/{beta} of 1 Gy is in the range of the values reported for the other late responding tissues. The other risk factors for cataract development after TBI such as age, gender, central nervous system boost, long-term steroid therapy and heparin administration are discussed. In terms of cataract or sicca syndrome prevention, numerous compounds have been successfully tested in experimental models or used for the prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients treated for head and neck cancer. However, none of them has been clinically evaluated for ocular radiation late effects prevention. In this report the authors discussed some of the radioprotectors potentially interesting for radiation-induced cataract or sicca syndrome prevention. (author)

  13. {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET imaging of infection and inflammation: intestinal, prosthesis replacements, fibrosis, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis..; La TEP au {sup 18}F-FDG dans la pathologie inflammatoire et infectieuse: intestinale, prothetique, fibrose, sarcoidose, tuberculose..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Cortes, M.; Caresia, A.P.; Juan, R. de; Vidaller, A.; Mana, J.; Martinez-Yelamos, S.; Gamez, C. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Service TEP-Centre IDI, Services de Medecine Interne, Barcelone (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the evaluation of infection and inflammation. A variety of diagnostic methods are available for imaging this inflammation and infection, most notably computed tomography, {sup 68}Ga scintigraphy or radionuclide labeled leucocytes. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-F.D.G.) is a readily available radiotracer that offers rapid, exquisitely sensitive high-resolution images by positron emission tomography (PET). Inflammation can be acute or chronic, the former showing predominantly neutrophilic granulocyte infiltrates, whereas in the latter, macrophages predominate. F.D.G. uptake in infection is based on the fact that mononuclear cells and granulocytes use large quantities of glucose by way of the hexose monophosphate shunts. {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET accurately helps diagnose spinal osteomyelitis, diabetic foot and in inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis.(it appears to be useful for defining the extent of disease and monitoring response to treatment). {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET can also help localize the source of fever of undetermined origin, thereby guiding additional testing. {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET may be of limited usefulness in postoperative patients and in patients with a failed joint prosthesis or bowel inflammatory disease. In this review, we will focus on the role of {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET in the management of patients with inflammation or suspected or confirmed infection.

  14. Time evolution of relativistic d + Au and Au + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wolschin, G; Mizoguchi, T; Suzuki, N; Biyajima, Minoru; Mizoguchi, Takuya; Suzuki, Naomichi; Wolschin, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of charged-particle production in collisions of heavy ions at relativistic energies is investigated as function of centrality in a nonequilibrium-statistical framework. Precise agreement with recent d + Au and Au + Au data at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV is found in a Relativistic Diffusion Model with three sources for particle production. Only the midrapidity source comes very close to local equilibrium, whereas the analyses of the overall pseudorapidity distributions show that the systems remain far from statistical equilibrium.

  15. Collective flow in Au + Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, H.G.; EOS Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    Based on a preliminary sample of Au + Au collisions in the EOS time projection chamber at the Bevalac, we study sideward flow as a function of bombarding energy between 0.25A GeV and 1.2A GeV. We focus on the increase in in-plane transverse momentum per nucleon with fragment mass. We also find event shapes to be close to spherical in the most central collisions, independent of bombarding energy and fragment mass up to {sup 4}He.

  16. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Oct 12,2016 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  17. Major regression of radioinduced uterine aftereffects by pentoxifylline-tocopherol association; Regression majeure des sequelles uterines radio-induites par l'association pentoxifylline-tocopherol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanian, S. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Letur-Kornisch, H. [Institut mutualiste Montsouris, Centre de fertilite, PMA, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-12-01

    For the young woman who wants to have a child, the association pentoxifylline-tocopherol allows to reduce the aftereffects of uterus irradiated during childhood. The endometrial and myometrial growth allows to give chance of embryo implantation. (N.C.)

  18. Cell cycle regulation and radiation-induced cell death; Regulation du cycle cellulaire et de la mort cellulaire radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaudon, V. [Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond-Latarjet, Unite 350 Inserm, 91 (France)

    2000-10-01

    Tight control of cell proliferation is mandatory to prevent cancer formation as well as to normal organ development and homeostasis. This occurs through checkpoints that operate in both time and space and are involved in the control of numerous pathways including DNA replication and transcription, cell cycle progression, signal transduction and differentiation. Moreover, evidence has accumulated to show that apoptosis is tightly connected with the regulation of cell cycle progression. In this paper we describe the main pathways that determine checkpoints in the cell cycle and apoptosis. It is also recalled that in solid tumors radiation-induced cell death occurs most frequently through non-apoptotic mechanisms involving oncosis, and mitotic or delayed cell death. (author)

  19. Mechanisms of DNA repair and radio-induced mutagenesis in higher eukaryotes; Mecanismes de reparation et mutagenese radio-induite chez les eucaryotes superieurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbeck, D. [Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond-Latarjet, UMR 2027 CNRS, 91 (France)

    2000-10-01

    Cells of higher eukaryotes possess several very efficient systems for the repair of radiation-induced lesions in DNA. Different strategies have been adopted at the cellular level to remove or even tolerate various types of lesions in order to assure survival and limit the mutagenic consequences. In mammalian cells, the main DNA repair systems comprise direct reversion of damage, excision of damage and exchange mechanisms with intact DNA. Among these, the direct ligation of single strand breaks (SSB) by a DNA ligase and the multi-enzymatic repair systems of mismatch repair, base and nucleotide excision repair as well as the repair of double strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination or non homologous end-joining are the most important systems. Most of these processes are error-free except the non homologous end-joining pathway used for the repair of DSB. Moreover, certain lesions can be tolerated by more or less accurately acting polymerases capable of performing trans-lesion DNA syntheses. The DNA repair systems are intimately integrated in the network of cellular regulation. Some of their components are DNA damage inducible. Radiation-induced mutagenesis is largely due to unrepaired DNA damage but also involves error-prone repair processes like the repair of DSB by non-homologous end-joining. Generally, mammalian cells are well prepared to repair radiation-induced lesions. However, some questions remain to be asked about mechanistic details and efficiencies of the systems for removing certain types of radiation-damage and about their order and timing of action. The answers to these questions would be important for radioprotection as well as radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells favour healing of the cutaneous radiation syndrome; Les cellules souches mesenchymateuses favorisent la cicatrisation des lesions cutanees radio induites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, S.; Mouiseddine, M.; Mathieu, N.; Semont, A.; Monti, P.; Dudoignon, N.; Sache, A.; Boutarfa, A.; Thierry, D.; Voisin, P.; Gourmelon, P.; Chapel, A. [IRSN, Dir. de radioprotection de l' Homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-10-15

    It has been suggested that human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) could be used to repair numerous injured tissues. We have studied the potential use of hMSC in order to limit radiation-induced skin lesions. Immuno-deficient NOD/SCID mice were locally irradiated to the leg (30 Gy, dose rate 2.7 Gy/mn) using a {sup 60} Co source in order to induce a severe skin lesion. Cultured bone marrow hMSC were delivered intravenously to the mice. The irradiated skin samples were studied for the presence of the human cells, the severity of the lesions and the healing process. Macroscopic analysis and histology results showed that the lesions were evolving to a less severe degree of radiation dermatitis following hMSC transplant when compared to irradiated non-transplanted controls. Clinical scores for the studied skin parameters of treated mice were significantly improved. A faster healing was observed when compared to untreated mouse. Immuno-histology and Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) analysis provided evidence that the human cells were found in the irradiated area. These results suggest a possible use of hMSC for the treatment of the early phase of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. A successful transplant of stem cells and subsequent reduction in radiation-induced complication may open the road to completely new strategies in cutaneous radiation syndrome therapy. (authors)

  1. Role of endothelium in radiation-induced normal tissue damages; Role de l'endothelium dans les dommages radio-induits aux tissus sains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, F

    2007-05-15

    More than half of cancers are treated with radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver enough ionising radiation to destroy cancer cells without exceeding the level that the surrounding healthy cells can tolerate. Unfortunately, radiation-induced normal tissue injury is still a dose limiting factor in the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy. The knowledge of normal tissue radiobiology is needed to determine molecular mechanisms involved in normal tissue pathogenic pathways in order to identify therapeutic targets and develop strategies to prevent and /or reduce side effects of radiation therapy. The endothelium is known to play a critical role in radiation-induced injury. Our work shows that endothelial cells promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and fibro-genic phenotype after irradiation. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of PAI-1 in radiation-induced normal tissue damage suggesting that PAI-1 may represent a molecular target to limit injury following radiotherapy. We describe a new role for the TGF-b/Smad pathway in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced damages. TGF-b/Smad pathway is involved in the fibro-genic phenotype of VSMC induced by irradiated EC as well as in the radiation-induced PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. (author)

  2. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send import...... the Danish au pair scheme therefore speaks to current research on domestic work migration, the transnational family relations of young Filipina migrants and the forms of self-transformation that Filipino migration might engender.......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...... ethnographic component of the dissertation consists of four articles, all emphasizing the au pairs’ agency by viewing their migration as a dynamic personal and social experience. Arguing that Filipina au pairs tend to be understood primarily from the perspective of their precarious situation as domestic...

  3. Spin resonance transport properties of a single Au atom in S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangyuan, Wang; Guiqin, Li

    2016-07-01

    The spin transport properties of S-Au-S junction and Au-Au-Au junction between Au nanowires are investigated with density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function. We mainly focus on the spin resonance transport properties of the center Au atom. The breaking of chemical bonds between anchor atoms and center Au atom significantly influences their spin transmission characteristics. We find the 0.8 eV orbital energy shift between anchor S atoms and the center Au atom can well protect the spin state stored in the S-Au-S junction and efficiently extract its spin state to the current by spin resonance mechanism, while the spin interaction of itinerant electrons and the valence electron of the center Au atom in the Au-Au-Au junction can extract the current spin information into the center Au atom. Fermi energy drift and bias-dependent spin filtering properties of the Au-Au-Au junction may transform information between distance, bias, and electron spin. Those unique properties make them potential candidates for a logical nanocircuit. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants No. 2011CB921602) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 20121318158).

  4. Indicateurs cles au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Au cours des dernieres annees, on s'est beaucoup interesse sur la scene internationale aux indicateurs cles. Le present document se veut un tour d'horizon des efforts deployes recemment au Canada en vue d'elaborer des indicateurs cles du bien etre economique, social, environnemental et physique. Y sont classifies et examines en detail plus de 40 projets et publications portant sur ce sujet. Y figurent aussi l'enumeration breve de 20 autres projets, ainsi que des renvois a plusieurs enquetes a...

  5. Inflammation of the Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Beyond Other Animals: Study Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Penis (Balanitis; Posthitis; Balanoposthitis) By Patrick ... Penile and Testicular Disorders Epididymitis and Epididymo-orchitis Inflammation of the Penis Orchitis Peyronie Disease Phimosis and ...

  6. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Exams, Study Finds Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  7. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  8. FGF23 and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf El Din, Usama A A; Salem, Mona M; Abdulazim, Dina O

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a recognized feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification was recently settled. FGF23 was recently accused as a direct stimulus of systemic inflammation. This finding explains the strong association of FGF23 to vascular calcification and increased mortality among CKD. PMID:28101453

  9. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  10. Solid-Phase Equilibria in the Au-As, Au-Ga-Sb, Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb Ternaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-28

    AD6i5 469 SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE Ru-As AU-GA-SB AU-IN-AS- 1/17 AND AU-IN-SB TERNAR (U) CALIFORNIA UNIV LOS ANGELES DEPT OF CHEMISTRY AND...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED SOLID- PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN THE Au-Ga-As, Au-Ga-Sb Thchnical Report Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb TEARIEIS S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEMI*n Does Entepd) 4./ lie- . .- - - - - -- -- Solid Phase Equilibria in the Au-Ga-As, Au-Ga-Sb, Au-In-As, and Au-In-Sb Ternaries C

  11. /Au Back Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of CdTe thin-film solar cells with Cu-free MoO3- x /Au back contacts. CdTe solar cells with sputtered CdTe absorbers of thicknesses from 0.5 to 1.75 μm were fabricated on Pilkington SnO2:F/SnO2-coated soda-lime glasses coated with a 60- to 80-nm sputtered CdS layer. The MoO3- x /Au back contact layers were deposited by thermal evaporation. The incorporation of MoO3- x layer was found to improve the open circuit voltage ( V OC) but reduce the fill factor of the ultrathin CdTe cells. The V OC was found to increase as the CdTe thickness increased.

  12. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06157a

  13. $\\pi-\\Xi$ correlations in d+Au and Au+Au collisions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Chaloupka, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative comparison of source sizes from pi-Xi correlations analyses in d+Au and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200G GeV and sqrt(s_NN)=62 GeV is presented. For the most central Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV we report first quantitative results concerning size of the pi-Xi source and relative shift of the average emission points between pi and Xi showing that the homogeneity region of Xi source is smaller then that of pion and significantly shifted in the transverse direction.

  14. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... that engagement with Facebook as a methodological tool can be useful in research among migrants in highly politicised fields. Pointing to a discursive construction of Filipina au pairs as victims of labour exploitation, the article shows how fieldwork on Facebook enables the exploration of the ways in which...... and on Facebook....

  15. Elections au Bundestag

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Quelle influence ont eue programmes et personnalités politiques sur la campagne et les résultats des élections au Bundestag de 2013 ? Et avec quelles conséquences sur la façon de diriger le pays ? Politistes, sociologues, chercheurs en communication et responsables politiques abordent ces questions sous quatre angles : recherche électorale, recherche sur les partis, recherche en communication et recherche sur la gouvernance. (Solène Hazouard)

  16. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... that engagement with Facebook as a methodological tool can be useful in research among migrants in highly politicised fields. Pointing to a discursive construction of Filipina au pairs as victims of labour exploitation, the article shows how fieldwork on Facebook enables the exploration of the ways in which...... and on Facebook....

  17. Selenolate gold complexes with aurophilic Au(I)-Au(I) and Au(I)-Au(III) interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Silvia; Crespo, Olga; Gimeno, M Concepción; Jones, Peter G; Laguna, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    The gold(I) selenolate compound [Au(2)(SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)] (dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) has been prepared by reaction of [Au(2)Cl(2)(mu-dppf)] with PhSeSiMe(3) in a molar ratio 1:2. This complex reacts with gold(I) or gold(III) derivatives to give polynuclear gold(I)-gold(I) or gold(I)-gold(III) complexes of the type [Au(4)(mu-SePh)(2)(PPh(3))(2)(mu-dppf)](OTf)(2), [Au(3)(C(6)F(5))(3)(mu-SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)], or [Au(4)(C(6)F(5))(6)(mu-SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)], with bridging selenolate ligands. The reaction of [Au(2)(SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)] with 1 equiv of AgOTf leads to the formation of the insoluble Ag(SePh) and the compound [Au(2)(mu-SePh)(mu-dppf)]OTf. The complexes [Au(4)(C(6)F(5))(6)(mu-SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)] and [Au(2)(mu-SePh)(mu-dppf)]OTf (two different solvates) have been characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and show the presence of weak gold(I)-gold(III) interactions in the former and intra- and intermolecular gold(I)-gold(I) inter-actions in the later.

  18. Au Centenaire Immortel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marie Théodat

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Le septième cahier est d’abord l’occasion de rendre hommage, Sur le Métier, à Claude Lévi-Strauss dont c’est le centième anniversaire aujourd’hui. Il arrive que l’oeuvre d’un seul homme soit le symbole de toute une culture, et que son prestige rejaillisse sur tout un pays, jusqu’à instituer celui-ci en modèle aux yeux du reste du monde. La France est heureuse de rendre hommage au plus prestigieux de ses penseurs, véritable trésor vivant, dont les travaux continuent d’irriguer une pensée fécon...

  19. ITS au Japon

    OpenAIRE

    JANIN, JF; LOUETTE, E; MALLEJACQ, P; PAGNY, R; YGNACE, JL

    2003-01-01

    Dans le cadre de l'accord de coopération signe entre les ministres des transports français et japonais en janvier 2002, des échanges de mission sont organisés de manière à comparer de façon concrète les développements des programmes its dans les deux pays. La première mission française avait eu lieu en mai 2002 à Tokyo. Elle a permis d'organiser un premier séminaire à l'arche de la défense il y a un an au cours duquel les experts japonais ont présenté leurs projets. Un second séminaire s'est ...

  20. Estrogens, inflammation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, April; Feher, Anita; McPhee, Lucy; Jessa, Ailya; Oh, Soojin; Einstein, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The effects of estrogens are pleiotropic, affecting multiple bodily systems. Changes from the body's natural fluctuating levels of estrogens, through surgical removal of the ovaries, natural menopause, or the administration of exogenous estrogens to menopausal women have been independently linked to an altered immune profile, and changes to cognitive processes. Here, we propose that inflammation may mediate the relationship between low levels of estrogens and cognitive decline. In order to determine what is known about this connection, we review the literature on the cognitive effects of decreased estrogens due to oophorectomy or natural menopause, decreased estrogens' role on inflammation--both peripherally and in the brain--and the relationship between inflammation and cognition. While this review demonstrates that much is unknown about the intersection between estrogens, cognition, inflammation, we propose that there is an important interaction between these literatures.

  1. Orbital inflammation: Corticosteroids first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagi Glass, Lora R; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Orbital inflammation is common, and may affect all ages and both genders. By combining a thorough history and physical examination, targeted ancillary laboratory testing and imaging, a presumptive diagnosis can often be made. Nearly all orbital inflammatory pathology can be empirically treated with corticosteroids, thus obviating the need for histopathologic diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In addition, corticosteroids may be effective in treating concurrent systemic disease. Unless orbital inflammation responds atypically or incompletely, patients can be spared biopsy.

  2. Centrality dependence of antiproton production in Au+Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, D.; Bennett, M.J.; Carroll, J.B.; Chiba, J.; Chikanian, A.; Crawford, H.; Cronqvist, M.; Dardenne, Y.; Debbe, R.; Doke, T.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Hallman, T.J.; Hayano, R.S.; Heckman, H.H.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, C.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Stankus, P.; Tanaka, K.H.; Welsh, R.C.; Zhan, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States)]|[A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)]|[University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles California (United States)]|[National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)]|[University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley California (United States)]|[Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)]|[University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley California (United States)]|[Universities Space Sciences Research Association/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States)]|[Nevis Laboratory, Columbia University, Irvington, New York (United States)]|[Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); (E878 Collaboration)

    1995-11-13

    We have measured the yields of antiprotons in Au+Au interactions in the rapidity range 1.2{lt}{ital y}{lt}2.8 as a function of centrality using a beam line spectrometer. The shapes of the invariant multiplicity distributions at {ital p}{sub {ital t}}=0 are used to explore the dynamics of antiproton production and annihilation. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital The} {ital American} {ital Physical} {ital Society}.

  3. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  4. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  5. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-Zr system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 金展鹏; 刘华山

    2003-01-01

    Au-Zr binary system was reassessed by using the calculation phase diagram (CALPHAD) technique based on experimental thermodynamic data and newly reported phase diagrams. The excess Gibbs energies of the three terminal solutions and the liquid phases were formulated with Redlich-Kister polynomial. All the intermetallic phases were treated as stoichiometric compounds with the exception of ZrAu which is modeled by a two-sublattice model, (Au,Zr) : (Au, Zr). The results show that there exist seven intermetallics: Zr3Au, Zr2Au, Zr5Au4,Zr7Au10, ZrAu2 , ZrAu3, and ZrAu4 in the system. The eutectoid reaction: β(Zr) →α(Zr)+Zr3Au takes place at 1 048 K and the maximal solubility of Au in α-Zr is 4.7 % (mole fraction). The maximal solubility of Zr in Au is 6.0%(mole fraction) at 1 347 K. The homogeneity range of ZrAu phase is about 44.5%-52.9%(mole fraction) of Au. The present assessment fits experimental data very well.

  6. Inflammation and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzić, Janos; Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Karin, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established and in the last decade has received a great deal of supporting evidence from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological data. Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which inflammation promotes cancer development are still being uncovered and could differ between colitis-associated and other forms of colorectal cancer. Recent work has elucidated the role of distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators in virtually all steps of colon tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. These mechanisms, as well as new approaches to prevention and therapy, are discussed in this review.

  7. Sinonasal inflammation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Konge, Lars; Thomsen, Sf

    2013-01-01

    In this review we demonstrate that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently report sinonasal symptoms. Furthermore, we present evidence that smoking on its own can cause nasal disease, and that in COPD patients, nasal inflammation mimics that of the bronchi. All...... this evidence suggests that COPD related sinonasal disease does exist and that smoking on its own rather than systemic inflammation triggers the condition. However, COPD related sinonasal disease remains to be characterized in terms of symptoms and endoscopic findings. In addition, more studies are needed...... to quantify the negative impact of sinonasal symptoms on the quality of life in COPD patients....

  8. Natural resolution of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marcelo O; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2013-10-01

    Inflammation is a protective response essential for maintaining human health and for fighting disease. As an active innate immune reaction to challenge, inflammation gives rise to clinical cardinal signs: rubor, calor, dolor, tumor and functio laesa. Termination of acute inflammation was previously recognized as a passive process; a natural decay of pro-inflammatory signals. We now understand that the natural resolution of inflammation involves well-integrated, active, biochemical programs that return tissues to homeostasis. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of endogenous lipid mediators that modulate cellular fate and inflammation. Biosynthesis of eicosanoids and other lipids in exudates coincides with changes in the types of inflammatory cells. Resolution of inflammation is initiated by an active class switch in lipid mediators, such as classic prostaglandins and leukotrienes, to the production of proresolution mediators. Endogenous pro-resolving lipid mediators, including arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, aspirin-triggered lipoxins, ω3-eicosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvins of the E-series, docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins of the D-series, protectins and maresins, are biosynthesized during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. Depending on the type of injury and the type of tissue, the initial cells that respond are polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes/macrophages, epithelial cells or endothelial cells. The selective interaction of specific lipid mediators with G protein-coupled receptors expressed on innate immune cells (e.g. G protein-coupled receptor 32, lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor2, chemokine-like receptor 1, leukotriene B4 receptor type 1 and cabannoid receptor 2) induces cessation of leukocyte infiltration; vascular permeability/edema returns to normal with polymorphonuclear neutrophil death (mostly via apoptosis), the nonphlogistic infiltration of monocyte/macrophages and the removal

  9. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-15

    In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity.

  10. Osteoporosis and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Lacativa,Paulo Gustavo Sampaio; Farias,Maria Lucia Fleiuss

    2010-01-01

    Several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been associated to bone resorption. The link between osteoclast, macrophage colony stimulating factor and pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 explain the association between inflammation and osteoporosis. These diseases are related to osteoporosis an...

  11. Periostin in Allergic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family, has been shown to play a critical role in the process of remodeling during tissue/organ development or repair. Periostin functions as a matricellular protein in cell activation by binding to their receptors on cell surface, thereby exerting its biological activities. After we found that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13, signature cytokines of type 2 immune responses, we showed that periostin is a component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma, the first formal proof that periostin is involved in allergic inflammation. Subsequently, a great deal of evidence has accumulated demonstrating the significance of periostin in allergic inflammation. It is of note that in skin tissues, periostin is critical for amplification and persistence of allergic inflammation by communicating between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Furthermore, periostin has been applied to development of novel diagnostics or therapeutic agents for allergic diseases. Serum periostin can reflect local production of periostin in inflamed lesions induced by Th2-type immune responses and also can predict the efficacy of Th2 antagonists against bronchial asthma. Blocking the interaction between periostin and its receptor, αv integrin, or down-regulating the periostin expression shows improvement of periostin-induced inflammation in mouse models or in in vitro systems. It is hoped that diagnostics or therapeutic agents targeting periostin will be of practical use in the near future.

  12. Obesity, Inflammation, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tuo; Lyon, Christopher J; Bergin, Stephen; Caligiuri, Michael A; Hsueh, Willa A

    2016-05-23

    Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and obesity. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ, secreting several hormones, including leptin and adiponectin, and chemokines that can regulate tumor behavior, inflammation, and the tumor microenvironment. Excessive adipose expansion during obesity causes adipose dysfunction and inflammation to increase systemic levels of proinflammatory factors. Cells from adipose tissue, such as cancer-associated adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells, enter the cancer microenvironment to enhance protumoral effects. Dysregulated metabolism that stems from obesity, including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, can further impact tumor growth and development. This review describes how adipose tissue becomes inflamed in obesity, summarizes ways these mechanisms impact cancer development, and discusses their role in four adipose-associated cancers that demonstrate elevated incidence or mortality in obesity.

  13. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agita, Arisya; Alsagaff, M Thaha

    2017-04-01

    The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.

  14. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisya Agita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.

  15. Ion channels in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  16. Immunsystemet ved kronisk inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity has evolved as a defence against infections and as an important repair mechanism after physical injury. If elimination of microbes and healing is not achieved, or if the immune system is dysregulated, chronic inflammation ensues. Immune cells become engaged in prolonged...

  17. Ternary Reactions in 197AU + 197AU Collisions Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwira-Chalot, I.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Wilczyński, J.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Auditore, L.; Baran, V.; Brzychczyk, J.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, S.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Colonna, M.; de Filippo, E.; di Toro, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guazzoni, P.; Kowalski, S.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzanò, G.; Lanzalone, G.; Maiolino, C.; Majka, Z.; Nicolis, N. G.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; Płaneta, R.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Schmidt, K.; Sochocka, A.; Świderski, Ł.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Zetta, L.; Zipper, W.

    Ternary events originating from the 197Au + 197Au reaction at 15 MeV/nucleon, studied by using the multidetector array CHIMERA at LNS Catania, have been collected in almost complete 2π range of the forward hemisphere of CHIMERA thus extending the angular range of our previously reported preliminary data. Energy- and time calibrations for heavy fragments at large angles were supplemented with an analysis of coincidence events of binary strongly damped reactions. Contrary to the previous preliminary results, the new complete data clearly show presence of sequential fission processes in which one of Au-like nuclei undergoes fission after re-separation of the primary binary system. Mechanism of these two types of reactions observed in our data, sequential fission reactions and prompt ternary processes, are presently studied using comparisons with predictions of the stochastic BNV model of Baran, Colonna and Di Toro and the QMD model of Łukasik.

  18. inflammation and iron metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dzedzej

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players’ response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OHD3 assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes’ performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r=0.61; 90% CL ±0.31, but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96% and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131% and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3% at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5, but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players’ performance (r=0.43 was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players’ performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise.

  19. L’apprentissage au cern

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    pour les professions d’électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L’apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l’examen de fin d’apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat fédéral de capacité suisse (CFC). 6 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L’apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l’apprentissage ; avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9e du Cycle d’orientation genevois (3e en France) ; être ressortissant d’un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne, Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni, République tchèque, République slovaque , Suède, Suisse) ; pour les résidents en Suisse : être ressortissant su...

  20. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Prostate Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate What is prostatitis? Prostatitis is a frequently painful condition that involves inflammation of the prostate and sometimes the areas around ...

  1. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial interdep......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...

  2. COPD exacerbations, inflammation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, Derk

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations into the inflammation in COPD, and its treatment. Inflammation in COPD is a central factor in the onset of the disease and its progression. During acute deteriorations of the disease, exacerbations, the inflammation is more severe, and depending on the cause of t

  3. Macroscopic Dynamical Description of Rotating au + au System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cârjan, N.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Wilczyński, J.

    Events with more than two heavy fragments have been abundantly observed in heavy-ion semi-peripheral (fission-like) reaction 197Au+197Au at 15 MeV/nucleon. This raised interesting questions about their origin and about the time-scale at which they occur. As a possible explanation of this process, the surface instability of the cylindrical neck that is formed along the path from contact to reseparation of the rotating Au+Au system is investigated in the present paper. For this purpose the Los Alamos finite-range macroscopic dynamical model was used. The calculations were performed at relatively high angular momenta, L = 100 to 300 ħ, for two types of dissipation mechanisms: two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation. Various initial nuclear deformations and initial kinetic energies in the fission direction were considered. The resulting dynamical evolution in the multidimensional deformation space always led to multifragment scission configurations suggesting that ternary and quaternary break-up can occur during the heavy-ion reaction studied.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Au-Island Ripening on Au(100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kleiner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiscale modeling hierarchy for the particular case of Au-island ripening on Au(100. Starting at the microscopic scale, density functional theory was used to investigate a limited number of self-diffusion processes on perfect and imperfect Au(100 surfaces. The obtained structural and energetic information served as basis for optimizing a reactive forcefield (here ReaxFF, which afterwards was used to address the mesoscopic scale. Reactive force field simulations were performed to investigate more diffusion possibilities at a lower computational cost but with similar accuracy. Finally, we reached the macroscale by means of kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC simulations. The reaction rates for the reaction process database used in the kMC simulations were generated using the reactive force field. Using this strategy, we simulated nucleation, aggregation, and fluctuation processes for monoatomic high islands on Au(100 and modeled their equilibrium shape structures. Finally, by calculating the step line tension at different temperatures, we were able to make a direct comparison with available experimental data.

  5. Gut Microbiota and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Molin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing inflammation are described. The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics.

  6. Nanoparticles and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Stevenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nanoscale molecular probes capable of diagnosis, characterization, and clinical treatment of disease is leading to a new generation of imaging technologies. Such probes are particularly relevant to inflammation, where the detection of subclinical, early disease states could facilitate speedier detection that could yield enhanced, tailored therapies. Nanoparticles offer robust platforms capable of sensitive detection, and early research has indicated their suitability for the detection of vascular activation and cellular recruitment at subclinical levels. This suggests that nanoparticle techniques may provide excellent biomarkers for the diagnosis and progression of inflammatory diseases with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fluorescent quantum dots (QDs, and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS probes being just some of the new methodologies employed. Development of these techniques could lead to a range of sensitive probes capable of ultrasensitive, localized detection of inflammation. This article will discuss the merits of each approach, with a general overview to their applicability in inflammatory diseases.

  7. Inflammation and Incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Hatwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient excess results in systemic inflammation in diabetes contributing to insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and increased cardiovascular risk. GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, which are now well accepted therapies for diabetes may play a unique role in modulating this inflammatory process. Incretin based therapies have shown beneficial anti-inflammatory effects on surrogate markers but cardiovascular outcome data is still lacking.

  8. Peritoneal dialysis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Marina Souza Silva; Otoni, Alba; de Paula Sabino, Adriano; de Castro, Whocely Victor; Pinto, Sérgio Wyton Lima; Marinho, Maria Aparecida Silva; Rios, Danyelle Romana Alves

    2014-03-20

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a kidney replacement therapy for end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Despite being a lifesaving treatment, the rate of mortality in patients under PD is elevated, mainly due to the chronic peritoneal dysfunction which is characterized by inflammation, peritoneal fibrosis and neoangiogenesis. The inflammatory process is trigged and modulated by the type of the peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDSs) used during PD. Currently, different PDSs are commercially available: (i) the conventional solutions; (ii) solutions of neutral pH containing low concentration of glucose degradation products (GDPs); (iii) solutions with icodextrin; and (iv) solutions containing taurine. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the different types of peritoneal dialysis solutions used during PD and their relationship with systemic and intraperitoneal inflammation. Some studies suggested that solutions of neutral pH containing low concentration of GDPs, icodextrin and taurine have better biocompatibility and lower influence on the inflammatory process compared to the conventional one. On the other hand, the studies, in general, were performed with a small population and for a short period of time. Therefore, further well-designed and -controlled clinical trials with larger number of individuals are required in order to better understand the role of different peritoneal dialysis solution types in the development of inflammation in patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis. Accordingly, studies that are more well-designed, well-controlled and with a larger number of patients are needed to explain and define the role of different types of PDS in the inflammation development in patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis.

  9. Inflammation and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Rajamma

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious disorder with high morbidity and mortality rate. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that inflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of PH. Endothelial cells play an important role in inflammation and immune reactions, and inflammatory cytokines cause endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of PH, consisting of reduced availability of vasodilators and antiproliferative factors and increased production of vasoconstrictors and vascular proliferative factors. Up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration have been detected in the lungs of patients with idiopathic PH. Prevalence of PH in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases is well documented. Interestingly, a significant loss of endothelial caveolin-1, a potent immunomodulator and an inhibitor of cell proliferation, has been reported in human and experimental forms of PH. Reduction in the expression of caveolin-1 is known to result in the removal of antiproliferative activities, thus, leading to deregulated vascular cell proliferation. This article summarizes the roles of inflammation and endothelial caveolin-1 and their possible interrelationship in PH.

  10. Inflammation and metabolic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Otsu, Kinya

    2017-03-15

    Excessive feeding is associated with an increase in the incidence of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic disturbance induces chronic low-grade inflammation in metabolically-important organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue. Many of the inflammatory signalling pathways are directly triggered by nutrients. The pro-inflammatory mediators in adipocytes and macrophages infiltrating adipose tissue promote both local and systemic pro-inflammatory status. Metabolic cardiomyopathy is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by structural and functional alterations and interstitial fibrosis without coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the early stage of metabolic cardiomyopathy, metabolic disturbance is not accompanied by substantial changes in myocardial structure and cardiac function. However, metabolic disturbance induces subcellular low-grade inflammation in the heart, and in turn, subcellular component abnormalities, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and impaired calcium handling, leading to impaired myocardial relaxation. In the advanced stage, the vicious cycle of subcellular component abnormalities, inflammatory cell infiltration, and neurohumoral activation induces cardiomyocyte injury and death, and cardiac fibrosis, resulting in impairment of both diastolic and systolic functions. This review discusses some recent advances in understanding involvement of inflammation in metabolic cardiomyopathy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  12. TWEAK Promotes Peritoneal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ana Belen; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Bellon, Teresa; del Peso, Gloria; Jimenez-Heffernan, Jose; Santamaria, Beatriz; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Selgas, Rafael; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium and eventually sclerosing peritonitis. An improved understanding of the molecular contributors to peritoneal injury and defense may increase the therapeutic armamentarium to optimize peritoneal defenses while minimizing peritoneal injury. There is no information on the expression and function of the cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 during peritoneal injury. Fn14 expression and soluble TWEAK levels were measured in human PD peritoneal effluent cells or fluids with or without peritonitis. Fn14 expression was also analyzed in peritoneal biopsies from PD patients. Actions of intraperitoneal TWEAK were studied in mice in vivo. sTWEAK levels were increased in peritoneal effluent in PD peritonitis. Effluent sTWEAK levels correlated with the number of peritoneal macrophages (r = 0.491, p = 0.002). Potential TWEAK targets that express the receptor Fn14 include mesothelial cells and macrophages, as demonstrated by flow cytometry of peritoneal effluents and by analysis of peritoneal biopsies. Peritoneal biopsy Fn14 correlated with mesothelial injury, fibrosis and inflammation, suggesting a potential deleterious effect of TWEAK/Fn14. In this regard, intraperitoneal TWEAK administration to mice promoted peritoneal inflammation characterized by increased peritoneal effluent MCP-1, Fn14 and Gr1+ macrophages, increased mesothelial Fn14, MCP-1 and CCL21 expression and submesothelial tissue macrophage recruitment. Taken together these data suggest that the TWEAK/Fn14 system may promote inflammation and tissue injury during peritonitis and PD. PMID:24599047

  13. Relative Distribution of Au48+ ~ Au52+ in Au Plasma by Ionization Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-Yan; ZHU Zheng-He; JIANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    The present work proposes a theoretical method called ionization dynamics to derive the ionic charge state distribution. Using relativistic quantum mechanics to calculate the energy level lifetime and average ionic lifetime of each ion, the first-order ionization rate constant can be obtained. Based on these data, from the solution of differential equations for consecutive-irreversible ionization reactions, one will be able to derive the ionic charge state distribution.The calculated average positive charge 49.24 of Au48+ ~ Au52+ and their relative distribution are in good agreement with the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  14. AU Political Solution in Libya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    May 3,2011 The African Union(AU),through its High-Level ad hoc Committee on the Situation in Libya and the Commission, is driven by the conviction that, ultimately,only a political solution will make it possible to promote,in a sustainable way,the legitimate aspira-

  15. Comparative study of anchoring groups for molecular electronics: structure and conductance of Au-S-Au and Au-NH2-Au junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Iben Sig; Mowbray, Duncan; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2008-01-01

    The electrical properties of single-molecule junctions, consisting of an organic molecule coupled to metal electrodes, are sensitive to the detailed atomic structure of the molecule-metal contact. This, in turn, is determined by the anchoring group linking the molecule to the metal. With the aim...... of identifying and comparing the intrinsic properties of two commonly used anchoring groups, namely thiol and amine groups, we have calculated the atomic structure and conductance traces of different Au-S-Au and Au-NH2-Au nanojunctions using density functional theory (DFT). Whereas NH2 shows a strong structural...... selectivity towards atop-gold configurations, S shows large variability in its bonding geometries. As a result, the conductance of the Au-NH2-Au junction is less sensitive to the structure of the gold contacts than the Au-S-Au junction. These findings support recent experiments which show that amine...

  16. Spiral Patterning of Au Nanoparticles on Au Nanorod Surface to Form Chiral AuNR@AuNP Helical Superstructures Templated by DNA Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenqi; Lan, Xiang; Zhu, Chenggan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Leyu; Wang, Qiangbin

    2017-02-20

    Plasmonic motifs with precise surface recognition sites are crucial for assembling defined nanostructures with novel functionalities and properties. In this work, a unique and effective strategy is successfully developed to pattern DNA recognition sites in a helical arrangement around a gold nanorod (AuNR), and a new set of heterogeneous AuNR@AuNP plasmonic helices is fabricated by attaching complementary-DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the predesigned sites on the AuNR surface. AuNR is first assembled to one side of a bifacial rectangular DNA origami, where eight groups of capture strands are selectively patterned on the other side. The subsequently added link strands make the rectangular DNA origami roll up around the AuNR into a tubular shape, therefore giving birth to a chiral patterning of DNA recognition sites on the surface of AuNR. Following the hybridization with the AuNPs capped with the complementary strands to the capture strands on the DNA origami, left-handed and right-handed AuNR@AuNP helical superstructures are precisely formed by tuning the pattern of the recognition sites on the AuNR surface. Our strategy of nanoparticle surface patterning innovatively realizes hierarchical self-assembly of plasmonic superstructures with tunable chiroptical responses, and will certainly broaden the horizon of bottom-up construction of other functional nanoarchitectures with growing complexity.

  17. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Crochet, Philippe; Gobbi, A; Donà, R; Coffin, J P; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Roy, C; De Schauenburg, B; Tizniti, L; Wagner, P; Alard, J P; Amouroux, V; Andronic, A; Basrak, Z; Bastid, N; Belyaev, I; Best, D; Biegansky, J; Butà, A; Caplar, R; Cindro, N; Dupieux, P; Dzelalija, M; Fan, Z G; Fodor, Z; Fraysse, L; Freifelder, R P; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Hong, B H; Jeong, S C; Kecskeméti, J; Kirejczyk, M; Koncz, P; Korolija, M; Kotte, R; Lebedev, A; Leifels, Y; Man'ko, V I; Moisa, D; Mösner, J; Neubert, W; Pelte, D; Petrovici, M; Pinkenburg, C H; Pras, P; Ramillien, V; Reisdorf, W; Ritman, J L; Sadchikov, A G; Schüll, D; Seres, Z; Sikora, B; Simion, V; Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Sodan, U; Teh, K M; Trzaska, M; Vasilev, M A; Wang, G S; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wisniewski, K; Wohlfarth, D; Zhilin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100AMeV to 800AMeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z>2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  18. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, P.; Rami, F.; Gobbi, A.; Dona, R.; Coffin, J. P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Roy, C.; de Schauenburg, B.; Tizniti, L.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Best, D.; Biegansky, J.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fan, Z. G.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Freifelder, R. P.; Berrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Jeong, S. C.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Koncz, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Manko, V.; Moisa, D.; Mösner, J.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pras, P.; Ramillien, V.; Reisdorf, W.; Ritman, J. L.; Sadchikov, A. G.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K. M.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wang, G. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A.; FOPI Collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100 A MeV to 800 A MeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z ⩾ 2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  19. Charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Xu(蔡勖); ZHOU; Daimei(周代梅); SA; Benhao(萨本豪)

    2003-01-01

    A hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, together with the corresponding Monte Carlo eventgenerator, has been employed in this paper to investigate further the charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at√Snn= 130 GeV. The default JPCIAE calculations are in good agreement with PHENIX and STAR data. Wefound that the thermal predictions for the π gas, the resonance π gas and quark matter deviate, respectively,from the corresponding dynamical simulations from the JPCIAE model. The discrepancies were also foundbetween the π charge fluctuations and the charge fluctuations of all species of hadrons. However the chargefluctuations for "π from ρ and ω decay" and for all the hadrons from resonance decay are close to each other,indicating the correlation between positively and negatively charged hadrons is not sensitive to the species ofhadrons. This work shows further that it is questionable to use the charge fluctuations as a signature of QGP.

  20. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  1. Inflammation in Chronic Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang

    2016-12-11

    Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research.

  2. Immunsystemet ved kronisk inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity has evolved as a defence against infections and as an important repair mechanism after physical injury. If elimination of microbes and healing is not achieved, or if the immune system is dysregulated, chronic inflammation ensues. Immune cells become engaged in prolonged...... reactions with other cell types in vessels and organs, frequently with superimposed autoreactive T-cells and autoantibody-producing B-cells/plasma cells. The processes are distinguished on the basis of clinical manifestations in organ-specific and systemic inflammatory diseases. The underlying factors...

  3. d + Au hadron correlation measurements at PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickles, Anne M., E-mail: anne@bnl.gov

    2014-06-15

    In these proceedings, we discuss recent results from d + Au collisions in PHENIX ridge related measurements and their possible hydrodynamic origin. We present the v{sub 2} at midrapidity and measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the ridge, distinguishing between the d-going and Au-going directions. We investigate the possible geometrical origin by comparing v{sub 2} in d + Au to that in p + Pb, Au + Au and Pb + Pb collisions. Future plans to clarify the role of geometry in small collision systems at RHIC are discussed.

  4. Ferromagnetism of polythiophene-capped Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Zhang, H.; Saito, K.; Garitaonandia, J. S.; Goikolea, E.; Insausti, M.

    2011-04-01

    The magnetic and electrical transport properties of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)-capped Au nanoparticles (NPs) doped with iodine have been investigated to clarify the effectiveness of conductive polymer capping on the induction of ferromagnetism in Au. The room-temperature magnetization curve of the undoped polythiophene-capped Au NPs exhibits a clear hysteresis behavior with a coercive force of 160 Oe. The spontaneous magnetization normalized by the mass of Au is 2.0 × 10-2 emu/g. The spontaneous magnetization was found virtually unaffected by iodine doping, whereas the electrical conductivity is enhanced dramatically to ˜10 S/cm. Our results show that polythiophene capping could lead to spontaneous magnetic polarization in Au NPs, and the conductivity of the polymer capping does not affect the ferromagnetism of the Au nanoparticles, opening a possibility for further investigation into the magnetotransport behavior of ferromagnetic Au NPs.

  5. Decay spectroscopy of $^{178}$Au

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, B

    In this thesis, the neutron-deficient nucleus $^{178}$Au is investigated through decay spectroscopy. Si and HPGe detectors were used to analyse the decay radiation of $^{178}$Au and its daughter nuclei. Previous studies have been unable to distinguish decay radiation from different isomeric states of this nucleus. This thesis represents the first time such isomeric discrimination has been achieved, and presents tentative spin assignments of both the ground state and an isomer. The neutron-deficient gold isotopes are an area of interest for the study of shape coexistence. This is the phenomenon exhibited by nuclei able to exist at a number of close lying energy minima, each reflecting a distinct type of deformation. It is hoped that studies such as this can help identify the evolution of nuclear deformation in this region of the nuclear chart.

  6. Introduction au filtre de Kalman

    OpenAIRE

    Alazard, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Ce document est une introduction au filtre optimal de Kalman appliquée aux systèmes linéaires. On suppose connues la théorie des asservissements linéaires et du filtrage fréquentiel (continu et discret) ainsi que les notions d'états pour représenter les systèmes dynamiques linéaires.

  7. L’apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    En 1961, sur la base du constat que l’évolution du marché du travail nécessitait un besoin croissant de personnel qualifié, le 1er accord entre la République et canton de Genève et le CERN fut signé. Cet accord avait notamment pour objet la formation professionnelle de jeunes électroniciens et techniciens de laboratoires en physique. Le CERN, acteur local économique d’importance, soulignait par cet accord sa volonté de participer au développement économique et social local. Le 1er apprenti arriva au CERN en 1965. En 1971, le centre d’apprentissage fut créé ; il accueille aujourd’hui plus d’une vingtaine d’apprentis au total, à raison d’environ six nouveaux apprentis chaque année. Cet apprentissage est dédié aux jeunes âgés e...

  8. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  9. High Pt Suppression at Forward Rapidities in d+Au and Au+Au at $\\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ristea, C; Bearden, I G; Beavis, D; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Cibor, J; Debbe, R; Enger, E; Gaardhøje, J J; Germinario, M; Hagel, K; Ito, H; Jipa, A; Jundt, F; Jordre, J I; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Kozik, T; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lee, Y K; Lindal, S; Lystad, R; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Makeev, A; Mikelsen, M; Murray, M; Natowitz, J B; Neumann, B; Nielsen, B S; Ouerdane, D; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Ristea, C; Ristea, O; Röhrich, D; Samset, B H; Sandberg, D; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S; Ristea, Catalin

    2005-01-01

    We present centrality dependent charged hadron yields at several pseudorapidities from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=200GeV measured with BRAHMS spectrometers. Nuclear modification factors RAA and RCP for charged hadrons at forward angles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC will be discussed.

  10. Structure and stress in Cu/Au and Fe/Au systems: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zientarski, Tomasz, E-mail: martom@dyzio.umcs.lublin.pl [Department for the Modelling of Physico-Chemical Processes, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, ul. Gliniana 33, 20-614 Lublin (Poland); Chocyk, Dariusz [Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Growth of Fe and Cu thin films on Au substrate and stress evolution were modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The interactions in the system are described by embedded atom method. The kinematical theory of scattering is performed to identify the structure obtained from simulations. The gold layers undergo reconstruction before deposition. The deposited copper atoms do not disturb the atoms in the reconstructed gold layer, but the deposited iron atoms cause the disappearance of the reconstructed gold surfaces. In both systems Cu/Au and Fe/Au, in the early stage of growth one observes compressive stress. Next, Cu/Au systems have the compressive stress, while in the case of Fe/Au the tensile stress is observed. In the Fe/Au system, the body-centered cubic lattice of Fe changes its orientation relative to the Au layer. In the Fe/Au system we observed a larger diffusion of Au atoms than in Cu/Au systems. - Highlights: • The kinematical theory of scattering is performed to identify the structure. • The correlation between the stress and the deformation is observed. • The relaxation of the stress depends on the orientation of layers. • The lattice of Fe changes its orientation relative to the Au layer in the Fe/Au system. • The Cu layer continues the lattice of Au in the Cu/Au system.

  11. SOCS, inflammation and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko eYoshimura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines play essential roles in innate and adaptive immunity. However, excess cytokines or dysregulation of cytokine signaling can cause a variety of diseases, including allergies, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, and cancer. Most cytokines utilize the so-called Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT pathway. This pathway is negatively regulated by various mechanisms including suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins. SOCS proteins bind to JAK or cytokine receptors, thereby suppressing further signaling events. Especially, SOCS1 and SOCS3 are strong inhibitors of JAK, because these two contain kinase inhibitory region (KIR at the N-terminus. Studies using conditional knockout mice have shown that SOCS proteins are key physiological as well as pathological regulators of immune homeostasis. Recent studies have also demonstrated that SOCS1 and SOCS3 are important regulators of helper T cell differentiation and functions.

  12. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial interdep...... by including the migrants’ broader social network within the frame of research.......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...... interdependence, whilst they continuously form their trajectories in relation to opportunities and restraints posed along the way by their local and transnational social relations. The article argues that examinations of migration trajectories benefit from broadening the research out in both time and space...

  13. L’olivier au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    El Mouhtadi Issam; Agouzzal Mohamed; Guy François

    2014-01-01

    L’olivier est une culture traditionnelle sur le pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il est donc naturel de trouver cet arbre au Maroc où il est présent depuis des siècles. Cultivé surtout traditionnellement jusqu’à ses dernières années, il fait l’objet maintenant d’un plan de valorisation très ambitieux pour non seulement garder le Royaume à son niveau actuel (2e producteur mondial pour l’olive de conserve et 6e pour l’huile d’olive) mais pour conq...

  14. Icodextrin and intraperitoneal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriishi, Misaki; Kawanishi, Hideki

    2008-06-01

    The peritoneum is impaired by exposure to biocompatible dialysis solutions. Because icodextrin peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) is made from cornstarch, a possibility that it induces intraperitoneal inflammation has been reported. In the present study, patients on glucose PDF were switched to icodextrin PDF and then switched back to glucose PDF. Icodextrin PDF-induced intraperitoneal inflammation was investigated based on changes in peritoneal permeability and inflammatory reactions. The subjects were 7 stable peritoneal dialysis patients (4 men, 3 women), with a mean age of 59.1 +/- 3.8 years (range: 55.2 - 64.6 years). The mean duration of peritoneal dialysis was 58.3 +/- 27.4 months (range: 34.3 - 97.7 months), and the cause of end-stage renal disease was chronic glomerulonephritis in all patients. For the overnight dwell, glucose PDF was changed to icodextrin PDF, and the patients returned to glucose PDF 30 months later. To evaluate peritoneal permeability, a peritoneal equilibrium test (PET) was performed, and dialysate-to-plasma (D/P) ratios of creatinine (Cr), beta(2)-microglobulin (beta2M), albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha2M) were measured in the overnight dialysate and serum. As markers of inflammation and fibrinolysis or coagulation, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) were measured in overnight effluent. The evaluations were made every 6 months for 36 months. A significant elevation in FDP levels was detected in overnight effluent 6 months after the switch to icodextrin PDF, and IL-6 levels tended to increase. The D/P ratios of Cr, beta2M, and albumin were also significantly increased, and the D/P ratios of IgG and alpha2M tended to increase. The D/P ratio of Cr as measured by PET was slightly increased, but the elevation was not significant. In 5 patients, after icodextrin PDF was switched back to glucose PDF at 30 months, the D/P ratios of Cr, beta2M, albumin, IgG, and alpha2M in overnight

  15. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  16. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is located between the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Kahoolawe, and includes the Au'au Channel as well as parts of the Kealaikahiki, Alalakeiki...

  17. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  18. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  19. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  20. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  1. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for all mesophotic corals in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to...

  2. Kinematic Correlation of the Ternary Fission for the System 197Au + 197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Junlong; Li, Xian; Yan, Shiwei; Wu, Xizhen; Li, Zhuxia

    Collisions of very heavy nuclei 197Au + 197Au at the energy of 15A MeV has been studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. The experimental mass distributions of ternary fission fragments for the system 197Au + 197 Au are reproduced well. The direct and sequential ternary fission modes are studied by the time dependent snapshots of typical ternary events. The analysis of deviation from Viola systematics indicates the nonstatistical feature of the ternary fission in these reactions.

  3. Thermography in ocular inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawali, Ankush A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ocular inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions using commercially available thermal camera. Materials and Methods: A non-contact thermographic camera (FLIR P 620) was used to take thermal pictures of seven cases of ocular inflammation, two cases of non-inflammatory ocular pathology, and one healthy subject with mild refractive error only. Ocular inflammatory cases included five cases of scleritis, one case of postoperative anterior uveitis, and a case of meibomian gland dysfunction with keratitis (MGD-keratitis). Non-inflammatory conditions included a case of conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (BRLH) and a case of central serous chorio-retinopathy. Thermal and non-thermal photographs were taken, and using analyzing software, the ocular surface temperature was calculated. Results: Patient with fresh episode of scleritis revealed high temperature. Eyes with MGD-keratitis depicted lower temperature in clinically more affected eye. Conjunctival BRLH showed a cold lesion on thermography at the site of involvement, in contrast to cases of scleritis with similar clinical presentation. Conclusion: Ocular thermal imaging is an underutilized diagnostic tool which can be used to distinguish inflammatory ocular conditions from non-inflammatory conditions. It can also be utilized in the evaluation of tear film in dry eye syndrome. Its applications should be further explored in uveitis and other ocular disorders. Dedicated “ocular thermographic” camera is today's need of the hour. PMID:24347863

  4. Thermography in ocular inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush A Kawali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ocular inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions using commercially available thermal camera. Materials and Methods: A non-contact thermographic camera (FLIR P 620 was used to take thermal pictures of seven cases of ocular inflammation, two cases of non-inflammatory ocular pathology, and one healthy subject with mild refractive error only. Ocular inflammatory cases included five cases of scleritis, one case of postoperative anterior uveitis, and a case of meibomian gland dysfunction with keratitis (MGD-keratitis. Non-inflammatory conditions included a case of conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (BRLH and a case of central serous chorio-retinopathy. Thermal and non-thermal photographs were taken, and using analyzing software, the ocular surface temperature was calculated. Results: Patient with fresh episode of scleritis revealed high temperature. Eyes with MGD-keratitis depicted lower temperature in clinically more affected eye. Conjunctival BRLH showed a cold lesion on thermography at the site of involvement, in contrast to cases of scleritis with similar clinical presentation. Conclusion: Ocular thermal imaging is an underutilized diagnostic tool which can be used to distinguish inflammatory ocular conditions from non-inflammatory conditions. It can also be utilized in the evaluation of tear film in dry eye syndrome. Its applications should be further explored in uveitis and other ocular disorders. Dedicated "ocular thermographic" camera is today′s need of the hour.

  5. Perinatal programming by inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah J; Meyer, Urs

    2017-07-01

    Since Levine and then Barker's seminal work mid to late last century demonstrating the importance of early life environment, intensive research has revealed the plasticity, vulnerability and resilience of the developing brain to environmental challenges. In particular, early exposure to infectious pathogens and inflammatory stimuli has a lasting impact on brain and behavior. These data establish clear effects on vulnerability to later disease and neuroinflammatory injury, cognitive function and emotionality, and even responses to pain and susceptibility to metabolic disorders. They also highlight the issues with defining rodent models of complex diseases like autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, as well as the complexity of experimental design, for instance when deciding the appropriate allocation of subjects to experimental groups when dealing with whole-litter manipulations in rodents. The studies presented in this special issue of Brain Behavior and Immunity are a collection of the very latest advances in the science of perinatal inflammation and its implications for perinatal programming of brain and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leptospira and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis and has a worldwide impact on public health. This paper will discuss both the role of immunogenic and pathogenic molecules during leptospirosis infection and possible new targets for immunotherapy against leptospira components. Leptospira, possess a wide variety of mechanisms that allow them to evade the host immune system and cause infection. Many molecules contribute to the ability of Leptospira to adhere, invade, and colonize. The recent sequencing of the Leptospira genome has increased our knowledge about this pathogen. Although the virulence factors, molecular targets, mechanisms of inflammation, and signaling pathways triggered by leptospiral antigens have been studied, some questions are still unanswered. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are the primary sensors of invading pathogens. TLRs recognize conserved microbial pattern molecules and activate signaling pathways that are pivotal to innate and adaptive immune responses. Recently, a new molecular target has emerged—the Na/K-ATPase—which may contribute to inflammatory and metabolic alteration in this syndrome. Na/K-ATPase is a target for specific fatty acids of host origin and for bacterial components such as the glycolipoprotein fraction (GLP that may lead to inflammasome activation. We propose that in addition to TLRs, Na/K-ATPase may play a role in the innate response to leptospirosis infection.

  7. Radio-induced apoptosis is impaired in individuals homozygous and heterozygous for the ataxia-telangiectasia gene(s); Alteration de la reponse apoptotique radio-induite chez des homozygotes et des heterozygotes pour l`ataxie-telangiectasie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchaud, E.; Ridet, A.; Delic, Y.; Moustacchi, E.; Rosselli, F. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Cundari, E. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy)

    1994-11-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia is a progressive recessive disease featuring neuro degeneration, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, radiation hypersensitivity and increased predisposition to cancer. Impaired induction of the tumor suppressor protein p53 after {gamma}-irradiation was recently reported. All together these characteristics may be compatible with an inability to correctly regulate the apoptotic pathway of cell death in this syndrome. We show here that lymphocyte cultures from AT patients are characterized by a 3 times more elevated spontaneous level of apoptotic cells compared to normal ones. In spite of this, 24 h after exposure to {gamma}-irradiation (5 to 10 Gy), AT lymphocytes show a dramatically reduced capacity to undergo apoptosis compared to normal cells. We obtained similar results on EBV-transformed lymphoblasts. Interestingly, lymphoblasts from obligate heterozygous for the AT mutation(s) show the same features as AT lymphoblasts, i.e. an elevated frequency of spontaneous and a reduced level of radio-induced apoptotic figures in comparison to normal cultured cells. In conclusion, we show here, for the first time, that mutation(s) in AT gene(s) results in an impaired ability to correctly regulate the apoptotic pathway of cell death. (author). 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The radioinduced membranes injuries as biological dose indicators: mechanisms of studies and practical applications; Les dommages membranaires radio-induits comme bio-indicateurs de dose: etudes des mecanismes et applications pratiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent-Genod, Lucie

    2001-10-15

    After an accidental overexposure, the assessment of the received dose in biological dosimetry is performed by a method based on the effects of irradiation on the DNA molecule. But this technique shows some limitations; therefore we tried to find new bio-sensors of radiation exposure. We have pointed out that membrane is a critical target of ionising radiation after an in vitro and in vivo overexposure. In vitro, these modifications were involved in the radio-induced apoptotic pathway. The measure of membrane fluidity allowed us to obtain an overall view of cellular membrane. Moreover, in vivo, by changing the lipid nutritional status of animals, our results displayed the important role played by membrane lipid composition in radio-induced membrane alterations. Besides, membrane effects were adjusted by the extracellular physiological control, and in particular by the damages on membrane fatty acid pattern. Finally, we have tested the use of membrane fluidity index as a bio-sensor of radiation exposure on in vivo models and blood samples from medical total body irradiated patients. The results achieved on animal models suggested that the membrane fluidity index was a bio-sensor of radiation exposure. Nevertheless, the observations realised on patients highlight that the effect of the first dose fraction of the radiotherapy treatment had some difficulties to be noticed. Indeed, the combined treatment: chemotherapy and radiotherapy disturbed the membrane fluidity index measures. To conclude, whereas this parameter was not a bio-sensor of irradiation exposure usable in biological dosimetry, it may allow us to assess the radio-induced damages and their cellular but also tissue impacts. (author)

  9. Evaluation of late radiation-induced changes of the superficial microcirculation. I. clinical benefit of the cutaneous Doppler laser; Evaluation des modifications radio-induites tardives de la microcirculation superficielle. I. apport clinique du laser doppler cutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanian, S. [Hopital Saint-Louis, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, DSV-DRR, 91 - Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. - The changes that occur in the tissular microcirculation after therapeutic irradiation (RT) account for some of the late effects of irradiation, especially on the cutaneous level. As a rule, the methods of exploring the superficial microcirculation only measure blood flow indirectly. Only the Doppler laser can provide direct measurements of blood parameters in vivo in man. Methods. -Thirty women who had been irradiated with 45 + 20 Gy of locoregional fractionated adjuvant RT for breast cancer developed local radiation-induced fibrosis six years later ({+-}5). The local microcirculation was measured in the resting state and during thermal stimulation at 42 deg. C, using a Periflux cutaneous Doppler laser with p413 probes. Three periods of six minutes each were continuously recorded: period 1 (P1) represented basal resting cutaneous perfusion, with the slope p corresponding to the increase in perfusion when two minutes of thermal stimulation at 42 deg. C began; P2 to plateau perfusion during this stimulation; and P3 to perfusion on the return to equilibrium. Each individual was its own control. Results. - In the women treated by RT, the resting microcirculation in the skin underlying an area of late fibrosis rose by a factor of 2 during P1 (p < 0.001), and the P2/P1 ratio decreased by a factor of 2 (p < 0.001), compared to the control area. After thermal stimulation, there was no change in p, P2 or P3. Conclusion. -Although a hypo-vascularization is frequently found in late sequelae of RT, we observed an increase of the cutaneous microcirculation associated with a maladjustment of the endothelial response to a thermal stimulation. These observations seem to reflect the presence of dilated new capillaries of the telangiectatic type, which are macroscopically undetectable. (authors)

  10. Approche morphologique de la fragmentation de l'ADN radio-induite par immunomarquage anti-poly (ADP-ribose) polymérase (PARP) : étude de cultures d'oligodendrogliomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, P.; Beuvon, F.; Cervera, P.; Averbeck, D.; Daumas-Duport, C.

    1998-04-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme encompassing two zinc finger motifs which specifically binds to radiation induced DNA strand breaks. We develop a new immuno-labelling of poly ADP-ribose which coupled together with the immunodetection of cells in cycle with MIB1, permits to detect and quantify the DNA fragmentation induced by radiations (Cesium137). This method, applied to organotypical cultures of human oligodendroglioma, submitted to radiation, a dose dependant nuclear signal. This one increased significantly in the presence of a radiosensitizer like iododeoxyuridine (IUDR 5 g/ml). This poly ADP-ribose immunodetection can be useful, to detect furtherly the individual radiosensitivity of human glioma. Les protéases “ICE-like" ou caspases, sont les homologues humaines du produit du gène ced-3 du ver Caenorhabditis elegans et sont activées lors des étapes précoces de l'apoptose. L'objectif de ce travail vise à déterminer dans quelle mesure l'inhibition de l'une d'entre elles, la caspase-3 est susceptible de modifier la sensibilité des cellules vis-à-vis de l'apoptose radioinduite. Des lymphocytes spléniques murins irradiés en présence de Ac-DVED-CHO un inhibiteur spécifique de la caspase-3 présentent un taux de particules hypodiploïdes radioinduites bien inférieur à celui des contrôles et une diminution drastique de la fragmentation internucléosomale de l'ADN. Toutefois, ni l'externalisation des phospholipides anioniques, autre marqueur spécifique de l'apoptose, ni la viabilité ne sont affectées.

  11. New experimental approach to treatment of radiation-induced bone marrow aplasia: ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells; Nouvelle approche experimentale du traitement de l`aplasie medullaire radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Drouet, M.; Grenier, N.; Grange, L.; Bourin, P.; Vetillard, J.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental exposure to high doses of ionizing radiations requires new therapeutic protocols in addition to cytokine therapy. The in vitro incubation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from irradiated nonhuman primates with negative and positive regulators of hematopoiesis may lead to helpful products of transfusion. (author).

  12. Recovery of ovarian function after postradiation menopause. Do FSH levels have a definitive prognostic value?; Recuperation de fonctionnement ovarien apres menopause radio-induite. L`hormone folliculostimulante (FSH) a-t-elle une valeur pronostique definitive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letur-Konirsch, H. [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France); Guis, F. [Hopital Antoine-Beclere, Clamart (France)

    1996-08-01

    Menopause, conventionally defined as the permanent cessation as a result of loss of ovarian follicular activity, is biologically expressed by the collapse of plasma levels and increased plasma levels of the gonadotrophins FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). At present, estimation of the ovarian follicle reserve is based on endocrine capacity tests of the ovaries, with increased FSH representing the first sign of exocrine ovarian failure. We report the case of one of our amenorrhoeic patients after chemotherapy, total body radiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute immuno-blastic leukaemia. This patient was included in an in vitro fertilization with oocyte donation (IVF-OD) programme for iatrogenic premature ovarian failure with increased FSH levels. Instead of high levels of gonadotrophins, this young woman recovered spontaneous follicular developments, benefited from standard IVF with her own oocytes and brought a twin pregnancy to term. This observation shows that a high FSH level is not a definitive prediction of ovarian exocrine capacity. In young women of child-bearing age such as these wanting a child and showing signs of endogenous estrogen impregnation, evaluation of the existence and quality of follicular development is an important factor. (author). 13 refs.

  13. Plasma Flt3-ligand as a prognostic bio-indicator of radiation-induced bone marrow damage; Le Flt3-ligand plasmatique, un bio-indicateur pronostique de l'atteinte radio-induite a la moelle osseuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, J.M.; Frick, J.; Demarquay, C.; Aigueperse, J. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Gorin, N.C.; Gourmelon, P.; Laporte, J.Ph. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-09-01

    Following an accidental irradiation, the choice between different therapeutic strategies mainly depends upon the estimated radiation-induced bone marrow damage. It was shown recently that the serum concentration of Flt3-ligand (FL), a cytokine mainly acting on immature haemopoietic cells, is highly elevated in either acquired or induced bone marrow aplasia. This suggested to us that FL measurement could be used as a bio-indicator of radiation-induced bone marrow damage. In order to verify this hypothesis, studies were conducted in a non human primate model as well as in humans undergoing radio and/or chemotherapy. Results showed that the increase in FL concentration on day 5 after irradiation is predictive of the evolution of the haemopoietic syndrome. Similar results were obtained in humans. Overall these results suggested that FL measurement could be used as a reliable bio indicator of radiation-induced bone marrow damage in accidental irradiation situations. (author)

  14. Detection, characterization and measure of a new radiation-induced damage in isolated and cellular DNA; Detection, caracterisation et mesure d'un nouveau dommage radio-induit de l'ADN isole et cellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulus, P

    2006-10-15

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains the genetic information and chemical injury to this macromolecule may have severe biological consequences. We report here the detection of 4 new radiation-induced DNA lesions by using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) approach. For that purpose, the characteristic fragmentation of most 2'-deoxy-ribo nucleosides, the loss of 116 Da corresponding to the loss of the 2-deoxyribose moiety, was used in the so-called neutral loss mode of the HPLC-MS/MS. One of the newly detected lesions, named dCyd341 because it is a 2'-deoxycytidine modification exhibiting a molecular weight of 341 Da, was also detected in cellular DNA. Characterization of this modified nucleoside was performed using NMR and exact mass determination of the product obtained by chemical synthesis. A mechanism of formation was then proposed, in which the first event is the H-abstraction at the C4 position of a 2-deoxyribose moiety. Then, the sugar modification produced exhibits a reactive aldehyde that, through reaction with a vicinal cytosine base, gives rise to dCyd341. dCyd341 could be considered as a complex damage since its formation involves a DNA strand break and a cross-link between a damaged sugar residue and a vicinal cytosine base located most probably on the complementary DNA strand. In addition to its characterization, preliminary biological studies revealed that cells are able to remove the lesion from DNA. Repair studies have revealed the ability of cells to excise the lesion. Identification of the repair systems involved could represent an interesting challenge. (author)

  15. Importance of local skin treatments during radiotherapy for prevention and treatment of radio-induced epithelitis; Interet des applications cutanees en cours de radiotherapie pour la prevention et le traitement des epitheliites radio-induites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chargari, C.; Fromantin, I.; Kirova, Y.M. [Institut Curie, Dept. de Radiotherapie Oncologique, 75 - Paris (France); Chargari, C. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service d' Oncologie Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    Radio-epithelitis represents a common problem, for which treatments are characterized by a great heterogeneity. The present review of literature focuses on data referenced in Pub med/Medline and published in French/English. Despite a real preclinical rationale, aloe vera and trolamine failed to demonstrate any benefit in the prophylactic settings. In a prospective assessment phase III assessment, Calendula officinalis was shown to be superior to trolamine for the prevention of radio-epithelitis. In the curative settings, sucrafalte failed to demonstrate any benefit. The benefit of dermo-corticoids was suggested in terms of erythema and itching. Promising clinical results are available with hyaluronic acid (M.A. S065D and Ialugen) and silver leaf may reduce the intensity of cutaneous radio-induced side effects. Data from the literature are conflicting, making real the difficulty to adopt from clinical trials any proof-of-principle strategy. Considering these uncertainties, several strategies are allowed. New topics are under investigation. Present data from the literature highlight the need for further trials, in order to propose evidence-based treatments and to harmonize clinical practice. (authors)

  16. Apoptosis and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Haanen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades it has been recognized that cell death is not the consequence of accidental injury, but is the expression of a cell suicide programme. Kerr et al. (1972 introduced the term apoptosis. This form of cell death is under the influence of hormones, growth factors and cytokines, which depending upon the receptors present on the target cells, may activate a genetically controlled cell elimination process. During apoptosis the cell membrane remains intact and the cell breaks into apoptotic bodies, which are phagocytosed. Apoptosis, in contrast to necrosis, is not harmful to the host and does not induce any inflammatory reaction. The principal event that leads to inflammatory disease is cell damage, induced by chemical/physical injury, anoxia or starvation. Cell damage means leakage of cell contents into the adjacent tissues, resulting in the capillary transmigration of granulocytes to the injured tissue. The accumulation of neutrophils and release of enzymes and oxygen radicals enhances the inflammatory reaction. Until now there has been little research into the factors controlling the accumulation and the tissue load of granulocytes and their histotoxic products in inflammatory processes. Neutrophil apoptosis may represent an important event in the control of intlamtnation. It has been assumed that granulocytes disintegrate to apoptotic bodies before their fragments are removed by local macrophages. Removal of neutrophils from the inflammatory site without release of granule contents is of paramount importance for cessation of inflammation. In conclusion, apoptotic cell death plays an important role in inflammatory processes and in the resolution of inflammatory reactions. The facts known at present should stimulate further research into the role of neutrophil, eosinophil and macrophage apoptosis in inflammatory diseases.

  17. L’olivier au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mouhtadi Issam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’olivier est une culture traditionnelle sur le pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il est donc naturel de trouver cet arbre au Maroc où il est présent depuis des siècles. Cultivé surtout traditionnellement jusqu’à ses dernières années, il fait l’objet maintenant d’un plan de valorisation très ambitieux pour non seulement garder le Royaume à son niveau actuel (2e producteur mondial pour l’olive de conserve et 6e pour l’huile d’olive mais pour conquérir de nouveaux marchés au niveau mondial et profiter ainsi de l’engouement que connaît cette huile reconnue pour ses bienfaits. Le plan national « Maroc Vert » permet ainsi, grâce à des subventions conséquentes, non seulement de renouveler les vergers existant avec la variété traditionnelle picholine du Maroc, mais également la plantation de nouvelles variétés en super-intensif dans le but d’industrialiser au maximum de nouveaux vergers. Il en est de même pour la transformation des olives en huile de bonne qualité avec la mise en place d’unités de trituration modernes qui doivent supplanter à terme la multitude de « maâsra » et réduire ainsi l’impact environnemental dû aux margines. L’olive ne sera plus dans l’avenir que représentée par son huile et ses formes comestibles, mais les résidus de son extraction seront valorisés soit sous forme de combustible élaboré pour le grignon, soit sous forme d’une base de chimie verte pour les sous-produits du raffinage. D’autres applications sont actuellement à l’étude, car le Maroc à compris, comme tous les autres grands pays producteurs, que l’olive était un nouveau gisement de richesses.

  18. [Inflammation of the parathyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Sheu, S-Y; Schmid, K W

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation of the parathyroid glands is rare when compared to other endocrine organs. This leads to the use of descriptive terms as well as the lack of a generally accepted classification for inflammatory disorders of the parathyroid glands. This review article proposes that parathyroid inflammation be subdivided morphologically into (a) non-specific lymphocytic infiltration, which is more an expression of damage to small vessels, due to e. g. severe systemic inflammation or myocardial infarction, (b) autoimmunogenic lymphocytic parathyroiditis, (c) nonimmunogenic inflammation caused by granulomatous diseases or infections and (d) invasive sclerosing (peri) parathyroiditis. As only parathyroid glands removed due to hyperparathyroidism and normal parathyroid glands incidentally removed during thyroid surgery are seen almost exclusively in routine histopathology, virtually no information about the morphological correlate of hypoparathyroidism is available.

  19. Au microstructure and the functional properties of Ni/Au finishes on ceramic IC packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, E.D.; Baxter, W.K. [Coors Electronic Package Co., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Braski, D.N.; Watkins, T.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Ni/Au plated finishes used on thick-film metallized multilayer ceramic packages for integrated circuits must meet functional requirements such as bondability, sealability, and solderability. Their ability to do so is dependent, among other things, on the ability of the Au deposit to inhibit the grain boundary diffusion and subsequent surface oxidation of Ni. In this study, the relation between functional performance, Ni diffusionr ate, and Au microstructure was examined. Extent of Ni diffusion during heating was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy for several electrolytic and electroless Ni/Au finishing processes. Results were correlated with differences in Au microstructures determined by SEM, atomic force microscopy, and XRD.

  20. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  1. Alveolar inflammation in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Martina; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Viglio, Simona

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In infected lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, opportunistic pathogens and mutated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) contribute to chronic airway inflammation that is characterized by neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, cytokine release...... accumulated in type II alveolar epithelial cells, lacking CFTR. P. aeruginosa organisms were rarely present in inflamed alveoli. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic inflammation and remodeling is present in alveolar tissues of the CF lung and needs to be addressed by anti-inflammatory therapies....

  2. Chemisorption of Au on Si(001) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Shu-Yi; Wang Jian-Guang; Ma Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The chemisorption of one monolayer of Au atoms on an ideal Si(001) surface is studied by using the self-consistent tight binding linear muffin-tin orbital method. Energies of the adsorption system of a Au atom on different sites are calculated. It is found that the most stable position is A site (top site) for the adsorbed Au atoms above the Si(001)surface. It is possible for the adsorbed Au atoms to sit below the Si(001) surface at the B1 site(bridge site), resulting in a Au-Si mixed layer. This is in agreement with the experiment results. The layer projected density of states is calculated and compared with that of the clean surface. The charge transfer is also investigated.

  3. Enhanced activity for supported Au clusters: Methanol oxidation on Au/TiO2(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Samuel A.; Cagg, Brett A.; Levine, Mara S.; He, Wei; Manandhar, Kedar; Chen, Donna A.

    2012-08-01

    Gold clusters supported on TiO2(110) exhibit unusual activity for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Temperature programmed desorption studies of methanol on Au clusters show that both Au and titania sites are necessary for methanol reaction. Isotopic labeling experiments with CD3OH demonstrate that reaction occurs via Osbnd H bond scission to form a methoxy intermediate. When the TiO2 surface is oxidized with 18O2 before or after Au deposition, methanol reaction produces H218O below 300 K, indicating that oxygen from titania promotes Osbnd H bond scission and is incorporated into desorbing products. XPS experiments provide additional evidence that during methanol reaction on the Au/TiO2 surface, methanol adsorption occurs on TiO2, given that the titania support becomes slightly oxidized after exposure to methanol in the presence of Au clusters. While the role of TiO2 is to dissociate the Osbnd H bond and form the reactive methoxy intermediate, the role of the Au sites is to remove hydrogen from the surface as H2, thus preventing the recombination of methoxy and hydrogen to methanol. The decrease in formaldehyde yield with increasing Au coverage above 0.25 ML suggests that reaction occurs at Au-titania interfacial sites; scanning tunneling microscopy images of various Au coverages confirm that the number of interfacial sites at the perimeter of the Au clusters decreases as the Au coverage is increased between 0.25 and 5 ML.

  4. Strain distributions of confined Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红华; 章英; 刘晓山; 骆兴芳; 袁彩雷; 叶双莉

    2015-01-01

    The strain distributions of Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles confined in the Al2O3 matrix with different core sizes are investigated by using the finite element method, respectively. The simulation results clearly indicate that the compressive strains exerted on the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles can be induced by the Al2O3 matrix. Moreover, it can be found that the strain gradient existing in a Au/Ag nanoparticle is much larger than that in a Ag/Au nanoparticle, which could be due to the larger Young’s modulus of Au than that of Ag. With the core size increasing, the strain gradient existing in the Au/Ag nanoparticle becomes larger, while the strain gradient existing in the Ag/Au nanoparticle keeps constant. These different strain distributions may have significant infl uences on the structures and morphologies of the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles, leading to the different physical properties for potential applications.

  5. Chahla Chafiq, Demande au Miroir

    OpenAIRE

    Guilyardi, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Le regard est omniprésent dans le premier roman en français de Chahla Chafiq, écrivain et sociologue iranienne exilée en France depuis 1983, reconnue pour ses travaux sur l’islamisme. Le personnage central de Demande au miroir, Guita Salim, regarde la vie de sa fenêtre. « Entre la fenêtre et le voir, il y a toujours un écart », écrit Forough Farrokhzâd, poétesse persane qui illumina les années 1950-1960, dont la poésie traverse ce roman. Adolescente, dans une ruelle de Téhéran, la jeune héroï...

  6. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  7. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Vinod; K.G.Gopchandran

    2014-01-01

    Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  8. Investigation of the Phase Equilibria of Sn-Cu-Au Ternary and Ag-Sn-Cu-Au Quaternary Systems and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-Cu/Au Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Jao, Chien-Chung; Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Chung-Yung; Lee, Chiapyng

    2007-02-01

    The phase equilibria of the Sn-Cu-Au ternary, Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary systems and interfacial reactions between Sn-Cu alloys and Au were experimentally investigated at specific temperatures in this study. The experimental results indicated that there existed three ternary intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and a complete solid solubility between AuSn and Cu6Sn5 phases in the Sn-Cu-Au ternary system at 200°C. No quaternary IMC was found in the isoplethal section of the Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary system. Three IMCs, AuSn, AuSn2, and AuSn4, were found in all couples. The same three IMCs and (Au,Cu)Sn/(Cu,Au)6Sn5 phases were found in all Sn-Cu/Au couples. The thickness of these reaction layers increased with increasing temperature and time. The mechanism of IMC growth can be described by using the parabolic law. In addition, when the reaction time was extended and the Cu content of the alloy was increased, the AuSn4 phase disappeared gradually. The (Au, Cu)Sn and (Cu,Au)6Sn5 layers played roles as diffusion barriers against Sn in Sn-Cu/Au reaction couple systems.

  9. Crystal structures and new perspectives on Y3Au4 and Y14Au51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celania, Chris; Smetana, Volodymyr; Mudring, Anja Verena

    2017-09-01

    Y3Au4 (triyttrium tetragold) and Y14Au51 (tetradecayttrium henpentacontagold), two binary representatives of Au-rich rare earth (R) systems crystallize with the space groups R-3 and P6/m, adopting the Pu3Pd4 and Gd14Ag51 structure types, respectively (Pearson symbols hR42 and hP65). A variety of binary R-Au compounds have been reported, although only a few have been investigated thoroughly. Many reports lack information or misinterpret known compounds reported elsewhere. The Pu3Pd4 type is fairly common for group 10 elements Ni, Pd, and Pt, while Au representatives are restricted to just five examples, i.e. Ca3Au4, Pr3Au4, Nd3Au4, Gd3Au4, and Th3Au4. Sm6Au7 is suspected to be Sm3Au4 due to identical symmetry and close unit-cell parameters. The Pu3Pd4 structure type allows for full substitution of the position of the rare earth atom by more electronegative and smaller elements, i.e. Ti and Zr. The Gd14Ag51 type instead is more common for the group 11 metals, while rare representatives of group 12 are known. Y3Au4 can be represented as a tunnel structure with encapsulated cations and anionic chains. Though tunnels are present in Y14Au51, this structure is more complex and is best described in terms of polyhedral `pinwheels' around the tunnel forming polyhedra along the c axis.

  10. Au Fixed Point Development at NRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedyulin, S. N.; Gotoh, M.; Todd, A. D. W.

    2017-04-01

    Two Au fixed points filled using metal of different nominal purities in carbon crucibles have been developed at the National Research Council Canada (NRC). The primary motivation behind this project was to provide the means for direct thermocouple calibrations at the Au freezing point (1064.18°C). Using a Au fixed point filled with the metal of maximum available purity [99.9997 % pure according to glow discharge mass spectroscopy (GDMS)], multiple freezing plateaus were measured in a commercial high-temperature furnace. Four Pt/Pd thermocouples constructed and calibrated in-house were used to measure the freezing plateaus. From the calibration at Sn, Zn, Al and Ag fixed points, the linear deviation function from the NIST-IMGC reference function (IEC 62460:2008 Standard) was determined and extrapolated to the freezing temperature of Au. For all the Pt/Pd thermocouples used in this study, the measured EMF values agree with the extrapolated values within expanded uncertainty, thus substantiating the use of 99.9997 % pure Au fixed point cell for thermocouple calibrations at NRC. Using the Au fixed point filled with metal of lower purity (99.99 % pure according to GDMS), the effect of impurities on the Au freezing temperature measured with Pt/Pd thermocouple was further investigated.

  11. Engineered fabrication of ordered arrays of Au-NiO-Au nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Daniele; Franz, Silvia; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Cattaneo, Laura; Brivio, Stefano; Tallarida, Grazia; Spiga, Sabina

    2013-02-01

    In the present paper, a novel method to fabricate ordered arrays of Au/NiO/Au nanowires is described, with the aim of filling the gap between the fundamental study of the electrical properties of scattered single nanowires and the engineered fabrication of nanowire arrays. This approach mainly consists of the following steps: (a) electrodeposition of Au/Ni/Au nanowires into an ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide template; (b) mechanical polishing of the sample to expose the gold tips of Au/Ni/Au nanowires to the template surface; (c) in situ annealing of the Au/Ni/Au nanowires without removing the template. The resulting structure consists in an ordered array of Au/NiO/Au nanowires slightly protruding out of a flat aluminum oxide template. Unlike current approaches, with the described method it is not necessary to remove the template in order to oxidize the middle metal, thus allowing the availability of an entire set of metal/oxide/metal nanowires ordered in a two-dimensional matrix and where single heterojunctions can be accessed individually.

  12. Engineered fabrication of ordered arrays of Au-NiO-Au nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Daniele; Franz, Silvia; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Cattaneo, Laura; Brivio, Stefano; Tallarida, Grazia; Spiga, Sabina

    2013-02-01

    In the present paper, a novel method to fabricate ordered arrays of Au/NiO/Au nanowires is described, with the aim of filling the gap between the fundamental study of the electrical properties of scattered single nanowires and the engineered fabrication of nanowire arrays. This approach mainly consists of the following steps: (a) electrodeposition of Au/Ni/Au nanowires into an ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide template; (b) mechanical polishing of the sample to expose the gold tips of Au/Ni/Au nanowires to the template surface; (c) in situ annealing of the Au/Ni/Au nanowires without removing the template. The resulting structure consists in an ordered array of Au/NiO/Au nanowires slightly protruding out of a flat aluminum oxide template. Unlike current approaches, with the described method it is not necessary to remove the template in order to oxidize the middle metal, thus allowing the availability of an entire set of metal/oxide/metal nanowires ordered in a two-dimensional matrix and where single heterojunctions can be accessed individually.

  13. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-La and Au-Er binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, H.Q., E-mail: hongqun.dong@aalto.fi [Department of Electronics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, FIN-02601 Espoo (Finland); Tao, X.M. [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, H.S. [Scientific Center of Phase Diagrams and Materials Design, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Laurila, T.; Paulastro-Kroeckel, M. [Department of Electronics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, FIN-02601 Espoo (Finland)

    2011-03-31

    Research highlights: > It's the first time that Au-La and Au-Er binary systems were thermodynamically assessed since 1985. > Besides, in the present work, the ab initio approach has been employed to calculate the formation enthalpies of the IMCs involved in Au-Er and Au-La binary systems, and then, by combining with all of the available experimental information, these two-system were thermodynamically optimized via CALPHAD method. Therefore, a more reliable thermodynamic description has been obtained for these systems. - Abstract: Phase relationships in Au-La and Au-Er binary systems have been thermodynamically assessed by using the CALPHAD technique. The existing thermodynamic descriptions of the systems were improved by incorporating the ab initio calculated enthalpies of formation of the intermetallic compounds, except for the Au{sub 51}La{sub 14} and Au{sub 10}Er{sub 7} phases. All the binary intermetallic compounds were treated as stoichiometric phases, while the solution phases, including liquid, fcc, bcc, and dhcp, were treated as substitutional solution phases and the excess Gibbs energies were formulated with Redlich-Kister polynomial function. As a result, two self-consist thermodynamic data sets for describing the Au-La and Au-Er binary systems were obtained.

  14. Role of Resistin in Inflammation and Inflammation-Related Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanshan Pang; Yingying Le

    2006-01-01

    Resistin is a newly identified adipocyte secreted hormone belonging to a cysteine-rich protein family. It is expressed in white adipose tissues in rodents and has also been found in several other tissues in human. Insulin, glucose,many cytokines and anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones are regulators of resistin gene expression. Resistin was firstly proposed to be involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently, it was found to be relevant to inflammation and inflammation-related diseases like atherosclerosis and arthritis.

  15. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J

    2015-09-16

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  16. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  17. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  18. Sirtuins Link Inflammation and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidula T. Vachharajani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuins (SIRT, first discovered in yeast as NAD+ dependent epigenetic and metabolic regulators, have comparable activities in human physiology and disease. Mounting evidence supports that the seven-member mammalian sirtuin family (SIRT1–7 guard homeostasis by sensing bioenergy needs and responding by making alterations in the cell nutrients. Sirtuins play a critical role in restoring homeostasis during stress responses. Inflammation is designed to “defend and mend” against the invading organisms. Emerging evidence supports that metabolism and bioenergy reprogramming direct the sequential course of inflammation; failure of homeostasis retrieval results in many chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. Anabolic glycolysis quickly induced (compared to oxidative phosphorylation for ROS and ATP generation is needed for immune activation to “defend” against invading microorganisms. Lipolysis/fatty acid oxidation, essential for cellular protection/hibernation and cell survival in order to “mend,” leads to immune repression. Acute/chronic inflammations are linked to altered glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, at least in part, by NAD+ dependent function of sirtuins. Therapeutically targeting sirtuins may provide a new class of inflammation and immune regulators. This review discusses how sirtuins integrate metabolism, bioenergetics, and immunity during inflammation and how sirtuin-directed treatment improves outcome in chronic inflammatory diseases and in the extreme stress response of sepsis.

  19. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...... in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad...

  20. Adsorption behavior of terephthalic acid on Au(100), Au(111) and Au(110) electrodes in neutral solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezawa, Yasunari; Masuda, Ryoko [Development of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171 (Japan)

    2008-06-30

    Adsorption of terephthalic acid on Au(1 0 0), Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 1 0) electrodes in neutral solution has been investigated using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential capacity measurements and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At negative potentials, the terephthalate anions in solution adsorb in a flat orientation onto the electrode via the {pi} electrons of the aromatic ring. At positive potentials, the terephthalate anions adsorb in a vertical orientation via the oxygen atoms of one of the carboxyl groups as a form of dianion. At more positive potentials, the anions adsorb in a vertical orientation as a form of hydrogen terephthalate. For the three electrodes examined, the overtone and/or combination bands, due to vertically oriented hydrogen terephthalate, were observed at 2642 and 2517 cm{sup -1}, respectively. For the Au(1 1 1) electrode, STM observations indicated a flat orientation in the form of terephthalic acid. (author)

  1. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation. Additionally, a small amount of fcc (100)f-oriented Au@Pt and Au@Pd square nanoplates are obtained with the Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase transformation from hexagonal close-packed (hcp) to face-centered cubic (fcc) is observed upon coating the hcp Au square sheets with Pt or Pd under ambient conditions. The prepared fcc Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates demonstrate unique (101)f orientation (picture shows a typical fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplate). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Points of control in inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Carl

    2002-12-01

    Inflammation is a complex set of interactions among soluble factors and cells that can arise in any tissue in response to traumatic, infectious, post-ischaemic, toxic or autoimmune injury. The process normally leads to recovery from infection and to healing, However, if targeted destruction and assisted repair are not properly phased, inflammation can lead to persistent tissue damage by leukocytes, lymphocytes or collagen. Inflammation may be considered in terms of its checkpoints, where binary or higher-order signals drive each commitment to escalate, go signals trigger stop signals, and molecules responsible for mediating the inflammatory response also suppress it, depending on timing and context. The non-inflammatory state does not arise passively from an absence of inflammatory stimuli; rather, maintenance of health requires the positive actions of specific gene products to suppress reactions to potentially inflammatory stimuli that do not warrant a full response.

  3. Parkinson's Disease and Systemic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carina C.; Tarelli, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation triggers exacerbation in the central brain's ongoing damage in several neurodegenerative diseases. Systemic inflammatory stimulus induce a general response known as sickness behaviour, indicating that a peripheral stimulus can induce the synthesis of cytokines in the brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD), inflammation was mainly associated with microglia activation that can underlie the neurodegeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Peripheral inflammation can transform the “primed” microglia into an “active” state, which can trigger stronger responses dealing with neurodegenerative processes. Numerous evidences show that systemic inflammatory processes exacerbate ongoing neurodegeneration in PD patient and animal models. Anti-inflammatory treatment in PD patients exerts a neuroprotective effect. In the present paper, we analyse the effect of peripheral infections in the etiology and progression in PD patients and animal models, suggesting that these peripheral immune challenges can exacerbate the symptoms in the disease. PMID:21403862

  4. Granulomatous inflammation in Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the histopathological findings in a patient with Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis (ASK. A 58-year-old patient with ASK underwent enucleation and sections of the cornea and sclera were subjected to histopathology and immunohistochemistry with monoclonal mouse antihuman antibodies against T cell CD3 and B cell CD20 antigens. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of the cornea revealed epithelial ulceration, Bowman′s membrane destruction, stromal vascularization, infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cells (MNGC. The areas of scleritis showed complete disruption of sclera collagen, necrosis and infiltration with neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and granulomatous inflammation with MNGC. No cyst or trophozoites of Acanthamoeba were seen in the cornea or sclera. Immunophenotyping revealed that the population of lymphocytes was predominantly of T cells. Granulomatous inflammation in ASK is probably responsible for the continuance and progression of the scleritis and management protocols should include immunosuppressive agents alongside amoebicidal drugs.

  5. Platelet activation and thrombus formation relates to the presence of myocardial inflammation in patients with cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Peter; Weikert, Ulf; Schmidt-Lucke, Caroline; Skurk, Carsten; Meyer, Alexander; Steffens, Daniel; Schultheiss, Heinz Peter; Rauch, Ursula

    2014-05-01

    Patients with cardiomyopathy show a significantly increased risk for thromboembolic events due to a hypercoagulable state and platelet dysfunction. The pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the increasing platelet activity in patients with cardiomyopathy remains unclear. We performed a clinical study to elucidate the link between myocardial tissue alterations and platelet activation in patients with cardiomyopathy. A total of 30 patients with suspected cardiomyopathy and 10 healthy control patients were included in our study. Hemodynamic parameters were measured by catheterization and echocardiography. Endomyocardial biopsies were taken to determine myocardial inflammation. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the platelet activation by quantification of p-selectin and thrombospondin expression on platelets. The p-selectin (8.46 ± 3.67 AU) and thrombospondin (26.56 ± 23.21 AU) expression was significantly correlated with the amount of CD3+ T cells (p-selectin: r=0.573, p<0.05; thrombospondin: r=0.488, p<0.05) and the endothelial/interstitial activation (p-selectin: r=0.521, p<0.05; thrombospondin: r=0.39, p<0.05). This was found to be independent of hemodynamic parameters, age, and gender. The platelet activation of patients (n=3) with echocardiographically documented ventricular thrombi was significantly increased (p-selectin: 12.57 ± 5.5 AU vs. 8.1 ± 3.2 AU, p<0.05) and this was associated with elevated myocardial inflammation scores. Myocardial inflammation is associated with a significant increase in platelet activation and ventricular thrombus formation independently of the hemodynamic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Et pourquoi pas au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Télétravail ou travail à distance, aménagement des horaires de travail et autres évolutions favorables à un meilleur équilibre vie privée et vie professionnelle sont adoptés par nombre d’entreprises et d’organisations !   Rendu possible grâce au développement de nouvelles technologies dont Internet, le travail à distance séduit de plus en plus de personnels, ainsi que de plus en plus de sociétés qui y trouvent des avantages en matière de gestion de l’espace, de sécurité (moins de trajets domicile-entreprise), de développement durable (moins de pollution), de motivation et de bien-être de leurs personnels. Les horaires aménagés, voire les « core-hours1 », sont également des pratiques de plus e...

  7. Longitudinal scaling of net-protons in AuAu and pp collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbaek, Flemming

    2008-10-01

    BRAHMS has studied net-protons distributions in Au+Au and p+p collisions at √sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. Net-proton distributions reflect the net-baryon yields and can be used to extract the nuclear stopping in the collisions, thus providing information on baryon number transport and energy available for particle production. The talk will present final and preliminary results from the above mentioned systems. It will be shown that in p+p and in Au+Au central collisions that net-proton distributions exhibit longitudinal scaling once the target contribution to the projectile rapidity range is corrected for. The difference between p+p and Au+Au will be discussed. Aspects of future measurements at the LHC of net-baryons at mid-rapidity will be brought forth.

  8. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  9. 22 CFR 62.31 - Au pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... equivalent and a personality profile. Such personality profile will be based upon a psychometric test... such academic course work in an amount not to exceed $1,000 for EduCare au pair participants and in an...

  10. PHENIX results on jets in d + Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J. Ali

    2016-12-01

    We present recently published results [A. Adare, et al., arxiv:arXiv:1509.04657] on fully reconstructed R=0.3 anti-kt jets measured in p+p and d+Au collisions at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy. The jet yields for four centrality classes along with the p+p reference are presented, as well as both the minimum bias RdAu and centrality dependent RdAu and RCP. We find that while the minimum bias RdA is consistent with unity, providing a strong constraint on models including cold-nuclear-matter effects or energy loss in small systems, the centrality dependent RdAu show a striking variation which presents a challenge to models attempting to describe the interplay between soft and hard processes in these systems.

  11. Centrality Dependent Particle Production at $y=0$ and $y \\sim1$ in Au+Au Collisions at $y=0$ and $y \\sim1$ in Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Arsene, I; Beavis, D; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Cibor, J; Debbe, R; Enger, E; Gaardhøje, J J; Germinario, M; Hagel, K; Ito, H; Jipa, A; Jundt, F; Jordre, J I; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Kozik, T; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lee, Y K; Lindal, S; Lystad, R; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Makeev, A; Mikelsen, M; Murray, M; Natowitz, J B; Neumann, B; Nielsen, B S; Ouerdane, D; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Ristea, C; Ristea, O; Röhrich, D; Samset, B H; Sandberg, D; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S

    2005-01-01

    Particle production of identified charged hadrons, $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$, $p$, and $\\bar{p}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\\snn =$ 200 GeV has been studied as a function of transverse momentum and collision centrality at $y=0$ and $y\\sim1$ by the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC. Significant collective transverse flow at kinetic freeze-out has been observed in the collisions. The magnitude of the flow rises with the collision centrality. Proton and kaon yields relative to the pion production increase strongly as the transverse momentum increases and also increase with centrality. Particle yields per participant nucleon show a weak dependence on the centrality for all particle species. Hadron production remains relatively constant within one unit around midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\\snn =$ 200 GeV.

  12. Intense fluorescence of Au 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chongqi; Harbich, Wolfgang; Sementa, Luca; Ghiringhelli, Luca; Aprá, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Brune, Harald

    2017-08-21

    Ligand-protected Au clusters are non-bleaching fluorescence markers in bio- and medical applications. We show that their fluorescence is an intrinsic property of the Au cluster itself. We find a very intense and sharp fluorescence peak located at λ =739.2 nm (1.68 eV) for Au20 clusters in a Ne matrix held at 6 K. The fluorescence reflects the HOMO-LUMO diabatic bandgap of the cluster. The cluster shows a very rich absorption fine structure reminiscent of well defined molecule-like quantum levels. These levels are resolved since Au20 has only one stable isomer (tetrahedral), therefore our sample is mono-disperse in cluster size and conformation. Density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations clarify the nature of optical absorptionand predict both main absorption peaks and intrinsic fluorescence in good agreement with experiment.

  13. Bipolar resistive switching of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au heterostructure nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, S.; Perego, D.; Tallarida, G.; Bestetti, M.; Franz, S.; Spiga, S.

    2013-10-01

    Arrays of Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires with a diameter of 50 nm were characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy, which was used to probe the electrical behavior of single nanowires still included in the array. A bipolar switching of the single Au/NiOx/Ni/Au nanowires is demonstrated and is attributed to the choice of an asymmetric couple of electrode materials and, possibly, to a non-uniform Ni oxidation profile inside the NiOx segments. An analysis of the conduction mechanism in a single nanowire is presented to further support this conclusion.

  14. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-15

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  15. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  16. Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    PHENIX Collaboration; Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Jamel, A.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R. (R.); Aronson, S H

    2010-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1

  17. Systematic Measurements of Identified Particle Spectra in pp, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions from STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2009-04-11

    Identified charged particle spectra of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, p and {bar p} at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1) measured by the dE/dx method in the STAR-TPC are reported for pp and d + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and for Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, and 200 GeV. Average transverse momenta, total particle production, particle yield ratios, strangeness and baryon production rates are investigated as a function of the collision system and centrality. The transverse momentum spectra are found to be flatter for heavy particles than for light particles in all collision systems; the effect is more prominent for more central collisions. The extracted average transverse momentum of each particle species follows a trend determined by the total charged particle multiplicity density. The Bjorken energy density estimate is at least several GeV/fm{sub 3} for a formation time less than 1 fm/c. A significantly larger net-baryon density and a stronger increase of the net-baryon density with centrality are found in Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV than at the two higher energies. Antibaryon production relative to total particle multiplicity is found to be constant over centrality, but increases with the collision energy. Strangeness production relative to total particle multiplicity is similar at the three measured RHIC energies. Relative strangeness production increases quickly with centrality in peripheral Au + Au collisions, to a value about 50% above the pp value, and remains rather constant in more central collisions. Bulk freeze-out properties are extracted from thermal equilibrium model and hydrodynamics-motivated blast-wave model fits to the data. Resonance decays are found to have little effect on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters due to the transverse momentum range of our measurements. The extracted chemical freeze-out temperature is constant, independent of collision system or centrality; its value is close to the predicted phase

  18. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  19. Natural products to target inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 Most Western lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer have a chronic inflammatory process at its base. Therefore, inflammation is an important therapeutic target. Due to their potency, steroidal drugs dominate the current treatment of

  20. Genetic models for CNS inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Wekerle, H; Antel, J

    2001-01-01

    The use of transgenic technology to over-express or prevent expression of genes encoding molecules related to inflammation has allowed direct examination of their role in experimental disease. This article reviews transgenic and knockout models of CNS demyelinating disease, focusing primarily on ...

  1. Platelets in inflammation and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenne, Craig N; Kubes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Although platelets are traditionally recognized for their central role in hemostasis, many lines of research clearly demonstrate these rather ubiquitous blood components are potent immune modulators and effectors. Platelets have been shown to directly recognize, sequester and kill pathogens, to activated and recruit leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation, and to modulate leukocyte behavior, enhancing their ability to phagocytose and kill pathogens and inducing unique effector functions, such as the production of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). This multifaceted response to infection and inflammation is due, in part, to the huge array of soluble mediators and cell surface molecules expressed by platelets. From their earliest origins as primordial hemocytes in invertebrates to their current form as megakaryocyte-derived cytoplasts, platelets have evolved to be one of the key regulators of host intravascular immunity and inflammation. In this review, we present the diverse roles platelets play in immunity and inflammation associated with autoimmune diseases and infection. Additionally, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of platelet behavior made possible through the use of advanced imaging techniques that allow us to visualize platelets and their interactions, in real-time, within the intact blood vessels of a living host.

  2. Natural products to target inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allijn, Iris Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 Most Western lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer have a chronic inflammatory process at its base. Therefore, inflammation is an important therapeutic target. Due to their potency, steroidal drugs dominate the current treatment of inflammat

  3. Microbial deprivation, inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertzen, Leena C; Joensuu, H; Haahtela, T

    2011-06-01

    Dysregulated immune function is involved in the pathogenesis of many common human diseases. Living in urban, microbe-poor environment may have a profound influence on the immune function and eventually also on carcinogenesis. Unfortunately, few studies have thus far addressed the role of exposure to the environmental microbiota on the risk of cancer. Which mechanisms are broken in individuals prone to develop chronic inflammation in response to exposure that does not cause harm in others? Recent work in immunology has revealed that Th17 cells, a third subset of Th cells, and inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-23, are closely linked with tumour-associated inflammation. Albeit the precise role of Th17 cells in cancer is still unclear and a matter of debate, accumulating evidence shows that Th17 cells are enriched in a wide range of human tumours, and that these tumour-derived Th17 cells may promote angiogenesis, tumour growth and inflammation. Regulatory T cells, in turn, appear to have counter-regulatory effects on Th17 cells and can inhibit their function. Thus, the regulatory network, induced and strengthened by continuous exposure to environmental microbiota, may play an important role in tumour immunobiology in preventing the establishment of chronic inflammation in its early phases. In addition, the discovery of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) system has brought micro-organisms to new light; continuous signalling via these TLRs and other receptors that sense microbial components is necessary for epithelial cell integrity, tissue repair, and recovery from injury. In this communication, we summarise the epidemiological data of living in environments with diverse microbial exposures and the risk of cancer, and discuss the related immunological mechanisms, focusing on the links between environmental microbiota, the Th17/IL-23 axis and cancer-associated inflammation.

  4. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  5. Isomorphism and solid solutions among Ag- and Au-selenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palyanova, Galina A.; Seryotkin, Yurii V. [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Kokh, Konstantin A., E-mail: k.a.kokh@gmail.com [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Bakakin, Vladimir V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Au-Ag selenides were synthesized by heating stoichiometric mixtures of elementary substances of initial compositions Ag{sub 2−x}Au{sub x}Se with a step of x=0.25 (0≤x≤2) to 1050 °C and annealing at 500 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray powder diffraction methods have been applied to study synthesized samples. Results of studies of synthesized products revealed the existence of three solid solutions with limited isomorphism Ag↔Au: naumannite Ag{sub 2}Se – Ag{sub 1.94}Au{sub 0.06}Se, fischesserite Ag{sub 3}AuSe{sub 2} - Ag{sub 3.2}Au{sub 0.8}Se{sub 2} and gold selenide AuSe - Au{sub 0.94}Ag{sub 0.06}Se. Solid solutions and AgAuSe phases were added to the phase diagram of Ag-Au-Se system. Crystal-chemical interpretation of Ag-Au isomorphism in selenides was made on the basis of structural features of fischesserite, naumannite, and AuSe. - Highlights: • Au-Ag selenides were synthesized. • Limited Ag-Au isomorphism in the selenides is affected by structural features. • Some new phases were introduced to the phase diagram Ag-Au-Se.

  6. Collective motion in selected central collisions of Au on Au at 150A MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. C.; Herrmann, N.; Fan, Z. G.; Freifelder, R.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Krämer, M.; Randrup, J.; Reisdorf, W.; Schüll, D.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Wessels, J. P.; Pelte, D.; Trzaska, M.; Wienold, T.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belayev, I. M.; Berger, L.; Bini, M.; Blaich, Th.; Boussange, S.; Buta, A.; Čaplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Dona, R.; Dupieux, P.; Erö, J.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Fraysse, L.; Frolov, S.; Grigorian, Y.; Guillaume, G.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, A.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Kuhn, C.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Legrand, I.; Lebedev, A.; Maguire, C.; Manko, V.; Maurenzig, P.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Mösner, J.; Moisa, D.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Morel, P.; Neubert, W.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Petrovici, M.; Poggi, G.; Rami, F.; Ramillien, V.; Sadchikov, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, S.; Tezkratt, R.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A. V.

    1994-05-01

    Using the FOPI facility at GSI Darmstadt complete data of Au on Au collisions at 150A MeV were collected for charged products (Z=1-15) at laboratory angles 1°=3) are used to determine the collective energy which is found to be at least 10A MeV.

  7. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Trzeciakiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides.

  8. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fauad Rami

    2003-05-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed.

  9. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy; Su, Dangshen [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Wang, Di [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  10. AZIMUTHAL ASYMMETRY OF NEUTRAL PION EMISSION IN AU+AU REACTIONS AT 1-GEV NUCLEON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VENEMA, LB; BRAAK, H; LOHNER, H; RASCHKE, AE; SIEMSSEN, RH; SUMBERA, M; WILSCHUT, HW; BERG, FD; KUHN, W; METAG, [No Value; NOTHEISEN, M; NOVOTNY, R; PFEIFFER, M; RITMAN, J; SCHWALB, O; GOBBI, A; HILDENBRAND, KD; HLAVAC, S; HOLZMANN, R; SIMON, RS; SODAN, U; TEH, K; WESSELS, JP; HERRMANN, N; WIENOLD, T; KOTTE, R; MOSNER, J; NEUBERT, W; WOHLFARTH, D; OSTENDORF, R; SCHUTZ, Y; BRUMMUND, N; SANTO, R

    1993-01-01

    The azimuthal angle distributions of neutral pions at midrapidity from Au+Au reactions at 1 GeV/nucleon incident energy have been measured. An enhanced emission of pi0's perpendicular to the reaction plane is observed. The azimuthal asymmetry is dependent on the pi0 momentum: the pi0 spectrum perpen

  11. EVENT STRUCTURE AT RHIC FROM P-P TO AU-AU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRAINOR,T.A.; (FOR THE STAR COLLABORATION)

    2004-03-15

    Several correlation analysis techniques are applied to p-p and Au-Au collisions at RHIC. Strong large-momentum-scale correlations are observed which can be related to local charge and momentum conservation during hadronization and to minijet (minimum-bias parton fragment) correlations.

  12. Observation of anisotropic event shapes and transverse flow in ultrarelativistic Au+Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrette, J.; Bellwied, R.; Bennett, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cleland, W.E.; Clemen, M.; Cole, J.; Cormier, T.M.; David, G.; Dee, J.; Dietzsch, O.; Drigert, M.; Gilbert, S.; Hall, J.R.; Hemmick, T.K.; Herrmann, N.; Hong, B.; Jiang, C.L.; Kwon, Y.; Lacasse, R.; Lukaszew, A.; Li, Q.; Ludlam, T.W.; McCorkle, S.; Mark, S.K.; Matheus, R.; O' Brien, E.; Panitkin, S.; Piazza, T.; Pruneau, C.; Rao, M.N.; Rosati, M.; daSilva, N.C.; Sedykh, S.; Sonnadara, U.; Stachel, J.; Takai, H.; Takagui, E.M.; Voloshin, S.; Wang, G.; Wessels, J.P.; Woody, C.L.; Xu, N.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, C. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States) Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83402 (United States) McGill Univesity, Montreal, H3A 2T8 (Canada) University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States) SUNY, Stony Brook, New York, 11794 (United States) University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (B; (E877 Collaboration)

    1994-11-07

    Event shapes for Au + Au collisions at 11.4 GeV/[ital c] per nucleon were studied over nearly the full solid angle with the E877 apparatus. The analysis was performed by Fourier expansion of azimuthal distributions of the transverse energy ([ital E][sub [ital T

  13. LaAu2 and CeAu2 surface intermetallic compounds grown by high-temperature deposition on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaza, M.; Fernández, L.; Lafuente, S.; Corso, M.; Schiller, F.; Xu, B.; Diakhate, M.; Verstraete, M. J.; Ortega, J. E.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the crystal structure and electronic bands of LaAu2 and CeAu2 surface intermetallic compounds grown by high-temperature deposition on Au(111). By scanning-tunneling microscopy we study the formation of different alloy phases as a function of growth temperature and lanthanide coverage. We determine the specific growth conditions to achieve monolayers and bilayers of LaAu2 and CeAu2 with high crystalline quality. Due to lattice mismatch with the underlying Au substrate, both LaAu2 and CeAu2 exhibit long-range moiré patterns, which can serve as templates for further nanostructure growth. By angle-resolved photoemission we map the two-dimensional band structure of these surface alloys, discussing the nature of the different spectral features in the light of first-principles calculations.

  14. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  15. Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165836.html Actemra Approved for Certain Blood Vessel Inflammation Drug will treat adults with a condition called ... to treat adults with giant cell arteritis, an inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). In a media ...

  16. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  17. Pramipexole reduces inflammation in the experimental animal models of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Parishani, Mohammad; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; Zarezade, Vahid; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Pramipexole is a dopamine (DA) agonist (D2 subfamily receptors) that widely use in the treatment of Parkinson's diseases. Some epidemiological and genetic studies propose a role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. To our knowledge, there is no study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of pramipexol. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of pramipexol. Anti-inflammatory effects of pramipexole were studied in three well-characterized animal models of inflammation, including carrageenan- or formalin-induced paw inflammation in rats, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in mice. The animals received pramipexol (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, I.P.) 30 min before subplantar injection of carrageenan or formalin. Pramipexol (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) was also injected 30 min before topical application of TPA on the ear mice. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated in the carrageenan test. Finally, pathological examination of the inflamed tissues was carried out. Pramipexole significantly inhibited paw inflammation 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan challenge compared with the control group (p Pramipexol also showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity against formalin-evoked paw edema over a period of 24 h (p pramipexol (p pramipexole reduced tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, and subcutaneous edema. Pramipexole did not alter the increased serum levels of MDA due to carrageenan injection. These data clearly indicate that pramipexol possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity. It seems that its antioxidants do not play an important role in these effects.

  18. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0477 TITLE: Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald R. Bach, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...GWI). Elevated biomarkers of inflammation were observed in our pilot observational study of GWI. Thus, chronic inflammation appears to be part of

  19. Influence of Au Nanoparticle Shape on Au@Cu2O Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of metal-semiconductor heterostructures may allow the combination of function of the corresponding components and/or the enhanced performance resulting from the interactions between all the components. In this paper, Au@Cu2O core-shell heterostructures are prepared by a seed-growth method, using different-shaped Au nanocrystals as the seeds such as nanorods, octahedra, decahedra, dots, and nanocubes. The results revealed that the final structure of Au@Cu2O was greatly influenced by the shape of the seeds used. Exposure of Cu2O{111} and Cu2O{001} favored when the overgrowth happened on Au{111} and Au{001} surface, respectively. The size of the product can also be tuned by the amount of the seeds. The results reported here provide a thinking clue to modulate the shape and size of core-shell nanocrystals, which is useful in developing new materials with desired performance.

  20. Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardtke, D.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-12-09

    Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.

  1. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.

    2013-08-01

    The transverse momentum (pT) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (π±, K±, p, p¯) produced in sNN=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to pT=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to pT=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate pT region, between 2 and 5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon-to-meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The pT-dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  2. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E -J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S

    2013-01-01

    The transverse momentum (p_T) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (\\pi^+/-, K^+/-, p, p^bar) produced in sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to p_T=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to p_T=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate p_T region, between 2--5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon to meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions, and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The p_T dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  3. Relative Distribution of Au48+~Au52+ in Au Plasma by Ionization Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUZhi-Yan; ZHUZheng-He; JIANGGang

    2003-01-01

    The present work proposes a theoretical method called ionization dynamics to derive the ionic charge state distribution. Using relativistic quantum mechanics to calculate the energy level lifetime and average ionic lifetime of each ion, the first-order ionization rate constant can be obtained. Based on these data, from the solution of differential equations for consecutive-irreversible ionization reactions, one will be able to derive the ionic charge state distribution.The calculated average positive charge 49.24 of Au48+ ~ Au52+ and their relative distribution are in good agreement with the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  4. Engineering the strain in graphene layers with Au decoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannu, Compesh, E-mail: compesh@gmail.com; Singh, Udai B.; Kumar, Sunil; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Avasthi, D.K., E-mail: dka4444@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Graphene sheets decorated with Au nanodots are synthesized by deposition of Au of three different thicknesses and subsequent annealing at 400 °C. Different thicknesses of Au film for the formation of Au nanodots on graphene are measured using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and morphology is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy indicates 3–6-fold increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio depending on the content of Au deposited on graphene. The increase in disorder in Au decorated graphene layers is explained on the basis of interaction of Au atoms with Π bonds of graphene. The splitting and blueshift in G band signifies compressive strain in Au deposited graphene. X-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation source confirm compressive strain in graphene, which increases with increase of Au film thickness.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction of Au nanoparticle-bound primers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hebai; HU Min; YANG Zhongnan; WANG Chen; ZHU Longzhang

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a useful technique for in vitro amplification of a DNA fragment. In this paper, a PCR procedure using Au nanoparticle (AuNP) -bound primers was systemically studied. The 5′-SH- (CH2)6-modified primers were covalently attached to the AuNP surface via Au-S bonds, and plasmid pBluescript SK was used as a template. The effects of the concentration of AuNP-bound primers, annealing temperature and PCR cycles were evaluated, respectively. The results indicate that PCR can proceed successfully under optimized condition, with either forward or reverse primers bound to the AuNP surface or with both the two primers bound to the AuNP surface. Development of PCR procedure based on AuNPs not only makes the isolation of PCR products very convenient, but also provides novel methods to prepare AuNP-bound ssDNA and nanostructured material.

  6. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelo, T.E., E-mail: tenovelo@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Amézaga-Madrid, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Maldonado, R.D. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados el IPN Unidad Mérida, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Km 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Alonzo-Medina, G.M. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} and Au{sub 3}Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au{sub 3}Cu and Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation.

  7. Platelets in inflammation and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, J M; Rossaint, J; Zarbock, A

    2014-11-01

    The paradigm of platelets as mere mediators of hemostasis has long since been replaced by a dual role: hemostasis and inflammation. Now recognized as key players in innate and adaptive immune responses, platelets have the capacity to interact with almost all known immune cells. These platelet-immune cell interactions represent a hallmark of immunity, as they can potently enhance immune cell functions and, in some cases, even constitute a prerequisite for host defense mechanisms such as NETosis. In addition, recent studies have revealed a new role for platelets in immunity: They are ubiquitous sentinels and rapid first-line immune responders, as platelet-pathogen interactions within the vasculature appear to precede all other host defense mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of platelets as inflammatory cells, and provide an exemplary review of their role in acute inflammation.

  8. Obesity, inflammation, and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Beicheng; Karin, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has become a universal and major public health problem with increasing prevalence in both adults and children in the 21st century, even in developing countries. Extensive epidemiological studies reveal a strong link between obesity and development and progression of various types of cancers. The connection between obesity and liver cancer is particularly strong and obesity often results in liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by fatty liver inflammation and is believed to cause fibrosis and cirrhosis. The latter is a known liver cancer risk factor. In fact due to its much higher prevalence obesity may be a more substantial contributor to overall hepatocellular carcinoma burden than infection with hepatitis viruses. Here we review and discuss recent advances in elucidation of cellular and molecular alterations and signaling pathways associated with obesity and liver inflammation and their contribution to hepatocarcinogenesis.

  9. Regulating Inflammation in the Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Fairweather, DeLisa

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and estimated to be the leading cause of death worldwide by the year 2020. Many pathogens including bacteria, protozoa, and viruses are associated with inflammatory heart disease in patients, and can induce similar disease in animal models. Recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system leads to the release of proinflammatory cytokines that both reduce infection and increase inflammation in the heart. Signaling pa...

  10. Curbing Inflammation in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme A. Farina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients who suffer from severe burns develop metabolic imbalances and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process has yielded new insight into burn injury therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies used to curb inflammation in burn injuries and note that further studies with high quality evidence are necessary.

  11. Inflammation in coronary artery diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-jun

    2011-01-01

    The concept that atherosclerosis is an inflammation has been increasingly recognized,and subsequently resulted in great interest in revealing the inflammatory nature of the atherosclerotic process.More recently,a large body of evidence has supported the idea that inflammatory mechanisms play a pivotal role throughout all phases of atherogenesis,from endothelial dysfunction and the formation of fatty streaks to plaque destabilization and the acute coronary events due to vulnerable plaque rupture.Indeed,although triggers and pathways of inflammation are probably multiple and vary in different clinical entities of atherosclerotic disorders,an imbalance between anti-inflammatory mechanisms and pro-inflammatory factors will result in an atherosclerotic progression.Vascular endothelial dysfunction and lipoprotein retention into the arterial intima have been reported as the earliest events in atherogenesis with which inflammation is linked.Inflammatory has also been extended to the disorders of coronary microvasculature,and associated with special subsets of coronary artery disease such as silent myocardial ischemia,myocardial ischemia-reperfusion,cardiac syndrome X,variant angina,coronary artery ectasia,coronary calcification and in-stent restenosis.Inflammatory biomarkers,originally studied to better understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis,have generated increasing interest among researches and clinicians.The identification of inflammatory biomarkers and cellular/molecular pathways in atherosclerotic disease represent important goals in cardiovascular disease research,in particular with respect of the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse atherosclerotic diseases.

  12. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada del IPN, Tepetitla Tlaxcala Mexico C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Sanchez Ramirez, J F, E-mail: mrosalespe@ipn.m [CICATA Legaria Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm{sup -1} due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  13. Plasmonic Au islands on polymer nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoben, Wout; Brongersma, Sywert H; Crego-Calama, Mercedes, E-mail: wout.knoben@imec-nl.nl [Holst Centre/IMEC, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-07-22

    The refractive index sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance sensors can be improved by placing the plasmonic metal particles on pillars instead of on a planar substrate. In this paper, a simple and versatile colloidal lithography method for the fabrication of plasmonic Au islands on top of polymer nanopillars is described. The pillar height is controlled by varying the thickness of the initial polymer film. An increased pillar height results in a blue shift of the absorption spectrum of the Au islands. This is explained by a decreased effective refractive index around the islands. For pillars higher than approximately 40 nm no further blue shift is observed, in agreement with the decay length of the electromagnetic field around the islands. Pillar-supported Au islands were also fabricated on a flexible foil, demonstrating the potential of the method described here for the fabrication of flexible plasmonic substrates. Benefits and limitations of the method and of using polymers as the pillar material are discussed.

  14. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Pérez, M.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, M.; Gayou, V. L.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  15. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  16. Au-Ag@Au Hollow Nanostructure with Enhanced Chemical Stability and Improved Photothermal Transduction Efficiency for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tongtong; Song, Jiangluqi; Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hao; Li, Xiaodong; Xia, Ruixiang; Zhu, Lixin; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2015-10-07

    Despite the fact that Au-Ag hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) have gained much attention as ablation agents for photothermal therapy, the instability of the Ag element limits their applications. Herein, excess Au atoms were deposited on the surface of a Au-Ag HNP by improving the reduction power of l-ascorbic acid (AA) and thereby preventing the reaction between HAuCl4 and the Ag element in the Au-Ag alloy nanostructure. Significantly, the obtained Au-Ag@Au HNPs show excellent chemical stability in an oxidative environment, together with remarkable increase in extinction peak intensity and obvious narrowing in peak width. Moreover, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) was used to simulate the optical properties and electric field distribution of HNPs. The calculated results show that the proportion of absorption cross section in total extinction cross section increases with the improvement of Au content in HNP. As predicted by the theoretical calculation results, Au-Ag@Au nanocages (NCs) exhibit a photothermal transduction efficiency (η) as high as 36.5% at 808 nm, which is higher than that of Au-Ag NCs (31.2%). Irradiated by 808 nm laser at power densities of 1 W/cm(2), MCF-7 breast cancer cells incubated with PEGylated Au-Ag@Au NCs were seriously destroyed. Combined together, Au-Ag@Au HNPs with enhanced chemical stability and improved photothermal transduction efficiency show superior competitiveness as photothermal agents.

  17. Au/Au2S复合纳米球壳微粒的发光特性%Luminescence Properties of Au/Au2S Nanoshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席聪; 刁佳杰; 陈光德; 邱复生

    2003-01-01

    观测了金纳米球壳微粒(纳米级Au2S介质外包裹一层纳米级厚的金壳)的荧光光谱,与块状Au2S的荧光峰相比,金纳米球壳的荧光峰蓝移到蓝绿区域.蓝移的主要原因是核壳纳米复合结构中的表面态和量子尺寸效应.

  18. Counselling sur le SIDA au Japon

    OpenAIRE

    大嶋, 美登子 

    2010-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous traitons le counselling sur le Sida au Japon. Nousexaminons tout d’abord, l’état actuel des situations qui entourent lesmalades du Sida et les contaminés par le virus du HIV. Ensuit, nous prenonsen considération l’aperçu histroique du counselling en leur faveur, sonintroduction, son système, son état actuel, en citant principalement les activitésréalisées dans le département d’OITA Enfin, nous présentons ce quiest indispensable et nécessaire au counselling pour les mala...

  19. Production of omega mesons in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R. (R.); Aronson, S H

    2011-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that omega production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi^0 and e...

  20. Production of ω mesons in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Bauer, F.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bjorndal, M. T.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, D. S.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chang, B. S.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; D'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Forestier, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fung, S.-Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Gastineau, F.; Germain, M.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hagiwara, M. N.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Harvey, M.; Haslum, E.; Hasuko, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Heuser, J. M.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Holmes, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Hur, M. G.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kaneta, M.; Kang, J. H.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawagishi, T.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kelly, S.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Le Bornec, Y.; Leckey, S.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Li, X. H.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCain, M. C.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, G. C.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moss, J. M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Nystrand, J.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Ojha, I. D.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, S. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, H. D.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shea, T. K.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shohjoh, T.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, W. C.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, K. H.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tuli, S. K.; Tydesjö, H.; Tyurin, N.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Willis, N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2011-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured ω meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that ω production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of π0 and η in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  1. Production of omega mesons in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Bornec, Y Le; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Li, X H; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Oka, M; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M

    2011-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that omega production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi^0 and eta in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, R_AA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  2. Nanoporous Au structures by dealloying Au/Ag thermal- or laser-dewetted bilayers on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.; Grillo, R.; Cacciato, G.; Zimbone, M.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    Nanoporous Au attracts great technological interest and it is a promising candidate for optical and electrochemical sensors. In addition to nanoporous Au leafs and films, recently, interest was focused on nanoporous Au micro- and nano-structures on surfaces. In this work we report on the study of the characteristics of nanoporous Au structures produced on surfaces. We developed the following procedures to fabricate the nanoporous Au structures: we deposited thin Au/Ag bilayers on SiO2 or FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates with thickness xAu and xAg of the Au and Ag layers; we induced the alloying and dewetting processes of the bilayers by furnace annealing processes of the bilayers deposited on SiO2 and by laser irradiations of the bilayers deposited on FTO; the alloying and dewetting processes result in the formation of AuxAgy alloy sub-micron particles being x and y tunable by xAu and xAg. These particles are dealloyed in HNO3 solution to remove the Ag atoms. We obtain, so, nanoporous sub-micron Au particles on the substrates. Analyzing the characteristics of these particles we find that: a) the size and shape of the particles depend on the nature of the dewetting process (solid-state dewetting on SiO2, molten-state dewetting on FTO); b) the porosity fraction of the particles depends on how the alloying process is reached: about 32% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the furnace annealing at 900 °C, about 45% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the laser irradiation at 0.5 J/cm2, in both cases independently on the Ag concentration in the alloy; c) After the dealloying process the mean volume of the Au particles shrinks of about 39%; d) After an annealing at 400 °C the nanoporous Au particles reprise their initial volume while the porosity fraction is reduced. Arguments to justify these behaviors are presented.

  3. Camus ou l’artiste au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Cuquerella Madoz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available « Camus ou l’artiste au travail » voudrait rappeler quelques aspects du riche parcours vital, littéraire et intellectuel de l’écrivain et penseur français Albert Camus. C’est à partir de la nouvelle « Jonas ou l’artiste au travail », rédigée vers 1953, que ce portrait sera dressé. Camus y propose une satire mordante du milieu artistique et intellectuel parisien où il étouffe et dépérit depuis la controverse, provoquée par la parution de son essai L’Homme révolté, qui l’oppose au cercle sartrien et à la gauche communiste. Ce conte philosophique, assez énigmatique et bien moins connu que les romans majeurs que sont L’Étranger, La Peste ou La Chute, permet cependant de creuser dans l’univers tragique de l’auteur qui, à l’image de ce qui arrive au peintre Jonas (et que l’on retrouve chez l’étranger Meursault, le docteur Rieux et le juge-pénitent Clamence se sent tiraillé entre l’existence solitaire et l’existence solidaire.

  4. 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — According to official estimates, 222,570 people killed, 300,000 injured, 1.3 million displaced, 97,294 houses destroyed and 188,383 damaged in the Port-au-Prince...

  5. Didaktik des außerschulischen Lernens

    CERN Document Server

    Sauerborn, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Kernprobleme schulischer Bildung sind die zunehmenden Verluste an Realitäts- und Praxisbezug sowie die einseitige Betonung der fachwissenschaftlichen Kenntnisse. In jüngster Zeit werden insbesondere moderne didaktisch-methodische Konzepte näher diskutiert und praktiziert. So finden sich etwa die Stichwörter Handlungsorientierter Unterricht und Offener Unterricht in der fachdidaktischen Diskussion wieder. Eine wesentlich aktuellere Form stellt das außerschulische Lernen dar. Ein modernes pädagogisches Verständnis sieht den Unterricht heute nicht mehr als ausschließliche Tätigkeit des Lehrers an, sondern als Aktivität der Lernenden. Außerschulisches Lernen beschreibt die originale Begegnung im Unterricht außerhalb des Klassenzimmers. An außerschulischen Lernorten findet eine unmittelbare AuseinanderSetzung des Lernenden mit seiner räumlichen Umgebung statt. Charakteristisch sind hierbei vor allem die aktive(Mit-)Gestaltung sowie die eigenständige Wahrnehmung mehrperspektivischer Bildungsinhalte d...

  6. 370 emplois auraient ete supprimes au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit-Godet, S

    2002-01-01

    "La FTMH demande un plan social pour les salaries des sous-traitants.  Environ 370 postes ont ete supprimes au CERN ces douze derniers mois.» Alain Perrat, secretaire de la FTMH, tire la sonnette d'alarme" (1 page).

  7. Melamine structures on the Au(111) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silly, Fabien; Shaw, Adam Q.; Castell, Martin R.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Mura, Manuela; Martsinovich, Natalia; Kantorovich, Lev

    2008-01-01

    We report on a joint experimental and theoretical study of the ordered structures of melamine molecules formed on the Au(111)-(22 x root 3) surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images taken under UHV conditions reveal two distinct monolayers one of which has never been reported before on gol

  8. La photographie au temps de Baudelaire

    OpenAIRE

    Nachtergael, Magali

    2010-01-01

    Conférence prononcée à l'Alliance Française de Turin dans le cadre de l'exposition "Paris au temps de Baudelaire" (25 mai-26 juin 2010, Turin, Italie).; Ce texte revient sur l'histoire des relations qu'entretenait Charles Baudelaire et la photographie mais aussi Nadar.

  9. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...

  10. Surface structure of AU3Cu(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, G.A.; Maupai, S.; Dakkouri, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The surface morphology, composition, and structure of Au3Cu(001) as determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and surface x-ray diffraction are presented. Atomic resolution STM images reveal distinctive geometric features. The analysis of the surface x-ray diffraction data provides clear evidence...... for the surface structure. [S0163-1829(99)04535-X]....

  11. Obesity and Inflammation: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Markers of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Rodríguez-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has reached epidemic proportions with an increasing worldwide prevalence. The global emergence of obesity increases the risk of developing chronic metabolic disorders. Thus, it is an economic issue that increased the costs of the comorbidities associated. Moreover, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that obesity is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, this status is conditioned by the innate immune system activation in adipose tissue that promotes an increase in the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to the triggering of the systemic acute-phase response which is characterized by elevation of acute-phase protein levels. On this regard, low-grade chronic inflammation is a characteristic of various chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some cancers, among others, which are also characterized by obesity condition. Thus, a growing body of evidence supports the important role that is played by the inflammatory response in obesity condition and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related.

  12. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au porphyry in ... process (Fuzzy AHP) that is the most popular multi-criteria decision-making techniques. ... for predictive Mineral prospectively mapping (MPM) for Cu -Au porphyry.

  13. Characterization of Au and Bimetallic PtAu Nanoparticles on PDDA-Graphene Sheets as Electrocatalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Liu, Ting-Yu; Huang, Li-Ying; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Tzou, Huei-Ming; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2015-09-01

    Nanocomposite materials of the Au nanoparticles (Au/PDDA-G) and the bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-modified graphene sheets (PtAu/PDDA-G) were prepared with hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 24 h. The composite materials Au/PDDA-G and PtAu/PDDA-G were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for exploring the structural characterization for the electrochemical catalysis. According to TEM results, the diameter of Au and bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles is about 20-50 and 5-10 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that both of PtAu and Au nanoparticles exhibit the crystalline plane of (111), (200), (210), and (311). Furthermore, XRD data also show the 2°-3° difference between pristine graphene sheets and the PDDA-modified graphene sheets. For the catalytic activity tests of Au/PDDA-G and PtAu/PDDA-G, the mixture of 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 and 0.5 M aqueous formic acid was used as model to evaluate the electrochemical characterizations. The catalytic activities of the novel bimetallic PtAu/graphene electrocatalyst would be anticipated to be superior to the previous electrocatalyst of the cubic Pt/graphene.

  14. Characterization of Au and Bimetallic PtAu Nanoparticles on PDDA-Graphene Sheets as Electrocatalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Liu, Ting-Yu; Huang, Li-Ying; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Tzou, Huei-Ming; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2015-12-01

    Nanocomposite materials of the Au nanoparticles (Au/PDDA-G) and the bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-modified graphene sheets (PtAu/PDDA-G) were prepared with hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 24 h. The composite materials Au/PDDA-G and PtAu/PDDA-G were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for exploring the structural characterization for the electrochemical catalysis. According to TEM results, the diameter of Au and bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles is about 20-50 and 5-10 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that both of PtAu and Au nanoparticles exhibit the crystalline plane of (111), (200), (210), and (311). Furthermore, XRD data also show the 2°-3° difference between pristine graphene sheets and the PDDA-modified graphene sheets. For the catalytic activity tests of Au/PDDA-G and PtAu/PDDA-G, the mixture of 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 and 0.5 M aqueous formic acid was used as model to evaluate the electrochemical characterizations. The catalytic activities of the novel bimetallic PtAu/graphene electrocatalyst would be anticipated to be superior to the previous electrocatalyst of the cubic Pt/graphene.

  15. Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu to UU collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloczynski, John [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Huang, Xu-Guang, E-mail: huangxuguang@fudan.edu.cn [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Physics Department and Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Xilin [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We study the charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions, as motivated by the search for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) and the investigation of related background contributions. In particular we aim to understand how these correlations induced by various proposed effects evolve from collisions with AuAu system to that with UU system. To do that, we quantify the generation of magnetic field in UU collisions at RHIC energy and its azimuthal correlation with the matter geometry using event-by-event simulations. Taking the experimental data for charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu collisions and extrapolating to UU with reasonable assumptions, we examine the resulting correlations to be expected in UU collisions and compare them with recent STAR measurements. Based on such analysis we discuss the viability for explaining the data with a combination of the CME-like and flow-induced contributions.

  16. Order twins in (111)-evaporated thin films of CuAu I. [Cu-Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.; Broitman, E. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Harriague, S.; Terlisky, S. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1990-10-15

    The structure of evaporated CuAu I films in (111) orientation was studied by electron transmission and diffraction microscopy. The single-crystal films of Cu-Au alloy were prepared by vacuum evaporation and CuAu I ordered alloy was obtained by heating the disordered f.c.c. alloy to a temperature of 350deg C for 1 h. The electron micrograph revealed the presence of an intricate pattern of antiphase domain boundaries and the presence of twin lamellae. No microtwinning was observed. The CuAu I films exhibit a complex diffraction pattern. The geometry of the expected (111) reciprocal lattice plane has been calculated and described in detail. Extra reflections were identified as {l brace}101{r brace} twin spots and double-diffraction spots which originated from the twins. (orig.).

  17. Au/ZnO nanoarchitectures with Au as both supporter and antenna of visible-light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Chen, Wei; Hua, Yuxiang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricate Au/ZnO nanostructure with smaller ZnO nanoparticles loaded onto bigger gold nanoparticles via combining seed-mediated method and sol-gel method. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties in photocatalysis process like methyl orange (MO) degradation and oxidative conversion of methanol into formaldehyde under visible light irradiation. The enhanced properties were ascribed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Au nanoparticles, which could contribute to the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes and facilitate the process of absorbing visible light. This paper contributes to the emergence of multi-functional nanocomposites with possible applications in visible-light driven photocatalysts and makes the Au/ZnO photocatalyst an exceptional choice for practical applications such as environmental purification of organic pollutants in aqueous solution and the synthesis of fine chemicals and intermediates.

  18. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prachi Chandrachud; Kavita Joshi; Sailaja Krishnamurty; D G Kanhere

    2009-05-01

    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of these clusters. Each cluster is maintained at 12 different temperatures for a time period of at least 150 ps. Thus, the total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. We observe that the cages are stable at least up to 850 K. Although both clusters melt around the same temperature, i.e. around 900 K, Au17 shows a peak in the heat capacity curve in contrast to the broad peak seen for Au16.

  19. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche.

  20. Chemokines in cancer related inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allavena, Paola; Germano, Giovanni; Marchesi, Federica [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.mantovani@humanitasresearch.it [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan (Italy)

    2011-03-10

    Chemokines are key players of the cancer-related inflammation. Chemokine ligands and receptors are downstream of genetic events that cause neoplastic transformation and are abundantly expressed in chronic inflammatory conditions which predispose to cancer. Components of the chemokine system affect multiple pathways of tumor progression including: leukocyte recruitment, neo-angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and survival, invasion and metastasis. Evidence in pre-clinical and clinical settings suggests that the chemokine system represents a valuable target for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies.

  1. Intestinal inflammation and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Lilian; Bourreille, Arnaud; Dietrich, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal inflammation results in the production of inflammatory pain-inducing mediators that may directly activate colon sensory neurons. Endogenous opioids produced by mucosal effector CD4(+) T lymphocytes identified as colitogenic may paradoxically counterbalance the local pro-algesic effect of inflammatory mediators by acting on opioid receptors expressed on sensory nerve endings. The review will focus on the endogenous immune-mediated regulation of visceral inflammatory pain, current pain treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases and prospectives on new opioid therapeutic opportunities to alleviate pain but avoiding common centrally-mediated side effects.

  2. Critical Behavior in Peripheral Au + Au Collisions at 35 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, M; Belkacem, M; Agostino, M D; Milazzo, P M; Vannini, G; Bowman, D R; Dinius, J D; Ferrero, A; Fiandri, M L; Gelbke, C K; Glasmacher, T; Gramegna, F; Handzy, D O; Horn, D; Hsi, W C; Huang, M; Iori, I; Kunde, G J; Lisa, M A; Lynch, W G; Margagliotti, G V; Montoya, C P; Moroni, A; Peaslee, G F; Rui, R; Schwarz, C; Tsang, M B; Williams, C; Latora, V; Bonasera, A

    1996-01-01

    The signals theoretically predicted for the occurrence of a critical behavior (conditional moments of charge distributions, Campi scatter plot, fluctuations of the size of the largest fragment, power law in the charge distribution, intermittency) have been found for peripheral events in the reaction Au+Au at 35 MeV/u. The same signals have been studied with a dynamical model which foresees phase transition, like the Classical Molecular Dynamics.

  3. Understanding of the dissipation mechanism in ternary fission for the system 197Au+197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Long; Li, Xian; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Li, Zhu-Xia; Yan, Shi-Wei

    2009-03-01

    The mass number distributions of three fragments from the ternary fission of the system 197Au+197Au are reproduced rather well by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model without any adjusting parameter. It is found that the probability of ternary fission evidently depends on the incident energy and the impact parameter, and the two-body dissipation is the main mechanism responsible for the formation of the third fragment with comparable mass.

  4. Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-Wei; JIANG Zhi-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants,spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.

  5. Baryonic Effect on XcJ Suppression in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ru; XU Xiao-Ming; ZHOU Dai-Cui

    2004-01-01

    @@ We predict that xcJ mesons at low transverse momentum in the central rapidity region are almost dissociated by nucleons and antinucleons in hadronic matter produced in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic high-ion collider (RHIC) energies √SNN = 130 and 200 GeV. In the calculations the nucleon and antinucleon distributions in hadronic matter are results of evolution from their freeze-out distributions which well fit the experimental transverse momentum spectra of proton and antiproton.

  6. Net baryon density in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S A; Srivastava, D K; Bass, Steffen A.; Müller, Berndt; Srivastava, Dinesh K.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the net baryon rapidity distribution in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the framework of the Parton Cascade Model (PCM). Parton rescattering and fragmentation leads to a substantial increase in the net baryon density at mid-rapidity over the density produced by initial primary parton-parton scatterings. The PCM is able to describe the measured net baryon density at RHIC.

  7. Comparative toxicity study of Ag, Au, and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Albee, Brian; Alemayehu, Matti; Diaz, Rocio; Ingham, Leigha; Kamal, Shawn; Rodriguez, Maritza; Bishnoi, Sandra Whaley

    2010-09-01

    A comparative assessment of the 48-h acute toxicity of aqueous nanoparticles synthesized using the same methodology, including Au, Ag, and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles, was conducted to determine their ecological effect in freshwater environments through the use of Daphnia magna, using their mortality as a toxicological endpoint. D. magna are one of the standard organisms used for ecotoxicity studies due to their sensitivity to chemical toxicants. Particle suspensions used in toxicity testing were well-characterized through a combination of absorbance measurements, atomic force or electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering to determine composition, aggregation state, and particle size. The toxicity of all nanoparticles tested was found to be dose and composition dependent. The concentration of Au nanoparticles that killed 50% of the test organisms (LC(50)) ranged from 65-75 mg/L. In addition, three different sized Ag nanoparticles (diameters = 36, 52, and 66 nm) were studied to analyze the toxicological effects of particle size on D. magna; however, it was found that toxicity was not a function of size and ranged from 3-4 μg/L for all three sets of Ag nanoparticles tested. This was possibly due to the large degree of aggregation when these nanoparticles were suspended in standard synthetic freshwater. Moreover, the LC(50) values for Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were found to be between that of Ag and Au but much closer to that of Ag. The bimetallic particles containing 80% Ag and 20% Au were found to have a significantly lower toxicity to Daphnia (LC(50) of 15 μg/L) compared to Ag nanoparticles, while the toxicity of the nanoparticles containing 20% Ag and 80% Au was greater than expected at 12 μg/L. The comparison results confirm that Ag nanoparticles were much more toxic than Au nanoparticles, and that the introduction of gold into silver nanoparticles may lower their environmental impact by lowering the amount

  8. Anti-flow of K$^0_s$ Mesons in 6 AGeV Au + Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, P; Alexander, J M; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J L; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lauret, J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L; Srivastava, B; BStone, N T; Symons, T J M; Wienold, T; Whitfield, R W J; Wood, L; Zhang Wei Ning

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the sideward flow of neutral strange ($K^0_s$) mesons in 6 AGeV Au + Au collisions. A prominent anti-flow signal is observed for an impact parameter range (b $\\lesssim 7$ fm) which spans central and mid-central events. Since the $K^0_s$ scattering cross section is relatively small in nuclear matter, this observation suggests that the in-medium kaon vector potential plays an important role in high density nuclear matter.

  9. The linkage between inflammation and immune tolerance: interfering with inflammation in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskii, Vladimir Stanislavovich

    2017-01-09

    Inflammation is linked to immune tolerance. In pregnancy and in immune privileged organs constitutive low-grade inflammation is required for maintaining immunological tolerance. Apart from immune tolerance in normality, there is the phenomenon of immune tolerance in cancer which mediates tumor escape from the immune system. It is widely accepted that, in many situations, chronic inflammation critically contributes to cancer. Like other types of immune tolerance, tumor-induced tolerance is also mediated by inflammation. In this review, the main mechanisms that link inflammation and tolerance are considered. We discuss drug targets that are in use to interfere with inflammation in cancer.

  10. Magnetism of Au Nanoparticles on Sulfolubus Acidocaldarius S-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Juan; Bartolome, F.; Garcia, L. M.; Figueroa, A. I.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Skrotzki, R.; Schoenemann, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Geissler, A.; Reitz, T.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2011-03-01

    Au nanoparticles (NP) with diameters of a few nm have been synthesized on a protein S-layer of Sulfolobus Acidocaldarius bacteria. SQUID magnetization (1.8 K T 300 Kand 0 B 7 T) showssuperparamagneticbehavioratlow - T . ItsoriginlaysattheAuNP ' s , ashasbeenprovenbyAuL 2,3- edgeXMCDspectroscopy , performedintherange 2.2 T 20 KanduptoB app = 17 T . XMCDanalysisyieldsatotalmagneticmomentperAuatom μAu = 0.050 (1) μB , aparticleaveragemomentm part = 2.3 μB , Auorbitaltospinmomentratioofm L / m S = 0.29 Curie and - like superparamagnetism. Au - S bonds are detected by S K - edge XAS measurements. Besides , EXAFS at the Au L 3 -edge shows that the Au NP internal structure is fcc, and Au-S bonds are located at the particle surface. An increase of the hole charge carrier density in the Au 5d band due to electron transfer with the S-layer explains the Au magnetism. The observed magnetic moment per Au atom is 25 times larger than those previously found by XMCD in Au-thiol capped NPs.

  11. Au pair på ulige vilkår

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2008-01-01

    Antallet af au pairs i Danmark fra Fillipinerne er steget markant i de seneste år. Mens danske myndigheder betragter au pair-ordningen som kulturudveksling blandt unge mennesker, ser fillipinske au pairs derimod den som en mulighed for at tjene penge så de kan forsørge deres egen familie i Fillip...

  12. La participation citoyenne en contexte local au Cameroun. Entre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accordé une attention minime, au plan empirique, au foisonnement de ces ..... restitution des projets votés pour leur insertion au budget communal, la mise en ..... les différentes sous-unités territoriales de cette commune, mais vers la définition ...

  13. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...... of states, charge transfer and frontier molecular orbitals. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Suppression of Upsilon Production in d+Au and Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hill, K; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wimsatt, G; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of Upsilon meson production in p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the Upsilon yield to the measured cross section in p+p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d+Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p+p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) in the rapidity range |y|<1 in d+Au collisions of R_dAu = 0.67 +/- 0.12 (stat.) +/- 0.04 (sys.) +/- 0.08 (pp sys.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au+Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of R_AA=0.36 +/- 0.09 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (sys.) +/- 0.04 (pp sys.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matte...

  15. Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Borggren, N; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Cassano, N; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csorgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Orazio, L D; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -A; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Kral, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L

    2010-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1Au+Au collisions, the R_AA of phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p+p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the neutral pion and the eta meson in the intermediate p_T range (2--5 GeV/c); whereas at higher p_T the phi, pi^0, and eta show similar suppression. The baryon (protons and anti-protons) excess observed in central Au+Au collisions at intermediate p_T is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar mass of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is lin...

  16. Effect of Au Precursor and Support on the Catalytic Activity of the Nano-Au-Catalysts for Propane Complete Oxidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali, Arshid M; Daous, Muhammad A; Arafat, Ahmed; AlZahrani, Abdulraheem A; Alhamed, Yahia; Tuerdimaimaiti, Abudula; Petrov, Lachezar A

    2015-01-01

    ...(s) for the propane oxidation. Oxidation state, size, and dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the Au-catalysts, surface area, crystallinity, phase structure, and redox property of the support are the key aspects for the complete propane oxidation...

  17. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-06

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission

  18. Identified particle distributions in pp and Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_NN}=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gutíerrez, T D; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D P; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Sen-Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, Thomas W; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de, M M; Moura, A A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A M; Vasilev, A N; Vasilev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2004-01-01

    Transverse mass and rapidity distributions for charged pions, charged kaons, protons and antiprotons are reported for sqrt{s_NN}=200 GeV pp and Au+Au collisions at RHIC. The transverse mass distributions are rapidity independent within |y|<0.5, consistent with a boost-invariant system in this rapidity interval. Spectral shapes and relative particle yields are similar in pp and peripheral Au+Au collisions and change smoothly to central Au+Au collisions. No centrality dependence was observed in the kaon and antiproton production rates relative to the pion production rate from medium-central to central collisions. Chemical and kinetic equilibrium model fits to our data reveal strong radial flow and relatively long duration from chemical to kinetic freeze-out in central Au+Au collisions. The chemical freeze-out temperature appears to be independent of initial conditions at RHIC energies.

  19. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  20. [Cellular senescence and chronic inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    It has recently become apparent that obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and several common types of cancer development. Although several events were proposed to be involved in these pathologies, the precise mechanisms underlying obesity-associated inflammation and cancer largely remain unclear. Here, we show that senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) plays crucial roles in promoting obesity-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in mice. Dietary or genetic obesity induces alterations of gut microbiota, thereby increasing the levels of a bacterial metabolite that cause DNA damage. The enterohepatic circulation of the bacterial metabolites provokes SASP phenotype in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which in turn, secretes various inflammatory and tumour promoting factors in the liver, thus facilitating HCC development in mice after exposure to chemical carcinogen. Importantly, reducing gut bacteria efficiently prevents HCC development in obese mice. Similar results were also observed in mice lacking an SASP inducer or depleted of senescent HSCs, indicating that the induction of SASP by the gut bacterial metabolite in HSCs plays key roles in obesity-associated HCC development. Interestingly, moreover, signs of SASP were also observed in the HSCs in the area of HCC arising in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), implying that a similar pathway may contribute to at least certain aspects of obesity-associated HCC development in humans as well. These findings provide valuable new insights into the development of obesity-associated cancer.

  1. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  2. Hyperglycemia, tumorigenesis, and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Chung Vivian

    2016-12-01

    Hyperglycemia is the most prominent sign that characterizes diabetes. Hyperglycemia favors malignant cell growth by providing energy to cancer cells. Clinical studies also showed an increased risk of diabetes being associated with different types of cancers. In addition, poorly regulated glucose metabolism in diabetic patients is often found with increased levels of chronic inflammatory markers, e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and emerging evidence has highlighted activation of the immune response in the progression and development of cancer cells. Therefore, uncontrolled proinflammatory responses could conceivably create a chronic inflammatory state, promoting a tumor-favorable microenvironment and potentially triggering immune overactivation and cancer growth. To further understand how hyperglycemia contributes to immune overactivation, the tumor microenvironment and the development of chronic inflammation-associated tumors may provide insights into tumor biology and immunology. This paper provides a brief introduction to hyperglycemia-associated diseases, followed by a comprehensive overview of the current findings of regulatory molecular mechanisms of glycosylation on proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix under hyperglycemic conditions. Then, the authors discuss the role of hyperglycemia in tumorigenesis (particularly in prostate, liver, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers), as well as the contribution of hyperglycemia to chronic inflammation. The authors end with a brief discussion on the future perspectives of hyperglycemia/tumorigenesis and potential applications of alternative/effective therapeutic strategies for hyperglycemia-associated cancers.

  3. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  4. Metabolic syndrome, inflammation and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Paoletti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Rodolfo Paoletti1,2, Chiara Bolego1, Andrea Poli2, Andrea Cignarella1,31Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy; 2Nutrition Foundation of Italy (NFI, Milan; 3Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, ItalyAbstract: The inflammatory component of atherogenesis has been increasingly recognized over the last decade. Inflammation participates in all stages of atherosclerosis, not only during initiation and during evolution of lesions, but also with precipitation of acute thrombotic complications. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of both cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes in humans. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to represent common underlying factors of the syndrome, which features a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome occurs using defined threshold values for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and dyslipidemia. The metabolic syndrome appears to affect a significant proportion of the population. Therapeutic approaches that reduce the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and address traditional risk factors are particularly important in preventing cardiovascular disease and, potentially, diabetes. The primary management of metabolic syndrome involves healthy lifestyle promotion through moderate calorie restriction, moderate increase in physical activity and change in dietary composition. Treatment of individual components aims to control atherogenic dyslipidemia using fibrates and statins, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia. While no single treatment for the metabolic syndrome as a whole yet exists, emerging therapies offer potential as future therapeutic approaches.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, systemic inflammation, coronary artery disease

  5. Factor V Leiden and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Perez-Pujol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Factor V Leiden, is a variant of human factor V (FV, also known as proaccelerin, which leads to a hypercoagulable state. Along these years, factor V Leiden (FVL has been studied from the pathophysiologic point of view, and research has been focused on finding clinical approaches for the management of the FVL associated to a trombophilic state. Less attention has been paid about the possible role of FVL in inflammatory conditions known to be present in different disorders such as uremia, cirrhosis, liver transplantation, depression as well as sepsis, infection or, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Whether platelet FVL will increase the activation of coagulation and/or in which proportion is able to determine the final outcome in the previously mentioned inflammatory conditions is a subject that remains uncertain. This paper will review the association of FVL with inflammation. Specifically, it will analyze the important role of the endothelium and the contribution of other inflammatory components involved at both the immune and vascular levels. This paper will also try to emphasize the importance of being a FVL carrier in associations to diseases where a chronic inflammation occurs, and how this condition may be determinant in the progression and outcome of a specific clinic situation.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea and inflammation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is not fully understood but is likely multifactorial in origin. Inflammatory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and circulating levels of several markers of inflammation have been associated with future cardiovascular risk. These include cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and selectins, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6, chemokines such as interleukin 8, and C-reactive protein. There is also increasing evidence that inflammatory processes play an important role in the cardiovascular pathophysiology of OSAS and many of the inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular risk have been reported as elevated in patients with OSAS. Furthermore, animal and cell culture studies have demonstrated preferential activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia, which is an integral feature of OSAS. The precise role of inflammation in the development of cardiovascular disease in OSAS requires further study, particularly the relationship with oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction, and obesity.

  7. Centrality Dependence of Direct Photon Production in sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Yu A; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S R; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; D'Enterria, D G; Dávid, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Chenawi, K F; Enokizono, A; Enyo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L A; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Bösing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V P; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A G; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Martínez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E A; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Muhlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V A; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarjan, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torie, H A; Towell, R S; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszpremi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E A; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L S

    2005-01-01

    The first measurement of direct photons in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV is presented. The direct photon signal is extracted as a function of the Au+Au collision centrality and compared to NLO pQCD calculations. The direct photon yield is shown to scale with the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions for all centralities.

  8. Microwave Synthesis of Au Nanoparticles with the System of AuCl4-CH3CH2OH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Au nanoparticles has been prepared by microwave high-pressure procedure with alcohol as the reducing agent. The color of colloidal Au nanoparticles is blue-violet. The maximum absorption spectrum of colloidal Au is at 580 nm, and the resonance scattering peak is at 580 nm. Using this method, the colloidal Au of long-time stability can be prepared simply and quickly.

  9. AU-FREDI - AUTONOMOUS FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Autonomous Frequency Domain Identification program, AU-FREDI, is a system of methods, algorithms and software that was developed for the identification of structural dynamic parameters and system transfer function characterization for control of large space platforms and flexible spacecraft. It was validated in the CALTECH/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Large Spacecraft Control Laboratory. Due to the unique characteristics of this laboratory environment, and the environment-specific nature of many of the software's routines, AU-FREDI should be considered to be a collection of routines which can be modified and reassembled to suit system identification and control experiments on large flexible structures. The AU-FREDI software was originally designed to command plant excitation and handle subsequent input/output data transfer, and to conduct system identification based on the I/O data. Key features of the AU-FREDI methodology are as follows: 1. AU-FREDI has on-line digital filter design to support on-orbit optimal input design and data composition. 2. Data composition of experimental data in overlapping frequency bands overcomes finite actuator power constraints. 3. Recursive least squares sine-dwell estimation accurately handles digitized sinusoids and low frequency modes. 4. The system also includes automated estimation of model order using a product moment matrix. 5. A sample-data transfer function parametrization supports digital control design. 6. Minimum variance estimation is assured with a curve fitting algorithm with iterative reweighting. 7. Robust root solvers accurately factorize high order polynomials to determine frequency and damping estimates. 8. Output error characterization of model additive uncertainty supports robustness analysis. The research objectives associated with AU-FREDI were particularly useful in focusing the identification methodology for realistic on-orbit testing conditions. Rather than estimating the entire structure, as is

  10. La chasse au guépard et au lynx en Syrie et en Irak au Moyen Âge

    OpenAIRE

    Buquet, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    http://ifpo.hypotheses.org/1916; Billet sur les Carnets de l'Ifpo (La recherche en train de faire à l'Institut français du Proche-Orient), blog sur Hypotheses.org; Le guépard était encore présent au Moyen Âge à l'état sauvage au Proche-Orient. On trouvait des guépards sur la côte, notamment dans la région d'Antioche et dans le nord de la Syrie médiévale, dans les déserts de l'actuelle Jordanie et dans ceux situés à l'ouest de l'Euphrate (région de la Samāwa) et en Irak. Le billet présente les...

  11. In-situ STM study of phosphate adsorption on Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu/Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian; Horch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu-covered Au(111) electrodes with a neutral phosphate buffer solution has been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). Under low potential conditions, both the Cu(111) and the Au(111...

  12. Seed-mediated growth and manipulation of Au nanorods via size-controlled synthesis of Au seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Juncheng; Duggan, Jennifer N.; Morgan, Joshua; Roberts, Christopher B., E-mail: croberts@eng.auburn.edu [Auburn University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Seed-mediated growth of gold (Au) nanorods with highly controllable length, width, and aspect ratio was accomplished via carefully size-controlled synthesis of the original Au seeds. A slow dynamic growth of Au nanoparticle seeds was observed after reduction of the Au salt (i.e., hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) hydrate) by sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). As such, the size of the Au nanoparticle seeds can therefore be manipulated through control over the duration of the reaction period (i.e., aging times of 2, 8, 48, 72, and 144 h were used in this study). These differently sized Au nanoparticles were subsequently used as seeds for the growth of Au nanorods, where the additions of Au salt, CTAB, AgNO{sub 3}, and ascorbic acid were employed. Smaller Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via short growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with higher aspect ratio and thus longer longitudinal surface plasmon wavelength (LSPW). The larger Au nanoparticle seeds obtained via longer growth/aging time resulted in Au nanorods with lower aspect ratio and shorter LSPW.

  13. Resolution of inflammation: a new therapeutic frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, James N; Gilroy, Derek W

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulated inflammation is a central pathological process in diverse disease states. Traditionally, therapeutic approaches have sought to modulate the pro- or anti-inflammatory limbs of inflammation, with mixed success. However, insight into the pathways by which inflammation is resolved has highlighted novel opportunities to pharmacologically manipulate these processes - a strategy that might represent a complementary (and perhaps even superior) therapeutic approach. This Review discusses the state of the art in the biology of resolution of inflammation, highlighting the opportunities and challenges for translational research in this field.

  14. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  15. Understanding migraine: Potential role of neurogenic inflammation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malhotra, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic inflammation, a well-defined pathophysiologial process is characterized by the release of potent vasoactive neuropeptides, predominantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP...

  16. Di-Hadron Correlations with Identified Leading Hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au Collisions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelwahab, N M; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Page, B S; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    The STAR collaboration presents new two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of quark recombination. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the \\emph{ridge region}, is significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  17. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au + Au and d + Au collisions at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au + Au and minimum-bias d + Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au + Au data with respect to the d + Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  18. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au + Au and d + Au collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, JK; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, MM; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, EC; Averichev, GS; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, AK; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, LC; Bordyuzhin, IG; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, D; Brandin, AV; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, JM; Cebra, D; Cervantes, MC; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, X; Chen, JH; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, HJ; Das, S; De Silva, LC; Debbe, RR; Dedovich, TG; Deng, J; Derevschikov, AA; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, JL; Draper, JE; Du, CM; Dunkelberger, LE; Dunlop, JC; Efimov, LG; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, CE; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, CA; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, DS; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, JW; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, GW; Hofman, DJ; Horvat, S; Huang, T; Huang, B; Huang, HZ; Huang, X; Huck, P

    2015-10-23

    The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au + Au and minimum-bias d + Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au + Au data with respect to the d + Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  19. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au + Au and d + Au collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow 30-059 (Poland); Adkins, J.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506-0055 (United States); Agakishiev, G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Aggarwal, M.M. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Ahammed, Z. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Alekseev, I. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Aparin, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E.C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Averichev, G.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Bai, X. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Bairathi, V. [National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Banerjee, A. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bellwied, R. [University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Bhasin, A. [University of Jammu, Jammu 180001 (India); Bhati, A.K. [Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Bhattarai, P. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bielcik, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague, 115 19 (Czech Republic); Bielcikova, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, 250 68 Řež/Prague (Czech Republic); Bland, L.C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2015-12-17

    The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au + Au and minimum-bias d + Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au + Au data with respect to the d + Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  20. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adamczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum-bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  1. Cooperative Assembly of Magic Number C60-Au Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang-Chun; Tang, Lin; Guo, Quanmin

    2013-11-01

    We report the assembly of magic number (C60)m-(Au)n complexes on the Au(111) surface. These complexes have a unique structure consisting of a single atomic layer Au island wrapped by a self-selected number (seven, ten, or twelve) of C60 molecules. The smallest structure consisting of 7 C60 molecules and 19 Au atoms, stable up to 400 K, has a preferred orientation on the surface. We propose a globalized metal-organic coordination mechanism for the stability of the (C60)m-(Au)n complexes.

  2. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.c [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Chaloupka, A. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Rezanka, P. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Slepicka, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [Department of Chemistry, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasalkova, N.; Hubacek, T.; Siegel, J. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-15

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  4. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorčík, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Řezanka, P.; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Kasálková, N.; Hubáček, T.; Siegel, J.

    2010-03-01

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  5. Unidirectional thermal diffusion in bimetallic Cu@Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shoujie; Sun, Zhihu; Liu, Qinghua; Wu, Lihui; Huang, Yuanyuan; Yao, Tao; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Tiandou; Ge, Mengran; Hu, Fengchun; Xie, Zhi; Pan, Guoqiang; Wei, Shiqiang

    2014-02-25

    Understanding the atomic diffusions at the nanoscale is important for controlling the synthesis and utilization of nanomaterials. Here, using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with theoretical calculations, we demonstrate a so far unexplored unidirectional diffusion from the Au shell to the Cu core in thermally alloying Cu@Au core@shell architecture of ca. 7.1 nm. The initial diffusion step at 423 K is found to be characterized by the formation of a diffusion layer composed of a Au-dilute substitutional CuAu-like intermetallic compound with short Cu-Au bond length (2.61 Å). The diffusion further happens by the migration of the Au atoms with large disorder into the interior Cu matrix at higher temperatures (453 and 553 K). These results suggest that the structural preference of a CuAu-like compound, along with the nanosized effect, plays a critical role in determining the atomic diffusion dynamics.

  6. Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayakarao, S.; Mendoza, B.; Devine, A.; Kyaw, C.; van Dover, R. B.; Liberman, V.; Noginov, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is known to have a semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at ˜68 °C. Therefore, it can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial. The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au layers and is designed to undergo a temperature controlled transition from the optical hyperbolic phase to the metallic phase. VO2 films and VO2/Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection) experiments. The observed temperature-dependent changes in the reflection and transmission spectra of the metamaterials and VO2 thin films are in a good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The demonstrated optical hyperbolic-to-metallic phase transition is a unique physical phenomenon with the potential to enable advanced control of light-matter interactions.

  7. Interface stress in Au/Ni multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweitz, K.O.; Böttiger, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intermixing on the apparent interface stress is studied in -textured dc-magnetron sputtered Au/Ni multilayers by use of two methods commonly used for determining interface stress. The method using profilometry and in-plane x-ray diffraction does not take intermixing...... into account and yields an apparent interface stress of -8.46 +/- 0.99 J m(-2). However, observed discrepancies between model calculations and measured high-angle x-ray diffractograms indicate intermixing, and by use of the profilometry and sin(2) psi method the real interface stress value of -2.69 +/- 0.43 J...... to be inapplicable to interface stress determinations in systems exhibiting a modulation period-dependent stress-free lattice parameter. Finally, a deviation of the interface stress in the Au/Ni sample with the smallest modulation period as compared to specimens with larger bilayer lengths is observed...

  8. Collision-spike Sputtering of Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2015-12-01

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For the particular case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31 % of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80 % of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  9. Introduction au numéro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, le thème de l’économie sociale fait couler beaucoup d’encre au Québec, comme ailleurs. Ce numéro présente un bilan de l’économie sociale au Québec, coordonné par Jean-Marc Fontan et Denis Bussières. Toutefois, afin d’avoir un portrait plus global et une perspective théorique sur la question, Interventions économiques a sollicité un texte de Jacques Defourny, afin de compléter le dossier. En effet, l’économie sociale, les secteurs non-marchands, les services de proximi...

  10. Fabrication of monometallic (Co, Pd, Pt, Au) and bimetallic (Pt/Au, Au/Pt) thin films with hierarchical architectures as electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cuicui; Zhang, Jintao; Ma, Houyi

    2010-05-01

    Co thin films with novel hierarchical structures were controllably fabricated by simple electrochemical deposition in the absence of hard and soft templates, which were used as sacrificial templates to further prepare noble metal (Pd, Pt, Au) hierarchical micro/nanostructures via metal exchange reactions. SEM characterization demonstrated that the resulting noble metal thin films displayed hierarchical architectures. The as-prepared noble metal thin films could be directly used as the anode catalysts for the electro-oxidation of formic acid. Moreover, bimetallic catalysts (Pt/Au, Au/Pt) fabricated based on the monometallic Au, Pt micro/nanostructures exhibited the higher catalytic activity compared to the previous monometallic catalysts.

  11. Microbes, intestinal inflammation and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad W; Kale, Amod A; Bere, Praveen; Vajjala, Sriharsha; Gounaris, Elias; Pakanati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known for causing disturbed homeostatic balance among the intestinal immune compartment, epithelium and microbiota. Owing to the emergence of IBD as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, great efforts have been put into understanding the sequence of intestinal inflammatory events. Intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells act in a synergistic fashion with intestinal epithelial cells and microbiota to initiate the triad that governs the intestinal immune responses (whether inflammatory or regulatory). In this review, we will discuss the interplay of intestinal epithelial cells, bacteria and the innate immune component. Moreover, whether or not genetic intervention of probiotic bacteria is a valid approach for attenuating/mitigating exaggerated inflammation and IBD will also be discussed.

  12. Postischemic Inflammation in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Arturo; Arnaboldi, Marco; Consoli, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by arterial occlusion due to a thrombus or an embolus. Such occlusion induces multiple and concomitant pathophysiological processes that involve bioenergetic failure, acidosis, loss of cell homeostasis, excitotoxicity, and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. All of these mechanisms contribute to neuronal death, mainly via apoptosis or necrosis. The immune system is involved in this process in the early phases after brain injury, which contributes to potential enlargement of the infarct size and involves the penumbra area. Whereas inflammation and the immune system both exert deleterious effects, they also contribute to brain protection by stimulating a preconditioning status and to the concomitant repair of the injured parenchyma. This review describes the main phases of the inflammatory process occurring after arterial cerebral occlusion, with an emphasis on the role of single mediators. PMID:28079313

  13. Polyphenols, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, Christy C; Rasmussen, Heather E

    2013-05-01

    Polyphenols are compounds found in foods such as tea, coffee, cocoa, olive oil, and red wine and have been studied to determine if their intake may modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Historically, biologic actions of polyphenols have been attributed to antioxidant activities, but recent evidence suggests that immunomodulatory and vasodilatory properties of polyphenols may also contribute to CVD risk reduction. These properties will be discussed, and recent epidemiological evidence and intervention trials will be reviewed. Further identification of polyphenols in foods and accurate assessment of exposures through measurement of biomarkers (i.e., polyphenol metabolites) could provide the needed impetus to examine the impact of polyphenol-rich foods on CVD intermediate outcomes (especially those signifying chronic inflammation) and hard endpoints among high risk patients. Although we have mechanistic insight into how polyphenols may function in CVD risk reduction, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for consumption can be made.

  14. Insulin resistance and chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matulewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a condition of reduced biological response to insulin. Growing evidence indicates the role of the chronic low-grade inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Adipose tissue in obesity is characterized by increased lipolysis with the excessive release of free fatty acids, and is also a source of proinflammatory cytokines. Both these factors may inhibit insulin action. Proinflammatory cytokines exert their effect by stimulating major inflammatory NFκB and JNK pathways within the cells. Inflammatory processes in other insulin responsive tissues may also play a role in inducing insulin resistance. This paper is an overview of the chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and endothelial cells during the development of insulin resistance.

  15. Structure-activity relationships in cytotoxic Au(I)/Au(III) complexes derived from 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiore, Laura; Aragoni, Maria Carla; Deiana, Carlo; Cinellu, Maria Agostina; Isaia, Francesco; Lippolis, Vito; Pintus, Anna; Serratrice, Maria; Arca, Massimiliano

    2014-04-21

    Gold(I) and gold(III) complexes derived from 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pbiH) were proven to be a promising class of in vitro antitumor agents against A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. In this paper, a comparative electrochemical, UV-vis absorption, and emission spectroscopic investigation is reported on pbiH, the two mononuclear Au(III) complexes [(pbi)AuX2] (X = Cl (1), AcO (2)), the four mononuclear Au(I) derivatives [(pbiH)AuCl] (3), [(pbiH)Au(PPh3)]PF6 ((4(+))(PF6(-))), [(pbi)Au(PPh3)] (5), and [(pbi)Au(TPA)] (6), the three mixed-valence Au(III)/Au(I) complexes [(μ-pbi)Au2Cl3] (7), [(Ph3P)Au(μ-pbi)AuX2]PF6 (X = Cl ((8(+))(PF6(-))), AcO ((9(+))(PF6(-)))), and the binuclear Au(I)-Au(I) compound [(μ-pbi)Au2(PPh3)2]PF6 ((10(+))(PF6(-))). All complexes feature irreversible reduction processes related to the Au(III)/Au(I) or Au(I)/Au(0) processes and peculiar luminescent emission at about 360-370 nm in CH2Cl2, with quantum yields that are remarkably lower ((0.7-14.5) × 10(-2)) in comparison to that determined for the free pbiH ligand (31.5 × 10(-2)) in the same solvent. The spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of all complexes were interpreted on the grounds of time-dependent PBE0/DFT calculations carried out both in the gas phase and in CH2Cl2 implicitly considered within the IEF-PCM SCRF approach. The electronic structure of the complexes, and in particular the energy and composition of the Kohn-Sham LUMOs, can be related to the antiproliferative properties against the A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line, providing sound quantitative structure-activity relationships and shedding a light on the role played by the global charge and nature of ancillary ligands in the effectiveness of Au-based antitumor drugs.

  16. Shell Thickness-Dependent Strain Distributions of Confined Au/Ag and Ag/Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Liu; Honghua Huang; Ying Zhang; Ting Yu; Cailei Yuan; Shuangli Ye

    2015-01-01

    The shell thickness-dependent strain distributions of the Au/Ag and Ag/Au core-shell nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 matrix have been investigated by finite element method (FEM) calculations, respectively. The simulation results clearly indicate that there is a substantial strain applied on both the Au/Ag and Ag/Au core-shell nanoparticles by the Al2O3 matrix. For the Au/Ag nanoparticles, it can be found that the compressive strain existing in the shell is stronger than that on the center of ...

  17. Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au? toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species.

  18. Electric Field Induced Surface Modification of Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchak, A.A.; Franklin, G.F.; Houston, J.E.; Mayer, T.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1999-02-15

    We discuss the role of localized high electric fields in the modification of Au surfaces with a W probe using the Interfacial Force Microscope. Upon bringing a probe close to a Au surface, we measure both the interfacial force and the field emission current as a function of separation with a constant potential of 100 V between tip and sample. The current initially increases exponentially as the separation decreases. However, at a distance of less than {approximately} 500{angstrom} the current rises sharply as the surface begins to distort and rapidly close the gap. Retraction of the tip before contact is made reveals the formation of a mound on the surface. We propose a simple model, in which the localized high electric field under the tip assists the production of mobile Au adatoms by detachment from surface steps, and a radial field gradient causes a net flux of atoms toward the tip by surface diffusion. These processes give rise to an unstable surface deformation which, if left unchecked, results in a destructive mechanical contact. We discuss our findings with respect to earlier work using voltage pulses in the STM as a means of nanofabrication.

  19. Suppression of high transverse momentum π0 spectra in Au + Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, D. E.; Kahana, S. H.

    2008-02-01

    Au + Au, s1/2 = 200 GeV measurements at RHIC, obtained with the PHENIX, STAR, PHOBOS and BRAHMS detectors, have all indicated a suppression of high p⊥ particle production, relative to an appropriately normalized NN level. For central collisions and vanishing pseudo-rapidity these experiments exhibit suppression in charged meson production, especially at medium-to-large transverse momenta. In the PHENIX experiment similar behaviour has been reported for π0 spectra. In a recent work [1] on the simpler D + Au interaction, to be considered perhaps as a tune-up for Au + Au, we reported on a pre-hadronic cascade mechanism which can explain the mixed observation of moderately reduced p⊥ suppression at higher pseudo-rapidity as well as the Cronin enhancement at mid-rapidity. Here, we present the extension of this work to the more massive ion-ion collisions. Our major thesis is that much of the suppression is generated in a late stage cascade of colourless pre-hadrons produced after an initial short-lived coloured phase. We present a pQCD argument to justify this approach and to estimate the time duration τp of this initial phase. Of essential importance is the brevity in time of the coloured phase existence relative to that of the strongly interacting pre-hadron phase, the latter essentially an interactive cascade. These distinctions in phase are of course not strict, but adequate for treating the suppression of moderate and high p⊥ mesons.

  20. Dual role of neutrophils in inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillay, J.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a hallmark of trauma, sepsis and various severe infectious diseases. Severe systemic inflammation can lead to inflammatory complications. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) are seen after trauma and in sepsis and are

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging chronic lymphocytic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malviya, Gaurav; De Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Signore, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In the last few decades, a number of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging inflammation have been proposed that differ in their specificity and mechanism of uptake in inflamed foci as compared to the traditional inflammation imaging agents. Radiolabelled cytokines represent a reliable tool for the precli

  2. Inflammation and its echo in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leuven, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation plays a major role during all phases of atherogenesis from plaque initiation up to plaque rupture. In this thesis the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis is examined from different angles. In part I the effect of various pro-inflammatory mediators is examined

  3. Susceptibility to chronic inflammation: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasef, Noha Ahmed; Mehta, Sunali; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is defined by the persistence of inflammatory processes beyond their physiological function, resulting in tissue destruction. Chronic inflammation is implicated in the progression of many chronic diseases and plays a central role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease. As such, this review aims to collate some of the latest research in relation to genetic and environmental susceptibilities to chronic inflammation. In the genetic section, we discuss some of the updates in cytokine research and current treatments that are being developed. We also discuss newly identified canonical and non-canonical genes associated with chronic inflammation. In the environmental section, we highlight some of the latest updates and evidence in relation to the role that infection, diet and stress play in promoting inflammation. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the latest research to build on our current understanding of chronic inflammation. It highlights the complexity associated with chronic inflammation, as well as provides insights into potential new targets for therapies that could be used to treat chronic inflammation and consequently prevent disease progression.

  4. Brain Inflammation and Microglia: Facts and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Ji, Kyungmin; Min, Kyungjin

    2013-01-01

    The inflammation that accompanies acute injury has dual functions: bactericidal action and repair. Bactericidal functions protect damaged tissue from infection, and repair functions are initiated to aid in the recovery of damaged tissue. Brain injury is somewhat different from injuries in other tissues in two respects. First, many cases of brain injury are not accompanied by infection: there is no chance of pathogens to enter in ischemia or even in traumatic injury if the skull is intact. Second, neurons are rarely regenerated once damaged. This raises the question of whether bactericidal inflammation really occurs in the injured brain; if so, how is this type of inflammation controlled? Many brain inflammation studies have been conducted using cultured microglia (brain macrophages). Even where animal models have been used, the behavior of microglia and neurons has typically been analyzed at or after the time of neuronal death, a time window that excludes the inflammatory response, which begins immediately after the injury. Therefore, to understand the patterns and roles of brain inflammation in the injured brain, it is necessary to analyze the behavior of all cell types in the injured brain immediately after the onset of injury. Based on our experience with both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of brain inflammation, we concluded that not only microglia, but also astrocytes, blood inflammatory cells, and even neurons participate and/or regulate brain inflammation in the injured brain. Furthermore, brain inflammation played by these cells protects neurons and repairs damaged microenvironment but not induces neuronal damage. PMID:23833554

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals for imaging chronic lymphocytic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malviya, Gaurav; De Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Signore, Alberto

    In the last few decades, a number of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging inflammation have been proposed that differ in their specificity and mechanism of uptake in inflamed foci as compared to the traditional inflammation imaging agents. Radiolabelled cytokines represent a reliable tool for the

  6. Inflammation: Friend or foe for animal production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammation is an essential immune response that seeks to contain microbial infection and repair damaged tissue. Increased pro-inflammatory mediators have been associated with enhanced resistance to a range of important poultry and pig pathogens. However, inflammation may also have undesirable co...

  7. Neurogenic inflammation in human and rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelz, M; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup

    2001-01-01

    The combination of vasodilation and protein extravasation following activation of nociceptors has been termed "neurogenic inflammation." In contrast to rodents, no neurogenic protein extravasation can be elicited in healthy human skin. Dermal microdialysis has considerably increased our knowledge...... about neurogenic inflammation in human skin, including the involvement of mast cells....

  8. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  9. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evo

  10. The Magic Au60 Nanocluster: A New Cluster-Assembled Material with Five Au13 Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongbo; Fu, Fangyu; Zhang, Jun; Chai, Jinsong; Kang, Xi; Li, Peng; Li, Shengli; Zhou, Hongping; Zhu, Manzhou

    2015-07-13

    Herein, we report the synthesis and atomic structure of the cluster-assembled [Au60Se2(Ph3P)10(SeR)15](+) material. Five icosahedral Au13 building blocks from a closed gold ring with Au-Se-Au linkages. Interestingly, two Se atoms (without the phenyl tail) locate in the center of the cluster, stabilized by the Se-(Au)5 interactions. The ring-like nanocluster is unprecedented in previous experimental and theoretical studies of gold nanocluster structures. In addition, our optical and electrochemical studies show that the electronic properties of the icosahedral Au13 units still remain unchanged in the penta-twinned Au60 nanocluster, and this new material might be a promising in optical limiting material. This work offers a basis for deep understanding on controlling the cluster-assembled materials for tailoring their functionalities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Treating dyslipidemias: is inflammation the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsidakis, Nikolaos; Deftereos, Spyridon; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Manolis, Antonis S; Bouras, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is now being held as an important process in the development of atherosclerosis, with new links between dyslipidemia and inflammation being constantly found. While most studies aim to discover inflammatory pathways leading from dyslipidemia to atherogenesis, there is evidence that inflammation can also act in reverse, altering lipid metabolism in unfavorable ways, possibly creating a vicious cycle of inflammationdyslipidemia- inflammation. This is highly relevant for the search of novel therapeutic targets. In this review, after a brief account of the inflammatory mechanisms leading from dyslipidemia to atherogenesis, we focus on what is currently known about the ways inflammation can impair lipid metabolism and whether anti-inflammatory therapies could have a role in dyslipidemia management.

  12. Functio Laesa: Cancer Inflammation and Therapeutic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingen; Kalbasi, Anusha; Beatty, Gregory L

    2017-03-01

    Tumor, calor, rubor, and dolor describe four cardinal signs of inflammation. The fifth-functio laesa, or loss of function-was promulgated by Rudolf Virchow, who, in the 19th century, also noted an intricate link between inflammation and cancer. However, the role of cancer inflammation in driving loss of therapeutic efficacy has only recently been fully appreciated, as a result of molecular and immunohistochemical approaches applied in clinical medicine and the availability of novel agents for modulating inflammation. This review focuses on clinical evidence from solid malignancies that have shaped our view of how the immune system regulates cancer development, progression, and response to treatment. Understanding the multifaceted relationship between inflammation and patient outcomes has the potential to advance prognostic tools and uncover therapeutic opportunities for improving clinical outcomes.

  13. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of single Au-Ni/NiO-Au nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, Corinna; Sewcz, Rene; Baldus, Sabrina; Fischer, Saskia F. [Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Daub, Mihaela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany); Nielsch, Kornelius [Multifunctional Nanostructures, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ferromagnetic metallic nanowires are of high interest for magnetic sensing and storage applications. However, due to surface oxidation of the nanowires electrical contacts easily lead to high-contact resistances of a few k{omega}. Here, we present multisegmented Au-Ni(NiO)-Au nanowires with a direct Au-Ni interface. Individual nanowires were laterally contacted in a four-terminal geometry via optical lithography, electron-beam lithography, thermal evaporation and lift-off patterning. The nanowires exhibit low-ohmic contacts of about 20 {omega}. The resistivity decreases with the temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) and is in the order of that of high-purity bulk nickel. The longitudinal anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) is about 1.5 % at 80 K and decreases with higher temperatures, 0.5 % at 300 K. The coercive field and the AMR are investigated for different angles between the current and magnetic field.

  14. Charge transport through O-deficient Au-MgO-Au junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M. M.

    2009-12-29

    Metal-oxide heterostructures have been attracting considerable attention in recent years due to various technological applications. We present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for the Au-MgO-Au (metal-insulator-metal) heterostructure based on density-functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s functions method. The dependence of the conductance of the heterostructure on the thickness of the MgO interlayer and the interface spacing is studied. In addition, we address the effects of O vacancies. We observe deviations from an exponentially suppressed conductance with growing interlayer thickness caused by Au-O chemical bonds. Electronic states tracing back to O vacancies can increase the conductance. Furthermore, this effect can be enhanced by enlarging the interface spacing as the vacancy induced Mg states are shifted toward the Fermi energy.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dan; WU Gang; XU Boqing

    2005-01-01

    Aucore-Ptshell (Au@Pt) nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by reducing K2PtCl6 with hydrogen in the solution containing Au colloids and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The particles obtained were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM and XPS techniques. UV-Vis spectra show that the surface plasmon absorption feature of Au colloids is significantly reduced with increasing the amount of reduced Pt. TEM images that the metals are found always appear as spherical nanoparticles and their sizes grow apparently due to the reduction of PtCl62- ions, indicating that Pt is deposited from solution onto Au particle surface and forms a Pt-layer with uniform thickness. In the XPS spectra, the signals of Au metal decrease due to the reductive deposition of Pt on the surface of the Au colloids. UV-Vis and XPS data are consistent in showing that when the amount of Pt in the AuPt colloids is increased to reach an overall atomic ratio of Pt/Au=2, the Pt deposits form a shell covering completely the surface of Au particles, demonstrating the core-shell structure of the synthesized AuPt particles.

  16. Electron beam induced evolution in Au, Ag, and interfaced heterogeneous Au/Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzi; Sun, Yugang

    2015-08-28

    A sintering process of nanoparticles made of Ag, Au, and interfaced Ag/Au heterodimers was investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy at room temperature. Such a process is driven by the illumination of a high-energy electron beam accelerated at 200 kV that promotes atom diffusion in the nanoparticles that are in physical contact. Upon electron illumination, adjacent Au nanoparticles gradually merge together to form a larger particle along with the reduction of the surface area despite the fact that orientated attachment is not observed. According to the detailed analysis of the size change of the particles and the contact area, it was found that the nanoparticle fusion process is significantly different from the well-established thermal diffusion mechanism. In addition to the similar fusion process of Au nanoparticles, Ag nanoparticles undergo apparent sublimation induced by knock on damage because the transferred energy from the electron beam to nanoparticles is higher than the surface binding energy of Ag atoms when the electron scattering angle is larger than 112°. The particles with a smaller size diffuse faster. Surface diffusion dominates at the beginning of the fusion process followed by slower lattice diffusion. Electron beam illumination can transform the interfaced Au/Ag dimers to Au@Ag core-shell particles followed by a slow removal of the Ag shells. This process under normal electron beam illumination is a lot faster than the thermally driven process. Both diffusion and sublimation of Ag atoms are dependent on the intensity of the electron beam, i.e., a higher beam intensity is favorable to accelerate both the processes.

  17. Ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in multifragmentation of Au + Au

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, C. L; Ma, Y. G.; Fang, D. Q.; Li, S.X.; G.Q. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of the shear viscosity ($\\eta$) to entropy density ($s$) for the intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions has been calculated by using the Green-Kubo method in the framework of the quantum molecular dynamics model. The theoretical curve of $\\eta/s$ as a function of the incident energy for the head-on Au+Au collisions displays that a minimum region of $\\eta/s$ has been approached at higher incident energies, where the minimum $\\eta/s$ value is about 7 times Kovtun-Son- Starinets (KSS...

  18. Low-power resistive switching in Au/NiO/Au nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, S.; Tallarida, G.; Perego, D.; Franz, S.; Deleruyelle, D.; Muller, C.; Spiga, S.

    2012-11-01

    Arrays of vertical nanowires structured in Au/NiO/Au segments with 50 nm diameter are characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy to investigate unipolar resistive switching in NiO at the nanoscale. The switching cycles are characterized by extremely low power consumption down to 1.3 nW, which constitutes a significant improvement in nanowire-based resistive switching memory devices. The trend of the reset current as a function of the set resistance, typical of unipolar memories, is extended to a much wider current range than what is reported in literature, confirming the role of Joule heating in the reset process for very low reset currents.

  19. Nuclear Stopping in Central Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear stopping in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC energies is studied in the framework of a cascade mode and the modified ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD transport model. In the modified mode, the mean field potentials of both formed and “preformed” hadrons (from string fragmentation are considered. It is found that the nuclear stopping is increasingly influenced by the mean-field potentials in the projectile and target regions with the increase of the reaction energy. In the central region, the calculations of the cascade model considering the modifying factor can describe the experimental data of the PHOBOS collaboration.

  20. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-04-07

    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  1. Symmetry energy from elliptic flow in {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russotto, P. [INFN-LNS and Universita di Catania, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Wu, P.Z. [University of Liverpool, Physics Department, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Zoric, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ruder Boskovic Institute. HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Chartier, M. [University of Liverpool, Physics Department, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Leifels, Y. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lemmon, R.C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Li, Q. [School of Science, Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou 313000 (China); Lukasik, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); IFJ-PAN, Pl-31342 Krakow (Poland); Pagano, A. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Pawlowski, P. [IFJ-PAN, Pl-31342 Krakow (Poland); Trautmann, W., E-mail: w.trautmann@gsi.d [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-03-21

    The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of neutron-rich systems at relativistic energies is proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term in the equation of state at supra-normal densities. The results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model favor a moderately soft symmetry term with a density dependence of the potential term proportional to ({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}){sup {gamma}} with {gamma}=0.9{+-}0.4.

  2. D and $^{3}He$ production in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 130 GeV Au + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, C; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O Yu; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A B; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; De Mello, M; Deng, W S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, Kenneth J; Fu, J; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Grabski, J; Grachov, O A; Greiner, D E; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Guschin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A A; Konstantinov, A S; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A V; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T J; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Le Vine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lynn, D; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Oson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Platner, E D; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D J; Pruneau, C A; Radomski, S; Rai, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J E; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, Reinhard; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A; Vanyashin, A V; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Wenaus, T J; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.262301

    2001-01-01

    The first measurements of light antinucleus production in Au + Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider are reported. The observed production rates for d and /sup 3/He are much larger than in lower energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. A coalescence model analysis of the yields indicates that there is little or no increase in the antinucleon freeze-out volume compared to collisions at CERN SPS energy. These analyses also indicate that the 3He freeze-out volume is smaller than the d freeze-out volume. (22 refs).

  3. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2006-03-31

    Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.

  4. Manipulation of superparamagnetic beads on patterned Au/Co/Au multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, A.; Holzinger, D.; Urbaniak, M.; Ehresmann, A.; Stobiecki, F.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetophoresis of water-suspended 4 μm-diameter superparamagnetic beads above topographically patterned, sputter deposited Ti(4 nm)/Au(60 nm)/[Co(0.7 nm)/Au(1 nm)] × 3 multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was investigated. The results impressively demonstrate that the magnetic stray field landscape above the stripe structure when superimposed with an external, slowly rotating, field enables the directed transport of magnetic beads across the stripe panel with velocities up to 12 μm s-1.

  5. Beam Energy Scan a Case for the Chiral Magnetic Effect in Au-Au Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longacre, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-01-05

    The Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) is predicted for Au-Au collisions at RHIC. However, many backgrounds can give signals that make the measurement hard to interpret. The STAR experiment has made measurements at different collisions energy ranging from √(sNN)=7.7 GeV to 62.4 GeV. In the analysis that is presented we show that the CME turns on with energy and is not present in central collisions where the induced magnetic is small.

  6. Charged Pion Production in 2 to 8 AGeV Central Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Klay, J L; Alexander, J M; Anderson, M G; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J L; Chung, P; Cole, B; Crowe, K; Das, A C; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lauret, J; Law, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Srivastava, B; Stone, N T B; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Wells, R; Whitfield, J; Wienold, T; Witt, R; Wood, L; Zhang Wei Ning

    2003-01-01

    Momentum spectra of charged pions over nearly full rapidity coverage from target to beam rapidity have been measured in the 0-5% most central Au+Au collisions in the beam energy range from 2 to 8 AGeV by the E895 Experiment. Using a thermal parameterization to fit the transverse mass spectra, rapidity density distributions are extracted. The observed spectra are compared with predictions from the RQMD v2.3 cascade model and also to a thermal model including longitudinal flow. The total 4$pi$ yields of the charged pions are used to infer an initial state entropy produced in the collisions.

  7. Sideward Flow in Au + Au Collisions Between 2 AGeV and 8 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H; Alexander, J; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J; Chung, P; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lisa, M A; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L S; Srivastava, B; Stone, N T B; Symons, T J M; Wang, S; Whitfield, J; Wienold, T; Witt, R; Wood, L; Yang, X; Zhang Wei Ning; Zhang, Y

    2000-01-01

    Using the large acceptance Time Projection Chamber of experiment E895 at Brookhaven, measurements of collective sideward flow in Au + Au collisions at beam energies of 2, 4, 6 and 8A GeV are presented in the form of in-plane transverse momentum and the first Fourier coefficient of azimuthal anisotropy v_1. These measurements indicate a smooth variation of sideward flow as a function of beam energy. The data are compared with four nuclear transport models which have an orientation towards this energy range. All four exhibit some qualitative trends similar to those found in the data, although none shows a consistent pattern of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  8. Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}$=130 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, K H; Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Allgower, C; Amsbaugh, J; Anderson, M; Anderssen, E; Arnesen, H; Arnold, L; Averichev, G S; Baldwin, A R; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O Yu; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Beddo, M E; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Bennett, S; Bercovitz, J; Berger, J; Betts, W; Bichsel, H; Bieser, F; Bland, L C; Bloomer, M A; Blyth, C O; Böhm, J; Bonner, B E; Bonnet, D; Bossingham, R R; Botlo, M; Boucham, A; Bouillo, N; Bouvier, S; Bradley, K; Brady, F P; Braithwaite, E S; Braithwaite, W; Brandin, A B; Brown, R L; Brugalette, G; Byrd, C; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carr, L; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Caylor, B; Cebra, D; Chathopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, W; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Chrin, J; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Conin, L; Consiglio, C; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Danilov, V I; Dayton, D; De Mello, M; Deng, W S; Derevshchikov, A A; Dialinas, M; Díaz, H; De Young, P A; Didenko, L; Dimassimo, D; Dioguardi, J; Dominik, Wojciech; Drancourt, C; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Eggert, T; Emelyanov, V I; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Etkin, A; Fachini, P; Feliciano, C; Ferenc, D; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Flores, I; Foley, Kenneth J; Fritz, D; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gazdzicki, M; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Grachov, O A; Grau, M; Greiner, D E; Greiner, L; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D P; Gross, J; Guilloux, G; Gushin, E M; Hall, J; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harper, G; Harris, J W; He, P; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hill, D; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Howe, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Hunt, W; Hunter, J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jacobson, S; Jared, R; Jensen, P; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kenney, V P; Khodinov, A; Klay, J L; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A A; Koehler, G; Konstantinov, A S; Kormilitsyne, V; Kotchenda, L; Kotov, I V; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Krupien, T; Kuczewski, P; Kühn, C E; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T J; Leonhardt, W; Leontiev, V M; Leszczynski, P; Le Vine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lin, J; Lindenbaum, S J; Lindenstruth, V; Lindstrom, P J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Lopiano, D; Love, W A; Lutz, Jean Robert; Lynn, D; Madansky, L; Maier, R S; Majka, R; Maliszewski, A; Margetis, S; Marks, K; Marstaller, R; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; Matyushevsky, E A; McParland, C P; McShane, T S; Meier, J; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Middlekamp, P; Mikhalin, N; Miller, B; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Minor, B; Mitchell, J; Mogavero, E; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D M; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; Morse, R; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Ngo, T; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, T; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Noggle, T; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nussbaum, T; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Ogilvie, C A; Olchanski, K; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Ososkov, G A; Ott, G; Padrazo, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Pentia, M; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V; Pinganaud, W; Pirogov, S; Platner, E D; Pluta, J; Polk, I; Porile, N T; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D J; Pruneau, C A; Puskar-Pasewicz, J; Rai, G; Rasson, J E; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J; Renfordt, R E; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Riso, J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Röhrich, D; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Sánchez, R; Sandler, Z; Sandweiss, J; Sappenfield, P; Saulys, A C; Savin, I A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Scheblien, J; Scheetz, R; Schlüter, R; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schulz, M; Schüttauf, A; Sedlmeir, J; Seger, J E; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seymour, R; Shakaliev, E I; Shestermanov, K E; Shi, Y; Shimansky, S S; Shuman, D B; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Smykov, L P; Snellings, R; Solberg, K; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, Reinhard; Stolpovsky, A; Stone, N; Stone, R; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Symons, T J M; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarchini, A; Tarzian, J; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tonse, S R; Trainor, T; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V N; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Vakula, I; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A; Vanyashin, A V; Vasilevskii, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Visser, G; Voloshin, S A; Vu, C; Wang, F; Ward, H; Weerasundara, D D; Weidenbach, R; Wells, R; Wenaus, T J; Westfall, G D; Whitfield, J P; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Willson, R; Wilson, K; Wirth, J; Wisdom, J; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wolf, J; Wood, L; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhang, J; Zhang, W M; Zhu, J; Zimmerman, D; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2001-01-01

    Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=130 GeV using the STAR TPC at RHIC. The elliptic flow signal, v_2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.

  9. Assessment of in situ adipose tissue inflammation by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Andersen, Ove; Henriksen, Jens H;

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation, and specifically adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, is part of the pathophysiology of obesity and HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Local AT protein assessment methods are limited, and AT inflammation studies have therefore primarily examined inflammatory gene expression. We therefore...

  10. Electrostatic assembles and optical properties of Au CdTe QDs and Ag/Au CdTe QDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Wang, Wenxing; Chen, Qifan; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Shukun

    2008-09-01

    Au-CdTe and Ag/Au-CdTe assembles were firstly investigated through the static interaction between positively charged cysteamine-stabilized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and negatively charged Au or core/shell Ag/Au nano-particles (NCs). The CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous solution were capped with cysteamine which endowed them positive charges on the surface. Both Au and Ag/Au NCs were prepared through reducing precursors with gallic acid obtained from the hydrolysis of natural plant poly-phenols and favored negative charges on the surface of NCs. The fluorescence spectra of CdTe QDs exhibited strong quenching with the increase of added Au or Ag/Au NCs. Railey resonance scattering spectra of Au or Ag/Au NCs increased firstly and decreased latter with the concentration of CdTe QDs, accompanied with the solution color changing from red to purple and colorless at last. Experimental results on the effects of gallic acid, chloroauric acid tetrahydrate and other reagents demonstrated the static interaction occurred between QDs and NCs. This finding reveals the possibilities to design and control optical process and electromagnetic coupling in hybrid structures.

  11. Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow Au cores for enhanced formic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiajen; Huang, Chienwen; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Fuqiang

    2013-03-01

    A facile method has been developed to synthesize Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles via galvanic replacement of Cu by Pd on hollow Au nanospheres. The unique nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. When the concentration of the Au solution was decreased, grain size of the polycrystalline hollow Au nanospheres was reduced, and the structures became highly porous. After the Pd shell formed on these Au nanospheres, the morphology and structure of the Au/Pd nanoparticles varied and hence significantly affected the catalytic properties. The Au/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with reduced Au concentrations showed higher formic acid oxidation activity (0.93 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V) than the commercial Pd black (0.85 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V), suggesting a promising candidate as fuel cell catalysts. In addition, the Au/Pd nanoparticles displayed lower CO-stripping potential, improved stability, and higher durability compared to the Pd black due to their unique core-shell structures tuned by Au core morphologies.

  12. Au-Rh and Au-Pd nanocatalysts supported on rutile titania nanorods: structure and chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuspayeva, Zere; Afanasiev, Pavel; Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Di Felice, Luca; Morfin, Franck; Nguyen, Nhat-Tai; Nelayah, Jaysen; Ricolleau, Christian; Li, Z Y; Yuan, Jun; Berhault, Gilles; Piccolo, Laurent

    2015-11-14

    Au, Rh, Pd, Au-Rh and Au-Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by colloidal chemical reduction and immobilized on hydrothermally-prepared rutile titania nanorods. The catalysts were characterized by aberration-corrected TEM/STEM, XPS, and FTIR, and were evaluated in the hydrogenation of tetralin in the presence of H2S. Oxidizing and reducing thermal treatments were employed to remove the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant. Reduction in H2 at 350 °C was found efficient for removing the PVA while preserving the size (ca. 3 nm), shape and bimetallic nature of the NPs. While Au-Pd NPs are alloyed at the atomic scale, Au-Rh NPs contain randomly distributed single-phase domains. Calcination-reduction of Au-Rh NPs mostly leads to separated Au and Rh NPs, while pre-reduction generates a well-defined segregated structure with Rh located at the interface between Au and TiO2 and possibly present around the NPs as a thin overlayer. Both the titania support and gold increase the resistance of Rh and Pd to oxidation. Furthermore, although detrimental to tetralin hydrogenation initial activity, gold stabilizes the NPs against surface sulfidation in the presence of 50 ppm H2S, leading to increased catalytic performances of the Au-Rh and Au-Pd systems as compared to their Rh and Pd counterparts.

  13. Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow Au cores for enhanced formic acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiajen; Huang, Chienwen; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Fuqiang

    2013-03-01

    A facile method has been developed to synthesize Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles via galvanic replacement of Cu by Pd on hollow Au nanospheres. The unique nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. When the concentration of the Au solution was decreased, grain size of the polycrystalline hollow Au nanospheres was reduced, and the structures became highly porous. After the Pd shell formed on these Au nanospheres, the morphology and structure of the Au/Pd nanoparticles varied and hence significantly affected the catalytic properties. The Au/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with reduced Au concentrations showed higher formic acid oxidation activity (0.93 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V) than the commercial Pd black (0.85 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V), suggesting a promising candidate as fuel cell catalysts. In addition, the Au/Pd nanoparticles displayed lower CO-stripping potential, improved stability, and higher durability compared to the Pd black due to their unique core-shell structures tuned by Au core morphologies.

  14. Effect of Au clustering on ferromagnetism in Au doped TiO2 films: theory and experiments investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhaorui; Zhou, Zhongpo; Wang, Haiying; Yang, Zongxian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the physical properties especially the magnetic properties of the TiO2 films and Au cluster doped TiO2 films fabricated by sol-gel and sputtering methods combined experiments and first-principles calculations. All the samples annealed under air and N2 atmosphere respectively exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism with the crystal phase of anatase. The values of the saturation magnetizations are in the order of Au δ-doped TiO2 (annealed in N2)>undoped TiO2 (annealed in air)>Au δ-doped TiO2 (annealed in air). The first principles calculation results show that the formation energy of Au cluster doped TiO2 films is lower than that of the oxygen vacancy and Au cluster codoped TiO2 films. The effects of the Au cluster dopant are the retard of the formation of surface oxygen vacancy and the electrons transfer from 3d states of Ti atoms to Au 5d states in Au cluster doped TiO2 films. The codoping of surface oxygen vacancies, bulk oxygen vacancies and Au clusters led to the spin-split of Ti 3d and O 2p in Au cluster doped TiO2 films (annealed in N2) which yield the highest saturation magnetization.

  15. Platelets, inflammation and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurden, Alan T

    2011-05-01

    Blood platelets have long been recognised to bring about primary haemostasis with deficiencies in platelet production and function manifesting in bleeding while upregulated function favourises arterial thrombosis. Yet increasing evidence indicates that platelets fulfil a much wider role in health and disease. First, they store and release a wide range of biologically active substances including the panoply of growth factors, chemokines and cytokines released from a-granules. Membrane budding gives rise to microparticles (MPs), another active participant within the blood stream. Platelets are essential for the innate immune response and combat infection (viruses, bacteria, micro-organisms). They help maintain and modulate inflammation and are a major source of pro-inflammatory molecules (e.g. P-selectin, tissue factor, CD40L, metalloproteinases). As well as promoting coagulation, they are active in fibrinolysis; wound healing, angiogenesis and bone formation as well as in maternal tissue and foetal vascular remodelling. Activated platelets and MPs intervene in the propagation of major diseases. They are major players in atherosclerosis and related diseases, pathologies of the central nervous system (Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis), cancer and tumour growth. They participate in other tissue-related acquired pathologies such as skin diseases and allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, liver disease; while, paradoxically, autologous platelet-rich plasma and platelet releasate are being used as an aid to promote tissue repair and cellular growth. The above mentioned roles of platelets are now discussed.

  16. Fruit polyphenols, immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Tuñón, María J

    2010-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds widely present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants. These molecules have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including CHD, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and others. The effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large number of publications suggest immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds. However, almost all studies are in vitro studies with limited research on animal models and scarce data from human studies. The majority of in vitro research has been carried out with single flavonoids, generally aglycones, at rather supraphysiological concentrations. Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of physiologically attainable flavonoid concentrations in healthy subjects, and more epidemiological studies and prospective randomised trials are still required. This review summarises evidence for the effects of fruit and tea flavonoids and their metabolites in inflammation and immunity. Mechanisms of effect are discussed, including those on enzyme function and regulation of gene and protein expression. Animal work is included, and evidence from epidemiological studies and human intervention trials is reviewed. Biological relevance and functional benefits of the reported effects, such as resistance to infection or exercise performance, are also discussed.

  17. Estrogen Signaling in Metabolic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosário Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive evidence supporting the interference of inflammatory activation with metabolism. Obesity, mainly visceral obesity, is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, triggered by metabolic surplus where specialized metabolic cells such as adipocytes activate cellular stress initiating and sustaining the inflammatory program. The increasing prevalence of obesity, resulting in increased cardiometabolic risk and precipitating illness such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and certain types of cancer, constitutes a good example of this association. The metabolic actions of estrogens have been studied extensively and there is also accumulating evidence that estrogens influence immune processes. However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties. In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field. Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions.

  18. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Rachel E; Fatemi, S Hossein

    2013-04-05

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bacterial infection or injected with a synthetic viral mimic (PolyI:C) also demonstrating brain structural and behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, human serologic data has been indispensible in supporting the viral theory of schizophrenia. Individuals born seropositive for bacterial and viral agents are at a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia. While the specific mechanisms of prenatal viral/bacterial infections and brain disorder are unclear, recent findings suggest that the maternal inflammatory response may be associated with fetal brain injury. Preventive and therapeutic treatment options are also proposed. This review presents data related to epidemiology, human serology, and experimental animal models which support the viral model of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.

  20. Luminescence of Au(I)-thiolate complex affected by solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Cao, Yuanjie; Chen, Juan; Sun, Zhihu; Yao, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    This work presents a study on the correlation between luminescence property of Au(I)-SR (SR: thiolate) complexes and solvent polarity. Luminescent [Au15(SR)14-16]+ complexes were synthesized in the weakly polar solvent of toluene, while the non-luminescent [Au7(SR)6]+ species were obtained by the same synthesis method in the polar solvent of ethanol. The dependence of luminescence intensity on the mixed solvent with various toluene/ethanol ratios was also explored. It is proposed that the luminescence of Au(I)-SR complexes originates from the aggregation of the bilayer supramolecular structures induced by the weakly polar solvent. This aggregation strengthens the intra and intercomplex aurophilic Au(I)···Au(I) interactions and subsequently enhances the luminescence intensity of the complexes.

  1. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Ultrathin Au/Pt Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, X.; Feygenson, M; Wang, Q; He, J; Du, W; Frenkel, A; Han, W; Aronson, M

    2009-01-01

    We have reported the synthesis of Au25Pt75 and Au48Pt52 alloyed ultrathin nanowires with average widths of less than 3 nm via a wet chemistry approach at room temperature. Using a combination of techniques, including scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies, we identified the stoichiometry-dependent heterogeneous crystalline structures, as well as electronic structures with respect to the charge transfer between Pt and Au within both nanowires. In particular, we observed d-charge depletion at the Au site and the d-charge gain at the Pt site in Au48Pt52 nanowires, which accounted for its ferromagnetic magnetic behavior, in contrast to the paramagnetism and diamagnetism appearing respectively in bulk Pt and Au.

  2. Electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Au/Pt nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaowei; Feygenson, Mikhail; Wang, Qi; He, Jiaqing; Du, Wenxin; Frenkel, Anatoly I; Han, Weiqiang; Aronson, Meigan

    2009-09-01

    We have reported the synthesis of Au(25)Pt(75) and Au(48)Pt(52) alloyed ultrathin nanowires with average widths of less than 3 nm via a wet chemistry approach at room temperature. Using a combination of techniques, including scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies, we identified the stoichiometry-dependent heterogeneous crystalline structures, as well as electronic structures with respect to the charge transfer between Pt and Au within both nanowires. In particular, we observed d-charge depletion at the Au site and the d-charge gain at the Pt site in Au(48)Pt(52) nanowires, which accounted for its ferromagnetic magnetic behavior, in contrast to the paramagnetism and diamagnetism appearing respectively in bulk Pt and Au.

  3. Que faisons-nous au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Le CERN a pour vocation la science pure, l'étude des questions les plus fondamentales de la nature:Qu'est-ce que la matière ?D'ou vient-elle ? Comment s'agglomère-t-elle en formes complexes comme les étoiles, les planètes et les êtres humains ? Au CERN, les collisions de particules servent à sonder le coeur de la matière et les chercheurs du Laboratoire étudient ces millions de collisions de particules afin de trouver des réponses à ces questions.

  4. Caroline Datchary, La Dispersion au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lecoeur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Impression de ne pas pouvoir faire totalement son travail, insatisfaction, Trouble Musculo- Squelettique, mais aussi sentiment d’efficacité, d’excitation et parfois de plénitude. Ces sensations, bien qu’ambivalentes, ont néanmoins un point commun selon Caroline Datchary : elles sont engendrées par des situations de « dispersion au travail ». Mutation du travail oblige, les toujours Nouvelles Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (NTIC ont fait leur apparition, la pression conc...

  5. Formation of Au-Silane Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Yochelis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many intriguing aspects of molecular electronics are attributed to organic-inorganic interactions, yet charge transfer through such junctions still requires fundamental study. Recently, there is a growing interest in anchoring groups, which considered dominating the charge transport. With this respect, we choose to investigate self-assembly of disilane molecules sandwiched between gold surface and gold nanoparticles. These assemblies are found to exhibit covalent bonds not only between the anchoring Si groups and the gold surfaces but also in plane crosslinks that increase the monolayer stability. Finally, using scanning tunneling spectroscopy we demonstrate that the disilane molecules provide strong electrical coupling between the Au nanoparticles and a superconductor substrate.

  6. [Measurement of pulmonary inflammation in cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayon, M; Chiron, R; Abely, M

    2008-06-01

    Lung inflammation is a pivotal phenomenon in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis. Inflammation can be measured and quantified within a research perspective, as well as in daily clinical practice. In this review paper, the "Inflammation Task Force" of the "Société Française de Mucoviscidose" has reviewed the literature regarding the various techniques currently available (bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum analysis, nasal wash and brushing, exhaled breath condensates, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and systemic measurements (plasma and urine)). The interpretation of all these determinations in children and adults is also discussed.

  7. Cholinergic Regulation of Airway Inflammation and Remodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the predominant parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airways that regulates bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. Recent findings suggest that acetylcholine regulates additional functions in the airways, including inflammation and remodelling during inflammatory airway diseases. Moreover, it has become apparent that acetylcholine is synthesized by nonneuronal cells and tissues, including inflammatory cells and structural cells. In this paper, we will discuss the regulatory role of acetylcholine in inflammation and remodelling in which we will focus on the role of the airway smooth muscle cell as a target cell for acetylcholine that modulates inflammation and remodelling during respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD.

  8. Gastrointestinal inflammation: lessons from metabolic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulampalam, V

    2008-06-01

    The link between inflammation and metabolism was apparent already early last century, but has recently been revitalized following molecular studies of atherosclerosis, obesity and insulin resistance. A growing list of nuclear receptors, pivotal players in lipid, xenobiotic and energy metabolism has been identified as having immunomodulatory functions. These receptors might hold the key to some of the questions pertinent to chronic inflammation, and can lend themselves to be manipulated as therapeutic agents. This review will attempt to appraise the importance of such mediators in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammation in the colon.

  9. Au Capping Agent Removal Using Plasma at Mild Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Puspitasari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To prevent sintering, ozone treatment at mild temperature is used to remove the capping agent from supported Au nanoparticles. The Au nanoparticles are first synthesized as a colloidal solution and then supported on alumina. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR shows the capping agent is removed completely. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and catalytic test reactions show the Au does not sinter significantly upon low temperature ozone treatment.

  10. Evaluation of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, A; Alpeza, I; Rukavina, A S

    2000-01-01

    The performance of the Olympus AU 400 clinical chemistry analyzer was evaluated according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The following analytes were tested: glucose, urea, creatinine, calcium, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, ALP and amylase. The Olympus AU 400 was compared with the Olympus AU 800. Coefficients of correlation showed high correlation between the compared analyzers. Other performances (intra- and inter-assay variation, carry-over and interferences) of the analyzer were satisfactory.

  11. Nonlinear optical properties of Au/PVP composite thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Hong; Cheng Bo-Lin; Lu Guo-Wei; Wang Wei-Tian; Guan Dong-Yi; Chen Zheng-Hao; Yang Guo-Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Colloidal Au and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) composite thin films are fabricated by spin-coating method. Linear optical absorption measurements of the Au/PVP composite films indicate an absorption peak around 530 nm due to the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles. Nonlinear optical properties are studied using standard Z-scan technique, and experimental results show large optical nonlinearities of the Au/PVP composite films. A large value of films.

  12. Enhanced Photoresponse of Conductive Polymer Nanowires Embedded with Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junchang; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Yinghui; Li, Anran; Huang, Jing; Meng, Fanben; Chandran, Bevita K; Li, Shuzhou; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    A conductive polymer nanowire embedded with a 1D Au nanoparticle chain with defined size, shape, and interparticle distance is fabricated which demonstrates enhanced photoresponse behavior. The precise and controllable positioning of 1D Au nanoparticle chain in the conductive polymer nanowire plays a critical role in modulating the photoresponse behavior by excitation light wavelength or power due to the coupled-plasmon effect of 1D Au nanoparticle chain.

  13. RHIC performance for FY2011 Au+Au heavy ion run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marr, G.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D' Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gardner, C.J.; Gassner, D.M.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Huang, H.; Ingrassia, P.F.; Jamilkowski, J.P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.S.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.J.; Minty, M.G.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Polizzo, S.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; VanKuik, B.; Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-09-04

    Following the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 (Run-10) Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Au+Au run, RHIC experiment upgrades sought to improve detector capabilities. In turn, accelerator improvements were made to improve the luminosity available to the experiments for this run (Run-11). These improvements included: a redesign of the stochastic cooling systems for improved reliability; a relocation of 'common' RF cavities to alleviate intensity limits due to beam loading; and an improved usage of feedback systems to control orbit, tune and coupling during energy ramps as well as while colliding at top energy. We present an overview of changes to the Collider and review the performance of the collider with respect to instantaneous and integrated luminosity goals. At the conclusion of the FY 2011 polarized proton run, preparations for heavy ion run proceeded on April 18, with Au+Au collisions continuing through June 28. Our standard operations at 100 GeV/nucleon beam energy was bracketed by two shorter periods of collisions at lower energies (9.8 and 13.5 GeV/nucleon), continuing a previously established program of low and medium energy runs. Table 1 summarizes our history of heavy ion operations at RHIC.

  14. Laser nanostructuring of Au/Ag and Au/Ni films for application in SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikov, Ru. G.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Atanasov, P. A.; Grochowska, K.; Iwulska, A.; Sliwinski, G.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper results on laser nanostructuring of Au/Ag and Au/Ni thin films are presented. The nanostructuring leads to formation of arrays of bimetallic nanoparticles. The fabrication of the these structures is made using a two step procedure. Initially, thin films are deposited on quartz substrates by classical pulsed laser deposition method. In order to produce Au/Ag or Au/Ni thin films, targets with two sections consist the different metals are used. Thin films with different concentrations of the two metals are obtained by changing the area of the different sections in the target. The as prepared films are then annealed by nanosecond laser pulses delivered by Nd:YAG laser system operated at λ = 355 nm. It is found that the laser annealing may lead to nanostructuring of the deposited films as at certain conditions decomposition into monolayers of nanoparticles with narrow size distribution is obtained. The performed EDX analyses indicate that the fabricated particles are composed by a bimetallic system of the basic metals used. The transmission spectra of the obtained structures show evidences of plasmon excitations. The bimetal nanostructures are covered with Rhodamine 6G and then tested as active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

  15. Charged-particle rapidity density in Au+Au collisions in a quark combination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng-Lan; Yao, Tao; Xie, Qu-Bing

    2007-03-01

    Rapidity/pseudorapidity densities for charged particles and their centrality, rapidity, and energy dependence in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are studied in a quark combination model. Using a Gaussian-type rapidity distribution for constituent quarks as a result of Landau hydrodynamic evolution, the data at sNN=130,200 GeV at various centralities in full pseudorapidity range are well described, and the charged-particle multiplicities are reproduced as functions of the number of participants. The energy dependence of the shape of the dNch/dη distribution is also described at various collision energies sNN=200,130,62.4 GeV in central collisions with same value of parameters except 19.6 GeV. The calculated rapidity distributions and yields for the charged pions and kaons in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration.

  16. Experimental evidence for electron localization on Au upon photo-activation of Au/anatase catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Savenije, Tom J.; Mul, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements show that the presence of Au on anatase Hombikat UV100 significantly reduces the lifetime of mobile electrons formed by photo-excitation of this photocatalyst at 300 nm, providing evidence for the widely acclaimed electron localization effect

  17. Preparations for p-Au run in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-12-31

    The p-Au particle collision is a unique category of collision runs. This is resulted from the different charge mass ratio of the proton and fully stripped Au ion (1 vs.79/197). The p-Au run requires a special acceleration ramp, and movement of a number of beam components as required by the beam trajectories. The DX magnets will be moved for the first time in the history of RHIC. In this note, the planning and preparations for p-Au run will be presented.

  18. Preparations for p-Au run in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-12-31

    The p-Au particle collision is a unique category of collision runs. This is resulted from the different charge mass ratio of the proton and fully stripped Au ion (1 vs.79/197). The p-Au run requires a special acceleration ramp, and movement of a number of beam components as required by the beam trajectories. The DX magnets will be moved for the first time in the history of RHIC. In this note, the planning and preparations for p-Au run will be presented.

  19. Au nanostructures: an emerging prospect in cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin; Chen, Chunying

    2012-10-01

    Au nanoparticles have been used in biomedical applications since ancient times. However, the rapid development of nanotechnology over the past century has led to recognition of the great potential of Au nanoparticles in a wide range of applications. Advanced fabrication techniques allow us to synthesize a variety of Au nanostructures possessing physiochemical properties that can be exploited for different purposes. Functionalization of the surface of Au nanoparticles further eases their application in various roles. These advantages of Au nanoparticles make them particularly suited for cancer treatment and diagnosis. The small size of Au particles enables them to preferentially accumulate at tumor sites to achieve in vivo targeting after systemic administration. Efficient light absorption followed by rapid heat conversion makes them very promising in photothermal therapy. The facile surface chemistry of Au nanoparticles eases delivery of drugs, ligands or imaging contrast agents in vivo. In this review, we summarize recent development of Au nanoparticles in cancer theranostics including imaging-based detection, photothermal therapy, chemical therapy and drug delivery. The multifunctional nature of Au nanoparticles means they hold great promise as novel anti-cancer therapeutics.

  20. Nanostructuring thin Au films on transparent conductive oxide substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Center for Materials and Technologies for Information Communication and Solar Energy (MATIS CNR-IMM), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Crupi, I. [Center for Materials and Technologies for Information Communication and Solar Energy (MATIS CNR-IMM), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Carria, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Center for Materials and Technologies for Information Communication and Solar Energy (MATIS CNR-IMM), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Kimiagar, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Forsat Shirazi St. North Eskanari St. Azadi Rd. No 136, 13185/768 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simone, F.; Grimaldi, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Center for Materials and Technologies for Information Communication and Solar Energy (MATIS CNR-IMM), via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Thermal-induced morphology evolution of Au nanoclusters on ITO is studied. ► Laser irradiation-induced morphology evolution of thin Au film on ITO is studied. ► Au nanorings formation on ITO is presented. ► Au nanoclusters formation on ITO is presented. -- Abstract: Fabrication processes of Au nanostructures on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) surface by simple, versatile, and low-cost bottom-up methodologies are investigated in this work. A first methodology exploits the patterning effects induced by nanosecond laser irradiations on thin Au films deposited on ITO surface. We show that after the laser irradiations, the Au film break-up into nanoclusters whose mean size and surface density are tunable by the laser fluence. A second methodology exploits, instead, the patterning effects of standard furnace thermal processes on the Au film deposited on the ITO. We observe, in this case, a peculiar shape evolution from pre-formed nanoclusters during the Au deposition stage on the ITO, to holed nanostructures (i.e. nanorings), during the furnace annealing processes. The nanorings depth, height, width, and surface density are shown to be tunable by annealing temperature and time.

  1. The self assembly of thymine at Au(110)/liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Contreras, J.R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Mexico (Mexico); Smith, C.I.; Bowfield, A.; Weightman, P. [Physics Department, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Tillner, F. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    We show that thymine self-assembles into an ordered structure when adsorbed at a Au(110)/liquid interface. Reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) shows that as found for cytosine and adenine the adsorbed thymine molecules are oriented essentially vertically on the Au(110) surface with the molecule aligned along one of the principal axes of the Au(110) surface. Simulations of the RA spectra to an empirical model indicates that as found for adsorbed cytosine and adenine, thymine is aligned along the [1 anti 10] direction on the Au(110) surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Structural and optical studies of Au doped titanium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E., E-mail: ealves@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Franco, N.; Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Lopes, J. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEC-CEMUC - Universidade de Coimbra, Dept. Eng. Mecanica, Polo II, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Torrell, M.; Cunha, L.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2} were doped with Au by ion implantation and in situ during the deposition. The films were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and deposited in silicon and glass substrates at a temperature around 150 Degree-Sign C. The undoped films were implanted with Au fluences in the range of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} Au/cm{sup 2}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} Au/cm{sup 2} with a energy of 150 keV. At a fluence of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} Au/cm{sup 2} the formation of Au nanoclusters in the films is observed during the implantation at room temperature. The clustering process starts to occur during the implantation where XRD estimates the presence of 3-5 nm precipitates. After annealing in a reducing atmosphere, the small precipitates coalesce into larger ones following an Ostwald ripening mechanism. In situ XRD studies reveal that Au atoms start to coalesce at 350 Degree-Sign C, reaching the precipitates dimensions larger than 40 nm at 600 Degree-Sign C. Annealing above 700 Degree-Sign C promotes drastic changes in the Au profile of in situ doped films with the formation of two Au rich regions at the interface and surface respectively. The optical properties reveal the presence of a broad band centered at 550 nm related to the plasmon resonance of gold particles visible in AFM maps.

  3. Magnetic holes in the solar wind between 0.3 AU and 17 AU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sperveslage

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic holes (MHs are depressions of the magnetic field magnitude. Turner et al. (1977 identified the first MHs in the solar wind and determined an occurrence rate of 1.5 MHs/d. Winterhalter et al. (1994 developed an automatic identification criterion to search for MHs in Ulysses data in the solar wind between 1 AU and 5.4 AU. We adopt their criterion to expand the search to the heliocentric distances down to 0.3 AU using data from Helios 1 and 2 and up to 17 AU using data from Voyager 2. We relate our observations to two theoretical approaches which describe the so-called linear MHs in which the magnetic vector varies in magnitude rather than direction. Therefore we focus on such linear MHs with a directional change less than 10º. With our observations of about 850 MHs we present the following results: Approximately 30% of all the identified MHs are linear. The maximum angle between the initial magnetic field vector and any vector inside the MH is 20º in average and shows a weak relation to the depth of the MHs. The angle between the initial magnetic field and the minimum variance direction of those structures is large and very probably close to 90º. The MHs are placed in a high β environment even though the average solar wind shows a smaller β. The widths decrease from about 50 proton inertial length in a region between 0.3 AU and 0.4 AU heliocentric distance to about 15 proton inertial length at distances larger than 10 AU. This quantity is correlated with the β of the MH environments with respect to the heliocentric distance. There is a clear preference for the occurrence of depressions instead of compressions. We discuss these results with regard to the main theories of MHs, the mirror instability and the alternative soliton approach. Although our observational results are more consistent with the soliton theory we favour a combination of both. MHs might be the remnants of initial mirror mode structures which can be described as

  4. Visualization of Macrophage Recruitment to Inflammation Lesions using Highly Sensitive and Stable Radionuclide-Embedded Gold Nanoparticles as a Nuclear Bio-Imaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bong; Lee, Ho Won; Singh, Thoudam Debraj; Li, Yinghua; Kim, Sang Kyoon; Cho, Sung Jin; Lee, Sang-Woo; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Choi, Sangil; Lee, In-Kyu; Lim, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jaetae; Jeon, Yong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and sensitive imaging tools are required to track macrophage migration and provide a better understating of their biological roles in various diseases. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of radioactive iodide-embedded gold nanoparticles (RIe-AuNPs) as a cell tracker for nuclear medicine imaging. To demonstrate this utility, we monitored macrophage migration to carrageenan-induced sites of acute inflammation in living subjects and visualized the effects of anti-inflammatory agents on this process. Macrophage labeling with RIe-AuNPs did not alter their biological functions such as cell proliferation, phenotype marker expression, or phagocytic activity. In vivo imaging with positron-emission tomography revealed the migration of labeled macrophages to carrageenan-induced inflammation lesions 3 h after transfer, with highest recruitment at 6 h and a slight decline of radioactive signal at 24 h; these findings were highly consistent with the data of a bio-distribution study. Treatment with dexamethasone (an anti-inflammation drug) or GSK5182 (an ERRγ inverse agonist) hindered macrophage recruitment to the inflamed sites. Our findings suggest that a cell tracking strategy utilizing RIe-AuNPs will likely be highly useful in research related to macrophage-related disease and cell-based therapies.

  5. Baryon Stopping in Au+Au and p+p collisions at 62 and 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing

    2009-01-01

    BRAHMS has measured rapidity density distributions of protons and antiprotons in both p+p and Au+Au collisions at 62 GeV and 200 GeV. From these distributions the yields of so-called "net-protons", that is the difference between the proton and antiproton yields, can be determined. The rapidity dependence of the net-proton yields from peripheral Au+Au collisions is found to have a similar behaviour to that found for the p+p results, while a quite different rapidity dependence is found for central Au+Au collisions. The net-proton distributions can be used together with model calculations to find the net-baryon yields as a function of rapidity, thus yielding information on the average rapidity loss of beam particles, the baryon transport properties of the medium, and the amount of "stopping" in these collisions.

  6. Baryon Stopping in Au+Au and p+p collisions at 62 and 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahms Collaboration; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; BRAHMS Collaboration

    2009-11-01

    BRAHMS has measured rapidity density distributions of protons and antiprotons in both p+p and Au+Au collisions at 62 GeV and 200 GeV. From these distributions the yields of so-called ‘net-protons’, that is the difference between the proton and antiproton yields, can be determined. The rapidity dependence of the net-proton yields from peripheral Au+Au collisions is found to have a similar behaviour to that found for the p+p results, while a quite different rapidity dependence is found for central Au+Au collisions. The net-proton distributions can be used together with model calculations to find the net-baryon yields as a function of rapidity, thus yielding information on the average rapidity loss of beam particles, the baryon transport properties of the medium, and the amount of ‘stopping’ in these collisions.

  7. The Modification of high-$p_{T}$ hadro-chemistry in Au+Au collisions relative to p+p

    CERN Document Server

    Timmins, Anthony R

    2009-01-01

    We present high transverse momentum, $p_{T}$, pion ($\\pi$), proton ($p$), kaon ($K$), and rho ($\\rho$) spectra measured with the STAR experiment from p+p and Au+Au collisions with \\sNN{200}. We find the $K/\\pi$ ratio to be enhanced in Au+Au \\sNN{200} collisions relative to p+p \\sNN{200} collisions at $p_{T} > 5$ GeV/c. The enhancement persists until $p_{T} \\sim 12$ GeV/c for central Au+Au 200 GeV collisions. We also show the nuclear modification factor, $R_{AA}$, measured at the same center of mass energy, and find $R_{AA}(K)$ and $R_{AA}(p)$ to be higher than $R_{AA}(\\pi)$ at $p_T > 5$ GeV/c. Implications for medium induced modifications of jet chemistry is discussed.

  8. Microstructural evolution of Au/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films: The influence of Au concentration and thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J., E-mail: joelborges@fisica.uminho.pt [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kubart, T.; Kumar, S.; Leifer, K. [Solid-State Electronics, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, Uppsala SE-751 21 (Sweden); Rodrigues, M.S. [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Duarte, N.; Martins, B.; Dias, J.P. [Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Vaz, F. [SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Centro/Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite thin films consisting of a dielectric matrix, such as titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}), with embedded gold (Au) nanoparticles were prepared and will be analysed and discussed in detail in the present work. The evolution of morphological and structural features was studied for a wide range of Au concentrations and for annealing treatments in air, for temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 °C. Major findings revealed that for low Au atomic concentrations (at.%), there are only traces of clustering, and just for relatively high annealing temperatures, T ≥ 500 °C. Furthermore, the number of Au nanoparticles is extremely low, even for the highest annealing temperature, T = 800 °C. It is noteworthy that the TiO{sub 2} matrix also crystallizes in the anatase phase for annealing temperatures above 300 °C. For intermediate Au contents (5 at.% ≤ C{sub Au} ≤ 15 at.%), the formation of gold nanoclusters was much more evident, beginning at lower annealing temperatures (T ≥ 200 °C) with sizes ranging from 2 to 25 nm as the temperature increased. A change in the matrix crystallization from anatase to rutile was also observed in this intermediate range of compositions. For the highest Au concentrations (> 20 at.%), the films tended to form relatively larger clusters, with sizes above 20 nm (for T ≥ 400 °C). It is demonstrated that the structural and morphological characteristics of the films are strongly affected by the annealing temperature, as well as by the particular amounts, size and distribution of the Au nanoparticles dispersed in the TiO{sub 2} matrix. - Highlights: • Au:TiO{sub 2} films were produced by magnetron sputtering and post-deposition annealing. • The Au concentration in the films increases with the Au pellet area. • Annealing induced microstructural changes in the films. • The nanoparticle size evolution with temperature depends on the Au concentration.

  9. Reduction of Fermi level pinning at Au-MoS2 interfaces by atomic passivation on Au surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jinwoo; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Hong, Suklyun

    2017-03-01

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), which is a semiconducting material with direct band gap of ˜1.8 eV, has drawn much attention for application in field effect transistors (FETs). In this connection, it is very important to understand the Fermi level pinning (FLP) which occurs at metal-semiconductor interfaces. It is known that MoS2 has an n-type contact with Au, which is a high work function metal, representing the strong FLP at Au-MoS2 interfaces. However, such FLP can obstruct the attainment of high performance of field effect devices. In this study, we investigate the reduction of FLP at Au-MoS2 interfaces by atomic passivation on Au(111) using first-principles calculations. To reduce the FLP at Au-MoS2 interfaces, we consider sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and hydrogen atoms that can passivate the surface of Au(111). Calculations show that passivating atoms prevent the direct contact between Au(111) and MoS2, and thus FLP at Au-MoS2 interfaces is reduced by weak interaction between atom-passivated Au(111) and MoS2. Especially, FLP is greatly reduced at sulfur-passivated Au-MoS2 interfaces with the smallest binding energy. Furthermore, fluorine-passivated Au(111) can form ohmic contact with MoS2, representing almost zero Schottky barrier height (SBH). We suggest that SBH can be controlled depending on the passivating atoms on Au(111).

  10. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2012-09-27

    Hybrid alloys among gold, palladium and platinum become a new category of catalysts primarily due to their enhanced catalytic effects. Enhancement means not only their effectiveness, but also their uniqueness as catalysts for the reactions that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au compared to Ag, Pd, and Pt helps to produce hollow Au cores first, followed by Pd or Pt shell growth. Continuous and highly crystalline shell growth was observed in Au@Pd core-shell NPs, but the sporadic and porous-like structure was observed in Au@Pt core-shell NPs. Along with hollow core-shell NPs, hollow porous Pt and hollow Au NPs are also prepared from Ag seed NPs. Twin boundaries which are typically observed in large size (>20 nm) Au NPs were not observed in hollow Au NPs. This absence is believed to be due to the role of the hollows, which significantly reduce the strain energy of edges where the two lattice planes meet. In ethanol oxidation reactions in alkaline medium, hollow Au@Pd core-shell NPs show highest current density in forward scan. Hollow Au@Pt core-shell NPs maintain better catalytic activities than metallic Pt, which is thought to be due to the better crystallinity of Pt shells as well as the alloy effect of Au cores. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Approche historiographique des pratiques sportives au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biwole M. Claude Emmanuel Abolo

    2016-01-01

    En 50 ans d'indépendance, le sport camerounais a beaucoup évolué. De 11 en 1970, les fédérations sportives sont passées à plus de 40 aujourd'hui et les titres, trophées et médailles ne se comptent plus depuis lors. Le Cameroun est devenu progressivement une nation où le sport compte et où l'exploit sportif n'est plus méprisé, rejeté, voire vilipendé. Hier assimilés à des brutes épaisses, les sportifs sont aujourd'hui admirés et adulés. Finie l'image négative de marginaux qui leur collait au corps : finis les sous-entendus ridicules où ils étaient classés au bas de l'échelle sociale, juste bons pour bander les muscles et réaliser des performances. C'est cela la plus grande victoire du sport camerounais en 50 ans d'existence. Il a réussi à faire l'unanimité et les performances des sportifs devenues pour toute la nation un modèle, une référence et un réel motif de fierté.

  12. Imaging Prominence Eruptions Out to 1 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Brian E; Linton, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    Views of two bright prominence eruptions trackable all the way to 1AU are here presented, using the heliospheric imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The two events first erupted from the Sun on 2011 June 7 and 2012 August 31, respectively. Only these two examples of clear prominence eruptions observable this far from the Sun could be found in the STEREO image database, emphasizing the rarity of prominence eruptions this persistently bright. For the 2011 June event, a time-dependent 3-D reconstruction of the prominence structure is made using point-by-point triangulation. This is not possible for the August event due to a poor viewing geometry. Unlike the coronal mass ejection (CME) that accompanies it, the 2011 June prominence exhibits little deceleration from the Sun to 1 AU, as a consequence moving upwards within the CME. This demonstrates that prominences are not necessarily tied to the CME's magnetic structure far from the Sun. A mathematical framework is developed ...

  13. Apprentissage administratif : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGE ADMINISTRATIF FORMATION ET DEVELOPPEMENT HR/PMD/RCC L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'employé(e) de commerce et d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 1 place est offerte pour la formation d'employé(e) de commerce 2 places sont offertes pour la formation d'assistant(e) en information documentaire L'apprentissage dure 3 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Bulgarie, Danemark, Espagne,Finlande, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Italie, Norvège...

  14. Modeling the Accretion Structure of AU Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Atwood-Stone, Corwin; Richards, Mercedes T; Budaj, Jan; Peters, Geraldine J

    2012-01-01

    AU Mon is a long-period (11.113 d) Algol-type binary system with a persistent accretion disk that is apparent as double-peaked H-alpha emission. We present previously unpublished optical spectra of AU Mon which were obtained over several years with dense orbital phase coverage. We utilize these data, along with archival UV spectra, to model the temperature and structure of the accretion disk and the gas stream. Synthetic spectral profiles for lines including H-alpha, H-beta, and the Al III and Si IV doublets were computed with the Shellspec program. The best match between the model spectra and the observations is obtained for an accretion disk of inner/outer radius 5.1/23 R_sun, thickness of 5.2 R_sun, density of 1.0e-13 g/cm^3, and maximum temperature of 14000 K, along with a gas stream at a temperature of ~8000 K transferring ~2.4e-9 M_sun/yr. We show H-alpha Doppler tomograms of the velocity structure of the gas, constructed from difference profiles calculated through sequentially subtracting contributions...

  15. IMAGING PROMINENCE ERUPTIONS OUT TO 1 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Brian E.; Howard, Russell A.; Linton, Mark G., E-mail: brian.wood@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    Views of two bright prominence eruptions trackable all the way to 1 AU are here presented, using the heliospheric imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The two events first erupted from the Sun on 2011 June 7 and 2012 August 31, respectively. Only these two examples of clear prominence eruptions observable this far from the Sun could be found in the STEREO image database, emphasizing the rarity of prominence eruptions this persistently bright. For the 2011 June event, a time-dependent 3D reconstruction of the prominence structure is made using point-by-point triangulation. This is not possible for the August event due to a poor viewing geometry. Unlike the coronal mass ejection (CME) that accompanies it, the 2011 June prominence exhibits little deceleration from the Sun to 1 AU, as a consequence moving upwards within the CME. This demonstrates that prominences are not necessarily tied to the CME's magnetic structure far from the Sun. A mathematical framework is developed for describing the degree of self-similarity for the prominence's expansion away from the Sun. This analysis suggests only modest deviations from self-similar expansion, but close to the Sun the prominence expands radially somewhat more rapidly than self-similarity would predict.

  16. Facet selective etching of Au microcrystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gangaiah Mettela and Giridhar U. Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    High-symmetry crystals exhibit isotropic properties. Inducing anisotropy, e.g., by facet selective etching, is considered implausible in face-centered cubic (FCC) metals, particularly gold, which, in addition to being an FCC, is noble. We report for the first time the facet selective etching of Au microcrystals obtained in the form of cuboctahedra and pentagonal rods from the thermolysis of a gold- organic precursor. The selective etching of {111} and {100} facets was achieved using a capping method in which tetraoctylammonium cations selectively cap the {111} facets while Br- ions protect the {100} facets. The exposed facets are oxidized by O2/C1-, yielding a variety of interesting geometries. The facet selective etching of the Au microcrystallites is governed only by the nature of the facets; the geometry of the microcystallite does not appear to play a significant role. The etched surfaces appear rough, but a closer examination reveals well-defined corrugations that are indexable to high hkl values. Such surfaces exhibit enhanced Raman activity.

  17. Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkhouri, Hatem; Poppinga, Wilfred Jelco; Tania, Navessa Padma; Ammit, Alaina; Schuliga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue

  18. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  19. Cholinergic regulation of airway inflammation and remodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Gosens, Reinoud

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the predominant parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airways that regulates bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. Recent findings suggest that acetylcholine regulates additional functions in the airways, including inflammation and remodelling during inflammatory airway disease

  20. Critical role of calpain in inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jingjing; Su, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Calpains are a family of cysteine proteases, implicated in a wide range of cellular calcium-regulated functions. Evidence from previous studies using an inhibitor of calpain indicates that calpain activation is involved in the process of numerous inflammation-associated diseases. As a result of in-depth studies, calpains have been proposed to influence the process of inflammation via a variety of mechanisms. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of recent reports regarding the role of calpain in the process of inflammation, including regulation of immune cell migration, modulation of the activation of inflammatory mediators, degradation of certain associated proteins and induction of cell apoptosis. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute to the investigation of novel therapeutic targets for inflammation-associated diseases. PMID:28101338

  1. Lipid profile, hyperglycaemia, systemic inflammation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid profile, hyperglycaemia, systemic inflammation and anthropometry as ... Methods: A random sample of 233 children, aged 6-18 years, was used for ... test for equality of variances, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations.

  2. Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Behrooz Ebrahimzadehkor; Atamohammad Dorri; Abdolhamed Yapan-Gharavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition is a prevalent complication in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), comprehensive nutritional assessment tool, as the reference standard was used to examine protein-energy wasting (PEW) and inflammation in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study, 48 hemodialysis patients were selected with random sampling. All the patients were interviewed and the MIS of the patients was recorded. T...

  3. The Effects of Exercise on Brain Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the effects of exercise on Tg2576 mice, which are bred to manifest Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (Nichol, Poon et al. 2008). Sedentary mice controls...i AFRL-RH-WP-TN-2010-0001 THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON BRAIN INFLAMMATION 2d Lt Megan C. Durbin Air Force Research Laboratory, 711th...December 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON BRAIN INFLAMMATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in asymptomatic proteinuria

    OpenAIRE

    Paisley, K.E.; Beaman, M; Tooke, J. E.; Mohamed-Ali, V; Lowe, G. D. O.; Shore, A C

    2003-01-01

    Background. Proteinuria is associated with vascular risk and a systemic increase in vascular permeability. Endothelial dysfunction occurs early in atherosclerosis and modulates vascular permeability. Vascular risk and chronic inflammation are associated. This study investigates whether the increased vascular permeability in proteinuria reflects systemic endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation. Methods. Twenty-one patients with asymptomatic proteinuria (1.29 g/24 h; range 0.18 to 3.17...

  5. Partial oxidation of methanol catalyzed with Au/TiO2, Au/ZrO2 and Au/ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramírez, E.; Wang, J. A.; Chen, L. F.; Valenzuela, M. A.; Dalai, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    Mesoporous TiO2, ZrO2 and ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides were synthesized by the sol-gel method and the Au/TiO2, Au/ZrO2 and Au/ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation method using urea solution as a precipitating agent. These materials were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and in situ FTIR-pyridine (FTIR-Py) adsorption. XRD patterns of the samples confirmed the formation of ZrTiO4 phase in the ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides. TEM micrographs showed that nanosized gold particles on the catalyst had an average diameter smaller than 5 nm. Metallic gold (Au0) and oxidized Au species (Aunδ+) on the surface of the catalysts were evidenced by UV-vis and XPS characterization. In the partial oxidation of methanol (POM) reaction, among the six catalysts, the high metallic Au0/Au+ ratio and low surface acidity in the Au/ZrO2 catalysts are chiefly responsible for the highest hydrogen production rate in the whole temperature range between 210 and 300 °C. Methanol decomposition as secondary reaction was favored on TiO2-based catalysts at higher temperature, producing a large amount of CO. Formation of ZrO2-TiO2 solid solution resulted in generation of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; as a result, dehydrogenation and oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol was allowed over Au/ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts.

  6. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Probing the Dissipation Mechanism in Ternary Reactions of 197Au+197Au by Mean Free Path of Nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Long; Li, Xian; Yan, Shi-Wei; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Li, Zhu-Xia

    2009-08-01

    the collision of very heavy nuclei 197Au+197Au at 15 A MeV has been studied within the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. A class of ternary events satisfying nearly complete balance of mass numbers is selected. The experimental mass distributions for the system 197Au+197Au ternary fission fragments, the heaviest (A1), the intermediate (A2) and the lightest (A3), are reproduced well. The mean free path of nucleons in the reaction system is studied and the shorter mean free path is responsible for the ternary fission with three mass comparable fragments, in which the two-body dissipation mechanism plays a dominant role.

  7. Measurement of Direct Photons in Au plus Au Collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aphecetche, L.; Armendariz, R. (R.); Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R.; T.C. Awes; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Baldisseri, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the measurement of direct photons at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The direct photon signal was extracted for the transverse momentum range of 4 GeV/c < pT < 22 GeV/c, using a statistical method to subtract decay photons from the inclusive photon sample. The direct photon nuclear modification factor R-AA was calculated as a function of p(T) for different Au + Au collision centralities using the measured p + p direct photon spectrum and compared to ...

  8. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue.

  9. Hypothalamic inflammation and gliosis in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Mauricio D; Thaler, Joshua P

    2015-10-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation and gliosis are recently discovered mechanisms that may contribute to obesity pathogenesis. Current research in this area suggests that investigation of these central nervous system responses may provide opportunities to develop new weight loss treatments. In rodents, hypothalamic inflammation and gliosis occur rapidly with high-fat diet consumption prior to significant weight gain. In addition, sensitivity or resistance to diet-induced obesity in rodents generally correlates with the presence or absence of hypothalamic inflammation and reactive gliosis (brain response to injury). Moreover, functional interventions that increase or decrease inflammation in neurons and glia correspondingly alter diet-associated weight gain. However, some conflicting data have recently emerged that question the contribution of hypothalamic inflammation to obesity pathogenesis. Nevertheless, several studies have detected gliosis and disrupted connectivity in obese humans, highlighting the potential translational importance of this mechanism. There is growing evidence that obesity is associated with brain inflammation in humans, particularly in the hypothalamus where its presence may disrupt body weight control and glucose homeostasis. More work is needed to determine whether this response is common in human obesity and to what extent it can be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  10. STRETCHING IMPACTS INFLAMMATION RESOLUTION IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J.; Colas, Romain A.; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N.; Langevin, Helene M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 minutes twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, two weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch vs. no stretch for 48 hours, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue. PMID:26588184

  11. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Michelle A; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as "resolution pharmacology."

  12. Resolution of Inflammation: What Controls Its Onset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Michelle A.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; Pinho, Vanessa; Perretti, Mauro; Teixeira, Mauro M.

    2016-01-01

    An effective resolution program may be able to prevent the progression from non-resolving acute inflammation to persistent chronic inflammation. It has now become evident that coordinated resolution programs initiate shortly after inflammatory responses begin. In this context, several mechanisms provide the fine-tuning of inflammation and create a favorable environment for the resolution phase to take place and for homeostasis to return. In this review, we focus on the events required for an effective transition from the proinflammatory phase to the onset and establishment of resolution. We suggest that several mediators that promote the inflammatory phase of inflammation can simultaneously initiate a program for active resolution. Indeed, several events enact a decrease in the local chemokine concentration, a reduction which is essential to inhibit further infiltration of neutrophils into the tissue. Interestingly, although neutrophils are cells that characteristically participate in the active phase of inflammation, they also contribute to the onset of resolution. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate resolution may be instrumental to develop pro-resolution strategies to treat complex chronic inflammatory diseases, in humans. The efforts to develop strategies based on resolution of inflammation have shaped a new area of pharmacology referred to as “resolution pharmacology.” PMID:27199985

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Partially Oxidized Ag/Au Nanoparticles against the Oral Pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis W83

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan S. Holden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in nanotechnology provide opportunities for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. While physicochemical properties of Ag containing nanoparticles (NPs are known to influence the magnitude of their toxicity, it is thought that nanosilver can be made less toxic to eukaryotes by passivation of the NPs with a benign metal. Moreover, the addition of other noble metals to silver nanoparticles, in the alloy formulation, is known to alter the silver dissolution behavior. Thus, we synthesized glutathione capped Ag/Au alloy bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs via the galvanic replacement reaction between maltose coated Ag NPs and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 in 5% aqueous triblock F127 copolymer solution. We then compared the antibacterial activity of the Ag/Au NPs to pure Ag NPs on Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, a key pathogen in the development of periodontal disease. Only partially oxidized glutathione capped Ag and Ag/Au (Au : Ag ≈ 0.2 NPs inhibited the planktonic growth of P. gingivalis W83. This effect was enhanced in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which simulates the oxidative stress environment in the periodontal pocket during chronic inflammation.

  14. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

    2014-06-26

    Multiple factors are involved in the etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pathological changes occur in a variety of cell types long before symptoms become apparent and diagnosis is made. Dysregulation of physiological functions are associated with the activation of immune cells, leading to local and finally systemic inflammation that is characterized by production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Patients suffering from inflammatory diseases often present with diminished levels of antioxidants either due to insufficient dietary intake or, and even more likely, due to increased demand in situations of overwhelming ROS production by activated immune effector cells like macrophages. Antioxidants are suggested to beneficially interfere with diseases-related oxidative stress, however the interplay of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants with the overall redox system is complex. Moreover, molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress in CVD are not fully elucidated. Metabolic dybalances are suggested to play a major role in disease onset and progression. Several central signaling pathways involved in the regulation of immunological, metabolic and endothelial function are regulated in a redox-sensitive manner. During cellular immune response, interferon γ-dependent pathways are activated such as tryptophan breakdown by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Neopterin, a marker of oxidative stress and immune activation is produced by GTP-cyclohydrolase I in macrophages and dendritic cells. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is induced in several cell types to generate nitric oxide (NO). NO, despite its low reactivity, is a potent antioxidant involved in the regulation of the vasomotor tone and of immunomodulatory signaling pathways. NO inhibits the expression and function of IDO. Function of NOS requires the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is produced in

  15. EFFECT OF LASER INPUT ENERGY ON AuSnx INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS FORMATION IN SOLDER JOINTS WITH DIFFERENT THICKNESS OF Au SURFACE FINISH ON PADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Liu; C.Q.Wang; Y.H.Tian; M.Y.Li

    2008-01-01

    Formation of AuSnx intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in laser reflowed solder joints was investigated. The results showed that few IMCs formed at the solder/0.1 μm Au interface. Needlelike AuSn4 IMCs were observed at the solder/0.5 μm Au interface.In Sn-2.0Ag-0.75Cu-3.0Bi and Sn-3.5Ag-O.75Cu solder joints, when the laser input energy was increased, AuSn4 IMCs changed from a layer to needlelike or dendritic distribution at the solder/0.9 μm Au interface. As for the solder joints with 4.0 μm thickness of Au surface finish on pads, AuSn4 , AuSn2, AuSn IMCs, and Au2 Sn phases formed at the interface. Moreover, the content of AuSnx IMCs, such as, AuSn4 and AuSn2, which contained high Sn concentration, would become larger as the laser input energy increased. In the Sn-37Pb solder joints with 0.9 μm or 4.0 μm thickness of the Au surface finish on pads, AuSn4 IMCs were in netlike distribution. The interspaces between them were filled with Pb-rich phases.

  16. Charge optimized many body (COMB) potentials for Pt and Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, A. C.; Akhade, S. A.; Lu, Z.; Liang, T.; Janik, M. J.; Phillpot, S. R.; Sinnott, S. B.

    2017-06-01

    Interatomic potentials for Pt and Au are developed within the third generation charge optimized many-body (COMB3) formalism. The potentials are capable of reproducing phase order, lattice constants, and elastic constants of Pt and Au systems as experimentally measured or calculated by density functional theory. We also fit defect formation energies, surface energies and stacking fault energies for Pt and Au metals. The resulting potentials are used to map a 2D contour of the gamma surface and simulate the tensile test of 16-grain polycrystalline Pt and Au structures at 300 K. The stress-strain behaviour is investigated and the primary slip systems {1 1 1} are identified. In addition, we perform high temperature (1800 K for Au and 2300 K for Pt) molecular dynamics simulations of 30 nm Pt and Au truncated octahedron nanoparticles and examine morphological changes of each particle. We further calculate the activation energy barrier for surface diffusion during simulations of several nanoseconds and report energies of 0.62+/- 0.16 eV for Pt and 1.44+/- 0.06 eV for Au. This initial parameterization and application of the Pt and Au potentials demonstrates a starting point for the extension of these potentials to multicomponent systems within the COMB3 framework.

  17. Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Geon

    2002-05-31

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

  18. Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Geon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

  19. Registration of ‘AU-1101’ peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    AU-1101’ (Reg. No. CV-xxx, PI 661498) is a large-seeded virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. hypogaea var. hypogaea) with high yield and medium maturity, uniform pod size and shape, high grade, superior shelling characters, low oil content, normal oleic acid content, and good flavor. AU-...

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J., E-mail: jiang.wang@empa.ch [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Joining and Interface Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, Duebendorf, Zuerich CH-8600 (Switzerland); Liu, Y.J. [Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Liu, L.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhou, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2011-02-10

    Research highlights: > Thermodynamic optimization of the Au-Sb binary system was updated. > The Si-Sb binary system was assessed from critical review of experimental information. > Thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system was performed. > The phase relations of this ternary system are useful to design Au-based solders. - Abstract: Thermodynamic optimization of the Au-Sb binary system was updated as well as the Si-Sb binary system was assessed thermodynamically using the CALPHAD method based on the critical review of the available experimental information from the published literature. The solution phases including liquid, fcc{sub A}1(Au), diamond{sub A}4(Si) and rhombohedral{sub A}7(Sb), are modeled as substitutional solutions and their excess Gibbs energies are expressed by a Redlich-Kister polynomial. The solubility of Si in the intermetallic compound AuSb{sub 2} is not taken into account because of the lack of experimental information. Combined with previous assessment of the Au-Si binary system, thermodynamic modeling of the Au-Sb-Si ternary system was performed to reproduce well the measured phase equilibria. The liquidus projection and several vertical sections of this ternary system were calculated, which are in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data.

  1. Magnetic order of Au nanoparticle with clean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Ryuju; Ishikawa, Soichiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tetsuya, E-mail: satoh@appi.keio.ac.jp

    2015-11-01

    Au nanoparticles, which are kept in vacuum after the preparation by gas evaporation method, show ferromagnetism even in 1.7 nm in diameter. The intrinsic magnetism is examined by detecting the disappearance of spontaneous magnetization in Au bulk prepared by heating the nanoparticles without exposure to the air. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is not monotonic and the increase in magnetization is observed after Au nanoparticles are exposed to the air. The magnetic behavior can be interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell structure with shell thickness of 0.16±0.01 nm and magnetic moment of (1.5±0.1)×10{sup −2} μ{sub B}/Au atom, respectively. - Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with clean surface were prepared by the gas evaporation method. • The spontaneous magnetization was observed in Au nanoparticles. • Temperature dependent spontaneous magnetization of smaller Au particles was not monotonic. • The magnetic behavior was interpreted by the ferrimagnetic-like core–shell model. • The shell thickness and the magnetic moment per Au atom were estimated.

  2. Growth and structure of Co/Au magnetic thin films; Croissance et structure des couches minces magnetiques Co/Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot, N

    1999-01-14

    We have studied the growth and the crystallographic structure of magnetic ultra thin cobalt/gold films (Co/Au), in order to investigate the correlations between their magnetic and structural properties. Room temperature (R.T.) Co growth on Au (111) proceeds in three stages. Up to 2 Co monolayers (ML), a bilayer island growth mode is observed. Between 2 and 5 ML, coalescence of the islands occurs, covering the substrate surface and a Co/Au mixing is observed resulting from the de-construction of the Herringbone reconstruction. Finally, beyond 5 ML, the CoAu mixing is buried and the Co growth continues in a 3-D growth. Annealing studies at 600 K on this system show a smoothing effect of the Co film, and at the same time, segregation of Au atoms. The quality of the Co/Au interface (sharpness) is not enhanced by the annealing. The local order was studied by SEXAFS and the long range order by GIXRD showing that the Co film has a hexagonal close packed structure, with an easy magnetization axis perpendicular to the surface. From a local order point of view, the Co grows with an incoherent epitaxy and keeps its own bulk parameters. The GIXRD analysis shows a residual strain in the Co film of 4%. The difference observed between the local order analysis and the long range order results is explained in terms of the low dimensions of the diffracting domains. The evolution of film strains, as a function of the Co coverage, shows a marked deviation from the elastic strain theory. Modification of the strain field in the Co film as a function of the Au coverage is studied by GIXRD analysis. The Au growth study, at R.T., shows no evidence of a Au/Co mixing in the case of the Au/Co interface. The Au overlayer adopts a twinned face centred cubic structure on the rough Co film surface. (author)

  3. Formation of CuxAu1− x phases by cold homogenization of Au/Cu nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkova, Alona; Katona, Gabor L; Langer, Gabor A; Sidorenko, Sergey I; Voloshko, Svetlana M

    2014-01-01

    Summary It is shown, by using depth profiling with a secondary neutral mass spectrometer and structure investigations by XRD and TEM, that at low temperatures, at which the bulk diffusion is frozen, a complete homogenization can take place in the Cu/Au thin film system, which leads to formation of intermetallic phases. Different compounds can be formed depending on the initial thickness ratio. The process starts with grain boundary interdiffusion, which is followed by a formation of reaction layers at the grain boundaries that leads to the motion of the newly formed interfaces perpendicular to the grain boundary plane. Finally, the homogenization finishes when all the pure components have been consumed. The process is asymmetric: It is faster in the Au layer. In Au(25nm)/Cu(50nm) samples the final state is the ordered AuCu3 phase. Decrease of the film thicknesses, as expected, results in the acceleration of the process. It is also illustrated that changing the thickness ratio either a mixture of Cu-rich AuCu and AuCu3 phases (in Au(25nm)/Cu(25nm) sample), or a mixture of disordered Cu- as well as Au-rich solid solutions (in Au(25nm)/Cu(12nm) sample) can be produced. By using a simple model the interface velocity in both the Cu and Au layers were estimated from the linear increase of the average composition and its value is about two orders of magnitude larger in Au (ca. 10−11 m/s) than in Cu (ca. 10−13 m/s). PMID:25247132

  4. Cerebellar white matter inflammation and demyelination in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, B.; Sørensen, P. S.; Juhler, M.;

    1993-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology......Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, demyelination, inflammation, immunology, neuropathology...

  5. Evidence from d+Au measurements for final-state suppression of high-p(T) hadrons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2003-08-15

    We report measurements of single-particle inclusive spectra and two-particle azimuthal distributions of charged hadrons at high transverse momentum (high p(T)) in minimum bias and central d+Au collisions at sqrt[s(NN)]=200 GeV. The inclusive yield is enhanced in d+Au collisions relative to binary-scaled p+p collisions, while the two-particle azimuthal distributions are very similar to those observed in p+p collisions. These results demonstrate that the strong suppression of the inclusive yield and back-to-back correlations at high p(T) previously observed in central Au+Au collisions are due to final-state interactions with the dense medium generated in such collisions.

  6. Adsorption behavior of terephthalic acid on Au(1 0 0), Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 1 0) electrodes in neutral solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezawa, Yasunari [Development of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171 (Japan)], E-mail: ikezawa@rikkyo.ac.jp; Masuda, Ryoko [Development of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171 (Japan)

    2008-06-30

    Adsorption of terephthalic acid on Au(1 0 0), Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 1 0) electrodes in neutral solution has been investigated using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential capacity measurements and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At negative potentials, the terephthalate anions in solution adsorb in a flat orientation onto the electrode via the {pi} electrons of the aromatic ring. At positive potentials, the terephthalate anions adsorb in a vertical orientation via the oxygen atoms of one of the carboxyl groups as a form of dianion. At more positive potentials, the anions adsorb in a vertical orientation as a form of hydrogen terephthalate. For the three electrodes examined, the overtone and/or combination bands, due to vertically oriented hydrogen terephthalate, were observed at 2642 and 2517 cm{sup -1}, respectively. For the Au(1 1 1) electrode, STM observations indicated a flat orientation in the form of terephthalic acid.

  7. Emission characteristics of AuSiBe field ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drandarov, N.; Georgieva, St.; Nikolov, B.; Donchev, T. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika)

    A ribbon type AuSiBe alloy field ion source, which combines the advantages of both hairpin type sources and reservoir type sources, has been constructed. The current-voltage characteristics of this source have been investigated. Hysteresis and four differentiated emission regions have been observed for them. By means of scanning electronic microscopy, it has been established that this complicated behaviour of the I-V curves and the angular distribution of the extracted ions are associated with the shape of the emitting surface. The mass spectrum of the emitted ions has been determined by means of an E x B mass filter. Considerable emission of Au[sup +], AuBe[sub 3][sup 2+], Si[sup 2+], Be[sup 2+], AuBe[sub 3][sup +], Be[sup +], Si[sup +], and Au[sup 2+] has been observed. (author).

  8. Viscoelastic nature of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Gupta; Hima K Nagamanasa; Rajesh Ganapathy; Giridhar U Kulkarni

    2015-08-01

    A stable gel of Au nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite is prepared by employing the curing agent of PDMS elastomer as a reducing agent for the formation of Au nanoparticles by an in-situ process. The viscoelastic nature of these gels is very sensitive to the Au nanoparticle loading and the synthetic temperature conditions. Even a very low Au content of 0.09 wt% is sufficient enough to bring in the transition from sponge state to gel state at room temperature. Higher synthetic temperature also forms sponge formation. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy measurements have provided insight into PDMS crosslinking and nanoparticle formation, respectively. The optimization of the gel properties can have direct influence on the processability of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels, with interesting implications in electronic, optical and microfluidic devices.

  9. Regulation of inflammation in cancer by eicosanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Emily R; Huang, Sui; Serhan, Charles N; Panigrahy, Dipak

    2011-11-01

    Inflammation in the tumor microenvironment is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Endogenously produced lipid autacoids, locally acting small molecule lipid mediators, play a central role in inflammation and tissue homeostasis, and have recently been implicated in cancer. A well-studied group of autacoid mediators that are the products of arachidonic acid metabolism include: the prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins and cytochrome P450 (CYP) derived bioactive products. These lipid mediators are collectively referred to as eicosanoids and are generated by distinct enzymatic systems initiated by cyclooxygenases (COX 1 and 2), lipoxygenases (5-LOX, 12-LOX, 15-LOXa, 15-LOXb), and cytochrome P450s, respectively. These pathways are the target of approved drugs for the treatment of inflammation, pain, asthma, allergies, and cardiovascular disorders. Beyond their potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and COX-2 specific inhibitors have been evaluated in both preclinical tumor models and clinical trials. Eicosanoid biosynthesis and actions can also be directly influenced by nutrients in the diet, as evidenced by the emerging role of omega-3 fatty acids in cancer prevention and treatment. Most research dedicated to using eicosanoids to inhibit tumor-associated inflammation has focused on the COX and LOX pathways. Novel experimental approaches that demonstrate the anti-tumor effects of inhibiting cancer-associated inflammation currently include: eicosanoid receptor antagonism, overexpression of eicosanoid metabolizing enzymes, and the use of endogenous anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. Here we review the actions of eicosanoids on inflammation in the context of tumorigenesis. Eicosanoids may represent a missing link between inflammation and cancer and thus could serve as therapeutic target(s) for inhibiting tumor growth.

  10. Anisotropy analysis of energy in Au/Si twist interface%Au/Si扭转界面能各向异性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛红; 张建民

    2007-01-01

    采用改进型嵌入原子法(modified embedded atom method,MEAM),计算了(001)Au/(111)Si、(011)Au/(111)Si、(111)Au/(111)Si、(001)Au/(001)Si、(011)Au/(001)Si、(111)Au/(001)Si六个扭转界面的界面能.结果表明,不论是对于(111)Si还是(001)Si基底,相同基底的界面均按照(111)Au/Si、(001)Au/Si、(011)Au/Si顺序依次增加;从界面能的最小化考虑,Au在(111)Si或(001)Si基底上的外延生长,Au(111)面为择优晶面,择优扭转角分别为θ=2.68°和θ=2.42°.

  11. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  12. Dynamiques sectorielles et emploi au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Palméro, Sandra; Roux, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Plus de dix ans après la mise en place des accords de Barcelone, le constat des effets de l’ouverture des Pays méditerranéens est décevant quant à leur impact sur la croissance et la dynamique d’emploi. Il s’agit dans ce papier d’identifier les secteurs dynamiques d’emploi et de richesse au Maroc et d’apprécier si les choix de spécialisation permettent une croissance de longue période qui absorberait l’excédent de main-d’œuvre. Dans un premier temps, nous analysons les potentiels d’emploi des...

  13. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  14. Deux expositions au Palais de Tokyo

    OpenAIRE

    Glicenstein, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Les expositions « Hardcore » et « GNS », organisées respectivement par Jérôme Sans et Nicolas Bourriaud au Palais de Tokyo début 2003, fournissent une occasion de voir s’exprimer les positions respectives des deux co-directeurs du lieu quant à la pratique du commissariat d’exposition, tout en permettant de jeter un regard sur la première année d’existence de cette nouvelle institution parisienne. En dépit de la différence des démarches adoptées par Sans et Bourriaud – et de la différence des...

  15. The AuScope Geodetic VLBI Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, J E J; Reid, P B; McCulloch, P M; Baynes, B E; Dickey, J M; Shabala, S S; Watson, C S; Titov, O; Ruddick, R; Twilley, R; Reynolds, C; Tingay, S J; Shield, P; Adada, R; Ellingsen, S P; Morgan, J S; Bignall, H E; 10.1007/s00190-013-0626-3

    2013-01-01

    The AuScope geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry array consists of three new 12 m radio telescopes and a correlation facility in Australia. The telescopes at Hobart (Tasmania), Katherine (Northern Territory) and Yarragadee (Western Australia) are co-located with other space geodetic techniques including Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and gravity infrastructure, and in the case of Yarragadee, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) facilities. The correlation facility is based in Perth (Western Australia). This new facility will make significant contributions to improving the densification of the International Celestial Reference Frame in the Southern Hemisphere, and subsequently enhance the International Terrestrial Reference Frame through the ability to detect and mitigate systematic error. This, combined with the simultaneous densification of the GNSS network across Australia will enable the improved measurement of intrapl...

  16. Dynamical Modes and Mechanisms in Ternary Reaction of 197Au+197Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Long; Hao, Hong-Jun; Yuan, Su-Zhen; Li, Xue-Qin

    2011-08-01

    The modes of ternary reaction of 197Au+197Au at an energy of 15A MeV are dynamically studied by the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. Three kinds of modes are found by the time evolution of the configurations of the composite reaction systems: One is the direct mode for which the two time separations of the system happen almost simultaneously. Another is the cascade mode for which a two-step process is clearly shown. The third is oblate mode, a kind of very rare fission event. In this case the composite system deforms to a triangle-like configuration with three necks, and then it forms three equally sized fragments along space-symmetric directions in the reaction plane.

  17. Degree of Chemical Non-equilibrium in Central Au-Au Collisions at RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Habashy, D M; Mohamed, M T; Abbas, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the difference between hadron resonance gas (HRG) calculations for chemical freeze-out parameters at fully and partly chemical equilibria. To this end, the results are compared with the particle ratios measured in central Au-Au collisions at a wide range of nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies, \\hbox{$\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=7.7-200 $GeV} as offered by the STAR experiment. We restrict the discussion to STAR, because of large statistics and overall homogeneity of STAR measurements (one detector) against previous experiments. We find that the matter produced at these energies is likely in fully chemical equilibrium, which is consistent with recent lattice QCD results. The possible improvements by partial chemical equilibrium ($\\gamma_S\

  18. Sideward flow in Au + Au collisions at 400 A.MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramillien, V.; Dupieux, P.; Alard, J. P.; Amouroux, V.; Bastid, N.; Berger, L.; Boussange, S.; Fraysse, L.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Montarou, G.; Montbel, I.; Pras, P.; Basrak, Z.; Belayev, I. M.; Bini, M.; Blaich, Th.; Buta, A.; Caplar, R.; Cerruti, C.; Cindro, N.; Coffin, J. P.; Donà, R.; Erö, J.; Fan, Z. G.; Fintz, P.; Fodor, Z.; Freifelder, R.; Frolov, S.; Gobbi, A.; Gregorian, Y.; Guillaume, G.; Hartnack, C.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hölbling, S.; Houari, A.; Jeong, S. C.; Jundt, F.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Korchagin, Y.; Kotte, R.; Krämer, M.; Khun, C.; Legrand, I.; Lebedev, A.; Maguire, C.; Manko, V.; Maurenzig, P.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Mösner, J.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Poggi, G.; Rami, F.; Reisdorf, W.; Sadchikov, A.; Schüll, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Smolyankin, S.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Tezkratt, R.; Trzaska, M.; Vasiliev, M. A.; Wagner, P.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wohlfarth, D.; Zhilin, A. V.; FOPI Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    We present new experimental data obtained with the FOPI detector at SIS, for the Au + Au heavy-ion collisions at 400 A MeV incident energy. The sideward flow, determined from a method without reaction-plane reconstruction, and the nuclear stopping are studied as a function of the centrality of the collisions. In order to study the nuclear in-medium effects, which act on the NN cross sections and potential and hence on experimental observables like the nuclear-matter flow and stopping, these results are compared with the predictions of two different QMD versions. The first one offers a fully microscopic calculation of the cross sections and potential in the G-matrix formalism and naturally includes the in-medium effects (this version is for the first time confronted with experiment). The second one uses a standard Skyrme potential plus a momentum-dependent term in order to mimic the in-medium effects.

  19. PHENIX Measurements of Single Electrons from Charm and Bottom Decays at Midrapidity in Au + Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinchey, D.

    2016-12-01

    Heavy quarks are an ideal probe of the quark gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions. They are produced in the initial hard scattering and therefore experience the full evolution of the medium. PHENIX has previously measured the modification of heavy quark production in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV via electrons from semileptonic decays, which indicated substantial modifications of the parent hadron momentum distribution. The PHENIX barrel silicon vertex detector (VTX), installed in 2011, allows for the separation of electrons from charm and bottom hadron decays through the use of displaced vertex measurements. These proceedings present the results of the completed analysis of the 2011 data set using the VTX.

  20. Strangeness Production in Au+Au Reactions at √ {SNN} = 62.4\\ GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsene, Ionut-Cristian

    The measurement of strangeness is a valuable tool for understanding the reaction mechanism of nuclear collisions since all the strange particles need to be created during the reaction. Also, strangeness enhancement is one of the predicted signals of the QGP. In the present work we will discuss the behaviour of the strangeness production (i.e. K/π ratio) with rapidity and baryo-chemical potential in Au+Au collisions at 62.4 A GeV. In this particular reaction, BRAHMS is able to identify particles over 3.5 rapidity units and thereby cover a wide range of bar {p}/p ratios, including the fragmentation region. We will show spectra and ratios of identified particles as a function of pT and rapidity.

  1. 200 A GeV Au + Au collisions serve a nearly perfect quark-gluon liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huichao; Bass, Steffen A; Heinz, Ulrich; Hirano, Tetsufumi; Shen, Chun

    2011-05-13

    A new robust method to extract the specific shear viscosity (η/s)(QGP) of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at temperatures T(c) QGP with a microscopic transport model for hadronic freeze-out we find for 200 A GeV Au + Au collisions that v2/ε is a universal function of multiplicity density (1/S)(dN(ch)/dy) that depends only on the viscosity but not on the model used for computing the initial fireball eccentricity ε. Comparing with measurements we find 1QGP) < 2.5 where the uncertainty range is dominated by model uncertainties for the values of ε used to normalize the measured v2.

  2. Collective global dynamics in Au+Au collisions at the BNL AGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravina, L.; Csernai, L. P.; Lévai, P.; Strottman, D.

    1994-10-01

    Signatures of collective effects are studied in the quark gluon string model and in the fluid dynamical model for Au+Au collisions at 11.6A GeV/c. In the fluid dynamical model the dependence of observables on the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation in the equation of state is pointed out although the maximal total amount of pure QGP formed is only about 8 fm3 in these reactions. In contrast to the baryon rapidity distribution, the in-plane transverse flow and especially the squeeze-out effect are particularly sensitive to the EOS. In the QGSM the lifetime and extent of baryon density in strings are studied. The QGSM picture is very similar to the one obtained in the fluid dynamical model with a pure hadronic EOS.

  3. DEPENDENCE OF DOMAIN STRUCTURES ON Au THICKNESS IN Co/Au MULTILAYER FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic force images and surface topography images of sputtered Co/Au multilayer films in remnant state were measured by magnetic force microscopy. From the surface magnetic structures shown in the magnetic force images it can be seen that the domain pattern and size vary with the increase of the thickness t of the non-ferromagnetic Au layer remarkably. With the measurements of the effective perpendicular anisotropy Ku and the domain period d, it was found that there are similar trends of d and Ku as functions of t. The variations of the domain pattern and size were qualitatively interpreted in terms of magnetic domain theory, the theoretical relations of d and the domain wall energy ow vs t were calculated. As t = 8.5 AL(1AL=0.235nm), the largest ow is 11mJ/m2.

  4. A Terrestrial Planet in a ~1 AU Orbit Around One Member of a ~15 AU Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, A; Shin, I -G; Porritt, I; Skowron, J; Han, C; Yee, J C; Kozłowski, S; Choi, J -Y; Poleski, R; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Mróz, P; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Gaudi, B S; Christie, G W; Drummond, J; McCormick, J; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Tan, T -G; Albrow, M; DePoy, D L; Hwang, K -H; Jung, Y K; Lee, C -U; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Abe, F; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Fukunaga, D; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Larsen, P; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Namba, S; Ohnishi, K; Philpott, L; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Tsurumi, N; Wada, K; Yamai, N; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A; Shvartzvald, Y; Maoz, D; Kaspi, S; Friedmann, M

    2014-01-01

    We detect a cold, terrestrial planet in a binary-star system using gravitational microlensing. The planet has low mass (2 Earth masses) and lies projected at $a_{\\perp,ph}$ ~ 0.8 astronomical units (AU) from its host star, similar to the Earth-Sun distance. However, the planet temperature is much lower, T<60 Kelvin, because the host star is only 0.10--0.15 solar masses and therefore more than 400 times less luminous than the Sun. The host is itself orbiting a slightly more massive companion with projected separation $a_{\\perp,ch}=$10--15 AU. Straightforward modification of current microlensing search strategies could increase their sensitivity to planets in binary systems. With more detections, such binary-star/planetary systems could place constraints on models of planet formation and evolution. This detection is consistent with such systems being very common.

  5. Charge-Asymmetry Dependence of Proton Elliptic Flow in 200 GeV Au +Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; STAR Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The chiral magnetic wave (CMW) is predicted to manifest a finite electric quadrupole moment in the quark-gluon plasma produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. This quadrupole moment generates a divergence in the azimuthal anisotropy (v2) of positively and negatively charged particles such that v2(+) charge asymmetry (Ach) of particles in the same rapidity window. The Ach dependence of v 2 has already been observed in the cases of charged pions and kaons. We present preliminary STAR measurements of v 2 for protons and anti-protons as a function of Ach from √sNN = 200 GeV Au +Au collisions for different centrality classes. The results are then compared with the previously reported results of pions and kaons. For the STAR Collaboration.

  6. Propagation of Fluctuations in Au+Au Collisions at FAIR energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, S; Bashir, S; jahan, H; Ahmad, N; Chattopadhyay, S

    2014-01-01

    Event by event fluctuations of particle multiplicities and their ratios are considered to be sensitive probes to the exotic phenomena in high energy heavy ion collisions like phase transtion or the occurence of critical point. These phenomena might take place at different time after the collision based on fulfilling the required conditions at a particular time. Fluctuations are therefore expected to show non-monotonic behaviour at the of time of occurence of these phenomena. Experimentally, fluctuations are measured at freezeout. In this work, using the hybrid version of the UrQMD event generator, we have investigated the propagation of fluctuations of particle multiplicities, their ratios and the ratio of total positive and negative charges in AuAu collisions at E_{lab} < 90 AGeV. Two commonly used experimental measures i.e., {\\sigma^2}/mean and {\

  7. On the thermalization of dense hadronic matter in Au + Au collisions at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    De, Somnath; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    The conditions of local thermodynamic equilibrium of baryons (non-strange, strange) and mesons (strange) are presented for central Au + Au collisions at FAIR energies using the microscopic transport model UrQMD. The net particle density, longitudinal-to-transverse pressure anisotropy and inverse slope parameters of the energy spectra of non-strange and strange hadrons are calculated inside a cell in the central region within rapidity window $|y| < 1.0$ at different time steps after the collision. We observed that the strangeness content is dominated by baryons at all energies, however contribution from mesons become significant at higher energies. The time scale obtained from local pressure (momentum) isotropization and thermalization of energy spectra are nearly equal and found to decrease with increase in laboratory energy. The equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the system are obtained with statistical thermal model. The time evolution of the entropy densities at FAIR energies are found very similar...

  8. Azimuthal Anisotropy in U +U and Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, v2{2 } and v2{4 }, for charged hadrons from U +U collisions at √{sNN }=193 GeV and Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV . Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the energy deposited by spectators in zero degree calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of v2{2 } on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U +U collisions. We also show that v2 vs multiplicity can be better described by models, such as gluon saturation or quark participant models, that eliminate the dependence of the multiplicity on the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  9. Nuclear Stopping in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bearden, I G; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Cibor, J; Debbe, R; Enger, E; Gaardhøje, J J; Germinario, M; Hagel, K; Hansen, O; Holm, A; Holme, A K; Ito, H; Jipa, A; Jundt, F; Jordre, J I; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Kozik, T; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lee, Y K; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Makeev, A; Mikelsen, M; Murray, M; Natowitz, J B; Nielsen, B S; Norris, J; Olchanski, K; Ouerdane, D; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Ristea, C; Röhrich, D; Samset, B H; Sandberg, D; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S

    2004-01-01

    Transverse momentum spectra and rapidity densities, dN/dy, of protons, anti-protons, and net--protons (p-pbar) from central (0-5%) Au+Au collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 200 GeV were measured with the BRAHMS experiment within the rapidity range 0 < y < 3. The proton and anti-proton dN/dy decrease from mid-rapidity to y=3. The net-proton yield is roughly constant for y<1 at dN/dy~7, and increases to dN/dy~12 at y~3. The data show that collisions at this energy exhibit a high degree of transparency and that the linear scaling of rapidity loss with rapidity observed at lower energies is broken. The energy loss per participant nucleon is estimated to be 73 +- 6 GeV.

  10. Azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at sqrtsNN = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; De Moura, M M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Foley, K J; Fomenko, K; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, Thomas; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Urkinbaev, A R; Van Buren, G; Van, M; Leeuwen; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, V P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vznuzdaev, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2004-01-01

    The results from the STAR Collaboration on directed flow ($v_1$), elliptic flow ($v_2$), and the fourth harmonic ($v_4$) in the anisotropic azimuthal distribution of particles from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrtsNN = 200$ GeV are summarized and compared with results from other experiments and theoretical models. Results for identified particles are presented and fit with a Blast Wave model. For $v_2$, scaling with the number of constituent quarks and parton coalescence is discussed. For $v_4$, scaling with $v_2^2$ and quark coalescence predictions for higher harmonic flow is discussed. The different anisotropic flow analysis methods are compared and nonflow effects are extracted from the data.

  11. Autopistas: AU-1 25 de Mayo y AU-6 Perito Moreno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available Highways AU-1 and AU-6, approximately 17 km. long, were constructed for the purpose of solving the serious traffic problems in Buenos Aires, a city of nine million inhabitants and an evergrowing number of cars. A computer program was created for the design based on the geometric shape of the highway and the position of the supports. Using this, all elements composing the structure were calculated and the framework was sized. This programme made it possible to complete a stretch of 150 metres per week. The very rapid construction was carried out through self-supporting arches made of metallic beams held in place by brackets. The brackets were fitted in specially designed grooves in the major supports of the highway.

    Las autopistas AU-1 y AU-6, con una longitud aproximada de 17 km, se realizaron con objeto de resolver el grave problema de infraestructura vial del Municipio de Buenos Aires, ciudad de nueve millones de habitantes y con un parque de vehículos en rápido crecimiento. Para el proyecto se creó un programa de ordenador con el que, partiendo de la definición geométrica de la autopista y de la posición de las pilas, se calculan todos los elementos que componen la estructura y se dimensionan las armaduras. Este programa permitió proyectar un tramo (150 m por semana. La construcción, a un ritmo muy rápido, se llevó a cabo mediante cimbras autoportantes compuestas por vigas metálicas apoyadas sobre ménsulas, las cuales a su vez apoyan en unos nichos dejados en las pilas.

  12. Differential flow of protons in Au+Au collisions at AGS energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, P.K. E-mail: pradip@iopb.res.in; Cassing, W

    2002-12-30

    We study the proton sideward and elliptic differential flow for Au+Au collisions at AGS energies (2-8 A GeV) in a microscopic relativistic transport model that includes all baryon resonances up to a mass of 2 GeV as well as string degrees of freedom for the higher hadronic excitations. In order to explore the sensitivity of the various differential flows to the nuclear equation of state (EoS) we use three different parameterizations of the scalar and vector mean-fields, i.e., NL2 (soft), NL23 (medium) and NL3 (hard), with their momentum dependence fitted to the experimental Schroedinger equivalent potential (at normal nuclear matter density {rho}{sub 0}) up to kinetic energies of 1 GeV. We calculate the excitation function of sideward and elliptic flow within these parameter sets for Au+Au collisions and compare with the recent data from the E895 Collaboration as a function of rapidity, impact parameter and transverse momentum, respectively. We find that the best description of the differential data is provided by a rather 'stiff' EoS at 2 A GeV (NL3) while at higher bombarding energies (4-8 A GeV) a 'medium' EoS leads to the lowest {chi}{sup 2} with respect to the data. However, the differences in the transverse and elliptic flows (from the different parameter sets) become of minor significance at 4-8 A GeV. We attribute this insensitivity to a similar reduction of the vector potential in all models and to the dominance of string degrees of freedom at these bombarding energies.

  13. Thiophenol and thiophenol radical and their complexes with gold clusters Au 5 and Au 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, F.; Kryachko, E. S.

    2004-12-01

    The longstanding controversy between experiment and theory regarding which conformer of thiophenol, planar or perpendicular, is the most stable and what is the magnitude of the corresponding rotational barrier of the S-H group is discussed. We propose a variety of rather modest high-level computational methods within the density theory, which corroborate the experimental data. These methods demonstrate that the planar structure of thiophenol is the most stable and the magnitude of the rotational barrier falls within the experimental range of 3.35±0.84 kJ mol -1. However, the barrier is of the order of RT at room temperature, which might prevent to clearly identify the most stable conformer of thiophenol in experiments and leads to a large-amplitude motion of the thiolic hydrogen. On the other hand, such low value of the barrier may lead to some error in evaluating the thermodynamic properties of thiophenol within the rigid-rotor-harmonic oscillator model, in particular for the bond dissociation enthalpy. We also show the existence of a large entropy contribution to the Gibbs free energy difference between the planar and perpendicular conformers which is the order of the rotational barrier (≈4 kJ mol -1). This might be of interest for experimental study. The most stable complexes of thiophenol with the gold clusters Au 5 and Au 6 are also investigated. It is shown that the sulfur atom prefers to anchor to two- and three-coordinated atoms of gold in these clusters to form a strongly directional gold-sulfur bond. The hydrogen abstraction from the S-H group of thiophenol bonded to the two-coordinated gold atom in Au 5 yields the bridging Au-S dibond and results in a spectacular reduction of the bond dissociation energy of thiophenol by nearly a factor of three.

  14. Vertical section of Au{sub 2}Y-Ag{sub 2}Y in Au-Ag-Y system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K.H. [Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650221 (China)], E-mail: zhangkh@ipm.com.cn; Yin, J.M. [Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650221 (China)

    2008-04-24

    A vertical section at 33.3 at.% Y in the Au-Ag-Y ternary system was studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, differential thermal analysis, and optical microscopy. An allotropic phase transformation of the Au{sub 2}Y phase in the Au-Y binary system is found. The Au{sub 2}Y phase transforms from a room temperature phase {alpha} to a high-temperature modification {beta} at about 778 deg. C. The {alpha}-Au{sub 2}Y has a tetragonal MoSi{sub 2}-type structure with the lattice parameters a = 0.3692 nm, c = 0.8981 nm; the {beta}-Au{sub 2}Y has an orthorhombic CeCu{sub 2}-type structure with the lattice parameters a = 0.4658 nm, b = 0.7340 nm, and c = 0.8200 nm. No allotropic phase transformation of the Ag{sub 2}Y phase in the Ag-Y binary system is found. The vertical section of the Au{sub 2}Y-Ag{sub 2}Y in the Au-Ag-Y ternary phase diagram established on the basis of these studies consists of seven phase regions: L (liquid phase region), {alpha} (MoSi{sub 2}-type structure), {beta} (CeCu{sub 2}-type structure), {alpha} + {beta}, {alpha} + L, {beta} + L, and {alpha} + {beta} + L.

  15. Direct observation of Dijets in central Au+Au Ccllisions at VsNN=200  GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Botje, M.A.J.; Castillo, J.; Grebenyuk, O.; Mischke, A.; Peitzmann, T.; Russcher, M.J.; Snellings, R.J.M.; van der Kolk, N.

    2006-01-01

    The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider reports measurements of azimuthal correlations of high transverse momentum (pT) charged hadrons in Au+Au collisions at higher pT than reported previously. As pT is increased, a narrow, back-to-back peak emerges above the decreasing backgr

  16. Structure and magnetic anisotropy evolution in Au/Co/Au sandwiches upon thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawro, A.; Kurant, Z.; Baczewski, L.T.; Pankowski, P.; Pelka, J.B.; Maneikis, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Bojko, A.; Zablotskii, V.; Maziewski, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Bialystok, ul. Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland)

    2006-01-01

    The correlation between structural and magnetic properties of Au(111)/Co(0001)/Au(111) sandwiches with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, has been studied in details. Thermal treatment in the range between room temperature and 300 C at various stages of samples growth process as well as after its completion is applied as a factor modifying the structure of studied specimens. Annealing at 150 C does not affect substantially either crystalline structure or perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. At 250 C the RHEED pattern of Co layers reveals the loss of the lattice coherence with Au underlayer and the analysis of synchrotron radiation reflectometry leads to the conclusion that the continuity of Co layers is lost. Structural evolution upon thermal treatment is well correlated with changes of magnetic anisotropy studied by magnetooptical Kerr effect. After annealing at 250 C magnetization switches from out-of-plane to in-plane orientation, which is explained in terms of interfacial and magnetoelastic contributions to the sample magnetic anisotropy. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Adipose Tissue Remodeling as Homeostatic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Itoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated indicating that obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by dynamic changes in cellular composition and function, which may be referred to as “adipose tissue remodeling”. Among stromal cells in the adipose tissue, infiltrated macrophages play an important role in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that a paracrine loop involving saturated fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-α derived from adipocytes and macrophages, respectively, aggravates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Notably, saturated fatty acids, which are released from hypertrophied adipocytes via the macrophage-induced lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 complex, thereby activating macrophages. Such a sustained interaction between endogenous ligands derived from parenchymal cells and pathogen sensors expressed in stromal immune cells should lead to chronic inflammatory responses ranging from the basal homeostatic state to diseased tissue remodeling, which may be referred to as “homeostatic inflammation”. We, therefore, postulate that adipose tissue remodeling may represent a prototypic example of homeostatic inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying homeostatic inflammation may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat obesity-related complications.

  18. Inflammation as a cause of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory markers are highly amenable to appraise and adjust and could already serve as a diagnostic indicator and also as a predictor of prognosis over the management of many health problems. Inflammation is implicated in venous thromboembolism (VTE). However there is still an intense curiosity about whether it is a cause or only a consequence of the thromboembolic process. The more likely scenario is that some inflammatory mediators contribute to the development of VTE, which per se induces an inflammatory reaction. Here we will review evidences supporting the role of inflammation as a cause of VTE. Genetic association studies have provided possible links between inflammation-related genetic variants, especially cytokines (e.g. IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13), and VTE, leading to establish the fundamental role of genetic background in predisposition to VTE and variable inflammatory processes in individuals. Additionally, several inflammation-related conditions including aging, autoimmune disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hormone replacement therapy, infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, overweight or obesity, pregnancy or postpartum, respiratory diseases, and trauma have been associated with an increased risk of VTE. At this moment, despite their theoretical potential, to achieve the implementation of the inflammation-related laboratory tests in practice is a long task and future studies with larger sample sizes are required to address whether the properties of the inflammatory process, particularly intensity and duration, are useful in determining the risk of VTE and following outcomes.

  19. Gold surfaces and nanoparticles are protected by Au(0)-thiyl species and are destroyed when Au(I)-thiolates form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    that it is the noble character of gold and nanoparticle surfaces that destabilizes Au(I)-thiolates. Bonding results from large van der Waals forces, influenced by covalent bonding induced through s-d hybridization and charge polarization effects that perturbatively mix in some Au(I)-thiolate character. A simple method......The synthetic chemistry and spectroscopy of sulfur-protected gold surfaces and nanoparticles is analyzed, indicating that the electronic structure of the interface is Au(0)-thiyl, with Au(I)-thiolates identified as high-energy excited surface states. Density-functional theory indicates...... for quantifying these contributions is presented, revealing that a driving force for nanoparticle growth is nobleization, minimizing Au(I)-thiolate involvement. Predictions that Brust-Schiffrin reactions involve thiolate anion intermediates are verified spectroscopically, establishing a key feature needed...

  20. Ionic Charge State Distribution of Au Plasma for 7-Ion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present work extends the previous work[2] on 5-ion system to consider 7-ion system (i.e., Au47+ ~ Au53+). It is found that more highly charged ions, e.g., Au53+, Au54+ etc., could be able to be neglected, however, less highly charged ions, e.g., Au47+, Au46+ etc., are rather important. Therefore, a new idea to consider 8-ion system, i.e., Au46+ ~ Au53+, is under way. As a supplement, we discuss the simultaneous reaction, which would be important in this sort of works.

  1. Au@AuPt nanoparticles embedded in B-doped graphene: A superior electrocatalyst for determination of rutin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianlan; Yang, Guangming; Feng, Shaoping; Shi, Ling; Huang, Zhaolong; Pan, Haibo; Liu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    A hydrothermal approach was used to prepare B-doped graphene with B2O3 as reductant and boron source. Results reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully embedded into graphene with a high content of a total B species (2.85 at.%). Then, B-doped graphene was exfoliated further into monolayer nanosheet by impregnating Au@AuPt core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AuPt NPs) because boron atom creates a net positive charge, which facilitates Au@AuPt NPs adsorption to form Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped graphene hybrid nanocatalysts. After that, the Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped hybrid suspension was dropped on glassy carbon electrode for sensing rutin. In this way, the dispersed carboxyl units of B-doped graphene can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making rutin enrich easily on modified electrode surface to enhance the electrochemical response. At the same time, its electrochemical mechanism on the modified electrode was elucidated using cyclic voltammetry. It was found that its electrochemical behavior on modified electrode surface was a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process, and the charge transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer number (n) were 0.296 and 2, respectively. This electrochemical sensor for rutin provided a wide linear response range of 2.00 × 10-9-4.00 × 10-6 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.84 × 10-10 M. The proposed method was applied successfully to selective determination of rutin in Tablets with acceptable recovery range (97.23-101.65%).

  2. 从头计算方法比较研究B2Au4,Al2Au4和BAlAu4的几何和电子结构%A Comparative Ab initio Study of the Geometric and Electronic Structures of B2Au4, Al2Au4 and BAlAu4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文志; 卢章辉; 李思殿

    2014-01-01

    Au/H similarity is a hot topic in chemistry. Here, we report the theoretical prediction of new members of the Au/H analogy family:covalent B2Au4, ionic Al2Au4, and BAlAu4. A comparative study of the geometric and electronic structures of electron-deficient B2Au4, Al2Au4, and BAlAu4 was performed based on density and wave functional theories. Detailed orbital analyses, adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP), and electron localization function (ELF) analyses were performed. Ab initio theoretical evidence strongly suggests that the ground state of slightly distorted C2 B2Au4 is a covalent complex containing two B―Au―B three centers-two electrons (3c-2e) bonds. Unexpectedly, C3v Al+(AlAu4)-and C3v Al+(BAu4)-are predicted to have a salt-like composition with three X―Au―Al 3c-2e bonds (X=Al in Al2Au4, X=B in BAlAu4). Al2Au4 and BAlAu4 represent the first examples of bridging gold bonds in ionic-deficient systems. The adiabatic and vertical detachment energies of the anions were calculated to facilitate their future experimental characterization. Bridging gold addressed in this work provides an interesting bonding mode for covalent and ionic-deficient systems, and may aid in designing new materials and catalysts with highly dispersed Au atoms.%Au/H相似性的研究是现代化学中的一个热门话题.我们从理论上报道Au/H相似的新成员:共价化合物B2Au4,离子化合物Al2Au4和BAlAu4.采用密度泛函和波函数理论方法对比研究了缺电子体系B2Au4、Al2Au4和BAlAu4的几何和电子结构.详细讨论了它们基态结构的轨道、适应性自然密度划分(AdNDP)和电子局域函数(ELF)分析.计算结果表明稍微扭曲变形的C2 B2Au4是基态结构,在这个共价化合物中含有两个B―Au―B三中心二电子(3c-2e)键.然而C3v Al+(AlAu4)-和C3v Al+(BAu4)-被研究证明是含有三个X―Au―Al三中心二电子键的类盐化合物(在Al2Au4中X=Al, BAlAu4中X=B). Al2Au4和BAlAu4是至今为止首例

  3. Microbe- and danger-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Achille; Granucci, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The ability of the immune system to give rise to an effective response against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self-tissues has always been an object of keen interest for immunologist. Over the years, different theories have been proposed to explain if and how the immune system is able to discriminate between self and non-self, including the Infectious Non-self theory from Charles Janeway and Polly Matzinger's Danger theory. Nowadays we know Janeway's theory is largely true, however the immune system does respond to injured, stressed and necrotic cells releasing danger signals (DAMPs) with a potent inflammatory response. To avoid unwanted prolonged autoimmune reactions, though, danger-induced inflammation should be tightly regulated. In the present review we discuss how prototypic DAMPs are able to induce inflammation and the peculiarity of danger-induced inflammation, as opposed to a complete immune response to fight pathogen invasions.

  4. Neurobiology of inflammation-associated anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gautron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling data demonstrate that inflammation-associated anorexia directly results from the action of pro-inflammatory factors, primarily cytokines and prostaglandins E2, on the nervous system. For instance, the aforementioned pro-inflammatory factors can stimulate the activity of peripheral sensory neurons, and induce their own de novo synthesis and release into the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of a specific neural circuit that shuts down appetite. The present article describes the different cell groups and neurotransmitters involved in inflammation-associated anorexia and examines how they interact with neural systems regulating feeding such as the melanocortin system. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated anorexia will help to develop appetite stimulants for cancer and AIDS patients.

  5. An overview of inflammation: mechanism and consequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afsar U. AHMED

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential response provided by the immune systems that ensures the survival during infection and tissue injury.Inflammatory responses are essential for the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis.The molecular mechanism of inflammation is quite a complicated process which is initiated by the recognition of specific molecular patterns associated with either infection or tissue injury.The entire process of the inflammatory response is mediated by several key regulators involved in the selective expression of proinflammatory molecules.Prolonged inflammations are often associated with severe detrimental side effects on health.Alterations in inflammatory responses due to persistent inducers or genetic variations are on the rise over the last couple of decades,causing a variety of inflammatory diseases and pathophysiological conditions.

  6. Early adversity, neural development, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Taylor, Shelley E; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-12-01

    Early adversity is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Although altered neural development is believed to be one pathway linking early adversity to psychopathology, it has rarely been considered a pathway linking early adversity to poor physical health. However, this is a viable pathway because the central nervous system is known to interact with the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In support of this pathway, early adversity has been linked to changes in neural development (particularly of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex), HPA axis and ANS dysregulation, and higher levels of inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, can be detrimental to physical health when prolonged. In this review, we present these studies and consider how altered neural development may be a pathway by which early adversity increases inflammation and thus risk for adverse physical health outcomes.

  7. Unexplained Aspects of Anemia of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Price

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia of inflammation (AI, also known as anemia of chronic inflammation or anemia of chronic disease was described over 50 years ago as anemia in association with clinically overt inflammatory disease, and the findings of low plasma iron, decreased bone marrow sideroblasts and increased reticuloendothelial iron. Pathogenic features underlying AI include a mild shortening of red cell survival, impaired erythropoietin production, blunted responsiveness of the marrow to erythropoietin, and impaired iron metabolism mediated by inflammatory cytokines and the iron regulatory peptide, hepcidin. Despite marked recent advances in understanding AI, gaps remain, including understanding of the pathogenesis of AI associated with “noninflammatory” or mildly inflammatory diseases, the challenge of excluding iron deficiency anemia in the context of concomitant inflammation, and understanding more precisely the contributory role of hepcidin in the development of AI in human inflammatory diseases.

  8. Inflammation: maladies, models, mechanisms and molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A G; Beart, P M

    2016-02-01

    The continued focus of attention on the diversity of mechanisms underpinning inflammation has improved our understanding of the potential to target specific pathways in the inflammatory network to achieve meaningful therapeutic gains. In this themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology our scope was deliberately broad, ranging across both acute and chronic disease in various organs. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms receive attention as does the phenotype of macrophages. Whilst the manifestations of neuro-inflammation are less obvious than those in peripheral tissues, central innate and adaptive immunity in brain and the M1/M2 phenotypes of microglia are topics of special interest. The contributions to the inflammatory milieu of cytokines, chemokines and associated signalling cascades are considered. Overall, the coverage herein advances the basic science underpinning our understanding of inflammation and emphasizes its importance in different pathologies.

  9. Glucocorticoids and central nervous system inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Klaus; Ogle, William O; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2002-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are well known for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties in the periphery and are therefore widely and successfully used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, or transplant rejection. This led to the assumption that GCs are uniformly anti-inflammatory in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, GCs are also used in the treatment of CNS inflammation. There is abundant evidence that an inflammatory reaction is mounted within the CNS following trauma, stroke, infection, and seizure, which can augment the brain damage. However an increasing number of studies indicate that the concept of GCs being universally immunosuppressive might be oversimplified. This article provides a review of the current literature, showing that under certain circumstances GCs might fail to have anti-inflammatory effects and sometimes even enhance inflammation.

  10. Neurovascular aspects of skin neurogenic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubdool, Aisah A; Brain, Susan D

    2011-12-01

    Neurogenic inflammation is involved in skin inflammation. It is hypothesized that it is involved in the pathogenesis of the common chronic cutaneous vascular disorder rosacea, but the exact mechanism of action is currently unknown. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) are widely expressed on primary sensory neuron endings and non-neuronal cells such as keratinocytes. Here we describe the potential for TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors to be involved in the pathophysiology of rosacea due to their polymodal activation, including cold and hot temperature, pungent products from vegetable and spices, reactive oxygen species, and mechanical stimuli. We discuss the role of both receptors and the sensory neuropeptides that they release in inflammation and pain sensation and evidence suggesting that both TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors may be promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of the inflammatory symptoms of rosacea.

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Andrew N J; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-09-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electron transfer catalysis with monolayer protected Au25 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, Sabrina; Hesari, Mahdi; Polo, Federico; Maran, Flavio

    2012-08-01

    Au25L18 (L = S(CH2)2Ph) clusters were prepared and characterized. The resulting monodisperse clusters were reacted with bis(pentafluorobenzoyl) peroxide in dichloromethane to form Au25L18+ quantitatively. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the corresponding electron transfer (ET) reactions were characterized via electrochemistry and thermochemical calculations. Au25L18+ was used in homogeneous redox catalysis experiments with a series of sym-substituted benzoyl peroxides, including the above peroxide, bis(para-cyanobenzoyl) peroxide, dibenzoyl peroxide, and bis(para-methoxybenzoyl) peroxide. Peroxide dissociative ET was catalyzed using both the Au25L18/Au25L18- and the Au25L18+/Au25L18 redox couples as redox mediators. Simulation of the CV curves led to determination of the ET rate constant (kET) values for concerted dissociative ET to the peroxides. The ET free energy ΔG° could be estimated for all donor-acceptor combinations, leading to observation of a nice activation-driving force (log kETvs. ΔG°) relationship. Comparison with the kET obtained using a ferrocene-type donor with a formal potential similar to that of Au25L18/Au25L18- showed that the presence of the capping monolayer affects the ET rate rather significantly, which is attributed to the intrinsic nonadiabaticity of peroxide acceptors.Au25L18 (L = S(CH2)2Ph) clusters were prepared and characterized. The resulting monodisperse clusters were reacted with bis(pentafluorobenzoyl) peroxide in dichloromethane to form Au25L18+ quantitatively. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the corresponding electron transfer (ET) reactions were characterized via electrochemistry and thermochemical calculations. Au25L18+ was used in homogeneous redox catalysis experiments with a series of sym-substituted benzoyl peroxides, including the above peroxide, bis(para-cyanobenzoyl) peroxide, dibenzoyl peroxide, and bis(para-methoxybenzoyl) peroxide. Peroxide dissociative ET was catalyzed using both the Au25L18/Au25L18- and

  13. Enantiospecific adsorption of cysteine on a chiral Au34 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, José de Jesús; Valencia, Israel; Díaz, Gabriela; López-Lozano, Xóchitl; Garzón, Ignacio L.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of biological molecules like chiral amino acids with chiral metal clusters is becoming an interesting and active field of research because of its potential impact in, for example, chiral molecular recognition phenomena. In particular, the enantiospecific adsorption (EA) of cysteine (Cys) on a chiral Au55 cluster was theoretically predicted a few years ago. In this work, we present theoretical results, based on density functional theory, of the EA of non-zwitterionic cysteine interacting with the C3-Au34 chiral cluster, which has been experimentally detected in gas phase, using trapped ion electron diffraction. Our results show that, indeed, the adsorption energy of the amino acid depends on which enantiomers participate in the formation Cys-Au34 chiral complex. EA was obtained in the adsorption modes where both the thiol, and the thiol-amino functional groups of Cys are adsorbed on low-coordinated sites of the metal cluster surface. Similarly to what was obtained for the Cys-Au55 chiral complex, in the present work, it is found that the EA is originated from the different strength and location of the bond between the COOH functional group and surface Au atoms of the Au34 chiral cluster. Calculations of the vibrational spectrum for the different Cys-Au34 diastereomeric complexes predict the existence of a vibro-enantiospecific effect, indicating that the vibrational frequencies of the adsorbed amino acid depend on its handedness.

  14. Deep level anomalies in silicon doped with radioactive Au atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Bollmann, J; Henry, M O; McGlynn, E; Knack, S

    1999-01-01

    DLTS investigations on n- and p-type silicon samples implanted with various radioactive Hg isotopes which decay fully or partly through the series Au/Pt/(Ir) are reported. The deep Au-donor level at E/sub v/+0.374(3) eV is observed in all cases. In p-type silicon its energy differs significantly (E/sub v/+0.438(3) eV). Both Au and Pt are found to produce two acceptor levels in n-type material. An additional donor-like level at E/sub v/+0.499(4) eV is shown to be due to Au. In all detected levels, one atom of Au or Pt is involved and the concentration decreases towards crystal surface. A key result is that, despite the presence of the Au donor in the samples, for all decay series involving Au to Pt conversion we have never observed the appearance of the Pt-donor. (6 refs).

  15. Theoretical studies of acrolein hydrogenation on Au20 nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Chen, Zhao-Xu; He, Xiang; Kang, Guo-Jun

    2010-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles play a key role in catalytic processes. We investigated the kinetics of stepwise hydrogenation of acrolein on Au20 cluster model and compared with that on Au(110) surface. The rate-limiting step barrier of CC reduction is about 0.5 eV higher than that of CO hydrogenation on Au(110) surface. On Au20 nanoparticle, however, the energy barrier of the rate-determining step for CC hydrogenation turns out to be slightly lower than the value for the CO reduction. The selectivity difference on the two substrate models are attributed to different adsorption modes of acrolein: via the CC on Au20, compared to through both CC and CO on Au(110). The preference switch implies that the predicted selectivity of competitive hydrogenation depends on substrate model sensitively, and particles with more low-coordinated Au atoms than flat surfaces are favorable for CC hydrogenation, which is in agreement with experimental result.

  16. Understanding migraine: Potential role of neurogenic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic inflammation, a well-defined pathophysiologial process is characterized by the release of potent vasoactive neuropeptides, predominantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, and neurokinin A from activated peripheral nociceptive sensory nerve terminals (usually C and A delta-fibers. These peptides lead to a cascade of inflammatory tissue responses including arteriolar vasodilation, plasma protein extravasation, and degranulation of mast cells in their peripheral target tissue. Neurogenic inflammatory processes have long been implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the pathophysiology of various human diseases of the nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, and skin. The recent development of several innovative experimental migraine models has provided evidence suggestive of the involvement of neuropeptides (SP, neurokinin A, and CGRP in migraine headache. Antidromic stimulation of nociceptive fibers of the trigeminal nerve resulted in a neurogenic inflammatory response with marked increase in plasma protein extravasation from dural blood vessels by the release of various sensory neuropeptides. Several clinically effective abortive antimigraine medications, such as ergots and triptans, have been shown to attenuate the release of neuropeptide and neurogenic plasma protein extravasation. These findings provide support for the validity of using animal models to investigate mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. These also further strengthen the notion of migraine being a neuroinflammatory disease. In the clinical context, there is a paucity of knowledge and awareness among physicians regarding the role of neurogenic inflammation in migraine. Improved understanding of the molecular biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology of neurogenic inflammation may provide the practitioner the context-specific feedback to identify the novel and most effective therapeutic

  17. Topical Application of Fingolimod Perturbs Cutaneous Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wai Y; Dimasi, David P; Pitman, Melissa R; Zhuang, YiZhong; Heddle, Robert; Pitson, Stuart M; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Bonder, Claudine S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of allergies, including rhinitis, eczema, and anaphylaxis, is rising dramatically worldwide. This increase is especially problematic in children who bear the greatest burden of this rising trend. Increasing evidence identifies neutrophils as primary perpetrators of the more severe and difficult to manage forms of inflammation. A newly recognized mechanism by which neutrophils are recruited during the early phase of histamine-induced inflammation involves the sphingosine kinase (SK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate axis. This study examines whether topical application of fingolimod, an established SK/sphingosine-1-phosphate antagonist already in clinical use to treat multiple sclerosis, may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation. Using two mouse models of ear skin inflammation (histamine- and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis) we topically applied fingolimod prophylactically, as well as after establishment of the inflammatory response, and examined ear swelling, SK activity, vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and production of proinflammatory mediators. The present study reveals that when applied topically, fingolimod attenuates both immediate and late-phase responses to histamine with reduced extravasation of fluid, SK-1 activity, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and neutrophil influx and prevents ear swelling. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that histamine-induced neutrophil rolling and adhesion to the postcapillary venules in the mouse ears is significantly attenuated even after 24 h. More importantly, these effects are achievable even once inflammation is established. Translation into humans was also accomplished with epicutaneous application of fingolimod resolving histamine-induced and allergen-induced inflammatory reactions in forearm skin. Overall, this study demonstrates, to our knowledge for the first time, that fingolimod may be repurposed to treat cutaneous inflammation.

  18. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-21

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evolutionarily important process. Recent insights have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes through which conventional inflammatory cytokines and Wnt factors control mammalian tissue repair and regeneration. This is particularly important for regeneration in the gastrointestinal system, especially for intestine and liver tissues in which aberrant and deregulated repair results in severe pathologies.

  19. Kost, diabetes mellitus og parodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende viden om kostens betydning for diabetes mellitus (DM) og parodontal inflammation. Der er i vekslende grad dokumentation for sammenhænge mellem kost, DM og marginal parodontitis (MP). Med baggrund i forøget viden om kostens betydning...... for udviklingen af henholdsvis DM og parodontal inflammation bør tandlæger også rådgive om kost for derigennem at styrke behandlingen af patienter med MP og DM....

  20. Nuklearmedicinske teknikker: diagnostik af inflammation og infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Afzelius, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Knogleskintigrafi har vundet indpas i veterinær hestepraksis, hvor undersøgelsen primært anvendes til halthedsdiagnostik, mens de øvrige teknikker til diagnostik af inflammation og infektioner kun er i deres vorden i veterinær praksis.......Knogleskintigrafi har vundet indpas i veterinær hestepraksis, hvor undersøgelsen primært anvendes til halthedsdiagnostik, mens de øvrige teknikker til diagnostik af inflammation og infektioner kun er i deres vorden i veterinær praksis....

  1. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-03-18

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  2. Anesthetics impact the resolution of inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local and volatile anesthetics are widely used for surgery. It is not known whether anesthetics impinge on the orchestrated events in spontaneous resolution of acute inflammation. Here we investigated whether a commonly used local anesthetic (lidocaine and a widely used inhaled anesthetic (isoflurane impact the active process of resolution of inflammation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using murine peritonitis induced by zymosan and a systems approach, we report that lidocaine delayed and blocked key events in resolution of inflammation. Lidocaine inhibited both PMN apoptosis and macrophage uptake of apoptotic PMN, events that contributed to impaired PMN removal from exudates and thereby delayed the onset of resolution of acute inflammation and return to homeostasis. Lidocaine did not alter the levels of specific lipid mediators, including pro-inflammatory leukotriene B(4, prostaglandin E(2 and anti-inflammatory lipoxin A(4, in the cell-free peritoneal lavages. Addition of a lipoxin A(4 stable analog, partially rescued lidocaine-delayed resolution of inflammation. To identify protein components underlying lidocaine's actions in resolution, systematic proteomics was carried out using nanospray-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lidocaine selectively up-regulated pro-inflammatory proteins including S100A8/9 and CRAMP/LL-37, and down-regulated anti-inflammatory and some pro-resolution peptides and proteins including IL-4, IL-13, TGF-â and Galectin-1. In contrast, the volatile anesthetic isoflurane promoted resolution in this system, diminishing the amplitude of PMN infiltration and shortening the resolution interval (Ri approximately 50%. In addition, isoflurane down-regulated a panel of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as proteins known to be active in cell migration and chemotaxis (i.e., CRAMP and cofilin-1. The distinct impact of lidocaine and isoflurane on selective molecules may underlie their opposite

  3. First principles calculations of the optical and plasmonic response of Au alloys and intermetallic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, V J; Barnett, R L; Cortie, M B

    2014-07-30

    Pure Au is widely used in plasmonic applications even though its use is compromised by significant losses due to damping. There are some elements that are less lossy than Au (e.g. Ag or Al) but they will normally oxidize or corrode under ambient conditions. Here we examine whether alloying Au with a second element would be beneficial for plasmonic applications. In order to evaluate potential alternatives to pure Au, the density of states (DOS), dielectric function and plasmon quality factor have been calculated for alloys and compounds of Au with Al, Cd, Mg, Pd, Pt, Sn, Ti, Zn and Zr. Substitutional alloying of Au with Al, Cd, Mg and Zn was found to slightly improve the plasmonic response. Of the large number of intermetallic compounds studied, only AuAl2, Au3Cd, AuMg, AuCd and AuZn were found to be suitable for plasmonic applications.

  4. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Au-based monolayer derivatives in honeycomb structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Pooja, E-mail: pupooja16@gmail.com; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Physics Department, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 171005 (India); Kumar, Ashok [Centre for Physical Sciences, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India, 151001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We present electronic properties of atomic layer of Au, Au{sub 2}-N, Au{sub 2}-O and Au{sub 2}-F in graphene-like structure within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The lattice constant of derived monolayers are found to be higher than the pristine Au monolayer. Au monolayer is metallic in nature with quantum ballistic conductance calculated as 4G{sub 0}. Similarly, Au{sub 2}-N and Au{sub 2}-F monolayers show 4G{sub 0} and 2G{sub 0} quantum conductance respectively while semiconducting nature with calculated band gap of 0.28 eV has been observed for Au{sub 2}-O monolayer. Most interestingly, half metalicity has been predicted for Au{sub 2}-N and Au{sub 2}-F monolayers. Our findings may have importance for the application of these monolayers in nanoelectronic and spintronics.

  5. Optical Behaviour of ZnO/Au Nanojunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital V. Kahane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/Au nanojunctions were prepared by electrochemical method at room temperature. Nanojunction formation is vivid from appearance of ZnO and Au features in x-ray diffraction pattern. Optical absorption spectra reveal excitonic as well as surface plasmon resonance (SPR feature in case of nanojunctions. Bleaching of the excitonic feature associated with the blue shift, is a signature of charge transfer from Au to ZnO at the interface of nanojunction. An increase in intensity of band edge luminescence and quenching of green emission indicates the passivation of surface defects due to formation of nanojunctions.

  6. Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Joseph F S; Shortell, Matthew P; Noble, Christopher J; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Jaatinen, Esa A; Waclawik, Eric R

    2016-06-08

    This study investigated how to control the rate of photoreduction of metastable AuCl2(-) at the solid-solution interface of large ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) (50-100 nm size). Band-gap photoexcitation of electronic charge in ZnO by 370 nm UV light yielded Au NP deposition and the formation of ZnO-Au NP hybrids. Au NP growth was observed to be nonepitaxial, and the patterns of Au photodeposition onto ZnO NPs observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were consistent with reduction of AuCl2(-) at ZnO facet edges and corner sites. Au NP photodeposition was effective in the presence of labile oleylamine ligands attached to the ZnO surface; however, when a strong-binding dodecanethiol ligand coated the surface, photodeposition was quenched. Rates of interfacial electron transfer at the ZnO-solution interface were adjusted by changing the solvent, and these rates were observed to strongly depend on the solvent's permittivity (ε) and viscosity. From measurements of electron transfer from ZnO to the organic dye toluidine blue at the ZnO-solution interface, it was confirmed that low ε solvent mixtures (ε ≈ 9.5) possessed markedly higher rates of photocatalytic interfacial electron transfer (∼3.2 × 10(4) electrons·particle(-1)·s(-1)) compared to solvent mixtures with high ε (ε = 29.9, ∼1.9 × 10(4) electrons·particle(-1)·s(-1)). Dissolved oxygen content in the solvent and the exposure time of ZnO to band-gap, near-UV photoexcitation were also identified as factors that strongly affected Au photodeposition behavior. Production of Au clusters was favored under conditions that caused electron accumulation in the ZnO-Au NP hybrid. Under conditions where electron discharge was rapid (such as in low ε solvents), AuCl2(-) precursor ions photoreduced at ZnO surfaces in less than 5 s, leading to deposition of several small, isolated ∼6 nm Au NP on the ZnO host instead.

  7. Magnetic Anisotropic Energy Gap and Strain Effect in Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Po-Hsun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the observation of the size effect of thermal magnetization in Au nanoparticles. The thermal deviation of the saturation magnetization departs substantially from that predicted by the Bloch T3/2-law, indicating the existence of magnetic anisotropic energy. The results may be understood using the uniaxial anisotropy Heisenberg model, in which the surface atoms give rise to polarized moments while the magnetic anisotropic energy decreases as the size of the Au nanoparticles is reduced. There is a significant maximum magnetic anisotropic energy found for the 6 nm Au nanoparticles, which is associated with the deviation of the lattice constant due to magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  8. Thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid Al-Au alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajire, B. A.; Musari, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The mixing properties of liquid Al-Au alloys with respect to the concentration of each constituent is determined using a method based on hard sphere system and pseudo-potential perturbation. These models were used to get relevant information on mixing properties of the Al-Au alloys like the Gibbs energy and the entropy of mixing. The concentration fluctuations, chemical short range order for the hard sphere mixture (quasi-lattice theory) and the activity are calculated to know the extent of order in the liquid alloys. The results revealed that there is a degree of ordering in liquid Al-Au alloy (hetero-coordinated).

  9. Thermodynamic description of Au-Ag-Si ternary system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the available experimental information, the Ag-Si binary system was thermodynamically assessed using the CALPHAD method. The solution phases, including liquid, fcc-Al and diamond-A4, were modeled as substitutional solutions, of which the excess Gibbs energies were expressed by Redlich-Kister polynomial functions. Combined with previous assessment of the Ag-Au and Au-Si binary systems, thermodynamic description of the Au-Ag-Si ternary system was performed to reproduce the reported phase equilibria. Thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys, liquidus projection and several vertical and isothermal sections of this ternary system were calculated, which are in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data.

  10. AuScope VLBI Project and Hobart 26-m Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jim; Dickey, John; Reid, Brett; McCallum, Jamie; Shabala, Stas; Watson, Christopher; Ellingsen, Simon; Memin, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the activities carried out at the three AuScope VLBI observatories and the Hobart 26-m antenna. In 2012 the three AuScope 12-m antennas at Hobart (Hb), Katherine (Ke), and Yarragadee (Yg) completed their first full year of operations as an array. The Hobart 26-m antenna (Ho) continued to make a contribution to IVS, providing overlap with the Hb time series. In total the AuScope antennas and the Hobart 26 m observed for 146 antenna days in 2012. In this report we also briefly highlight our research activities during 2012 and our plans for 2013.

  11. Adipose Tissue Inflammation Induces B Cell Inflammation and Decreases B Cell Function in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Frasca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing chronic diseases. Inflamm-aging, the age-related increase in low-grade chronic inflammation, may be a common link in age-related diseases. This review summarizes recent published data on potential cellular and molecular mechanisms of the age-related increase in inflammation, and how these contribute to decreased humoral immune responses in aged mice and humans. Briefly, we cover how aging and related inflammation decrease antibody responses in mice and humans, and how obesity contributes to the mechanisms for aging through increased inflammation. We also report data in the literature showing adipose tissue infiltration with immune cells and how these cells are recruited and contribute to local and systemic inflammation. We show that several types of immune cells infiltrate the adipose tissue and these include macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, eosinophils, T cells, B1, and B2 cells. Our main focus is how the adipose tissue affects immune responses, in particular B cell responses and antibody production. The role of leptin in generating inflammation and decreased B cell responses is also discussed. We report data published by us and by other groups showing that the adipose tissue generates pro-inflammatory B cell subsets which induce pro-inflammatory T cells, promote insulin resistance, and secrete pathogenic autoimmune antibodies.

  12. Au plasmonics in a WS{sub 2}-Au-CuInS{sub 2} photocatalyst for significantly enhanced hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongzhou [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: wangzx@nanoctr.cn, E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn; Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Xu, Kai; He, Jun, E-mail: wangzx@nanoctr.cn, E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Quanlin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Promoting the activities of photocatalysts is still the critical challenge in H{sub 2} generation area. Here, a Au plasmon enhanced photocatalyst of WS{sub 2}-Au-CuInS{sub 2} is developed by inserting Au nanoparticles between WS{sub 2} nanotubes and CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) nanoparticles. Due to the localized surface plasmonic resonance properties from Au nanoparticles, WS{sub 2}-Au-CIS shows the best performance as compared to Au-CIS, CIS, WS{sub 2}-CIS, CIS-Au, WS{sub 2}-Au, and WS{sub 2}-CIS-Au. The surface plasmonic resonance effects dramatically intensify the absorption of visible light and help to inject hot electrons into the semiconductors. Our findings open up an efficient method to optimize the type-II structures for photocatalytic water splitting.

  13. From superatomic Au25(SR)18(-) to superatomic M@Au24(SR)18(q) core-shell clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-en; Dai, Sheng

    2009-04-06

    Au(25)(SR)(18)(-) belongs to a new type of superatom that features an icosahedral Au(13) core-shell structure and a protective layer of six RS(Au-SR)(2) motifs. This superatom has a magic number of 8 free electrons that fully fill the 1s and 1p levels of the electron-shell model. By applying this superatom concept to the core-substitution chemistry of Au(25)(SR)(18)(-), we first scanned the periodic table for the potential core atom M by applying a simple rule derived from the 8-electron count and then optimized the selected candidates by density functional theory calculations to create many series of M@Au(24)(SR)(18)(q) core-shell nanoclusters. We found that 16 elements from groups 1, 2, and 10-14 of the periodic table can maintain both electronic and geometric structures of the original Au(25)(SR)(18)(-) magic cluster, indicating that the electron-counting rule based on the superatom concept is powerful in predicting viable M@Au(24)(SR)(18)(q) clusters. Our work opens up a promising area for experimental exploration.

  14. Gold surfaces and nanoparticles are protected by Au(0)-thiyl species and are destroyed when Au(I)-thiolates form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; Ford, Michael J; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Hush, Noel S

    2016-03-15

    The synthetic chemistry and spectroscopy of sulfur-protected gold surfaces and nanoparticles is analyzed, indicating that the electronic structure of the interface is Au(0)-thiyl, with Au(I)-thiolates identified as high-energy excited surface states. Density-functional theory indicates that it is the noble character of gold and nanoparticle surfaces that destabilizes Au(I)-thiolates. Bonding results from large van der Waals forces, influenced by covalent bonding induced through s-d hybridization and charge polarization effects that perturbatively mix in some Au(I)-thiolate character. A simple method for quantifying these contributions is presented, revealing that a driving force for nanoparticle growth is nobleization, minimizing Au(I)-thiolate involvement. Predictions that Brust-Schiffrin reactions involve thiolate anion intermediates are verified spectroscopically, establishing a key feature needed to understand nanoparticle growth. Mixing of preprepared Au(I) and thiolate reactants always produces Au(I)-thiolate thin films or compounds rather than monolayers. Smooth links to O, Se, Te, C, and N linker chemistry are established.

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-Pt system%Au-Pt二元合金的热力学评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓宁; 任玉平; 李长发; 李松; 秦高梧

    2012-01-01

    基于最近实验测得的Au-Pt二元体系相平衡数据,利用Calphad方法重新评估Au-Pt二元体系的热力学参数.采用亚正规溶体模型Redlich-Kister等式描述液相和面心立方相的Gibbs自由能.考虑热力学第三定律的限定,以再现相平衡数据和固相热力学性质,包括活度和混合焓,优化Au-Pt二元系统热力学参数.优化结果表明:Au-Pt合金系统的溶解度间隙边界向富Au侧偏移,其顶点位置在1200 °c,Au-56%Pt.%The thermodynamic re-assessment of Au-Pt binary system was carded out by using the Calphad method and based on the recent experimental data.The Gibbs energies of face-centred cubic and liquid phases were described by a sub-regular solution model with the Redlich-Kister equation.Much effort was taken to reproduce the phase equilibrium results and thermodynamic properties of the solid phase,including the activity and mixing enthalpy.The constraint of the third law of thermodynamics was also considered in the assessment.According to the presently assessed results,the miscibility gap region in the Au-Pt system slightly shifts to the Au-rich side,and the critical point of the miscibility gap is about 1200 °C and Au-56% Pt.

  16. Evaluation of the Olympus AU-510 analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, C; Velasco, J; Ramón, F

    1991-01-01

    The selective multitest Olympus AU-510 analyser was evaluated according to the recommendations of the Comision de Instrumentacion de la Sociedad Española de Quimica Clinica and the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: an examination of the analytical units and then an evaluation in routine work conditions. The operational characteristics of the system were also studied.THE FIRST STAGE INCLUDED A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY: dependent on the absorbance, the inaccuracy varies between +0.5% to -0.6% at 405 nm and from -5.6% to 10.6% at 340 nm; the imprecision ranges between -0.22% and 0.56% at 405 nm and between 0.09% and 2.74% at 340 nm. Linearity was acceptable, apart from a very low absorbance for NADH at 340 nm; and the imprecision of the serum sample pipetter was satisfactory.TWELVE SERUM ANALYTES WERE STUDIED UNDER ROUTINE CONDITIONS: glucose, urea urate, cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, creatinine, phosphate, iron, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase.The within-run imprecision (CV%) ranged from 0.67% for phosphate to 2.89% for iron and the between-run imprecision from 0.97% for total bilirubin to 7.06% for iron. There was no carryover in a study of the serum sample pipetter. Carry-over studies with the reagent and sample pipetters shows some cross contamination in the iron assay.

  17. De l’individu postcommuniste au citoyen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krasteva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’article analyse le paradoxe de la conception communiste du citoyen engagé : au niveau idéologique, citoyenneté et engagement sont intrinsèquement liés, au niveau politique ils sont souvent radicalement dissociés. Le citoyen communiste est plus engagé que citoyen. La citoyenneté était dépourvue de plusieurs de ses attributs : de la jouissance de la loi qui établit « l’égalité arithmétique » et minorise les maîtres ; de la citoyenneté active – civile et politique – pour ne jouir que la protection sociale ; de la participation au profit de l’appartenance. L’individu communiste était engagé, non pas parce qu’il l’avait choisi dans la liberté, mais parce qu’il n’avait pas la liberté de se désengager. L’article compare l’engagement communiste et postcommuniste en analysant le second au croisement de l’individualité et de la citoyenneté et en distinguant trois formes de désengagement – contestataire, « bonapartiste » et individualiste et trois formes d’engagement – mimétique, héroïque, civique.From the postcommunist individual to the citizenThe article analysis the paradox of the communist conception of the engaged citizen: at ideological level, citizenship and participation are closely linked; at political level, they are radically dissociated. The communist citizen is more engaged than citizen. The citizenship is deprived of several of its attributes: of the law which establishes "the arithmetic equality" and minimises the masters; of the active citizenship, civic and political, enjoying just the social one; of the participation for emphasizing on the belonging. The communist individual is engaged not because he has chosen freely to be such, but because he had not the freedom to disengage him/herself. The article compares the communist and the post communist participation analysing the latter at the intersection of individuality and citizenship and distinguishing three forms

  18. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); Perng, W. (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation

  19. Molecular Basis Linking Platelet to Inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽萍

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Blood platelets not only play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis,but increasing evidence show that they participate in the induction of inflammation.Firstly,platelets contain and release cytokines and immune mediators.And platelets are able to modulate and regulate the function of surrounding cells by adhesion molecules or by the release of various factors.

  20. Intestinal Hedgehog signaling in tumors and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, N.V.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the role of Hedgehog signaling in tumors and inflammation. By using an inducible Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) knockout mouse we show that Ihh signals via the mesenchyme to the proliferating cells in the crypt to attenuate proliferation. Despite its anti-proliferative role in

  1. Scintigraphic visualization of inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versijpt, J; Van Laere, K; Dierckx, RA; Dumont, F; De Deyn, PP; Slegers, G; Korf, J

    2003-01-01

    In the past few decades, our understanding of the central nervous system has evolved from one of an immune-privileged site, to one where inflammation is pathognomonic for some of the most prevalent and tragic neurodegenerative diseases. Current research indicates that diseases as diverse as multiple

  2. Research sheds light on treatment of inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The latest research breakthrough on the molecular mechanism and treatment of inflammation, contributed by scientists from the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) under the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their American collaborators, was reported online by Nature Immunology on July 16, 2007.

  3. Mechanisms Linking Inflammation to Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is now widespread around the world. Obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation is responsible for the decrease of insulin sensitivity, which makes obesity a major risk factor for insulin resistance and related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes. The state of low-grade inflammation is caused by overnutrition which leads to lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Obesity might increase the expression of some inflammatory cytokines and activate several signaling pathways, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance by interfering with insulin signaling and action. It has been suggested that specific factors and signaling pathways are often correlated with each other; therefore, both of the fluctuation of cytokines and the status of relevant signaling pathways should be considered during studies analyzing inflammation-related insulin resistance. In this paper, we discuss how these factors and signaling pathways contribute to insulin resistance and the therapeutic promise targeting inflammation in insulin resistance based on the latest experimental studies.

  4. Genes, inflammation, and age-related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompet, Stella

    2010-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to investigate associations between genetic variants involved in inflammation and epigenetics and age-related diseases in an elderly cohort to get more insights in the patho-physiological mechanisms involved in age-related diseases, like cardiovascular diseas

  5. Heterostructured Au/Pd-M (M = Au, Pd, Pt) nanoparticles with compartmentalized composition, morphology, and electrocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Patrick S.; Bae, In-Tae; Maye, Mathew M.

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis, processing, and galvanic exchange of three heterostructured nanoparticle systems is described. The surface accessibility and redox potential of a Au/Pd-Ag dumbbell nanoparticle, where a Au/Pd core/shell region, and a silver region make up the domains, was used to prepare the new nanostructures with controlled composition, morphology, and microstructure. Results indicate that the silver domain was particularly susceptible to galvanic displacement, and was exchanged to Au/Pd-M (M = Au, Pd, Pt). Interestingly, the dumbbell morphology remained after exchange, and the silver region was transformed to hollow, parachute, or concentric domains respectively. The morphology and microstructure change was visualized via TEM and HRTEM, and the composition changes were probed via STEM-EDS imaging and XPS. The electrocatalytic activity of the Au/Pd-M towards methanol oxidation was studied, with results indicating that the Au/Pd-Pt nanoparticles had high activity attributed to the porous nature of the platinum domains.The synthesis, processing, and galvanic exchange of three heterostructured nanoparticle systems is described. The surface accessibility and redox potential of a Au/Pd-Ag dumbbell nanoparticle, where a Au/Pd core/shell region, and a silver region make up the domains, was used to prepare the new nanostructures with controlled composition, morphology, and microstructure. Results indicate that the silver domain was particularly susceptible to galvanic displacement, and was exchanged to Au/Pd-M (M = Au, Pd, Pt). Interestingly, the dumbbell morphology remained after exchange, and the silver region was transformed to hollow, parachute, or concentric domains respectively. The morphology and microstructure change was visualized via TEM and HRTEM, and the composition changes were probed via STEM-EDS imaging and XPS. The electrocatalytic activity of the Au/Pd-M towards methanol oxidation was studied, with results indicating that the Au/Pd-Pt nanoparticles had

  6. Distributions of charged hadrons associated with high transverse momentum particles in pp and Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; Levine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, D A; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Vandermolen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I; Vasiliev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Vznuzdaev, M; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Yuting, B; Zanevski, Y V; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zhaomin, Z P; Zizong, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2005-10-07

    Charged hadrons in [EQUATION: SEE TEXT] associated with particles of [EQUATION: SEE TEXT] are reconstructed in pp and Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV. The associated multiplicity and p magnitude sum are found to increase from pp to central Au+Au collisions. The associated p distributions, while similar in shape on the nearside, are significantly softened on the awayside in central Au+Au relative to pp and not much harder than that of inclusive hadrons. The results, consistent with jet quenching, suggest that the awayside fragments approach equilibration with the medium traversed.

  7. Les invitations au banquet d’un homme ordinaire au XXe siècle

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitz, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    Inscrite entre une cuisine ordinaire soumise au savoir faire ancestral et une cuisine savante faisant appel à l’invention des cuisiniers, la cuisine des banquets campagnards s’inspire largement des recettes bourgeoises. La centaine de cartes menus, rassemblés par un marchand de grains entre 1906 et 1970, ont été composés par des « traiteurs cuisiniers » de la région chinonaise et de Beuxes. L’homogénéité de la source offre l’avantage d’une analyse fine de la composition des repas en fonction ...

  8. Althusser en Haïti. De Port-au-Prince au polder Marie-Anne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Paveau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution formule un témoignage personnel de Marie-Anne Paveau. L'auteure est intervenue à Port-au-Prince en 2006 auprès des étudiants de la Faculté de Linguistique appliquée, alors administrée par Pierre Vernet. Marie-Anne Paveau y présente notamment les éléments du cours qu'elle y a dispensé, illustrant de ce fait la collaboration conduite de 2005 à 2009 entre la Faculté et plusieurs universités de l'étranger.

  9. Comparison of the space-time extent of the emission source in $d$$+$Au and Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{{NN}}}=200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Alfred, M; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bandara, N S; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; Dayananda, M K; DeBlasio, K; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, I; Ge, H; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Hasegawa, S; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hoshino, T; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Ivanishchev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, E; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khanzadeev, A; Kihara, K; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E -J; Kim, H -J; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kochenda, L; Kofarago, M; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, A J; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Montuenga, P; Moon, H J; Moon, T; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Koop, J D Orjuela; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozaki, H; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Sen, A

    2014-01-01

    Two-pion interferometry measurements in $d$$+$Au and Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{{NN}}}=200$ GeV are used to extract and compare the Gaussian source radii R$_{{\\rm out}}$, R$_{{\\rm side}}$, and R$_{{\\rm long}}$, which characterize the space-time extent of the emission sources. The comparisons, which are performed as a function of collision centrality and the mean transverse momentum for pion pairs, indicate strikingly similar patterns for the $d$$+$Au and Au$+$Au systems. They also indicate a linear dependence of R$_{{\\rm side}}$ on the initial transverse geometric size $\\bar{R}$, as well as a smaller freeze-out size for the $d$$+$Au system. These patterns point to the important role of final-state rescattering effects in the reaction dynamics of $d$$+$Au collisions.

  10. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-05-26

    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the chargedinterfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits shortrange in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  11. EST Table: AU004617 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AU004617 ws20666 10/09/28 54 %/178 aa ref|XP_002430772.1| tyrosine-protein phosphatase corkscrew..., putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB18034.1| tyrosine-protein phosphatase corkscrew,

  12. Coexistence of multiple conformations in cysteamine monolayers on Au(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Bilic, A; Reimers, JR

    2005-01-01

    The structural organization, catalytic function, and electronic properties of cysteamine monolayers on Au(111) have been addressed comprehensively by voltammetry, in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in anaerobic environment, and a priori molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and STM image si...

  13. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-05-01

    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the charged-interfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits short-range in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  14. Formation of Au/Pd Alloy Nanoparticles on TMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Sun Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A gold-palladium (AuPd solid solution alloy was successfully deposited on the genetically engineered tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1Cys by the biosorption of Au(III and Pd(II precursors and the reduction of the Au(III and Pd(II to their respective metals or metal alloy. The resulting morphologies of alloy nanoparticles deposited on the TMV1Cys were observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the AuPd alloy formation was supported with surface plasmon resonance (SPR and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. In addition, selected alloy nanoparticles on the TMV1Cys were analyzed further with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS to confirm the presence of gold and palladium. Our result implies that biotemplated metal mineralization is a potentially useful methodology to prepare alloy nanoparticles.

  15. Prolonged reorganization of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kundu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001 substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.

  16. Solvent: A Key in Digestive Ripening for Monodisperse Au Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Qi, Xuan; Zhang, Xuemin; Wang, Tieqiang; Li, Yunong; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Shuang; Zhou, Jun; Fu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This work has mainly investigated the influence of the solvent on the nanoparticles distribution in digestive ripening. The experiments suggested that the solvents played a key role in digestive ripening of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). For the benzol solvents, the resulting size distribution of Au NPs was inversely related to the solvent polarity. It may be interpreted by the low Gibbs free energy of nanoparticles in the high polarity medium, which was supposedly in favor of reducing the nanoparticles distribution. Through digestive ripening in the highly polar benzol solvent of p-chlorotoluene, monodisperse Au NPs with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% were achieved. This indicated that digestive ripening was an effective and practical way to prepare high-quality nanoparticles, which holds great promise for the nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  17. Ethylene binding to Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Michael D.; Stauffer, Shannon; Henkelman, Graeme; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2016-11-01

    Weak chemisorption of ethylene has been shown to be an important characteristic in the use of metals for the separation of ethylene from ethane. Previously, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to predict the binding energies of various metals and alloys, with Ag having the lowest chemisorption energy amongst the metals and alloys studied. Here Au/Cu alloys are investigated by a combination of DFT calculations and experimental measurements. It is inferred from experiments that the binding energy between a Au/Cu alloy and ethylene is lower than to either of the pure metals, and DFT calculations confirm that this is the case when Au segregates to the particle surface. Implications of this work suggest that it may be possible to further tune the binding energy with ethylene by compositional and morphological control of films produced from Au-surface segregated alloys.

  18. Ordered Au Nanodisk and Nanohole Arrays: Fabrication and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2010-01-01

    We have utilized nanosphere lithography (NSL) to fabricate ordered Au nanodisk and nanohole arrays on substrates and have studied the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the arrays. Through these investigations, we demonstrate that the angle- dependent behavior of the LSPR in the Au nanodisk arrays enables real-time observation of exciton-plasmon couplings. In addition, we show that the NSL-fabricated Au nanohole arrays can be applied as templates for patterning micro-/nanoparticles under capillary force. The unique structural and plasmonic characteristics of the Au nanodisk and nano- hole arrays, as well as the low-cost and high-throughput NSL-based nanofabrication technique, render these arrays excellent platforms for numerous engineering applications. © 2010 by ASME.

  19. Melanin: A scavenger in gingival inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nilima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the major direct or indirect targets of ultraviolet exposure of skin is the melanocyte or the melanin -forming cell. Epidermal melanocytes act as a trap for free radicals. Based on the protective role of melanocytes in medical literature, the role of melanin pigmentation in gingiva needs to be elucidated. Periodontal pathogens and their products demonstrate the ability to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species. Hence purpose of this study was to unravel the protective role of melanin (if any against the gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects; 20 in each group were selected. The selection of subjects regarding gingival pigmentation was based on Dummett′s scoring criteria 0, 3. A complete medical, dental history and an informed consent were obtained from the patients. After evaluation of clinical parameters the GCF was collected using microcapillary pipettes at the selected sites. IL-1β levels were quantitated using ELISA. Results: In non-pigmented healthy and gingivitis groups, there was a positive correlation between plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index versus IL-1β level: indicating an increase in the biochemical mediator of inflammation corresponding to an increase in the clinical parameters of inflammation. Also a positive correlation was found between the gingival index and bleeding index versus the IL-1β levels in the pigmented healthy group. The pigmented gingivitis groups showed a negative correlation between the plaque index, gingival index and bleeding index. Conclusions: The clinical markers of inflammation such as gingival index, bleeding index was of low numerical value in pigmented group than in the non-pigmented group, supposedly due to the protective action of melanin. The negative correlation of clinical markers of inflammation to the IL-1β levels in the pigmented gingivitis group could possibly be attributed to the protective role of melanins.

  20. Lipoxins: nature's way to resolve inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekharan JA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jayashree A Chandrasekharan, Neelam Sharma-Walia HM Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: An effective host defense mechanism involves inflammation to eliminate pathogens from the site of infection, followed by the resolution of inflammation and the restoration of tissue homeostasis. Lipoxins are endogenous anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving molecules that play a vital role in reducing excessive tissue injury and chronic inflammation. In this review, the mechanisms of action of lipoxins at the site of inflammation and their interaction with other cellular signaling molecules and transcription factors are discussed. Emphasis has also been placed on immune modulatory role(s of lipoxins. Lipoxins regulate components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems including neutrophils, macrophages, T-, and B-cells. Lipoxins also modulate levels of various transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB, activator protein-1, nerve growth factor-regulated factor 1A binding protein 1, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ and control the expression of many inflammatory genes. Since lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins have clinical relevance, we discuss their important role in clinical research to treat a wide range of diseases like inflammatory disorders, renal fibrosis, cerebral ischemia, and cancer. A brief overview of lipoxins in viral malignancies and viral pathogenesis especially the unexplored role of lipoxins in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus biology is also presented. Keywords: lipoxins, epi-lipoxins, inflammation, pro-resolving, aspirin-triggered lipoxins, cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, therapeutic potential, transcription factors, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus

  1. Inflammation in Parkinson's disease: role of glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Estrada, Cristina; Maatouk, Layal; Vyas, Sheela

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a major characteristic feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies in PD patients show evidence of augmented levels of potent pro-inflammatory molecules e.g., TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β whereas in experimental Parkinsonism it has been consistently demonstrated that dopaminergic neurons are particularly vulnerable to activated glia releasing these toxic factors. Recent genetic studies point to the role of immune system in the etiology of PD, thus in combination with environmental factors, both peripheral and CNS-mediated immune responses could play important roles in onset and progression of PD. Whereas microglia, astrocytes and infiltrating T cells are known to mediate chronic inflammation, the roles of other immune-competent cells are less well understood. Inflammation is a tightly controlled process. One major effector system of regulation is HPA axis. Glucocorticoids (GCs) released from adrenal glands upon stimulation of HPA axis, in response to either cell injury or presence of pathogen, activate their receptor, GR. GR regulates inflammation both through direct transcriptional action on target genes and by indirectly inhibiting transcriptional activities of transcriptional factors such as NF-κB, AP-1 or interferon regulatory factors. In PD patients, the HPA axis is unbalanced and the cortisol levels are significantly increased, implying a deregulation of GR function in immune cells. In experimental Parkinsonism, the activation of microglial GR has a crucial effect in diminishing microglial cell activation and reducing dopaminergic degeneration. Moreover, GCs are also known to regulate human brain vasculature as well as blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, any dysfunction in their actions may influence infiltration of cytotoxic molecules resulting in increased vulnerability of dopamine neurons in PD. Overall, deregulation of glucocorticoid receptor actions is likely important in dopamine neuron degeneration through establishment of chronic

  2. Role of Smooth Muscle in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion that smooth muscle function is altered in inflammation is prompted by clinical observations of altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. While altered motility may reflect inflammation-induced changes in intrinsic or extrinsic nerves to the gut, changes in gut hormone release and changes in muscle function, recent studies have provided in vitro evidence of altered muscle contractility in muscle resected from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. In addition, the observation that smooth muscle cells are more numerous and prominent in the strictured bowel of IBD patients compared with controls suggests that inflammation may alter the growth of intestinal smooth muscle. Thus, inflammation is associated with changes in smooth muscle growth and contractility that, in turn, contribute to important symptoms of IBD including diarrhea (from altered motility and pain (via either altered motility or stricture formation. The involvement of smooth muscle in this context may be as an innocent bystander, where cells and products of the inflammatory process induce alterations in muscle contractility and growth. However, it is likely that intestinal muscle cells play a more active role in the inflammatory process via the elaboration of mediators and trophic factors, including cytokines, and via the production of collagen. The concept of muscle cells as active participants in the intestinal inflammatory process is a new concept that is under intense study. This report summarizes current knowledge as it relates to these two aspects of altered muscle function (growth and contractility in the inflamed intestine, and will focus on mechanisms underlying these changes, based on data obtained from animal models of intestinal inflammation.

  3. Intrinsic spin Seebeck effect in Au/YIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, D; Huang, S Y; Hu, Jun; Wu, Ruqian; Chien, C L

    2013-02-08

    The acute magnetic proximity effects in Pt/YIG compromise the suitability of Pt as a spin current detector. We show that Au/YIG, with no anomalous Hall effect and a negligible magnetoresistance, allows the measurements of the intrinsic spin Seebeck effect with a magnitude much smaller than that in Pt/YIG. The experiment results are consistent with the spin polarized density functional calculations for Pt with a sizable and Au with a negligible magnetic moment near the interface with YIG.

  4. Wetting of Au and Ag particles on monocrystalline graphite substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joonho Lee; Toshihiro Tanaka; Kazufumi Seo; Nobumitsu Hirai; Jung-Goo Lee; Hirotaro Mori

    2006-01-01

    The wetting behavior of Au and Ag particles on a monocrystalline graphite substrate was investigated using the microscopic sessile drop method under a purified Ar atmosphere at 1300 K. The measured contact angles of the liquid Au and Ag on monocrystalline graphite substrates of (0001) face were 129° and 124°, respectively. It is believed that the interaction at the interface is dominated by the physical bonding (van der Waal's interaction).

  5. EST Table: AU002626 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AU002626 n0255 10/09/28 84 %/215 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macul...a-like latent virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 n ...

  6. Production des centres historiques et action publique patrimoniale au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Melé, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Ce texte reprend les principales conclusions d'un ouvrage publié en français en 1998, Patrimoine et action publique au centre des villes mexicaines, et sous une forme actualisée et remaniée en espagnol en 2006, La producción del patrimonio urbano. Voir ces ouvrages pour une présentation précise des politiques de protection du patrimoine au Mexique

  7. EST Table: AU311143 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AU311143 TT1-27 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0000785(chromatin)|GO:0003682(chromatin binding)...|GO:0005634(nucleus)|GO:0006333(chromatin assembly or disassembly) 10/09/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU311143 L7 ...

  8. Außerirdische im amerikanischen Sciencefiction-Film

    OpenAIRE

    Eijk, Natalie van

    2003-01-01

    Die vorliegende Dissertation untersucht die Darstellung von außerirdischen Lebensformen im amerikanischen Sciencefiction-Film in Form eines filmhistorischen Gesamtüberblicks.Noch bevor der 1. Weltkrieg begann, waren die meisten Genremerkmale, die den Sciencefiction-Film bis heute charakterisieren, bereits erdacht. Die wenigen Sciencefiction-Filme, die Außerirdische zeigten, fügten sich jedoch sehr gut in den verspielten, märchenhaften Sciencefiction-Film der Vorkriegszeit. Bis sich das Topos ...

  9. EST Table: AU002834 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ombyx mori Macula-like latent virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002754 n ... ...AU002834 n0548 10/09/28 99 %/247 aa dbj|BAD35017.1| RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [B

  10. EST Table: AU003057 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ombyx mori Macula-like latent virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002754 n ... ...AU003057 n0899 10/09/28 94 %/226 aa dbj|BAD35017.1| RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [B

  11. Alloying Au surface with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Kun

    2016-03-30

    © 2016. Various Au-Pd/SiO2 catalysts with a fixed Au loading but different Au:Pd molar ratios were prepared via deposition-precipitation method followed by H2 reduction. The structures were characterized and the catalytic activities in CO oxidation were evaluated. The formation of Au-Pd alloy particles was identified. The Au-Pd alloy particles exhibit enhanced dispersions on SiO2 than Au particles. Charge transfer from Pd to Au within Au-Pd alloy particles. Isolated Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with large Au:Pd molar ratios while contiguous Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with small Au:Pd molar ratios. Few synergetic effect of Au-Pd alloy occurs on catalyzing CO oxidation under employed reaction conditions. Alloying Au with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation, and contiguous Pd atoms on the Au-Pd alloy particles are capable of catalyzing CO oxidation while isolated Pd atoms are not. These results advance the fundamental understandings of Au-Pd alloy surfaces in catalyzing CO oxidation.

  12. Study on antibacterial activity of chemically synthesized PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomi, Pandi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Prabu, Halliah Gurumallesh, E-mail: hgprabu2010@gmail.com [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Manisankar, Paramasivam [Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravikumar, Sundaram [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, School of Marine Sciences, Alagappa University, Thondi Campus 623 409, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New method of synthesizing PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite. • Surface Plasmon resonance and formation of composite at nano level were analyzed. • HR-TEM study revealed uniform distribution of nanoparticles. • PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Pristine polyaniline (PANI), PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method using aniline as monomer, ammonium persulphate as oxidant and metal (Ag, Au and Ag-Au) colloids. UV-Vis analysis exhibited surface Plasmon resonances of Ag, Au, Ag-Au nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra revealed the shift in peak position of N-H stretching. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the presence of Ag, Au and Au-Ag nanoparticles. HR-TEM images show nanosizes of Ag, Au, Ag-Au and the incorporation of such nanoparticles into the PANI matrix. Pristine PANI, PANI-Ag, PANI-Au and PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposites were tested for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. PANI-Ag-Au nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity against both gram-positive [Streptococcus sp. (MTCC 890), Staphylococcus sp. (MTCC 96)] and gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli (MTCC 1671) and Klebsiella sp. (MTCC 7407)] when compared with PANI-Ag nanocomposite, PANI-Au nanocomposite and pristine PANI. The novelty of this study is the polymer-bimetal synthesis and its antibacterial potential.

  13. Au nanoparticles decorated graphene/nickel foam nanocomposite for sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaojuan Wang Xinli Guo Jian Chen Chuang Ge Hongyi Zhang Yuanyuan Liu Li Zhao Yao Zhang Zengmei Wang Litao Sun

    The Au nanoparticles decorated graphene(AuNPs@Gr)/nickel foam(Gr/NiF) nanocomposite(AuNPs@Gr/NiF) was prepared by chemical vapor deposition followed by electrophoretic deposition of AuNPs on Gr/NiF...

  14. Structural and dynamical properties of liquid Al-Au alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. L.; Voigtmann, Th.; Kolland, G.; Kobatake, H.; Brillo, J.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate temperature- and composition-dependent structural and dynamical properties of Al-Au melts. Experiments are performed to obtain accurate density and viscosity data. The system shows a strong negative excess volume, similar to other Al-based binary alloys. We develop a molecular-dynamics (MD) model of the melt based on the embedded-atom method (EAM), gauged against the available experimental liquid-state data. A rescaling of previous EAM potentials for solid-state Au and Al improves the quantitative agreement with experimental data in the melt. In the MD simulation, the admixture of Au to Al can be interpreted as causing a local compression of the less dense Al system, driven by less soft Au-Au interactions. This local compression provides a microscopic mechanism explaining the strong negative excess volume of the melt. We further discuss the concentration dependence of self- and interdiffusion and viscosity in the MD model. Al atoms are more mobile than Au, and their increased mobility is linked to a lower viscosity of the melt.

  15. Rotating Au nanorod and nanowire driven by circularly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chen, Ying-Syuan; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2014-10-20

    The wavelength-dependent optical torques provided by a circularly polarized (CP) plane wave driving Au nanorod (NR) and nanowire (NW) to rotate constantly were studied theoretically. Using the multiple multipole method, the resultant torque in terms of Maxwell's stress tensor was analyzed. Numerical results show that the optical torque spectrum is in accordance with the absorption spectrum of Au NR/NW. Under the same fluence, the maximum optical torque occurs at the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au NR/NW, accompanied by a severe plasmonic heating. The rotation direction of the light-driven NR/NW depends on the handedness of CP light. In contrast, the optical torque exerted on Au NR/NW illuminated by a linearly polarized light is null at LSPR. Due to the plasmonic effect, the optical torque on Au NR/NW by CP light is two orders of magnitude larger than that on a dielectric NR/NW of the same size. The steady-state rotation of NR/NW in water, resulting from the balance of optical torque and viscous torque, was also discussed. Our finding shed some light on manipulating a CP light-driven Au NR/NW as a rotating nanomotor for a variety of applications in optofluidics and biophysics.

  16. Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

    2011-08-30

    Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

  17. In situ growth of Au nanocrystals on graphene oxide sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yong; Li, Juan; Kong, Yong; Li, Xiazhang; Tao, Yongxin; Li, Shan; Wang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Au nanocrystals (AuNCs) with a size of 10-20 nm decorated on graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated successfully through a hydrothermal reduction and crystallization route without any extra reductants and capping agents. The hydrophobic areas of GO benefit the formation of nanocrystals (NCs) with {111} facets totally exposed; however, the hydrophilic areas are detrimental to the crystallization. The morphology of AuNCs could be tailored by the degree of oxidation on the GO surface. The shape-controllable and reducing properties of GO are in favor of ``clean'' synthesis of noble metal NCs decorated on graphene.Au nanocrystals (AuNCs) with a size of 10-20 nm decorated on graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated successfully through a hydrothermal reduction and crystallization route without any extra reductants and capping agents. The hydrophobic areas of GO benefit the formation of nanocrystals (NCs) with {111} facets totally exposed; however, the hydrophilic areas are detrimental to the crystallization. The morphology of AuNCs could be tailored by the degree of oxidation on the GO surface. The shape-controllable and reducing properties of GO are in favor of ``clean'' synthesis of noble metal NCs decorated on graphene. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04714h

  18. Spin Polarization and Quantum Spins in Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on investigating the magnetic properties and the critical particle size for developing sizable spontaneous magnetic moment of bare Au nanoparticles. Seven sets of bare Au nanoparticle assemblies, with diameters from 3.5 to 17.5 nm, were fabricated with the gas condensation method. Line profiles of the X-ray diffraction peaks were used to determine the mean particle diameters and size distributions of the nanoparticle assemblies. The magnetization curves M(Ha reveal Langevin field profiles. Magnetic hysteresis was clearly revealed in the low field regime even at 300 K. Contributions to the magnetization from different size particles in the nanoparticle assemblies were considered when analyzing the M(Ha curves. The results show that the maximum particle moment will appear in 2.4 nm Au particles. A similar result of the maximum saturation magnetization appearing in 2.3 nm Au particles is also concluded through analysis of the dependency of the saturation magnetization MP on particle size. The MP(d curve departs significantly from the 1/d dependence, but can be described by a log-normal function. Magnetization can be barely detected for Au particles larger than 27 nm. Magnetic field induced Zeeman magnetization from the quantum confined Kubo gap opening appears in Au nanoparticles smaller than 9.5 nm in diameter.

  19. The use of bimetallic Au(Cu)-coated microelectrodes for improved detection of cystine

    OpenAIRE

    Papadimitriou, Sofia; Mintsouli, Ioanna; Kokkinidis, Georgios; Sotiropoulos, Sotiris

    2011-01-01

    Au shell – (Au-Cu) core coatings on carbon microdisc electrodes (30 m diameter) have been prepared by a two-step technique whereby Cu particles electrodeposited onto carbon supports(first step) had their surface layers replaced by Au (second step). The latter has been achieved by means of spontaneous partial replacement of the non-precious metal deposits of Cu by Au upon their immersion in the chlorolaurate-based solution: 3 Cu/C + 2 AuCl4 2 Au (Cu)/C + 3 Cu2+ + 8 Cl . The Au-Cu coated ...

  20. Thermal Description of Particle Production in Au-Au Collisions at STAR Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2013-01-01

    The hadron ratios measured in central Au-Au collisions are analysed by means of Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model over a wide range of nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies ranging from 7.7 to 200 GeV as offered by the STAR Beam Energy Scan I (BES-I). We restrict the discussion on STAR BES-I, because of large statistics and over all homogeneity of STAR measurements (one detector) against previous experiments. Over the last three decades, various heavy-ion experiments utilizing different detectors (different certainties) have been carried out. Regularities in produced particles at different energies haven been studied. The temperature and baryon chemical potential are deduced from fits of experimental ratios to thermal model calculations assuming chemical equilibrium. We find that the resulting freeze-out parameters using single hard-core value and point-like constituents of HRG are identical. This implies that the excluded-volume comes up with no effect on the extracted parameters. We compare the results wit...