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Sample records for infested tea leaves

  1. Polyphenol composition of a functional fermented tea obtained by tea-rolling processing of green tea and loquat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shii, Takuya; Tanaka, Takashi; Watarumi, Sayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Matsui, Toshiro; Kouno, Isao

    2011-07-13

    Phenolic constituents of a new functional fermented tea produced by tea-rolling processing of a mixture (9:1) of tea leaves and loquat leaves were examined in detail. The similarity of the phenolic composition to that of black tea was indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography comparison with other tea products. Twenty-five compounds, including three new catechin oxidation products, were isolated, and the structures of the new compounds were determined to be (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone 2-O-gallate, dehydrotheasinensin H, and acetonyl theacitrin A by spectroscopic methods. In addition, theacitrinin A and theasinensin H were obtained for the first time from commercial tea products. Isolation of these new and known compounds confirms that reactions previously demonstrated by in vitro model experiments actually occur when fresh tea leaves are mechanically distorted and bruised during the production process.

  2. ALUMINUM CONTENT OF TEA LEAVES AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPTAKE OF ALUMINUM FROM SOIL INTO TEA LEAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies indicated that aluminum, the most abundant metallic element within the lithosphere, was considered to be related to some human diseases especially the Alzheimer's disease. Tea, economically an important beverage in the world, has been found to contain higher concentration of aluminum than many other drinks and foods. Therefore, tea would be a potentially important source of dietary aluminum. In order to understand the sources of aluminum in tea leaves and factors related with aluminum content of tea leaves, an experiment was designed to investigate the relationships of aluminum in tea leaves with leaf age, soil properties and forms of aluminum in soils. The results showed that there were great distinctions in the concentration of aluminum in tea leaves with different leaf age (Alold leaf> Almature leaf> Alyoung leaf). Moreover, soil pH was the major factor controlling the uptake of aluminum from soil into tea leaves. Furthermore, the content of aluminum in tea leaves was better predicated by the soluble aluminum extracted by 0. 02mol/L CaCl2.

  3. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

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    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  4. Preparation and properties of waste tea leaves particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin-shu; Li Jian-zhang; Fan Yong-ming; Ma Hong-xia

    2006-01-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive is the main source of formaldehyde emission from UF-bonded boards. The components in waste tea leaves can react with formaldehyde to serve as a raw material in the production of low formaldehyde emission boards. In our study, waste tea leaves and UF adhesive were employed in the preparation of waste tea leaves particleboard (WTLB). An orthogonal experimental method was applied to investigate the effects of process parameters on formaldehyde emission and mechanical properties of WTLB. The results indicated that: 1) waste tea leaves had the ability to abate formaldehyde emission from boards; and 2) density of the WTLB was a significant factor affecting its modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and internal bonding (IB).

  5. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

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    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  6. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed toward

  7. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  8. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases.

  9. Cloning of beta-primeverosidase from tea leaves, a key enzyme in tea aroma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-12-01

    A beta-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of beta-primeverosides (6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The beta-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The beta-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The beta-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to beta-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the beta-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze beta-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the beta-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the beta-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the beta-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl beta-primeveroside by the beta-primeverosidase was followed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the beta-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the beta-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed.

  10. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑5PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log Kow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  11. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  12. Comparison of the mineral composition of leaves and infusions of traditional and herbal teas

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    Isaac T. Rampedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on teas has focused on organic composition and less attention has been given to the mineral composition. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the mineral compositions (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Al of eight commonly consumed teas. The teas included three traditional black or green teas (from Africa, China and Sri Lanka and five herbal teas – two from South America (maté and coca and three from South Africa (rooibos, honeybush and Athrixia phylicoides. Analyses were conducted on five samples of dry tea leaves of each of the teas and their infusions (steeping time: 6 min using identical techniques in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. It was found that each tea has a unique mineral profile. Dry tea leaves and their respective infusions also exhibited different mineral profiles. The tea infusions that contained relatively higher concentrations of beneficial minerals were maté, coca and Athrixia. High levels of aluminium were found in the traditional black and green teas whilst rooibos was high in sodium. Although teas are not rich sources of nutrients, the consumption of maté could contribute significantly to dietary manganese requirements.

  13. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

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    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  14. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-07-26

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  15. Hypocholestrolic effect of spent black tea leaves replaced with wheat bran in broiler ration.

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    Rahman, Attaur; Rahman, Altafur; Ali, Gohar; Rahman, Shafeeur ur

    2016-03-01

    Black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) have been known for many years in lowering cholesterol level. The purpose of the present study was to find the effects of spent black tea leaves as a substitute of wheat bran on cholesterol reduction in broiler chicks. For this purpose a total of hundred & fifty (150), day old broiler poultry chicks were purchased from the local market. The spent black tea leaves were collected from tea stalls. Chicks were randomly distributed into 5 main groups according to spent black tea leaves and wheat bran supplementation. Group R0 was kept as control, containing 120 g/kg wheat bran but no spent black tea leaves supplementation; group R30 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 30 g/kg plus 90 g/kg wheat bran; group R60 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 60 g/kg plus 60 g/kg wheat bran, group R90 received spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 90 g/kg plus 30 g/kg wheat bran and group R120 received the spent black tea leaves supplemented feed at the rate of 120 g/kg plus 0 g/kg wheat bran respectively. Each group was carrying three replicate (10 chicks/replicate). The data was statistically analyzed, using completely randomized design. Mean liver cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 102.22, 93.55, 76.22, 60.78 and 51.55 mg/100 g. Breast cholesterol per chick on diet R30, R60, R90, and R120 was 61.89, 51.33, 44.78, 37 and 32.77 mg/100 g. It was concluded that the addition of spent black tea leaves at the rate of 120 g/kg has significant effect on cholesterol reduction and over all performance of broiler chicks and recommended that expensive wheat bran can be effectively replaced by these spent black tea leaves in broiler poultry ration.

  16. Morphological and anatomical characters of apple leaves associated with cultivar susceptibility to spider mite infestation

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    Wojciech Warabieda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical chaIacters of apple leaves associated with cultivar susceptibility to two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch. infestation were investigated. The following six apple cultivars were selected for the research: Close, Lobo ( suceptible and Katja, Piros, Jester, Maivit (more resistant to mites infestation. The cultivars of a relatively lower susceptibility, (except Marvit were provided with a poorer pubescence on abaxial epidermis of foliage leaf than those susceptible. There was no strict correlation between stomata number per unit of the leaf surface and the susceptibility to T.urticae infestation. A tight cell arrangement in the spongy mesophyll was particularly characteristic for cv Marvit, whereas in the leaves of cvs Close and Lobo this tissue was definitely loose. It seems that loose spongy mesophyll structure may facilitate feeding of mites.The results regarding the analysis of the lower (abaxial epidermis of the leaves seem to suggest that the layout and thickness of cuticle, rather than the epidermal thickness itself could be a factor determining the susceptibility of apple cultivars to T.urcitae.

  17. Adsorption of Pb(II) on Spent Leaves of Green and Black Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Zuorro; Roberto Lavecchia

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In recent years much attention has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Spent tea leaves, an abundantly available material that is currently disposed of as a solid waste, are potentially suitable for such applications. Approach: To provide some information on the adsorption properties of tea waste, we evaluated the removal efficiency of lead ions by spent leaves of green and black te...

  18. Contents and compositions of policosanols in green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sol Ji; Park, Su Yeon; Park, Ji Su; Park, Sang-Kyu; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2016-08-01

    Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of health promoting bioactive long-chain aliphatic alcohols. Here, we report that green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves are the exceptionally rich plant-sources of PC. Young and tender leaves and old and turf leaves of C. sinensis were hand-picked in spring and autumn. The total contents of PC in the leaves were in the range of 726.2-1363.6mg/kg as determined by a GC-MS/MS. The compositions of PC in the leaves were different with harvest season and types. The total contents of PC in commercial green tea leaves were found to be in the range of 856.7-1435.1mg/kg. Interestingly, the infused green tea leaves contained the higher PC than the non-infused green tea product, reaching to 1629.4mg/kg. This represents the first report on the contents and compositions of PC in green tea leaves, showing unambiguous evidence of their potential as rich sources of PC.

  19. Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging of Crape Myrtle Leaves Infested with Sooty Mold

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    Jiyeon Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial patterns for temperature distribution on crape myrtle leaves infested with sooty mold were investigated using a digital infrared thermal imaging camera. The mean temperatures of the control and sooty regions were 26.98°C and 28.44°C, respectively. In the thermal images, the sooty regions appeared as distinct spots, indicating that the temperatures in these areas were higher than those in the control regions on the same leaves. This suggests that the sooty regions became warmer than their control regions on the adaxial leaf surface. Neither epidermal penetration nor cell wall dissolution by the fungus was observed on the adaxial leaf surface. It is likely that the high temperature of black leaves have an increased cooling load. To our knowledge, this is the first report on elevated temperatures in sooty regions, and the results show spatial heterogeneity in temperature distribution across the leaf surface.

  20. A History of Catechin Chemistry with Special Reference to Tea Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoyasu, Saijo; Katoh, Miyuki

    This review describes the history of the discovery of catechins, i.e., flavan 3-ols in the flavonoid compounds, with a special reference to tea leaves. 1. Catechin was first separated from gambier catechu and acacia catechu, and its molecular weight and chemical structure were proposed in 1902. By 1948 the six catechins,(+)-catechin,(-)-epicatechin,(-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate,(-)-epigallocatechin,(+)-gallocatechin, and(-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, as shown in Table 1, had been found in a variety of plants, including tea. Table 1 summarizes each catechin, the plant associated with it, and the year and authorship of each first reporting.(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate was isolated from tea leaves in 1948 as the last compound of the six catechins, even though it accounted for the largest proportion of total catechin content. The compound was not isolated and purified by traditional separation methods, such as the ethyl acetate extraction and lead acetate precipitation methods; instead, silica gel column chromatography was the key technique used to succeed in the separation and purification of the compound, from which the determination of the chemical structure followed. 2. The six catechins in fresh tea leaves are easily epimerized by heat treatment to form the corresponding epimerized catechins, as shown in Table 2. Observation indicates that the six natural and six epimerized catechins can be present in heat-treated dried tea leaves or green teas. 3. The chemical structures of the ten catechins, which include the compounds in Table 1, are shown in Table 3. As the contents of the catechins in fresh tea leaves have been reported many times in the literature, it is certain that these compounds are naturally present in tea leaves. 4. Table 4 summarizes the chemical structures of eight minor catechin derivatives found in tea leaves and oolong teas, the first reporting authors, and the year reported. Because the presence of these catechin derivatives in fresh tea

  1. Ultrastructural and cytochemical changes in Pelargonium leaves due to aphid (Acyrthosiphon pelargonii (Kalt. infestation

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    Joanna Ślusarczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of aphid Acyrthosiphon pelargonii (Kalt. caused increased deposition of phenolic compounds in the leaves of Pelargonium sp. Most deposits were located in the vacuole and in the area between the plasma membrane and cell wall, as well as some in the intercellular spaces. In cytoplasm damages were observed involving tonoplast and numerous vesicle deposits in the vicinity of the plasma membrane. Endoplasmic reticulum and myelin structures increased in number, as well as mitochondria whose cristae were longer and larger. Thus, we observed both the increase of organelle activity in such cells and the segregation of damaged areas in the form of membrane degradation.

  2. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC seven catechins [(–)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (–)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-gallocate...

  3. Adsorption of Pb(II on Spent Leaves of Green and Black Tea

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    Antonio Zuorro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In recent years much attention has been focused on the use of biomass residues as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Spent tea leaves, an abundantly available material that is currently disposed of as a solid waste, are potentially suitable for such applications. Approach: To provide some information on the adsorption properties of tea waste, we evaluated the removal efficiency of lead ions by spent leaves of green and black tea. Batch adsorption experiments were made at 25 and 40°C at initial lead-ion concentrations between 0.01 and 2 g L-1. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir equation to evaluate the maximum adsorption capacity and the equilibrium constant. The adsorption characteristics of the two materials were also compared with those of coffee grounds, activated carbon and Fullers earth. Results: Experimental data showed that removal efficiencies up to 98-99% can be achieved when using spent tea leaves as lead adsorbent. The results were only marginally affected by the type of tea waste. At low lead loading, the adsorption equilibrium was well described by the Langmuir equation, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 83-130 mg g-1 and an equilibrium constant ranging from 0.112-0.245 L mg-1. A comparison with other adsorbents provided the following order for lead removal efficiency: Black tea, coffee grounds > green tea > Fullers earth > activated carbon. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that using spent tea leaves as an adsorbent may be an efficient and economical means for removing lead and, presumably, other heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  4. Studies on the Effect of Processing Methods on the Antihyperglycemic activity of Herbal Teas from Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del

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    G I Okafor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del (Asteraceae was processed into herbal tea using the black and green tea processing techniques. The green tea obtained was used as such while a portion of the black tea was flavored with O. basilicum or O. gratissimum. Methanol extracts of the flavored and unflavored herbal teas, obtained by cold maceration, were subjected to pharmacological studies for antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan diabetic rats and pytochemical analysis. Results showed that single oral administration of the tea extracts reduced blood glucose level of diabetic rats to varying the extents. Extract of green tea (GTE caused a moderate reduction in blood glucose levels while black tea (BTE evoked a mild dose-related effect. Extracts of the flavored tea caused significant (PBTOGE>GTEtea technique may be preferred for processing leaves of V. amygdalina into herbal tea since it preserved the antihyperglycemic activity. Green tea method may reduce the antihyperglycemic effect even though it preserves the phytochemical constituents better than black tea technique. Flavoring of black tea with Ocimum spp enhances the antihyperglycemic effect due to their inherent hypoglycemic activity.

  5. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract.

  6. Changes in the composition of raw tea leaves from the Korean Yabukida plant during high-temperature processing to pan-fried Kamairi-cha green tea.

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    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E; Choi, Suk-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Un; Kozukue, Nobuyuki

    2009-06-01

    To develop a better understanding of compositional changes occurring during the production of commercial teas, we determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) changes in ingredient levels during each of several manufacturing steps used to produce Kamairi-cha, a premium green tea. Kamairi-cha uses pan-frying instead of the usual blanching technique to inactivate the enzymes responsible for producing traditional black tea. The resulting tea lacks the characteristic bitterness of green tea, producing a green tea that is described as sweet tasting. The processing steps used to produce this pan-fried tea were as follows: 1st roasting, 1st rolling, 2nd roasting, 2nd rolling, 1st firing, and 2nd firing. The results show that during production at temperatures up to 300 degrees C, raw leaves lost (in percent) 97.3 water, 94 two chlorophylls, 14.3 seven catechins, and 2.75 caffeine. A separate analysis showed that the final product contained 21.67 mg/g dry wt of the biologically active amino acid theanine. The results of this 1st report on changes in individual catechins and other tea ingredients in tea leaves during pan-frying make it possible to select production conditions that maximize levels of beneficial tea ingredients. The possible significance of the results for the human diet is discussed.

  7. A non-targeted approach to chemical discrimination between green tea extract-based dietary supplements and green tea leaves by LC/MS

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    Green tea extract-based dietary supplements (GTDS) have gained in popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of several GTDS in comparison to the composition of green tea leaves using a LC-MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric an...

  8. Biological control of broad-leaved dock infestation in wheat using plant antagonistic bacteria under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tasawar; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair

    2017-06-01

    Conventional weed management systems have produced many harmful effects on weed ecology, human health and environment. Biological control of invasive weeds may be helpful to minimize these harmful effects and economic losses incurred to crops by weeds. In our earlier studies, plant antagonistic bacteria were obtained after screening a large number of rhizobacteria for production of phytotoxic substances and effects on wheat and its associated weeds under laboratory conditions. In this study, five efficient strains inhibitory to broad-leaved dock and non-inhibitory to wheat were selected and applied to broad-leaved dock co-seeded with wheat both in pot trial and chronically infested field trial. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria on the weed and infested wheat were studied at tillering, booting and harvesting stage of wheat. The applied strains significantly inhibited the germination and growth of the weed to variable extent. Similarly, variable recovery in losses of grain and straw yield of infested wheat from 11.6 to 68 and 13 to 72.6% was obtained in pot trial while from 17.3 to 62.9 and 22.4 to 71.3% was obtained in field trial, respectively. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria were also evident from the improvement in physiology and nutrient contents of infested wheat. This study suggests the use of these plant antagonistic bacteria to biologically control infestation of broad-leaved dock in wheat under field conditions.

  9. Characterization of NIES CRM No. 23 Tea leaves II for the determination of multielements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Ikuko; Ukachi, Miyuki; Nagano, Kimiyo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Nishikawa, Masataka [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun [University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    A candidate environmental certified reference material (CRM) for the determination of multielements in tea leaves and materials of similar matrix, NIES CRM No. 23 Tea leaves II, has been developed and characterized by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan. The origin of the material was tea leaves, which were ground, sieved through a 106-{mu}m mesh, homogenized, and then subdivided into amber glass bottles. The results of homogeneity and stability tests indicated that the material was sufficiently homogeneous and stable for use as a reference material. The property values of the material were statistically determined based on chemical analyses by a network of laboratories using a wide range of methods. Sixteen laboratories participated in the characterization, and nine certified values and five reference values were obtained. These property values of the candidate CRM, which are expressed as mass fractions, were close to the median and/or mean values of the mass fractions of elements in various tea products. The candidate CRM is appropriate for use in analytical quality control and in the evaluation of methods used in the analysis of tea and materials of similar matrix. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of NIES CRM No. 23 Tea Leaves II for the determination of multielements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ikuko; Ukachi, Miyuki; Nagano, Kimiyo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Yoshinaga, Jun; Nishikawa, Masataka

    2010-05-01

    A candidate environmental certified reference material (CRM) for the determination of multielements in tea leaves and materials of similar matrix, NIES CRM No. 23 Tea Leaves II, has been developed and characterized by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan. The origin of the material was tea leaves, which were ground, sieved through a 106-microm mesh, homogenized, and then subdivided into amber glass bottles. The results of homogeneity and stability tests indicated that the material was sufficiently homogeneous and stable for use as a reference material. The property values of the material were statistically determined based on chemical analyses by a network of laboratories using a wide range of methods. Sixteen laboratories participated in the characterization, and nine certified values and five reference values were obtained. These property values of the candidate CRM, which are expressed as mass fractions, were close to the median and/or mean values of the mass fractions of elements in various tea products. The candidate CRM is appropriate for use in analytical quality control and in the evaluation of methods used in the analysis of tea and materials of similar matrix.

  11. Antioxidative potential, nutritional value and sensory profiles of confectionery fortified with green and yellow tea leaves (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Helak, Barbara; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on development of functional food products containing green and yellow tea leaves. The results indicated that green and yellow tea are significant tools in the creation of the nutritional value, antioxidative potential and stability of the lipid fraction of cookies. Tea-fortified cookies showed considerably higher contents of dietary fiber, especially hemicellulose and insoluble fractions, and were characterized by significantly higher antioxidant potential associated with their phenolics content. Results of ABTS, DPPH, ORACFL and PCL assay showed significantly higher antioxidant potential of tea cookies, highest for yellow tea. The antioxidative potential of applied teas was significant in terms of the inhibition of hydroperoxide content, while formation of secondary lipid oxidation products was less spectacular. It is concluded that tea leaves could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, as well as fiber; thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer.

  12. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

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    *N. M. Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability. It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract in aqueous and ethanolic extract of rosemary and green tea leaves respectively. The ethanolic extract shows high content of phenolic compounds and in turn highly antioxidative activiy for both rosemary and green tea leaves as compared with aqueous extract.The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves show high reducing power ability comparing with their abilities as chelating agents. Although, the phenolic compounds of green tea leave almost about 3-fold as compared with rosemary leave in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, their extracts show extremely the same mode of action in both methods of determination (the reducing power and chelating ability. Therefore, we are fully recommended the rosemary leave extracts as a potent food preservative.

  13. NMR Metabolic profiling of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves grown at Kemuning, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Kristanti, M. W.; Putri, R. K.; Rinanto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) has been famous as a beverage and natural medicine. It contains a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites i.e. polyphenols. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been widely used for metabolic profiling in medicinal plants. It provides a very fast and detailed analysis of the biomolecular composition of crude extracts. Moreover, an NMR spectrum is a physical characteristic of a compound and thus highly reproducible. Therefore, this study aims to profile metabolites of three different varieties of green tea C. Sinensis grown in Kemuning, Middle Java. Three varieties of green tea collected on Kemuning (TR1 2025, Gambung 4/5, and Chiaruan 143) were used in this study. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 230C on a 400 MHz Agilent WB (Widebore). The analysis was performed on dried green tea leaves and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 2D-J-resolved and 1H-1H correlated spectroscopy (COSY). MestRenova version 11.0.0 applied to identify metabolites in samples. A 1H-NMR spectrum of tea showed amino acids and organic acids signal at the area δ 0.8-4.0. These were theanine, alanine, threonine, succinic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid. Anomeric protons of carbohydrate were shown by the region of β-glucose, α-glucose, fructose and sucrose. The phenolic region was depicted at area δ 5.5-8.5. Epigallocatechin derivates and caffeine were detected in the tea leaves. The detail compound identification was observed and discussed in the text.

  14. Chemical compositions and bioactivities of crude polysaccharides from tea leaves beyond their useful date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo; Huo, Jianglei; Jiang, Huixian; Yang, Fan

    2011-12-01

    The chemical compositions and bioactivities of crude tea polysaccharides (TPS) from the out-of-date tea leaves (beyond their useful date), namely Xihu Longjing (XTPS), Anxi Tieguanyin (TTPS), Chawentianxia (CTPS) and Huizhoulvcha (HTPS), in market were investigated. These TPS showed similar neutral sugar content and different distribution of molecular weight (1-800 kD). These crude TPS were mainly composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, and galacturonic acid. IR spectra confirmed that these crude TPS were composed of polysaccharide, protein and uronic acids. These TPS showed similar DPPH scavenging activity and exhibited lower DPPH scavenging activities than Vc within 25-200 μg/mL. However, these TPS with higher concentrations (200-400 μg/mL) showed similar DPPH scavenging activity with Vc. HTPS exhibited significant higher superoxide anion scavenging activity than others TPS and gallic acid. XTPS showed significant higher inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase with inhibitory percentages of 64.35% and 82.24% than others TPS. TTPS, XTPS, and HTPS exhibited similar inhibition ability on α-d-glucosidase and α-amylase. The overdue tea leaves can be a resource of tea polysaccharides as function food.

  15. Influence of Application of Microwave Energy on Quality Parameters of Mate Tea Leaves (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cristina Ceni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase are enzymes responsible for browning and quality deterioration in mate tea leaves. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of microwave energy on the oxidase activity, moisture content and colour of this raw material. The polyphenol oxidase was inactivated after 30 s of microwave treatment of the samples exposed to high and low light intensity. In samples exposed to low light intensity, the peroxidase activity was reduced for about 60 % after 120 s. The exposure of mate tea leaves to microwave energy for 220 s resulted in the moisture content required by the manufacturing process. The measured colour parameters showed that after microwave treatment, mate tea leaves showed a more intense green colour. In a general sense, the results show that the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase by microwave energy have an anti-browning effect on the colour evolution of mate tea leaves.

  16. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS and successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR] were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  17. A Non-targeted Approach to Chemical Discrimination Between Green Tea Dietary Supplements and Green Tea Leaves by HPLC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Green tea-based dietary supplements (GTDSs) have gained popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition difference of GTDS in comparison with green tea leaves using an HPLC/MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric analysis. Five components that are most responsible for class separation among samples were identified as (−) epicatechin gallate, strictinin, trigalloylglucose, quercetin-3-O-glucosylrhamnosylglucoside, and kaempferol-3-...

  18. Proteolysis of chloroplast proteins is responsible for accumulation of free amino acids in dark-treated tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Zhou, Ying; Cheng, Sihua; Zeng, Lanting; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-02-02

    Shade management (dark treatment) on tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a common approach to improve free amino acids in raw materials of tea leaves. However, the reason for amino acid accumulation in dark-treated tea leaves is still unknown. In the present study, dark treatment significantly increased content of free amino acids and reduced content of soluble proteins in tea leaves. Quantitative proteomics analysis showed that most enzymes involved in biosyntheses of amino acids were down-accumulated by dark treatment. Chloroplast numbers reduced in dark-treated leaves and the content of soluble proteins reduced in the chloroplasts isolated from dark-treated leaves compared to control. These suggest that proteolysis of chloroplast proteins contributed to amino acid accumulation in dark-treated leaves. Two chloroplasts proteases, ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit 3 and protease Do-like 2, were up-accumulated in dark-treated leaves. This study firstly elucidated the mechanism of accumulation of amino acids in dark-treated tea leaves.

  19. Characterization of Paecilomycescinnamomeus from the camellia whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting tea in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Takatsuka, Jun; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2012-05-01

    The whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae Kanmiya and Kasai (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an invasive species in Japan that was first discovered in 2004 on tea in Kyoto. Soon after its arrival epizootics of an entomopathogenic fungus were observed in populations of the whitefly in many tea-growing regions. Here we identify this fungus as Paecilomyces cinnamomeus (Petch) Samson and W. Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) based on morphological characteristics and molecular analyses. This is the first record of P. cinnamomeus in Japan and also the first time it has been recorded from the genus Aleurocanthus. A isolate of P. cinnamomeus caused greater than 50% and 90% infection in whitefly nymphs at 1×10(6) and 1×10(7)conidia/ml respectively, while the commercial mycoinsecticides Preferd® (Isaria fumosorosea) and Mycotal® (Lecanicillium muscarium) caused <10% infection at their recommended field rates (5×10(6) and 9×10(6)conidia/ml, respectively), suggesting that P. cinnamomeus may be more useful as a control agent than the currently available mycoinsecticides. Optimum and upper limit temperatures for in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates were 22.5-25°C and 32.5°C, respectively. At field rates, the fungicide thiophanate-methyl caused some inhibition of in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates, and the bactericide copper oxychloride and the insecticides tolfenpyrad and methidathion were strongly inhibitory. The findings obtained in this study will be useful in the development of microbial control programs using P. cinnamomeus against A. camelliae.

  20. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Waste Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Cheraghi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of lead in natural waters has become an important issue around the world. Lead has been identified as a highly toxic metal that can cause severe environmental and public health problems and its decontamination is of utmost importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adsorption of lead (Pb(II on waste tea leaves as a cheap purification method. Methods: In this experimental study, prepared waste tea leaves were used as adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments were carried out as batch studies at different contact time, pH, amount of adsorbent, initial metal concentration and temperature. Results: The results showed that maximum removal efficiency was observed at pH 6. Also the adsorption of Pb (II ions increased with decreasing initial metal concentration. The Langmuir isotherm model fits well with the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data and its calculated maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was 166.6 mg g-1 at a temperature of 25±0.1˚C. The kinetic data obtained have been analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The best fitted kinetic model was found to be pseudo-second-order. Conclusion: The results suggest that tea wastes could be employed as cheap material for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions.

  1. Boron and strontium isotope ratios and major/trace elements concentrations in tea leaves at four major tea growing gardens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ta; You, Chen-Feng; Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Chao, Hung-Chun; Liu, Hou-Chun

    2016-06-01

    Isotopic compositions of B and Sr in rocks and sediments can be used as tracers for plant provincial sources. This study aims to test whether tea leaf origin can be discriminated using (10)B/(11)B and Sr isotopic composition data, along with concentrations of major/trace elements, in tea specimens collected from major plantation gardens in Taiwan. The tea leaves were digested by microwave and analyzed by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The data showed significant variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios (from 0.70482 to 0.71462), which reflect changes in soil, groundwater or irrigation conditions. The most radiogenic tea leaves were found at the Taitung garden and the least radiogenic ones were from the Hualien garden. The δ (11)B was found to change appreciably (δ (11)B = 0.38-23.73 ‰) which could be due to fertilizers. The maximum δ (11)B was also observed in tea samples from the Hualien garden. Principal component analysis combining (87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ (11)B and major/trace elements results successfully discriminated different sources of major tea gardens in Taiwan, except the Hualien gardens, and this may be due to rather complicated local geological settings.

  2. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

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    Solomon Habtemariam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera. It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis, which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4% when the leaves (1 g were boiled in water (200 mL. For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.

  3. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of methylxanthines from maté tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldaña M.D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylxanthines are alkaloids found in natural products such as tea, coffee and guaraná. These alkaloids are commonly used in cola drinks and pharmaceutical products due principally to their stimulant and diuretic effects on the human organism. In this work, experimental data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine from herbal maté tea, a beverage traditionally consumed by the gauchos of southern Brazil, the Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay, were obtained using high pressure extraction equipment that allows adequate control of temperature and pressure. The continuous extraction/fractionation of maté tea leaves, Ilex paraguariensis in natura using carbon dioxide was carried out at 313.2 and 343.2 K and pressures of 13.8 and 25.5 MPa. Extraction/fractionation curves revealed the large influence of temperature and pressure on extraction yield. CO2 was also found to show a higher selectivity for caffeine than for theophylline and theobromine.

  4. Enhanced Lithium Storage in Hierarchically Porous Carbon Derived from Waste Tea Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changhoon; Seo, Seung-Deok; Kim, Byung-Kook; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2016-12-01

    In this study, highly nanoporous carbon (HCl-TW-Car) was successfully synthesized using a facile procedure combining acid treatment with a carbonization process that uses waste tea leaves from spent tea bags as raw materials. The acid treatment not only promotes the efficient removal of unnecessary inorganic impurities but also increases the product porosity to enable synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon materials with various micro-, meso-, and macropores. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, HCl-TW-Car demonstrated a much higher discharge capacity than is theoretically possible using graphite [479 mAh g-1 after the 200th cycle at a rate of 0.2C (1C = 372 mA g-1)] and exhibited greater rate capabilities compared with those of carbonated products from tea waste without acid treatment. It was shown that the good electrochemical properties of HCl-TW-Car can be ascribed to large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, well-formed hierarchical pores, and the prevention of unexpected electrochemical reactions from the reduction of metallic atoms.

  5. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Monoterpenes from the Leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre Tronson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was applied to various sample matrices under a range of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 densities and chamber temperatures. The purpose was to develop an effective extraction condition for the removal of eight target monoterpenes from Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel leaves. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be 0.25 g/mL scCO2 density at a chamber temperature of 110oC. These condition were most effective when applied to whole fresh and rehydrated whole dried leaves, where it yielded maximum recovery of target analytes with minimum change in oil composition for the extractor system employed. This study demonstrates the importance of the type of sample matrix used in SFE work, and that a different extraction protocol would need to be developed for each matrix.

  6. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence in tomato leaves infested with an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Juan; Lu, Yao-Bin; Huang, Fang; Li, Ming-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Herbivore injury has indirect effects on the growth and performance of host plants through photosynthetic suppression. It causes uncertain reduction in photosynthesis, which likely depends on the degree of infestation. Rapid light curves provide detailed information on the saturation characteristics of electron transport as well as the overall photosynthetic performance of a plant. We examined the effects of different intensities of infestation of the invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on the relative chlorophyll content and rapid light curves of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves using a chlorophyll meter and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement system, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. After 38 d of P. solenopsis feeding, relative chlorophyll content of tomato plants with initial high of P. solenopsis was reduced by 57.3%. Light utilization efficiency (α) for the initial high-density treatment was reduced by 42.4%. However, no significant difference between initial low-density treatment and uninfested control was found. The values of the maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance for initial high-density treatment were reduced by 82.0 and 69.7%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for low-density treatment were reduced by 55.9 and 58.1%, respectively. These data indicated that changes were induced by P. solenopsis feeding in the relative chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence of infested tomato plants. The results indicating that low initial infestation by P. solenopsis caused no change in relative leaf chlorophyll content or light utilization efficiency could have been because the plants rapidly adapted to P. solenopsis feeding or because of compensatory photosynthesis.

  7. Removal of heavy metals by waste tea leaves from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, S.S.; Goyal, D. [Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Patiala 147 004, Punjab (India)

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, tea leaves were shown to be an effective, low-cost biosorbent. Removal of lead, iron, zinc and nickel from 20 mg/L metal solution by dried biomass of waste tea leaves amounted to 96, 91, 72 and 58 %, respectively, at equilibrium, which followed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of metal was in the order of Pb > Fe > Zn > Ni from 5-100 mg/L of metal solution. From a multi-metallic mixture, 92.5, 84 and 73.2 % of lead, iron and zinc, respectively, were removed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies indicated that the carboxyl group was involved in the binding of lead and iron, whereas the amine group was involved in the binding of nickel and zinc. A flow through sorption column packed with dried biomass demonstrated a sorption capacity of 73 mg Pb/g of biomass, indicating its potential in cleaning metal containing wastewater. The metal laden biomass obtained could be disposed off by incineration. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Proteomic analysis of young leaves at three developmental stages in an albino tea cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Juan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White leaf No.1 is a typical albino tea cultivar grown in China and it has received increased attention in recent years due to the fact that white leaves containing a high level of amino acids, which are very important components affecting the quality of tea drink. According to the color of its leaves, the development of this tea cultivar is divided into three stages: the pre-albinistic stage, the albinistic stage and the regreening stage. To understand the intricate mechanism of periodic albinism, a comparative proteomic approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry was adopted first time to identify proteins that changed in abundance during the three developmental periods. Results The 2-DE results showed that the expression level of 61 protein spots varied markedly during the three developmental stages. To analyze the functions of the significantly differentially expressed protein spots, 30 spots were excised from gels and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry. Of these, 26 spots were successfully identified. All identified protein spots were involved in metabolism of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, photosynthesis, protein processing, stress defense and RNA processing, indicating these physiological processes may play crucial roles in the periodic albinism. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcriptional level of differentially expressed proteins. In addition, the ultrastructural studies revealed that the etioplast-chloroplast transition in the leaf cell of White leaf No. 1 was inhibited and the grana in the chloroplast was destroyed at the albinistic stage. Conclusions In this work, the proteomic analysis revealed that some proteins may have important roles in the molecular events involved in periodic albinism of White leaf No. 1 and identificated many attractive candidates for further investigation. In

  9. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.

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    Qin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants.

  10. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Juan; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jianan; Lin, Haiyan; Wang, Kunbo; Cheng, Xiaomei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-18

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants.

  11. A non-targeted approach to chemical discrimination between green tea dietary supplements and green tea leaves by HPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2011-01-01

    Green tea-based dietary supplements (GTDSs) have gained popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition difference of GTDS in comparison with green tea leaves using an HPLC/MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric analysis. Five components that are most responsible for class separation among samples were identified as (-) epicatechin gallate, strictinin, trigalloylglucose, quercetin-3-O-glucosyl-rhamnosylglucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosylglucoside, according to the accurate mass measurements and MS/MS data. The similarity coefficients between the GTDSs in solid form with green tea were 0.55 to 0.91, while for the GTDSs in liquid form they were 0.12 to 0.89, which suggested that chemical composition variance across the GTDSs was significant. Flavonol aglycone concentrations were higher in GTDSs than in tea leaves, indicating the degradation of flavonol glycosides or the oxidation of catechin during the manufacturing and storage processes. In some GTDS samples, compounds were identified that were on the label. The results demonstrate the urgency of QC for GTDS products.

  12. Aromatic constituents in fresh leaves of Lingtou Dancong Tea induced by drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Panrong; LIU Chunyan; LIU Kebin

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different degrees of drought stress on the aromatic constituents and their relative contents in fresh leaves ofLingtou Dancong tea plants was studied in this paper.The results showed that drought stress could evidently increase the kinds of aromatic components in the fresh leaves.The largest number of kinds(58)of the aromatic constituents was detected when soil relative water content was 53.90% among all the designed treatments,while the lowest number was found under a soil relative water content of 99.75%.The total amount of relative contents of 17 kinds of aromatic components such as linalool etc.,increased with drought stress,whereas 12 kinds of aromatic components such as tetradecanoic acid etc.,decreased with drought stress. Linalool,linalool oxide,tetradecane, 10-methylnonadecane, and dodecanal showed high contents under the soil relative water content of 53.90%;Cyclohexane,1-hexadecene,and 1tricosanolonly were induced in the soil relative water content of 53.90% and 29.25%;while drought stress could inhibit the synthesis of constituents of 7 kinds such as nonanedioic acid monomethyl ester,etc.Different degrees of drought stress could induce various kinds of aromatic constituents,and the number of aromatic constituents induced in fresh leaves increased with the strengthening of drought stress.

  13. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Li; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-12-01

    Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged.

  14. Extraction Efficiency of Different Solvents and LC-UV Determination of Biogenic Amines in Tea Leaves and Infusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzirri, U. Gianfranco; Picci, Nevio

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs), that is, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, and serotonin, have been determined in several samples of tea leaves, tea infusions, and tea drinks by LC-UV method after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Different extraction solvents have been tested and TCA 5% showed better analytical performances in terms of linearity, recovery percentages, LOD, LOQ, and repeatability than HCl 0.1 M and HClO4 0.1 M and was finally exploited for the quantitative determination of BAs in all samples. In tea leaves total BAs concentration ranged from 2.23 μg g−1 to 11.24 μg g−1 and PUT (1.05–2.25 μg g−1) and SPD (1.01–1.95 μg g−1) were always present, while SER (nd–1.56 μg g−1), HIS (nd–2.44 μg g−1), and SPM (nd–1.64 μg g−1) were detected more rarely. CAD and PHE were determined in few samples at much lower concentrations while none of the samples contained TYR. Tea infusions showed the same trend with total BAs concentrations never exceeding 80.7 μg L−1. Black teas showed higher amounts of BAs than green teas and organic and decaffeinated samples always contained much lower BAs levels than their conventional counterparts. PMID:27555979

  15. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the simultaneous prediction of alkaloids and phenolic substances in green tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, H; Engelhardt, U H; Wegent, A; Drews, H; Lapczynski, S

    1999-12-01

    A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) method for the prediction of polyphenol and alkaloid compounds in the leaves of green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] was developed. Reference measurements of the individual catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, and theobromine were performed by reversed-phase HPLC. The total polyphenols were determined according to the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Using the partial least-squares algorithm, very good calibration statistics were obtained for the prediction of gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, and theobromine (R(2) > 0.85) with standard deviation/standard error of cross-validation (SD/SECV) ratio ranging from 2.00 to 6.27. Simultaneously, the dry matter content of the tea leaves can be analyzed very precisely (R(2) = 0.94; SD/SECV = 4.12). Furthermore, it is possible to discriminate tea leaves of different age by principal component analysis on the basis of the received NIR spectra. Prediction of the total polyphenol content is performed with a lower accuracy, which might be due to the lack of specificity in the colorimetric reference method. The study demonstrates that NIRS technology can be successfully applied as a rapid method not only for breeding and cultivation purposes but also to estimate the quality and taste of green tea and to control industrial processes, for example, decaffeination.

  16. GREEN TEA FESTIVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  17. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  18. Simultaneous determination of amino acids in tea leaves by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Cai, Yuanli; Wang, Yufei; Lin, Xia; Li, Hui

    2014-01-15

    A rapid and effective method of micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of amino acids in tea leaves. Pre-column derivatization of the analytes used 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NDB-Cl). Optimal separation was achieved at +20kV using an uncoated fused silica capillary (40.0cm effective length, 50.2cm total length, 75μm internal diameter), as well as 20mM sodium borate (pH 8.5), 20mM Brij 35, and acetonitrile 10% (v/v) as running buffers. Within 11min, 15 amino acids were separated completely. The optimized method demonstrated good linearity (r(2)⩾0.9990), precision (⩽6.65%), accuracy (85.50-112.74%), and sensitivity (0.1ng/mL-100ng/mL). The method successfully determined the quantity of amino acids in five different tea leaves; furthermore, theanine was identified as the most abundant amino acid in teas. The proposed method showed great potential in further investigations on the biofunctions of different tea samples.

  19. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for sorption of Ni (II) from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The sorption characteristic of Ni (II) from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves as a low cost sorbent has been studied. The effect of pH, contact time, sorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. The equilibrium data were fitted into four most common isotherm models; Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R). The Langmuir model described the sorption isotherm best with maximum monolayer sorpt...

  20. Application of Box-Behnken design for the removal of two organophosphorus pesticides by used Tea leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanis, Triantafyllos; Valileios, Sakkas; Islam, Azharul M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of two organophosphorus pesticides bromophos methyl [BM: O, O- dimethyl - O - (2, 5-dichloro -4 bromophenyl) phosphorothioate] and quinalphos [QP: O, O-diethyl O-2-quinoxalinyl phosphorothioate] on used tea leaves were studied by batch equilibration method. Adsorption isotherms were conformed well to Langmuir for quinalphos and Freundlich equation for bromophos methyl. The kinetic data fitted well by the pseudo second order model for both pesticides. Box-Behnken design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of results. The interactions of pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on two pesticides adsorption by used tea leaves were investigated by this model. The optimum pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose with their corresponding removal efficiency were found to be 7.88, 11.94 mg L-1, 0.37g and 100% for bromophos methyl respectively, for quinalphos 8.72, 6.44 mg L-1, 0.39g and 93.98% respectively. Keywords: Box-Behnken; quinalphos; bromophos methyl; Kinetics; used tea leaves

  1. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto Used Black Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the kinetic and thermodynamic investigation of the adsorption of crystal violet (CV on used black tea leaves (UBTL from aqueous solution to evaluate the feasibility of the process. The effects of concentration, solution pH and temperature on adsorption kinetics were carried out in batch process. Kinetic studies have shown that the adsorption data partially follow simple first order, second order and pseudo second order kinetic equations for different initial concentrations at pH 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, equilibrium concentration and rate constant were calculated from better fitted pseudo second order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations. The equilibrium amount adsorbed (200 mg/g at 30 oC increased with the increase of temperature, indicated endothermic nature of the adsorption. The apparent activation energy of adsorption was determined from Arrhenius plot using pseudo second order rate constant and the value, Ea = 83.1 kJ/mol, revealed the process is chemisorption. Thermodynamic parameters: DHo, DGo and DSo, were determined from the equilibrium adsorption constant and the results obtained confirmed that the adsorption process was feasible, less spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium amount adsorbed was found to be increased with increase of solution pH from 2.0 to 6.0 indicating electrostatic interaction between cationic CV with anionic surface of UBTL dominated at higher pH due to the low zero point charge of pH of UBTL.

  2. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  3. Equilibrium adsorption of rhodamine B on used black tea leaves from acidic aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carcinogenic dye like rhodamine B (Rh-B in textile wastewater affects the quality of water to consumers. The adsorption of Rh-B on used black tea leaves (UBTL was studied in batch process to investigate its removal efficiency. The effects of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH etc. on adsorption have been investigated. The UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of Rh-B at constant pH. The adsorption isotherms were constructed for different temperatures using acidic solution of pH 2.0. Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin–Raduskevich (D-R equations were used to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data. The experimental data follows Freundlich equation more precisely compare with the Langmuir one. The maximum amount adsorbed calculated from Langmuir equation is 72.5 mg/g at 30 oC which is increased with increasing temperature. Separation factor and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the process is favorable, spontaneous and endothermic nature. Possible mechanism of the process was elucidated from the effect of solution pH on amount adsorbed. The endothermic nature of the adsorption might be due to the fragmentation of Rh-B molecules during the adsorption process.

  4. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on Used Black Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abul Hossain

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B fromaqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism.The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-secondorder kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  5. Biphasic effects of Morus alba leaves green tea extract on mice in chronic forced swimming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattayasai, Jintana; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Puapairoj, Prapawadee

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Morus alba leaves green tea (ME) on mouse behaviors (depression, anxiety, climbing activity and thermal response), muscle coordination and muscle strength were studied. Male IRC mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either the ME, desipramine or diazepam. Thirty minutes after injection, the mice were tested in all experimental models. A significant antidepressant-like effect could be detected in the animals receiving either 100 or 200 mg/kg ME. The effect of 200 mg/kg ME in decreasing the immobility time was comparable to 10 mg/kg desipramine. With higher dose (1000 mg/kg), a significant increase in immobility time could be observed. In the elevated plus maze, no increase in time in the open arm could be observed in mice treated with ME at either 100 or 200 mg/kg. However, high doses of ME (500 or 1000 mg/kg) decreased both time in the open arm and the number of entries in the maze. No change in thermal response could be seen in mice treated with ME at doses up to 500 mg/kg, however, at 1000 mg/kg, the response time to heat was increased significantly. The ME at either 500 or 1000 mg/kg also decreased muscle coordination, strength and climbing activity significantly when compared with the control. This study suggests that ME possesses an antidepressant- without an anxiolytic-like effect, however, at high doses, the extract might show the sedative effect and alter other functions such as muscle strength, animal activity in the maze and pain response.

  6. Synergistic Effects of Potentilla fruticosa L. Leaves Combined with Green Tea Polyphenols in a Variety of Oxidation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zehua; Luo, Ziwen; Jia, Caixia; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu

    2016-05-01

    Potentilla fruticosa L. leaves are widely used as tea in China, with many commercial "Jinlaomei" teas available in markets. It has been confirmed to possess significant antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. In this study, the synergistic effects of P. fruticosa leaves extracts (PFE) combined with green tea polyphenols (GTP) were studied to elucidate their use in combination and find specific combinations with least concentrations that enhance the antioxidant activity. Isobolographic analysis indicated that the combination of PFE and GTP demonstrated extensive synergism (22/28 of the tests showed significant synergy) with 3:1 (PFE:GTP) exhibiting the best synergistic effect. Chemical compositions and content of 7 phenolic compounds in PFE, GTP, and their mixtures were evaluated by reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography. While chemical composition did not seem to change after the combination, as no new peaks appeared in the chromatogram, and no existing peaks disappeared. However, the content of (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and , (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) changed. Besides, antioxidant interactions of extracts and compounds were evaluated, EGC with hyperoside exhibited the greatest synergistic effect and the combination of 3:1 exhibited the strongest synergism (DPPH γ = 0.86, ABTS γ = 1.12, FRAP γ = 1.16). Therefore, interaction of phytochemicals may be one reason for the synergistic effects in PFE + GTP, with EGC + hyperoside likely playing an important role. This report provides a theoretical basis for the concomitant use of P. fruticosa blended with GTP, which can be effectively used as a compounded tea, dietary supplements, and substituent of synthetic antioxidant.

  7. Effects of green tea or Sasa quelpaertensis bamboo leaves on plasma and liver lipids, erythrocyte Na efflux, and platelet aggregation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Sung Hee; Kang, Min Sook; Kim, Kyu Il; Kang, Young Hee; Kang, Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Sasa quelpaertensis bamboo and green tea on plasma and liver lipids, platelet aggregation, and erythrocyte membrane Na channels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty female rats were OVX, and ten female rats were sham-operated at the age of 6 weeks. The rats were divided into four groups at the age of 10 weeks and fed the experiment diets: sham-control, OVX-control, OVX-bamboo leaves (10%), or OVX-green tea leaves (10%) for four weeks. Final body weight increased significantly in the OVX groups compared with that in the sham-control, whereas body weight in the OVX-green tea group decreased significantly compared with that in the OVX-control (P bamboo group (P bamboo and OVX-green tea groups compared with that in the OVX-control (P bamboo leaves groups recovered bone density to some extent. The results show that ovariectomy caused an increase in body weight and liver triglycerides, and that green tea was effective for lowering body weight and triglycerides in OVX rats. Ovariectomy induced an increase in Na efflux via Na-K ATPase and a decrease in Na efflux via Na-K cotransport. Furthermore, consumption of green tea and bamboo leaves affected Na efflux channels, controlling electrolyte and body water balance.

  8. Extraction, partial purification and determination of some biochemical properties of β-glucosidase from Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Aysun

    2015-12-01

    This research was carried out to determine biochemical properties of β-glucosidase (β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) isolated from Turkish tea leaves. Two protein peaks containing β-glucosidase activity were recovered and characterized, which were denoted as isoenzyme A and isoenzyme B. Their pH optimum, thermal resistances, affinity towards p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside differed markedly. They both displayed maximal activity at pH 5.0. The effects of the inhibitors tested varied in a dose dependent manner.

  9. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase from Fresh Leaves of Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-Yun LI; Chang-Jun JIANG; Xiao-Chun WAN; Zheng-Zhu ZHANG; Da-Xiang LI

    2005-01-01

    β-Glucosidases are important in the formation of floral tea aroma and the development of resistance to pathogens and herbivores in tea plants. A novel β-glucosidase was purified 117-fold to homogeneity,with a yield of 1.26%, from tea leaves by chilled acetone and ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography (CM-Sephadex C-50) and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC; Superdex 75, Resource S). The enzyme was a monomeric protein with specific activity of 2.57 U/mg. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be about 41 kDa and 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE and FPLC gel filtration on Superdex 200, respectively. The enzyme showed optimum activity at 50 ℃ and was stable at temperatures lower than 40 ℃. It was active between pH 4.0 and pH 7.0, with an optimum activity at pH 5.5, and was fairly stable from pH 4.5 to pH 8.0. The enzyme showed maximum activity towards pNPG, low activity towards pNP-Galacto, and no activity towards pNP-Xylo.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene in the Leaves of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Li, Ye-Yun; Tan, Zhen; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-03-02

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL, E.C. 4.1.2.) is the major enzyme in the biosynthesis of natural volatile aldehydes and alcohols in plants, however, little was known about HPL in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A unique cDNA fragment was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) from a tea plant subjected to herbivory by tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua. This full length cDNA acquired by RACE was 1476 bp and encoded 491 amino acids. DNA and protein BLAST searches showed high homology to HPL sequences from other plants. The His-tag expression vector pET-32a(+)/CsHPL was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The expression product of recombinant CsHPL in E. coli was about 60 kDa. The enzyme activity of CsHPL was 0.20 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated CsHPL was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis obliqua attack, suggesting that it may be an important candidate for defense against insects in tea plants.

  11. Differential transcriptome analysis of leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) provides comprehensive insights into the defense responses to Ectropis oblique attack using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Tang, Lei; Hou, Yan; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hua; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Tea is a very popular and healthy nonalcoholic beverage worldwide. As an evergreen woody plant, the cultivation of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) is challenged by biotic stresses, and one of which is feeding of Ectropis oblique. In China, E. oblique infestation causes serious damages in many tea cultivation areas. Tea plants have evolved sophisticated strategies to cope with attack by E. oblique. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the response to E. oblique in tea plants, the differential gene expression profiles between the E. oblique damage-induced tea plants and undamaged control using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were obtained. A total of 1859 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 949 upregulated and 910 downregulated genes. Overall, 90 signal transduction genes, 100 anti-insect responsive transcription factors, 50 genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, 41 unigenes related to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) biosynthesis, and 8 caffeine biosynthesis genes were found to be differentially regulated. Metabolic pathway analysis indicated that plant secondary metabolites and the signaling pathways may play an important role in defense against insects, and a closer examination at the expression of some crucial genes revealed differential expression patterns after feeding by E. oblique. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results of RNA-Seq. Our dataset provides the most comprehensive sequence resource available for studying the resistance to E. oblique in tea, which will benefit our understanding of the overall mechanisms underlying inducible defenses responses, and may be useful to create novel prevention measures against insects to reduce pesticide usage in eco-friendly tea farming.

  12. Dual extraction based on solid phase extraction and solidified floating organic drop microextraction for speciation of arsenic and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion by electrothermal vaporization ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shizhong; Li, Jianfen; Lu, Dengbo; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-15

    A dual extraction based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) was developed for As species in tea leaves and tea infusion by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, including total, suspended, soluble, organic and inorganic As as well as As(III) and As(V). In SPE step, titanium dioxide nanotubes were used for preconcentration of analytes and removal of sample matrix. Elution solution from SPE was employed for further preconcentration and separation of analytes with SFODME. Under optimal conditions, detection limits of this method were 0.046 and 0.072pgmL(-1) with relative standard deviations of 6.3% and 5.8% for As(III) and As(V) (n=9, c=1.0ngmL(-1)), respectively. A preconcentration factor of 500-fold was achieved for As(III) and As(V). This method was successfully applied for analysis of speciation of arsenic and its distribution in tea leaves, tea infusion and certified reference material of tea leaves.

  13. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7505-a) for the determination of trace elements in tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace elements in tea leaves has been developed in National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder (<90 µm) after frozen pulverization of washed and dried fresh tea leaves from a tea plant farm in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), high-resolution (HR-) ICP-MS, isotope-dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Property values were provided for 19 elements (Ca, K, Mg, P, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Zn and Co) and informative values for 18 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Y, and all of the lanthanides, except for Pm whose isotopes are exclusively radioactive). The concentration ranges of property values and informative values were from 1.59% (mass) of K to 0.0139 mg kg(-1) of Cd and from 0.6 mg kg(-1) of Ti to 0.0014 mg kg(-1) of Lu, respectively. Combined relatively standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, analytical methods, characterization, calibration standard, and dry-mass correction factor. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.5% of Mg and K to 4.1% of Cd.

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green tea leaves: Experimental study on the morphological, rheological and antibacterial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavani, Maryam; Nikkhah, V.; Sarafraz, M. M.; Shoja, Saeed; Sarafraz, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles are produced via green synthesis method using green tea leaves. The introduced method is cost-effective and available, which provides condition to manipulate and control the average nanoparticle size. The produced particles were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic images, UV visualization, digital light scattering, zeta potential measurement and thermal conductivity measurement. Results demonstrated that the produced samples of silver nanoparticles are pure in structure (based on the x-ray diffraction test), almost identical in terms of morphology (spherical and to some extent cubic) and show longer stability when dispersed in deionized water. The UV-visualization showed a peak in 450 nm, which is in accordance with the previous studies reported in the literature. Results also showed that small particles have higher thermal and antimicrobial performance. As green tea leaves are used for extracting the silver nanoparticles, the method is eco-friendly. The thermal behaviour of silver nanoparticle was also analysed by dispersing the nanoparticles inside the deionized water. Results showed that thermal conductivity of the silver nano-fluid is higher than that of obtained for the deionized water. Activity of Ag nanoparticles against some bacteria was also examined to find the suitable antibacterial application for the produced particles.

  15. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for sorption of Ni (II from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Shah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sorption characteristic of Ni (II from aqueous solution using formaldehyde treated waste tea leaves as a low cost sorbent has been studied. The effect of pH, contact time, sorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. The equilibrium data were fitted into four most common isotherm models; Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R. The Langmuir model described the sorption isotherm best with maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 120.50 mg g−1. Four kinetic models, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich were employed to explain the sorption mechanism. The kinetics of sorption data showed that the pseudo-second-order model is the best with correlation coefficient of 0.9946. The spontaneous and exothermic nature of the sorption process was revealed from thermodynamic investigations. The effect of some common alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were also studied which showed that the presence of these ions have no effect on the sorption of Ni (II. The results showed that waste tea leaves have the potential to be used as a low cost sorbent for the removal of Ni (II from aqueous solutions.

  16. Chemical profiling and gene expression profiling during the manufacturing process of Taiwan oolong tea "Oriental Beauty".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Mizutani, Masaharu; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Ogura, Miharu; Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Lin, Mu-Lien; Sakata, Kanzo

    2007-06-01

    Oriental Beauty, which is made from tea leaves infested by the tea green leafhopper (Jacobiasca formosana) in Taiwan, has a unique aroma like ripe fruits and honey. To determine what occurs in the tea leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process, the gene expression profiles and the chemical profiles were investigated. Tea samples were prepared from Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Chin-shin Dah-pang while the tea leaves were attacked by the insect. The main volatile compounds, such as linalool-oxides, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2,6-dimethylocta-3,7-diene-2,6-diol, increased during manufacture. The gene expression profiles during manufacture were analyzed by differential screening between fresh leaves and tea leaves of the first turn over. Many up-regulated transcripts were found to encode various proteins homologous to stress response proteins. Accordingly, the endogenous contents of abscisic acid and raffinose increased during manufacture. Thus the traditional manufacturing method is a unique process that utilizes plant defense responses to elevate the production of volatile compounds and other metabolites.

  17. Changes in the Composition of Raw Tea Leaves from the Korean Yabukida Plant during High-temperature Processing to Pan-Fried Kamairi-cha Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a better understanding of compositional changes occurring during the production of commercial teas, we determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) changes in ingredient levels during each of several manufacturing steps used to produce Kamairi-cha, a premium green tea. We ...

  18. Effects of drying method and particle size on the antioxidant properties of leaves and teas of Morus alba, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Thunbergia laurifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wei Chiang Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties (AOP of leaves and teas of Morus alba L., Lagerstroemia speciosa (L. Pers. and Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. as affected by microwave, oven and freeze drying were assessed. Total phenolic content (TPC, radical scavenging ability expressed as ascorbic acid equivalent capacity (AEAC and ferric reducing power (FRP were screened using the Folin-Ciocalteu, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and potassium ferricyanide assays, respectively. The effects of particle size were also investigated. Microwave drying resulted in enhanced AOP in M. alba and T. laurifolia. Oven drying resulted in declined AOP in T. laurifolia with M. alba and L. speciosa relatively unchanged. Significant increase in AOP was observed in freeze-dried leaves of M. alba with L. speciosa and T. laurifolia showing no change or slight increase. TPC, AEAC and FRP of ground microwave-, oven- and freeze-dried leaves of M. alba extracted with 50% methanol were significantly higher than shredded leaves. For tea infusions extracted with hot water, three categories were recognised, i.e. species with shredded leaves yielding stronger AOP (M. alba, species with ground leaves yielding stronger AOP (L. speciosa, and species with ground and shredded leaves yielding comparable AOP (T. laurifolia.

  19. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part I. The application of PLE for HPLC analysis of caffeine in green tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    A broad spectrum of sample preparation methods is currently used for the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from plant and herbal materials. The paper compares the effectiveness of infusion, microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) as sample preparation methods for the isolation of caffeine from green tea leaves. The effect of PLE variables, such as extraction temperature, pressure and time, on the yield of caffeine from the investigated matrix is discussed. The obtained results revealed that PLE, in comparison with other sample preparation methods applied, has significantly lower efficacy for caffeine isolation from green tea leaves. The evaluation of PLE conditions leads to the conclusion that elevated pressure applied in the PLE process is the factor hindering the extraction.

  20. The characterization of caffeine and nine individual catechins in the leaves of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Seuk; Hwang, Young-Sun; Lee, Jinwook; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2014-09-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to determine the contents of caffeine and nine individual catechins in tea leaves. A total of 665 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of caffeine and nine individual catechins. The calibration models for caffeine, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and total catechins had high r(2) (more than 0.90) and RSP (the ratio of standard deviation of reference data to SEP(C) in the external validation set) values (more than 4.1), indicating a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. In contrast, the calibration models of GC and EGCG-3Me had low r(2) and RSP values (below 0.8 and 2.0). Therefore, these results suggest that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of caffeine, EGC, C, EGCG, EC, ECG, and total catechins in tea leaves for breeding programs that develop high-quality tea plants.

  1. Effect of Atmospheric Deposition on Heavy Metal Accumulation in Tea Leaves%大气沉降对茶叶重金属积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 李宝刚; 章明奎

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the effects of atmospheric deposition on the heavy metal accumulation in tea leaves. The experiments concern three sites with different pollution sources of atmospheric deposition, including traffic pollution, industrial pollution and non-point pollution areas, and are under the conditions of open air and plastic film cover. The results show that the atmospheric deposition has a notable effect on the heavy metal accumulation in young tea leaves, but not for old tea leaves. The traffic pollution increases significantly the accumulation of Pb and Cd in young tea leaves. The industrial pollution increases significantly the accumulation of Pb, Cd, and Cr in young tea leaves, with its effect being decreased with the increase of the distance from a highway or factory. The altitude also affects the accumulation of Pb in the young tea leaves in the non-point pollution area. As compared with these, the accumulation of Pb, Cd and Cr in young tea leaves under plastic film cover conditions is decreased by 27%-46%, 21%-36% and 13%-33% for traffic pollution area, and 22%-44%, 23%-32%, and 24%-29% for industrial pollution area. The accumulation of Pb in young tea leaves under plastic film cover conditions in the non-point pollution area is 13%-19% lower than those under the open air condition. The contribution of atmospheric deposition to the accumulation of heavy metals in tea leaves is greater in industrial pollution areas than in traffic pollution areas. It is very important to control the atmospheric pollution in the tea production area and not to plant teas in the area with heavy atmospheric pollutions.%针对大气沉降对茶叶重金属积累的影响,选择了2个有明显污染源(分别受交通污染和工业污染影响)和1个无明显污染源(主要受大气循环物质沉降的影响)的3个茶园,采用覆膜和露天对比研究了茶叶中重金属Pb、Cd和Cr的积累状况.结果表明,试验

  2. Technological Study on Preparation of Low Caffeine Instant Black Tea with Fresh Tea Leaves%用鲜叶加工低咖啡因速溶红茶的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高展; 刘伟; 龚正礼

    2015-01-01

    以茶鲜叶为原料,采用正交试验,研究了低咖啡因速溶红茶的加工工艺.通过综合评估,鲜叶添加比例以7∶3最为合适,即每70 g脱咖啡因鲜叶中添加30 g切碎的鲜叶作为酶源发酵制成的脱咖啡因红茶胚品质最佳.4个因素对茶黄素浸提影响的主次关系为pH值,温度,固液比,时间,对茶红素浸提影响的主次关系则为固液比,时间,pH值,温度.鲜叶加工低咖啡因速溶红茶浸提的最优工艺参数为温度95℃,浸提时间30 min ,固液比1∶15, pH值为5.5.通过感官审评,发现用鲜叶制的低咖啡因速溶红茶品质更佳,且其得率也达到了21.4%,与传统加工方法相比差异也不大,故此工艺可以应用到产业化生产速溶红茶中.%This article is oriented in studying the process technology of low caffeine instant black tea by or‐thogonal test with fresh tea leaves as raw material .By means of comprehensive assessment ,the most ap‐propriate proportion of added fresh tea leavesis 7∶3 ,i .e .decaffeinated fresh leaves per 70 g by adding 30 g chopped fresh leaves ,working as a source of enzyme fermentation for making out the best quality de‐caffeinated tea embryo .Four factors affecting theaflavins extraction from primary to secondary are stated as follows :pH ,temperature ,solid‐liquid ratio ,time .However ,the factors affecting thearubigins extrac‐tion from primary to secondary are solid‐liquid ratio ,pH ,temperature ,time .The optimal process parame‐ter for extraction of processing low caffeine instant black tea is at the temperature of 95℃ ,for the duration of 30 min extraction time ,with a solid‐liquid ratio 1∶15 and pH5 .5 .Through organoleptic evaluation ,it has been found that the better quality low caffeine instant black tea is made of fresh leaves and that the yield is also coming to 21 .4% .Besides ,there is not much difference in comparison of tradition process technique

  3. Synergistic effects and related bioactive mechanisms of Potentilla fruticosa Linn. leaves combined with green tea polyphenols studied with microbial test system (MTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Luo, Zi-Wen; Li, Deng-Wu; Wang, Dong-Mei; Ji, Xia

    2017-06-12

    Previous research found Potentilla fruticosa leaf extracts (PFE) combined with green tea polyphenols (GTP) showed obvious synergistic effects based on chemical mechanisms. This study further confirmed the synergy of PFE + GTP viewed from bioactivities using the microbial test system (MTS). The MTS antioxidant activity results showed the combination of PFE + GTP exhibited synergistic effect and the ratio 3:1 showed the strongest synergy, which were in accordance with the results in H2O2 production rate. The combination of PFE + GTP promoted CAT and SOD enzyme activity and their gene expression especially at the ratio 3:1. Therefore, the synergism of PFE + GTP may be due to the promotion of CAT and SOD genes expression which enhanced the CAT and SOD enzyme activities. These results confirmed the synergy of PFE + GTP and could provide theoretical basis to produce a compounded tea made of a mixture of leaves from Potentilla species.

  4. Development of health tea beverage with Clerodeudrou trichotomum Thunb.leaves%斑鸠菜保健茶饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毅; 伍斌; 黄德毅

    2013-01-01

    By taking the C. trichotomum Thunb. leaves as the main raw material, added green tea extract liquid to develop one kind of the new health beverages. The extraction conditions of vegetable juice and product formula were determined by single-factor test and orthogonal test method. Results showed that the fresh leaves extract was better than drying leaves, mature leaves extract was better than tender and old leaves. The optimum technological parameter were fresh leaves for material and liquid ratio of 1 : 6(m : V), the extraction time of 10 min, the extraction temperature of 95℃. The optimum formula were vegetable juice and green tea extract liquid ratio of 2 : 1(V : V), sugar of 2%, citric acid of 0.16%, CMC-Na of 0.12%.%以斑鸠菜叶为主要原料,添加绿茶浸泡液制备斑鸠菜保健茶饮料.通过单因素试验和正交试验确定斑鸠菜汁浸提工艺及茶饮料配方.结果表明:斑鸠菜鲜叶浸提比干燥后浸提效果好,成熟叶比嫩叶和老叶浸提效果好,鲜叶最佳浸提工艺为料水比1∶6(m∶V),浸提时间10 min,浸提温度95℃;斑鸠菜茶饮料最佳配方为斑鸠菜汁与绿茶浸泡液比例2∶1(V∶V),白砂糖含量3%,柠檬酸含量0.16%,CMC-Na含量0.12%.

  5. Preparation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Containing Powdered Tea Leaves with Enriched Levels of Bioactive Compounds by Means of Microwave Irradiation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hironori; Iwao, Yasunori; Izumikawa, Masahiro; Sano, Syusuke; Ishida, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a microwave treatment process has been applied to prepare orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing powdered tea leaves with enriched levels of the anti-inflammatory compounds such as chafuroside A (CFA) and chafuroside B (CFB). The use of distilled water as the adsorbed and granulation solvents in this preparation process afforded tablets with a long disintegration time (more than 120 s). The CFA and CFB contents of these tablets did not also change after 4 min of microwave irradiation due to the tablet temperature, which only increased to 100°C. In contrast, the tablet temperature increased up to 140°C after 3 min of microwave irradiation when a 1.68 M Na2HPO4 solution instead of distilled water. Notably, the disintegration time of these tablets was considerably improved (less than 20 s) compared with the microwave-untreated tablets, and there were 7- and 11-fold increases in their CFA and CFB contents. In addition, the operational conditions for the preparation of the tablets were optimized by face-centered composite design based on the following criteria: tablet hardness greater than 13 N, disintegration time less than 30 s and friability less than 0.5%. The requirements translated into X1 (the amount of granulation solvent), X2 (tableting pressure) and X3 (content of the powdered tea leaves) values of 45%, 0.43 kN and 32%, respectively, and the ODTs containing powdered tea leaves prepared under these optimized conditions were found to show excellent tablet properties and contain enriched levels of CFA and CFB.

  6. 五叶子嫩枝叶茶饮料的研制%Research on Tea Beverages from Fresh Twigs and Leaves of Schisandra chinens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽杰; 胡平平; 薛伟利

    2011-01-01

    The Schisandra chinensis tea beverage was made with the fresh twigs and leaves of Schisandra chinensis as the principal material and then mixed with the essence or extracts of medlar and longan. The sugar, total acid and taste of 15 popular Schisandra chinensis tea beverage were determined and analyzed, so as to determine its flavor and sugar-acid ratio through the orthogonal experiment. According to the taste of Schisandra chinensis tea beverage, 8 flavors of green tea beverage and 8 flavors of ice black tea beverage were designed and produced with 10% of Schisandra chinensis extracts (V/V), 50 - 100 g,/L sugar, O. 4 - 4.0 g/L acid, 4% of medlar and longan extracts (V/V) or 0.05%-0.06% of essence (V/V). Through the evaluation of the sensory quality, 8 kinds of Schisandra chinensis tea beverage with good taste and flavor were produced, which had broad development prospect.%以五味子嫩枝叶为主要原料,辅以枸杞和桂圆的浸提汁或香精,研制五味子茶饮料.对市场上流行的15种茶饮料进行糖度、总酸的测定和口味分析,在此基础上采用正交设计法确定五味子茶饮料的口味和糖酸比.对五味子茶饮料的口味进行设计并加工出8种口味五味子绿茶饮料和8种口味的五味子冰红茶饮料,确定配方中原汁量占10%(v/v),糖度50~100 g/L、酸度0.4~4.0 g/L.调味汁占4%(v/v)或香精0.05%~0.06%(v/v).经过感官质量评定后,研制出了8种口味和口感都非常适宜的五味子茶饮料,具有较好的开发前景.

  7. Influence of agronomic variables on the composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) extracts obtained from CO2 extraction at 30 degrees C and 175 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmelindro, Angela Aquino; Girardi, Jonathan Dos Santos; Mossi, Altemir; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio

    2004-04-07

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of light intensity (plants with direct sun exposure and in a controlled light intensity) and age of leaves (6-24 months) on the characteristics of the extracts of mate tea leaves obtained from carbon dioxide at high pressures. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Industria e Comercio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. The content of selected organic compounds of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography together with mass spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, phytol, vitamin E, squalene, and stigmasterol was performed, and the results showed that field variables exert a strong influence on the liquid yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  8. Use of constrained mixture design for optimization of method for determination of zinc and manganese in tea leaves employing slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Bezerra, Marcos, E-mail: mbezerra47@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, 45200-190, Jequie, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira Castro, Jacira [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, 44380-000, Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Coelho Macedo, Reinaldo; Goncalves da Silva, Douglas [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, 45200-190, Jequie, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-06-18

    A slurry suspension sampling technique has been developed for manganese and zinc determination in tea leaves by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The proportions of liquid-phase of the slurries composed by HCl, HNO{sub 3} and Triton X-100 solutions have been optimized applying a constrained mixture design. The optimized conditions were 200 mg of sample ground in a tungsten carbide balls mill (particle size < 100 {mu}m), dilution in a liquid-phase composed by 2.0 mol L{sup -1} nitric, 2.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid and 2.5% Triton X-100 solutions (in the proportions of 50%, 12% and 38% respectively), sonication time of 10 min and final slurry volume of 50.0 mL. This method allowed the determination of manganese and zinc by FAAS, with detection limits of 0.46 and 0.66 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. The precisions, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), are 6.9 and 5.5% (n = 10), for concentrations of manganese and zinc of 20 and 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of the certified apple leaves (NIST 1515) and spinach leaves (NIST 1570a). The proposed method was applied for the determination of manganese and zinc in tea leaves used for the preparation of infusions. The obtained concentrations varied between 42 and 118 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 18.6 and 90 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively, for manganese and zinc. The results were compared with those obtained by an acid digestion procedure and determination of the elements by FAAS. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on a paired t-test (at 95% confidence level).

  9. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further impr

  10. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further

  11. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further impr

  12. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhang; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-pr...

  13. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  14. The Process Optifization Test for Two Kinds of New Fresh Tea Leaves Classifiers%二款新型茶鲜叶分级机工艺优化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高士伟; 戴居会; 梁金波; 龚自明; 叶飞; 张强; 郑鹏程; 崔清梅; 王胜鹏; 王雪萍; 滕靖

    2015-01-01

    针对绿峰6CFJ-70鲜叶分级机、恩施振动分级机二款新型茶叶加工机械,以手采混合鲜叶为试验材料,通过感官判别比较分析分级效果和分级率,确定二者最佳设备参数及筛网搭配。结果显示,绿峰6CFJ-70鲜叶分级机设置电机频率H=36 r/min、筛网搭配组合为20 mm+10 mm能较好地将1芽1叶与1芽2~3叶分开。恩施振动分级机振动电机与水平线倾角调整为35°、电机频率H=28.7 r/min、筛孔搭配组合为25 mm+15 mm能较好地将1芽1叶、1芽2叶、1芽3叶分开。该试验为下一步筛选适合机采鲜叶分级设备奠定了基础。%For the two kinds of new processing machinery lvfeng 6CFJ-70 fresh tea leaves classifier and Enshi vibration fresh tea leaves classifier, using hand mixed fresh tea leaves as the research material, the optimal parameters and screen of the equipments were determined by sensory discrimination, classification effect and classification ratio. The results showed that, it could better separate one bud and the first tea leaf from the one bud and 2~3 tea leaves with the condition of motor frequency (H) at 36 r/min and screen collocation combination as 20 mm+10 mm for lvfeng 6CFJ-70 fresh tea leaves classifier; but for Enshi vibration fresh tea leaves classifier, the optical parameters were vibration motor with the horizontal angle at 35°, the motor frequency (H) at 28.7 r/min, screen collocation combination as 25 mm+15 mm. The conclusion of this study is to lay the foundation for the selection of fresh leaves classification equipment next stop.

  15. A Study on Human Brain Waves Influenced by Volatile Components Released from Native Green Tea Leaves%土种绿茶挥发物成分及其对人体脑波的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 吕乐燕; 李天佑; 张汝民; 侯平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]对茶叶的挥发性芳香物质及其对人体脑波影响进行分析.[方法]采用顶空套袋采集法和TDS-GC/MS,分析自然状态室温下摊放4h绿茶鲜叶挥发性芳香物质成分,并使用生物反馈仪测定嗅闻茶叶挥发性芳香物质的人体脑波变化.[结果]摊放鲜叶的挥发性芳香物质以酯类和萜烯类化合物为主.香气成分能够显著增加α波的波值.嗅闻摊放鲜叶对人体具有放松身心的功效.[结论]该研究可以为茶的芳香疗法提供初步参考.%[Objective] The aim was to analyze volatile aromatic compounds from tea leaves in nature and its effect on human brain waves.[Method] Natural volatile aromatic components of fresh tea leaves which had spread for 4 h at room temperature were analyzed by dynamic headspace collection and thermal desorption system/gas chromatography/mass spectrum (TDS-GC/MS).The effect of the spreading fresh tea leaves on human brain waves were determined by biofeedback instrument.[Result] The volatile aromatic components of spreading fresh leaves were mainly the compounds of esters and terpenes.Aromatic components could increase significantly the Alpha amplitude.Furthermore,the volatile aromatic components of fresh tea leaves has the efficacy of relaxing the body and the mind.[Conclusion] The study provided a reference for the application of tea in aromatherapy.

  16. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Koca; Şeyda Bostancı

    2014-01-01

    Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented), oolong tea (partially fermented), and black tea (fully fermented). Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and...

  17. Separation of polyphenols and caffeine from the acetone extract of fermented tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) using high-performance countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Hong, Yong Deog; Lee, Bumjin; Park, Jun Seong; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Kim, Wan Gi; Shin, Song Seok; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-07-21

    Leaves from Camellia sienensis are a popular natural source of various beverage worldwide, and contain caffeine and polyphenols derived from catechin analogues. In the current study, caffeine (CAF, 1) and three tea polyphenols including (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg, 2), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg, 3), and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg, 4) were isolated and purified by flow-rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:9:1:9, v/v). Two hundred milligrams of acetone-soluble extract from fermented C. sinensis leaves was separated by HPCCC to give 1 (25.4 mg), 2 (16.3 mg), 3 (11.1 mg) and 4 (4.4 mg) with purities over 98%. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by QTOF-MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR, and the obtained data were compared to the previously reported values.

  18. 酶促合成茶黄素的茶鲜叶酶源筛选%Screening of the Sources of Enzymes from Fresh Tea Leaves for the Enzymatic Synthesis of Theaflavins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚志华; 陈栋; 朱盛尧; 陈凌; 陈朵; 李徐; 肖文军

    2013-01-01

    Fresh tea leaves of twenty cultivars of tea plants were investigated. The season of harvesting and the methods of plucking were concerned as factors which could affect the enzymic activity of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase(PPO) as well as its isozyme. As a result, three of the tea cultivars were distinctively selected out. In the order of the enzymic activity from high to low, they were Zheng-he White Tea, Fu-yun 6th and Large-leaved Tao-yuan Tea. The fresh tea leaves were mashed, the effectivenesss of enzymic synthesis of theaflavins were observed, meanwhile, instant green tea was considered as an added substrate to promote the yield. The results showed that the one bud and two leaves shoot exhibited high enzymic activity of PPO, the different tea cultivars presented the isozymes of PPO with diversities in three aspects including the number of the isozymes bands, value of retention factor and the darkness of spectral color. Two isozyme bands of PPO appeared in every one of the sampled twenty tea cultivars, with the Rf value of 0.27 and 0.53, each of Zheng-he White Tea, Fu-yun 6th and Large-leaved Tao-yuan Tea possessed five evident isozyme bands, Zheng-he White Tea exhibited the darkest of the spectral color, while it yielded highest theaflavins per unit mashed tea leaves than those of Fu-yun 6th and Large-leaved Tao-yuan Tea produced, EC, EGCG and ECG were the major polyphenols which were involved in the enzymic synthesis; the yield of theaflavins was enormously enhanced by the added substrate of instant green tea, the theaflavins concentration of 212.01 mg/L was gained from the Zheng-he White Tea processing system, which reached the 5.43 times of the yield producing by the fresh tea leaves without the addition of instant green tea substrate.%  通过对不同季节、不同采摘标准的20个茶树品种鲜叶的多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性及其同工酶分析,筛选出了3种 PPO 活性较高的茶鲜叶原料,然后以其匀浆液以及在匀浆液中

  19. Delusional infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol.

  20. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P M; Xiao, Ting T; Bruins, Marieke E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  1. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  2. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  3. Polyamines in tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  4. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Koca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented, oolong tea (partially fermented, and black tea (fully fermented. Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in Asia and North Africa. The total tea production in the world consists of about 78% black tea, 20% green tea and <2% oolong tea. In the production of green tea, the fresh leaves are steamed or roasted to avoid enzymatic oxidation. Black tea is fully oxidized during fermentation. Oolong tea is partially fermented to permit a moderate level of enzymatic oxidation during processing. The degree of fermentation of oolong tea leaves ranges from 20 to 60%, depending upon consumer demand. Oolong tea has a taste and color somewhere between green and black tea. Green tea contains 30-42% catechins in dry mass, while black tea contains 3-10% and oolong 8-20%. Oolong tea has a higher antioxidant activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity as compared to black tea. Oolong tea exhibits a stronger antimutagenic activity than green or black tea. Oolong tea is reported to have anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antiallergic effects, and prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. In this review, the production, composition and health effects of oolong tea have been discussed.

  5. Study on Processing Technology of Prunus humilis Leave Tea%欧李绿茶的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婧; 杨鹏; 任玉婷; 王晓闻

    2012-01-01

    欧李叶具有很高的营养价值,是一类值得开发的食用资源。以传统绿茶加工工艺为参考将欧李叶制成绿茶成品,研究了漂烫及其时间,杀青时间对成品品质的影响。根据成品评分标准确定较佳漂烫时间为1min.每次锅炒时间为3min,并根据高效液相色谱测定炒制过程中欧李中苦杏仁苷的含量变化,确定较佳的炒制次数为5次,为欧李绿茶开发生产提供参考。%Prunus humilis leaf is an edible resource with abundant nutritions. It was worth to be developed. The Prunus humilis leaves were made into green tea according to the traditional processing. The effects of blanching or out of blanching, the blanching time, and the fixing time on the product quality were studied. The optimal blanching time (1 min) and each fixing time (3 min) were judged by the product sensory evaluation standards. The variation of amygdalin content was determined by HPLC to confirm the optimal pan removing times (5 times).

  6. Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of rhamnogalacturonan-II-type polysaccharide isolated from mature leaves of green tea via activation of macrophages and natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Ryung; Hwang, Dahyun; Suh, Hyung-Joo; Yu, Kwang-Won; Kim, Tae Young; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the antitumor and antimetastatic polysaccharide from the mature leaves of green tea, GTE-II was purified using size exclusion chromatography. GTE-II consisted of 15 different sugars including rarely observed sugars such as 2-O-methyl-fucose, 2-O-methyl-xylose, apiose, aceric acid, 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid, and 3-deoxy-d-lyxo-2-heptulosaric acid, which were characteristics of pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II. Treatment of peritoneal macrophages with GTE-II not only increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12 production, but also had significantly increased tumoricidal activity against Yac-1 tumor cells than those obtained from untreated mice. In an assay of natural killer (NK) cell activity, intravenous administration of GTE-II significantly stimulated NK cytotoxicity against Yac-1 tumor cells. Furthermore, the depletion of NK cells by injection of rabbit anti-asialo GM1 serum eliminated the inhibitory effect of GTE-II on B16BL6 melanoma cells. These data suggest that GTE-II inhibits tumor metastasis, and its antitumor effect is associated with activation of macrophages and NK cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Eating and Savoring Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1996-01-01

    TEA originated in China and spread to the rest of the world long ago. It is more than a popular beverage—it is a delicacy which can be both eaten and drunk, and around which many customs and rituals have been formed. Historical records show that tea leaves were first eaten, starting from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.). They were not steeped as a beverage until the early Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-23 A.D.). More formal tea-drinking rituals

  8. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncontrolled process. With the objective to make tea oxidation a more controlled process, the aim of this thesis was to understand the enzymatic oxidation reactions occurring during tea oxidation, and t...

  9. Research and Development of Compound Beverage from Green Tea and Sunflower Leaves%向日葵叶绿茶复合饮料的开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩芬; 许海阔

    2015-01-01

    以超纯水为溶剂,以向日葵叶中绿原酸提取率为考察指标,从新鲜向日葵叶中提取绿原酸,研究颗粒度、料液比、浸提时间、提取温度对向日葵叶中绿原酸提取率的影响。试验结果表明:绿原酸最佳提取工艺:物料粒度100目、料液比1∶50、提取温度70℃、浸提时间20min。以最佳工艺提取得到的富含绿原酸向日葵叶汁和绿茶汁为主要原料,添加白砂糖、柠檬酸和食用香精等制备复合饮料,通过正交试验确定绿原酸复合饮料的最佳配方:富含绿原酸向日葵叶汁与绿茶汁的体积比为1∶2、白砂糖添加量为4%,柠檬酸添加量0.2%,食用香精添加量0.03%,此时,效果最佳,口感良好。%With ultra pure water as solvent,extraction of chlorogenic acid in sunflower leaves as the index, extraction of chlorogenic acid from the fresh sunflower leaves,study particle size and solid-liquid ratio,extrac-tion time,temperature effect on extraction rate of chlorogenic acid in sunflower leaves.The results show that:the optimum extraction of chlorogenic acid as :material particle size of 100 mesh,solid-liquid ratio 1 ∶50,ex-traction temperature 70 ℃,extraction time of 20 min.With the optimum extraction of chlorogenic acid sunflower leaf juice and green tea juice as the main raw material,adjuvant sugar,citric acid and edible flavor,etc.Prepara-tion of composite drink,through orthogonal test to determine the chlorogenic acid compound best prescription of drink is:contains rich chlorogenic acid sunflower leaf juice and green tea juice volume ratio of 1∶2,sugar content is 4%,citric acid 0.2% and 0.03% edible essence,at this point,the effect is best,taste good.

  10. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  11. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  12. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncon

  13. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  14. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  15. Study on the Characteristics of Competition in Sichuan Tea Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxian; YANG; Xiumin; WU; Junzan; WU

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is huge potential in the domestic sales and export of tea in China. However, the tea leaf products are less competitive in the international market because of the lack of brand. Sichuan Province as a province with large amount of tea leaves, characteristics of tea leaf industry in Sichuan Province were analyzed from three aspects, namely fundamental industrial characteristics, the competition strategy of a company and main competition measures. The tea industry in Sichuan Province was featured by its large amount of companies and low industrial concentration. The competition among tea companies often uses the strategy of different brands and low cost. The major way to compete was to build tea brand and to publicize the tea culture. Organic green tea was the main issue. Electronic business platform was applied. Study on the competition characteristics of tea industry in Sichuan can improve the regional competitiveness of tea industry and can make contribution to the entire tea industry in China.

  16. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  17. Dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether residues during tea planting and brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) residues in fresh tea shoots and in tea prepared under field conditions was investigated, and the transfer of residues from brewed tea to tea infusion was determined. OCDPE levels in tea shoots, prepared tea, tea infusion, and spent tea leaves were determined using a sensitive and simple method. The dissipation of OCDPE is fairly slow in tea shoots and prepared tea, with half-life values of 5.10 and 5.46 days, respectively. The degr...

  18. 五味子叶保健绿茶加工工艺比较研究%Comparative Study on the Processing of Health Green Tea Made by Schisandra chinensis Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如升; 陈春宇

    2013-01-01

    Used three kinds of methods of frying fixation ,steam fixation and microwave fixation to process Schisandra chinensis leaves ,after dried to make Schisandra chinensis tea ,which sensory indexes and biochemical indexes were determined ,and researched the effects of different process‐ing on the quality of health green tea made by Schisandra chinensis leaves ,the results showed :Compared with traditional frying fixation processing ,the quality sensory indexes of health green tea made by Schisandra chinensis leaves processed by steam fixation processing and microwave fixation processing comprehensively scored more than 85 points ,which nutrition and medicinal components dissolving rate were also improved .%  采用炒制杀青、蒸汽杀青和微波杀青3种不同方法处理五味子叶,干燥后制成五味子叶茶,测定毛茶感官指标和生化指标,研究不同加工工艺对五味子叶保健绿茶品质的影响,结果显示:与传统炒制杀青加工工艺相比,蒸汽杀青和微波杀青两种处理方法加工的五味子叶保健绿茶的品质感官指标综合得分在85分以上,其营养成分和药用成分溶出率也显著(p<0.05)提高。

  19. A Morphology Study on Lentnus edoeds and Tea Leaves against Fatbloom of Cocoa Butter Equivalent Chocolate%香菇、茶叶抗类可可脂巧克力脂霜之形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅森; 高荫榆; 陈才水; 刘蓉

    2001-01-01

    用偏光显微镜和扫描电镜在形态学方面就香菇和茶叶抗类可可脂巧克力脂霜进行了研究,电镜结果表明,香菇和茶叶巧克力的质构呈链状有规则排列,而对照样则呈杂乱零星无规则排列。偏光显微结果说明,无论是起霜还是未起霜的香菇和茶叶巧克力,其晶相均呈有规律的均匀分布,而对照样则无规则性可言。在相同的促霜时间内,对照样起霜程度比香菇和茶叶巧克力大。%A morphology about Lentnus edoeds and tea leaves against fatbloom of cocoa butter equivalent chocolate is studied by using polar light microcope (PLM) and scan electron microscope (SEM) in this paper. The results show that there are chainlike structure and distribute regularily compared to controller's in the chocolate blending Lentnus edoeds and tea leaves respectively from the photo of SEM, and also the crystals shape and distribute in regulation in fatbloom chocolate as well as not fatbloom chocolate compared to the controller's from PLM photo. The controller is more easy to bloom than chocolate blending of Lentnus edodes and tea leaves.

  20. 挤压膨化对绿茶茶渣中没食子酸影响实验研究%Experimental Research of Influence of Extrusion Parameters on Crude Fiber in the Green Tea Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 周小芬; 叶阳; 朱宏凯; 董春旺; 钱园凤

    2014-01-01

    Researcher extruded green tea-leaves with DS30-III twin-screw extruder. According to single factor investigation, the mathematical models with the content of Gallic acid as the responses to moisture content of material, feeding speed, rotational speed of screw and temperature of barrel were established by using response surface design. It was followed by response surface analysis. The results showed that the optimal extrusion parameters of high content of Gallic acid in green tea-leaves were that moisture content of material was 70%, feeding speed rotational was 58 r/min, speed of screw was 60 r/min and temperature of barrel was 60 ℃. The significance of parameters on the content of Gallic acid in green tea-leaves was decreased according to the ranking of moisture content of material> rotational speed of screw>temperature of barrel>feeding speed. The content of Gallic acid in the tea-leaves that is dealt with optimal extrusion parameters was 3.57 mg/g , compared with the raw materials before extrusion;the content of Gallic acid had a increase of 2.69 mg/g.%利用DS30-III型双螺杆挤压膨化机对绿茶茶渣进行挤压膨化加工,在单因素试验的基础上,选取了物料含水量、喂料速度、螺杆转速、套筒温度为影响因子,以绿茶茶渣中没食子酸为响应面值,应用响应面设计方法建立数学模型,进行响应面分析。结论表明,获得高没食子酸含量的最佳工艺参数为:物料含水量70%,喂料速度58 r/min,螺杆转速60 r/min,套筒温度60℃。挤压膨化参数对没食子酸含量影响的大小依次为:物料含水量>螺杆转速>套筒温度>喂料速度。经过最佳挤压膨化参数处理的绿茶茶渣中没食子酸含量为3.57 mg/g,与原料相比,没食子酸含量增加2.69 mg/g。

  1. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process h

  2. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  3. Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles mediated by black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) extract: Catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction under ligand-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaschi, Sadaf; Hekmati, Malak; Veisi, Hojat

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to synthesize palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) through a facile and green route using non-toxic and renewable natural black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) extract, as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared Pd@B.tea NPs catalyst was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The Pd@B.tea NPs catalyst could be used as an efficient and heterogeneous catalyst for Suzuki coupling reactions between phenylboronic acid and a range of aryl halides (X=I, Br, Cl) and also the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) using sodium borohydride in an environmental friendly medium. Excellent yields of products were obtained with a wide range of substrates and the catalyst was recycled 7 times without any significant loss of its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 二氯甲烷萃取绿茶咖啡碱工艺参数的优化%Optimized extraction of tea caffeine from green tea leaves using dichloromethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽; 李敏; 龚志华; 肖文军

    2011-01-01

    In order to optimize the best technical parameters in extracting tea caffeine by dichloromethane, the concentration of tea infusion, ratio of tea infusion and CH2Cl2, extracting standing time, shaking time, extracting temperature, pH value of tea infusion and extracting times were screened, then the main factors including ratio of tea infusion and CH2Cl2 , shaking time, extracting standing time and extracting temperature were selected for orthogonal test, the results of which were checked again. The results showed that when mainly considering the yield rate of caffeine, the best parameters were as follows: tea infusion concentration of 10%, extracting temperature of 45 "C, shaking time of 40 min, standing time of 80 min, ratio of tea infusion and CH2Cl2 of 1 : 2.5, 2 times for extraction. Under this parameter condition, the yield rate of caffeine is 92.93%, the purity of caffeine is 39.58%; when mainly considering the purity of caffeine, the best parameters were as follows: tea infusion concentration of 10%, extracting temperature of 45 ℃, shaking time of 35 min, standing time of 100 min, ratio of tea infusion and CH2Cl2 of 1 : 2.5, 2 times for extraction. Under this parameter condition, purity of caffeine is 43.37%, and the yield rate of caffeine is 85.13%.%为探寻从绿茶中提取咖啡碱的工艺,以二氯甲烷为萃取剂,以咖啡碱得率与纯度为考察指标,采用单因素试验得出较佳茶汤质量分数、料液比(茶汤与二氯甲烷的体积比)、摇匀时间、静置萃取时间、萃取温度、萃取次数和茶汤pH值,选取料液比、摇匀时间、静置萃取时间、萃取温度等4个主要影响因素设计正交试验,并对正交试验结果进行验证.结果表明,以咖啡碱得率为主要考虑因素时,最优工艺参数为茶汤质量分数10%、萃取温度45℃、摇匀时间40 min、静置萃取时间80 min、料液比1:2.5、萃取2次,此条件下的咖啡碱得率、纯度分别为92.93%、39.58%;以

  5. Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian, China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Zhang, Wenrui; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China. Their sensory evaluation, main water-soluble and volatile compounds were identified and measured. The sensory evaluation, total polysaccharide, caffeine, and catechin content of Yunnan oolong tea was found to be different from that of Fujian oolong tea, a result suggesting that the kinds of tea leaves used in Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas were naturally different. However, according to their aroma compounds, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the volatile compounds showed that the two types of oolong teas were similar and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other; they are also different from green, black, and Pu-erh teas, a result indicating that the same oolong tea processing technology applied to different tea leaves results in consistent aroma characteristics. The PCA analysis results also indicated that benzylalcohol, indole, safranal, linalool oxides, β-ionone, and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester highly contributed to the distinct aroma of oolong tea compared with the other three types of teas. This study proved that the use of the same processing technology on two kinds of tea leaves resulted in a highly consistent tea aroma.

  6. Caracterização físico-química da erva mate: influência das etapas do processamento industrial Effects of industrial processing steps on the physico-chemical characteristics of mate tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Esmelindro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate é uma matéria-prima de grande importância para a região Sul do Brasil, sendo que a produção anual é de aproximadamente 650.000 toneladas de folhas. Atualmente, problemas com o excesso de oferta têm incentivado pesquisadores e empresários a buscar alternativas para a utilização da erva-mate como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos bem como promover melhorias no processamento industrial visando a obtenção de características organolépticas desejáveis. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo realizar a caracterização físico-química da erva-mate em função das etapas do processamento industrial (sapeco, secagem e tempo de cancheamento e verificar como estas etapas influem nos teores de cinzas, fibras, gorduras, proteínas, glicose, sacarose e cafeína presentes na matéria-prima. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as etapas do processamento industrial influem diretamente nos teores dos compostos citados, mostrando a relevância em se analisar estes resultados quando o objetivo é utilizar esta matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos alimentícios que podem exigir características específicas.Mate tea leaves is a raw material of great importance to Southern Brazil, considering its annual production of approximately 650,000 tons of leaves. Currently the excess of mate tea leaves supply in the market has encouraged researchers and entrepreneurs to search for alternatives involving the application of this raw material in the development of new products, as well as the improvement the industrial process, seeking to obtain desirable organoleptic properties. Thus, the present work performed the physical-chemical characterization of mate tea leaves, correlating its qualities to the industrial processing steps ("sapeco", drying and time of "cancheamento". The effect of these steps on the content of ash, fiber, fat, protein, glucose, sucrose and caffeine in the raw

  7. Study in Different Periods of Fresh Tea Leaves Active Ingredients%不同时期茶树鲜叶活性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江新凤; 杨普香; 李延升; 李文金

    2015-01-01

    To determine and compare the contents of amino acids (AA), tea polyphenols (TB), gallic acid (GA), caffeine(CAF), epicatechin gallate (EGC), epigallo catechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG) in tea samples from Jiangxi province by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were extracted by hot water. The results was that tea catechin components in the five samples total content between 12.1 mg/g-18.7 mg/g, on which the highest content of traditional green tea EGCG,the highest catechin quality index was 15.66 in March to pick a bud leaf samples, The catechin astringent index was the highest percentage in that sample, CAI change in trend and the change trend of CAI and AA/TB.%为探明不同时期茶树活性成分的变化规律,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),对不同时间采摘的福鼎大白茶鲜叶氨基酸(amino acids,AA)、茶多酚(tea polyphenols,TP)、咖啡碱(caffeine,CAF)、没食子酸(gallic acid,GA)、表没食子儿茶素(epicatechin gallate,EGC)、 表儿茶素没食子酸(epicatechin gallate,ECG) 及表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(epigallocatechin gallate,EGCG)等生化成分含量进行分析比较.结果显示:福鼎大白茶鲜叶中儿茶素组分总含量在12.1 mg/g~18.7 mg/g之间,其中样品4 EGCG含量最高,3月份采摘一芽二叶鲜叶儿茶素品质指数最高为15.66,其儿茶素苦涩味指数也是样品中百分比最高的,儿茶素的品质指数与苦涩味指数、氨酚比呈正相关.

  8. Study on Reaction Kinetics Characteristics of Polyphenol Oxidase of Cryopreservation Fresh Tea Leaves%冻存茶鲜叶多酚氧化酶动力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔俊豪; 杨秀芳; 涂云飞; 孙庆磊; 陈小强

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenol oxidase activity of cryopreservation fresh tea leaves was determined by spectrophotometric method. The influence of main factors, such as substrate concentration, system pH and temperature on catalytic activities of PPO were investigated. The results showed that, the optimum pH and temperature for the enzymatic reaction was 4.6~5.0 and 35~60 ℃, respectively .The Michaelis-Menten equation of PPO from cryopreservation fresh tea leaves was established, accordingly,1/v=1.168 8/[S]+3.083 3, by which the kinetic parameters obtained were as follow: Km=0.378 mol/L,vmax=0.324 U /min.%采用分光光度法对冻存处理的茶树鲜叶的多酚氧化酶(PPO)进行了活性测定,研究了底物浓度、pH值及温度对冻存茶鲜叶PPO活性的影响,建立了茶树鲜叶冻存-萎凋过程的反应动力学方程.结果表明,冻存茶鲜叶PPO酶活的最适条件为:pH值介于4.6~5.0之间,温度35~60℃.由Michelis-Menten方程1/v=1.1688/[S]+3.083 3,得到的动力学参数为:Km=0.378mol/L,vmax=0.324U/min.

  9. Treatment of scabies infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumcuoglu K.Y.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an intensely pruritic disorder induced by an immune allergic response to infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The biology of the mite, the clinical aspects and diagnosis of scabies infestations as well as the treatment of choice with 5 % permethrin dermal cream and the use of scabicides based on other chemical substances are reviewed.

  10. of-Kibena -'Tea. Estates~- Njombe, Tanzania" , "

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This phenomena is explained by high levels of Zn in tea leaves which reduces the uptake of Fe ... Na ions in, the- ammonium acetate filtrates .... metal adsorption by permanent charged, ,soil .... be due to heavy phosphate fertilization and 'high.

  11. Tea Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2013-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle and intangible cultural heritage Every spring, Chinese indulge in drinking copious amounts of fresh green tea picked and processed in the country's southern mountain areas. In particular, several days before and after the Tomb Sweeping Day (April 4), tea trees blessed with

  12. Determination of elements in soil and effects on elements in leaching liquid of tea leaves%土壤元素的测定及其对茶叶浸出液元素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋陈凯; 周玲; 黄亚辉; 李丹; 赵文芳; 袁思思; 杨家干; 朱燕; 崔飞龙; 吴春兰

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To study the content of elements in tea leaves under the influence of kinds and content in soil.Methods Content of 32 single elements including Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta, W, Tl, Pb, Bi, Ge, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Se and 6 element compounds including MgO, P5O2, CaO, TiO2, MnO, Fe2O3-T in soil and leaching liquid of tea leaves of different grade of maturity from Shaoguan, Lianjiang, Meizhou and Chaozhou were detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy, after grinding, desulfurization, heating, dissolution and centrifugation.Results Correlation of elements between soil and leaching liquid of tea leaves of different grade of maturity had no significant difference, but there was a highly significant correlation between content of Zn, Ga, Sr and grade of maturity, and a significant correlation between content of Cu, Ba, Pb and grade of maturity. Elements inⅠ A,Ⅰ A,Ⅰ A,Ⅰ B,Ⅰ B,Ⅰ B,Ⅰ of fourth and fifth cycle in element periodic table were extremely selectively absorbed by tea plants. furthermore, Sr, P2O5, CaO and MnO were more easily absorbed by tea plants.ConclusionContent of elements in tea leaves is weakly influenced by that in soil, while greatly influenced by maturity.%目的:探究土壤元素种类及含量对不同成熟度茶叶元素含量的影响。方法取来自韶关、廉江、梅州和潮州四地土壤和不同成熟度的茶叶,样品经磨碎、脱硫、加热、溶解、离心后取上清液,采用原子吸收光谱法检测所含32种元素单质锂(Li)、钡(Be)、钪(Sc)、钒(V)、铬(Cr)、钴(Co)、镍(Ni)、铜(Cu)、锌(Zn)、镓(Ga)、砷(As)、铷(Rb)、锶(Sr)、钇(Y)、镐(Zr)、铌(Nb)、铯(Cs)、钡(Ba)、铪(Hf)、钽(Ta)、钨(W)、铊(Tl)、铅(Pb)、铋(Bi)、锗(Ge)、钼(Mo)、银(Ag)、镉(Cd)、铟(In)、锡(Sn)、锑(Sb)、硒(Se)和6种元素化合物氧化镁(MgO)、五氧化二磷(P5O2)、氧化钙(CaO)、二氧化钛(TiO2)、氧

  13. Preparation of Black Tea Condensed Solution from Purple Tea Leaves and Research of the Stability of Its Color Rendering%紫芽茶制备红茶饮料浓缩液及其呈色稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵先明; 汪艳霞; 王孝仕; 杜晓

    2011-01-01

    以茶树紫色芽叶制备红茶浓缩液,利用其富含花青素,在酸性条件下呈稳定红色的特性,旨在解决冰红茶饮料呈红色不足的技术难题.研究表明:紫芽红茶浓缩液的固形物含量为28.72 g/L,花青素含量高达0.84 g/L,是绿芽红茶浓缩液的84倍.UV-Vis扫描表明:紫芽红茶浓缩液分别于274 nm和380 nm处有儿茶素类和茶黄素的2个强吸收峰,还在530 nm处有花青素的特征吸收峰,这与其呈色特征相关.在一般冰红茶饮料的酸性和浓度条件下,试样溶液的色价值为26.68± 1.26.稳定性实验表明:紫芽红茶浓缩液对pH值、光照、加热及柠檬酸、蔗糖和少量食盐等饮料添加成分均有相当耐受性,其红色明亮稳定,显色与着色性好,可以满足冰红茶饮料的生产条件要求.%The current ice black tea products suffer from the defect that the drink is not red enough in tint. In an attempt to solve this problem, purple young tea leaves were used to prepare black tea condensed solution (sample) as they contain abundant anthocyanidins and show a steady red under acid conditions. The soluble solid content of the sample was 28. 72 g/L, and the anthocyanidins content was 0. 84 g/L, being 84 times as high as that of the green tealeaf black tea condensed solution. UV-Vis scanning showed that the sample had 2 strong absorption peaks at 274 nm (catechins) and 380 nm (theaflavins) and had the anthocyanidins characteristic absorption peak at 530 nm, which was responsible for the red of the sample. In the acid and concentration conditions of common ice black tea drinks, the color value of the sample was 26. 68 ± 1. 26. Stability experiment results demonstrate that the sample had fairly great endurance to pH, sunlight, heating and beverage additives (including citric acid, sugar and a little salt), the red of the sample kept bright and stable, and its color rendering and coloration were good. The above results suggested that the sample could be

  14. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  15. Unusual botfly skin infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Jill C; Navin, James J; Glamb, Roman W; Hardman, John M

    2004-03-01

    Myiasis, the infestation of humans and animals with fly larvae, is observed in tropical, lowland areas. Dermatobia hominis is a common cause of cutaneous human infestation in these areas. Patients often present with a furuncular lesion on the extremities, back, or scalp. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in a patient returning from a trip to South America. We will discuss the life-cycle of D. hominis and the clinical findings important in the diagnosis of myiasis.

  16. Studies on the Membrane Structure and Its Related Physiological Changes in the Tea Leaves with Fluorescent Green Spot Disease%茶树荧光性绿斑病叶膜结构及相关生理变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃华; 张丽霞; 郭延奎; 向勤锃; 黄晓琴

    2009-01-01

    以福鼎大白为材料,通过钙过量处理诱导出茶树荧光性绿斑病,研究茶树荧光性绿斑病叶膜系统损伤、电渗率以及与膜透性有关的渗透调节物质和活性氧酶清除系统的变化.研究结果表明:茶树荧光性绿斑病叶的细胞质膜以及叶绿体、线粒体、内质网、液泡的膜系统均遭到不同程度的损伤,随着病害程度加重,丙二醛、电解质渗透率逐渐升高;与此同时可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、脯氨酸等渗透调节物质含量也逐渐升高,超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶活性在发病初期显著升高,后期降低,但活性均高于对照.以上结果说明:茶树荧光性绿斑病叶在发病期间虽然启动了活性氧清除的膜保护机制,但仍然无法逆转膜系统损伤的发生.%In order to probe the membrane structure and its related physiological changes in the tea leaves with fluorescent green spot disease,the diseased tea leaves were picked from the Fu Ding Da Bai tea plant cultivated in the nutritional solution with excessive calcium,and cellular membrane system was observed by transmission electron microcope,the electrolytic leakage,the contents of osmosis and the antioxidative enzyme activities of diseased tea leaves were determined.The results showed that the plasma membrane,chloroplast membrane,mitochondrion membrane,endoplasmic reticulum membrane and vacuole membrane in diseased tea leaves were damaged in different degree.With the extending of stress and the disease,the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the electrolytic leakage increased,meanwhile the soluble sugar content,the soluble protein content and the free proline content increased rapidly in the diseased tea leaves.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD) increased significantly at the initial stage of the diseased tea leaves,subsequently decreased,but their activities were higher than normal tea leaves.On the basis of above results,although the antioxidative

  17. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-depend...

  18. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Gi Kong; Byung Kwon Kim; Geun Cheol Song; Soohyun Lee; Choong-Min Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-depende...

  19. Chemical Studies on Plant Polyphenols and Formation of Black Tea Polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 隆

    2008-01-01

    Recent biological and pharmacological studies strongly suggested that plant polyphenols in foods, beverages and crude drugs have various health benefits. However, still there are chemically uncharacterized polyphenols, especially those with large molecular weights. The typical example is black tea polyphenols. Four tea catechins of fresh tea leaves are enzymatically oxidized in tea fermentation process of black tea manufacture to give a complex mixture of the oxidation products. Despite many ...

  20. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. 2-DE combined with two-layer feature selection accurately establishes the origin of oolong tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Han-Ju; Chu, Yen-Wei; Chen, Chi-Wei; Juang, Yu-Min; Chien, Min-Wei; Liu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chang; Tzen, Jason T C; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2016-11-15

    Taiwan is known for its high quality oolong tea. Because of high consumer demand, some tea manufactures mix lower quality leaves with genuine Taiwan oolong tea in order to increase profits. Robust scientific methods are, therefore, needed to verify the origin and quality of tea leaves. In this study, we investigated whether two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectroscopy (nano-LC/MS/MS) coupled with a two-layer feature selection mechanism comprising information gain attribute evaluation (IGAE) and support vector machine feature selection (SVM-FS) are useful in identifying characteristic proteins that can be used as markers of the original source of oolong tea. Samples in this study included oolong tea leaves from 23 different sources. We found that our method had an accuracy of 95.5% in correctly identifying the origin of the leaves. Overall, our method is a novel approach for determining the origin of oolong tea leaves.

  2. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  3. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  4. [The fate of dioxins during green tea manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, R; Eun, H; Kuwahara, M; Ishii, Y; Kobara, Y; Ueji, M; Nakamura, K; Narita, I

    2001-04-01

    Dioxin concentrations and homologue profiles were examined in plucked new shoots, crude tea and its hot water extracts, soils and atmosphere in tea orchards. The rate of dry provisions in crude tea has increased 4 times as that of the plucked new shoots. However, dioxin concentrations except O8CDD in crude tea have increased only 2 to 3 times as those of the plucked new shoots. O8CDD concentration increased remarkably during processing. Little dioxins were detected in hot water extracts of crude tea leaves.

  5. Single- versus Multiple-Pest Infestation Affects Differently the Biochemistry of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Drungowski, Mario; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2015-11-25

    Tomato is susceptible to pest infestations by both spider mites and aphids. The effects of each individual pest on plants are known, whereas multiple-pest infestations have received little interest. We studied the effects of single- versus multiple-pest infestation by Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae on tomato biochemistry (Solanum lycopersicum) by combining a metabolomic approach and analyses of carotenoids using UHPLC-ToF-MS and volatiles using GC-MS. Plants responded differently to aphids and mites after 3 weeks of infestation, and a multiple infestation induced a specific metabolite composition in plants. In addition, we showed that volatiles emissions differed between the adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermes and identified compounds emitted particularly in response to a multiple infestation (cyclohexadecane, dodecane, aromadendrene, and β-elemene). Finally, the carotenoid concentrations in leaves and stems were more affected by multiple than single infestations. Our study highlights and discusses the interplay of biotic stressors within the terpenoid metabolism.

  6. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  7. Exploring the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from black, green and white tea infusions - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian C; Daglia, Maria; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Black, green, and white teas are the main commercial teas obtained from buds and leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.). The postharvest processing treatments, together with genotype and growing techniques, may strongly affect the chemical composition of the tea infusion and, thereby, its potential effects on health. Catechins constituted up to 30% of tea leaves dry weight. During fermentation, polyphenols undergo enzymatic oxidation, leading to the formation of condensed polymeric compounds regarded as responsible for the typical organoleptic properties of black tea leaves and related infusions. Scientific studies has been recently focusing on the possibility that tea polyphenols, particularly those of black and green tea, may lead to healthy properties in individuals affected by diseases correlated to metabolic syndrome. In vivo experiments reveal that green and black tea polyphenols may be able to reduce hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Other works suggest that black tea polymeric products may be effective in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and hypertriacylglycerolemia. To this regard, very few data about white tea, being the rarest and the least handled tea, are available so far. It has been reported that white tea could show higher antioxidative capacity than green tea and to exert in vitro lipolytic activity. Considering the increasing interest towards healthy potential through diet and natural medicaments, the aim of the present review was to overview the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from tea after various degrees of fermentation.

  8. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  9. Differentially Expressed Proteins in Green and Purple Leaves of Zijuan Tea%‘紫鹃’茶树紫叶和绿叶差异表达蛋白分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 吕晓杰; 宋晓敏; 邱智敏; 梁猛; 陈世品

    2016-01-01

    为了探索红紫芽茶树中花青素代谢及其调控机制,应用同位素标记相对和绝对定量(iTRAQ)技术比较分析‘紫鹃’茶树同一时期不同发育程度的紫叶与绿叶的差异表达蛋白。结果表明,‘紫鹃’茶树绿叶和紫叶差异表达蛋白共鉴定出798个,其中在紫叶中上调蛋白有533个,下调蛋白有265个。这些蛋白主要参与了以下生理过程:光合作用(占14.7%)、糖代谢(5.1%)、转录调控(18.5%)、蛋白质合成(11.4%)、细胞结构蛋白(6.9%)、信号转导(6.9%)、氨基酸代谢(3.8%)、花青素代谢(3.6%)、抗氧化胁迫(3.5%)、脂代谢(3.5%)和呼吸作用(0.4%)等。‘紫鹃’茶树紫叶中可溶性总糖含量的降低可能与花青苷大量积累有关。%The mechanism regulating the anthocyanin metabolism in the reddish violet‐shoot tea ,Zijuan (Camellia sinensis var .kitamura) ,was investigated .The isobaric tag for the relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ ) method was applied to compare the differentially expressed proteins in the purple and green leaves of the tea plant . A total of 798 differentially expressed proteins were identified from them .In the purple leaves ,533 of the proteins were up‐regulated and 265 down‐regulated . They were categorized by their association with photosynthesis (accounting for 14.7% ) ,carbohydrate metabolism (5.1% ) ,transcriptional regulation (18.5% ) ,protein synthesis (11.4% ) , structural proteins (6.9% ) , signaling transduction (6.9% ) , amino acid metabolism (3.8% ) , anthocyanin metabolism (3.6% ) ,antioxidant stress (3.5% ) ,lipid metabolism (3.5% ) ,respiration ,or others .It appeared that the decrease in total soluble sugars in the purple leaves of Zijuan might relate to anthocyanin accumulation .

  10. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis on cDNA of Cystatin Gene from Tea Leaves%茶树巯基蛋白酶抑制剂基因的cDNA克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝霞; 李叶云; 江昌俊; 余有本

    2005-01-01

    对多种已知植物巯基蛋白酶抑制剂(cystatin)基因的氨基酸序列进行比对分析,根据其高度保守的氨基酸序列设计一对简并引物,并从茶树品种龙井43鲜叶中提取总RNA,用RT-PCR法扩增出-204 bp的cDNA特异片段,然后通过3'/5'RACE的方法,分别扩增出3'端和5'端的序列,从而获得茶树巯基蛋白酶抑制剂基因的cDNA全长序列,所得序列全长627 bp,编码101个氨基酸,分子量约11.062 KDa.该基因在推测的氨基酸序列中含有巯基蛋白酶抑制剂家族中高度保守的、与其活性有关的QXVXG结构,且经Blast分析表明,该基因序列与其他植物巯基蛋白酶抑制剂基因的氨基酸序列同源性为54%~77%.%Two degenerate primers were designed according to the conserved region among the known plant cystatins. A cDNA fragment of 204 bp was amplified by RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction)of total RNA extracted from fresh leaves of Tea plant (Camellia sinensis cv Longjing43). A full-length cDNA of the cystatin gene was obtained by 3'/5'RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The cDNA sequence of this 627 bp clone contained an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 101 amino acid residues with a predicable molecular mass of 11.026 KDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contained the motif QXVXG conserved among most members of the cystatin superfamily. By using the program of Blast on GenBank database, the sequence presented a high match with the cystatin genes from other plants, such as European chestnut, Cassava, Cowpea,Tomato, Soybean et al. All researched out sequences were all cystatins, so we can conclude that the cloned sequence is a member of cystatin gene from Tea plant.

  11. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  12. Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Afaq, Farrukh; Adhami, Vaqar M; Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Tea that contains many antioxidants is a pleasant and safe drink that is enjoyed by people across the globe. Tea leaves are manufactured as black, green, or oolong. Black tea represents approximately 78% of total consumed tea in the world, whereas green tea accounts for approximately 20% of tea consumed. The concept of "use of tea for promotion of human health and prevention and cure of diseases" has become a subject of intense research in the last decade. Diseases for which tea drinkers appear to have lower risk are simple infections, like bacterial and viral, to chronic debilitating diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis. Initial work on green tea suggested that it possesses human health-promoting effects. In recent years, the research efforts have been expanded to black tea as well. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases. For cancer prevention, evidence is so overwhelming that the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute has initiated a plan for developing tea compounds as cancer-chemopreventive agents in human trials. Thus, modern medical research is confirming the ancient wisdom that therapy of many diseases may reside in an inexpensive beverage in a "teapot."

  13. [Allergic contact eczema due to 'tea tree' oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, P G; de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Coenraads, P J; Weijland, J W

    1994-04-16

    In four patients, three women aged 45, 29 and 52 years and a man aged 45 years, allergic contact dermatitis due to 'tea tree' oil was diagnosed. The case of the man was published before. 'Tea tree' oils are essential oils distilled from the leaves of myrtaceous trees and shrubs occurring in Australia and South-East Asia. The 'tea tree' oil available in the Netherlands is distilled from the Melaleuca alternifolia and mainly contains eucalyptol. Eucalyptol is probably the most important allergen.

  14. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  15. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  16. 茶树不同叶位叶片功能性状与光合特性研究%Leaf Functional and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Different Leaves Positions of Tea Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 陈玉真; 王秀萍; 尤志明; 陈常颂

    2016-01-01

    以5个茶树品种(系)为研究对象,分析了茶树新梢不同叶位叶片的叶面积(LA)、叶形指数(LI)、比叶面积(SLA)、干物质含量(LDMC)、叶绿素 a(Chla)、叶绿素 b(Chlb)、叶绿素总量(Chl)、类胡萝卜素(Car)及光合特性,并研究了叶片功能性状和光合特性之间的相关性。结果表明,不同叶位叶片的LA、LMDC、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Tr)由第1叶至第6叶基本呈现先增加后降低趋势,新梢中部3~4叶达到峰值,第1叶和第6叶显著降低(P<0.05);不同叶位叶片 LI 和 SLA 基本呈现随着叶位增加而增加的趋势,第6叶的 SLA 均显著高于其他叶位(P<0.05);第1~4叶的 Chla、Chlb 和 Chl 含量较高,第6叶 Chla、Chlb 和 Chl 含量显著低于其他叶位(P<0.05),Car 变化趋势不明显。LA 与 LI、LDMC、Chla、Chlb、Chl 和 Car 之间存在显著或极显著正相关,与胞间 CO2浓度(Ci)之间呈显著负相关,与其他指标相关性不显著;LI 与其他指标不相关(LA 除外);SLA 与 LDMC、Chla、Chlb、Chl、Car 和 Pn 之间存在显著或极显著负相关,与 Ci 之间呈极显著正相关,与其他指标相关性不显著;LDMC 与 Chla、Chl 和 Pn 之间存在显著或极显著正相关;Chla、Chlb、Chl 和 Car 两两之间均存在极显著正相关,且均与 Pn 存在显著或极显著正相关;Gs 和 Tr 与叶片功能性状不相关。分析以上结果可以得出,茶树新梢第3~4叶具有相对较大的 LA和较强的光合能力,LDMC 积累较大,可以作为表征茶树光合能力的供试叶片;SLA、LDMC 和光合色素含量与 Pn 存在密切相关性,可作为评价茶树光合能力的指标。%Taking 5 breeding lines tea as test material, the leaf functional and photosynthetic characteristics of the leaves at different positions were monitored, and correlations between the leaf

  17. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Gi Kong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation and confirmed the recruitment of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting the insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly-infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads plant recruiting specific group of rhizosphere bacteria conferring beneficial traits for host plant. This study provides a new

  18. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  19. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractions inhibit migration of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...

  20. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by Tea Tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Clive; Cleary, Brian J; Gilmer, John F; Walsh, John J

    2004-03-01

    Pediculosis is a widespread condition reported in schoolchildren. Treatment most commonly involves the physical removal of nits using fine-toothcombs and the chemical treatment of adult lice and eggs with topical preparations. The active constituents of these preparations frequently exert their effects through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7). Increasing resistance to many preparations has led to the search for more effective treatments. Tea Tree oil, otherwise known as Melaleuca oil, has been added to several preparations as an alternative treatment of head lice infestations. In this study two major constituents of Tea Tree oil, 1,8-cineole and terpinen-4-ol, were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase at IC50 values (inhibitor concentrations required to give 50% inhibition) of 0.04 and 10.30 mM, respectively. Four samples of Tea Tree oil tested (Tisserand, Body Treats, Main Camp and Irish Health Culture Association Pure Undiluted) showed anticholinesterase activity at IC50 values of 0.05, 0.10, 0.08 and 0.11 microL mL(-1), respectively. The results supported the hypothesis that the insecticidal activity of Tea Tree oil was attributable, in part, to the anticholinesterase activity of Tea Tree oil.

  1. Uptake, Translocation, Metabolism, and Distribution of Glyphosate in Nontarget Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Wanjun; Jiao, Weiting; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yeyun; He, Lili; Hou, Ruyan

    2017-09-06

    The uptake, translocation, metabolism, and distribution behavior of glyphosate in nontarget tea plant were investigated. The negative effects appeared to grown tea saplings when the nutrient solution contained glyphosate above 200 mg L(-1). Glyphosate was highest in the roots of the tea plant, where it was also metabolized to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The glyphosate and AMPA in the roots were transported through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The amount of AMPA in the entire tea plant was less than 6.0% of the amount of glyphosate. The glyphosate level in fresh tea shoots was less than that in mature leaves at each day. These results indicated that free glyphosate in the soil can be continuously absorbed by, metabolized in, and transported from the roots of the tea tree into edible leaves, and therefore, free glyphosate residues in the soil should be controlled to produce teas free of glyphosate.

  2. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... waste tea leaves based composts and locally available ... protein, and carbohydrate contents of the fruit bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Results showed ... residues, such as rice and wheat straw, is a value-added ... Wheat bran.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE ADDED TEA BAGS AND CAPSULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    Combination Therapy (ACT) has been adopted as the first-line treatment of ... flavonoids existing in the leaves and stem considerably enhance the interest of its tea ..... activity of Artemisia annuaflavonoids from whole plants and cell cultures.

  4. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents data related to an article entitled "Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes" (Han et al., 2016) [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD'). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The data shows the abundances of the detected aroma compounds, their threshold values and odor characteristics in the two differently processed tea samples as well as two different cultivars.

  5. [Cancer prevention with green tea: reality and wishful thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Barbara; Bartsch, H

    2002-01-01

    Different processing of the leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis yields green or black tea, the subject of numerous investigations on the preventive effects on chronic degenerative diseases. The tea polyphenols, in particular (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found to account for most of the protective effects. Since the concentration of EGCG is 5 times higher in green than in black tea, it is assumed that green tea possesses a greater preventive potential. Protection against cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the most important biomedical effects. In experimental models the preventive activity of tea is well documented for tumors at many organ sites. In humans, tea was reported to be protective against tumors of the lung, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, were shown to exert cancer-protective activity by the following mechanisms: they inhibit the metabolic activation of carcinogens and induce at the same time detoxifying enzymes. They inhibit signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and tumor growth such as protein kinase C and the release of tumor necrose factor-alpha from cells. Tea polyphenols reactivate processes which are impaired in tumor cells, such as the programmed cell death and the tumorsuppressor gene p53. Finally, tea polyphenols can also block angiogenesis leading to a starvation of the tumor. By inactivation of proteolytic enzymes they inhibit the development of metastases. This short review summarizes relevant recent findings on the protective effects of green tea constituents.

  6. Phytochemical profile and biological potential of mulberry teas (Morus nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Čestić, Slađana; Radojković, Marija M.; Cvetanović, Aleksandra; Mašković, Pavle; Đurović, Saša

    2016-01-01

    Black mulberry is the most medicinally important plant of the genus Morus. This study examines the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of mulberry leaves tea. The tea drinks were prepared in water (70, 80, 90 ° C and boiling temperature). This study has shown that mulberry teas have high antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Experimental investigation has shown that the best conditions for preparing mulberry tea are with boiling water. Mulberry...

  7. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  8. Tea boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Tea Boxing Blow is a term in boxing for a punch that makes contact, and suggests a fist has landed on an opponent to bring the applier closer to victory. Boxing is a tense and often exhilarating experience: the punch, the tension of anticipation, the adrenalin from delivering and receiving, the bell dinging, the ring, and the bay of the crowd. Occasionally however, the blow of the punch does not make contact. It becomes an impossible proposition, a never to be seen, an experience left to ...

  9. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C Reygaert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols found in green tea: (--epicatechin (EC, (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities.

  10. Tea aroma formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Tang Ho; Xin Zheng; Shiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds) and aroma (volatile compounds). All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Ma...

  11. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LAPHET LABORATORY PROCESS AND TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS PRODUCTS BETWEEN CHINA AND MYANMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyie Phyo Maung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of extraction method on the flavonoids and antioxidant activity was investigated. The flavonoid contents of Laphet(fermented pickled tea leaves possessed more than twice as much than fresh tea leaves. Chinese green tea had higher flavonoid contents than Myanmar green tea. But Myanmar black tea’s flavonoid contents were higher. In laphet, both countries tea’s products possessed similar contents. Antioxidant activity of tea extracts were determined by using DPPH assay. The antioxidant activity of Laphet increased slightly from fresh tea leaves after fermentation. The comparison of tea products between China and Myanmar, Chinese green tea possessed the higher antioxidant activity than Myanmar green tea. But Myanmar’s black tea and Laphet contained more antioxidant activity than china tea products. According to the results, Chinese green tea may give healthier than other tea because Chinese green tea possessed the highest flavonoids (214.44±2.98 mg/g and antioxidant (85% activity.

  12. Pyridine metabolism in tea plants: salvage, conjugate formation and catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed.

  13. [Pinworm infestation of the appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, L; Berghenti, M; Cocuzza, C; Manfredini, A; Sciascia, V; Salmi, R

    2006-01-01

    The Authors present 2 cases of enterobiasis of appendix observed on a total of 186 appendicectomies. Enterobius infestation is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible without clinical suspect. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis but parasitic infection rarely causes it. It is also important considered in the differential diagnosis cases that mimic Crohn's disease.

  14. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, M A; Alves, L F A; Schapovaloff, M E

    2016-01-01

    Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  15. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Formentini

    Full Text Available Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality, demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  16. Bioavailability of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tea is a pleasant, popular and safe beverage. Tea provides a dietary source of bioactive components to help humans reduce a wide variety of cancer risks and chronic diseases. The antioxidative activity of green tea-derived polypbenols known as catchins has been extensively studied. The reducfive effect is a synergistic action between EGCG,EGC, ECG, EC, pheophytins a and b, and other components in tealeaves, which are more bioavailable for human body.Green tea has a higher content of catechins than black tea. Green tea extract with hot water has high potential and more efficiencytoreducecancerriskthananyotherteaproductsorpureEGCG. Protein, iron, andotherfoodcomponentsmay interfere with the bioavailability of tea polyphenols. Drinkinggreentea (orpolyphenol-rich tea extract ) also enhances the cancer-preventive activity of some cancer-fighting medication such as Sulindac and Tamoxifen. Further studies are required to determine the bioavailability of green tea and cancer-preventive functionality.

  17. The mycoflora of tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Halweg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger was most often isolated from 3 various black lea species dust obtained from packer factory. 10 species of black tea packaged in Poland and 28 various species of black tea and one species of green tea packed abroad. Other fungi were seen lees frequently. It seems that A. niger spores alone or with tea dust may induce various respiratory disorders in tea packers. Serum antibodies to antigens of A. niger and tea extracts imply that both may be important etiological factors.

  18. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  19. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  20. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  1. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  2. Rapid differentiation of tea products by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanwen; Liang, Huazheng; Ding, Jianhua; Lai, Jinhu; Huan, Yanfu; Qiao, Xiaolin

    2007-12-12

    Protonated water molecules generated by an ambient corona discharge were directed to impact tea leaves for desorption/ionization at atmospheric pressure. Thus, a novel method based on surface desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS) has been developed for rapid analysis of tea products without any sample pretreatment. Under the optimized experimental conditions, DAPCI MS spectra of various tea samples are recorded rapidly, and the resulting mass spectra are chemical fingerprints that characterize the tea samples. On the basis of the mass spectral fingerprints, 40 tea samples including green tea, oolong tea, and jasmine tea were successfully differentiated by principal component analysis (PCA) of the mass spectral raw data. The PCA results were also validated with cluster analysis and supervised PCA analysis. The alteration of signal intensity caused by rough surfaces of tea leaves did not cause failure in the separation of the tea products. The experimental findings show that DAPCI-MS creates ions of both volatile and nonvolatile compounds in tea products at atmospheric pressure, providing a practical and convenient tool for high-throughput differentiation of tea products.

  3. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükbalci, Aynur; El, Sedef Nehir

    2008-03-01

    In this research, some herbal teas and infusions traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey, have been studied for their antidiabetic effects on in vitro glucose diffusion and phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Ten aqueous herbal tea extracts were examined using an in vitro method to determine their effects on glucose movement across the gastrointestinal tract. Total phenol content of herbal teas was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu's procedure. Antioxidant activities of herbal teas were evaluated by the effect of extracts on DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Antioxidant activity was defined as the amount of the sample to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50% as efficient concentration, EC50. Antiradical activity [AE] was calculated as 1/EC50. Values were evaluated statistically. Results support the view that none of the herbal teas showed antidiabetic effect on glucose diffusion using in vitro model glucose absorption. Teas were arranged in the order of green tea > peppermint > thyme > black tea > relax tea > absinthium > shrubby blackberry > sage > roselle > olive leaves according to their total phenol contents. Among ten herbal teas, green tea had the highest hydrogen-donating capacity against to DPPH radical. Ranking of the herbal teas with respect to their DPPH radical scavenging activity were green tea > peppermint > black tea > thyme > relax tea > absinthium > roselle > olive leaves > sage > shrubby blackberry. It was determined that adding flavoring substances such as lemon, bergamot, clove and cinnamon, which are commonly used in preparation of black tea in Turkey resulted to have synergistic effect on total antioxidant activities of black and peppermint teas. The highest hydrogen peroxide inhibition value (65.50%) was obtained for green tea at a 250 microl/ml concentration. The H2O2 scavenging activity of herbal teas decreased in the order green tea > peppermint > relax tea > black tea > thyme > olive leaves

  4. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... us ... 96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 96262 ... https:// ...

  5. Analysis of acrylamide in green tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Kohata, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sawai, Yusuke; Chuda, Yoshihiro; Ono, Hiroshi; Yada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2006-09-20

    Optimization of the solid-phase extraction cleanup procedure enabled the GC-MS analysis of acrylamide in tea samples without the interference of bromination by tea catechins. Although polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is available for removing tea catechins from tea extract, the peaks derived from PVPP had the same retention time as brominated acrylamide in mass chromatograms obtained by GC-MS. A considerable amount of acrylamide was formed at roasting temperatures of > or =120 degrees C; the highest acrylamide level was observed when tea samples were roasted at 180 degrees C for 10 min. Higher temperatures and longer processing times caused a decrease in the acrylamide content. Furthermore, an analysis of 82 tea samples showed that rather than the reducing sugar content, the asparagine content in tea leaves was a significant factor related to acrylamide formation in roasted products. The acrylamide level in roasted tea products was controlled by asparagine in the presence of reducing sugars.

  6. An Invitation to Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TEA-drinking is very popular in southwest China’s Sichuan Province, especially in the provincial capital Chengdu. Some people estimate that the number of tea houses in Chengdu is greater than that of restaurants in Beijing. I, too, have developed the habit of having a cup of tea in the morning. On holidays, when I am free in the morning, I get up early to rush to a tea house,

  7. Drifting Fragrant Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ORIGINATING in China, tea drinking as well as tea culture has a long standing history of three to four thousand years. The formal tea ceremony had been in gradual decline since the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties but gradually began to re-develop in the 1980s owing to the demands of people from all walks of life. The prosperity of the local tea culture is witnessed by the

  8. SELECTION OF MODELS FOR SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING OF THE TAN-MITE Dichopelmus notus KEIFER (ACARI, ERIOPHYIDAE IN MATE-TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research established models for the construction of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-miteDichopelmus notus Keifer (Acari, Eriophyidae in mate-tea orchards. The study was carried out in a ten years old orchard, locatedin Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. In three areas of approximately 2,500 m2, 30 plants had been selected randomly. Fortnightly,from January to December, 2004, infestation of D. notus in 18 mature leaves of ten plants in each area were evaluated. Theevaluations were executed directly in the orchard, using lenses (10x and 1 cm2 of fixed field. The lines of the sequential plans wereconstructed using the methodology based on the confidence interval of Iwao (1975, considering the models of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity, Normal Approach of Blyth (1986, Approach of Hall (1982 modified by Blyth (1986, Normal Approach ofMolenaar (1973, Normal Approach of Pratt (1968 and Leemis & Trivedi (1996 methodology. The models were evaluatedconsidering amplitude analysis of the confidence intervals. The results had evidenced that the Model of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity must preferentiably be used in the elaboration of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-mite inmate-tea orchards.

  9. Dermatobia hominis infestation.

    OpenAIRE

    Nunzi, E.; Rongioletti, F; Rebora, A

    1984-01-01

    A patient is reported who, after leaving Venezuela, developed some boils on the left upper limb inhabited by Dermatobia hominis larvae. The curious life-cycle of this tropical fly is described with some considerations about the diagnostic problem. A simple unreported way of larvae extraction is suggested.

  10. Dermatobia hominis infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunzi, E; Rongioletti, F; Rebora, A

    1984-02-01

    A patient is reported who, after leaving Venezuela, developed some boils on the left upper limb inhabited by Dermatobia hominis larvae. The curious life-cycle of this tropical fly is described with some considerations about the diagnostic problem. A simple unreported way of larvae extraction is suggested.

  11. An overview on Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on types of tea, its processing methods, bioactive compounds which are present in it, health benefits, toxic effects, interaction with drugs and herbs, formulations involving tea polyphenols. Tea has been found to possess various bioactive leads and need of the hour is to characterize these leads for better product development.

  12. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Infestation of Tomato Plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition. PMID:24710393

  13. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    OpenAIRE

    Judy Gopal; Manikandan Muthu; Diby Paul; Doo-Hwan Kim; Sechul Chun

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been ...

  14. Phytochemical profile and biological potential of mulberry teas (Morus nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čestić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry is the most medicinally important plant of the genus Morus. This study examines the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of mulberry leaves tea. The tea drinks were prepared in water (70, 80, 90 ° C and boiling temperature. This study has shown that mulberry teas have high antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Experimental investigation has shown that the best conditions for preparing mulberry tea are with boiling water. Mulberry teas could be regarded as a promising source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and herbal remedy.

  15. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M.; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents data related to an article entitled “Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes” (Han et al., 2016) [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars ‘Bai-Sang Cha’ (‘BAS’) and ‘Fuding-Dabai Cha’ (‘FUD’). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The d...

  16. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo-Xiao Han; Rana, Mohammad M.; Guo-Feng Liu; Ming-Jun Gao; Da-Xiang Li; Fu-Guang Wu; Xin-Bao Li; Xiao-Chun Wan; Shu Wei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents data related to an article entitled “Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes” (Han et al., 2016) [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars ‘Bai-Sang Cha’ (‘BAS’) and ‘Fuding-Dabai Cha’ (‘FUD’). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The d...

  17. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-28

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts.

  18. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

    2013-10-25

    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China.

  19. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  20. Plano de amostragem para Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae na cultura da erva-mate Sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus (Eriophyidae on mate-tea orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bertoldo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a amostragem presença-ausência para Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae na cultura da erva-mate. O trabalho foi realizado em plantação comercial, em Cascavel, PR, entre abril de 1999 e julho de 2000. Procederam-se a coletas quinzenais de 240 folhas em diferentes partes de 10 plantas. A contagem dos ácaros nas folhas foi realizada, em laboratório, com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Foi determinado o padrão de agregação com o modelo da potência de Taylor, e também a proporção de folhas infestadas e o número de amostras requeridas foram estimados por análise de regressão. D. notus apresentou distribuição agregada. A proporção de folhas infestadas estimadas pelo modelo matemático mostrou ser um parâmetro confiável para se estimar a densidade populacional do ácaro, sendo que o número de amostras requeridas foi pequeno, o que viabiliza a aplicação prática do método.The objective of this research was to evaluate presence-absence sampling plan for Dichopelmus notus Keifer (Eriophyidae on mate-tea orchard. This study was conducted in Cascavel, State of Paraná, Brazil, from April 1999 to July 2000, in a mate-tea tree commercial plantation. Biweekly sampling of 240 leaves in different parts of 10 plants was conducted, and the number of mites was registered. The aggregation pattern was determined using the Taylor’s power law model. The proportion of the infested leaves and the number of required samples were estimated by regression analysis. D. notus presented aggregated distribution. The estimated proportion of infested leaves showed to be reliable in order to estimate the population density of mites. The number of sample unities required to estimate infestation density was low, which makes practical application of this sampling method to be feasible.

  1. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  2. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  3. The Choice of China Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLiejiang; LiuHuadong

    2004-01-01

    THERE are three broad categories of China tea: green,black and oolong.Green tea is unfermented, and grows best in Zhejiang. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine it relieves internal heat. Black tea is

  4. Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Milacic, V; Chen, M S; Wan, S B; Lam, W H; Huo, C; Landis-Piwowar, K R; Cui, Q C; Wali, A; Chan, T H; Dou, Q P

    2008-04-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (-)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity.

  5. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  6. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  7. Green tea in dermatology--myths and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Alexander; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Green tea consumption has a long tradition in Asian countries--especially China. The epidemiologically and experimentally observed anticarcinogenic and antiinflammatory effects of green tea have led to the implementation of green tea extracts in multiple therapeutic applications - both in dermatological and cosmeceutical preparations. The most abundant evidence exists for the anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive effect of green tea or its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Almost equally evident is the effect in infectious diseases such as cutaneous viral infections. For external genital warts, a topical ointment with green tea extracts was licensed in the USA in 2010, and recently also in Europe. Experimental evidence pinpointing the block of central signal transduction factors in inflammatory mechanisms has led to the evaluation of catechins in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. The belief of green tea as a "wonder weapon" against diseases dates back thousands of years. According to a Chinese legend, ancient Emperor Shen Nung noted a delightful aroma after some leaves of a nearby tree had fallen into boiling water. He immediately proclaimed the new "drink" as "heaven-sent", starting the belief - persisting until today - of green tea as a medication from nature against many different diseases. This review summarizes biological effects and clinical implications of green tea.

  8. Effect of Exogenous MJA Treatment of Tea Plants on the Growth of Geometrid Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Lian-you; CHEN Zong-mao; LIU Shu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The effect of tea plant Camellia sinensis induced by exogenous methyl jasmonate (MJA) on lipoxygenase (LOX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and proteinase inhibitor (PI) activity in the leaves of tea plants, as well as the growth and midgut proteinase activity of the geometrid Ectropis obliqua larvae were studied. MJA significantly induced LOX, PPO and PI activity in leaves of tea plants. When geometrid larvae have fed on leaves of tea plants treated with MJA, the activities of the high alkaline trypsin-like enzyme and chymotrypsin-like enzyme in their midgut were significantly inhibited, but the activities of the low alkaline trypsin-like enzyme in their midgut were unaffected, leading to imbalance between different types of proteinase activity in the midgut of the larvae and in turn, the growth were inhibited. These chains of response may be an important mechanism of the direct resistance induced by MJA-treatment of tea plant on geometrid larvae.

  9. Human scrotal myiasis: botfly infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Robert L; Rodriguez, Gabriel

    2002-10-01

    Cutaneous infestation of the scrotum with botfly larva from the order Dioptera, family Cuterebridae, species Dermatobia hominis is extremely rare. The first reported case of scrotal myiasis in the United States of America is described here. There is increased potential for human infestation with botfly larva (Dermatobia hominis), due to a more affluent and mobile population traveling to tropical areas for exotic vacations where the botfly is endemic. Urology nurses in a clinical setting should be aware of patients with unusual clinical presentations involving the genitourinary system.

  10. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  11. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Combined with AFS by Response Surface Methodology for Rapid Determination of Trace Mercury in Tea Leaves%响应面法优化超声辅助提取-原子荧光法快速测定茶叶痕量汞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊春红; 彭康年; 谢明勇

    2011-01-01

    A rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) procedure was developed for the determination of trace mercury (Hg) in tea leaves combined with atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Three variables including sonication time (St). Ultrasonic bath temperature (T) and HNO3 : H2O2(1:1,ψ)volume (A2) showed the significant effect on extraction rate of total Hg evaluated by a Plackett-Burman design, and they were further optimized by a central composite design and response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: presonication time 6 min, St 8.1 min, T 70. 5℃,A2 4.4 mL, and sample mass 300 mg. GBW10016 (tea leaves) was used as certified reference material; for comparative purposes, a microwave-assisted digestion (MAD) was used. The result obtained by optimized UAE method showed good agreement with the certified values. Under optimal conditions, recovery was evaluated to be 94. 2% ~102. 0% and the limit of detection 0.007 8μg · L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of replicate measurements was generally less than 10%. The proposed UAE method was successfully applied to the determination of Hg in 63 samples of fresh tea leaves and 10 different branded tea samples. No significant differences were established between the analytical results of UAE method and MAD method. The Hg concentrations of them were found in the range of 4. 6~17. 3 μg · kg-1 on a dried basis, which were within the permissible limit of the NY659-2003.%研究了一种使用超声波辅助提取(UAE)-原子荧光法测定茶叶痕量汞的快速方法.采用Plackett-Burman设计从6个影响汞提取率的因素中筛选出3个显著因素—超声时间St,超声温度T和HNO3:H2O2(1:1,δ)体积A2,并采用中心组合设计和响应面法优化参数.结果表明,最优提取条件为,浸泡时间6 min,St 8.1min,T:70.5℃,A2:4.4mL,称样量300 mg.以GBW10016茶叶为标准参考物质,与微波消解(MAD)法

  12. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  13. Tea Culture in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGLinghui; PUNCOGZholma

    2004-01-01

    The air in Tibet does not contain sufficient oxygen, and people living in that part of the world love food that is "dry", such as meat ancl roasted qingke barley flour called zanba. This kind of life calls for tea. And Tibetans have been drinking tea for eons.

  14. Factors affecting the caffeine and polyphenol contents of black and green tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, C; Birch, M R; Dacombe, C; Humphrey, P G; Martin, P T

    2001-11-01

    The effects of product and preparation variables on the in-cup chemical composition of tea extracts is of interest because the appearance and taste characteristics and the possible health effects of a tea liquor arise from the chemical components extracted from the leaf during tea preparation. A comprehensive study was therefore undertaken to determine the contributions of product and preparation variables on the total soluble solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of tea extracts. The results of this study show that the variety, growing environment, manufacturing conditions, and grade (particle size) of the tea leaves each influence the tea leaf and final infusion compositions. In addition, the composition of the tea infusion was shown to be influenced by whether the tea was contained in a teabag and, if so, the size and material of construction of the bag. Finally, the preparation method, including the amounts of tea and water used, infusion time, and amount of agitation, was shown to be a major determinant of the component concentrations of tea beverages as consumed. An illustration of the variation introduced by these product and preparation factors is provided by comparing solids, caffeine, and polyphenol contents of green and black tea infusions when commercial products are prepared according to the instructions given on their packaging.

  15. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  16. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Male, 62. Bipolar disorder. Bordeline personality disorder. - Bed bug infestation. Psychiatry. Unusual clinical course. In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. We present a case, based on a coroner's investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs.

  17. Interaction of Phytophagous Insects with Salmonella enterica on Plants and Enhanced Persistence of the Pathogen with Macrosteles quadrilineatus Infestation or Frankliniella occidentalis Feeding: e79404

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Pablo Soto-Arias; Russell Groves; Jeri D Barak

    2013-01-01

    ... S. enterica populations were found on leaves infested with Macrosteles quadrilineatus. In contrast, pathogen populations among plants exposed to Frankliniella occidentalis or Myzus persicae were similar to those without insects...

  18. 氮素水平对茶树新梢叶片代谢谱及其昼夜变化的影响%Metabonomic Analysis on the Effects of different Nitrogen Application Rates and Light/Dark Change on Metabolism in Tea Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亦扬; 马立锋; 黎星辉; R. George Ratcliffe; Nicholas J. Kruger; 阮建云

    2013-01-01

    Amino acids, polyphenols, caffeine and other metabolites such as sugars and aromatic substances are important determinants of tea quality. Different cultivation practices affect tea quality by altering the basic metabolite profiles. In this study, the metabolomic changes through nitrogen and samples collected in day and night were investigated in fresh tea shoots by 1H-NMR for non-targeted analysis coupled with a multivariate data analysis and by HPLC for targeted analysis to reveal the mechanism of formation, transformation and relationship of the major characteristic quality components in fresh tea leaves. Non-targeted analysis with 1H-NMR showed significant effect of samples collected in day and night but no difference among N application rates. However, targeted analysis with HPLC showed both significant variations in amino acids and catechins as affected by N rates and light/dark change. There were higher sensitivity of amino acids and sugars but lower sensitivity of tea polyphenols through the metabolomic analysis using 1H-NMR.%茶树叶片中含有丰富的代谢产物,氨基酸、茶多酚和咖啡碱是决定茶叶品质的重要成分。本文结合基于1H-核磁共振(1H-NMR)的代谢组学非靶标分析与通过高效液相色谱法进行的定量靶标分析两种方法,比较白天和夜晚所取不同施氮水平的茶树新梢第2叶的代谢产物差异,探讨了基于1H-NMR 的代谢组学研究方法应用于茶叶品质成分形成机理研究的可行性。结果表明,白天和夜晚所取茶树新梢第2叶代谢组差异较大,可以显著分离,区分两个样本的主要组分为茶氨酸、葡萄糖和蔗糖,而不同施氮水平下茶树新梢第2叶代谢组没有显著差异。高效液相色谱定量分析的结果表明,施氮水平对主要游离氨基酸组分和儿茶素组分均有影响,且存在昼夜差别。

  19. Non-preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae for oviposition on leaves of Paraguay tea progenies (Ilex paraguariensis/ Não-preferência do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, para oviposição em folhas de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Djair Vendramim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor was evaluated under laboratory in 52 Paraguay tea progenies and one control collected in a local farm. The experiments were conducted on Paraguay tea leaf discs infested with one adult female mite/disc, incubated in a climate chamber (25±1ºC, 14h photophase for five days. Evaluations were performed daily, by counting the number of eggs laid in the period, the number of female escapes in the first 48 hours, as well as the number of eggs laid before the escaping. It was verified that discrimination by the mite occurred on two groups of progenies, in relation to the number of eggs: one group was different from the control (53.8% of the progenies and the other was identical to it (46.2% of the progenies. In the first group, 60.7% of progenies were less oviposited while a higher number of eggs/female than the control was verified in 39.3% of them. In 57.7% of progenies there was escape of some mites (10 to 40%, and in 10 of these progenies no eggs were laid. The data provide evidences that in some of the progenies evaluated there is resistance by non-preference to oviposition of the Paraguay tea red mite.A preferência para oviposição do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor, foi avaliada em condições de laboratório em 52 progênies de erva-mate e uma testemunha coletada em uma propriedade da região. Os experimentos foram realizados em discos foliares de erva-mate (2 cm de diâmetro, infestados com uma fêmea adulta do ácaro, e incubados a 25±1ºC e 14h de fotofase, durante cinco dias. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, contando-se o número de ovos depositados no período, número de fêmeas que fugiram nas primeiras 48 horas e número de ovos depositados antes da fuga. Verificou-se que houve discriminação do ácaro em dois grupos de progênies, em relação ao número de ovos, um que diferiu em relação à testemunha (53,8% de progênies e

  20. All the Tea in China...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    TEA, coffee and cocoa com-prise three major beveragesin the world.Altogether 56countries grow tea and about 2 bil-lion people drink it.Although differ-ent countries have cultivated differ-ent tea cultures,including Japan’s teaceremony,Russia’s milk tea art andBritain’s afternoon tea service,theyare all closely linked to China’s longhistory and culture.

  1. Application of far-infrared irradiation in the manufacturing process of green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Jo, Seong-Chun; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2006-12-27

    Seven kinds of green tea leaves were manufactured with far-infrared (FIR) irradiation, and the physicochemical characteristics of the green tea were determined. Appropriate FIR irradiation during the manufacturing process significantly increased the polyphenolic content of green tea. FIR irradiation at 90 degrees C for 10 min, replacing the roasting step, and of the fully processed green tea leaves (GTP3) increased the total phenol content of green tea from 475.6 to 811.1 mg/g and the total flavanol content from 175.7 to 208.7 mg/g, as compared to the control. Epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate increased from 57.68 and 9.60 mg/g in a nonirradiated control to 89.88 and 16.33 mg/g in GTP3, respectively. Ascorbic acid, caffeine, and nitrite scavenging activities were also increased in GTP3. However, the overall color change of GTP3 was negligible. These results indicate that the chemical properties of green tea are significantly affected by FIR irradiation at specific stages of the manufacturing process of green tea leaves and that this FIR irradiation results in high-quality green tea.

  2. 多花勾儿茶中儿茶素的提取分离与HPLC测定%Separation and Characterization of Catechin in man-Made Green Tea, the Fruits and Leaves of Berchemia Floribunda with Macroporous Resin and HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚姝凤; 唐克华; 刘小攀; 成江; 董爱文

    2015-01-01

    以多花勾儿茶果实、叶及自制绿茶为原料,采用水浴法提取儿茶素,研究其最佳提取工艺.提取液经石油醚脱脂溶性色素后,采用大孔吸附树脂D941进行吸附分离,静态吸附和解析条件研究得出纯净水洗脱效果较好.多花勾儿茶果实、叶及自制绿茶吸附分离的纯化液,用色谱柱:Boston Green ODS PC18(4.6×250 mm ,5μm),检测波长279 nm ,流动相乙腈0.4%磷酸(w (乙腈)∶ w (0.4%磷酸)=13∶87),柱温35℃,流速1 mL/min ,一次进样10μL来进行高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测,其结果显示,多花勾儿茶果实中儿茶素含量最低,自制绿茶中的儿茶素含量最高.%In this study ,the extraction process of catechins was investigated with a certain concentration of ethanol as solvent from man‐made green tea ,fruits and leaves of Berchemia floribunda ,using the method of waterbath .After the fat soluble pigment was removed by petroleum ether from extracting solution ,the catechins was purified by porous resin adsorption method .The static adsorption and desorption tests of catechin with macroporous resin showed that D941 was the optimal resin for purification and the pure water was the optimum eluant .Purified liquid of fruit ,leaves and home‐made green tea extracts were de‐tected by HPLC .The catechins was separated on PC18 chromatographic column (4 .6 × 250 mm ,5 μm) at 35 ℃ ,with nitrile‐0 .4% phosphoric acid (13∶87) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min ,and de‐tected at the wavelength of 279 nm (UV scan) .The results showed that the catechin content of fruit was the lowest ,while the content of man‐made green tea was significantly higher than that of both the fruit and leaves through the optimized extraction processes .

  3. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo-Xiao Han

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data related to an article entitled “Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes” (Han et al., 2016 [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars ‘Bai-Sang Cha’ (‘BAS’ and ‘Fuding-Dabai Cha’ (‘FUD’. Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The data shows the abundances of the detected aroma compounds, their threshold values and odor characteristics in the two differently processed tea samples as well as two different cultivars.

  4. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea tea green tea tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively.

  5. A teahouse in a tea garden

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese place tea at the centre of their social and ceremonial life. In this beautiful tea garden in Kyoto, the tea mistress makes tea and offers it to Alan Macfarlane, who talks a little about its role in history.

  6. The legend of laphet: A Myanmar fermented tea leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thazin Han

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Fermentation is the traditional method. Epigallocatechin gallate is a powerful constituent of laphet for human health. Its caffeinated effect is also popular in Myanmar society. This study will contribute to understanding Myanmar fermented tea leaves and spread the legend of laphet around the world.

  7. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  8. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Yue Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  9. Tea Party Engineer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Matthews

    2013-01-01

      [...]Massie, a Tea Party enthusiast and fan of both Ron and Rand Paul, has already made his presence felt on the House floor, bucking GOP leaders by voting against John Boehner's re-election as speaker...

  10. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF TEA WASTES ON SOIL ENZYME ACTIVITY AND NITRIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç ARCAK

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on tea wastes supplied from factories of General Directorate of Tea Enterprises. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of composted, enriched composted tea wastes along with coarse and fine tea wastes released by tea factories processing raw tea leaves into black tea, on soil enzyme activity and nitrification. Tea wastes were applied to pots of 200 g-soil capacity, at the rate of 0 %, 2.5 % and 5.0 % of the pot capacity in addition, 200 µg/g N, in the form of ammonia sulphate, was given to each pot. Soils were analysed for enzyme activities at the end of 1., 7., 14., and 28. day of incubation. Amount of NH+4 N and NO-3 N were determined for nitrification at the end of 1., 7., 14. and 28. day of incubation. Urease enzyme activity increased, depending on coarse and fine tea waste doses at the incubation periods of 1., 2. and 3. weeks, but decrease was monitored at 4.. week of the incubation. Whereas, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity increased throughout the incubation period. The amount of NH+4 N in the soil diminished depending on different tea wastes and doses, yet NO -3 N in the soil showed no significant augmentation.

  12. Labrador tea--the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin, processing and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampc, Anna; Luczkiewicz, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe for making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 min. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for controlling pests.

  13. A farmer friendly and economic IPM strategy to combat root-knot nematodes infesting lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Rhizobium sp., waste tea leaves, eggshell powder, and composted cow dung manure on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on lentil in Botany department AMU, Aligarh, India. When used alone, composted cow dung was better in reducing galling and nematode multiplication and improving lentil growth followed by eggshell powder, Rhizobium sp., and waste tea leaves. Significant result in the integrated management of M. incognita was obtained when Rhizobium sp. was used in combination with cow dung and eggshell powder (with or without waste tea leaves. Combined application of root nodule bacterium and organic wastes like waste tea leaves, eggshell, and cow dung may be suggested to the farmers/growers or related persons who are having great enthusiasm to establish a lentil production business. Application of these organic materials along with the root nodule bacteria may be helpful to foster soil ecosystem which has been a hot topic in the present scenario.

  14. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  15. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Fujimaki Hayacibara

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  16. Increasing bedbug, Cimex lectularius, infestations in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azazy, Osama M E; Al-Behbehani, Bahja; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud M I

    2013-08-01

    Bedbug, Cimex lectularius, human infestations were reported in the State of Kuwait in the last 2 years. Eleven separate infestations from different localities were received at the Veterinary Laboratories indicating that bedbug is widespread in the State of Kuwait. There was circumstantial evidence to suggest the transfer of bugs with recent immigrants or used furniture. The spread of infestation can be attributed to the increase in migrant labor and their mobility inside the country. The increase in reported cases appears also consistent with a worldwide increase in bedbug infestations.

  17. Effect of high latitude on tea quality of southern tea cultivated at northern area%南茶高纬度北引对茶叶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪曙晖; 汪东风; 李晓东; 彭正云; 姜星; 张续周

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究南茶高纬度北引后对茶类适制性及绿茶品质产生的影响。方法通过理化方法,分析同一品种茶树在高纬度北引后对其叶片厚度、鲜叶成分、不同茶类感官品质、绿茶成分及感官品质所产生的变化。结果随着纬度的增加,绿茶品质较好,而红茶品质较差;随着南茶高纬度北引,叶片厚度、氨基酸、水溶性糖、水浸出物和芳香物质(精油)总量等含量随纬度增大而增加;茶多酚含量则相反;对精油中各成分分析显示,北方茶烃类成分较多,醇类成分较少。结论本研究明确了南茶高纬度北引后茶叶品质特点及化学成分基础。%Objective To study the effect of high latitude on suitability for processing different teas and green tea quality of southern tea cultivated at northern area.Methods The tea fresh leaves from the tea plant, which was introduced from southern area and cultivated at high latitude of northern area, were made into black tea (full fermentation tea), oolong tea (semi-fermentation tea) and green tea (no fermentation tea). The main component content and quality of the tea fresh leaves and the teas were analyzed by the methods about physicochemical analysis. Results The sensory quality of green tea was the most one in the three teas with latitude increasing; the leaf thickness, amino acid, soluble sugar, water extract and total aromatic compounds (essential oils) content increased with latitude increasing, but tea polyphenol content showed the opposite. Analysis of each component of the essential oil showed that hydrocarbon constituents were much more and alcohol content was less in northern tea.Conclusion The above changes of tea functional components content are the basis of chemical composition of north tea quality characteristics from south tea cultivated at high north latitude.

  18. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC. The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming units (cfu per gram. German chamomile harbored the highest fungal contamination. The most common fungi found in herbal teas were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., Alternaria alternata, and yeasts. Among the coffee substitutes, only the chocolate-mint coffee was contaminated with low numbers (<1.0 × 103 cfu g−1 of E. rubrum, Ulocladium spp. and Phoma spp., and with yeasts (<100–6.8 × 103 cfu g−1. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria were recovered from 100% of the herbal tea, chocolate-mint and Mediterranean Espresso, and from 50% of the Bambu instant Swiss coffee samples. The highest APC counts of 1.2 × 107 cfu g−1 were observed in spearmint leaves.

  19. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  20. Identification of the varietal origin of processed loose-leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanping Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an important cash crop, representing a $40 billion-a-year global market. Differentiation of the tea market has resulted in increasing demand for tea products that are sustainably and responsibly produced. Tea authentication is important because of growing concerns about fraud involving premium tea products. Analytical technologies are needed for protection and value enhancement of high-quality brands. For loose-leaf teas, the challenge is that the authentication needs to be established on the basis of a single leaf, so that the products can be traced back to the original varieties. A new generation of molecular markers offers an ideal solution for authentication of processed agricultural products. Using a nanofluidic array to identify variant SNP sequences, we tested genetic identities using DNA extracted from single leaves of 14 processed commercial tea products. Based on the profiles of 60 SNP markers, the genetic identity of each tea sample was unambiguously identified by multilocus matching and ordination analysis. Results for repeated samples of multiple tea leaves from the same products (using three independent DNA extractions showed 100% concordance, showing that the nanofluidic system is a reliable platform for generating tea DNA fingerprints with high accuracy. The method worked well on green, oolong, and black teas, and can handle a large number of samples in a short period of time. It is robust and cost-effective, thus showing high potential for practical application in the value chain of the tea industry.

  1. An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C. Reygaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that the main components of green tea that are associated with health benefits are the catechins. The four main catechins found in green tea are: (−-epicatechin (EC, (−-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (−-epigallocatechin (EGC, and (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Of these four, EGCG is present in the largest quantity, and so has been used in much of the research. Among the health benefits of green tea are: anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and benefits in cardiovascular disease and oral health. Research has been carried out using various animal models and cells lines, and is now more and more being carried out in humans. This type of research will help us to better understand the direct benefits of green tea. This review will focus primarily on research conducted using human subjects to investigate the health benefits of green tea.

  2. A study about geographical distribution of root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus loosi, Loof 1960) in tea gardens at Guilan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajieghrari, B; Mohammadi, M; Kheiri, A; Maafi, Z T

    2005-01-01

    Root lesion nematode of tea (Pratylenchus loosi) is one of the most dangerous and distractive pests in all over areas in the world where tea grows. In Iran, this species was one of the quarantine pests that for first time it were separated from the Japan imported tea slips and reported by Maafi (1993). Nowadays it has been distributed in some tea growth areas of Guilan and Mazandaran provinces (North of Iran). In this study, geographical distribution of this pest is reported on some tea growth areas of Guilan province. In order to, 147 samples from root and soil around them were investigated. These samples were gathered from various gardens of Guilan province. They were transferred to nematology lab with suitable temperature and moisture conditions and were stored at 5-10 degrees C until extraction time. Centrifugal methods for nematode extraction from soil (Jenkins, 1964) and from root (Coolen & D'Herde, 1972) were used. The nematode was identified by Handoo & Golden (1989) and Frederick & Tarjan (1989) diagnostic keys. According to this study different infested areas and geographical distribution were detected in Guilan province. Results indicated that many important tea growth areas in Guilan were infested by this nematode. In addition, it seems that it has been distributed during short time.

  3. Enantioselective Dissipation of Acephate and Its Metabolite, Methamidophos, during Tea Cultivation, Manufacturing, and Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hongping; Wang, Chen; Wang, Qinghua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-26

    The enantioselective dissipation of acephate and its metabolite, methamidophos, was investigated during tea cultivation, manufacturing, and infusion, using QuEChERS sample preparation technique and gas chromatography coupled with a BGB-176 chiral column. Results showed that (+)-acephate and (-)-acephate dissipated following first-order kinetics in fresh tea leaves with half-lives of 1.8 and 1.9 days, respectively. Acephate was degraded into a more toxic metabolite, methamidophos. Preferential dissipation and translocation of (+)-acephate may exist in tea shoots, and (-)-methamidophos was degraded more rapidly than (+)-methamidophos. During tea manufacturing, drying and spreading (or withering) played important roles in the dissipation of acephate enantiomers. The enantiometic fractions of acephate changed from 0.495-0.496 to 0.479-0.486 (P ≤ 0.0081), whereas those of methamidophos changed from 0.576-0.630 to 0.568-0.645 (P ≤ 0.0366 except for green tea manufacturing on day 1), from fresh tea leaves to made tea. In addition, high transfer rates (>80%) and significant enantioselectivity (P ≤ 0.0042) of both acephate and its metabolite occurred during tea brewing.

  4. Tea, obesity, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung-Hsi; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Lee, Meng-Jung; Chen, Chia-Lin

    2006-02-01

    Tea has been found to possess widespread biological functions based on a variety of laboratory data. The effects of tea on obesity and diabetes have received increasing attention. This paper reviews the evidence for the connections among tea catechins, and obesity and diabetes. Tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), appear to have antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. While few epidemiological and clinical studies show the health benefits of EGCG on obesity and diabetes, the mechanisms of its actions are emerging based on the various laboratory data. These mechanisms may be related to certain pathways, such as through the modulations of energy balance, endocrine systems, food intake, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the redox status, and activities of different types of cells (i. e., fat, liver, muscle, and beta-pancreatic cells). Because the EGCG receptor, the so-called 67-kDa laminin receptor (LR), has been discovered with colocalization of other types of LR and cytoskeleton in both cancer cells and normal cells, this may explain that EGCG possesses numerous actions. The mechanistic results of this review may possibly be utilized in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and other related diseases using tea- and EGCG-based folk medicines.

  5. Green tea and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  6. Determination of volatile organic compounds, catechins, caffeine and theanine in Jukro tea at three growth stages by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dong Bok; Hong, Young Shin; Lee, Ga Hyun; Park, Yu Min; Lee, Cheong Mi; Nho, Eun Yeong; Choi, Ji Yeon; Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Kim, Kyong Su

    2017-03-15

    Tea contains characteristic volatile organic compounds, polyphenols, caffeine and catechins, and is therefore among the most widely consumed beverages all over the world. In this study, fresh Jukro tea leaves collected from Damyang-gun (Jeollanam-do) at 40, 60 and 90day growth stages, were semi-fermented. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were extracted by simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Catechins, caffeine and theanine were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 159 VOCs were identified in the analyzed Jukro tea leaves. Comparatively, the increase in the concentrations of VOCs was high in 60day leaves. The content of catechins increased along the three growth stages, whereas caffeine, compared to 90day leaves, was higher for 40 and 60day leaves. Based on the results, the 60day leaves were found to be the most suitable and useful for making semi-fermented Jukro tea.

  7. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  8. Study Finds How Green Tea Might Fight Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱浩良

    1999-01-01

    人们对饮用绿茶的好处已有不少议论,但是,本篇视角独特,明确指出饮用绿茶能抗癌:Our research shows that green tea leaves are rich in thisanti-cancer compound,with concentrations high enough to induce anti-cancereffects in the body.但是,本文同时体现了极其严肃的科学态度:Now tests areneeded to see if EGCg is active in the bodies of people who drink green tea.

  9. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  10. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  11. Inhibition of urinary bladder tumors induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine in rats by green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, D

    1999-02-01

    Recently, the anticarcinogenic effects of green tea have been studied in sites other than the urinary tract. The present study examined the inhibition by green tea of vesical tumors induced in rats by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). In the first series of experiments, 0.05% BBN was added to the drinking water of rats and remained present for 5 weeks. In one experiment, six groups of animals received either tap water, green tea, matcha, hojicha, oolong tea or black tea from week 6. In a second experiment, three groups of rats received either tap water, green tea extract or powdered green tea mixed into a pellet diet from week 6. In a third experiment, five groups of rats were fed a pellet diet with addition of either 0, 0.15, 1.5 or 3.0% powdered green tea from week 6. All rats were killed and examined at 40 weeks. Green tea, particularly green tea leaves, dose-dependently inhibited the growth of BBN-induced urinary bladder tumors when given after the carcinogen. Green tea may inhibit bladder tumor growth.

  12. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.

  13. Avaliação toxicológica pré-clínica do chá das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae Pre-clinical toxicological evaluation of tea from the leaves of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.B. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi realizar um ensaio toxicológico pré-clínico para analisar a toxicidade do chá das folhas de Morus nigra L. (Moraceae. A toxicidade subcrônica do chá (CF-Mn foi avaliada durante 30 dias por via oral em ratos. Ao grupo controle foi administrado água, para comparação. Durante o período experimental foi avaliada a presença de sinais de toxicidade, variação do peso corporal, e o consumo de líquido e alimento. Ao final do experimento o sangue dos animais foi retirado para análise de parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. Não foram observados mortalidade e sinais de toxicidade indicando baixa toxicidade da planta. Não houve alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. Nas condições do estudo, o CF-Mn pode ser considerado de baixa toxicidade, pois não produziu efeitos tóxicos nos animais tratados.The aim of this study was to carry out a pre-clinical toxicological assay to analyze the toxicity of tea from the leaves of Morus nigra L. (Moraceae. The subchronic toxicity of this tea (CF-Mn was orally evaluated during 30 days in rats. The control group was given water for comparison. During the experimental period, signs of toxicity, body weight variation, and water and food consumption were assessed. At the end of the experiment, the blood of animals was removed for analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters. No mortality and no toxicity signs were observed, indicating low toxicity of the plant. There was no alteration in the hematological and biochemical parameters. Under the study conditions, CF-Mn can be considered of low toxicity since it did not produce toxic effects in treated animals.

  14. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  15. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  16. Anti-stress effects of drinking green tea with lowered caffeine and enriched theanine, epigallocatechin and arginine on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Hara, Ayane; Nakagawa, Aimi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohshio, Megumi; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-11-15

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea). Furthermore, the roles of tea components such as caffeine, catechins, and other amino acids in anti-stress effects were examined. To prepare low-caffeine green tea, plucked new tea leaves were treated with a hot-water spray. Mice were psychosocially stressed from a conflict among male mice under confrontational housing. Mice consumed each tea that was eluted with room temperature water ad libitum. As a marker for the stress response, adrenal hypertrophy was compared with mice that ingested water. Caffeine was significantly lowered by spraying hot-water on tea leaves. While epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin in tea leaves, epigallocatechin (EGC) was mainly infused into water at room temperature. Adrenal hypertrophy was significantly suppressed in mice that ingested theanine-rich and low-caffeine green tea that were eluted with water at room temperature. Caffeine and EGCG suppressed the anti-stress effects of theanine while EGC and arginine (Arg) retained these effects. These results suggest that drinking green tea exhibits anti-stress effects, where theanine, EGC and Arg cooperatively abolish the counter-effect of caffeine and EGCG on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous determination of free amino acids in Pu-erh tea and their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuchen; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Pengpu; Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Pu-erh ripened tea is produced through a unique microbial fermentation process from the sun-dried leaves of large-leaf tea species (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura) in Yunnan province of China. In this study, the changes of amino acid profiles during fermentation of Pu-erh tea were investigated, based on the improved HPLC-UV method with PITC pre-column derivatization for the simultaneous determination of twenty free amino acids. Results showed that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, theanine and tyrosine were the major amino acids in tea samples. Fermentation significantly influenced on the amino acid profiles. The total free amino acid contents significantly decreased during fermentation (pamino acids and acrylamide contents in Pu-erh ripened tea.

  18. LED-Induced Fluorescence System for Tea Classification and Quality Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yongjiang; Mei, Liang; Feng, Chao; Yan, Chunsheng; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    A fluorescence system is developed by using several light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different wavelengths as excitation light sources. The fluorescence detection head consists of multi LED light sources and a multimode fiber for fluorescence collection, where the LEDs and the corresponding filters can be easily chosen to get appropriate excitation wavelengths for different applications. By analyzing fluorescence spectra with the principal component analysis method, the system is utilized in the classification of four types of green tea beverages and two types of black tea beverages. Qualities of the Xihu Longjing tea leaves of different grades, as well as the corresponding liquid tea samples, are studied to further investigate the ability and application of the system in the evaluation of classification/quality of tea and other foods.

  19. Quality evaluation of green tea leaf cultured under artificial light condition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Shunsuke; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Yuki, Takayuki; Tomio, Ayako; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    For an experimental model to elucidate the relationship between light quality during plant culture conditions and plant quality of crops or vegetables, we cultured tea plants (Camellia sinensis) and analyzed their leaves as tea material. First, metabolic profiling of teas from a tea contest in Japan was performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and then a ranking predictive model was made which predicted tea rankings from their metabolite profile. Additionally, the importance of some compounds (glutamine, glutamic acid, oxalic acid, epigallocatechin, phosphoric acid, and inositol) was elucidated for measurement of the quality of tea leaf. Subsequently, tea plants were cultured in artificial conditions to control these compounds. From the result of prediction by the ranking predictive model, the tea sample supplemented with ultraviolet-A (315-399 nm) showed the highest ranking. The improvement in quality was thought to come from the high amino-acid and decreased epigallocatechin content in tea leaves. The current study shows the use and value of metabolic profiling in the field of high-quality crops and vegetables production that has been conventionally evaluated by human sensory analysis. Metabolic profiling enables us to form hypothesis to understand and develop high quality plant cultured under artificial condition. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tea Varrak / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi kantsler Tea Varrak iseloomustab ennast juhina, alluvate motiveerimine, ülevaade tavalisest tööpäevast, plaanid lähitulevikuks. Eluloolised andmed, haridus, täienduskoolitus, töökogemus. Kommenteerivad justiitsministeeriumi kantsler Jüri Pihl ja rahandusministeeriumi arendusjuht Alar Kolk

  1. Tea Varrak / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi kantsler Tea Varrak iseloomustab ennast juhina, alluvate motiveerimine, ülevaade tavalisest tööpäevast, plaanid lähitulevikuks. Eluloolised andmed, haridus, täienduskoolitus, töökogemus. Kommenteerivad justiitsministeeriumi kantsler Jüri Pihl ja rahandusministeeriumi arendusjuht Alar Kolk

  2. Effects of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabricius infestation on resistant enzyme activity in the leaves of tomato genotypes with different JA pathways%茄二十八星瓢虫为害对不同基因型番茄叶内三种抗性酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国红; 曹彬; 黄长礼; 戈峰

    2015-01-01

    [Objectives] We examined interactions between H. vigintioctopunctata and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes with different jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. [Methods] The tomato genotypes were; suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutant plants, 35s prosystemin (35s) plants, and wild type (Wt) plants. Activity of protease inhibitors (PI) and lipoxygenase (LOX) and dynamic change in relative gene expression of the three kinds of enzymes were tested to study the defense signal pathway induced by H. vigintioctopunctata in tomatoes, and the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in the plant defense process. [Results] Major results were; activity and gene expression of PI and LOX in 35s type tomatoes were significantly higher than in the other two varieties whereas the spr2 type tomato had the lowest level of PI expression. Different periods of exposure to H. vigintioctopunctata showed that the highest PI and LOX activity occurred in 35s and wt type tomatoes 24 h and 6 h after infestation, respectively. There was no significant temporal change in enzyme activity in spr2 type tomatoes. There were no significant differences in PAL activity and relative gene expression in the three tomato varieties. In the process of feeding on plants by H. vigintioctopunctata, PAL activity initially increased then declined after 48 h. No significant changes in PAL activity and gene expression were observed in systemic leaves. PI and LOX were more sensitive to insect herbivory than PAL. [Conclution] 35s tomatoes are to a certain degree resistant to H. vigintioctopunctata and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a role in this resistance.%【目的】研究茉莉酸合成相关基因在番茄抗茄二十八星瓢虫 Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabricius 中的作用,探讨茉莉酸信号因子在植物防御过程中起到的作用。【方法】利用3种基因型番茄茉莉酸合成缺失突变体 spr2、茉莉酸合成过量表达体35s、野生型番茄 Wt

  3. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China

    OpenAIRE

    He Li; Guo-Ying Zhou; Jun-Ang Liu; Jianping Xu

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces....

  4. Green tea catechins for well-being and therapy: prospects and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi N; Pervin M; Suzuki T.; Unno K; Isemura M; Nakamura Y.

    2015-01-01

    Noriyuki Miyoshi,1 Monira Pervin,1 Takuji Suzuki,2 Keiko Unno,3 Mamoru Isemura,1 Yoriyuki Nakamura1 1School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Faculty of Education, Art and Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan; 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Tea is derived from the leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) plant, and is consumed worldwide. Green tea was discovered in the...

  5. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Maliakal, Pius; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. The bioavailability and biotransformation of tea polyphenols, however, are key factors limiting these activities in vivo. The inhibition of tumorigenesis by green or black tea preparations has been demonstrated in animal models on different organ sites such as skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and mammary gland. Epidemiological studies, however, have not yielded clear conclusions concerning the protective effects of tea consumption against cancer formation in humans. The discrepancy between the results from humans and animal models could be due to 1) the much higher doses of tea used in animals in comparison to human consumption, 2) the differences in causative factors between the cancers in humans and animals, and 3) confounding factors limiting the power of epidemiological studies to detect an effect. It is possible that tea may be only effective against specific types of cancer caused by certain etiological factors. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea, including the modulation of signal transduction pathways that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, induction of apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells, as well as inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. These mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer.

  6. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  7. Caffeine in tea Camellia sinensis--content, absorption, benefits and risks of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, A

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic properties of tea Camellia sinensis are of particular interest since it has been consumed for ages and was always regarded as safe beverage. Tea is most popular beverage in the world because of its attractive aroma, exceptional taste, health promoting and pharmaceutical potential. Current results showed that antioxidative, antibacterial and other health effects are attributed to its caffeine content and caffeine - polyphenols interactions. An overview is given on caffeine content in different tea leaves beverage. Special attention is drawn to caffeine physiological effect on human organism. Controversies concerning the possible caffeine influence on human physical and psychological health are briefly summarized and presented.

  8. Characterization of corrinoid compounds from a Japanese black tea (Batabata-cha) fermented by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittaka-Katsura, Hiromi; Ebara, Syuhei; Watanabe, Fumio; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2004-02-25

    A Japanese fermented black tea (Batabata-cha) contained a considerable amount of vitamin B(12) (456 +/- 39 ng per 100 g dry tea leaves and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ng per 100 mL of tea drink). A corrinoid compound was partially purified and characterized from the tea leaves. The patterns of the purified compound by the silica gel 60 thin-layer chromatography and C18 reversed phased high-performance liquid chromatography were identical to those of authentic vitamin B(12). When 20 week old vitamin B(12) deficient rats, which excreted substantial amounts (about 250 mg/day) of methylmalonic acid in urine as an index of vitamin B(12) deficiency, were fed the tea drink (50 mL/day, 1 ng of vitamin B(12)) for 6 weeks, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion (169 +/- 29 mg/day) of the tea drink-supplemented 26 week old rats decreased significantly relative to that (250 +/- 32 mg/day) of the deficient rats. The results indicate that the vitamin B(12) found in the fermented black tea is bioavailable in mammals.

  9. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  10. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in. Four Areas of ... were identified with the following prevalences: the shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (8.1%), the chicken ..... Canis lupus familiaris in Mueang district ...

  11. A new species, of Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...

  12. PAH in Some Brands of Tea and Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navaratnam, Marin Arosha; Jewula, J.

    2015-01-01

    of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.1–0.3 μg/kg with recoveries from 94–106% for PAH4. Concentrations of PAH4 followed the pattern of the total sum of 25 PAHs with higher concentrations with a maximum of 115 μg/kg in tea leaves compared to 5.1 μg/kg in coffee. The highest PAH4 levels were found in black tea......The presence of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators; benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (Ba......P). PAH4 from samples of 18 brands of tea leaves and 13 brands of coffee were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by highly automated clean up steps for gel permeation chromatography (SX-3) and solid phase extraction (500mg silica). GC-MS were applied for detection of PAH4. The limit...

  13. Delusional infestation: are you being bugged?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakkar A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angeli Thakkar, Kenneth GJ Ooi, Nagi Assaad, Minas Coroneo Department of Ophthalmology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. Keywords: delusions, parasitosis, infestation, ocular trauma

  14. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractionsinhibit migration of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ean-Jeong Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-phenolic constituents also reveal chemopreventive and anti-metastatic effects.In this study, we investigated the effects of a fraction of green tea rich in phenolic compounds (PF, a non-phenolic fraction (NPF, which contains glyceroglycolipids (GGL, and a pure glyceroglycolipid compound isolated from the non-phenolic fraction in human cancer.Dried green tea leaves were extracted and applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. The resazurin reduction assay was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of green tea samples towards human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and normal AML12 hepatocytes cells. Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization and the microarray results were validated by RT-PCR. The scratch migration assay was used to investigate the effects of green tea samples on cell migration in vitro. The changes of microtubule dynamics were observed using fluorescence microscopy.PF and NPF were prepared from methanol extract of green tea. A GGL was isolated from NPF. All three green tea samples did not show significant cytotoxic activity up to 10 µg/mL in both HepG2 and AML12 cells, whereas cytotoxicity of the control drug doxorubicin was observed with both cell lines (IC50 on AML12: 0.024 µg/mL, IC50 on HepG2: 2.103 µg/mL. We identified three sets of genes differentially expressed upon treatment with the green tea samples. The genes were associated with cytoskeleton formation, cellular movement and morphology. The correlation coefficients between mRNA expression values determined by microarray and RT-PCR were R = 0.94. HepG2 and U2OS cells treated with green tea extracts showed the delayed closures. Besides, the number of

  15. [Chemical studies on plant polyphenols and formation of black tea polyphenols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    Recent biological and pharmacological studies strongly suggested that plant polyphenols in foods, beverages and crude drugs have various health benefits. However, still there are chemically uncharacterized polyphenols, especially those with large molecular weights. The typical example is black tea polyphenols. Four tea catechins of fresh tea leaves are enzymatically oxidized in tea fermentation process of black tea manufacture to give a complex mixture of the oxidation products. Despite many efforts since 1950's, major part of the black tea polyphenols has not been clarified yet. We have investigated the oxidation mechanism of each catechin by employing a newly developed in vitro model fermentation system. The oxidation was initiated by enzymatic dehydrogenation of catechins, and subsequent intermolecular quinone-phenol coupling reactions followed by cascade-type degradation of the unstable products resulted in the formation of complex black tea polyphenols. Besides black tea polyphenols, this review introduces the chemistry of insolubilization of persimmon proanthocyanidins, wood polyphenols in connection with whisky polyphenols, and co-polymerization of cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins in cinnamon bark.

  16. Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves.

  17. Separation of Caffeine and Tea Poly-phenols from Instant (Soluble Tea Waste Liquor by Macro-porous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant tea is presently manufactured by spraying and freeze drying the concentrated brew of processed tea leaves and dust. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique using macro-porous resins for separating Caffeine (Caf and Tea Poly-phenols (TP from the waste liquor generated by manufacturing instant tea. Optimum adsorption conditions were obtained using an initial concentration of Caf solution of 80 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 60°C; The optimal desorption conditions were determined using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, 80% aqueous ethanol of, eluent volume of 4 times of Bed Volume (BV. After column separation, the purity of Caf was enhanced from 6 to 23%, TP from 38 to 61% and with the final yield of 16.9% following the separation by D101 resin. This study demonstrated macro-porous resin can effectively separated Caf and TP from instant tea waste liquor.

  18. Pheophorbide a Content and Chlorophyllase Activity in Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohata, K; Hanada, K; Yamauchi, Y; Horie, H

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the total content of pheophorbide a (PB a), which is sum of the contents of newly produced PB a, including PB a initially present and that converted from chlorophyllide a (Chd a) by the chlorophyllase reaction during incubation, in green tea samples, and found that the total content of PB a markedly increased in both Sencha and Matcha, compared with the initially present PB a content in each. This result demonstrates that chlorophyllase activity still remains in green tea, even after processing fresh green leaves. A comparison of the total contents of PB a produced during the incubation of chlorophyll a (Chl a) with Sencha and fresh green leaf acetone powder indicates that the ratio of chlorophyllase activity in Sencha and in fresh green leaves was about 1:20.

  19. Lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles attract herbivores in addition to carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, J.I.; Arimura, G.I.; Ozawa, R.; Shimoda, T.; Dicke, M.; Takabayashi, J.; Nishioka, T.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the response of the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae to uninfested lima bean leaves exposed to herbivore-induced conspecific plant volatiles by using a Y-tube olfactometer. First, we confirmed that exposed uninfested leaves next to infested leaves were more attractive to carnivorous mi

  20. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments.

  1. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze leaves obtained by different forms of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. A. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas, semi-fermentation (red tea and fermentation method (black tea were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity.

  2. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

  3. Tea Time In Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brandon Taylor

    2012-01-01

    There's a saying in China:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou.Having visited this city in east central China,I'm willing to vouch for this ancient adage,one that suggests heaven's beauty has somehow trickled down to Earth.But I would suggest a slight amendment:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou and people,and people,and people.The lakes,hills and pagodas make Hangzhou China's most visited tourist destination-around 20 million foreign and domestic tourists visit each year.Hangzhou is known for tea,some of the best and most expensive in China.The hills and valleys to the west of Hangzhou that I saw were littered with villages and tea plantations.That's where I needed to be.

  4. Comparative Studies on Antioxidant Activities of Green Tea and Four Tree-type Non-Camellia Teas%绿茶与4种乔木型别样茶抗氧化活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婉莹; 肖伟; 许利嘉; 彭勇; 何春年; 肖培根

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较绿茶与4种乔木型别样茶的抗氧化活性。方法:通过清除二苯代苦味酰基(DPPH)法、铁离子还原测定(FRAP)法、亚铁离子螯合(FIC)法、β胡萝卜素-亚油酸4种体外抗氧化活性测定方法,综合考察绿茶和老鹰茶、大叶苦丁茶、石崖茶、青钱柳茶4种乔木型别样茶水提物的抗氧化活性,同时用Folin-Ciocalteus法测定4种别样茶的总多酚含量。结果:石崖茶具有卓越的抗氧化能力,其螯合亚铁离子能力和还原铁离子能力均优于绿茶;老鹰茶、大叶苦丁茶具有良好的抗氧化活性,大叶苦丁茶还原铁离子能力优于绿茶,老鹰茶和大叶苦丁茶清除自由基(DPPH)能力比绿茶稍低,但高于人工合成抗氧化剂二丁基羟基甲苯(BHT);青钱柳茶抗氧化活性最低。结论:石崖茶、老鹰茶、大叶苦丁茶均具有较高的开发利用价值,值得深入研究和大力推广。%This article was aimed to compare the antioxidant activities of Green tea and four tree-type non-Camellia teas. The antioxidant activities of the water extract of Green tea, Eagle tea, Large-leaved Kuding tea, Shiya tea and Qingqianliu tea were evaluated with four different in vitro assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) and β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay. In addition, the polyphenol contents of different teas were estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The results showed that Shiya tea had strong antioxidant activity; its FIC and FRAP abilities are better compared with Green tea. The Eagle tea and Large-leaved Kuding tea have better antioxidant activity. The FRAP activity of Large-leaved Kuding tea was better than green tea. The DPPH of Eagle tea and Large-leaved Kuding tea were slightly lower than Green tea, but higher than the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The antioxidant ability of Qingqianliu tea

  5. Analysis of Various Tea Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As adulteration is becoming common today and tea is the most widely consumed beverage all over the world so our objective was to determine various adulterants in tea, coffee samples from udupi district, Karnataka, India as well as estimation of tannin and polyphenols from black tea samples. Specified standard procedures and tests were followed to perform the study. Amount of tannin and polyphenol content was determined.in samples and some adulterants were found to be present in the tea samples which are a matter of concern.

  6. Infestation of Caliothrips phaseoli (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Bean Cultivars Grown in the Winter, Rainy, and Dry Seasons in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; Costa, Eduardo Neves; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Da Silva, Anderson Gonçalves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to identify common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars less susceptible to Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) in different growing seasons, to evaluate whether climatic conditions influence plant resistance to C. phaseoli infestation, and to investigate the preferred plant part for insect feeding. Eighteen common bean cultivars were evaluated in the winter season, and 19 cultivars were assessed in the rainy and dry seasons, under field conditions in the municipality of Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Infestation of C. phaseoli nymphs in the upper and lower parts of the beans plants was recorded at weekly intervals from 25 days after plant emergence (DAE) to 60 DAE. In the winter season, the cultivars 'IAC Galante,' 'IAC Centauro,' 'IAC Carioca Eté,' and 'IAC Formoso' had significantly lower number of thrips than the cultivar 'IAC Diplomata.' In the rainy season, the cultivars 'IAC Harmonia' and 'IPR Siriri' had the lowest thrips infestation, differing from the cultivars 'BRS Pontal' and 'IAC Una.' The bean cultivars were equally susceptible to C. phaseoli in the dry season. The results suggest that C. phaseoli nymphs prefer to infest leaves of the lower part of bean plants, like most generalist herbivorous insects. In the winter and dry seasons, the highest thrips infestation was observed at 60 DAE, while in the rainy season, it was recorded from 32 to 46 DAE. Overall, C. phaseoli infestation on bean cultivars was not influenced by either temperature, relative humidity, or rainfall.

  7. In chemico evaluation of tea tree essential oils as skin sensitizers. Impact of the chemical composition on aging and generation of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a popular skin remedy obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia or M dissitiflora. Due to the commercial importance ofTTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka and kanuka oils) is common and may p...

  8. PCL assay application in superoxide anion-radical scavenging capacity of tea Camellia sinensis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Plant polyphenols are known for their limiting of adverse effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS in biological systems. The photochemiluminescence (PCL assay allows to evaluate the antiradical activity of a compound in the presence of a superoxide anion-radical (O •-, which is one of the ROS directly associated with the human body. In this work, determination of the superoxide anion radical scavenging ac- tivity of different tea extracts using the PCL assay was performed. Material and methods. Investigations were conducted on different tea leaves extracts. The study included five kinds of tea leaves subjected to aqueous and ethanol extraction procedure. Catechins content was evalu- ated using HPLC. Antiradical activity of the samples was conducted with use of Photochem assay. Results. Analysis of total catechins content in tea aqueous extracts enabled them to be arranged as follows: yellow > green > white > red > black, while for ethanol extracts it was: yellow = green > white > red > black. The examined tea extracts were ranked from highest to lowest water-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACW values as follows: yellow > green > white > red > black. The results of lipid-soluble antioxidative capacity (ACL values for aqueous extracts were similar; however, were approximately 50% lower than those pre- sented as ACW. The second examined group were ethanol extracts, which ranked for ACW values: yellow > green = red = white > black, while ACL values ranked as follows: yellow > white = black = red > green. PCL assay results were correlated with total catechin content in aqueous extracts. Conclusions. Antiradical activity of different tea leaves extracts in PCL assay, showed that the highest activ- ity was found in extracts of yellow tea; the lowest, however, was identified in black tea extracts.

  9. Impact of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) infestation and squash silverleaf disorder on zucchini yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; McAuslane, Heather J; Carle, R Bruce; Webb, Susan E

    2004-12-01

    Fruit yield and quality of zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., plants infested with Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring were evaluated in a screenhouse under spring and fall growing conditions by using closely related sister lines that were either susceptible (ZUC61) or tolerant (ZUC76-SLR) to squash silverleaf disorder. Our objective was to test separately the effects of level of whitefly infestation and expression of silverleaf symptoms on zucchini yield and quality. In a second experiment, yield and quality of fruit produced by silverleaf-tolerant zucchini genotypes incorporating two different sources of tolerance (ZUC76-SLR and ZUC33-SLR/PMR) were compared with that of 'Zucchini Elite', a silverleaf-susceptible commercial hybrid. Zucchini fruit yield was reduced in plants exposed to repeated infestations of whiteflies in spring and fall of both experiments. In addition, fruit grew to harvestable size more slowly under the highest whitefly infestations. Fruit quality was reduced at high infestations because of uneven and reduced pigmentation. The fruit yield and quality of ZUC61 and ZUC76-SLR were similarly affected by whitefly infestation despite differences in their susceptibility to squash silverleaf disorder. Fruit from infested plants showed decreased levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids causing the "blanching" of the fruit that is associated with loss of quality and reduced marketability. Leaves of infested plants of all genotypes had reduced levels of photosynthetic and photoprotectant pigments, possibly leading to reduced photosynthesis and consequently reduced yield. We conclude that feeding by high whitefly populations rather than expression of squash silverleaf disorder is responsible for yield and quality reduction in zucchini.

  10. Leaving Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Kenzie-Brown, Peter

    2011-07-15

    Canadian workers in Libya have been leaving the country due to civic unrest. Canadian companies evacuated their expat employees in cooperation with the Canadian government, without regard to the financial aspect, to keep them safe. Canadian expats are optimistic about the future.

  11. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  12. Survey and Analysis on Undergraduate Tea Consumption and Attitude towards Tea Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua; LI; Xiaohui; LU; Mengyao; JIANG; Wanfang; SHAO; Jianyun; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sample survey of undergraduates from Tsinghua University, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yunnan University and Yunnan Agricultural University, this paper analyzes their tea consumption and attitude towards tea consumption. Results show that more than 50% undergraduates like drinking tea, especially green tea. They would like to accept lower price tea, prefer quality to brand, and have higher degree of approval of new methods of tea drinking and tea products. However, most undergraduates lack relevant knowledge about identifying tea quality. Finally, it presents recommendations for expanding tea consumption market among undergraduates.

  13. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols.

  14. Induction of indirect defence against spider-mites in uninfested lima bean leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takabayashi, J.; Dicke, M.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Headspace analyses of uninfested Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves show an absence of or only trace amounts of the terpenoids (E)--ocimene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Upon infestation by two-spotted spider-mites (Tetranychus urticae), Lima bean leaves produce (E)--ocimene and

  15. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  16. Genetic diversity of UPASI tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) on the basis of total catechins and their fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M; Maria John, K M; Raj Kumar, R; Pius, P K; Sasikumar, R

    2005-03-01

    Tea leaf catechins and the ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechin fractions were analysed to identify the genetic diversity of 26 UPASI released tea clones. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on regression factor separated tea clones into five groups according to their jats (Jats are region based rays for e.g., Assam, China and Cambod origin) as well as their quality constituents (such as total polyphenols, total catechins, amino acids in the green leaves and liquor characteristics of black tea), particularly the catechins. Group 1 represented medium quality (quality of the final produce) clones, such as UPASI-10, UPASI-12 and UPASI-15 and drought tolerant clones like UPASI-1, UPASI-2, UPASI-9 and UPASI-10. Group 2 contained purely "China" cultivars while group 3 possessed high quality tea cultivars. "Assam" (group 5) teas had the lowest ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechin fractions (1:4) than the "Chinery" (group 2) teas (1:5). This biochemical differentiation indicated that there is a vast genetic diversity in UPASI released tea clones in terms of catechin fractions, even though the majority of them were selected from one tea estate located in the Nilgiris.

  17. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  18. Green tea and tea polyphenols in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Daniel, Kenyon G; Kuhn, Deborah J; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Li, Lianhai; Wang, Zhigang; Wan, Sheng Biao; Lam, Wai Har; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2004-09-01

    The cancer-preventive effects of green tea and its main constituent (-)-epigallocatechin gallate [(-)-EGCG] are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies in the recent decade. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols affect several signal transduction pathways, including growth factor-mediated, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of green tea lowers the risk of cancer. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment by green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Phase I and II clinical trials were carried out recently to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in patients with cancer. At this time, more mechanistic research, animal studies, and clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the role of green tea in cancer prevention.

  19. Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves (Hyptis suaveolens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Citrus sinensis) oil extract on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. A.A.S. AMUSAN*, A.B. ... Laminaeceae and is a native of tropical America, but it is widespread in ... Sciences and Livestock Production building,. University of ...

  20. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Yin Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.

  1. Application of Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy to optimization of green tea steaming process conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Daiki; Bamba, Takeshi; Oku, Yuichi; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we constructed prediction models by metabolic fingerprinting of fresh green tea leaves using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis to objectively optimize of the steaming process conditions in green tea manufacture. The steaming process is the most important step for manufacturing high quality green tea products. However, the parameter setting of the steamer is currently determined subjectively by the manufacturer. Therefore, a simple and robust system that can be used to objectively set the steaming process parameters is necessary. We focused on FT-NIR spectroscopy because of its simple operation, quick measurement, and low running costs. After removal of noise in the spectral data by principal component analysis (PCA), PLS regression analysis was performed using spectral information as independent variables, and the steaming parameters set by experienced manufacturers as dependent variables. The prediction models were successfully constructed with satisfactory accuracy. Moreover, the results of the demonstrated experiment suggested that the green tea steaming process parameters could be predicted on a larger manufacturing scale. This technique will contribute to improvement of the quality and productivity of green tea because it can objectively optimize the complicated green tea steaming process and will be suitable for practical use in green tea manufacture.

  2. Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-15

    Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Essential and toxic metals in tea (Camellia sinensis) imported and produced in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenef, Ayenew

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen samples of packed tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) were purchased from supermarkets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for metal analysis. Elements were measured by FAAS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) employing external calibration curves. The levels in mg/kg dried weight basis varied from Cu: 4.7-12.9; Cd: 0.02-2.83; Pb: metals by drinking tea were checked with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of the WHO/FAO. Considering the average daily consumption rate of tea alone, the possible daily intakes of Al, Ba and Mn surpass the amenability to the side effects associated with these elements like Alzheimer's disease, kidney damage and Parkinson's disease, respectively, for which drinking tea should cause awareness. The other investigated elements are in the acceptable range.

  4. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw, E-mail: anna.szymczycha@pwr.wroc.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Analytical Chemistry Division, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL{sup -1} Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  5. THE COMAPARATIVE DATA BETWEEN VARIOUS BRANDS OF TEA POWDERS AND GREEN TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kranthi Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is composed of many compounds. These components have various Effects depending upon the amount of tea ingested and the quality of the tea .apart from that green tea having various useful properties which are helpful for human body .The present Communication Describes about the about the “THE COMAPARATIVE DATA BETWEEN VARIOUS BRANDS OF TEA POWDERS AND GREEN TEA by using U.V Spectrophotometer and TLC Procedure for the estimation of caffeine content in commercial available tea samples and Comparative data of caffeine content along with analysis of different brands of tea samples by Comparing with the green tea powder. The present methods shows a detailed description about the Difference between commercial brands of tea powders and Green tea. A possible explanation to Account for the variability in Green Tea and analysis of different samples is offered.

  6. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  7. Characterization of the constituents and antioxidant activity of Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica IAC-259 cultivar) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Samuel T; Gosmann, Grace; Saffi, Jenifer; Presser, Márcio; Richter, Marc F; Bergold, Ana M

    2007-11-14

    Freeze-dried extracts from Camellia sinensis var. assamica IAC-259 cultivar named Brazilian green tea were prepared by hot water and ultrasound-assisted extractions using leaves harvested in spring and summer. Their caffeine and catechin contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. The antioxidant activity of the major green tea compounds and Brazilian green tea extracts was evaluated using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The levels of caffeine were higher in the summer samples (p extract not only epigallocatechin gallate but also epicatechin gallate (p Antioxidant activities of the Brazilian green tea extracts were not significantly different among seasons and extraction systems. The antioxidant data (IC50) of the Brazilian green tea extracts showed a significant correlation with their epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate contents (p < 0.05).

  8. [Studies on tea and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chi

    2011-11-01

    Many studies, both national and international, have shown that tea has protective effects on many chronic diseases and their risk factors. In cancer prevention, our studies indicated that tea drinking could inhibit the carcinogenicity of various chemical carcinogens, including oral tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in Golden hamsters, esophageal tumors in rats by blocking in vivo synthesis of N-Nitroso-methylbenzylamine (NMBzA), esophageal cancer induced by NMBzA in rats, precancerous liver lesions (r-GT and GST-P) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in rats, intestinal preneoplastic lesion (ACF) and intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) in rats, lung carcinoma induced by nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) in A/J mice. Our studies have also shown that the protective effects of tea against cancer is a combined effects of various tea ingredients, among which the major ones are polyphenols and tea pigments. Based on animal studies, antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage and modulation of immune functions were found to be the main mechanisms of anticancer effects of tea. In human trials, tea drinking showed protective effects against oxidative damage and DNA damage caused by cigarette smoking. Mixed tea drinking significantly blocked lesion progress in patients with oral mucosa leukoplakia, therefore, demonstrated its protective effects on oral cancer. Our studies have also shown effects of tea on prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For example, tea pigments was found to significantly inhibit LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+, Fe2+ in in vitro studies. In vivo studies showed that tea could prevent blood coagulation, facilitate fibrinogen dissolution, inhibit platelet aggregation, lower endothelin levels, enhance GSH-Px activities, protect against oxidated LDL-induced damage in endothelium cells, and prevent atherosclerosis of coronary arteries. The mechanisms of these protective

  9. Adsorbent Potential of Tea Waste to Control Cadmium Toxicity on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Perveen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of industrial wastage without proper treatment is responsible for the lowering of crop productivity with the accumulation of essential and non essential trace metals in the land. The present research was designed to evaluate Cadmium toxicity on plant growth and to describe the remedial effect of tea wastage against Cd(II toxicity with reference to the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.Application of Cd2+ decreased the wheat seedling growth along with alleviated concentration. It was dose-dependent, and significant at higher concentration of CdCl2. The result showed the inhibitory effect of Cd2+ ion on plant growth which includes reduction in shoot and root length, plant fresh and dry biomass and soluble carbohydrate and significant increase in total phenol contents as defense biomolecule against external stress. Adsorption is a promising alternative method to treat industrial effluents. Mainly because of its low cost and high metal binding capacity tea waste is one of the low cost and easily available adsorbent having strong adsorptivity towards heavy metals. The consumed tea leaves were found to be able to remove substantial amounts of Cd+2ions from aqueous solution. Thus it can be inferred that the addition of tea waste at appropriate rate may be useful approach to enhance the plant growth and to immobilize Cd2+ by depressing its bioavailability.

  10. Effect of Tea Theaflavins and Catechins on Microvascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Dagmar; de Graaf, Young; van Kerckhoven, Roeland; Draijer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg), four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg) or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT) at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI): 0.2; p = 0.04) and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06) compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02), but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25514559

  11. Effect of Tea Theaflavins and Catechins on Microvascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fuchs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg, four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI: 0.2; p = 0.04 and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06 compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02, but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation.

  12. Effect of tea theaflavins and catechins on microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Dagmar; de Graaf, Young; van Kerckhoven, Roeland; Draijer, Richard

    2014-12-11

    Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg), four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg) or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT) at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI): 0.2; p = 0.04) and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06) compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02), but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation.

  13. Prevalence of ticks infesting grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... De même, le degré d'infestation par I. aulacodi était plus élevé (7±5 tiques par aulacode contre 4 pour les autres espèces). Toutes les tiques des ..... This study is part of a project funded by WELCOME. TRUST through the ...

  14. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

  15. Green tea for the prevention of cancer: evidence of field epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is derived from the leaf of Camellia sinensis, a natural beverage widely consumed around the world. Geological and botanical evidence suggests that the tea plant originated from China. Varying methods of processing tea leaves lead to green tea, black tea, or Oolong tea, which differ in their concentrations of polyphenols. Green tea polyphenols appear to have anti-tumorigenic properties, and form 30-40% of the dry weight of green tea compared with only 3-10% of black tea. Numerous studies in multiple animal models and different cancer cell lines have demonstrated the anti-tumorigenesis by green tea polyphenols. Despite the consistency of laboratory results, evidence of this effect occuring in humans has been inconclusive to date.Objective: To investigate if green tea consumption was associated with longer survival rates in ovarian cancer patients, and a lower risk of ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancer, in addition toadult leukemiaMethods: We have conducted one prospective cohort study in ovarian cancer patients, and fivecase-control studies in ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancers, and leukemia over the past decade. Tea consumption was measured using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in a preliminary study, and then evaluated by a test–retest. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios(HRs, 95% confidence intervals(95% CIs, and were adjusted for age at diagnosis, locality, body mass index(BMI, parity, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics(IFGO stage, histologic grade of differentiation, cytology of ascites, residual tumour, and chemotherapeutic status. Odds ratios(ORs and 95% CIs were obtained using logistic regression analyses, which accounted for demographic, lifestyle, hormonal and family cancer factors, and potential confounders.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2

  16. Development of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-based Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) markers of tea plant and their application to cultivar identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Fumiya; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Hayashi, Nobuyuki

    2011-03-09

    To develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers for cultivar identification of the tea leaf, 5 primer pairs designed on the basis of genes that encode proteins related to nitrogen assimilation and 26 primer pairs based on expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences of the root of tea plant were screened. From combinations of primer pair and restriction enzyme that showed polymorphism among tea plants, 16 markers were selected and applied to DNA fingerprinting of Japanese tea cultivars. Sixty-three cultivars, except for a bud sport (Kiraka) and its original cultivar (Yabukita) and a pair that was the progeny of the same crossing parent (Harumoegi and Sakimidori), were distinguished from one another. By combining the 16 markers with previously developed CAPS markers and observing the physical appearance, 67 cultivars were distinguishable. The cultivars involve approximately 95% of total tea cultivating area in Japan; therefore, about 95% of tea leaves produced in Japan can be authenticated by labeling their cultivars.

  17. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  18. Evolution of Chinese tea-drinking methods%中国饮茶方式的历史演进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文劲

    2012-01-01

    Before the Tang dynasty, the Chinese people made tea by boiling the fresh tea leaves and then drank like dranking soup. This method was employed till the Song dynasty, when tea was prepared by whipping, followed by the method of infusing loose tea leaves using hot water during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The long-term evolution of Chinese tea-drinking methods is an epitome of the development of Chinese tea culture, and the essence of the tea culture as well.%中国饮茶方式历经了由唐以前的生煮羹饮、唐代的煎茶、宋代的点茶到明清瀹饮法的漫漫演进,中国饮茶方式的历史演变也是中华茶文化发展进程的缩影,也是中华茶文化的精华所在。

  19. Effect of black tea and black tea pomace polyphenols on α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition, relevant to type 2 diabetes prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eStriegel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT were 5.77 mg/mL, and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was subjected to C18 extraction and the recovered hydrophobic fraction (HBBT was further subjected to LH-20 extraction to recover a low molecular weight phenolic enriched fraction (LMW and a high molecular weight enriched fraction (HMW. The phenolic content of the LMW and HMW fraction were 1.42 mg/mL and 2.66 mg/mL, respectively. Among water extracts the HMW fraction was most bioactive against α-glucosidase (IC50=8.97 µg/mL followed by HBBT fraction (IC50=14.83 µg/mL. However the HBBT fraction was the most bioactive fraction against α-amylase (IC50=0.049 mg/mL. The black tea pomace (AOBT had significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=14.72 µg/mL but lower α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.21 mg/mL. The phenolic profiles for LMW and HMW fractions were evaluated using HPLC and the differences between the two profiles were identified. Further research is underway to identify and evaluate the phenolic compounds that are present in the HMW fraction. Our findings suggest that black tea and black tea pomace has potential for carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition and this activity depends on high molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  20. Effect of Black Tea and Black Tea Pomace Polyphenols on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibition, Relevant to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, Lisa; Kang, Bouhee; Pilkenton, Sarah J; Rychlik, Michael; Apostolidis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT) and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT) were 5.77 and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was subjected to C18 extraction and the resulting hydrophobic fraction (HBBT) was further subjected to LH-20 extraction to recover a low molecular weight phenolic enriched fraction (LMW) and a high molecular weight enriched fraction (HMW). The phenolic content of the LMW and HMW fraction were 1.42 and 2.66 mg/mL, respectively. Among water extracts the HMW fraction was most bioactive against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 8.97 μg/mL) followed by HBBT fraction (IC50 = 14.83 μg/mL). However, the HBBT fraction was the most bioactive fraction against α-amylase (IC50 = 0.049 mg/mL). The black tea pomace (AOBT) had significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 14.72 μg/mL) but lower α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.21 mg/mL). The phenolic profiles for LMW and HMW fractions were evaluated using HPLC and the differences between the two profiles were identified. Further research is underway to identify and evaluate the phenolic compounds that are present in the HMW fraction. Our findings suggest that black tea and black tea pomace has potential for carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition and this activity depends on high molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  1. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage’s antiradical capacity and sensory value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer contain- ing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are poly- phenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. Material and methods. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. Results. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Conclusions. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components’ biological activity.

  2. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  3. 茶渣单宁含量对绵羊养分消化利用与氮代谢参数的影响%Effects of Tannin Content in Residue of Tea-leaves on Digestion and Utilization of Nutrients and Metabolic Parameters of Nitrogen in Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘发明; 李发弟; 郝正里; 郑琛; 董淑慧

    2012-01-01

    消化道消化率,且通过减少尿N排出而提高了氮存留率;但高比例RTL-CT降低了绵羊采食量.显然,RTL-CT l.53 g·kg-1DM对饲粮蛋白质的保护效果较好,且对采食量无显著影响.%The present experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tannin content in residue of tea-leaves(RTL) on digestion and utilization of nutrients and metabolic parameters of nitrogen in sheep. The contents of nutrients and tannin in RTL were analysed; The in vitro de-gradability(rdDM,tdDM,rdCP.tdCP) of dry matter(DM) and crude protein(CP) of mixtures with six ratio of RTL to soybean meaKO: 10, 1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 10:0 ), which levels of RTLcondensed tannin( RTL-CT) of the mixtures were 0. 00, 0.16, 0. 31, 0. 47, 0. 63, 1. 57 g ? Kg" ' DM, respectively, was measured by incubating in rumen fluid and rumen fluid + HCl-pepsin. To study the effects of RTL-CT contents on digestion and utilization of nutrients and metabolic profiles of nitrogen in sheep, four High Mountain Fine-wool wethers (one and a half years old and average live weight of (29 ±2. 55) kg) fitted with permanent rumen fistula and a 4X4 Latin square design with four cycles of diet each of 9 d for preliminary followed 6 d for sampling were used in this experiment. The contents of RTL-CT in diets were 0. 00(A) , 0. 77(B), 1. 53(C), 2. 30(D)g ? Kg "'DM . The results showed that: (1) the range of contents of CP, crude fiber (CF), TAE(tannic acid equivalent) and CT in three samples of TRL were 23. 23%-28. 11%, 16. 68%-17. 84%, 1.98%-2. 10%, 1.47%-1. 57%, respectively. (2) The degradabilities of DM and CP of the mixtures in rumen fluid and rumen fluid + HCl-pepsin (rdDM, tdDM, rdCP, td-CP) decreased linearly as the contents of RTL-CT , the range of change were 61. 39%-25. 67%, 79. 61%-26.47%, 60. 76%-16. 68%, 84. 85%-17. 69%, respectively. (3) In vivo, the intake of diet was affected by high-raito of RTL, compared with diet A and B, the intakes of DM and organic matter (OM) of diet C (P>0. 05

  4. Exposure of a Dengue Vector to Tea and Its Waste: Survival, Developmental Consequences, and Significance for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Tan Yusop, Nur Syafiqah Bt; Kamal, Nurafidah Natasyah Bt; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Ghani, Idris Abd; Abang, Fatimah; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Morales, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Hipolito, Cirilo N; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2016-05-11

    Dengue mosquitoes are evolving into a broader global public health menace, with relentless outbreaks and the rise in number of Zika virus disease cases as reminders of the continued hazard associated with Aedes vectors. The use of chemical insecticides-the principal strategy against mosquito vectors-has been greatly impeded due to the development of insecticide resistance and the shrinking spectrum of effective agents. Therefore, there is a pressing need for new chemistries for vector control. Tea contains hundreds of chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing global environmental problem, is almost as rich in toxicants as green leaves. This paper presents the toxic and sublethal effects of different crude extracts of tea on Aedes albopictus. The survival rates of larvae exposed to tea extracts, especially fresh tea extract (FTE), were markedly lower than those in the control treatment group. In addition to this immediate toxicity against different developmental stages, the extracts tested caused a broad range of sublethal effects. The developmental time was clearly longer in containers with tea, especially in those with young larvae (YL) and FTE. Among the survivors, pupation success was reduced in containers with tea, which also produced low adult emergence rates with increasing tea concentration. The production of eggs tended to be reduced in females derived from the tea treatment groups. These indirect effects of tea extracts on Ae. albopictus exhibited different patterns according to the exposed larval stage. Taken together, these findings indicate that tea and its waste affect most key components of Ae. albopictus vectorial capacity and may be useful for dengue control. Reusing tea waste in vector control could also be a practical solution to the problems associated with its pollution.

  5. Coffee, tea and melanoma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumpt......In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea...... consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected...... at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were...

  6. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  7. The Profound and Extensive Chinese Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航

    2014-01-01

    Anyone who knows a little bit about Chinese culture usualy knows about Chinese tea culture.Chinese tea culture has a history of more than 4,000 years and stil emerges fresh and vigorous from the test of history. Chinese tea culture has played an important and indispensable role in Chinese culture. The extensiveness and profoundness of Chinese tea culture is unpaneled. Its importance to Chinese people is noticeable. Tea has surprising functions: it can not only refresh the body but also the mind. Tea is prevalent in and out of China and is loved by people throughout the world.

  8. WEED INFESTATION IN DIFFERENT FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of ecological and conventional farming systems on weed seedbank and actual weed infestation of winter wheat at agricultural farms Sebechleby, Plavé Vozokany and Dačov Lom. Significant differences between systems were determined only at the co-operative Sebechleby where the higher weed seedbank was in ecological system. Higher number of determined weed species in weed seedstock was in ecological system at Plavé Vozokany and Sebechleby. Dominant weed species in both systems were Chenopodium album L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Higher degree of actual weed infestation was determined in ecological system. Characteristics of systems was the occurrence of perennial species Cirsium arvense and non detection of Amaranthus retroflexus L., weed that had very high weed seedbank in soil.

  9. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan MW

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Waqas Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri Section of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emergency Medicine and Trauma Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. Keywords: partial intestinal obstruction, gastro-intestinal helminthic infection, pediatric

  10. Preparation of partially decaffeinated instant green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Jin, Jing; Liang, Hue-Ling; Du, Ying-Ying; Lu, Jian-Liang; Ye, Qian; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-02

    The caffeine level of instant tea extracted from decaffeinated leaf tea with 4.0 mg g-1 caffeine is commonly above 10.0 mg g-1, the maximum limit of caffeine for decaffeinated instant tea. Further removal of caffeine by active carbon (AC) from the green tea extract was investigated. It showed that the removal of caffeine from the tea extract solutions depended on the treatment time and tea extract concentration while the ethanol concentration and pH had little effect on the removal of caffeine. According to the removal of caffeine and the ratio of total catechins to caffeine in the tested samples, the optimum decaffeination conditions were determined to be as follows: tea extract concentration 15-30 g L-1 for common tea extract but higher for partially decaffeinated tea leaf extract; ratio of tea solution to AC, 100 mL:4 g; treatment time, 4 h; and natural tea extract pH. Instant tea powder extracted from partially decaffeinated leaf tea with a caffeine level of 4.03 mg g-1 and further decaffeinated by AC had a caffeine level of 7.81 mg g-1, which was 31% lower than that without AC treatment.

  11. Botfly infestation (myiasis) masquerading as furunculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtzman, A; Rabinovitz, H

    1999-02-01

    With air travel so prevalent, diseases endemic to certain regions may appear anywhere. The botfly (Dermatobia hominis) is not native to North America. We describe a case of a young boy and his father who presented with furunculosis secondary to infestation with the botfly. The infected patients live in South Florida and had been vacationing in Central America. Standard surgical treatment as well as multiple native remedies are described.

  12. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  13. Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Delli Pizzi, Patricia; Di Giulio, Mara; Grande, Rossella; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-11-01

    Head lice infestation is an emerging social problem in undeveloped and developed countries. Because of louse resistance increasing, several long-used insecticidal compounds have lost their efficacy, and alternatives, such as essential oils, have been proposed to treat this parasitic infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of two natural substances: tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) against lice and its eggs. Products were used alone and in combination (ratio 1:1 and 1:2) from 8 % dilution. The in vitro effect of natural substances at different concentrations were evaluated against 69 head lice (adults and nymphs) and 187 louse eggs collected from school children in Chieti-Pescara (Central Italy) over a 6-month period. The lice mortality was evaluated for 24 h by a stereo light microscope. The ovicidal activity was monitored by microscopic inspections for 15 days. Tea tree oil was more effective than nerolidol against head lice with 100 % mortality at 30 min and 1 % concentration. On the contrary, nerolidol expressed a more pronounced ovicidal activity inducing the failure of 50 % of the eggs to hatch at 1 % concentration after 4 days; the same effect was achieved by using a twice concentration of tea tree oil. The association of the two substances both in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 combined efficaciously their insecticidal and ovicidal effect; in particular, the ratio 1:2 (tea tree oil 0.5 % plus nerolidol 1 %) acted producing both the death of all head lice at 30 min and the abortive effect of louse eggs after 5 days. These results offer new potential application of natural compounds and display a promising scenario in the treatment of pediculosis resistant cases. The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation.

  14. Yield and quality responses of citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to compound fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SHI Xue-gen; WEI You-zhang; YANG Xiao-e; UOTI Juhani

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with citrus (Citrus reticulate) and tea (Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel.) to studythe effects of compound fertilizers on their yieldsand quality. In the citrus experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P,K and Mg contents in soil but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N contents in soil and N, P and K contents in leaves. In the tea experiment, application of compound fertilizers increased available P, K and Mg contents in soil and N, P, K and Mg contents in leaves but decreased alkali-hydrolyzable N in soil compared with the urea treatment. Application of compound fertilizers could improve the quality of citrus and tea, increase their yields and enhance their economical profits significantly. Compared with the control, application of compound fertilizers increased citrus yields by 6.31, 12.94 and 17.69 t/ha, and those of tea by 0.51, 0.86 and 1.30 t/ha, respectively. Correspondingly, profits were increased by 21.4% to 61.1% for citrus and by 10.0% to 15.7% for tea.Optimal rates of compound fertilizers were recommended for both crops.

  15. Flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity: comparison between commercial green tea preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Harumi Kodama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential health benefits attributed to green tea and its catechins such as antioxidant effects, cancer chemoprevention, and weight loss have led to a huge increase of green tea products in the food market. The objectives of this work were to analyze and compare these products in terms of phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant capacity including tea bags, dehydrated leaves, and ready-to-drink preparations after standardization of the infusion preparation procedure. Total phenolics content in 1 cup of the different teas varied from 90 to 341 mg of catechin equivalents, and the highest and the lowest values were both those of the ready-to-drink products. Infusions prepared from tea bags had contents varying from 96 to 201 mg.200 mL-1, and there were no significant differences among batches. The DPPH radical scavenging and the Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacities (ORAC varied largely among the different tea preparations, from 23 to 131 mmoles of Trolox Equivalents (TE.200 mL-1 (DPPH, and from 1.2 to 5.1 mmoles of TE.200 mL-1 (ORAC, but again there were no differences among infusions or ready-to-drink commercial preparations. However, the antioxidant capacity of ready-to-drink products was partially due to the presence of other non-phenolic compounds such as ascorbic acid

  16. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá, made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research.

  17. Monitoring of essential and heavy metals in green tea from different geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Grembecka, Małgorzata; Szefer, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The present study measured the concentrations of toxic metals (Cd, Pb) and other elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni) in tea leaves and their infusions. The total metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Phosphorus concentration was determined using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Assessment of the mineral composition enabled determination of the leaching percentage and the risk of exceeding provisional tolerable weekly intake for Cd through daily tea consumption. The concentrations of bioelements were analyzed based on the recommended daily intake values for each. According to recently established standards, green tea was found to be a rich source of Mn. The average Pb and Cd levels in a 200-mL beverage were 0.002 and 0.003 mg, respectively. Indian teas had the highest percentage of Cd leaching (43.8%) and Chinese tea had the lowest (9.41%). Multivariate analysis techniques such as factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to differentiate samples according to geographical origin (China, India, or Japan). Potassium, P, Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, and Cd were effective descriptors for the identification of tea samples from China, India, and Japan.

  18. Development of CAPS markers to identify Indian tea (Camellia sinensis) clones with high catechin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangbam, M; Misra, A K

    2016-06-10

    Tea leaves are rich in plant secondary phenolics, especially flavonoids. Catechins are considered to be the most valuable flavonoids, and the catechin content in tea is an important trait for determining its quality. We have developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS)-based markers for evaluating total catechin content that target two important secondary metabolite pathway genes, PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and CHS (chalcone synthase). Catechin content levels in the tea samples tested ranged from 9 to 33 mg/mg. The CAPS technique identified clones with the homozygous profile PRc1, which has relatively lower catechin content than clones with the heterozygous profile PRc2. A significant difference (t = 16.85) in the level of catechin content was also detected between heterozygotes and homozygotes in the tea seed stock TS379. We found a polynomial relationship between the marker developed for CHS2 and catechin content in these tea samples with R2 = 0.9788. Moreover, PAL has less of a relationship with catechin content. Therefore, we recommend tea clones with heterozygous CAPS profiles for the gene CHS2+RcaI for the further improvement in these clones.

  19. Use of Temperature and Humidity Sensors to Determine Moisture Content of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of tea moisture content is important for processing and storing tea. The moisture content of tea affects the quality and durability of the product. Some electrical devices have been proposed to measure the moisture content of tea leaves but are not practical. Their performance is influenced by material density and packing. The official oven method is time-consuming. In this study, the moisture content of Oolong tea was measured by the equilibrium relative humidity technique. The equilibrium relative humidity, and temperature, of tea materials were measured by using temperature and relative humidity sensors. Sensors were calibrated, and calibration equations were established to improve accuracy. The moisture content was calculated by using an equilibrium moisture content model. The error of the moisture content determined with this method was within 0.5% w.b. at moisture <15% w.b. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the performance of the humidity sensor had a significant effect on the accuracy of moisture determination.

  20. Relationship between nutritional composition of plant species and infestation levels of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Simmonds, Monique S J; Blaney, Walter M

    2002-12-01

    Levels of soluble protein and carbohydrate (raffinose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose) in leaves from a selection of plant species were measured to determine if a relationship existed between these nutrients and infestation by Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis. Most species of host plant examined contained a higher proportion of protein than carbohydrates, and overall, leaves from species of plants that supported populations of thrips had greater levels of protein than leaves from nonhost species. New leaves and flowers that supported F. occidentalis contained high levels of carbohydrate and protein. The quantity of protein in leaves at the top of the tree, Peumus boldus, was greater than in leaves from lower levels, and the amount of feeding damage accrued by H. haemorrhoidalis was greater on the upper foliage than lower foliage. Oviposition by H. haenmorrhoidalis was positively correlated to levels of protein in host plants but not to levels of carbohydrates. Overall, levels of soluble protein in plants influenced their susceptibility to thrips more than levels of carbohydrates.

  1. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  2. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits.

  3. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  4. Tea - a Chineseway of life and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Tea, along with porcelain and silk, has long been one of China’s most significant exports.ln the 6th century, a Buddhist monk introduced tea to Japan and a Portuguese missionary to Europe in the 16th century. In this way, tea became an international beverage. From ancient times to today, tea has been a necessity of the ordinary life of anyone Chinese.

  5. Green Tea and Its Antioxidant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Jason

    1999-01-01

    Green tea contains antioxidants which have been implicated to contribute to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. This may be explained in part by the green tea's antioxidant properties. Green tea is a rich source of flavonoids with high antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo. This includes the ability of green tea to lower the oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. In vivo lipid oxidation as measure by plasma lipid peroxides and LDL oxidizability are significantly...

  6. Prospect of Tea Cultivation & Processing in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HistoryIn 1958, a farmer brought some tea seeds and plants from Bangladesh (then east Pakistan), and successfully cultivated them in district Mansehra. At that time, Pakistan was self-sufficient in tea that was produced in East Pakistan. After the separation (in 1971) of East Pakistan, Pakistan diverted attention to initial work on tea production. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) took over the charge of tea cultivation in 1976-77 and launched a project in 1980.

  7. Influence of Tea Catechins on Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Ikuo

    2006-01-01

    Tea catechins reduce serum cholesterol concentration and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in experimental animals and humans. These effects are mainly ascribed to gallate esters of catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). During heat treatment for pasteurization, tea catechins are epimerized to so-called heat-treated tea catechins such as (-)-catechin gallate (CG) and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). We showed that both tea catechins and ...

  8. Occurrence and de novo biosynthesis of caffeine and theanine in seedlings of tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine) and theanine (γ-glutamyl-L-ethylamide) are the major nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites in tea leaves. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the relative concentration and amounts of these compounds and the de novo biosynthetic activity in different parts of tea seedlings grown for 27-, 106- and 205 days. The results indicated that caffeine and its biosynthetic activity occur only in leaves and stems, while theanine is distributed in all organs, including roots. The concentration of caffeine and theanine in leaves ranged from 0.3-1.1 mg N/g and 0.1-0.5 mg N/g fresh weight, respectively. A higher concentration of theanine was found in roots (0.5-1.1 mg N). The total amounts of theanine expressed as g N/seedling were 1.1-1.5 times higher than that of caffeine. The high biosynthetic activity of caffeine from NH4+ was found in young leaves during the first 106 days after germination. Theanine biosynthetic activity probably occurs in roots, since higher 15N atom% excess was observed in roots during the first 27 days. Theanine may be synthesized mainly in roots and translocated to leaves. The de novo biosynthesis of caffeine and theanine in tea seedlings and their accumulation and translocation are discussed.

  9. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  10. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of

  11. Control of fluidized bed tea drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tea is a product made from the leaf of the tea bush by several processes, including drying. The drying stage is the most energy intensive, and has tight performance criteria. This project investigated the options for the control of a fluidized bed tea dryer. The work included establishing some of th

  12. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  13. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of c

  14. Thermal Degradation of Flavonol Glycosides in Noni Leaves During Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Noni leaves have been used for a variety of health benefits for thousands of years. Noni leaf tea, a commercial product made by a roasting process, is attracting more attention due to its potential health benefits. Flavonoids appear to be some of the predominant constituents in noni leaves. As flavonoids exist mostly in the forms of glycosides or polymers, degradation to corresponding metabolites is usually needed for bio-absorption. This study investigates the effects of thermal treatment (non-aqueous roasting on flavonoids in noni leaves. Rutin and kaempferol glycoside contents decreased dramatically as roasting time and/or temperature increased, while quercetin and kaempferol aglycones were produced. A quantitative comparison demonstrated that quercetin and kaempferol concentrations were 3.74 and 6.28 times greater in noni leaf tea than in raw noni leaves, respectively. These findings indicate that the roasting process for the noni leaf tea could induce the degradation of flavonol glycosides, and produce their aglycone metabolites, which in turn, may lead to more beneficial bioactivities and bioavailability.

  15. Do leaf surface characteristics affect Agrobacterium infection in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze]?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitish Kumar; Subedar Pandey; Amita Bhattacharya; Paramvir Singh Ahuja

    2004-09-01

    The host range specificity of Agrobacterium with five tea cultivars and an unrelated species (Artemisia parviflora) having extreme surface characteristics was evaluated in the present study. The degree of Agrobacterium infection in the five cultivars of tea was affected by leaf wetness, micro-morphology and surface chemistry. Wettable leaf surfaces of TV1, Upasi-9 and Kangra jat showed higher rate (75%) of Agrobacterium infection compared to Upasi-10 and ST-449, whereas non-wettable leaves of A. parviflora showed minimum (25%) infection. This indicated that the leaves with glabrous surface having lower (larger surface area covered by water droplet), higher phenol and wax content were more suitable for Agrobacterium infection. Caffeine fraction of tea promoted Agrobacterium infection even in leaves poor in wax (Upasi-10), whereas caffeine-free wax inhibited both Agrobacterium growth and infection. Thus, study suggests the importance of leaf surface features in influencing the Agrobacterium infection in tea leaf explants. Our study also provides a basis for the screening of a clone/cultivar of a particular species most suitable for Agrobacterium infection the first step in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

  16. Understanding cross-communication between aboveground and belowground tissues via transcriptome analysis of a sucking insect whitefly-infested pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2014-01-03

    Plants have developed defensive machinery to protect themselves against herbivore and pathogen attacks. We previously reported that aboveground whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestation elicited induced resistance in leaves and roots and influenced the modification of the rhizosphere microflora. In this study, to obtain molecular evidence supporting these plant fitness strategies against whitefly infestation, we performed a 300 K pepper microarray analysis using leaf and root tissues of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) applied with whitefly, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), and the combination of BTH+whitefly. We defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as genes exhibiting more than 2-fold change (1.0 based on log2 values) in expression in leaves and roots in response to each treatment compared to the control. We identified a total of 16,188 DEGs in leaves and roots. Of these, 6685, 6752, and 4045 DEGs from leaf tissue and 6768, 7705, and 7667 DEGs from root tissue were identified in the BTH, BTH+whitefly, and whitefly treatment groups, respectively. The total number of DEGs was approximately two-times higher in roots than in whitefly-infested leaves subjected to whitefly infestation. Among DEGs, whitefly feeding induced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways in leaves and roots. Several transporters and auxin-responsive genes were upregulated in roots, which can explain why biomass increase is facilitated. Using transcriptome analysis, our study provides new insights into the molecular basis of whitefly-mediated intercommunication between aboveground and belowground plant tissues and provides molecular evidence that may explain the alteration of rhizosphere microflora and root biomass by whitefly infestation.

  17. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Manuel Lorenzo; Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food.In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food applications.

  18. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  19. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  20. RESEARCH AND INFESTATION OF CASES OF DENGUE IN RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Silva Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate to the infestation of Aedes aegypti and dengue cases that occurred in the rural communities covered by the municipality of Assis Chateaubriand – PR. The survey was conducted during 2009, divided into two stages, to survey the infestation was used to house infestation (IIP. Five communities were considered positive when the presence of Aedes aegypti infestation levels of communities was higher Charmed the West, Newfoundland, Nice. These data showed that higher rates will be higher infestation rate risk of people being affected by the mosquito. Dengue cases occurred more frequently in communities that had high rates of infestation. The population through prevention and awareness is one way to prevent the spread of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in rural communities.

  1. Tea tree oil as a novel antipsoriasis weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a clinical skin disease that is characterized by erythematous scaling plaques and involves the extensor site of the extremities, the scalp and other surfaces of the skin. Tea tree oil (TTO) is considered an essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of the leaves and terminal branchlets of Melaleuca alternifolia. Notably,terpinen-4-ol, the major TTO constituent, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. It is suggested that terpinen-4-ol may be a novel potential agent against psoriasis. This article draws attention to the antipsoriatic effect of TTO and provides a theoretical molecular approach.

  2. Just a Tea Stall Girl: Lessons from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the learning of a female academic who travelled and volunteered in southern India during a sabbatical leave from her university. Opportunities to discover gender, race and class connections ranged from tea-stall conversations to academic symposia; from outings with impoverished Indian families to excursions with social justice organizations. The author explores topics that include dowry, politics, globalization, communalism, and poverty. To illustrate her learning, she draws on the work of such renowned Indian scholars as Ali Ashgar Engineer and Vandana Shiva.

  3. Palms (Phoenix canariensis infested by red PALM weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier: insecticidal efficacy tests of chipping treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sperandio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The provision n° A6505/29-11-2010 of the Lazio Region Agricultural Department states that the plant material resulting from the felling of palms infested by RPW (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier must be disinfested by heat treatment or fine mechanical chipping, ensuring that the resulting materials obtained are of a size smaller than 2 cm. This paper describes changes made on one machine chipper FARMI mod. FOREST CH260 for use in the cutting of trees and palm leaves in accordance with the above mentioned provision. The analyzes carried out on the plant material shredded, according to methodology UNI CEN/TS 15149-1 - 2006, show that 94,78% of the fragments is smaller than 16 mm and a water content of 52.5%. In all fragments of the material shredded at least one of the three dimensions was less than 2 cm. A mix of chipped stipes and leaves of palm tree was tested at ENEA facilities to evaluate the ability of RPW larvae to feed and survive on this substrate. Ten plastic containers (130 liters were filled up with 26 kg each of chipped matter and infested with larvae grouped by weight into 3 classes ranged from < 0.15 g, 0.15 -;- 0.35 g and > 0.35 g till 2 cm (3 containers for each class and 1 as control; 30 larvae for each container. Containers, covered with a metallic net, were kept in an isolated chamber, controlling temperature in order to maintain the substrate around 30°C. The substrate was inspected at 45 dd after infestation. No survival was recorded on the larvae, indicating that chipping technique could be a suitable method to destroy infested palm avoiding potential risks of re-infestation from the disposal sites.

  4. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  5. Green tea and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  6. Contrastive analysis of quality between low-fluoride brick-tea and traditional brick-tea%低氟砖茶与传统砖茶品质的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春雷; 罗学平; 魏晓慧; 李建华; 杜晓

    2013-01-01

    为满足国家标准规定砖茶允许含氟量≤300mg/kg的要求,选用一芽四五叶原料生产低氟砖茶(氟含量285mg/kg),以传统砖茶(氟含量850mg/kg)为对照,分别进行了感官品质、主要成分及儿茶素和氨基酸组分比较分析.结果表明:低氟砖茶感官品质优于传统砖茶;低氟砖茶主要成分水浸出物、茶多酚、可溶性糖、咖啡碱、茶黄素、茶红素、茶褐素比传统砖茶增加了48.33%、79.22%、44.44%、89.55%、42.86%、26.28%、42.96%;氨基酸组分除甲硫氨酸和脯氨酸外,其他氨基酸高于传统砖茶,儿茶素组分除L-CG外,其他儿茶素含量高于传统砖茶.结果显示通过提高原料嫩度生产低氟砖茶是可行的.%To make fluoride content of brick tea below 300mg/kg,one bud and four or five leaves as raw material were produced low-fluoride brick-tea which of fluoride content was 285 mg/kg. Then sensory quality, main chemical contents, catechin and amino acid between the low-fluoride brick-tea and traditional brick-tea (with 850mg/kg fluoride content) were compared.Results showed that sensory quality of low-fluoride brick-tea was better than traditional brick-tea's.Water extracts,tea polyphenols,water-soluble sugar,caffeine,TF,TR and TB of low-fluoride brick-tea also were higher than traditional brick-tea' s.Content and constituent of amino acids in low fluoride brick tea higher than traditional brick-tea,besides Met and Pro.Content and constituent of catechins in low fluoride brick tea higher than traditional brick-tea's,except L-CG.These suggested raising tenderness of material could produce low-fluoride brick-tea.

  7. Pharmacokinetic and Chemoprevention Studies on Tea in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, H-H Sherry; Hakim, Iman A

    2011-01-01

    Green tea and its major polyphenols constituents, tea catechins, have been shown to have many health benefits including cancer prevention. Tea catechins and tea catechin metabolites/catabolites are bioavailable in the systemic circulation after oral intake of green tea or green tea catechins. The metabolites/catabolites identified in humans include glucuronide/sulfate conjugates, methylated tea catechin conjugates, and microflora-mediated ring fission products and phenolic acid catabolites. P...

  8. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  9. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  10. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  11. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  12. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  13. Green tea catechins for well-being and therapy: prospects and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Noriyuki Miyoshi,1 Monira Pervin,1 Takuji Suzuki,2 Keiko Unno,3 Mamoru Isemura,1 Yoriyuki Nakamura1 1School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Faculty of Education, Art and Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan; 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Tea is derived from the leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae plant, and is consumed worldwide. Green tea was discovered in the People's Republic of China approximately 3,000 BC. Lu Yu (733–803 published a book that describes the history of tea, the techniques, and utensils used for manufacturing, the method of preparation, and drinking of tea in the People's Republic of China. Green tea contains various components with specific health-promoting effects and is believed to exert protective effects against diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, hepatitis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Of the various tea components, the polyphenol catechins have been the subject of extensive investigation. Among the catechins, (--epigallocatechin gallate has the strongest bioactivity in most cases. Caffeine induces alertness, decreases the sensation of fatigue, and has a diuretic effect. Theanine and -aminobutyric acid can lower the blood pressure and regulate brain function. Vitamin C exhibits antiscorbutic activity, prevents cataracts, and may boost the immune system. Majority of the scientific evidence based on cellular and animal experiments as well as a number of human epidemiological and intervention studies indicate that green tea and (--epigallocatechin gallate have beneficial health effects against various diseases. However, conflicting results have also been reported. Since confounding factors could affect the results, future studies should be designed to eliminate such factors for better understanding of the benefits of green tea on human health. Genetic and environmental factors

  14. Utility and Value of Satellite-Based Frost Forecasting for Kenya's Tea Farming Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, I.

    2016-12-01

    Frost damage regularly inflicts millions of dollars of crop losses in the tea-growing highlands of western Kenya, a problem that the USAID/NASA Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR) program is working to mitigate through a frost monitoring and forecasting product that uses satellite-based temperature and soil moisture data to generate up to three days of advanced warning before frost events. This paper presents the findings of a value of information (VOI) study assessing the value of this product based on Kenyan tea farmers' experiences with frost and frost-damage mitigation. Value was calculated based on historic trends of frost frequency, severity, and extent; likelihood of warning receipt and response; and subsequent frost-related crop-loss aversion. Quantification of these factors was derived through inferential analysis of survey data from 400 tea-farming households across the tea-growing regions of Kericho and Nandi, supplemented with key informant interviews with decision-makers at large estate tea plantations, historical frost incident and crop-loss data from estate tea plantations and agricultural insurance companies, and publicly available demographic and economic data. At this time, the product provides a forecasting window of up to three days, and no other frost-prediction methods are used by the large or small-scale farmers of Kenya's tea sector. This represents a significant opportunity for preemptive loss-reduction via Earth observation data. However, the tea-growing community has only two realistic options for frost-damage mitigation: preemptive harvest of available tea leaves to minimize losses, or skiving (light pruning) to facilitate fast recovery from frost damage. Both options are labor-intensive and require a minimum of three days of warning to be viable. As a result, the frost forecasting system has a very narrow margin of usefulness, making its value highly dependent on rapid access to the warning messages and flexible access

  15. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-12-29

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies) and tea, type not specified (two studies). Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  16. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  17. Identification of Traditional She Medicine Shi-Liang Tea Species and Closely Related Species Using the ITS2 Barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangjiao Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional She medicine is part of China’s cultural heritage and has become remarkably popular worldwide. The Shi-Liang tea is made from the processed leaves of Chimonanthus salicifolius S. Y. Hu and Chimonanthus zhejiangensis M. C. Liu. To ensure the safety and efficacy of Shi-Liang tea, we used DNA barcoding based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA to distinguish the original plant sources of Shi-Liang tea from closely related species. All 71 ITS2 sequences were aligned by Clustal-W, and genetic distances were computed using MEGA 6.0 according to the Kimura 2-parameter model. The results indicated that the sequence lengths of ITS2 regions of the original plants of Shi-Liang tea and closely related species ranged from 256 bp to 260 bp. Interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.078. The neighbor-joining (NJ tree showed that the original plants of Shi-Liang tea species can be easily differentiated from closely related species. Distinct molecular differences were found between the secondary structures of ITS2 sequences from Shi-Liang tea and closely related species. The results in the present investigation suggested that the ITS2 could be an effective DNA marker to identify the original plants of Shi-Liang tea and their closely related species. These DNA barcodes can greatly benefit the supervision of the commercial circulation of She medicine.

  18. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Unno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT, on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day, which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA, a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL. Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  19. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  20. Some Biogeochemical Characteristics of Tea Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAOJU; HUXUEFENG; 等

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the element abundance,material cycling,element budment budgent in tea soils were disucssed base on investigations of six tea plantations and the adjacent wast lnads in the Three Gorges region .The plantations have different soil-forming Parent materials,but similar landfomrs,and the same tea variety and colse ages.The rsults showed that tea growing could incereased the contents of organic matter,total and available N,P,Al and Mn;the elements enriched by tea trees were in the follwoing descending sequence: P>Ca>K>Mn>Mg>Zn>Al>Fe;elements returned throuhg litter of tea were in the sequence of Ca>Mn>P>Zn>Mg>K>Al>Fe;in the nutrient budget of the soil-tea system ,P and K were in deficit, whereas Al,Fe and Mn in surplus.

  1. 5 CFR 630.503 - Leave from former leave systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leave from former leave systems. 630.503... AND LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.503 Leave from former leave systems. An employee who earned leave under the leave acts of 1936 or any other leave system merged under subchapter I of chapter 63 of...

  2. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.

  3. Inhibition of free radical induced oxidative hemolysis of red blood cells by green tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The in vitro oxidative hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBC) was used as a model to study the free radical induced damage of biological membranes and the inhibitory effect of natural antioxidants. The hemolysis was induced by a water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2′-azo(2- asmidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) and inhibited by the principal polyphenolic components extracted from green tea leaves, i.e. (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicat- echin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gallic acid (GA). Addition of AAPH at 37°C caused fast hemolysis after a short period of inhibition period, while addition of the green tea polyphenols efficiently suppressed the hemolysis in the activity sequence of EGCG>EGC>ECG≈EC>GA, demonstrating that these green tea polyphenols are effective antioxidants which could protect biological membranes from free radical induced oxidative damage.

  4. Evaluation of inorganic elements in cat's claw teas using ICP OES and GF AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João B; Dantas, Kelly G F

    2016-04-01

    The determination of Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), and Se by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS), has been carried out in dry matter and teas from 11 samples of the cat's claw plant. The accuracy and precision values were verified against GBW 07604 (Poplar leaves) certified reference material and by the recovery test. Results showed a high content of Ca in the medicinal plant studied, followed by Mg and P. The values obtained showed that the elements studied have different concentrations depending on the method of tea preparation. The highest levels were observed in Ca and Mg, and the lowest for Se and Pb, by both infusion and decoction. Teas prepared from this plant were found to be at safe levels for human consumption, and may be suitable as sources of these elements in the human diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening of Adoptive Elite Tea (Camellia sinensis) Clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Razaq; Hasnain Alam; Muhammad Ishfaq; Salahuddin

    2015-01-01

    The research screening of adoptive elite tea clones was conducted at NTRI, Mansehra during 2011-2012. Nine clones 101Aa, 105aa, 108aa, 561aa, 117aa, 219ab, 470bb and 180bd were evaluated for seedling performance. Randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data was recorded on various morphological characters after 8 months. The results showed that high survival percentage, shoot length, number of roots plant-1, number of leaves plant-1 and root length were observed in clone 105aa. While the highest fresh weight and dry weight of leaves were observed in clones 117aa and 105aa. The clone 105aa was drought resistant, high survival percentage and root growth. On the basis of the results, clone 105aa was recommended for cultivation through cuttings in the hilly areas of Pakistan where unequal rainfall distribution was a major hitch.

  6. Histochemical evaluation of catechins in PEG stressed transgenic tea plants using catechin-specific-diazotized sulfanilamide reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A; Sharma, M; Gulati, A; Joshi, R; Chanda, S K; Ahuja, P S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of catechin-specific-reagent (CSR) for histochemical evaluation of catechins. The diazotized arylamine moiety in CSR reacts specifically with the A-ring of catechins to yield a golden yellow complex. This makes it highly specific for spectrophotometric quantification of catechins. Therefore, microtome cut sections of untransformed and osmotin-expressing transgenic leaves and stem of tea were stained with CSR. We found catechins in the form of golden yellow globules. The catechin globules increased in the structurally intact and highly turgid cells of osmotin expressing transgenic tea plants after stress treatment with 20% PEG; by contrast, the cells in non-transgenic plants accumulated fewer catechin globules. Spectrophotometric quantification of catechins also confirmed higher levels in transgenics compared to untransformed plants. We found elevated accumulation of catechins in stress tolerant cells of tea leaves.

  7. 浅述云南磨锅绿茶加工技术%Analysis of Green Tea Processing Technology with Stir-pot Fixation in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维成

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan green tea on stir-pot fixation is made, base on traditional stir fixation technology of green tea and on special characteristics of broad-leaves. Through this specific processing technology, Yunnan green tea on stir-pot fixation obtained special qualities of the dry tea's bands tight knot, dark green color, the tea strips with cream-like cover, chestnut flavour, the bright green color of tea infusion, thick and strong fresh taste of tea infusion. This paper states that the picking requirements of tea leaves, the processing flow and the processing technology especially the key points of the technology. The aim is to improve the quality of Yunnan green tea on stir-pot fixation, and to promote the healthy and sustainable development of Yunnan green tea on stir-pot fixation industry.%云南磨锅绿茶是在传统炒青绿茶制作工艺基础上,依据大叶群体种鲜叶特性经生产总结定型生产的一种绿茶,经过特定的加工工艺,形成了云南磨锅绿茶特有的干茶条索紧结、色泽绿润、茶条附有茶霜、带板栗香及汤色绿亮、滋味浓强鲜的品质特征,通过对云南磨锅绿茶从鲜叶采摘要求、加工制作工艺和加工技术的浅述,阐明其工艺技术要点,提高云南磨锅绿茶品质,促进云南磨锅绿茶健康可持续发展。

  8. Delusional infestation: an Australian multicentre study of 23 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, M M A; Iredell, J R; Packham, D R; O'Sullivan, M V N; Hudson, B J

    2015-04-01

    Delusional infestation remains a debilitating condition that is therapeutically challenging for clinicians. This case series identifies 23 patients with delusional infestation in an Australian setting. The majority of patients are women and unlikely to have a psychiatric comorbid background. The use of unnecessary anti-parasitic medication is prevalent. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. intestinal helminthes infestation among pupils in rural and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different risk factors for geohelminth infestation, and that the rural areas are more likely to suffer more helminthic infections than ... Key words: intestinalhelmlllth, school children, mean egg load of helminthes. ..... determinants of infestation in both-rural and urban area include ... helminthic infection and malnutrition. Nigerian ...

  10. Ocular surface discomfort and Demodex: effect of tea tree oil eyelid scrub in Demodex blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms.

  11. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  12. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  13. Study Summaries on Quality Formation of White Tea%白茶品质形成研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华春

    2012-01-01

    The processing of white tea includes withering and drying, and the former is the key process for its quality formation. During withering for long time, the inclusions of tea leaves such as tea polyphenols, amino acid, soluble saceharide complicatedly changed, oxidative dimerizations of tea polyphenols help to form apricot-yellow tea liquor color and mellow sweet taste of White tea, amino acid transformed volatile aldehydes or other products during processing help to form fragrance of White tea, and colored complex formed by the combination of O-quinone from catechin with amino acid had a good effect on soup color of white tea, soluble saccharide was the important ingredients which constituted soup taste and viscosity of white tea.%白茶加工工序包括萎凋和干燥,其中萎凋是形成白茶品质的关键工序。鲜叶经过较长时间的萎凋,内含物发生了复杂的变化,包括多酚类、氨基酸、糖类等,多酚类氧化缩合产物形成了白茶特有的杏黄汤色和醇爽清甜的滋味。氨基酸在茶叶加工中转化成挥发性的醛或其他产物形成茶叶香气。萎凋中氨基酸与儿茶素的邻醌结合而成的有色化合物,对白茶汤色有着良好的影响。可溶性的糖是构成白茶荼汤滋味和粘稠度的重要物质。

  14. Characterizing the moisture content of tea with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using wavelet transform and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong; Qiu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yanchao

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the moisture content (MC) of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in the 325-1,075 nm range with a field portable spectroradiometer. Then wavelet transform (WT) and multivariate analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of the relationship between MC and spectral data. Three feature extraction methods including WT, principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) were used to explore the internal structure of spectral data. Comparison of those three methods indicated that the variables generated by WT could efficiently discover structural information of spectral data. Calibration involving seeking the relationship between MC and spectral data was executed by using regression analysis, including partial least squares regression, multiple linear regression and least square support vector machine. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between MC and spectral data (r = 0.991, RMSEP = 0.034). Moreover, the effective wavelengths for MC measurement were detected at range of 888-1,007 nm by wavelet transform. The results indicated that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tea is highly correlated with MC.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents in Green Tea with Different Plucking Periods and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plucking periods and the major constituents and the antioxidant activity in green tea. Green tea was prepared from leaves plucked from the end of April 2013 to the end of May 2013 at intervals of one week or longer. The contents of theanine, theobromine, caffeine, catechin (C, and gallocatechin gallate (GCg were significantly decreased, whereas those of epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg and epigallocatechin (EGC were significantly increased along with the period of tea leaf plucking. In addition, antioxidant activity of green tea and standard catechins was investigated using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH assays. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in relatively the oldest leaf, regardless of the assay methods used. Additionally, the order of antioxidant activity of standard catechins was as follows: EGCg ³ GCg ³ ECg > EGC ³ GC ³ EC ³ C. Moreover, the cis-catechins contents were the key factor affecting the antioxidant activity of green tea in all assays employed (ABTS, r = 0.731, p < 0.01; FRAP, r = 0.886, p < 0.01; DPPH, r = 0.778, p < 0.01.

  16. Characterizing the Moisture Content of Tea with Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Using Wavelet Transform and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the moisture content (MC of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in the 325–1,075 nm range with a field portable spectroradiometer. Then wavelet transform (WT and multivariate analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of the relationship between MC and spectral data. Three feature extraction methods including WT, principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA were used to explore the internal structure of spectral data. Comparison of those three methods indicated that the variables generated by WT could efficiently discover structural information of spectral data. Calibration involving seeking the relationship between MC and spectral data was executed by using regression analysis, including partial least squares regression, multiple linear regression and least square support vector machine. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between MC and spectral data (r = 0.991, RMSEP = 0.034. Moreover, the effective wavelengths for MC measurement were detected at range of 888–1,007 nm by wavelet transform. The results indicated that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tea is highly correlated with MC.

  17. [Absorption of Uranium with Tea Oil Tree Sawdust Modified by Succinic Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-feng; Chen, Di-yun; Peng, Yan; Liu, Yong-sheng; Xiong, Xue-ying

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore how the modification of succinic acid improves the adsorption of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium, the tea oil tree sawdust was modified by succinic acid, after the pretreatments of crushing, screening, alkalization and acidification. Infrared analysis indicated carboxylic acid groups and ester groups were added to the sawdust after modification, and scanning electron microscope demonstrated after modification the appearance of tea oil tree sawdust was transferred from the structure like compact and straight stripped into the structure like loose and wrinkled leaves, which meant modification increased its inner pores. By the static experiments, effects of reaction time between adsorbent and solvent, dosage of adsorbent, temperature, pH value and initial concentration of uranium were investigated. The results showed that after the modification by succinic acid, the absorption rate of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium increased significantly by about 20% in 12.5 mg · L(-1) initial concentration uranium solution. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 180 min, and the kinetic data can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. In addition, the maximum adsorption amounts of tea oil tree sawdust after modification calculated from Langmuir equation raised from 21.413 3 to 31.545 7 mg · g(-1) at 35°C and pH 4.0.

  18. Multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS for tea, herbal infusions and the derived drinkable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbaliu, Sofie; Wu, Aibo; Zhang, Dabing; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah

    2010-12-22

    In recent years the consumption of tea and herbal infusions has increased. These hot drinks are consumed as daily drinks as well as for medicinal purposes. All tea varieties (white, yellow, green, oolong, black and puerh) originate from the leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. All extracts made of plant or herbal materials which do not contain Camellia sinensis are referred as herbal infusions or tisanes. During processing and manufacturing fungal contamination of the plant materials is possible, enabling contamination of these products with mycotoxins. In this study a multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of the raw tea and herbal infusion materials as well as for their drinkable products. The samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), with a mobile phase consisting of variable mixtures of water and methanol with 0.3% formic acid. The limits of detection for the different mycotoxins varied between 2.1 μg/kg and 121 μg/kg for raw materials and between 0.4 μg/L and 46 μg/L for drinkable products. Afterward 91 different tea and herbal infusion samples were analyzed. Only in one sample, Ceylon melange, 76 μg/kg fumonisin B(1) was detected. No mycotoxins were detected in the drinkable products.

  19. Green tea, black tea and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Can-Lan; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C

    2006-01-01

    .... This meta-analysis included 13 papers which examined populations in eight countries and provided data on consumption of either green tea or black tea, or both in relation to breast cancer risk...

  20. Toxicity of green tea extracts and their constituents in rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Schmitz, H-J; Baumgart, A; Guédon, D; Netsch, M I; Kreuter, M-H; Schmidlin, C B; Schrenk, D

    2005-02-01

    Recent reports on sporadic cases of liver disorders (acute hepatitis, icterus, hepatocellular necrosis) after ingestion of dietary supplements based on hydro-alcoholic extracts from green tea leaves led to restrictions of the marketing of such products in certain countries of the EU. Since green tea is considered to exert a number of beneficial health effects, and, therefore, green tea products are widely used as dietary supplements, we were interested in the possible mechanism of hepatotoxicity of green tea extracts and in the components involved in such effects. Seven hours after seeding on collagen, rat hepatocytes in primary culture were treated with various hydro-alcoholic green tea extracts (two different native 80% ethanolic dry extracts and an 80% ethanolic dry extract cleared from lipophilic compounds). Cells were washed, and reduction of resazurin, used as a viability parameter monitoring intact mitochondrial function, was determined. It was found that all seven green tea extracts examined enhanced resazurin reduction significantly at a concentration range of 100-500 microg/ml medium, while a significant decrease was observed at 1-3mg/ml medium. Decreased levels were concomitant with abundant necrosis as observed by microscopic inspection of the cultures and with increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase activity from the cells. In a separate series of experiments, the green tea constituents (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, caffeine and theanine were tested at concentrations reflecting their levels in a typical green tea extract. Synthetic (+)-epigallocatechin (200 microM) was used for comparison. Cytotoxicity was found with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate only. The concomitant addition of 0.25 mM ascorbate/0.05 mM alpha-tocopherol had no influence on cytotoxicity. In conclusion, our results suggest that high concentrations of green tea extract can exert acute toxicity in rat liver cells. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate seems to be a key

  1. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Diane L; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2006-08-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) is one of the most widely consumed single ingredient herbal teas, or tisanes. Peppermint tea, brewed from the plant leaves, and the essential oil of peppermint are used in traditional medicines. Evidence-based research regarding the bioactivity of this herb is reviewed. The phenolic constituents of the leaves include rosmarinic acid and several flavonoids, primarily eriocitrin, luteolin and hesperidin. The main volatile components of the essential oil are menthol and menthone. In vitro, peppermint has significant antimicrobial and antiviral activities, strong antioxidant and antitumor actions, and some antiallergenic potential. Animal model studies demonstrate a relaxation effect on gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, analgesic and anesthetic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system, immunomodulating actions and chemopreventive potential. Human studies on the GI, respiratory tract and analgesic effects of peppermint oil and its constituents have been reported. Several clinical trials examining the effects of peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms have been conducted. However, human studies of peppermint leaf are limited and clinical trials of peppermint tea are absent. Adverse reactions to peppermint tea have not been reported, although caution has been urged for peppermint oil therapy in patients with GI reflux, hiatal hernia or kidney stones.

  2. Gamma ray irradiation to roots of tea-plants and induced mutant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yoshiyuki; Nekaku, Koji; Wada, Mitsumasa (National Research Inst. of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea, Ano, Mie (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    In order to utilize the useful mutation which is induced by irradiation for the breeding of tea-plants, the gamma-ray irradiation to the roots of tea-plants was carried out. The samples were the roots of tea-plants of four varieties dug up in February, 1984, and were adjusted to about 20 cm, then, put in the cold storage at 5degC for 9 months till the time of irradiation in November, 1984. However, a part of them was taken out in August, and planted in a field for 76 days to germinate, thereafter, used as the samples. The gamma-ray from a Co-60 source was irradiated in the radiation breeding laboratory of Agriculture Bioresources Research Institute at the total dose of 1, 2 and 3 kR and the dose rate of 500 R/h. The irradiated roots were planted as they are or in the state of being cut, and the rate of germination, the number of buds and the induced mutation were examined. Clear difference was not observed in the rate of germination and the number of buds between the irradiated samples and those without irradiation. The long roots were superior to the short roots regarding these items. The types of the induced mutation were mostly thin leaves, and also yellowing, mottling, fascination and so on occurred. The mutant system lacking trichomes on the back of new leaves is considered to be strong against tea anthracnose, and is valuable. (K.I.).

  3. Heterogeneous photodegradation of methylene blue with iron and tea or coffee polyphenols in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Claudio Kendi; Shinohara, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we developed two new Fenton catalysts using iron (Fe) and spent tea leaves or coffee grounds as raw material. In this study, Fe-to-tea or Fe-to-coffee polyphenol complexes were successfully tested as heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalysts. The photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue solutions with Fe-to-polyphenol complexes was higher than that of homogeneous iron salts in the photo-Fenton process. Furthermore, the tested Fe-to-polyphenol complexes could be reused by simply adding H2O2 to the solutions. After three sequential additions of H2O2, the conventional catalysts FeCl2·4H2O and FeCl3 removed only 16.6% and 53.6% of the dye, while the catalysts made using spent coffee grounds and tea leaves removed 94.4% and 96.0% of the dye, respectively. These results showed that the complexes formed between Fe and chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid and catechin, which are the main polyphenols in tea and coffee, can be used to improve the photo-Fenton process.

  4. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  5. Determination of flavonol glycosides in green tea, oolong tea and black tea by UHPLC compared to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heyuan; Engelhardt, Ulrich H; Thräne, Claudia; Maiwald, Beate; Stark, Janina

    2015-09-15

    An UHPLC method for the determination of flavonol glycosides (FOG) from green and oolong tea vs. black tea has been developed for the first time. Sample clean-up method by means of polyamide column chromatography was optimized with multiple-step elution. Using UHPLC and HPLC with gradient elution and photodiode array detection, eighteen FOG compounds were determined with the aid of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. These FOG compounds were qualified on both UHPLC and HPLC, and this UHPLC method successfully separated rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and K-grg (kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoglucoside) while conventional HPLC method did not. The total amounts of FOG compounds in the tea samples were 2.32-5.67g/kg dry weight (calculated as aglycones), and there is no significant difference for the total FOG content among green tea, oolong tea and black tea. However, kaempferol glycosides are more abundant in green teas, while oolong tea has more quercetin and myricetin glycosides. In black tea quercetin glycosides were most abundant.

  6. Determination of Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties in Tea and Spent Tea Under Various Extraction Method and Determination of Catechins, Caffeine and Gallic Acid by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Nadiah binti Ismail; Uthumporn Utra @ Sapina Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) contain high phenolic compounds and antioxidant elements, while spent teas originating as the main byproduct of beverage tea manufacturestill contain some level of antioxidant elements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of different extraction condition and to determine the chemical compound present in black tea (BT), oolong tea (OT), green tea (GT), spent black tea (SBT), spent oolong tea (SOT) and spent green tea (SGT). Theextraction experi...

  7. Purple Tea and Its Extract Suppress Diet-induced Fat Accumulation in Mice and Human Subjects by Inhibiting Fat Absorption and Enhancing Hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-06-01

    A number of clinical trials have been completed using green tea and black tea to investigate their effect in controlling weight in overweight adults. The results of these investigations, however, have often been contradictory, with some trials reporting positive effects of tea supplementation and some trials reporting no effect. As a result, the use of these teas for weight loss is controversial. Purple tea is a variety of green tea developed in Kenya (called TRFK306), which in addition to certain tea constituents found in green tea, also contains anthocyanins. The major constituents in the leaves of purple tea are caffeine, theobromine, epigallocatechin (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-D-glucose (GHG). We investigated the efficacy of purple tea extract (PTE) on diet-induced fat accumulation in mice. PTE administration (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver weight, abdominal fat and triglycerides in serum and liver. Protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1A was also enhanced. In olive oil loaded mice, PTE (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (25 mg/kg) suppressed fat absorption. PTE (10 μg/mL) and GHG (10 μg/mL) also enhanced protein expression of CPT1A in HepG2 hepatoma. Moreover, 4-week daily consumption of purple tea drink in humans improved obesity parameters compared to baseline, including body weight (79.9 ± 3.1 kg vs 80.8 ± 3.2, pweight gain by suppression of fat absorption and enhancement of hepatic fat metabolism.

  8. Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and Their Health-Promoting Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, Brasathe; Kottawa-Arachchi, J. Dananjaya; Ranatunga, Mahasen A. B.; Abeysinghe, I. Sarath B.; Gunasekare, M. T. Kumudini; Bandara, B. M. Ratnayake

    2016-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides in tea leaves have been quantified as aglycones, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Occurrence of the said compounds was reported in fruits and vegetable for a long time in association with the antioxidant potential. However, data on flavonols in tea were scanty and, hence, this study aims to envisage the flavonol content in a representative pool of accessions present in the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. Significant amounts of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol have been detected in the beverage type tea accessions of the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. This study also revealed that tea is a good source of flavonol glycosides. The Camellia sinensis var. sinensis showed higher content of myricetin, quercetin, and total flavonols than var. assamica and ssp. lasiocalyx. Therefore flavonols and their glycosides can potentially be used in chemotaxonomic studies of tea germplasm. The nonbeverage type cultivars, especially Camellia rosaflora and Camellia japonica Red along with the exotic accessions resembling China type, could be useful in future germplasm studies because they are rich sources of flavonols, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, which are potent antioxidants. The flavonol profiles can be effectively used in choosing parents in tea breeding programmes to generate progenies with a wide range of flavonol glycosides. PMID:27366737

  9. Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L. and Their Health-Promoting Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasathe Jeganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonol glycosides in tea leaves have been quantified as aglycones, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Occurrence of the said compounds was reported in fruits and vegetable for a long time in association with the antioxidant potential. However, data on flavonols in tea were scanty and, hence, this study aims to envisage the flavonol content in a representative pool of accessions present in the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. Significant amounts of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol have been detected in the beverage type tea accessions of the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. This study also revealed that tea is a good source of flavonol glycosides. The Camellia sinensis var. sinensis showed higher content of myricetin, quercetin, and total flavonols than var. assamica and ssp. lasiocalyx. Therefore flavonols and their glycosides can potentially be used in chemotaxonomic studies of tea germplasm. The nonbeverage type cultivars, especially Camellia rosaflora and Camellia japonica Red along with the exotic accessions resembling China type, could be useful in future germplasm studies because they are rich sources of flavonols, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, which are potent antioxidants. The flavonol profiles can be effectively used in choosing parents in tea breeding programmes to generate progenies with a wide range of flavonol glycosides.

  10. Formace hnutí Tea Party

    OpenAIRE

    Bicková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Tea Party affects American politics since 2009 when she began under the name of former revolutionary movement to fight government interventions with massive demonstrations. There was often incorrect expectation concerning Tea Party's potential in the first years of her activity. Tea Party supporters cannot be easily characterized, since a very differentiated group of Americans identifies itself with the movement, they come from a broad scale of social groups from Religious Right to libertaria...

  11. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  12. Delusional infestations: case series, differential diagnoses, and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H; Nesbitt, Lee T

    2014-01-01

    Physicians are not infrequently consulted by distraught patients with delusions of infestation who believe that they are infested with external or internal parasites and describe a crawling sensation of bugs or worms on or under their skin. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords as search terms to examine the latest articles on delusional infestations in order to describe presenting manifestations, differential diagnoses, and effective management strategies. The demographic and behavioral features of delusional infestations have remained constant and include: (1) onset in well-educated, middle-aged adults who are pet owners; (2) production of purported specimens of causative parasites; (3) pesticide overtreatment of themselves, their households, and pets; (4) excessive cleaning or vacuuming of households; (5) intense anger and resentment directed at physicians failing to confirm their self-diagnoses; and (6) sharing delusional symptoms with spouses or relatives. Although some reports have suggested that cases of delusional infestation are increasing today in the tropics, most studies have confirmed a stable incidence over time and similar disorder demographics worldwide. However, management strategies for delusional infestations have changed significantly over time with second generation, atypical antipsychotics offering safer adverse effect profiles and better prognoses than earlier therapies with first generation, typical antipsychotics. The most effective management strategies for delusional infestations include empathetic history-taking and active listening to the patient, careful exclusion of true parasitoses, and a therapeutic regimen that includes a second generation neuroleptic agent.

  13. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  14. Risk Analysis for Tea Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Itis lbviors that after all the disasters with dilxins, BSE, pathogcns,Footand Mouth disease a. o. and now shortly because of the possibillties of bioterrorism, thatFoodSafetyisalmostatthetopoftheagendaoftheEUfor theyearstocome The implementaion of certainhy gicneprinci plessuchas HA C C P and a transparent hygiene policy applicable to all food and all food operators, from the farm to the table, togetherwith effoctiveinstruments to manage Food Safety will form fsubstantialpart on this agenda. As an example external quality factors such as certain pathogens in tea will. be discussed. Since risk analysis of e. g. my cotoxing have already a quite long histoy and development in sereral international bodies and tea might bear unwanted (or deliberately added by terroristic action)contaminants, the need to monitor teamuch more regularly than is being done today, seems to be a"conditio sine qua non ". Recentoy developed Immuno Flow tests may one day help the consumer perhaps to find out if he gets poisoned.

  15. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  16. Economics of Tea Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Rehman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverage drinks worldwide and has been gaining further popularity as an important „health drink‟ in view of its purported medicinal value. Pakistan has the potential of producing quality tea. National Tea Research Institute NTRI plays a very important role in the production and promotion of tea cultivation in Pakistan. The study was conducted to identify the opportunities and constraints in Shinkiari Mansehra. Primary data was collected from NTRI and different farmers of Shinkiari and evaluate the farmer‟s perceptions production processing and marketing of tea. Results revealed that NTRI processing unit was working at below its full capacity and 226.59 Rs/Kg extra costs bearing due to below capacity. Tea is a high value crop of gross margin of 21340 Rs/ Acre and annually earned gross margin from other Crops wheat and maize was 6675Rs/Acre and Tea Cultivation Advantage was 14665 Rs/Acre but farmers was not interested to cultivate due to its high initial investment. Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Net Present Value (NPV were calculated for investment appraisal of the tea. Hence, there is need to promote tea cultivation on grass land area which will increase their income and livelihood and create more employment opportunities for local people.

  17. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asgari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of Al in tea infusion for 10 min infusion was 1.59 and 18.60 mg.L-1 respectively in this regard Baroti and Bamdad tea show the highest and lowest concentration respectively in term of Al, Also Statistical analysis with pair T-test showed that infusion time doesn,t significantly effects on aluminum leaching into infusion (P>0.05. Calculation of percentage "available" Al to the human system showed that 1 L of tea can provide 17.68 % of the daily dietary intake of Al, the percentage "available" for absorption in the intestine is only 8.49 % for overall mean Al concentration. Conclusion: Therefore based on our results, tea consumption in medium values cannot cause toxic effects on human. Although it is necessary to note that tea consumption might be toxic because of effects on people with absorption or secretion problems

  18. Flea Infestation in Farm Animals and Its Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most fleas infest their host temporarily then pass to another of the same kind, while others move from one to a different host species. Although the comprehensive list of fleas reported from Iran, but there still exists considerable gap in our knowledge of zoonotic aspect of flea infestation. The present study was undertaken to determine correlation between domestic animals and man as host of fleas. Methods: The questionnaires on the base of flea infestation of animals flock and animal care- man were prepared and distributed to veterinary stations of all provinces. A total of 553 questionnaires sheets and 168 flea samples were collected from sixteen provinces. Results: One hundred fifty six specimens of Pulex irritans were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, chicken and human, which consisted of 92.8% of all recovered fleas. Chickens infested by three species of fleas including Pulex irritans (84.6%, Ctenocephalides canis (12.9% and Ceratophilus gallinae (2.5%. Two hundred and eighty nine cases of animal and 244 cases of human infestation were recorded among the suspicious populations, the most prevalence of infestation was found in sheep and goat herds whilst chicken flocks infested with the"nlowest rate and cattle were infested moderately. The major health problem was occurred in farmers, animal care-men and their relatives. The observations showed they had different skin reactions to flea's bites. Conclusion: The results showed that fleas are approximately a widespread parasite of farm animals and it seems that they may play an important role in occurring of zoonotic infestation in Iran. Keywords: Flea, Farm animal, Human, Iran.

  19. Zebra chip disease incidence on potato is influenced by timing of potato psyllid infestation,but not by the host plants on which they were reared

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; John Jifon; Xiangbing Yang; Tong-Xian Liu

    2009-01-01

    The Zebra chip (ZC) syndrome is an emerging disease of potato and a major threat to the potato industry.The potato psyllid,Bactericerca cockerelli (Sulc) is believed to be a vector of the ZC pathogen,which is now thought to be Candidatus Liberibacter,a bacterium.To further understand the relationship between potato psyllid infestation and ZC disease expression,healthy potato plants at different growth stages (4,6 and 10 weeks after germination) were exposed separately to potato psyllids that were separately reared on four solanaceons hosts plants (potato,tomato,eggplant or bell pepper) for more than 1 year.ZC symptoms,leaf rates and total nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation in leaves and tubers of healthy and psyllid-infested plants were monitored and recorded.Typical ZC symptoms were observed in leaves and tubers of all plants exposed to potato psyllids regardless of the host plant on which they were reared.This was also accompanied by significant reductions in net photosynthetic rate.Caged potato plants without exposure to potato psyllids (uninfested controls) did not show any ZC symptom in both foliage and in harvested tubers.Foliage damage and ZC expression were most severe in the potato plants that were exposed to potato psyllids 4 weeks after germination compared to plants infested at later growth stages.Tubers from potato psyllid-infested plants had significantly higher levels of reducing sugars (glucose) and lower levels of starch than those in healthy plants,indicating that potato psyllid infestation interfered with carbohydrate metabolism in either leaves or tubers,resulting in ZC expression.

  20. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of radal (leaves of Lomatia hirsuta and isolation of 2-methoxyjuglone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Alfonso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leaves of Lomatia hirsuta are used in traditional medicine in Chile under the common name of "radal". A tea of radal is traditionally used for treatment of cough, bronchial troubles, and asthma. In a preliminary screening, extracts of the leaves revealed antifungal activity, and the present phytochemical study was undertaken to explain this activity and support the traditional use. Methods Along with the traditional tea, extracts of the leaves were screened for antifungal and toxic activities. The profile of secondary constituents was obtained using GC-MS. Results 2-Methoxyjuglone was isolated from the leaves of Lomatia hirsuta and found to be active against the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans (MIC = 8 μg/mL. Cinnamic acid and vanillic acid were identified as major constituents in the tea by GC-MS. The tea was found not to be toxic against Artemia salina. Conclusion The presence of phenolic acids with antimicrobial properties supports the traditional use of Radal, and encourages further studies.

  1. Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be maximi

  2. Assessment of afoxolaner efficacy against Otodectes cynotis infestations of dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Carithers, Doug; Crawford, Jordan; de Vos, Christa; Lotriet, Alta; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of a single 2.5 mg/kg dose of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial) against induced Otodectes cynotis infestations was assessed in eight afoxolaner-treated dogs, compared to eight untreated dogs. Methods After O. cynotis infestations were established and confirmed by otoscopic assessments in 16 dogs, all of the dogs were included in the study and allocated to two separate treatment groups. The first group of eight ear mite-infested dogs remained untreated, while afoxolaner was...

  3. CYP74B24 is the 13-hydroperoxide lyase involved in biosynthesis of green leaf volatiles in tea (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Eiichiro; Handa, Taiki; Koeduka, Takao; Toyonaga, Hiromi; Tawfik, Moataz M; Shiraishi, Akira; Murata, Jun; Matsui, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are C6-aliphatic aldehydes/alcohols/acetates, and biosynthesized from the central precursor fatty acid 13-hydroperoxides by 13-hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs) in various plant species. While GLVs have been implicated as defense compounds in plants, GLVs give characteristic grassy note to a bouquet of aroma in green tea, which is manufactured from young leaves of Camellia sinensis. Here we identify three HPL-related genes from C. sinensis via RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) in silico, and functionally characterized a candidate gene, CYP74B24, as a gene encoding tea HPL. Recombinant CYP74B24 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli specifically produced (Z)-3-hexenal from 13-HPOT with the optimal pH 6.0 in vitro. CYP74B24 gene was expressed throughout the aerial organs in a rather constitutive manner and further induced by mechanical wounding. Constitutive expression of CYP74B24 gene in intact tea leaves might account for low but substantial and constitutive formation of a subset of GLVs, some of which are stored as glycosides. Our results not only provide novel insights into the biological roles that GLVs play in tea plants, but also serve as basis for the improvement of aroma quality in tea manufacturing processes.

  4. Infestation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) alters cellular redox status and is influenced by ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) is a major pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) but the molecular characterization of this interaction particularly with regard to oxidants and antioxidants remains to be undertaken. Aphid colonies reared on potato leaves containing high ascorbate were twice the size of those grown on leaves with low ascorbate. Infestation-dependent decreases in the abundance of key transcripts such as chloroplastic FeSOD, peroxisomal catalase 2, PR1 and JAZ1 preceded detectable leaf H(2)O(2) or polyphenol accumulation. The leaf glutathione pool was increased 48 h after infestation, but the amount of ascorbate was unchanged. The ascorbate/dehydroacorbate (DHA) ratio was lower at 48 h but the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was unchanged. While DHA reductase and GSSG reductase activities were unaffected by aphid feeding, non-specific peroxidase activities were enhanced 48 h following aphid infestation. Brown ethanol-insoluble deposits were observed close to leaf veins following aphid infestation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that high ascorbate favours aphid colony expansion and that perturbations in the leaf antioxidant system are intrinsic to the potato leaf response to aphids. Moreover, these changes together with the induction of hormone-related transcripts precede the deposition of defence-associated oxidized polyphenols along the stylet track.

  5. Analysis on Main Chemical Components Between Niaowang Tea and Fuding Tea in Guiding%贵定鸟王种与福鼎种茶叶的主要化学成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬福; 张珍明; 陈会明; 罗文敏; 林昌虎

    2014-01-01

    为探明贵定当地茶种鸟王种与引进福鼎种茶叶中的化学成分差异,进一步提升鸟王种茶叶品质,选取种植在同一自然条件、不同茶叶等级、不同采摘时期的贵定鸟王种,以福鼎茶为对照,利用高效液相法测定两种茶叶中的氨基酸、咖啡因和儿茶素类含量,并分析其茶叶品质指标特征及差异。结果表明:两种茶叶中茶氨酸含量均显示出秋茶>春茶>夏茶的规律;鸟王种无论是嫩叶还是老叶,儿茶素没食子酸的含量均高于同等级福鼎种的含量,没食子儿茶素没食子酸、表没食子儿茶素和表儿茶素3种化合物(酯型儿茶素类)之和在鸟王种嫩叶、老叶和福鼎种嫩叶、老叶中的总含量分别为3430.16μg/g、2085.75μg/g和2964.10μg/g、1689.34μg/g,鸟王种儿茶素类(酯型儿茶素类)含量高于福鼎种;微量元素和氨基酸等没有明显差异。%The amino acid,caffeine and catechin content of Niaowang tea and Fuding tea with different grade at different picking stage under the same natural condition was determined by HPLC and difference in main chemical components between two teas was analyzed to further improve quality of Niaowang tea. The results showed that the theanine content in two teas is Autumn tea Spring tea Summer tea and content of catechinic gallic acid in young and adult leaves of Niaowang tea is higher than Fuding tea with the same grade.Total content of gallocatechinic gallic acid,epigallocatechin and epicatechin in young and adult leaves of Niaowang tea and Fuding tea is 3 430.16 μg/g,2 085.75 μg/g,2 964.10μg/g and 1 689.34 μg/g respectively.The catechins content of Niaoang tea is higher than Fuding tea but there is no significant difference in microelements and amino acid between Niaowang tea and Fuding tea.

  6. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safinar Ismail, Intan; Azam, Amalina Ahmad; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2015-01-01

    The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight. PMID:26819955

  7. Determination of catechins and flavonol glycosides in Chinese tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2012-05-01

    A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea.

  8. 辐照降解绿茶甲氰菊酯和溴氰菊酯的可行性研究%POSSIBILITY OF IRRADIATION DEGRADATION OF FENPROPATHRIN AND DELTAMETHRIN IN GREEN TEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秭芳; 宛晓春; 侯如燕; 张海伟; 赵秀霞; 王孝辉

    2011-01-01

    对^60Coγ射线辐照降解茶叶中甲氰菊酯和溴氰菊酯的可行性进行了探讨。经5kGy辐照后,分别喷施过2种农药的茶鲜叶中,甲氰菊酯的降解率为7.3%,溴氰菊酯为14.7%;加工为成茶后的绿茶中甲氰菊酯的降解率为2.2%,溴氰菊酯为12.1%。甲氰菊酯在茶鲜叶中的辐照降解率比在绿茶中高5.1%,溴氰菊酯在茶鲜叶中的辐照降解率比在绿茶中高2.6%。加工过程对甲氰菊酯降解约为16.4%,而对溴氰菊酯降解率仅为4.4%。%The effects of ^60Co γ irradiation and green tea manufacturing processing on degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea during its manufacturing processing were studied.The two pesticides were sprayed onto the tea bushes and fresh tea leaves were picked at the same day,respectively.Half of the fresh leaves were processed into green tea.The fresh tea leaves and green tea were irradiated at 5kGy and the Fenpropathrin in fresh tea degraded 7.3% after irradiation,while Deltamethrin degraded 14.7%.In green tea,Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin degraded 2.2% and 12.1% respectively after irradiation.Green tea manufacturing processes could reduce 16.4% of Fenpropathrin,and 4.4% of Deltamethrin.

  9. Research of the biochemistry compositions of three kinds of brick tea%三种砖茶品质生化成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖幸菲; 柏珍; 李智芳; 黄亚辉

    2012-01-01

    通过比较三种砖茶中各种生化成分含量的差异,分析了不同加工工艺对砖茶生化成分以及成茶品质风味的影响。实验结果表明,黑砖茶的水浸出物、茶多酚、咖啡碱、游离氨基酸及三种色素的含量均为最高,茯砖茶次之,青砖茶最低,而可溶性糖的含量是黑砖茶最低,青砖茶最高。三种砖茶生化成分的差异主要是由不同的加工工艺造成的,茯砖茶有独特的"发花"工序,其品质表现为有菌花香,滋味醇和;黑砖茶的原料较嫩,加工过程比较简单,内含成分高,滋味表现为纯厚微涩;青砖茶的原料最为粗老,自然发酵时间长,可溶性糖含量高,其品质表现为香气纯正,滋味甘甜。%The main biochemistry compositions of Fuzhuan brick tea, Black brick tea and Green brick tea and the influences with different processed methods were studied.The experiment results showed that the contents of water extract, tea polyphenol, caffeine, free amino acid, theaflavins ( TFs ), thearubigins (TRs) and theabrownines (TBs) in Black brick tea were the highest, which in Fuzhuan brick tea were the second, and in Green brick tea was the lowest.The content of soluble sugar in Black brick tea was the lowest,while in Green brick tea was the highest.With different processed methods ,the contents of biochemistry compositions of the three brick teas were changed, and different quality characters were showed.Fuzhuan brick tea had a unique process--fungus growing,this endowed it with arohid flavour and mellow taste. Black brick tea was made by tender fresh leaves and had more compositions.Thus it tasted pure, rich and subastringent.Green brick tea was made by the oldest fresh leaves.It incited sweet and had pure aroma, this was due to its rich soluble sugar and the long natural fermentation processes.

  10. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  12. TRACE LEVEL VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL MERCURY IN TEA MATRICES (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Locatelli, Marcello; Locatelli, Clinio

    2013-10-24

    An analytical procedure regarding the voltammetric determination of mercury(II), copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in matrices involved in food chain is proposed. In particular, tea leaves were analysed as real samples. The digestion of each matrix was carried out using a concentrated HCl-HNO3-H2SO4 acidic attack mixture; 0.01 mol L(-1) EDTA-Na2 + 0.15 mol L(-1) NaCl + 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl was employed as the supporting electrolyte. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using a conventional three electrode cell, employing, as working electrodes, a gold electrode (GE) and a stationary hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The analytical procedure has been verified on the standard reference materials Spinach Leaves NIST-SRM 1570a, Tomato Leaves NIST-SRM 1573a and Apple Leaves NIST-SRM 1515. For all the elements, the precision as repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr) was of the order of 3-5 %, while the trueness, expressed as relative error (e) was of the order of 3-7 %. Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was applied to commercial tea leaves samples. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is also discussed.

  13. The Dark-Purple Tea Cultivar 'Ziyan' Accumulates a Large Amount of Delphinidin-Related Anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Song; Li, Sha; Tang, Qian; Li, Huan-Xiu; Chen, Shen-Xiang; Li, Pin-Wu; Xu, Jin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Guo, Xiang

    2016-04-06

    Recently, we developed a novel tea cultivar 'Ziyan' with distinct purple leaves. There was a significant correlation between leaf color and anthocyanin pigment content in the leaves. A distinct allocation of metabolic flow for B-ring trihydroxylated anthocyanins and catechins in 'Ziyan' was observed. Delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin (88.15 mg/100 g FW in total) but no other anthocyanin pigments were detected in 'Ziyan', and delphinidin (70.76 mg/100 g FW) was particularly predominant. An analysis of the catechin content in 'Ziyan' and eight other cultivars indicated that 'Ziyan' exhibits a preference for synthesizing B-ring trihydroxylated catechins (with a proportion of 74%). The full-length cDNA sequences of flavonoid pathway genes were isolated by RNA-Seq coupled with conventional TA cloning, and their expression patterns were characterized. Purple-leaved cultivars had lower amounts of total catechins, polyphenols, and water extract than ordinary non-anthocyanin cultivars but similar levels of caffeine. Because dark-purple-leaved Camellia species are rare in nature, this study provides new insights into the interplay between the accumulations of anthocyanins and other bioactive components in tea leaves.

  14. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  15. Parental leave in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Leila; Meulders, Danièle; O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin

    2008-01-01

    All over Europe, parental leaves are essentially taken by women which leads to perpetuate gender inequalities in the labour market. The economic literature illustrates the issues at stake and is presented in this article to contextualise the analysis of the Belgian parental leave system. The Belgian parental leave system has two strong features: it is individualised and it offers a relatively short leave. The system could be improved by the implementation of a wage-related payment. However, p...

  16. Bamboo Leaf Flavones and Tea Polyphenols Show a Lipid-lowering Effect in a Rat Model of Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Yifan, L; Dan, L; Qian, Y; Ming-yan, J

    2015-12-01

    At present, most of the lipid-lowering drugs are western medicines, which have a lot of adverse reactions. Zhucha, an age-old Uyghur medicine, is made up of bamboo leaves and tea (green tea), which has good efficacy and lipid-lowering effect. The purpose of this study was to undertake a pharmacodynamic examination of the optimal proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols required to achieve lipid lowering in rats. A hyperlipidemia rat model was used to examine the lipid lowering effects of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols. Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups including one hyperlipidemia model group and 2 positive drug groups as well as experimental groups (9 groups dosed with different proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols, the 3 dosages of bamboo leaf flavones were 75 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d and 25 mg/kg/d respectively, the 3 dosages of tea polyphenol were 750 mg/kg/d, 500 mg/kg/d and 250 mg/kg/d). The weight, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined. A high dose of bamboo leaf flavones (75 mg/kg/d) combined with a medium dose of tea polyphenols (500 mg/kg/d) was deemed to be optimal for achieving a lipid-lowering effect, the weight had the smallest increase and the level of TG and HDL was similar to positive control. The bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols were mixed according to a certain proportion (1:6.7), and the mixture achieved a lipid-lowering effect and might prove to be useful as a natural lipid-lowering agent.

  17. Foreign Friends Join Spring Tea Picking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; You

    2013-01-01

    <正>Foreign Friends Picking Spring Tea, one of the activities of the Fourth China Tea Festival, was held in Pujiang County, Sichuan Province on March 17. Pang Te Cheng, Singaporean Consul General in Chengdu, Komate Kamalanavin, Thai Consul General in Chengdu, and Claudia Spahl, German

  18. Green tea and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and coffee consumption have been widely popular worldwide. These beverages contain caffeine to activate the central nervous system by adenosine receptor blockade, and due to the caffeine, addiction or tolerance may occur. In addition to this caffeine effect, green tea and coffee consumption have always been at the center of discussions about human health, disease, and longevity. In particular, green tea catechins are involved in many biological activities such as antioxidation and modulation of various cellular lipid and proteins. Thus, they are beneficial against degenerative diseases, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various inflammatory diseases. Some reports also suggest that daily consumption of tea catechins may help in controlling type 2 diabetes. However, other studies have reported that chronic consumption of green tea may result in hepatic failure, neuronal damage, and exacerbation of diabetes, suggesting that interindividual variations in the green tea effect are large. This review will focus on the effect of green tea catechins extracted from the Camellia sinensis plant on type 2 diabetes and obesity, and the possible mechanistic explanation for the experimental results mainly from our laboratory. It is hoped that green tea can be consumed in a suitable manner as a supplement to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  19. The Chinese Puzzle of Low Profit Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2004-01-01

    There are too many tea varieties, factories, and styles of packaging and too few registered trademarks and known domestic and international brands. No brand name means no market, let alone reputation or consumer loyalty. Beneath the superficially prosperous Chinese tea industry there lurks a nagging insecurity over its dearth of brand names.

  20. Chemoprevention of lung cancer by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie; You, Ming

    2006-02-01

    Tea is the second only to water as the most consumed beverage in the world. Both green and black teas have been studied for their health benefits for a variety of diseases, particularly cancer. Lung cancer is the predominant cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. Smokers' risk of lung cancer is 20 times that of persons who have never smoked. Epidemiological studies on the cancer-preventive effects of tea produce inconsistent results, which could in part be attributed to the lack of a universal standard for tea preparations. However, most animal studies indicate that tea has strong chemopreventive effects against lung tumorigenesis. The reported mechanisms for chemopreventive activity of green tea are antioxidation, induction of phase II enzymes, inhibition of TNFalpha expression and release, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by green tea are probably the two most significant factors. Future studies are needed to determine how green tea affects the genes associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis during the mouse lung carcinogenesis process.

  1. [Rapid and Dynamic Determination Models of Amino Acids and Catechins Concentrations during the Processing Procedures of Keemun Black Tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing-ming; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Wei, Ling-dong; Li, Lu-qing; Fang, Jun-ting; Huang, Cai-wang

    2015-12-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. For the contribution to the taste and healthy functions of tea, amino acids and catechins are important components. Among different kinds of black teas in the world, Keemun black tea has the famous and specific fragrance, "Keemun aroma". During the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the contents of amino acids and catechins changed greatly, and the differences of these concentrations during processing varied significantly. However, a rapid and dynamic determination method during the processing procedure was not existed up to now. In order to find out a rapid determination method for the contents of amino acids and catechins during the processing procedure of Keemun black tea, the materials of fresh leaves, withered leaves, twisted leaves, fermented leaves, and crude tea (after drying) were selected to acquire their corresponding near infrared spectroscopy and obtain their contents of amino acids and catechins by chemical analysis method. The original spectra data were preprocessed by the Standard Normal Variate Transformation (SNVT) method. And the model of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the contents of amino acids and catechins combined with Synergy Interval Partial Least squares (Si-PLS) was established in this study. The correlation coefficients and the cross validation root mean square error are treated as the efficient indexes for evaluating models. The results showed that the optimal prediction model of amino acids by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 4 subintervals and 9 principal component factors. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the calibration set were 0. 955 8 and 1. 768, respectively; the correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of the prediction set were 0. 949 5 and 2. 16, respectively. And the optimal prediction model of catechins by Si-PLS contained 20 spectral intervals combined with 3 subintervals and 10 principal

  2. Canine Trichomonas tenax mandibular gland infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Łojszczyk-Szczepaniak, Anna; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Lisiak, Barbara; Abd-Al-Hammza Abbass, Zahrai

    2016-02-18

    Several species of trichomonads are intestinal or urogenital parasites of humans and animals, with only a few species typically being located in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in dogs is approximately 15-25 %, although the prevalence varies among different populations and depends on age, sex and the health of the oral cavity. A case of mandibular gland infestation by trichomonads in a 13-year-old female Dachshund with advanced periodontal disease and oral trichomoniasis is reported. The dog was referred due to a history of a painless swelling over the left submandibular region that increased in size over time. Based on physical and ultrasound examinations, a final diagnosis of mandibular gland cyst was established and transcutaneous needle aspiration was carried out. Numerous mobile trophozoites of trichomonads were found by microscopy and culturing for trichomonas was performed. The species was finally characterized as Trichomonas tenax by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Studies have shown that T. tenax can be found in humans in atypical locations such as the salivary glands and upper and lower respiratory tracts. According to our knowledge this is the first report of T. tenax being present in the salivary glands of a dog. Because of the relatively high prevalence of trichomoniasis in dogs with periodontal diseases, these parasites should be considered together with bacterial and viral agents in salivary gland infections, especially in individuals with compromised oral health.

  3. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasani Ayodhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  4. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...

  5. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS ON INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN CEMENT INDUSTRY AND TEA INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The project aims at analyzing the feasibility of utilizing cement kiln dust (CKD in treating wastewater from tea industry with the concept of industrial symbiosis. CKD is the dust collected at the air pollution control device(s associated with a kiln system from cement industry. A very less percent of CKD is recycled and the rest is land filled /stockpiled; disrupts groundwater through leaching of minerals. Cement Kiln Dust (CKD, rich in CaO, SiO2, behaves as a neutralizing as well as stabilizing agent for tea effluent treatment. The ability of CKD to reduce the BOD, COD, TSS, and phosphates in tea effluent was analyzed and the optimum dosage is determined. The effect of different dosages of Cement Kiln Dust ranging from (1-3 gm/l has been discussed on the bench scale tests. The results show that, for different CKD concentrations, high removal efficiencies of 94.4 and 99.0, 58.9 for BOD, TSS, phosphates and a lower efficiency for COD with 9.09 are achieved for 2.5gm/l. The persistent presence of color providing proteins theaflavins (TF and the arubigins (TR from the leftover tea leaves in the effluent imparts the low removal efficiencies of COD. However, the COD value is within the dischargeable limits (CPCB standards. Moreover, a considerable removal efficiency and high SVI of 0.181 makes CKD a feasible coagulant in treating tea effluent with optimum dosage of 2.5g/l. The objective of developing industrial symbiosis network was thus achieved using the CKD to treat wastewater from tea industries.   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 20-34

  6. [Systematically induced effects of Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation on chemical defense in Zea mays inbred lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-xi; Yang, Qun-fang; Huang, Yu-bi; Li, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the systematically induced production of defense-related compounds, including DIMBOA, total phenol, trypsin inhibitors (TI) and chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI), by Tetranychus cinnabarinus infestation in Zea mays. The first leaves of two corn in-bred line seedlings, the mite-tolerant line ' H1014168' and the mite-sensitive line 'H1014591', were sucked by T. cinnabarinus adult female for seven days, and then the contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI were measured in the second leaf and in the roots, respectively. Results showed that as compared to the unsucked control, all contents of DIMBOA, total phenol, TI and CI induced by T. cinnabarinus sucking were significantly higher in the second leaf of both inbred lines as well as in the roots of the mite-tolerant 'H1014168'. However, in the roots of 'H1014591', these defense compounds had different trends, where there was a higher induction of TI and a lower level of total phenol than that of the healthy control, while had almost no difference in DIMBOA and CI. These findings suggested that the infestation of T. cinnabarinus could systematically induce accumulation of defense-related compounds, and this effect was stronger in the mite-tolerant inbred line than in the mite-sensitive inbred line.

  7. Study on preparation of low-caffeine tea by tea polyphenol solution treatment%茶多酚水溶液浸提法生产低咖啡碱茶叶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尔朝娟; 王洪新; 金循; 娄在祥; 田洪芸; 贺雪姣; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    首次采用茶多酚水溶液浸提法脱除鲜茶叶与干茶叶中的咖啡碱,并保留其中的主要功能性成分茶多酚。鲜茶叶最佳浸提条件为:温度100℃,料液比1:10(g/mL),茶多酚水溶液质量体积分数5%,时间5min。此条件下咖啡碱脱除率达80.61%,比传统热水浸提法提高31.25%,且茶多酚无损失。干茶叶最佳浸提条件为:温度100℃,料液比1:20(g/mL),茶多酚水溶液质量体积分数15%,时间7min。此条件下咖啡碱脱除率达81.61%,且处理后的茶叶中茶多酚含量提高90.02%。研究结果表明,针对鲜茶叶和干茶叶原料,茶多酚水溶液浸提法均能有效脱除其咖啡碱,并有效保留或提高茶叶中的茶多酚,比传统热水浸提法有明显优势,是一种生产低咖啡碱茶叶的新方法。%A new production method of low-caffeine tea was obtained.Both fresh and dry tea leaves were lixiviated by tea polyphenol solution and the decaffeination effects was compared with traditional hot water lixiviation method.The perecntage of decaffeination reached 80.61% when fresh tea leaf was decaffeinated with a ratio of tea leaf to water of 1:10(g/mL) in 5%(g/mL) tea polyphenol solution at 100℃ for 5min,which was 31.25% higher than decaffeinated by hot water.Meanwhile there was no loss of tea polyphenol after the decaffeination.Similarly,the percentage of decaffeination reached to 81.61% when dry tea leaf was decaffeinated with a ratio of tea leaf to water of 1:20(g/mL) in 15%(g/mL) tea polyphenol solution at 100℃ for 7min,and the content of tea polyphenol increased by 90.02% which was much higher than in undecaffeinated dry tea leaf.It was considered that the tea polyphenol solution treatment was a effective method to decaffeinate and retain tea polyphenol for both fresh and dry tea leaves.

  8. Health potential for functional green teas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the developed and developing world. Many "functional" foods and ingredients are advocated for their effects on body composition but few have consistent scientific support for their efficacy. However, an increasing amount of mechanistic and clinical evidence is building for green tea. The tea plant is naturally rich in a group of antioxidants known as catechins. Unlike black tea, green tea production involves little processing and fermentation and therefore, green tea brews are rich in catechins. Green tea has been suggested to have a number of potential health benefits in areas such as cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, glucose homeostasis and dental health. Although there is some promising evidence in all of these areas, more data from human intervention trials are needed. A lot of attention has lately been focused on the beneficial effects of green tea on body composition and particularly visceral fat, which has been shown to have a strong link with different components of the metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Most, but not all, of the positive results come from a number Asian studies, in which overweight subjects (men and women) consumed green tea for approximately 12 weeks. Finally, green tea may also have measurable acute effects on energy metabolism and fat oxidation and in particular during physical activity, as evidenced by other studies specifically looking at these endpoints. Small cumulative effects on energy metabolism could also be responsible for the longer-tem effects of green tea on body composition, and these long-term effects may also be most apparent in the context of moderate physical activity. However, more research is needed to further clarify the exact mechanisms of action and to extrapolate these findings to non-Asian populations.

  9. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Liao, Jie; Yang, Guang-yu; Lu, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Tea and tea constituents have been shown by different investigators to inhibit lung tumorigenesis in different animal model systems. This includes lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-nitrosodiethylamine, benzo[a]pyrene, N-nitrosomethylurea, or cisplatin. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis has also been demonstrated in C3H mice treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine. In most of these experiments, reduction in tumor number and tumor size has been observed in the tea-treated group, and in some experiments, decreased tumor incidence has also been observed. The green tea constituent, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and the black tea constituent, theaflavins, have also been shown to be effective. Black tea preparations have been shown to reduce the incidence and number of spontaneously generated lung adenocarcinomas and rhabdomyosarcoma in A/J mice, as well as inhibit the progression of lung adenoma to adenocarcinoma. The mechanisms for the inhibitory action have not been well elucidated. It may be related to the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activities of tea constituents that have been demonstrated in some experiments. These activities may be a result of the inhibition of key protein kinases involved in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation. Tea catechins, such as EGCG, have been suggested to be the effective components. However, a study suggests that caffeine is the key effective constituent for the inhibitory activity of lung tumorigenesis in Fisher 344 rats by black tea. In many of the experiments, tea consumption resulted in the reduction of body fat and body weight; these factors may also contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis.

  10. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same ... teas (black tea and green tea) and the best result was achieved .... It helps to reduce the number of dimensions without much loss of information. The PCA ... values of the weights (Figure 3).

  11. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  12. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumpt

  13. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Naping; Wu, Yuemin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Rongbin

    2009-09-01

    Studies investigating the association of green tea and black tea consumption with lung cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis on the topic. Studies were identified by a literature search in PubMed from 1966 to November 2008 and by searching the reference lists of relevant studies. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on random-effects model. Our meta-analysis included 22 studies provided data on consumption of green tea or black tea, or both related to lung cancer risk. For green tea, the summary RR indicated a borderline significant association between highest green tea consumption and reduced risk of lung cancer (RR=0.78, 95% CI=0.61-1.00). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of two cups/day was associated with an 18% decreased risk of developing lung cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.71-0.96). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observe through the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.70-1.05; an increment of two cups/day, RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.65-1.03). In conclusion, our data suggest that high or an increase in consumption of green tea but not black tea may be related to the reduction of lung cancer risk.

  14. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  15. A Society of Patriotic Ladies: the Edenton Tea Party

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a relatively little-known revolutionary event in British colonial America known as the Edenton tea party that took place on 25 October in Edenton, North Carolina ten months after its more famous namesake, the Boston Tea Party. Like the Boston tea party the Edenton tea party was an explicitly political event aimed at a new tax on tea imposed by the East India Company. However, unlike the Boston tea party the Edenton tea party solely involved women, the key participants bein...

  16. Mycoherbicidal Potential of Phaeoacremonium italicum, A New Pathogen of Eichhornia crassipes Infesting Harike Wetland, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Birinderjit; Saxena, Sanjai; Meshram, Vineet; Kumar, Maneek

    2016-06-01

    Mycoherbicides are exclusive biotechnology products which offer a non-chemical solution to control noxious weeds on the land as well as aquatic in systems, viz a viz saving environment from hazardous impact of synthetic chemicals. The present paper highlights the mycobiota associated with Eichhornia crassipes infesting Harike wetland area of Punjab and evaluation of their pathogenic potential for futuristic application as a mycoherbicide. Of the 20 isolates tested by leaf detached assay and whole plant bioassays, only one isolate (#8 BJSSL) caused 100% damage to E. crassipes. Further, the culture filtrate of this isolate also exhibited a similar damage to the leaves in an in vitro detached leaf assay. The potential isolate was identified as Phaeoacremonium italicum using classical and modern molecular methods. This is the first report of P. italicum as a pathogen of E. crassipes and of its potential use as a biological control agent for the management of water hyacinth.

  17. Green Tea Polyphenols in drug discovery - a success or failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Green tea is made from unfermented dried leaves from Camellia sinensis and has been consumed by humans for thousands of years. For nearly as long, it has been used as a folk remedy for a wide array of diseases. More recently, a large number of in-vitro and in-vivo scientific studies have supported this ancient contention that the polyphenols from green tea can provide a number of health benefits. Since these compounds are clearly safe for human consumption and ubiquitous in the food supply, they are highly attractive as lead compounds for drug discovery programs. However, as drugs, they are far from optimum. They are relatively unstable, poorly absorbed, and readily undergo a number of metabolic transformations by intestinal microbiota and human enzymes. Further, since these compounds target a wide array of biological systems, in-vivo testing is rather difficult since effects on alternative pathways need to be carefully eliminated. The purpose of this review is to discuss some of the challenges and benefits of pursuing this family of compounds for drug discovery. PMID:21731575

  18. Phenolic constituents from the leaves of Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Juan; Liu, Xin-Hua; Bui, Van-Binh; Hong, Zhi-Lai; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhao, Yun; Fan, Hui; Yang, Guo-Xun; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2014-04-01

    One (formosumone A, 1) new and fifteen (2-16) known phenolic compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorumm, a substitute for the popular bitter nail tea ("Kuding Tea") generally used in Southeast Asia. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with literature data. Compound 1 possesses a rare scaffold of a flavanone coupled with a phloroglucinol moiety, representing the first example of such a scaffold from the Clusiaceae family. Among the isolates, toxyloxanthone B (11) and vismione D (12) were found to show remarkable anti-neuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells. Additionally, toxyloxanthone B (11) exhibited significant neuroprotective effect against β-amyloid(25-35) (Aβ(25-35))-induced cell viability decrease in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. RNA-seq-mediated transcriptome analysis of actively growing and winter dormant shoots identifies non-deciduous habit of evergreen tree tea during winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Asosii; Jha, Ashwani; Bhardwaj, Shruti; Singh, Sewa; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-08-04

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a perennial tree which undergoes winter dormancy and unlike deciduous trees, the species does not shed its leaves during winters. The present work dissected the molecular processes operating in the leaves during the period of active growth and winter dormancy through transcriptome analysis to understand a long-standing question: why should tea be a non-deciduous species? Analyses of 24,700 unigenes obtained from 57,767 primarily assembled transcripts showed (i) operation of mechanisms of winter tolerance, (ii) down-regulation of genes involved in growth, development, protein synthesis and cell division, and (iii) inhibition of leaf abscission due to modulation of senescence related processes during winter dormancy in tea. These senescence related processes exhibited modulation to favour leaf abscission (i) in deciduous Populus tremula during winters, and (ii) also in tea but under osmotic stress during which leaves also abscise. These results validated the relevance of the identified senescence related processes for leaf abscission and suggested their operation when in need in tea.

  20. Sulfation of tea polysaccharides: synthesis, characterization and hypoglycemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Peng, Yonghua; Wei, Xinlin; Yang, Zhiwei; Xiao, Jianbo; Jin, Zhengyu

    2010-03-01

    Neutral polysaccharides (NTPS) and acid polysaccharides (ATPS) from tea leaves were obtained on a D315 macroporous anion-exchange resin column chromatography. NTPS and ATPS were sulfated by the pyridine-sulfonic acid method to obtain NTPS-S and ATPS-S. It was found that NTPS was easier sulfated than ATPS. There are strong characteristic absorption peaks located in 1258 cm(-1), 1146 cm(-1), 832 cm(-1) and 617 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectra of sulfated polysaccharides. Sulfation of polysaccharides also affected the endothermic and exothermic peaks via the DSC scan analysis. The appearance of exothermic peaks in both NTPS-S and ATPS-S indicated that the redox reaction might happen. The comparative study of hypoglycemic effect on mice showed that the sulfation of polysaccharides significantly improved hypoglycemic activity.

  1. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested.

  2. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  3. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  4. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile.

  5. Cancer Preventive Activities of Tea Catechins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Catechins are widely occurring in our diet and beverages. The cancer-preventive activities of catechins have been extensively studied. Of these, (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the principal catechin in green tea, has received the most attention. The inhibitory activities of tea catechins against carcinogenesis and cancer cell growth have been demonstrated in a large number of laboratory studies. Many mechanisms for modulating cancer signaling and metabolic pathways have been proposed based on numerous studies in cell lines with EGCG, the most active tea catechin. Nevertheless, it is not known whether many of these mechanisms indeed contribute to the anti-cancer activities in animals and in humans. Human studies have provided some results for the cancer preventive activities of tea catechins; however, the activities are not strong. This article reviews the cancer preventive activities and mechanisms of action of tea catechins involving their redox activities, biochemical properties and binding to key enzymes or signal transduction proteins. These mechanisms lead to suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms for cancer prevention are assessed in the light of the situation in vivo. The potential and possible problems in the application of tea and tea-derived products for cancer prevention are discussed.

  6. Cancer Preventive Activities of Tea Catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-09

    Catechins are widely occurring in our diet and beverages. The cancer-preventive activities of catechins have been extensively studied. Of these, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal catechin in green tea, has received the most attention. The inhibitory activities of tea catechins against carcinogenesis and cancer cell growth have been demonstrated in a large number of laboratory studies. Many mechanisms for modulating cancer signaling and metabolic pathways have been proposed based on numerous studies in cell lines with EGCG, the most active tea catechin. Nevertheless, it is not known whether many of these mechanisms indeed contribute to the anti-cancer activities in animals and in humans. Human studies have provided some results for the cancer preventive activities of tea catechins; however, the activities are not strong. This article reviews the cancer preventive activities and mechanisms of action of tea catechins involving their redox activities, biochemical properties and binding to key enzymes or signal transduction proteins. These mechanisms lead to suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms for cancer prevention are assessed in the light of the situation in vivo. The potential and possible problems in the application of tea and tea-derived products for cancer prevention are discussed.

  7. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  8. Estimation of tea catechin levels using micellar electrokinetic chromatography: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2014-05-01

    A simple, inexpensive micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with UV detection was used to determine seven catechins and one xanthine (caffeine) in tea. All the compounds were successfully separated (15kV) within a 15-min migration period with a high number of theoretical plates (>8.0×10(4)) in a running buffer (pH 7) containing 10mmoll(-1) sodium tetraborate, 4mmoll(-1) sodium phosphate, and 25mmoll(-1) SDS. The regression lines of all standard catechins were linear within the range of 0.03-4μgml(-1). Green tea infused at 95°C for 10min showed higher levels of catechins (especially epigallocatechin galate, epicatechin gallate, and epicatechin) than tea infused at 80°C. In addition, major differences were observed in the levels of catechins in the first and second infusions (both brewed at 95°C for 10min). Finally, green tea leaves were infused separately with tap water, deionised water, spring water, reverse osmosis water, and distilled water at 95°C, and the catechin content of the infusions was investigated by the proposed method. In the infusion brewed with tap water, catechins appeared to be epimerisation from the epistructure to the nonepistructure. This epimerisation may take place more readily in tap water than in distilled water owing to the complexity of the ions present in tap water.

  9. Structural characteristics of green tea catechins for formation of protein carbonyl in human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takeshi; Mori, Taiki; Ichikawa, Tatsuya; Kaku, Maiko; Kusaka, Koji; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Akagawa, Mitsugu; Aihara, Yoshiyuki; Furuta, Takumi; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Kan, Toshiyuki; Nakayama, Tsutomu

    2010-07-15

    Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidants found in green tea leaves. Recent studies have reported that various polyphenolic compounds, including catechins, cause protein carbonyl formation in proteins via their pro-oxidant actions. In this study, we evaluate the formation of protein carbonyl in human serum albumin (HSA) by tea catechins and investigate the relationship between catechin chemical structure and its pro-oxidant property. To assess the formation of protein carbonyl in HSA, HSA was incubated with four individual catechins under physiological conditions to generate biotin-LC-hydrazide labeled protein carbonyls. Comparison of catechins using Western blotting revealed that the formation of protein carbonyl in HSA was higher for pyrogallol-type catechins than the corresponding catechol-type catechins. In addition, the formation of protein carbonyl was also found to be higher for the catechins having a galloyl group than the corresponding catechins lacking a galloyl group. The importance of the pyrogallol structural motif in the B-ring and the galloyl group was confirmed using methylated catechins and phenolic acids. These results indicate that the most important structural element contributing to the formation of protein carbonyl in HSA by tea catechins is the pyrogallol structural motif in the B-ring, followed by the galloyl group. The oxidation stability and binding affinity of tea catechins with proteins are responsible for the formation of protein carbonyl, and consequently the difference in these properties of each catechin may contribute to the magnitude of their biological activities.

  10. UHPLC determination of catechins for the quality control of green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, Marina; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; Périat, Aurélie; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with UV detection method was developed for the fast quantitation of the most represented and biologically important green tea catechins and caffeine. UHPLC system was equipped with C18 analytical column (50mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm), utilizing a mobile phase composed of pH 2.5 triethanolamine phosphate buffer (0.1M) and acetonitrile in a gradient elution mode; under these conditions six major catechins and caffeine were separated in a 3min run. The method was fully validated in terms of precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, accuracy, and it was applied to the identification and quantification of catechins and caffeine present in green tea infusions. In particular, commercially available green tea leaves samples of different geographical origin (Sencha, Ceylon Green and Lung Ching) were used for infusion preparations (water at 85°C for 15min). The selectivity of the developed UHPLC method was confirmed by comparison with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The recovery of the main six catechins and caffeine on the three analyzed commercial tea samples ranged from 94 to 108% (n=3). Limits of detection (LOD) were comprised in the range 0.1-0.4μgmL(-1). An orthogonal micellar electrokinetic (MEKC) method was applied for comparative purposes on selectivity and quantitative data. The combined use of the results obtained by the two techniques allowed for a fast confirmation on quantitative characterization of commercial samples.

  11. Green Tea Protects Testes against Atrazine-induced Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrazine (ATZ is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats. Methods: The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group. Results: In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly. Conclusion: Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.

  12. Amelioration of iron toxicity: A mechanism for aluminum-induced growth stimulation in tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiboland, Roghieh; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Tolrà, Roser

    2013-11-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) are well adapted to acid soils with high Al availability. These plants not only accumulate high leaf Al concentrations, but also respond to Al with growth stimulation. Decreased oxidative stress has been associated with this effect. Why tea plants not exposed to Al suffer from oxidative stress has not been clarified. In this study, hydroponically grown tea plants treated with 0 to 300 μM Al were analyzed for growth, Al and Fe accumulation, and Al distribution by means of morin and hematoxylin staining. Roots of control plants stained black with hematoxylin. This indicates the formation of a Fe-hematoxylin complex. Young leaves of controls accumulated more than 1000 mg Fe kg(-1) dry weight. This concentration is above the Fe-toxicity threshold in most species. Supply of Al stimulated growth and reduced Fe uptake and transport. These results indicate that Al-induced growth stimulation might be due to alleviation of a latent Fe toxicity occurring in tea plants without Al supply.

  13. [Residual pesticide concentrations after processing various types of tea and tea infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takahide; Watanabe, Ayaka; Shitara, Hiroshi; Kaburagi, Yasuo; Shibata, Masahisa; Kanda, Noriko; Kurokawa, Chieko; Inoue, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Togawa, Masayuki; Ozawa, Akihito; Uchiyama, Toru; Koizumi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Masuda, Shuichi; Maitani, Tamio

    2013-01-01

    The effects of processing to produce various types of tea or infusion on the levels of pesticide residues in tea were investigated for three insecticides (chlorfenapyr, pyrimiphos-methyl, and clothianidin). Tea plants were sprayed with one of the three pesticides and cultivated under cover. The levels of pesticide residues in tea decreased after processing according to the time and temperature of heating, as well as fermentation. Although significant differences were not observed among the three pesticides in the ratio of decreased of pesticide concentration after processing to green tea, clothianidin, which is a neonicotinoid insecticide and has a lower log Pow value, tended to be transferred more than the other two insecticides into infusions. However, no significant difference in the ratios of clothianidin transferred to infusions was observed among green tea with three different leaf sizes.

  14. Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

  15. Processing Technology of Composite Mulberry Leaf Tea%浅谈复合桑叶茶加工工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡利; 贾孟周; 黄仁志; 周跃斌

    2012-01-01

    桑叶中含有17种氨基酸和多种营养物质,具有较好的保健作用。该文概要叙述了桑叶茶的主要成分与功效,着重介绍了复合桑叶茶的加工制作过程与工艺,并针对桑叶茶制作中存在的问题简要提出了相应的初步建议。%Mulberry leaves contain 17 amino acids and other nutrients,which have good effect to health.This article briefly describes the composition and roles of mulberry tea,systematically introduces the processing technologies of composite mulberry leaf tea.Furthermore,some countermeasures and proposes of the processing technologies of mulberry tea are put forward based on the problems in their processing technology.

  16. Cancer prevention by tocopherols and tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-06-28

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that - and -tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas -tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated.

  17. Role of biofertilizers in increasing tea productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Nepolean; R Jayanthi; R Vidhya Pallavi; A Balamurugan; T Kuberan; T Beulah; R Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To increase the tea productivity using biofertilizers like VAM fungi, phosphobacteria, Azosprillium. Methods: Nitrogen fixing Azospirillum, phosphate solubilising bacteria and VAM fungi were isolated from tea soils of southern India and region specific potential strains were selected based on laboratory, greenhouse, as well as field experiments. A technology for their mass multiplication has been developed. Results: Biofertilizers were showed higher yield at the rate of 5g/seedling and VAM fungi with 15 g of formulation/bush. Conclusions: Multifunctional biofertilizers were used to reduce the chemical fertilizers, diseases and to increase soil fertility in tea.

  18. 常州市蜚蠊种群分布及侵害调查%Investigation on the population distribution and infestation of the cockroaches in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淦; 张建陶; 王鹂; 林琴; 赵立凡

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To grasp the population distribution and infestation situation of cockroaches so as to provide evidences for scientific control of cockroach in Changzhou. METHODS Used sticky card trap method. RESULTS There were 3 species of cockroaches distributing and testing for 3 species under 2 genera, 2 families, and Blattella germanica was the dominant species, accounting for 93.39%. The infestation rate of cockroaches reached 46.98% , infestation situation of cockroaches in farm produce trade market was the most serious, the others were restaurants, supermarkets, hotels, food making rooms, bar and tea rooms, bathrooms. CONCLUSION The infestation with cockroaches is seriously in Changzhou. The effective measures should be taken to prevent and control the cockroaches.%目的 掌握常州市蜚蠊种群分布和侵害状况,为科学防制提供依据.方法 采用粘捕法.结果全市共有3种蜚蠊分布,分类鉴定为2科2属3种,优势种为德国小蠊,占93.39%.蜚蠊侵害率为46.98%,农贸市场侵害最严重,其他有餐饮业、商场超市、宾馆、食品加工厂、酒吧茶室、浴室.结论 常州市各行业蜚蠊侵害严重,应采取有效措施进行防制.

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF TEAS BLACKBERRY (MORUS NIGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a long tradition in the use of plants, and is the same used in different ways, such as in the form of infusions and decoctions, for therapeutic purposes. Morus nigra species is a plant that has been used in different parts of the world as phytotherapy. This plant is known as mulberry, black, blackberry black or blackberry and various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used by the population, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, among others. Because of the interest in research on the bioactivity of plant products and use of blackberry tea in the population, present study evaluated the antibacterial activity of teas M. nigra leaves obtained by infusion and decoction against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as the antioxidant potential of preparations by DPPH technique. Results revealed that the infusions and decoctions prepared with Morus nigra leaves showed no ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria tested. However, all preparations (decoctions and infusions obtained from the leaves showed antioxidant potential, demonstrated ability to reduce DPPH radical. Despite infusions and decoctions evaluated in this study do not show antimicrobial activity, both had significant antioxidant property. Considering the use of different plants, including mulberry tree, by the people, it is considered always important proof of their biological activities.

  20. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium. A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  1. Efficiency of insecticide and bioinsecticide treatments against infestation of European corn borer and their effect on maize yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gošić-Dondo Snežana

    2016-01-01

    the one recorded in the treatment with the product Cruiser (8.610 t ha-1, while it was higher than the yield obtained in the treatment with the products Gaucho (7.506 t ha-1 and Imidor (8.259 t ha-1 combined with the fungicide Maxim. These differences were not statistically significant. Seed treatments with the fungal inoculum were not significantly different in any of observed parameters, except in the seed treatment with Captan. The comparison of data obtained in the two-year studies (2008-2009 under conditions of natural ECB infestation, shows prevalence of plants with damages of leaves (type H2 and tassels (type M3-4, which is indicated with the average score of 2.43. According to the average scores, it can be concluded that ECB infestation did not result in damages that would have significantly affected maize yield. In order to establish significance of certain observed parameters, they were compared and their correlations were determined. The greatest negative correlation with the 0.05 probability level (r= -0.96533 was established between the plant damage score and the recorded yield. Since recorded value of coefficients of correlation was approximately 1, it can be stated that the complete functional linear dependence existed among variables. Achieved results show efficiency of insecticides based on thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in the regulation of the infestation level in maize and also point to negative effects of the fungus B. bassiana on entomofauna of maize and its mycoinsecticide activity that could find an application in biocontrol of insect pests of maize.

  2. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers and whet......Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...

  3. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase Gene from Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Shan Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves contain abundant flavan-3-ols, which include dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H: EC 1.14.13.21 is one of the enzymes in the establishment of the hydroxylation pattern. A gene encoding F3′H, designated as CsF3′H, was isolated from Camellia sinensis with a homology-based cloning technique and deposited in the GenBank (GenBank ID: KT180309. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CsF3′H was highly homologous with the characterized F3′Hs from other plant species. Four conserved cytochrome P450-featured motifs and three F3′H-specific conserved motifs were discovered in the protein sequence of CsF3′H. Enzymatic analysis of the heterologously expressed CsF3′H in yeast demonstrated that tea F3′H catalyzed the 3′-hydroxylation of naringenin, dihydrokaempferol and kaempferol. Apparent Km values for these substrates were 17.08, 143.64 and 68.06 μM, and their apparent Vmax values were 0.98, 0.19 and 0.44 pM·min−1, respectively. Transcription level of CsF3′H in the new shoots, during tea seed germination was measured, along with that of other key genes for flavonoid biosynthesis using real-time PCR technique. The changes in 3′,4′-flavan-3-ols, 3′,4′,5′-flavan-3-ols and flavan-3-ols, were consistent with the expression level of CsF3′H and other related genes in the leaves. In the study of nitrogen supply for the tea plant growth, our results showed the expression level of CsF3′H and all other tested genes increased in response to nitrogen depletion after 12 days of treatment, in agreement with a corresponding increase in 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols content in the leaves. All these results suggest the importance of CsF3′H in the biosynthesis of 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols in tea leaves.

  4. Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana, and Paecilomyces lilacinus, to Tetranychus kanzawai infesting papaya seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus kanzawai is an economically important polyphagous mite species in East and South Asia. In the Philippines, it commonly infests cassava and papaya plants. The mites attack and severely damage the older leaves of papaya trees as well as seedlings. Its serious damage causes the leaves to dry up, thus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Three entomopathogenic fungal isolates were tested on mites under greenhouse conditions using treated papaya seedlings following a completely randomized design. The mites tested were examined under a dissecting scope to determine the causal agent and to confirm mortality. The LT50 of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus on T. kanzawai were estimated. Our results indicate that among these entomopathogenic fungi, the Metarhizium anisopliae Ma6 isolate (LT50= 3.00 days has potentiality for the control of T. kanzawai.

  5. The Microbiome and Metabolites in Fermented Pu-erh Tea as Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing and Quantitative Multiplex Metabolite Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Skaar, Ida; Sulyok, Michael; Liu, Xingzhong; Rao, Mingyong; Taylor, John W

    2016-01-01

    Pu-erh is a tea produced in Yunnan, China by microbial fermentation of fresh Camellia sinensis leaves by two processes, the traditional raw fermentation and the faster, ripened fermentation. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in leaves and both Pu-erhs by high-throughput, rDNA-amplicon sequencing and we characterized the profile of bioactive extrolite mycotoxins in Pu-erh teas by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 390 fungal and 629 bacterial OTUs from leaves and both Pu-erhs. Major findings are: 1) fungal diversity drops and bacterial diversity rises due to raw or ripened fermentation, 2) fungal and bacterial community composition changes significantly between fresh leaves and both raw and ripened Pu-erh, 3) aging causes significant changes in the microbial community of raw, but not ripened, Pu-erh, and, 4) ripened and well-aged raw Pu-erh have similar microbial communities that are distinct from those of young, raw Ph-erh tea. Twenty-five toxic metabolites, mainly of fungal origin, were detected, with patulin and asperglaucide dominating and at levels supporting the Chinese custom of discarding the first preparation of Pu-erh and using the wet tea to then brew a pot for consumption.

  6. Effect of treatment with a mixture of bacteria and fibrolytic enzymes on the quality and safety of corn silage infested with different levels of rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, O C M; Kim, S C; Adesogan, A T

    2012-09-01

    This project aimed to determine if a dual-purpose bacterial inoculant could mitigate potential adverse effects of increasing levels of rust infestation on the quality, aerobic stability, and safety of corn silage. Corn plants with no rust infestation (NR), or medium (all leaves on the lower half of the plant affected, MR), or high (all leaves affected, HR) levels of southern rust infestation were harvested at random locations on a field, chopped, and ensiled without (control, CON) or with a dual-purpose inoculant applied at a rate that supplied 1×10(5) cfu/g of Pediococcus pentosaceus 12455 and 4×10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788. Each treatment was prepared in quadruplicate in 20-L mini silos and ensiled for 97 d. As the level of rust infestation increased, the concentrations of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber increased, whereas DM digestibility decreased by up to 16%. Control HR silages also had lower 24-h neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD; 36.2% of DM) than CON MR (39.8%) or NR silages (38.1%). Inoculation increased the NDFD of NR (43.4%) and MR silages (45.7%) but not HR silages (33.0%). Concentrations of lactate and volatile fatty acids decreased with increasing rust infestation in CON silages, but this trend was absent in inoculated silages. In HR silages, inoculation increased aerobic stability by 75% (77.3 vs. 44 h), and prevented production of aflatoxin (5.2 vs. 0 mg/kg). The concentration of aflatoxin in uninoculated HR silages exceeded action levels stipulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In conclusion, increasing rust infestation was associated with reductions in the nutritive value and fermentation of corn silage. Inoculation reduced adverse effects of rust infestation on the fermentation, increased 24-h NDFD of NR and MR silages, and decreased aerobic spoilage and aflatoxin production in HR silages. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Retrospect of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J N; Zhang, X L; Guo, H

    2017-01-28

    Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea.

  8. Effect of increasing levels of nitrogen on yield of tea in different agro-ecological conditions of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.S. Hamid; Tahira Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted on mature tea bushes of Qi-Men variety at two different altitudes from sealevel i.e. at National Tea Research Institute Shinkiari (1000 m) and on farmer's field in Konsh valley at village Battal (1500m). Different levels of nitrogen with constant dose of phosphorus and potassium were applied to observe the optimal dose of nutrients for highest yield under local edaphic conditions. The experiment was repeated for three consecutive years.The highest yield of fresh tea leaves were obtained by the application of 420 kg ha-1 N followed by the application of 360kg ha-1 N at 1000 masl. The highest dose of nitrogen also reduced significantly the soil pH in the upper (0-15cm) layer depth during 1998 and 1999. During the year 2000, the reduction in soil pH was observed by the application of highest dose of nitrogen but was non-significant at 5% level. The lower soil depth (15-30 cm) showed the reduction in pH with the highest dose of nitrogen during the experimental year but was statistically non significant.At the higher altitude of 1500 masi the highest yield of fresh tea leaves was obtained by the application of 420 kg ha-1during the experimental years but the increase was significant during the year 1999 and 2000. The yield of the fresh tea leaves was positively correlated with the amount of nitrogen application at both the altitudes. The increasing amount of nitrogen decreased the soil pH at both the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm. Unlike the lower altitude (1000 m) there was no any significant reduction in the soil pH during 1998 and 1999. A significant reduction in soil pH was found in the year 2000.

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in a patient with severe ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoshal Uday

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis, common in the tropics, may result in potentially fatal hyperinfection during treatment with immunosuppressive drugs used to treat patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC. Hence, importance of early recognition and treatment of this nematode in patients with UC before starting immunosuppressive drugs can not be overemphasized. We report a 23-yrs old man with UC who presented with acute severe attack. Since his UC did not respond to intravenous hydrocortisone over 6 days, oral cyclosporine was started on 7th day after repeating stool microscopy, which revealed larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Duodenal aspirate also confirmed presence of multiple larvae. He responded to treatment for Strongyloides stercoralis , continuation of hydrocortisone and cyclosporine. Importance of early diagnosis of infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis while on treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for severe UC is emphasized. Difficulties in diagnosis and management of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in patients with UC are discussed.

  10. Drinking Tea May Lower Bad Cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; Doering; 郑凤听

    2003-01-01

    喝茶,有益于健康。本文所说的是“红茶”(black tea),而非“绿茶”(green tea)。在美国喝茶者简直与时俱增:…total sales of tea in 2002 were$5.03 billion,up from$1.84 billion in 1990!本文用深入浅出的语言对喝茶的益处作了说明,同时,其文字表达也不乏可以品味处,如下句中的动词saw:Those who bad regular tea saw their LDL levels drop about 11 percent comparedwith the caffeine placebo.

  11. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  12. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using activated tea waste: Adsorption on a fixed-bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, M K

    2009-08-01

    An inexpensive and effective adsorbent was developed from waste tea leaves for the dynamic uptake of Pb(II). Characterization of the adsorbents showed a clear change between physico-chemical properties of activated tea waste and simply tea waste. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of activated tea waste in continuous flow removal of Pb(II) ions from synthetic aqueous effluents. The performance of the system was evaluated to assess the effect of various process variables, viz., of bed height, hydraulic loading rate and initial feed concentration on breakthrough time and adsorption capacity. The shape of the breakthrough curves was determined for the adsorption of Pb(II) by varying different operating parameters like hydraulic loading rate (2.3-9.17m(3)/hm(2)), bed height (0.3-0.5m) and feed concentration (2-10mg/l). An attempt has also been made to model the data generated from column studies using the empirical relationship based on the Bohart-Adams model. There was an acceptable degree of agreement between the data for breakthrough time calculated from the Bohart-Adams model and the present experimental study with average absolute deviation of less than 5.0%. The activated tea waste in this study showed very good promise as compared with the other adsorbents available in the literature. The adsorbent could be suitable for repeated use (for more than four cycles) without noticeable loss of capacity.

  13. Effects of Maté Tea Intake on ex Vivo LDL Peroxidation Induced by Three Different Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lobato T. Matsumoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis is a native South America plant widely consumed as different beverages. Yerba maté leaves contains high concentrations of polyphenols that are responsible for its high in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The in vivo antioxidant properties vis a vis LDL particles has not yet been studied for maté tea, the roasted yerba maté product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of maté tea ingestion ex vivo on human LDL. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples of healthy women were taken in three different times: before drinking the tea, one hour later and after one week (7 days of daily consumption of maté tea. The isolated LDL was oxidized by three different pathways [copper (CuSO4, lipoxygenase and peroxynitrite (SIN-1]. Conjugated dienes and structural modifications on LDL were evaluated. Ingestion of maté tea increased LDL resistance towards ex vivo copper oxidation, but did not alter the peroxidation pattern when SIN-1 or lipoxygenase were used as oxidants

  14. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kowalski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products.A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material.In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas.

  15. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids in Camellia sinensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency that are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenol (TP and low levels of amino acids (AA in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration of EBR (0.5 ppm caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate (GOGAT enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential implication

  16. Brassinosteroids Improve Quality of Summer Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by Balancing Biosynthesis of Polyphenols and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ahammed, Golam J.; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Lan; Wei, Ji-Peng; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Summer grown green tea is less popular due to bitterness and high astringency, which are attributed to high levels of tea polyphenols (TP) and low levels of amino acids (AA) in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.). Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of steroidal plant hormones can regulate primary and secondary metabolism in a range of plant species under both normal and stress conditions. However, specific effects of BRs on the photosynthesis of tea plants and the quality of summer green tea are largely unknown. Here we show that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, promoted photosynthesis in tea plants in a concentration-dependent manner. Stimulation in photosynthesis by EBR resulted in an increased summer tea yield. Although all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm) of EBR increased concentrations of TP and AA, a moderate concentration (0.5 ppm) caused the highest decrease in TP to AA ratio, an important feature of quality tea. Time-course analysis using 0.5 ppm EBR as foliar spray revealed that TP or AA concentration increased as early as 3 h after EBR application, reaching the highest peak at 24 h and that remained more or less stable. Importantly, such changes in TP and AA concentration by EBR resulted in a remarkably decreased but stable TP to AA ratio at 24 h and onward. Furthermore, concentrations of catechins and theanine increased, while that of caffeine remained unaltered following treatment with EBR. EBR improved activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and glutamine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) enzymes involved in catechins and theanine biosynthesis, respectively. Transcript analysis revealed that transcript levels of CsPAL and CsGS peaked as early as 6 h, while that of CsGOGAT peaked at 12 h following application of EBR, implying that EBR increased the concentration of TP and AA by inducing their biosynthesis. These results suggest a positive role of BR in enhancing green tea quality, which might have potential

  17. 液态发酵型茶酒的研制%Study on Tea Wine Process of Liquid State Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋陈凯; 陈文品

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨酿制优质茶酒的工艺技术,通过系列实验,对发酵工艺技术进行了系统研究,分别实验了绿茶、红茶、单丛茶叶原料。对茶酒进行理化成分的测定,并结合感官审评,获得的较佳的配方设计:茶叶原料为红茶,茶水比为1∶100(质量/体积),酒曲添加量为6g/L,加糖量为180g/L。实验中确定液态发酵型茶酒的较佳工艺条件:茶叶形态为整片茶叶,协同茶汤共同发酵,发酵温度为20℃,发酵时间为15d,蔗糖分2次加入。根据感官评定结果,对茶酒质量影响由大到小的因素依次为:茶水比、茶叶种类、温度、加糖次数。%To explore production of high quality tea wine,a series of fermentation experiments were performed. The superiority is reflected in the fermented tea wine sample from black tea. The best experimental design: Black tea to water ratio is 1∶100(weight/volume);distillers yeast addition is 6g/L;and sugar addition is 180 g/L. The best tea wine technology of liquid state fermentation: The whole tea leaves are fermented with tea soup for 15 days at 20℃;sugar addition is divided into 2 times. Factors that affect the quality of tea liquor from appreciable to subtle according to sensory evaluation: tea to water ratio,tea type,temperature,and sugar added time.

  18. Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalçın, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, İhsan Hakkı; Erdem, Teoman

    2013-12-01

    Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation.

  19. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants.

  20. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chroni...