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Sample records for inferior parietal neurons

  1. Potential role of monkey inferior parietal neurons coding action semantic equivalences as precursors of parts of speech.

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    Yamazaki, Yumiko; Yokochi, Hiroko; Tanaka, Michio; Okanoya, Kazuo; Iriki, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The anterior portion of the inferior parietal cortex possesses comprehensive representations of actions embedded in behavioural contexts. Mirror neurons, which respond to both self-executed and observed actions, exist in this brain region in addition to those originally found in the premotor cortex. We found that parietal mirror neurons responded differentially to identical actions embedded in different contexts. Another type of parietal mirror neuron represents an inverse and complementary property of responding equally to dissimilar actions made by itself and others for an identical purpose. Here, we propose a hypothesis that these sets of inferior parietal neurons constitute a neural basis for encoding the semantic equivalence of various actions across different agents and contexts. The neurons have mirror neuron properties, and they encoded generalization of agents, differentiation of outcomes, and categorization of actions that led to common functions. By integrating the activities of these mirror neurons with various codings, we further suggest that in the ancestral primates' brains, these various representations of meaningful action led to the gradual establishment of equivalence relations among the different types of actions, by sharing common action semantics. Such differential codings of the components of actions might represent precursors to the parts of protolanguage, such as gestural communication, which are shared among various members of a society. Finally, we suggest that the inferior parietal cortex serves as an interface between this action semantics system and other higher semantic systems, through common structures of action representation that mimic language syntax.

  2. Neural representations of social status hierarchy in human inferior parietal cortex.

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    Chiao, Joan Y; Harada, Tokiko; Oby, Emily R; Li, Zhang; Parrish, Todd; Bridge, Donna J

    2009-01-01

    Mental representations of social status hierarchy share properties with that of numbers. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the neural representation of numerical magnitude lies within a network of regions within inferior parietal cortex. However the neural basis of social status hierarchy remains unknown. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they compared social status magnitude of people, objects and symbols, as well as numerical magnitude. Both social status and number comparisons recruited bilateral intraparietal sulci. We also observed a semantic distance effect whereby neural activity within bilateral intraparietal sulci increased for semantically close relative to far numerical and social status comparisons. These results demonstrate that social status and number comparisons recruit distinct and overlapping neuronal representations within human inferior parietal cortex.

  3. Abstract Representations of Object-Directed Action in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobule.

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    Chen, Quanjing; Garcea, Frank E; Jacobs, Robert A; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2018-06-01

    Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects. Classifiers were trained and tested across task (e.g., training data: pantomime; testing data: identification), stimulus format (e.g., training data: word format; testing format: picture) and specific objects (e.g., training data: scissors vs. corkscrew; testing data: pliers vs. screwdriver). The only brain region in which action relations among objects could be decoded across task, stimulus format and objects was the inferior parietal lobule. By contrast, medial aspects of the ventral surface of the left temporal lobe represented object function, albeit not at the same level of abstractness as actions in the inferior parietal lobule. These results suggest compulsory access to abstract action information in the inferior parietal lobe even when simply identifying objects.

  4. Development of rostral inferior parietal lobule area functional connectivity from late childhood to early adulthood.

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    Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Dong, Guangheng; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Haifeng; Du, Xiaoxia

    2017-06-01

    Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been extensively studied in monkeys and adult humans, very little is known about its development. Previous studies suggest that the MNS is present by infancy and that the brain and MNS-related cognitive abilities (such as language, empathy, and imitation learning) continue to develop after childhood. In humans, the PFt area of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) seems to particularly correlate with the functional properties of the PF area in primates, which contains mirror neurons. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the PFt area with other brain areas and whether these networks change over time. Here, we investigated the FC development of the PFt area-based network in 59 healthy subjects aged 7-26 years at resting-state to study brain development from late childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. The bilateral PFt showed similar core FC networks, which included the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyri, the insula, the somatosensory cortex, the precuneus, the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the temporal lobe, and the cerebellum posterior lobes. Furthermore, the FC between the left PFt and the left IPL exhibited a significantly positive correlation with age, and the FC between the left PFt and the right postcentral gyrus exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. In addition, the FC between the right PFt and the right putamen exhibited a significantly negative correlation with age. Our findings suggest that the PFt area-based network develops and is reorganized with age. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of Right-hemispheric Dominance of Inferior Parietal Lobule in Proprioceptive Illusion Task

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    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Functional lateralization can be an indicator of brain maturation. We have consistently shown that, in the adult brain, proprioceptive processing of muscle spindle afferents generating illusory movement of the right hand activates inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in a right-side dominant manner in addition to the cerebrocerebellar motor network. Here we provide novel evidence regarding the development of the right-dominant use of the inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in humans using this task. We studied brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 60 right-handed blindfolded healthy children (8–11 years), adolescents (12–15 years), and young adults (18–23 years) (20 per group) experienced the illusion. Adult-like right-dominant use of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was observed in adolescents, while children used the IPL bilaterally. In contrast, adult-like lateralized cerebrocerebellar motor activation patterns were already observable in children. The right-side dominance progresses during adolescence along with the suppression of the left-sided IPL activity that emerges during childhood. Therefore, the neuronal processing implemented in the adult's right IPL during the proprioceptive illusion task is likely mediated bilaterally during childhood, and then becomes right-lateralized during adolescence at a substantially later time than the lateralized use of the cerebrocerebellar motor system for kinesthetic processing. PMID:28968653

  6. Development of Right-hemispheric Dominance of Inferior Parietal Lobule in Proprioceptive Illusion Task.

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    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru

    2017-11-01

    Functional lateralization can be an indicator of brain maturation. We have consistently shown that, in the adult brain, proprioceptive processing of muscle spindle afferents generating illusory movement of the right hand activates inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in a right-side dominant manner in addition to the cerebrocerebellar motor network. Here we provide novel evidence regarding the development of the right-dominant use of the inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in humans using this task. We studied brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 60 right-handed blindfolded healthy children (8-11 years), adolescents (12-15 years), and young adults (18-23 years) (20 per group) experienced the illusion. Adult-like right-dominant use of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was observed in adolescents, while children used the IPL bilaterally. In contrast, adult-like lateralized cerebrocerebellar motor activation patterns were already observable in children. The right-side dominance progresses during adolescence along with the suppression of the left-sided IPL activity that emerges during childhood. Therefore, the neuronal processing implemented in the adult's right IPL during the proprioceptive illusion task is likely mediated bilaterally during childhood, and then becomes right-lateralized during adolescence at a substantially later time than the lateralized use of the cerebrocerebellar motor system for kinesthetic processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Mirror neuron system: basic findings and clinical applications.

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    Iacoboni, Marco; Mazziotta, John C

    2007-09-01

    In primates, ventral premotor and rostral inferior parietal neurons fire during the execution of hand and mouth actions. Some cells (called mirror neurons) also fire when hand and mouth actions are just observed. Mirror neurons provide a simple neural mechanism for understanding the actions of others. In humans, posterior inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal areas have mirror properties. These human areas are relevant to imitative learning and social behavior. Indeed, the socially isolating condition of autism is associated with a deficit in mirror neuron areas. Strategies inspired by mirror neuron research recently have been used in the treatment of autism and in motor rehabilitation after stroke.

  8. Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the human parietal neocortex

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    V Benagiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of immunocytochemical studies have indicated the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of various species of mammals. Whether such cholinergic neurons in the human cerebral cortex are exclusively of subcortical origin is still debated. In this immunocytochemical study, the existence of cortical cholinergic neurons was investigated on surgical samples of human parietal association neocortex using a highly specific monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine biosynthesising enzyme. ChAT immunoreactivity was detected in a subpopulation of neurons located in layers II and III. These were small or medium-sized pyramidal neurons which showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the perikarya and processes, often in close association to blood microvessels. This study, providing demonstration of ChAT neurons in the human parietal neocortex, strongly supports the existence of intrinsic cholinergic innervation of the human neocortex. It is likely that these neurons contribute to the cholinergic innervation of the intracortical microvessels.

  9. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

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    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  10. Predicting oculomotor behaviour from correlated populations of posterior parietal neurons.

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    Graf, Arnulf B A; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-01-23

    Oculomotor function critically depends on how signals representing saccade direction and eye position are combined across neurons in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area of the posterior parietal cortex. Here we show that populations of parietal neurons exhibit correlated variability, and that using these interneuronal correlations yields oculomotor predictions that are more accurate and also less uncertain. The structure of LIP population responses is therefore essential for reliable read-out of oculomotor behaviour.

  11. Functional Clustering of the Human Inferior Parietal Lobule by Whole-Brain Connectivity Mapping of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signals

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    Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The human inferior parietal lobule (IPL) comprised the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus, angular gyrus, and supramarginal gyrus, defined on the basis of anatomical landmarks and cytoarchitectural organization of neurons. However, it is not clear as to whether the three areas represent functional subregions within the IPL. For instance, imaging studies frequently identified clusters of activities that cut across areal boundaries. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to examine how individual voxels within the IPL are best clustered according to their connectivity to the whole brain. The results identified a best estimate of seven clusters that are hierarchically arranged as the anterior, middle, and posterior subregions. The anterior, middle, and posterior IPL are each significantly connected to the somatomotor areas, superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, and regions of the default mode network. This functional segregation is supported by recent cytoarchitechtonics and tractography studies. IPL showed hemispheric differences in connectivity that accord with a predominantly left parietal role in tool use and language processing and a right parietal role in spatial attention and mathematical cognition. The functional clusters may also provide a more parsimonious and perhaps even accurate account of regional activations of the IPL during a variety of cognitive challenges, as reported in earlier fMRI studies. PMID:24308753

  12. The role of inferior parietal and inferior frontal cortex in working memory.

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    Baldo, Juliana V; Dronkers, Nina F

    2006-09-01

    Verbal working memory involves two major components: a phonological store that holds auditory-verbal information very briefly and an articulatory rehearsal process that allows that information to be refreshed and thus held longer in short-term memory (A. Baddeley, 1996, 2000; A. Baddeley & G. Hitch, 1974). In the current study, the authors tested two groups of patients who were chosen on the basis of their relatively focal lesions in the inferior parietal (IP) cortex or inferior frontal (IF) cortex. Patients were tested on a series of tasks that have been previously shown to tap phonological storage (span, auditory rhyming, and repetition) and articulatory rehearsal (visual rhyming and a 2-back task). As predicted, IP patients were disproportionately impaired on the span, rhyming, and repetition tasks and thus demonstrated a phonological storage deficit. IF patients, however, did not show impairment on these storage tasks but did exhibit impairment on the visual rhyming task, which requires articulatory rehearsal. These findings lend further support to the working memory model and provide evidence of the roles of IP and IF cortex in separable working memory processes. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

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    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Inferior parietal and right frontal contributions to trial-by-trial adaptations of attention to memory.

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    Kizilirmak, Jasmin M; Rösler, Frank; Bien, Siegfried; Khader, Patrick H

    2015-07-21

    The attention to memory theory (AtoM) proposes that the same brain regions might be involved in selective processing of perceived stimuli (selective attention) and memory representations (selective retrieval). Although this idea is compelling, given consistently found neural overlap between perceiving and remembering stimuli, recent comparisons brought evidence for overlap as well as considerable differences. Here, we present a paradigm that enables the investigation of the AtoM hypothesis from a novel perspective to gain further insight into the neural resources involved in AtoM. Selective attention in perception is often investigated as a control process that shows lingering effects on immediately following trials. Here, we employed a paradigm capable of modulating selective retrieval in a similarly dynamic manner as in such selective-attention paradigms by inducing trial-to-trial shifts between relevant and irrelevant memory representations as well as changes of the width of the internal focus on memory. We found evidence for an involvement of bilateral inferior parietal lobe and right inferior frontal gyrus in reorienting the attentional focus on previously accessed memory representations. Moreover, we could dissociate the right inferior from the parietal activation in separate contrasts, suggesting that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in facilitating attentional reorienting to memory representations when competing representations have been activated in the preceding trial, potentially by resolving this competition. Our results support the AtoM theory, i.e. that ventral frontal and parietal regions are involved in automatic attentional reorienting in memory, and highlight the importance of further investigations of the overlap and differences between regions involved in internal (memory) and external (perceptual) attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Observing complex action sequences: The role of the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system.

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    Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Kaplan, Jonas; Greenfield, Patricia M; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-11-15

    A fronto-parietal mirror neuron network in the human brain supports the ability to represent and understand observed actions allowing us to successfully interact with others and our environment. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we wanted to investigate the response of this network in adults during observation of hierarchically organized action sequences of varying complexity that emerge at different developmental stages. We hypothesized that fronto-parietal systems may play a role in coding the hierarchical structure of object-directed actions. The observation of all action sequences recruited a common bilateral network including the fronto-parietal mirror neuron system and occipito-temporal visual motion areas. Activity in mirror neuron areas varied according to the motoric complexity of the observed actions, but not according to the developmental sequence of action structures, possibly due to the fact that our subjects were all adults. These results suggest that the mirror neuron system provides a fairly accurate simulation process of observed actions, mimicking internally the level of motoric complexity. We also discuss the results in terms of the links between mirror neurons, language development and evolution.

  16. Activation in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule Reflects the Representation of Musical Structure beyond Simple Pitch Discrimination

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    Royal, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T.; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Robitaille, Nicolas; Schönwiesner, Marc; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Pitch discrimination tasks typically engage the superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. It is currently unclear whether these regions are equally involved in the processing of incongruous notes in melodies, which requires the representation of musical structure (tonality) in addition to pitch discrimination. To this aim, 14 participants completed two tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, one in which they had to identify a pitch change in a series of non-melodic repeating tones and a second in which they had to identify an incongruous note in a tonal melody. In both tasks, the deviants activated the right superior temporal gyrus. A contrast between deviants in the melodic task and deviants in the non-melodic task (melodic > non-melodic) revealed additional activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. Activation in the inferior parietal lobule likely represents processes related to the maintenance of tonal pitch structure in working memory during pitch discrimination. PMID:27195523

  17. [Neuroanatomy of the Parietal Association Areas].

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    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2016-11-01

    The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule. Visual information is processed through the dorsal visual pathway and it reaches the inferior parietal lobule, the intraparietal sulcus and the precuneus. Acoustic information is transferred posteriorly from the primary acoustic area, and it reaches the posterior region of the inferior parietal lobule. The areas in the intraparietal sulcus project to the premotor area, the frontal eye fields, and the prefrontal area. These areas are involved in the control of ocular movements, reaching and grasping of the upper extremities, and spatial working memory. The posterior region of the inferior parietal lobule and the precuneus both project either directly, or indirectly via the posterior cingulate gyrus, to the parahippocampal and entorhinal cortices. Both these areas are strongly associated with hippocampal functions for long-term memory formation.

  18. Temporal structure in neuronal activity during working memory in Macaque parietal cortex

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    Pesaran, B; Sahami, M; Mitra, P; Andersen, R A

    2000-01-01

    A number of cortical structures are reported to have elevated single unit firing rates sustained throughout the memory period of a working memory task. How the nervous system forms and maintains these memories is unknown but reverberating neuronal network activity is thought to be important. We studied the temporal structure of single unit (SU) activity and simultaneously recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from area LIP in the inferior parietal lobe of two awake macaques during a memory-saccade task. Using multitaper techniques for spectral analysis, which play an important role in obtaining the present results, we find elevations in spectral power in a 50--90 Hz (gamma) frequency band during the memory period in both SU and LFP activity. The activity is tuned to the direction of the saccade providing evidence for temporal structure that codes for movement plans during working memory. We also find SU and LFP activity are coherent during the memory period in the 50--90 Hz gamma band and no consisten...

  19. Dysregulated left inferior parietal activity in schizophrenia and depression: functional connectivity and characterization

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    Veronika I. Müller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal cortex (IPC is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state and task-dependent (MACM analyses we aimed at characterizing this particular region with regard to its connectivity and function. Across both approaches, results revealed functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal seed region with bilateral IPC, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PrC/PCC, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, left middle frontal (MFG as well as inferior frontal (IFG gyrus. Network-level functional characterization further revealed that on the one hand, all interconnected regions are part of a network involved in memory processes. On the other hand, sub-networks are formed when emotion, language, social cognition and reasoning processes are required. Thus, the IPC-region that is dysregulated in both depression and schizophrenia is functionally connected to a network of regions which, depending on task demands may form sub-networks. These results therefore indicate that dysregulation of left IPC in depression and schizophrenia might not only be connected to deficits in audiovisual integration, but is possibly also associated to impaired memory and deficits in emotion processing in these patient groups.

  20. Recency Effects in the Inferior Parietal Lobe during Verbal Recognition Memory

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    Bradley Russell Buchsbaum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such recency effects have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations – the memory strength and expectancy hypotheses, respectively -- of the parietal lobe recency effect.

  1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the mirror neuron system during social intentions.

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    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Bolmont, Mylene; Monteleone, George

    2017-10-27

    Previous research has shown that specific goals and intentions influence a person's allocation of social attention. From a neural viewpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests that the inferior fronto-parietal network, including the mirror neuron system, plays a role in the planning and the understanding of motor intentions. However, it is unclear whether and when the mirror neuron system plays a role in social intentions. Combining a behavioral task with electrical neuroimaging in 22 healthy male participants, the current study investigates whether the temporal brain dynamic of the mirror neuron system differs during two types of social intentions i.e., lust vs. romantic intentions. Our results showed that 62% of the stimuli evoking lustful intentions also evoked romantic intentions, and both intentions were sustained by similar activations of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule/angular gyrus for the first 432 ms after stimulus onset. Intentions to not love or not lust, on the other hand, were characterized by earlier differential activations of the inferior fronto-parietal network i.e., as early as 244 ms after stimulus onset. These results suggest that the mirror neuron system may not only code for the motor correlates of intentions, but also for the social meaning of intentions and its valence at both early/automatic and later/more elaborative stages of information processing.

  2. Single-cell analysis of peptide expression and electrophysiology of right parietal neurons involved in male copulation behavior of a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

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    El Filali, Z; de Boer, P A C M; Pieneman, A W; de Lange, R P J; Jansen, R F; Ter Maat, A; van der Schors, R C; Li, K W; van Straalen, N M; Koene, J M

    2015-12-01

    Male copulation is a complex behavior that requires coordinated communication between the nervous system and the peripheral reproductive organs involved in mating. In hermaphroditic animals, such as the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, this complexity increases since the animal can behave both as male and female. The performance of the sexual role as a male is coordinated via a neuronal communication regulated by many peptidergic neurons, clustered in the cerebral and pedal ganglia and dispersed in the pleural and parietal ganglia. By combining single-cell matrix-assisted laser mass spectrometry with retrograde staining and electrophysiology, we analyzed neuropeptide expression of single neurons of the right parietal ganglion and their axonal projections into the penial nerve. Based on the neuropeptide profile of these neurons, we were able to reconstruct a chemical map of the right parietal ganglion revealing a striking correlation with the earlier electrophysiological and neuroanatomical studies. Neurons can be divided into two main groups: (i) neurons that express heptapeptides and (ii) neurons that do not. The neuronal projection of the different neurons into the penial nerve reveals a pattern where (spontaneous) activity is related to branching pattern. This heterogeneity in both neurochemical anatomy and branching pattern of the parietal neurons reflects the complexity of the peptidergic neurotransmission involved in the regulation of male mating behavior in this simultaneous hermaphrodite.

  3. Differential contributions of the superior and inferior parietal cortex to feedback versus feedforward control of tools.

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    Macuga, Kristen L; Frey, Scott H

    2014-05-15

    Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts' reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal order processing of syllables in the left parietal lobe.

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    Moser, Dana; Baker, Julie M; Sanchez, Carmen E; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2009-10-07

    Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere.

  5. Somatomotor and oculomotor inferior olivary neurons have distinct electrophysiological phenotypes

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    Urbano, Francisco J.; Simpson, John I.; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2006-01-01

    The electrophysiological properties of rat inferior olive (IO) neurons in the dorsal cap of Kooy (DCK) and the adjacent ventrolateral outgrowth (VLO) were compared with those of IO neurons in the principal olive (PO). Whereas DCK/VLO neurons are involved in eye movement control via their climbing fiber projection to the cerebellar flocculus, PO neurons control limb and digit movements via their climbing fiber projection to the lateral cerebellar hemisphere. In vitro patch recordings from DCK/VLO neurons revealed that low threshold calcium currents, Ih currents, and subthreshold oscillations are lacking in this subset of IO neurons. The recordings of activity in DCK neurons obtained by using voltage-sensitive dye imaging showed that activity is not limited to a single neuron, but rather that clusters of DCK neurons can be active in unison. These electrophysiological results show that the DCK/VLO neurons have unique properties that set them apart from the neurons in the PO nucleus. This finding indicates that motor control, from the perspective of the olivocerebellar system, is fundamentally different for the oculomotor and the somatomotor systems. PMID:17050678

  6. Intrinsic connections and architectonics of posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, D.N.; Seltzer, B.

    1982-01-01

    By means of autoradiographic and ablation-degeneration techniques, the intrinsic cortical connections of the posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey were traced and correlated with a reappraisal of cerebral architectonics. Two major rostral-to-caudal connectional sequences exist. One begins in the dorsal postcentral gyrus (area 2) and proceeds, through architectonic divisions of the superior parietal lobule (areas PE and PEc), to a cortical region on the medial surface of the parietal lobe (area PGm). This area has architectonic features similar to those of the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). The second sequence begins in the ventral post/central gyrus (area 2) and passes through the rostral inferior parietal lobule (areas PG and PFG) to reach the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). Both the superior parietal lobule and the rostral inferior parietal lobule also send projections to various other zones located in the parietal opercular region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the caudalmost portion of the cingulate sulcus. Areas PGm and PG, on the other hand, project to each other, to the cingulate region, to the caudalmost portion of the superior temporal gyrus, and to the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, a reciprocal sequence of connections, directed from caudal to rostral, links together many of the above-mentioned parietal zones. With regard to the laminar pattern of termination, the rostral-to-caudal connections are primarily distributed in the form of cortical ''columns'' while the caudal-to-rostral connections are found mainly over the first cortical cell layer

  7. Facial expressions : What the mirror neuron system can and cannot tell us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Christiaan; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Keysers, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Facial expressions contain both motor and emotional components. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior parietal cortex have been considered to compose a mirror neuron system (MNS) for the motor components of facial expressions, while the amygdala and insula may represent an "additional" MNS

  8. Self-Face Recognition Begins to Share Active Region in Right Inferior Parietal Lobule with Proprioceptive Illusion During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2018-04-01

    We recently reported that right-side dominance of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in self-body recognition (proprioceptive illusion) task emerges during adolescence in typical human development. Here, we extend this finding by demonstrating that functional lateralization to the right IPL also develops during adolescence in another self-body (specifically a self-face) recognition task. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 60 right-handed healthy children (8-11 years), adolescents (12-15 years), and adults (18-23 years; 20 per group) while they judged whether a presented face was their own (Self) or that of somebody else (Other). We also analyzed fMRI data collected while they performed proprioceptive illusion task. All participants performed self-face recognition with high accuracy. Among brain regions where self-face-related activity (Self vs. Other) developed, only right IPL activity developed predominantly for self-face processing, with no substantial involvement in other-face processing. Adult-like right-dominant use of IPL emerged during adolescence, but was not yet present in childhood. Adult-like common activation between the tasks also emerged during adolescence. Adolescents showing stronger right-lateralized IPL activity during illusion also showed this during self-face recognition. Our results suggest the importance of the right IPL in neuronal processing of information associated with one's own body in typically developing humans.

  9. Role of the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention: An rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareham, Corinne A; Georgieva, Stanimira D; Kamke, Marc R; Lloyd, David; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Mattingley, Jason B

    2018-02-01

    Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone. Such "extinction" of contralesional stimuli has been documented for all the major sense modalities, but it remains unclear whether its occurrence reflects involvement of one or more specific subregions of the temporo-parietal cortex. Here we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right hemisphere to examine the effect of disruption of two candidate regions - the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) - on auditory selective attention. Eighteen neurologically normal, right-handed participants performed an auditory task, in which they had to detect target digits presented within simultaneous dichotic streams of spoken distractor letters in the left and right channels, both before and after 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the SMG, STG or a somatosensory control site (S1). Across blocks, participants were asked to report on auditory streams in the left, right, or both channels, which yielded focused and divided attention conditions. Performance was unchanged for the two focused attention conditions, regardless of stimulation site, but was selectively impaired for contralateral left-sided targets in the divided attention condition following stimulation of the right SMG, but not the STG or S1. Our findings suggest a causal role for the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals a role for the left inferior parietal lobule in matching observed kinematics during imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Royce, Ben P; Marsh, Jade E; Chivers, Katy-Jayne; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2018-04-01

    Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e. unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the IPL is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left IPL, or how different types of action (i.e. meaningful or meaningless) are processed for imitation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to bridge this gap and better understand the roles of the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and left angular gyrus (AG) in imitation. We also examined whether these areas are differentially involved in meaningful and meaningless action imitation. We applied rTMS over the left SMG, over the left AG or during a no-rTMS baseline condition, and then asked participants to imitate a confederate's actions whilst the arm and hand movements of both individuals were motion-tracked. rTMS over both the left SMG and the left AG reduced the velocity of participants' finger movements relative to the actor during imitation of finger gestures, regardless of action meaning. Our results support recent claims in apraxia and confirm a role for the left IPL in kinematic processing during gesture imitation, regardless of action meaning. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. One-way traffic: The inferior frontal gyrus controls brain activation in the middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule during divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Beatty, Erin L; Smith, Ingrid; Blackler, Kristen; Lam, Quan; Forbes, Sarah

    2018-02-23

    Contrary to earlier approaches that focused on the contributions of isolated brain regions to the emergence of creativity, there is now growing consensus that creative thought emerges from the interaction of multiple brain regions, often embedded within larger brain networks. Specifically, recent evidence from studies of divergent thinking suggests that kernel ideas emerge in posterior brain regions residing within the semantic system and/or the default mode network (DMN), and that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions within the executive control network (ECN) constrain those ideas for generating outputs that meet task demands. However, despite knowing that regions within these networks exhibit interaction, to date the direction of the relationship has not been tested directly. By applying Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) to fMRI data collected during a divergent thinking task, we tested the hypothesis that the PFC exerts unidirectional control over the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), vs. the hypothesis that these two sets of regions exert bidirectional control over each other (in the form of feedback loops). The data were consistent with the former model by demonstrating that the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) exerts unidirectional control over MTG and IPL, although the evidence was somewhat stronger in the case of the MTG than the IPL. Our findings highlight potential causal pathways that could underlie the neural bases of divergent thinking. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiated parietal connectivity of frontal regions for "what" and "where" memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottschy, C; Caspers, S; Roski, C; Reetz, K; Dogan, I; Schulz, J B; Zilles, K; Laird, A R; Fox, P T; Eickhoff, S B

    2013-11-01

    In a previous meta-analysis across almost 200 neuroimaging experiments, working memory for object location showed significantly stronger convergence on the posterior superior frontal gyrus, whereas working memory for identity showed stronger convergence on the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (dorsal to, but overlapping with Brodmann's area BA 44). As similar locations have been discussed as part of a dorsal frontal-superior parietal reach system and an inferior frontal grasp system, the aim of the present study was to test whether the regions of working-memory related "what" and "where" processing show a similar distinction in parietal connectivity. The regions that were found in the previous meta-analysis were used as seeds for functional connectivity analyses using task-based meta-analytic connectivity modelling and task-independent resting state correlations. While the ventral seed showed significantly stronger connectivity with the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), the dorsal seed showed stronger connectivity with the bilateral posterior inferior parietal and the medial superior parietal lobule. The observed connections of regions involved in memory for object location and identity thus clearly demonstrate a distinction into separate pathways that resemble the parietal connectivity patterns of the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex in non-human primates and humans. It may hence be speculated that memory for a particular location and reaching towards it as well as object memory and finger positioning for manipulation may rely on shared neural systems. Moreover, the ensuing regions, in turn, featured differential connectivity with the bilateral ventral and dorsal extrastriate cortex, suggesting largely segregated bilateral connectivity pathways from the dorsal visual cortex via the superior and inferior parietal lobules to the dorsal posterior frontal cortex and from the ventral visual cortex via the IPS to the ventral posterior frontal cortex that may

  13. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    projections were reconstructed for both species and results compared to identify similarities or differences in tract anatomy (i.e., trajectories and cortical projections). In addition, post-mortem dissections were performed in a human brain. The largest tract identified in both human and monkey brains...... and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobule in humans but only to the supramarginal gyrus in the monkey brain. The third tract connects the postcentral gyrus to the anterior region of the superior parietal lobule and is more prominent in monkeys compared to humans. Finally, short U-shaped fibres...... and monkeys with some differences for those areas that have cytoarchitectonically distinct features in humans. The overall pattern of intraparietal connectivity supports the special role of the inferior parietal lobule in cognitive functions characteristic of humans....

  14. Virtual lesions of the inferior parietal cortex induce fast changes of implicit religiousness/spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2014-05-01

    Religiousness and spirituality (RS) are two ubiquitous aspects of human experience typically considered impervious to scientific investigation. Nevertheless, associations between RS and frontoparietal neural activity have been recently reported. However, much less is known about whether such activity is causally involved in modulating RS or just epiphenomenal to them. Here we combined two-pulse (10 Hz) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) with a novel, ad-hoc developed RS-related, Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate whether implicit RS representations, although supposedly rather stable, can be rapidly modified by a virtual lesion of inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A self-esteem (SE) IAT, focused on self-concepts nonrelated to RS representations, was developed as control. A specific increase of RS followed inhibition of IPL demonstrating its causative role in inducing fast plastic changes of religiousness/spirituality. In contrast, DLPFC inhibition had more widespread effects probably reflecting a general role in the acquisition or maintenance of task-rules or in controlling the expression of self-related representations not specific to RS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive global synchrony of inferior olive neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keum W; Singh, Sahjendra N

    2009-01-01

    This paper treats the question of global adaptive synchronization of inferior olive neurons (IONs) based on the immersion and invariance approach. The ION exhibits a variety of orbits as the parameter (termed the bifurcation parameter), which appears in its nonlinear functions, is varied. It is seen that once the bifurcation parameter exceeds a critical value, the stability of the equilibrium point of the ION is lost, and periodic orbits are born. The size and shape of the orbits depend on the value of the bifurcation parameter. It is assumed that bifurcation parameters of the IONs are not known. The orbits of IONs beginning from arbitrary initial conditions are not synchronized. For the synchronization of the IONs, a non-certainty equivalent adaptation law is derived. The control system has a modular structure consisting of an identifier and a control module. Using the Lyapunov approach, it is shown that in the closed-loop system, global synchronization of the neurons with a prescribed relative phase is accomplished, and the estimated bifurcation parameters converge to the true parameters. Unlike the certainty-equivalent adaptive control systems, an interesting feature of the designed control system is that whenever the estimated parameters coincide with the true values, the parameter estimates remain frozen thereafter, and the closed-loop system recovers the performance of the deterministic closed-loop system. Simulation results are presented which show that in the closed-loop system, the synchrony of neurons with prescribed phases is accomplished despite the uncertainties in the bifurcation parameters.

  16. Excitatory stimulation of the right inferior parietal cortex lessens implicit religiousness/spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Di Bucchianico, Marilena; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-04-01

    Although religiousness and spirituality (RS) are considered two fundamental constituents of human life, neuroscientific investigation has long avoided the study of their neurocognitive basis. Nevertheless, recent investigations with brain imaging and brain damaged patients, and more recently with brain stimulation methods, have documented important associations between RS beliefs and experiences and frontoparietal neural activity. In this study, we further investigated how individuals' implicit RS self-representations can be modulated by changes in right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) excitability, a key region associated to RS. To this end, we combined continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), intermittent TBS (iTBS), and sham TBS with RS-related, Implicit Association Test (IAT) and with a control self-esteem (SE) IAT in a group of fourteen healthy adult individuals. A specific decrease of implicit RS, as measured with the IAT effect, was induced by increasing IPL excitability with iTBS; conversely cTBS, which is supposedly inhibitory, left participants' implicit RS unchanged. The performance in the control SE-IAT was left unchanged by any TBS stimulation. These data showed the causative role of right IPL functional state in mediating plastic changes of implicit RS. Implications of these results are also discussed in the light of the variability of behavioral effects associated with TBS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of top-down spatial attention on laterality and hemispheric asymmetry in the human parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su Keun; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-08-01

    The human parietal cortex exhibits a preference to contralaterally presented visual stimuli (i.e., laterality) as well as an asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the left parietal cortex showing greater laterality than the right. Using visual short-term memory and perceptual tasks and varying target location predictability, this study examined whether hemispheric laterality and asymmetry are fixed characteristics of the human parietal cortex or whether they are dynamic and modulated by the deployment of top-down attention to the target present hemifield. Two parietal regions were examined here that have previously been shown to be involved in visual object individuation and identification and are located in the inferior and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively. Across three experiments, significant laterality was found in both parietal regions regardless of attentional modulation with laterality being greater in the inferior than superior IPS, consistent with their roles in object individuation and identification, respectively. Although the deployment of top-down attention had no effect on the superior IPS, it significantly increased laterality in the inferior IPS. The deployment of top-down spatial attention can thus amplify the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry, on the other hand, was absent in both brain regions and only emerged in the inferior but not the superior IPS with the deployment of top-down attention. Interestingly, the strength of hemispheric asymmetry significantly correlated with the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry thus seems to only emerge when there is a sufficient amount of laterality present in a brain region.

  18. High-alpha band synchronization across frontal, parietal and visual cortex mediates behavioral and neuronal effects of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Palva, J Matias; Palva, Satu

    2018-01-15

    Visuospatial attention prioritizes processing of attended visual stimuli. It is characterized by lateralized alpha-band (8-14 Hz) amplitude suppression in visual cortex and increased neuronal activity in a network of frontal and parietal areas. It has remained unknown what mechanisms coordinate neuronal processing among frontoparietal network and visual cortices and implement the attention-related modulations of alpha-band amplitudes and behavior. We investigated whether large-scale network synchronization could be such a mechanism. We recorded human cortical activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a visuospatial attention task. We then identified the frequencies and anatomical networks of inter-areal phase synchronization from source localized MEG data. We found that visuospatial attention is associated with robust and sustained long-range synchronization of cortical oscillations exclusively in the high-alpha (10-14 Hz) frequency band. This synchronization connected frontal, parietal and visual regions and was observed concurrently with amplitude suppression of low-alpha (6-9 Hz) band oscillations in visual cortex. Furthermore, stronger high-alpha phase synchronization was associated with decreased reaction times to attended stimuli and larger suppression of alpha-band amplitudes. These results thus show that high-alpha band phase synchronization is functionally significant and could coordinate the neuronal communication underlying the implementation of visuospatial attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The inferior parietal lobule and recognition memory : expectancy violation or successful retrieval?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Han, Sanghoon; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2010-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic recognition demonstrate an increased lateral parietal response for studied versus new materials, often termed a retrieval success effect. Using a novel memory analog of attentional cueing, we manipulated the correspondence between anticipated and actual recognition evidence by presenting valid or invalid anticipatory cues (e. g., "likely old") before recognition judgments. Although a superior parietal region demonstrated the retrieval success patter...

  20. Sex-dependent age modulation of frontostriatal and temporo-parietal activation during cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakou, Anastasia; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna B; Ifkovits, Eve; Brammer, Mick; Rubia, Katya

    2009-10-15

    Developmental functional imaging studies of cognitive control show progressive age-related increase in task-relevant fronto-striatal activation in male development from childhood to adulthood. Little is known, however, about how gender affects this functional development. In this study, we used event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine effects of sex, age, and their interaction on brain activation during attentional switching and interference inhibition, in 63 male and female adolescents and adults, aged 13 to 38. Linear age correlations were observed across all subjects in task-specific frontal, striatal and temporo-parietal activation. Gender analysis revealed increased activation in females relative to males in fronto-striatal areas during the Switch task, and laterality effects in the Simon task, with females showing increased left inferior prefrontal and temporal activation, and males showing increased right inferior prefrontal and parietal activation. Increased prefrontal activation clusters in females and increased parietal activation clusters in males furthermore overlapped with clusters that were age-correlated across the whole group, potentially reflecting more mature prefrontal brain activation patterns for females, and more mature parietal activation patterns for males. Gender by age interactions further supported this dissociation, revealing exclusive female-specific age correlations in inferior and medial prefrontal brain regions during both tasks, and exclusive male-specific age correlations in superior parietal (Switch task) and temporal regions (Simon task). These findings show increased recruitment of age-correlated prefrontal activation in females, and of age-correlated parietal activation in males, during tasks of cognitive control. Gender differences in frontal and parietal recruitment may thus be related to gender differences in the neurofunctional maturation of these brain regions.

  1. Mirror neurons: functions, mechanisms and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons for manipulation fire both when the animal manipulates an object in a specific way and when it sees another animal (or the experimenter) perform an action that is more or less similar. Such neurons were originally found in macaque monkeys, in the ventral premotor cortex, area F5 and later also in the inferior parietal lobule. Recent neuroimaging data indicate that the adult human brain is endowed with a "mirror neuron system," putatively containing mirror neurons and other neurons, for matching the observation and execution of actions. Mirror neurons may serve action recognition in monkeys as well as humans, whereas their putative role in imitation and language may be realized in human but not in monkey. This article shows the important role of computational models in providing sufficient and causal explanations for the observed phenomena involving mirror systems and the learning processes which form them, and underlines the need for additional circuitry to lift up the monkey mirror neuron circuit to sustain the posited cognitive functions attributed to the human mirror neuron system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning of spatial relationships between observed and imitated actions allows invariant inverse computation in the frontal mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Reggia, James A; Contreras-Vidal, José L

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator's frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions.

  3. Motor imagery training: Kinesthetic imagery strategy and inferior parietal fMRI activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Florent; Horn, Ulrike; Domin, Martin; Lotze, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is the mental simulation of action frequently used by professionals in different fields. However, with respect to performance, well-controlled functional imaging studies on MI training are sparse. We investigated changes in fMRI representation going along with performance changes of a finger sequence (error and velocity) after MI training in 48 healthy young volunteers. Before training, we tested the vividness of kinesthetic and visual imagery. During tests, participants were instructed to move or to imagine moving the fingers of the right hand in a specific order. During MI training, participants repeatedly imagined the sequence for 15 min. Imaging analysis was performed using a full-factorial design to assess brain changes due to imagery training. We also used regression analyses to identify those who profited from training (performance outcome and gain) with initial imagery scores (vividness) and fMRI activation magnitude during MI at pre-test (MI pre ). After training, error rate decreased and velocity increased. We combined both parameters into a common performance index. FMRI activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) was associated with MI and increased over time. In addition, fMRI activation in the right IPL during MI pre was associated with high initial kinesthetic vividness. High kinesthetic imagery vividness predicted a high performance after training. In contrast, occipital activation, associated with visual imagery strategies, showed a negative predictive value for performance. Our data echo the importance of high kinesthetic vividness for MI training outcome and consider IPL as a key area during MI and through MI training. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of human parietal area 7A as a link between sequencing in hand actions and in overt speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eHeim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focussed on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether sequencing of hand motor actions vs. speech motor actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable "po" once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables (po-pi-po. Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca's region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45. In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a yet little considered role of the superior parietal lobule in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the

  5. Learning of Spatial Relationships between Observed and Imitated Actions allows Invariant Inverse Computation in the Frontal Mirror Neuron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Reggia, James A.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system can facilitate learning by imitation through coupling of observation and action execution. During imitation of observed actions, the functional relationship between and within the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, and the superior temporal sulcus can be modeled within the internal model framework. The proposed biologically plausible mirror neuron system model extends currently available models by explicitly modeling the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in implementing the function of a frame of reference transformation during imitation. Moreover, the model posits the ventral premotor cortex as performing an inverse computation. The simulations reveal that: i) the transformation system can learn and represent the changes in extrinsic to intrinsic coordinates when an imitator observes a demonstrator; ii) the inverse model of the imitator’s frontal mirror neuron system can be trained to provide the motor plans for the imitated actions. PMID:22255261

  6. The effect of correlated neuronal firing and neuronal heterogeneity on population coding accuracy in guinea pig inferior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oran Zohar

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the considerable noise in single-cell responses to a stimulus can be overcome by pooling information from a large population. Theoretical studies indicated that correlations in trial-to-trial fluctuations in the responses of different neurons may limit the improvement due to pooling. Subsequent theoretical studies have suggested that inherent neuronal diversity, i.e., the heterogeneity of tuning curves and other response properties of neurons preferentially tuned to the same stimulus, can provide a means to overcome this limit. Here we study the effect of spike-count correlations and the inherent neuronal heterogeneity on the ability to extract information from large neural populations. We use electrophysiological data from the guinea pig Inferior-Colliculus to capture inherent neuronal heterogeneity and single cell statistics, and introduce response correlations artificially. To this end, we generate pseudo-population responses, based on single-cell recording of neurons responding to auditory stimuli with varying binaural correlations. Typically, when pseudo-populations are generated from single cell data, the responses within the population are statistically independent. As a result, the information content of the population will increase indefinitely with its size. In contrast, here we apply a simple algorithm that enables us to generate pseudo-population responses with variable spike-count correlations. This enables us to study the effect of neuronal correlations on the accuracy of conventional rate codes. We show that in a homogenous population, in the presence of even low-level correlations, information content is bounded. In contrast, utilizing a simple linear readout, that takes into account the natural heterogeneity, even of neurons preferentially tuned to the same stimulus, within the neural population, one can overcome the correlated noise and obtain a readout whose accuracy grows linearly with the size of

  7. Convergent input from brainstem coincidence detectors onto delay-sensitive neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, D; Jiang, D; Shackleton, T M; Palmer, A R

    1998-08-01

    Responses of low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized guinea pigs were studied with binaural beats to assess their mean best interaural phase (BP) to a range of stimulating frequencies. Phase plots (stimulating frequency vs BP) were produced, from which measures of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) for each neuron were obtained. The CD provides an estimate of the difference in travel time from each ear to coincidence-detector neurons in the brainstem. The CP indicates the mechanism underpinning the coincidence detector responses. A linear phase plot indicates a single, constant delay between the coincidence-detector inputs from the two ears. In more than half (54 of 90) of the neurons, the phase plot was not linear. We hypothesized that neurons with nonlinear phase plots received convergent input from brainstem coincidence detectors with different CDs. Presentation of a second tone with a fixed, unfavorable delay suppressed the response of one input, linearizing the phase plot and revealing other inputs to be relatively simple coincidence detectors. For some neurons with highly complex phase plots, the suppressor tone altered BP values, but did not resolve the nature of the inputs. For neurons with linear phase plots, the suppressor tone either completely abolished their responses or reduced their discharge rate with no change in BP. By selectively suppressing inputs with a second tone, we are able to reveal the nature of underlying binaural inputs to IC neurons, confirming the hypothesis that the complex phase plots of many IC neurons are a result of convergence from simple brainstem coincidence detectors.

  8. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.

  9. Amygdala, Pulvinar & Inferior Parietal Cortex Contribute to Early Processing of Faces without Awareness

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    Vanessa eTroiani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the present study were twofold. First, we wished to investigate the neural correlates of stimulus-driven processing of stimuli strongly suppressed from awareness and in the absence of top-down influences. We accomplished this using a novel approach in which participants performed an orthogonal task atop a flash suppression noise image to prevent top-down search. Second, we wished to investigate the extent to which amygdala responses differentiate between suppressed stimuli (fearful faces and houses based on their motivational relevance. Using continuous flash suppression in conjunction with fMRI, we presented fearful faces, houses, and a no stimulus control to one eye while participants performed an orthogonal task that appeared atop the flashing Mondrian image presented to the opposite eye. In 29 adolescents, we show activation in subcortical regions, including the superior colliculus, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus for suppressed objects (fearful faces and houses compared to a no stimulus control. Suppressed stimuli showed less activation compared to a no stimulus control in early visual cortex, indicating that object information was being suppressed from this region. Additionally, we find no activation in regions associated with conscious processing of these percepts (fusiform gyrus and/or parahippocampal cortex as assessed by mean activations and multi-voxel patterns. A psychophysiological interaction analysis that seeded the amygdala showed task-specific (fearful faces greater than houses modulation of right pulvinar and left inferior parietal cortex. Taken together, our results support a role for the amygdala in stimulus-driven attentional guidance towards objects of relevance and a potential mechanism for successful suppression of rivalrous stimuli.

  10. Visual perception is dependent on visuospatial working memory and thus on the posterior parietal cortex.

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    Pisella, Laure

    2017-06-01

    Visual perception involves complex and active processes. We will start by explaining why visual perception is dependent on visuospatial working memory, especially the spatiotemporal integration of the perceived elements through the ocular exploration of visual scenes. Then we will present neuropsychology, transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroimaging data yielding information on the specific role of the posterior parietal cortex of the right hemisphere in visuospatial working memory. Within the posterior parietal cortex, neuropsychology data also suggest that there might be dissociated neural substrates for deployment of attention (superior parietal lobules) and spatiotemporal integration (right inferior parietal lobule). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of temporal processing stages by inferior temporal neurons in facial recognition

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    Yasuko eSugase-Miyamoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on the role of temporal stages of encoded facial information in the visual system, which might enable the efficient determination of species, identity, and expression. Facial recognition is an important function of our brain and is known to be processed in the ventral visual pathway, where visual signals are processed through areas V1, V2, V4, and the inferior temporal (IT cortex. In the IT cortex, neurons show selective responses to complex visual images such as faces, and at each stage along the pathway the stimulus selectivity of the neural responses becomes sharper, particularly in the later portion of the responses.In the IT cortex of the monkey, facial information is represented by different temporal stages of neural responses, as shown in our previous study: the initial transient response of face-responsive neurons represents information about global categories, i.e., human vs. monkey vs. simple shapes, whilst the later portion of these responses represents information about detailed facial categories, i.e., expression and/or identity. This suggests that the temporal stages of the neuronal firing pattern play an important role in the coding of visual stimuli, including faces. This type of coding may be a plausible mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of recognition, including the process of detection/categorization followed by the identification of objects. Recent single-unit studies in monkeys have also provided evidence consistent with the important role of the temporal stages of encoded facial information. For example, view-invariant facial identity information is represented in the response at a later period within a region of face-selective neurons. Consistent with these findings, temporally modulated neural activity has also been observed in human studies. These results suggest a close correlation between the temporal processing stages of facial information by IT neurons and the temporal dynamics of

  12. Activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex signals the accumulation of evidence in a probability learning task.

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    Mathieu d'Acremont

    Full Text Available In an uncertain environment, probabilities are key to predicting future events and making adaptive choices. However, little is known about how humans learn such probabilities and where and how they are encoded in the brain, especially when they concern more than two outcomes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, young adults learned the probabilities of uncertain stimuli through repetitive sampling. Stimuli represented payoffs and participants had to predict their occurrence to maximize their earnings. Choices indicated loss and risk aversion but unbiased estimation of probabilities. BOLD response in medial prefrontal cortex and angular gyri increased linearly with the probability of the currently observed stimulus, untainted by its value. Connectivity analyses during rest and task revealed that these regions belonged to the default mode network. The activation of past outcomes in memory is evoked as a possible mechanism to explain the engagement of the default mode network in probability learning. A BOLD response relating to value was detected only at decision time, mainly in striatum. It is concluded that activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex reflects the amount of evidence accumulated in favor of competing and uncertain outcomes.

  13. Neuronal synchronization in human parietal cortex during saccade planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, J. van der; Buchholz, V.N.; Jensen, O.; Medendorp, W.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in sensorimotor integration and saccade planning However, the temporal dynamics of the underlying physiology and its relationship to observations in non-human primates have been difficult to pin

  14. The effect of rTMS over the inferior parietal lobule on EEG sensorimotor reactivity differs according to self-reported traits of autism in typically developing individuals.

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    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Cantarella, Simona; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-12-06

    Previous research suggested that EEG markers of mirror neuron system activation may differ, in the normal population as a function of different levels of the autistic spectrum quotient; (AQ). The present study aimed at modulating the EEG sensorimotor reactivity induced by hand movement observation by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the inferior parietal lobule. We examined how the resulting rTMS modulation differed in relation to the self-reported autistic traits in the typically developing population. Results showed that during sham stimulation, all participants had significantly greater sensorimotor alpha reactivity (motor cortex-C electrodes) when observing hand movements compared to static hands. This sensorimotor alpha reactivity difference was reduced during active rTMS stimulation. Results also revealed that in the average AQ group at sham there was a significant increase in low beta during hand movement than static hand observation (pre-motor areas-FC electrodes) and that (like alpha over the C electrodes) this difference is abolished when active rTMS is delivered. Participants with high AQ scores showed no significant difference in low beta sensorimotor reactivity between active and sham rTMS during static hand or hand movement observation. These findings suggest that unlike sham, active rTMS over the IPL modulates the oscillatory activity of the low beta frequency of a distal area, namely the anterior sector of the sensorimotor cortex, when participants observe videos of static hand. Importantly, this modulation differs according to the degree of self-reported traits of autism in a typically developing population. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CNS activation and regional connectivity during pantomime observation: no engagement of the mirror neuron system for deaf signers.

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    Emmorey, Karen; Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Braun, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Deaf signers have extensive experience using their hands to communicate. Using fMRI, we examined the neural systems engaged during the perception of manual communication in 14 deaf signers and 14 hearing non-signers. Participants passively viewed blocked video clips of pantomimes (e.g., peeling an imaginary banana) and action verbs in American Sign Language (ASL) that were rated as meaningless by non-signers (e.g., TO-DANCE). In contrast to visual fixation, pantomimes strongly activated fronto-parietal regions (the mirror neuron system, MNS) in hearing non-signers, but only bilateral middle temporal regions in deaf signers. When contrasted with ASL verbs, pantomimes selectively engaged inferior and superior parietal regions in hearing non-signers, but right superior temporal cortex in deaf signers. The perception of ASL verbs recruited similar regions as pantomimes for deaf signers, with some evidence of greater involvement of left inferior frontal gyrus for ASL verbs. Functional connectivity analyses with left hemisphere seed voxels (ventral premotor, inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus) revealed robust connectivity with the MNS for the hearing non-signers. Deaf signers exhibited functional connectivity with the right hemisphere that was not observed for the hearing group for the fusiform gyrus seed voxel. We suggest that life-long experience with manual communication, and/or auditory deprivation, may alter regional connectivity and brain activation when viewing pantomimes. We conclude that the lack of activation within the MNS for deaf signers does not support an account of human communication that depends upon automatic sensorimotor resonance between perception and action.

  16. Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome.

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    McGeoch, Paul D; Brang, David; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong; Ramachandran, V S

    2011-12-01

    Damage to the right parietal lobe has long been associated with various disorders of body image. The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction. Four subjects who desired the amputation of healthy legs (two right, one left and one, at first, bilateral and then left only) were recruited and underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) scans during tactile stimulation of sites above and below the desired amputation line. Regions of interest (ROIs) in each hemisphere (superior parietal lobule (SPL), inferior parietal lobule, S1, M1, insula, premotor cortex and precuneus) were defined using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of average MEG activity across the 40-140 ms post-stimulation timeframe was carried out using an unpaired t test. This revealed significantly reduced activation only in the right SPL ROI for the subjects' affected legs when compared with both subjects' unaffected legs and that of controls. The right SPL is a cortical area that appears ideally placed to unify disparate sensory inputs to create a coherent sense of having a body. The authors propose that inadequate activation of the right SPL leads to the unnatural situation in which the sufferers can feel the limb in question being touched without it actually incorporating into their body image, with a resulting desire for amputation. The authors introduce the term 'xenomelia' as a more appropriate name than apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder, for what appears to be an unrecognised right parietal lobe syndrome.

  17. Post-spike hyperpolarization participates in the formation of auditory behavior-related response patterns of inferior collicular neurons in Hipposideros pratti.

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    Li, Y-L; Fu, Z-Y; Yang, M-J; Wang, J; Peng, K; Yang, L-J; Tang, J; Chen, Q-C

    2015-03-19

    To probe the mechanism underlying the auditory behavior-related response patterns of inferior collicular neurons to constant frequency-frequency modulation (CF-FM) stimulus in Hipposideros pratti, we studied the role of post-spike hyperpolarization (PSH) in the formation of response patterns. Neurons obtained by in vivo extracellular (N=145) and intracellular (N=171) recordings could be consistently classified into single-on (SO) and double-on (DO) neurons. Using intracellular recording, we found that both SO and DO neurons have a PSH with different durations. Statistical analysis showed that most SO neurons had a longer PSH duration than DO neurons (p<0.01). These data suggested that the PSH directly participated in the formation of SO and DO neurons, and the PSH elicited by the CF component was the main synaptic mechanism underlying the SO and DO response patterns. The possible biological significance of these findings relevant to bat echolocation is discussed. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in the Response Properties of Inferior Colliculus Neurons Relating to Tinnitus

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    Berger, Joel I.; Coomber, Ben; Wells, Tobias T.; Wallace, Mark N.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is often identified in animal models by using the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Impaired gap detection following acoustic over-exposure (AOE) is thought to be caused by tinnitus “filling in” the gap, thus, reducing its salience. This presumably involves altered perception, and could conceivably be caused by changes at the level of the neocortex, i.e., cortical reorganization. Alternatively, reduced gap detection ability might reflect poorer temporal processing in the brainstem, caused by AOE; in which case, impaired gap detection would not be a reliable indicator of tinnitus. We tested the latter hypothesis by examining gap detection in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons following AOE. Seven of nine unilaterally noise-exposed guinea pigs exhibited behavioral evidence of tinnitus. In these tinnitus animals, neural gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in the IC significantly increased in response to broadband noise stimuli, but not to pure tones or narrow-band noise. In addition, when IC neurons were sub-divided according to temporal response profile (onset vs. sustained firing patterns), we found a significant increase in the proportion of onset-type responses after AOE. Importantly, however, GDTs were still considerably shorter than gap durations commonly used in objective behavioral tests for tinnitus. These data indicate that the neural changes observed in the IC are insufficient to explain deficits in behavioral gap detection that are commonly attributed to tinnitus. The subtle changes in IC neuron response profiles following AOE warrant further investigation. PMID:25346722

  19. Seeing is not feeling: posterior parietal but not somatosensory cortex engagement during touch observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Annie W-Y; Baker, Chris I

    2015-01-28

    Observing touch has been reported to elicit activation in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and is suggested to underlie our ability to interpret other's behavior and potentially empathy. However, despite these reports, there are a large number of inconsistencies in terms of the precise topography of activation, the extent of hemispheric lateralization, and what aspects of the stimulus are necessary to drive responses. To address these issues, we investigated the localization and functional properties of regions responsive to observed touch in a large group of participants (n = 40). Surprisingly, even with a lenient contrast of hand brushing versus brushing alone, we did not find any selective activation for observed touch in the hand regions of somatosensory cortex but rather in superior and inferior portions of neighboring posterior parietal cortex, predominantly in the left hemisphere. These regions in the posterior parietal cortex required the presence of both brush and hand to elicit strong responses and showed some selectivity for the form of the object or agent of touch. Furthermore, the inferior parietal region showed nonspecific tactile and motor responses, suggesting some similarity to area PFG in the monkey. Collectively, our findings challenge the automatic engagement of somatosensory cortex when observing touch, suggest mislocalization in previous studies, and instead highlight the role of posterior parietal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351468-13$15.00/0.

  20. Interaural time sensitivity of high-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S; Sujaku, Y

    1984-11-01

    Recent psychoacoustic experiments have shown that interaural time differences provide adequate cues for lateralizing high-frequency sounds, provided the stimuli are complex and not pure tones. We present here physiological evidence in support of these findings. Neurons of high best frequency in the cat inferior colliculus respond to interaural phase differences of amplitude modulated waveforms, and this response depends upon preservation of phase information of the modulating signal. Interaural phase differences were introduced in two ways: by interaural delays of the entire waveform and by binaural beats in which there was an interaural frequency difference in the modulating waveform. Results obtained with these two methods are similar. Our results show that high-frequency cells can respond to interaural time differences of amplitude modulated signals and that they do so by a sensitivity to interaural phase differences of the modulating waveform.

  1. Reduced functional connectivity between V1 and inferior frontal cortex associated with visuomotor performance in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Michele E; Mizuno, Akiko; Dahl, Branelle C; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2005-04-15

    Some recent evidence has suggested abnormalities of the dorsal stream and possibly the mirror neuron system in autism, which may be responsible for impairments of joint attention, imitation, and secondarily for language delays. The current study investigates functional connectivity along the dorsal stream in autism, examining interregional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal cross-correlation during visuomotor coordination. Eight high-functioning autistic men and eight handedness and age-matched controls were included. Visually prompted button presses were performed with the preferred hand. For each subject, functional connectivity was computed in terms of BOLD signal correlation with the mean time series in bilateral visual area 17. Our hypothesis of reduced dorsal stream connectivity in autism was only in part confirmed. Functional connectivity with superior parietal areas was not significantly reduced. However, the autism group showed significantly reduced connectivity with bilateral inferior frontal area 44, which is compatible with the hypothesis of mirror neuron defects in autism. More generally, our findings suggest that dorsal stream connectivity in autism may not be fully functional.

  2. Maturation profile of inferior olivary neurons expressing ionotropic glutamate receptors in rats: role in coding linear accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Han, Lei; Ma, Chun-Wai; Lai, Suk-King; Lai, Chun-Hong; Shum, Daisy Kwok Yan; Chan, Ying-Shing

    2013-07-01

    Using sinusoidal oscillations of linear acceleration along both the horizontal and vertical planes to stimulate otolith organs in the inner ear, we charted the postnatal time at which responsive neurons in the rat inferior olive (IO) first showed Fos expression, an indicator of neuronal recruitment into the otolith circuit. Neurons in subnucleus dorsomedial cell column (DMCC) were activated by vertical stimulation as early as P9 and by horizontal (interaural) stimulation as early as P11. By P13, neurons in the β subnucleus of IO (IOβ) became responsive to horizontal stimulation along the interaural and antero-posterior directions. By P21, neurons in the rostral IOβ became also responsive to vertical stimulation, but those in the caudal IOβ remained responsive only to horizontal stimulation. Nearly all functionally activated neurons in DMCC and IOβ were immunopositive for the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor and the GluR2/3 subunit of the AMPA receptor. In situ hybridization studies further indicated abundant mRNA signals of the glutamate receptor subunits by the end of the second postnatal week. This is reinforced by whole-cell patch-clamp data in which glutamate receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents of rostral IOβ neurons showed postnatal increase in amplitude, reaching the adult level by P14. Further, these neurons exhibited subthreshold oscillations in membrane potential as from P14. Taken together, our results support that ionotropic glutamate receptors in the IO enable postnatal coding of gravity-related information and that the rostral IOβ is the only IO subnucleus that encodes spatial orientations in 3-D.

  3. Interlaminar differences in the pyramidal cell phenotype in parietal cortex of an Indian bat, cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, U C; Pathak, S V

    2010-10-30

    To study interlaminar phenotypic variations in the pyramidal neurons of parietal isocortex in bat (Cynopterus sphinx), Golgi and Nissl methods have been employed. The parietal isocortex is relatively thin in the bat as compared to prototheria with layer III, V and VI accounting for more than two—thirds of total cortical thickness. Thick cell free layer I and thinnest accentuated layer II are quite in connotation with other chiropterids. Poor demarcation of layer III/IV in the present study is also in connotation with primitive eutherian mammal (i.e. prototherian) and other chiropterids. Most of the pyramidal cells in the different layers of the parietal isocortex are of typical type as seen in other eutherians but differ significantly in terms of soma shape and size, extent of dendritic arbor, diameter of dendrites and spine density. Percentage of pyramidal neurons, diameter of apical dendrite and spine density on apical dendrite appear to follow an increasing trend from primitive to advanced mammals; but extent of dendrites are probably governed by the specific life patterns of these mammals. It is thus concluded that 'typical' pyramidal neurons in parietal isocortex are similar in therians but different from those in prototherians. It is possible that these cells might have arisen among early eutherians after divergence from prototherian stock.

  4. Morphometric analysis of the neuronal numbers and densities of the inferior olivary complex in the donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Rashed, Reda; Attia, Hossam

    2011-07-01

    The morphometric interrelations between the compartments of the inferior olivary complex (IOC) in the donkey (Equus asinus) were ascertained by examining serial sections throughout the entire length of the IOC for both sides. Nissl-stained celloidin sections of four brainstems of donkeys were used. The IOC consisted of three major nuclei and four small cell groups. The total neuronal count in both sides of the IOC was 202,040±8480 cells. The medial accessory olivary nucleus (MAO) had the largest relative area (46%) and the highest number of neurons (90,800±7600). The dorsal accessory olivary nucleus (DAO) had the second largest relative area (33%), while the principal olivary nucleus (PO) had the lowest relative area (21%). However, the total neuron count in the PO was larger (60,840±1840) than DAO (50,360±4040). The average neuronal density was 2700±400 cells/mm(3). The numerical values of the current study of the IOC in the donkey were similar to those of other mammals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Dysfunction of the Human Mirror Neuron System in Ideomotor Apraxia: Evidence from Mu Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel-Toledo, Silvi; Liebermann, Dario G; Bentin, Shlomo; Soroker, Nachum

    2016-06-01

    Stroke patients with ideomotor apraxia (IMA) have difficulties controlling voluntary motor actions, as clearly seen when asked to imitate simple gestures performed by the examiner. Despite extensive research, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying failure to imitate gestures in IMA remain controversial. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationship between imitation failure in IMA and mirror neuron system (MNS) functioning. Mirror neurons were found to play a crucial role in movement imitation and in imitation-based motor learning. Their recruitment during movement observation and execution is signaled in EEG recordings by suppression of the lower (8-10 Hz) mu range. We examined the modulation of EEG in this range in stroke patients with left (n = 21) and right (n = 15) hemisphere damage during observation of video clips showing different manual movements. IMA severity was assessed by the DeRenzi standardized diagnostic test. Results showed that failure to imitate observed manual movements correlated with diminished mu suppression in patients with damage to the right inferior parietal lobule and in patients with damage to the right inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis-areas where major components of the human MNS are assumed to reside. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping revealed a significant impact on imitation capacity for the left inferior and superior parietal lobules and the left post central gyrus. Both left and right hemisphere damages were associated with imitation failure typical of IMA, yet a clear demonstration of relationship to the MNS was obtained only in the right hemisphere damage group. Suppression of the 8-10 Hz range was stronger in central compared with occipital sites, pointing to a dominant implication of mu rather than alpha rhythms. However, the suppression correlated with De Renzi's apraxia test scores not only in central but also in occipital sites, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism for IMA, with a possible

  6. Immunocytochemical profiles of inferior colliculus neurons in the rat and their changes with aging

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    Ladislav eOuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC plays a strategic role in the central auditory system in relaying and processing acoustical information, and therefore its age-related changes may significantly influence the quality of the auditory function. A very complex processing of acoustical stimuli occurs in the IC, as supported also by the fact that the rat IC contains more neurons than all other subcortical auditory structures combined. GABAergic neurons, which predominantly co-express parvalbumin, are present in the central nucleus of the IC in large numbers and to a lesser extent in the dorsal and external/lateral cortices of the IC. On the other hand, calbindin and calretinin are prevalent in the dorsal and external cortices of the IC, with only a few positive neurons in the central nucleus. The relationship between calbindin and calretinin expression in the IC and any neurotransmitter system has not yet been well established, but the distribution and morphology of the immunoreactive neurons suggest that they are at least partially non-GABAergic cells. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase (a key enzyme for GABA synthesis and calcium binding proteins in the IC of rats undergoes pronounced changes with aging that involve mostly a decline in protein expression and a decline in the number of immunoreactive neurons. Similar age-related changes in glutamate decarboxylase, calbindin and calretinin expression are present in the IC of two rat strains with differently preserved inner ear function up to late senescence (Long-Evans and Fischer 344, which suggests that these changes do not depend exclusively on peripheral deafferentation but are, at least partially, of central origin. These changes may be associated with the age-related deterioration in the processing of the temporal parameters of acoustical stimuli, which is not correlated with hearing threshold shifts, and therefore may contribute to central presbycusis.

  7. The mirror neuron system and the strange case of Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Gabriella; Cabinio, Monia; Blasi, Valeria; Borroni, Paola; Iadanza, Antonella; Fava, Enrica; Fornia, Luca; Ferpozzi, Valentina; Riva, Marco; Casarotti, Alessandra; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Falini, Andrea; Bello, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Mirror neurons, originally described in the monkey premotor area F5, are embedded in a frontoparietal network for action execution and observation. A similar Mirror Neuron System (MNS) exists in humans, including precentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal sulcus. Controversial is the inclusion of Broca's area, as homologous to F5, a relevant issue in light of the mirror hypothesis of language evolution, which postulates a key role of Broca's area in action/speech perception/production. We assess "mirror" properties of this area by combining neuroimaging and intraoperative neurophysiological techniques. Our results show that Broca's area is minimally involved in action observation and has no motor output on hand or phonoarticulatory muscles, challenging its inclusion in the MNS. The presence of these functions in premotor BA6 makes this area the likely homologue of F5 suggesting that the MNS may be involved in the representation of articulatory rather than semantic components of speech. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  9. Impaired Emotional Mirroring in Parkinson’s Disease—A Study on Brain Activation during Processing of Facial Expressions

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    Anna Pohl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAffective dysfunctions are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease, but the underlying neurobiological deviations have rarely been examined. Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in impairment of motor and non-motor basal ganglia-cortical loops. Concerning emotional deficits, some studies provide evidence for altered brain processing in limbic- and lateral-orbitofrontal gating loops. In a second line of evidence, human premotor and inferior parietal homologs of mirror neuron areas were involved in processing and understanding of emotional facial expressions. We examined deviations in brain activation during processing of facial expressions in patients and related these to emotion recognition accuracy.Methods13 patients and 13 healthy controls underwent an emotion recognition task and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measurement. In the Emotion Hexagon test, participants were presented with blends of two emotions and had to indicate which emotion best described the presented picture. Blended pictures with three levels of difficulty were included. During fMRI scanning, participants observed video clips depicting emotional, non-emotional, and neutral facial expressions or were asked to produce these facial expressions themselves.ResultsPatients performed slightly worse in the emotion recognition task, but only when judging the most ambiguous facial expressions. Both groups activated inferior frontal and anterior inferior parietal homologs of mirror neuron areas during observation and execution of the emotional facial expressions. During observation, responses in the pars opercularis of the right inferior frontal gyrus, in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule and in the bilateral supplementary motor cortex were decreased in patients. Furthermore, in patients, activation of the right anterior inferior parietal lobule was positively related to accuracy in

  10. Mapping human temporal and parietal neuronal population activity and functional coupling during mathematical cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitch, Amy L.; Foster, Brett L.; Schrouff, Jessica; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Kaşikçi, Itır; Gattas, Sandra; Parvizi, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Brain areas within the lateral parietal cortex (LPC) and ventral temporal cortex (VTC) have been shown to code for abstract quantity representations and for symbolic numerical representations, respectively. To explore the fast dynamics of activity within each region and the interaction between them, we used electrocorticography recordings from 16 neurosurgical subjects implanted with grids of electrodes over these two regions and tracked the activity within and between the regions as subjects performed three different numerical tasks. Although our results reconfirm the presence of math-selective hubs within the VTC and LPC, we report here a remarkable heterogeneity of neural responses within each region at both millimeter and millisecond scales. Moreover, we show that the heterogeneity of response profiles within each hub mirrors the distinct patterns of functional coupling between them. Our results support the existence of multiple bidirectional functional loops operating between discrete populations of neurons within the VTC and LPC during the visual processing of numerals and the performance of arithmetic functions. These findings reveal information about the dynamics of numerical processing in the brain and also provide insight into the fine-grained functional architecture and connectivity within the human brain. PMID:27821758

  11. Comparable cortical activation with inferior performance in women during a novel cognitive inhibition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halari, R; Kumari, V

    2005-03-07

    Men are hypothesised to perform better than women at tasks requiring cognitive inhibition. The present study applied whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive inhibition using a novel task, requiring detection of numbers decreasing in numerical order, in relation to sex. The study involved 19 young healthy subjects (9 men, 10 women). Behavioural sex differences favouring men were found on the inhibition, but not on the automatization (i.e. detection of numbers increasing in numerical order), condition of the task. Significant areas of activation associated with cognitive inhibition included the right inferior prefrontal and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, left inferior and superior parietal lobes, and bilateral temporal regions across men and women. No brain region was significantly differently activated in men and women. Our findings demonstrate that (a) cognitive inhibition is dependent on intact processes within frontal and parietal regions, and (b) women show inferior cognitive inhibition despite of comparable activation to men in relevant regions. Equated behavioural performance may elicit sex differences in brain activation.

  12. Predicting Intentions of a Familiar Significant Other Beyond the Mirror Neuron System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Cacioppo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS. The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor. This model suggests that observers should be better at predicting intentions performed by a familiar actor, rather than a stranger. However, little is known about the modulations of the intention brain network as a function of the familiarity between the observer and the actor. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI with a behavioral intention inference task, in which participants were asked to predict intentions from three types of actors: A familiar actor (their significant other, themselves (another familiar actor, and a non-familiar actor (a stranger. Our results showed that the participants were better at inferring intentions performed by familiar actors than non-familiar actors and that this better performance was associated with greater activation within and beyond the inferior frontoparietal network i.e., in brain areas related to familiarity (e.g., precuneus. In addition, and in line with Hebbian principles of neural modulations, the more the participants reported being cognitively close to their partner, the less the brain areas associated with action self-other comparison (e.g., inferior parietal lobule, attention (e.g., superior parietal lobule, recollection (hippocampus, and pair bond (ventral tegmental area, VTA were recruited, suggesting that the

  13. Are mirror neurons the basis of speech perception? Evidence from five cases with damage to the purported human mirror system

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    Rogalsky, Corianne; Love, Tracy; Driscoll, David; Anderson, Steven W.; Hickok, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque has led to a resurrection of motor theories of speech perception. Although the majority of lesion and functional imaging studies have associated perception with the temporal lobes, it has also been proposed that the ‘human mirror system’, which prominently includes Broca’s area, is the neurophysiological substrate of speech perception. Although numerous studies have demonstrated a tight link between sensory and motor speech processes, few have directly assessed the critical prediction of mirror neuron theories of speech perception, namely that damage to the human mirror system should cause severe deficits in speech perception. The present study measured speech perception abilities of patients with lesions involving motor regions in the left posterior frontal lobe and/or inferior parietal lobule (i.e., the proposed human ‘mirror system’). Performance was at or near ceiling in patients with fronto-parietal lesions. It is only when the lesion encroaches on auditory regions in the temporal lobe that perceptual deficits are evident. This suggests that ‘mirror system’ damage does not disrupt speech perception, but rather that auditory systems are the primary substrate for speech perception. PMID:21207313

  14. Increased gray matter density in the parietal cortex of mathematicians: a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Aydin, K; Ucar, A; Oguz, K K; Okur, O O; Agayev, A; Unal, Z; Yilmaz, S; Ozturk, C

    2007-01-01

    The training to acquire or practicing to perform a skill, which may lead to structural changes in the brain, is called experience-dependent structural plasticity. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the presence of experience-dependent structural plasticity in mathematicians' brains, which may develop after long-term practice of mathematic thinking. Twenty-six volunteer mathematicians, who have been working as academicians, were enrolled in the study. We applied an optimized method of voxel-based morphometry in the mathematicians and the age- and sex-matched control subjects. We assessed the gray and white matter density differences in mathematicians and the control subjects. Moreover, the correlation between the cortical density and the time spent as an academician was investigated. We found that cortical gray matter density in the left inferior frontal and bilateral inferior parietal lobules of the mathematicians were significantly increased compared with the control subjects. Furthermore, increase in gray matter density in the right inferior parietal lobule of the mathematicians was strongly correlated with the time spent as an academician (r = 0.84; P mathematicians' brains revealed increased gray matter density in the cortical regions related to mathematic thinking. The correlation between cortical density increase and the time spent as an academician suggests experience-dependent structural plasticity in mathematicians' brains.

  15. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

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    Forge Andrew

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a perfusion protocol we demonstrate that morphine can inhibit KCl-induced release of [3H]GABA from rat inferior colliculus slices. DAMGO ([D-Ala(2, N-Me-Phe(4, Gly(5-ol]-enkephalin but not DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin or U69593 has the same effect as morphine indicating that μ rather than δ or κ opioid receptors mediate this action. [3H]GABA release was diminished by 16%, and this was not altered by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. Immunostaining of inferior colliculus cryosections shows extensive staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase, more limited staining for μ opiate receptors and relatively few neurons co-stained for both proteins. Conclusion The results suggest that μ-opioid receptor ligands can modify neurotransmitter release in a sub population of GABAergic neurons of the inferior colliculus. This could have important physiological implications in the processing of hearing information and/or other functions attributed to the inferior colliculus such as audiogenic seizures and aversive behaviour.

  16. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

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    Tongjaroenbungam, Walaiporn; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Cunningham, Joanna; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Dodson, Hilary C; Forge, Andrew; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Casalotti, Stefano O

    2004-01-01

    Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a perfusion protocol we demonstrate that morphine can inhibit KCl-induced release of [3H]GABA from rat inferior colliculus slices. DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin) but not DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin or U69593 has the same effect as morphine indicating that μ rather than δ or κ opioid receptors mediate this action. [3H]GABA release was diminished by 16%, and this was not altered by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. Immunostaining of inferior colliculus cryosections shows extensive staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase, more limited staining for μ opiate receptors and relatively few neurons co-stained for both proteins. Conclusion The results suggest that μ-opioid receptor ligands can modify neurotransmitter release in a sub population of GABAergic neurons of the inferior colliculus. This could have important physiological implications in the processing of hearing information and/or other functions attributed to the inferior colliculus such as audiogenic seizures and aversive behaviour. PMID:15353008

  17. Multineuronal vectorization is more efficient than time-segmental vectorization for information extraction from neuronal activities in the inferior temporal cortex.

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    Kaneko, Hidekazu; Tamura, Hiroshi; Tate, Shunta; Kawashima, Takahiro; Suzuki, Shinya S; Fujita, Ichiro

    2010-08-01

    In order for patients with disabilities to control assistive devices with their own neural activity, multineuronal spike trains must be efficiently decoded because only limited computational resources can be used to generate prosthetic control signals in portable real-time applications. In this study, we compare the abilities of two vectorizing procedures (multineuronal and time-segmental) to extract information from spike trains during the same total neuron-seconds. In the multineuronal vectorizing procedure, we defined a response vector whose components represented the spike counts of one to five neurons. In the time-segmental vectorizing procedure, a response vector consisted of components representing a neuron's spike counts for one to five time-segment(s) of a response period of 1 s. Spike trains were recorded from neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys presented with visual stimuli. We examined whether the amount of information of the visual stimuli carried by these neurons differed between the two vectorizing procedures. The amount of information calculated with the multineuronal vectorizing procedure, but not the time-segmental vectorizing procedure, significantly increased with the dimensions of the response vector. We conclude that the multineuronal vectorizing procedure is superior to the time-segmental vectorizing procedure in efficiently extracting information from neuronal signals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Action observation and mirror neuron network: a tool for motor stroke rehabilitation.

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    Sale, P; Franceschini, M

    2012-06-01

    Mirror neurons are a specific class of neurons that are activated and discharge both during observation of the same or similar motor act performed by another individual and during the execution of a motor act. Different studies based on non invasive neuroelectrophysiological assessment or functional brain imaging techniques have demonstrated the presence of the mirror neuron and their mechanism in humans. Various authors have demonstrated that in the human these networks are activated when individuals learn motor actions via execution (as in traditional motor learning), imitation, observation (as in observational learning) and motor imagery. Activation of these brain areas (inferior parietal lobe and the ventral premotor cortex, as well as the caudal part of the inferior frontal gyrus [IFG]) following observation or motor imagery may thereby facilitate subsequent movement execution by directly matching the observed or imagined action to the internal simulation of that action. It is therefore believed that this multi-sensory action-observation system enables individuals to (re) learn impaired motor functions through the activation of these internal action-related representations. In humans, the mirror mechanism is also located in various brain segment: in Broca's area, which is involved in language processing and speech production and not only in centres that mediate voluntary movement, but also in cortical areas that mediate visceromotor emotion-related behaviours. On basis of this finding, during the last 10 years various studies were carry out regarding the clinical use of action observation for motor rehabilitation of sub-acute and chronic stroke patients.

  19. [Mirror neurons: from anatomy to pathophysiological and therapeutic implications].

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    Mathon, B

    2013-04-01

    Mirror neurons are a special class of neurons discovered in the 1990s. They respond when we perform an action and also when we see someone else perform that action. They play a role in the pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric diseases. Mirror neurons have been identified in humans: in Broca's area and the inferior parietal cortex. Their responses are qualitative and selective depending on the observed action. Emotions (including disgust) and empathy seem to operate according to a mirror mechanism. Indeed, the mirror system allows us to encode the sensory experience and to simulate the emotional state of others. This results in our improved identification of the emotions in others. Additionally, mirror neurons can encode an observed action in motor stimuli and allow its reproduction; thus, they are involved in imitation and learning. Current studies are assessing the role of mirror neurons in the pathopysiology of social-behavior disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Understanding this mirror system will allow us to develop psychotherapy practices based on empathic resonance between the patient and the therapist. Also, some authors report that a passive rehabilitation technique, based on stimulation of the mirror-neuron system, has a beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with post-stroke motor deficits. Mirror neurons are an anatomical entity that enables improved understanding of behavior and emotions, and serves as a base for developing new cognitive therapies. Additional studies are needed to clarify the exact role of this neuronal system in social cognition and its role in the development of some neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Region specific regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA expression by dopamine neurons in rat brain.

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    Lindefors, N; Brene, S; Herrera-Marschitz, M; Persson, H

    1989-01-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry and RNA blots were used to study the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in rats with or without a unilateral lesion of midbrain dopamine neurons. Two populations of GAD mRNA positive neurons were found in the intact caudate-putamen, substantia nigra and fronto-parietal cortex. In caudate-putamen, only one out of ten of the GAD mRNA positive neurons expressed high levels, while in substantia nigra every second of the positive neurons expressed high levels of GAD mRNA. Relatively few, but intensively labelled neurons were found in the intact fronto-parietal cerebral cortex. In addition, one out of six of the GAD mRNA positive neurons in the fronto-parietal cortex showed a low labeling. On the ipsilateral side, the forebrain dopamine deafferentation induced an increase in the number of neurons expressing high levels of GAD mRNA in caudate-putamen, and a decrease in fronto-parietal cortex. A smaller decrease was also seen in substantia nigra. However, the total number of GAD mRNA positive neurons were not significantly changed in any of these brain regions. The changes in the levels of GAD mRNA after the dopamine lesion were confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Hence, midbrain dopamine neurons appear to control neuronal expression of GAD mRNA by a tonic down-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in caudate-putamen, and a tonic up-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in fronto-parietal cortex and substantia nigra.

  1. Mechanisms contributing to cluster formation in the inferior olivary nucleus in brainstem slices from postnatal mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølvraa, Mathias; Müller, Felix C; Jahnsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The inferior olivary nucleus (IO) in in vitro slices from postnatal mice (P5.5-P15.5) spontaneously generates clusters of neurons with synchronous calcium transients, and intracellular recordings from IO neurons suggest that electrical coupling between neighbouring IO neurons may serve as a synch......The inferior olivary nucleus (IO) in in vitro slices from postnatal mice (P5.5-P15.5) spontaneously generates clusters of neurons with synchronous calcium transients, and intracellular recordings from IO neurons suggest that electrical coupling between neighbouring IO neurons may serve...

  2. Olfactory bulb dysgenesis, mirror neuron system dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation as the neural basis for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Ramachandran, V S

    2010-05-01

    Autism is a disorder characterized by social withdrawal, impoverished language and empathy, and a profound inability to adopt another's viewpoint - a failure to construct a "theory of mind" for interpreting another person's thoughts and intentions. We previously showed that these symptoms might be explained, in part, by a paucity of mirror neurons. Prompted by an MRI report of an individual with autism, we now suggest that there may be, in addition, a congenital aplasia/dysplasia of the olfactory bulbs with consequent reduction of vasopressin and oxytocin receptor binding. There may also be sub-clinical temporal lobe epilepsy affecting the recently discovered third visual system that is rich in "empathy" related mirror neurons (MNS) and projects (via the TOP junction - just below the inferior parietal lobule) to limbic structures that regulate autonomic outflow. This causes deranged autonomic feedback, resulting in additional deficiencies in MNS with loss of emotional empathy and introspection.

  3. Multimodal FMRI resting-state functional connectivity in granulin mutations: the case of fronto-parietal dementia.

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    Enrico Premi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monogenic dementias represent a great opportunity to trace disease progression from preclinical to symptomatic stages. Frontotemporal Dementia related to Granulin (GRN mutations presents a specific framework of brain damage, involving fronto-temporal regions and long inter-hemispheric white matter bundles. Multimodal resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI is a promising tool to carefully describe disease signature from the earliest disease phase. OBJECTIVE: To define local connectivity alterations in GRN related pathology moving from the presymptomatic (asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers to the clinical phase of the disease (GRN- related Frontotemporal Dementia. METHODS: Thirty-one GRN Thr272fs mutation carriers (14 patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and 17 asymptomatic carriers and 38 healthy controls were recruited. Local connectivity measures (Regional Homogeneity (ReHo, Fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (fALFF and Degree Centrality (DC were computed, considering age and gender as nuisance variables as well as the influence of voxel-level gray matter atrophy. RESULTS: Asymptomatic GRN carriers had selective reduced ReHo in the left parietal region and increased ReHo in frontal regions compared to healthy controls. Considering Frontotemporal Dementia patients, all measures (ReHo, fALFF and DC were reduced in inferior parietal, frontal lobes and posterior cingulate cortex. Considering GRN mutation carriers, an inverse correlation with age in the posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule and orbitofrontal cortex was found. CONCLUSIONS: GRN pathology is characterized by functional brain network alterations even decades before the clinical onset; they involve the parietal region primarily and then spread to the anterior regions of the brain, supporting the concept of molecular nexopathies.

  4. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-controlled movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Karabanov, Anke N; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2014-01-01

    A large body of fMRI and lesion-literature has provided evidence that the Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC) is important for sensorimotor integration and sense of agency (SoA). We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to explore the role of the IPC during a validated SoA detection...

  5. Role of inferior temporal neurons in visual memory. II. Multiplying temporal waveforms related to vision and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandar, E N; Optican, L M; Richmond, B J

    1992-10-01

    1. In the companion paper we reported on the activity of neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex during a sequential pattern matching task. In this task a sample stimulus was followed by a test stimulus that was either a match or a nonmatch. Many of the neurons encoded information about the patterns of both current and previous stimuli in the temporal modulation of their responses. 2. A simple information processing model of visual memory can be formed with just four steps: 1) encode the current stimulus; 2) recall the code of a remembered stimulus; 3) compare the two codes; 4) and decide whether they are similar or different. The analysis presented in the first paper suggested that some IT neurons were performing the comparison step of visual memory. 3. We propose that IT neurons participate in the comparison of temporal waveforms related to vision and memory by multiplying them together. This product could form the basis of a crosscorrelation-based comparison. 4. We tested our hypothesis by fitting a simple multiplicative model to data from IT neurons. The model generated waveforms in separate memory and visual channels. The waveforms arising from the two channels were then multiplied on a point by point basis to yield the output waveform. The model was fitted to the actual neuronal data by a gradient descent method to find the best fit waveforms that also had the lowest total energy. 5. The multiplicative model fit the neuronal responses quite well. The multiplicative model made consistently better predictions of the actual response waveforms than did an additive model. Furthermore, the fit was better when the actual relationship between the responses and the sample and test stimuli were preserved than when that relationship was randomized. 6. We infer from the superior fit of the multiplicative model that IT neurons are multiplying temporally modulated waveforms arising from separate visual and memory systems in the comparison step of visual memory.

  6. Anatomical substrates of the alerting, orienting and executive control components of attention: focus on the posterior parietal lobe.

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    Xuntao Yin

    Full Text Available Both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies have identified that the posterior parietal lobe (PPL is critical for the attention function. However, the unique role of distinct parietal cortical subregions and their underlying white matter (WM remains in question. In this study, we collected both magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data in normal participants, and evaluated their attention performance using attention network test (ANT, which could isolate three different attention components: alerting, orienting and executive control. Cortical thickness, surface area and DTI parameters were extracted from predefined PPL subregions and correlated with behavioural performance. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used for the voxel-wise statistical analysis. Results indicated structure-behaviour relationships on multiple levels. First, a link between the cortical thickness and WM integrity of the right inferior parietal regions and orienting performance was observed. Specifically, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the integrity of WM connectivity between the bilateral inferior parietal lobules mediated the orienting performance. Second, the scores of executive control were significantly associated with the WM diffusion metrics of the right supramarginal gyrus. Finally, TBSS analysis revealed that alerting performance was significant correlated with the fractional anisotropy of local WM connecting the right thalamus and supplementary motor area. We conclude that distinct areas and features within PPL are associated with different components of attention. These findings could yield a more complete understanding of the nature of the PPL contribution to visuospatial attention.

  7. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system.

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    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-03-15

    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  8. Effect of echolocation behavior-related constant frequency-frequency modulation sound on the frequency tuning of inferior collicular neurons in Hipposideros armiger.

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    Tang, Jia; Fu, Zi-Ying; Wei, Chen-Xue; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2015-08-01

    In constant frequency-frequency modulation (CF-FM) bats, the CF-FM echolocation signals include both CF and FM components, yet the role of such complex acoustic signals in frequency resolution by bats remains unknown. Using CF and CF-FM echolocation signals as acoustic stimuli, the responses of inferior collicular (IC) neurons of Hipposideros armiger were obtained by extracellular recordings. We tested the effect of preceding CF or CF-FM sounds on the shape of the frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of IC neurons. Results showed that both CF-FM and CF sounds reduced the number of FTCs with tailed lower-frequency-side of IC neurons. However, more IC neurons experienced such conversion after adding CF-FM sound compared with CF sound. We also found that the Q 20 value of the FTC of IC neurons experienced the largest increase with the addition of CF-FM sound. Moreover, only CF-FM sound could cause an increase in the slope of the neurons' FTCs, and such increase occurred mainly in the lower-frequency edge. These results suggested that CF-FM sound could increase the accuracy of frequency analysis of echo and cut-off low-frequency elements from the habitat of bats more than CF sound.

  9. Influence of electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation on neuronal activities in patients with Alzheimer's disease: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

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    Liling Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the influence of electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation on neuronal activity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD using resting-state blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF and fraction ALFF (fALFF analysis. Methods: 42 AD patients were divided into two groups in accordance with the randomized double blind principle, every group was 21. Treatment group received electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation. Both groups received resting-state BOLD-fMRI scanning before and after treatment and comparing differences in ALFF and fALFF in each group by statistical methods. Correlation analysis was performed between ALFF or fALFF images and neuropsychological tests scale after treatment. Results: Post-therapy brain regions with higher ALFF included left cerebellum posterior lobe, right cerebellum posterior lobe, left hippocampus/parahippocampus, left posterior cingulated cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior parietal lobule in treatment group. Higher fALFF was observed in the right inferior parietal lobule. In the placebo group lower ALFF was observed in bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe and left posterior cingulated cortex. Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive section was closely correlated with ALFF in left cerebellum posterior lobe and right cerebellum posterior lobe. Conclusion: These results indicated improved neuronal activity in some brain areas could be achieved in AD after treatment of electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation. The change of BOLD-fMRI signal might provide a potential imaging strategy for studying neural mechanisms of electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation for AD. Keywords: Electroencephalograph bionic electrical stimulation, Alzheimer's disease, Low-frequency fluctuation, Fraction low-frequency fluctuation

  10. Connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichnetz, G R

    2001-06-01

    The afferent and efferent cortical and subcortical connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) were studied in cebus (Cebus apella) and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys using the retrograde and anterograde capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. The principal intraparietal corticocortical connections of area 7m in both cebus and macaque cases were with the ipsilateral medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (MIP) and adjacent superior parietal lobule (area 5), inferior parietal lobule (area 7a), lateral bank of the IPS (area 7ip), caudal parietal operculum (PGop), dorsal bank of the caudal superior temporal sulcus (visual area MST), and medial prestriate cortex (including visual area PO and caudal medial lobule). Its principal frontal corticocortical connections were with the prefrontal cortex in the shoulder above the principal sulcus and the cortex in the shoulder above the superior ramus of the arcuate sulcus (SAS), the area purported to contain the smooth eye movement-related frontal eye field (FEFsem) in the cebus monkey by other investigators. There were moderate connections with the cortex in the rostral bank of the arcuate sulcus (purported to contain the saccade-related frontal eye field; FEFsac), supplementary eye field (SEF), and rostral dorsal premotor area (PMDr). Area 7m also had major connections with the cingulate cortex (area 23), particularly the ventral bank of the cingulate sulcus. The principal subcortical connections of area 7m were with the dorsal portion of the ventrolateral thalamic (VLc) nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral pulvinar, caudal mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and medial pulvinar, central lateral, central superior lateral, and central inferior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsolateral caudate nucleus and putamen, middle region of the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, zona incerta, pregeniculate nucleus, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, intermediate layer of

  11. Preceding weak noise sharpens the frequency tuning and elevates the response threshold of the mouse inferior collicular neurons through GABAergic inhibition.

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    Wang, Xin; Jen, Philip H-S; Wu, Fei-Jian; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2007-09-05

    In acoustic communication, animals must extract biologically relevant signals that are embedded in noisy environment. The present study examines how weak noise may affect the auditory sensitivity of neurons in the central nucleus of the mouse inferior colliculus (IC) which receives convergent excitatory and inhibitory inputs from both lower and higher auditory centers. Specifically, we studied the frequency sensitivity and minimum threshold of IC neurons using a pure tone probe and a weak white noise masker under forward masking paradigm. For most IC neurons, probe-elicited response was decreased by a weak white noise that was presented at a specific gap (i.e. time window). When presented within this time window, weak noise masking sharpened the frequency tuning curve and increased the minimum threshold of IC neurons. The degree of weak noise masking of these two measurements increased with noise duration. Sharpening of the frequency tuning curve and increasing of the minimum threshold of IC neurons during weak noise masking were mostly mediated through GABAergic inhibition. In addition, sharpening of frequency tuning curve by the weak noise masker was more effective at the high than at low frequency limb. These data indicate that in the real world the ambient noise may improve frequency sensitivity of IC neurons through GABAergic inhibition while inevitably decrease the frequency response range and sensitivity of IC neurons.

  12. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of visuospatial Attention

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    Yan eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. TMS results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus, with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network.

  13. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, "regulating regions") were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, "regulated regions") were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  14. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

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    Alessandro eGrecucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation strategies on both individual and social decision making, however the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer’s intentions as more negative, down-regulation (reappraising the proposer’s intentions as less negative, as well as a baseline ‘look’ condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, regulating regions were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, regulated regions were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners’ behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal emotion regulation strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others’ intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  15. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

  16. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina eRitterband-Rosenbaum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA and inferior parietal cortex (IPC. Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963;Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998, in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modelling (DCM for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008;Herz et al., 2012. Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009 favoured a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favoured for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50-60Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40-70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action.

  17. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Nielsen, Jens B.; Christensen, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA) is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963; Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998), in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008; Herz et al., 2012). Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA) region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC) region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009) favored a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favored for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50–60 Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40–70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ) band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action. PMID:25076883

  18. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of the left inferior parietal lobule in second language learning: An intensive language training fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Soles, Jennika; Berken, Jonathan; Baum, Shari; Watkins, Kate E; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    Research to date suggests that second language acquisition results in functional and structural changes in the bilingual brain, however, in what way and how quickly these changes occur remains unclear. To address these questions, we studied fourteen English-speaking monolingual adults enrolled in a 12-week intensive French language-training program in Montreal. Using functional MRI, we investigated the neural changes associated with new language acquisition. The participants were scanned before the start of the immersion program and at the end of the 12 weeks. The fMRI scan aimed to investigate the brain regions recruited in a sentence reading task both in English, their first language (L1), and in French, their second language (L2). For the L1, fMRI patterns did not change from Time 1 to Time 2, while for the L2, the brain response changed between Time 1 and Time 2 in language-related areas. Of note, for the L2, there was higher activation at Time 2 compared to Time 1 in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) including the supramarginal gyrus. At Time 2 this higher activation in the IPL correlated with faster L2 reading speed. Moreover, higher activation in the left IPL at Time 1 predicted improvement in L2 reading speed from Time 1 to Time 2. Our results suggest that learning-induced plasticity occurred as early as 12 weeks into immersive second-language training, and that the IPL appears to play a special role in language learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of Speech Motor Learning with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Inferior Parietal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael L. D. Deroche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal lobe (IPL is a region of the cortex believed to participate in speech motor learning. In this study, we investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the IPL could influence the extent to which healthy adults (1 adapted to a sensory alteration of their own auditory feedback, and (2 changed their perceptual representation. Seventy subjects completed three tasks: a baseline perceptual task that located the phonetic boundary between the vowels /e/ and /a/; a sensorimotor adaptation task in which subjects produced the word “head” under conditions of altered or unaltered feedback; and a post-adaptation perceptual task identical to the first. Subjects were allocated to four groups which differed in current polarity and feedback manipulation. Subjects who received anodal tDCS to their IPL (i.e., presumably increasing cortical excitability lowered their first formant frequency (F1 by 10% in opposition to the upward shift in F1 in their auditory feedback. Subjects who received the same stimulation with unaltered feedback did not change their production. Subjects who received cathodal tDCS to their IPL (i.e., presumably decreasing cortical excitability showed a 5% adaptation to the F1 alteration similar to subjects who received sham tDCS. A subset of subjects returned a few days later to reiterate the same protocol but without tDCS, enabling assessment of any facilitatory effects of the previous tDCS. All subjects exhibited a 5% adaptation effect. In addition, across all subjects and for the two recording sessions, the phonetic boundary was shifted toward the vowel /e/ being repeated, consistently with the selective adaptation effect, but a correlation between perception and production suggested that anodal tDCS had enhanced this perceptual shift. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated that anodal tDCS could (1 enhance the motor adaptation to a sensory alteration, and (2 potentially affect the

  1. Development of parietal bone surrogates for parietal graft lift training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollensteiner Marianne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the surgical training of parietal bone graft techniques is performed on patients or specimens. Commercially available bone models do not deliver realistic haptic feedback. Thus customized parietal skull surrogates were developed for surgical training purposes. Two human parietal bones were used as reference. Based on the measurement of insertion forces of drilling, milling and saw procedures suitable material compositions for molding cortical and cancellous calvarial layers were found. Artificial skull caps were manufactured and tested. Additionally microtomograpy images of human and artificial parietal bones were performed to analyze outer table and diploe thicknesses. Significant differences between human and artificial skulls were not detected with the mechanical procedures tested. Highly significant differences were found for the diploe thickness values. In conclusion, an artificial bone has been created, mimicking the properties of human parietal bone thus being suitable for tabula externa graft lift training.

  2. Body representations in the human brain revealed by kinesthetic illusions and their essential contributions to motor control and corporeal awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Amemiya, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    The human brain can generate a continuously changing postural model of our body. Somatic (proprioceptive) signals from skeletal muscles and joints contribute to the formation of the body representation. Recent neuroimaging studies of proprioceptive bodily illusions have elucidated the importance of three brain systems (motor network, specialized parietal systems, right inferior fronto-parietal network) in the formation of the human body representation. The motor network, especially the primary motor cortex, processes afferent input from skeletal muscles. Such information may contribute to the formation of kinematic/dynamic postural models of limbs, thereby enabling fast online feedback control. Distinct parietal regions appear to play specialized roles in the transformation/integration of information across different coordinate systems, which may subserve the adaptability and flexibility of the body representation. Finally, the right inferior fronto-parietal network, connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, is consistently recruited when an individual experiences various types of bodily illusions and its possible roles relate to corporeal awareness, which is likely elicited through a series of neuronal processes of monitoring and accumulating bodily information and updating the body representation. Because this network is also recruited when identifying one's own features, the network activity could be a neuronal basis for self-consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial summation in macaque parietal area 7a follows a winner-take-all rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Klink, P. Christiaan; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Lankheet, Martin J.M.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    2011-01-01

    While neurons in posterior parietal cortex have been found to signal the presence of a salient stimulus among multiple items in a display, spatial summation within their receptive field in the absence of an attentional bias has never been investigated. This information, however, is indispensable

  4. [Relation between frequency modulation direction selectivity and forward masking of inferior collicular neurons: a study on in vivo intracellular recording in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zi-Ying; Zeng, Hong; Tang, Jia; Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2013-06-25

    It has been reported that the frequency modulation (FM) or FM direction sensitivity and forward masking of central auditory neurons are related with the neural inhibition, but there are some arguments, because no direct evidence of inhibitory synaptic input was obtained in previous studies using extracellular recording. In the present study, we studied the relation between FM direction sensitivity and forward masking of the inferior collicular (IC) neurons using in vivo intracellular recordings in 20 Mus musculus Km mice. Thirty seven with complete data among 93 neurons were analyzed and discussed. There was an inhibitory area which consisted of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSP) at high frequency side of frequency tuning of up-sweep FM (FMU) sensitive neurons (n = 12) and at low frequency side of frequency tuning of down-sweep FM (FMD) selective neurons (n = 8), while there was no any inhibitory area at both sides of frequency tuning of non-FM sweep direction (FMN) sensitive neurons (n = 17). Therefore, these results show that the inhibitory area at low or high frequency side of frequency tuning is one of the mechanisms for forming FM sweep direction sensitivity of IC neurons. By comparison of forward masking produced by FMU and FMD sound stimuli in FMU, FMD and FMN neurons, the selective FM sounds could produce stronger forward masking than the non-selective in FMU and FMD neurons, while there was no forward masking difference between FMU and FMD stimuli in the FMN neurons. We suggest that the post-action potential IPSP is a potential mechanism for producing stronger forward masking in FMU and FMD neurons.

  5. Fronto-Parietal Network Reconfiguration Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12-18-year olds. For 9-11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6-8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The right inferior frontal gyrus processes nested non-local dependencies in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Vincent K M; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan

    2018-02-28

    Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that violations to non-local dependencies in nested sequences of three-tone musical motifs in musicians elicited increased activity in the right IFG. This is in contrast to similar studies in language which typically report the left IFG in processing grammatical syntax. Effects of increasing auditory working demands are moreover reflected by distributed activity in frontal and parietal regions. Our study therefore demonstrates the role of the right IFG in processing non-local dependencies in music, and suggests that hierarchical processing in different cognitive domains relies on similar mechanisms that are subserved by domain-selective neuronal subpopulations.

  7. The fMRI study on the front-parietal activation in abacus mental calculation trained children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kunyuan; Wang Bin; Long Jinfeng; Li Lixin; Shen Xiaojun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference in front-parietal activation between the trained and untrained children engaged in addition and multiplication with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and to explore the role of abacus mental calculation in brain development. Methods: Twenty-four children trained with abacus mental calculation and twelve untrained children performed mental calculation tasks including addition, multiplication and number-object control judging tasks. Blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) fMRI was performed when they were calculating. All data were analyzed by SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping 2) to generate the brain activation map. Results: The performance of the trained group had better correctness and shorter reaction time than that of the untrained group. The front-parietal activation between two groups had obvious difference. The activation involved less prefrontal cortex in the trained group than in the untrained group (P<0.05). The parietal activation in the trained group was mainly in the posterior superior parietal lobe/ precuneus, whereas the activation areas focused on the inferior parietal lobule in the untrained group. Conclusion: Abacus mental calculation involves multiple functional areas. and these areas may work together as a whole in processing arithmetic problems. Abacus mental calculation not only enhances the information processing in some brain areas and improves the utilization efficiency of neural resources, but also plays an important role in developing brain. (authors)

  8. CaV3.1 is a tremor rhythm pacemaker in the inferior olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Gyun; Park, Hye-Yeon; Lee, C. Justin; Choi, Soonwook; Jo, Seonmi; Choi, Hansol; Kim, Yang-Hann; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kim, Daesoo

    2010-01-01

    The rhythmic motor pathway activation by pacemaker neurons or circuits in the brain has been proposed as the mechanism for the timing of motor coordination, and the abnormal potentiation of this mechanism may lead to a pathological tremor. Here, we show that the potentiation of CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels in the inferior olive contributes to the onset of the tremor in a pharmacological model of essential tremor. After administration of harmaline, 4- to 10-Hz synchronous neuronal activities arose from the IO and then propagated to cerebellar motor circuits in wild-type mice, but those rhythmic activities were absent in mice lacking CaV3.1 gene. Intracellular recordings in brain-stem slices revealed that the CaV3.1-deficient inferior olive neurons lacked the subthreshold oscillation of membrane potentials and failed to trigger 4- to 10-Hz rhythmic burst discharges in the presence of harmaline. In addition, the selective knockdown of CaV3.1 gene in the inferior olive by shRNA efficiently suppressed the harmaline-induced tremor in wild-type mice. A mathematical model constructed based on data obtained from patch-clamping experiments indicated that harmaline could efficiently potentiate CaV3.1 channels by changing voltage-dependent responsiveness in the hyperpolarizing direction. Thus, CaV3.1 is a molecular pacemaker substrate for intrinsic neuronal oscillations of inferior olive neurons, and the potentiation of this mechanism can be considered as a pathological cause of essential tremor. PMID:20498062

  9. Object words modulate the activity of the mirror neuron system during action imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Tang, Honghong; Ge, Yue; Yang, Suyong; Mai, Xiaoqin; Luo, Yue-Jia; Liu, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation. Twenty-two participants were recruited for the fMRI scanning and remaining data from 19 subjects were reported here. Brain activity results showed that word types elicited different modulation effects over nodes of the MNS (i.e., the right inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and STS), especially during the imitation stage. Compared with other word conditions, action imitation following manufactured objects words induced stronger activation in these brain regions during the imitation stage. These results were consistent in both task-dependent and -independent ROI analysis. Our findings thus provide evidence for the unique effect of object words on the MNS during imitation of action, which may also confirm the key role of goal inference in action imitation.

  10. Fronto-parietal coding of goal-directed actions performed by artificial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Iacoboni, Marco; Flanagin, Virginia; Huber, Markus; Kasparbauer, Anna; Baumgartner, Thomas; Hasler, Gregor; Schmidt, Florian; Borst, Christoph; Glasauer, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    With advances in technology, artificial agents such as humanoid robots will soon become a part of our daily lives. For safe and intuitive collaboration, it is important to understand the goals behind their motor actions. In humans, this process is mediated by changes in activity in fronto-parietal brain areas. The extent to which these areas are activated when observing artificial agents indicates the naturalness and easiness of interaction. Previous studies indicated that fronto-parietal activity does not depend on whether the agent is human or artificial. However, it is unknown whether this activity is modulated by observing grasping (self-related action) and pointing actions (other-related action) performed by an artificial agent depending on the action goal. Therefore, we designed an experiment in which subjects observed human and artificial agents perform pointing and grasping actions aimed at two different object categories suggesting different goals. We found a signal increase in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule and the premotor cortex when tool versus food items were pointed to or grasped by both agents, probably reflecting the association of hand actions with the functional use of tools. Our results show that goal attribution engages the fronto-parietal network not only for observing a human but also a robotic agent for both self-related and social actions. The debriefing after the experiment has shown that actions of human-like artificial agents can be perceived as being goal-directed. Therefore, humans will be able to interact with service robots intuitively in various domains such as education, healthcare, public service, and entertainment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Intraosseous repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats: an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, N J; Trickett, R I; Owen, E; Lanzetta, M

    1998-08-01

    A reliable method of exposure of the inferior alveolar nerve in Wistar rats has been developed, to allow intraosseous repair with two microsurgical techniques under halothane inhalational anaesthesia. The microsuturing technique involves anastomosis with 10-0 nylon sutures; a laser-weld technique uses an albumin-based solder containing indocyanine green, plus an infrared (810 nm wavelength) diode laser Seven animals had left inferior alveolar nerve repairs performed with the microsuture and laser-weld techniques. Controls were provided by unoperated nerves in the repaired cases. Histochemical analysis was performed utilizing neuron counts and horseradish peroxidase tracer (HRP) uptake in the mandibular division of the trigeminal ganglion, following sacrifice and staining of frozen sections with cresyl violet and diaminobenzidene. The results of this analysis showed similar mean neuron counts and mean HRP uptake by neurons for the unoperated controls and both microsuture and laser-weld groups. This new technique of intraosseous exposure of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats is described. It allows reliable and reproducible microsurgical repairs using both microsuture and laser-weld techniques.

  12. Modeling the Development of Goal-Specificity in Mirror Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Serge; Svensson, Henrik; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Neurophysiological studies have shown that parietal mirror neurons encode not only actions but also the goal of these actions. Although some mirror neurons will fire whenever a certain action is perceived (goal-independently), most will only fire if the motion is perceived as part of an action with a specific goal. This result is important for the action-understanding hypothesis as it provides a potential neurological basis for such a cognitive ability. It is also relevant for the design of artificial cognitive systems, in particular robotic systems that rely on computational models of the mirror system in their interaction with other agents. Yet, to date, no computational model has explicitly addressed the mechanisms that give rise to both goal-specific and goal-independent parietal mirror neurons. In the present paper, we present a computational model based on a self-organizing map, which receives artificial inputs representing information about both the observed or executed actions and the context in which they were executed. We show that the map develops a biologically plausible organization in which goal-specific mirror neurons emerge. We further show that the fundamental cause for both the appearance and the number of goal-specific neurons can be found in geometric relationships between the different inputs to the map. The results are important to the action-understanding hypothesis as they provide a mechanism for the emergence of goal-specific parietal mirror neurons and lead to a number of predictions: (1) Learning of new goals may mostly reassign existing goal-specific neurons rather than recruit new ones; (2) input differences between executed and observed actions can explain observed corresponding differences in the number of goal-specific neurons; and (3) the percentage of goal-specific neurons may differ between motion primitives.

  13. Autoradiographic assessment of [3H]proline uptake by neurons of epileptogenic mirror focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudoerkov, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Epileptogenic mirror focus was produced in the left parietal area of the rat brain by cobalt implantation into the contralateral hemisphere. On the 14th day after cobalt implantation [ 3 H]proline was injected into both experimental and control rats (without cobalt). The incorporation of [ 3 H]proline in neurons of layers III and V of the parietal brain cortex and neurons of the nucleus lateralis thalami was investigated by the autoradiography technique. A statistically reliable increase in [ 3 H]proline uptake was observed in neurons of layer III (31%) and in neurons of layer V (41%) of the epileptogenic mirror focus. The other neuronal types revealed no reliable changes. The morphological and functional aspects of the altered protein metabolism during epileptogenesis are discussed. (author)

  14. Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in inferior olive neurons are dynamically regulated by P/Q- and T-type calcium channels: a study in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Daesoo; Urbano, Francisco J; Makarenko, Vladimir; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2010-08-15

    The role of P/Q- and T-type calcium channels in the rhythmic oscillatory behaviour of inferior olive (IO) neurons was investigated in mutant mice. Mice lacking either the CaV2.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1A subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel, or the CaV3.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1G subunit for T-type calcium channel were used. In vitro intracellular recording from IO neurons reveals that the amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal subthreshold oscillations (SSTOs) were reduced in the CaV2.1-/- mice. In the CaV3.1-/- mice, IO neurons also showed altered patterns of SSTOs and the probability of SSTO generation was significantly lower (15%, 5 of 34 neurons) than that of wild-type (78%, 31 of 40 neurons) or CaV2.1-/- mice (73%, 22 of 30 neurons). In addition, the low-threshold calcium spike and the sustained endogenous oscillation following rebound potentials were absent in IO neurons from CaV3.1-/- mice. Moreover, the phase-reset dynamics of oscillatory properties of single neurons and neuronal clusters in IO were remarkably altered in both CaV2.1-/- and CaV3.1-/- mice. These results suggest that both alpha1A P/Q- and alpha1G T-type calcium channels are required for the dynamic control of neuronal oscillations in the IO. These findings were supported by results from a mathematical IO neuronal model that incorporated T and P/Q channel kinetics.

  15. Body-centred map in parietal eye fields - functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotchie, P.; Chen, D.Y.; Bradley, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In order for us to interact with our environment we need to know where objects are around us, relative to our body. In monkeys, a body-centred map of visual space is known to exist within the parietal eye fields. This map is formed by the modulation of neuronal activity by eye and head position (Brotchie et al, Nature 1995; Synder et al, Nature 1998). In humans no map of body centred space has been demonstrated. By using functional MRI we have localised a region along the intraparietal sulcus which has properties similar to the parietal eye fields of monkeys (Brotchie et al, ISMRM, 2000). The aim of this study was to determine if activity in this region is modulated by head position, consistent with a body centered representation of visual space. Functional MRI was performed on 6 subjects performing simple visually guided saccades using a 1.5 Tesla GE Echospeed scanner. 10 scans were performed on the 6 subjects at left and right body orientations. Regions of interest were selected around the intraparietal sulcus proper (IPSP) of both hemispheres and voxels with BOLD signal which correlated with the paradigm (r>0.35) were selected for further analysis. Comparisons of percentage signal change were made between the left and right IPSP using Student t test. Of the 10 MRI examinations, 6 demonstrated statistically significant differences in the amount of signal change between left and right IPSP. In each of these 6 cases, the signal change was greater within the IPSP contralateral to the direction of head position relative to the body. This indicates a modulation of activity within the IPSP related to head position, most likely reflecting modulation of the underlying neuronal activity and suggests the existence of a body-centred encoding of space within the parietal eye fields of humans. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    Tongjaroenbungam, Walaiporn; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Cunningham, Joanna; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Dodson, Hilary C; Forge, Andrew; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Casalotti, Stefano O

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a pe...

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of right inferior parietal cortex causally influences prefrontal activation for visual detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Lee, Hweeling

    2017-01-01

    -parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS...... affect participants' performance accuracy, it affected how observers adjusted their response times after making an error. We therefore suggest that activation increases in superior frontal gyri for misses relative to correct responses may not be critical for signal detection performance, but rather...

  18. Neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat show stimulus-specific adaptation for frequency, but not for intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Daniel; Wang, Xin; Nieto-Diego, Javier; Krumbholz, Katrin; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to a low-intensity probe sound tend to be suppressed by a preceding high-intensity adaptor sound. Nevertheless, rare low-intensity deviant sounds presented among frequent high-intensity standard sounds in an intensity oddball paradigm can elicit an electroencephalographic mismatch negativity (MMN) response. This has been taken to suggest that the MMN is a correlate of true change or “deviance” detection. A key question is where in the ascending auditory pathway true deviance sensitivity first emerges. Here, we addressed this question by measuring low-intensity deviant responses from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized rats. If the IC exhibits true deviance sensitivity to intensity, IC neurons should show enhanced responses to low-intensity deviant sounds presented among high-intensity standards. Contrary to this prediction, deviant responses were only enhanced when the standards and deviants differed in frequency. The results could be explained with a model assuming that IC neurons integrate over multiple frequency-tuned channels and that adaptation occurs within each channel independently. We used an adaptation paradigm with multiple repeated adaptors to measure the tuning widths of these adaption channels in relation to the neurons’ overall tuning widths. PMID:27066835

  19. Feasibility of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to Investigate the Mirror Neuron System: An Experimental Study in a Real-Life Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei-Pei; Tan, Fu-Lun; Zhang, Zong; Jiang, Yi-Han; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2018-01-01

    The mirror neuron system (MNS), mainly including the premotor cortex (PMC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and rostral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), has attracted extensive attention as a possible neural mechanism of social interaction. Owing to high ecological validity, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an ideal approach for exploring the MNS. Unfortunately, for the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS, none of the four dominant regions were found in previous studies, implying a very limited capacity of fNIRS to investigate the MNS. Here, we adopted an experimental paradigm in a real-life situation to evaluate whether the MNS activity, including four dominant regions, can be detected by using fNIRS. Specifically, 30 right-handed subjects were asked to complete a table-setting task that included action execution and action observation. A double density probe configuration covered the four regions of the MNS in the left hemisphere. We used a traditional channel-based group analysis and also a ROI-based group analysis to find which regions are activated during both action execution and action observation. The results showed that the IFG, adjacent PMC, SPL, and IPL were involved in both conditions, indicating the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS. Our findings provide a foundation for future research to explore the functional role of the MNS in social interaction and various disorders using fNIRS. PMID:29556185

  20. Feasibility of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS to Investigate the Mirror Neuron System: An Experimental Study in a Real-Life Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Pei Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The mirror neuron system (MNS, mainly including the premotor cortex (PMC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, superior parietal lobule (SPL, and rostral inferior parietal lobule (IPL, has attracted extensive attention as a possible neural mechanism of social interaction. Owing to high ecological validity, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS has become an ideal approach for exploring the MNS. Unfortunately, for the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS, none of the four dominant regions were found in previous studies, implying a very limited capacity of fNIRS to investigate the MNS. Here, we adopted an experimental paradigm in a real-life situation to evaluate whether the MNS activity, including four dominant regions, can be detected by using fNIRS. Specifically, 30 right-handed subjects were asked to complete a table-setting task that included action execution and action observation. A double density probe configuration covered the four regions of the MNS in the left hemisphere. We used a traditional channel-based group analysis and also a ROI-based group analysis to find which regions are activated during both action execution and action observation. The results showed that the IFG, adjacent PMC, SPL, and IPL were involved in both conditions, indicating the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS. Our findings provide a foundation for future research to explore the functional role of the MNS in social interaction and various disorders using fNIRS.

  1. A Model of Self-Organizing Head-Centered Visual Responses in Primate Parietal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Bedeho M. W.; Stringer, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a hypothesis for how head-centered visual representations in primate parietal areas could self-organize through visually-guided learning, and test this hypothesis using a neural network model. The model consists of a competitive output layer of neurons that receives afferent synaptic connections from a population of input neurons with eye position gain modulated retinal receptive fields. The synaptic connections in the model are trained with an associative trace learning rule which has the effect of encouraging output neurons to learn to respond to subsets of input patterns that tend to occur close together in time. This network architecture and synaptic learning rule is hypothesized to promote the development of head-centered output neurons during periods of time when the head remains fixed while the eyes move. This hypothesis is demonstrated to be feasible, and each of the core model components described is tested and found to be individually necessary for successful self-organization. PMID:24349064

  2. Sign language processing and the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we review evidence for frontal and parietal lobe involvement in sign language comprehension and production, and evaluate the extent to which these data can be interpreted within the context of a mirror neuron system for human action observation and execution. We present data from three literatures--aphasia, cortical stimulation, and functional neuroimaging. Generally, we find support for the idea that sign language comprehension and production can be viewed in the context of a broadly-construed frontal-parietal human action observation/execution system. However, sign language data cannot be fully accounted for under a strict interpretation of the mirror neuron system. Additionally, we raise a number of issues concerning the lack of specificity in current accounts of the human action observation/execution system.

  3. A Subset of Palisade Endings Only in the Medial and Inferior Rectus Muscle in Monkey Contain Calretinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienbacher, Karoline; Ono, Seiji; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael; Horn, Anja K. E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To further chemically characterize palisade endings in extraocular muscles in rhesus monkeys. Methods Extraocular muscles of three rhesus monkeys were studied for expression of the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR) in palisade endings and multiple endings. The complete innervation was visualized with antibodies against the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa and combined with immunofluorescence for CR. Six rhesus monkeys received tracer injections of choleratoxin subunit B or wheat germ agglutinin into either the belly or distal myotendinous junction of the medial or inferior rectus muscle to allow retrograde tracing in the C-group of the oculomotor nucleus. Double-immunofluorescence methods were used to study the CR content in retrogradely labeled neurons in the C-group. Results A subgroup of palisade and multiple endings was found to express CR, only in the medial and inferior rectus muscle. In contrast, the en plaque endings lacked CR. Accordingly, within the tracer-labeled neurons of the C-group, a subgroup expressed CR. Conclusions The study indicates that two different neuron populations targeting nontwitch muscle fibers are present within the C-group for inferior rectus and medial rectus, respectively, one expressing CR, one lacking CR. It is possible that the CR-negative neurons represent the basic population for all extraocular muscles, whereas the CR-positive neurons giving rise to CR-positive palisade endings represent a specialized, perhaps more excitable type of nerve ending in the medial and inferior rectus muscles, being more active in vergence. The malfunction of this CR-positive population of neurons that target nontwitch muscle fibers could play a significant role in strabismus.

  4. Emotion unfolded by motion: a role for parietal lobe in decoding dynamic facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkheil, Pegah; Goebel, Rainer; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Facial expressions convey important emotional and social information and are frequently applied in investigations of human affective processing. Dynamic faces may provide higher ecological validity to examine perceptual and cognitive processing of facial expressions. Higher order processing of emotional faces was addressed by varying the task and virtual face models systematically. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 healthy volunteers while viewing and evaluating either emotion or gender intensity of dynamic face stimuli. A general linear model analysis revealed that high valence activated a network of motion-responsive areas, indicating that visual motion areas support perceptual coding for the motion-based intensity of facial expressions. The comparison of emotion with gender discrimination task revealed increased activation of inferior parietal lobule, which highlights the involvement of parietal areas in processing of high level features of faces. Dynamic emotional stimuli may help to emphasize functions of the hypothesized 'extended' over the 'core' system for face processing.

  5. The utility of cerebral blood flow imaging in patients with the unique syndrome of progressive dementia with motor neuron disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, T.; Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Nagamachi, S.; Watanabe, K.; Mituyama, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Two patients presenting with progressive dementia coupled with motor neuron disease underwent brain SPECT using N-isopropyl-p iodine-123-iodoamphetamine [( 123 I]IMP). The characteristic clinical features of progressive dementia and motor neuron disease were noted. IMP SPECT also revealed reduced uptake in the bilateral frontal and temporal regions, with no reduction of uptake in the parietal, parietal-occipital regions. We conclude that IMP SPECT has potential for the evaluation of progressive dementia with motor neuron disease

  6. Right parietal cortex and calculation processing: intraoperative functional mapping of multiplication and addition in patients affected by a brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; d'Avella, Elena; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Munari, Marina; Saladini, Marina; Salillas, Elena; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The role of parietal areas in number processing is well known. The significance of intraoperative functional mapping of these areas has been only partially explored, however, and only a few discordant data are available in the surgical literature with regard to the right parietal lobe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of simple calculation in cortical electrostimulation of right-handed patients affected by a right parietal brain tumor. Calculation mapping in awake surgery was performed in 3 right-handed patients affected by high-grade gliomas located in the right parietal lobe. Preoperatively, none of the patients presented with calculation deficits. In all 3 cases, after sensorimotor and language mapping, cortical and intraparietal sulcus areas involved in single-digit multiplication and addition calculations were mapped using bipolar electrostimulation. In all patients, different sites of the right parietal cortex, mainly in the inferior lobule, were detected as being specifically related to calculation (multiplication or addition). In 2 patients the intraparietal sulcus was functionally specific for multiplication. No functional sites for language were detected. All sites functional for calculation were spared during tumor resection, which was complete in all cases without postoperative neurological deficits. These findings provide intraoperative data in support of an anatomofunctional organization for multiplication and addition within the right parietal area. Furthermore, the study shows the potential clinical relevance of intraoperative mapping of calculation in patients undergoing surgery in the right parietal area. Further and larger studies are needed to confirm these data and assess whether mapped areas are effectively essential for function.

  7. P1-5: Effect of Luminance Contrast on the Color Selective Responses in the Inferior Temporal Cortex Neurons of the Macaque Monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Namima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the relationship between color signal and luminance signal is an important problem in visual perception, relatively little is known about how the luminance contrast affects the responses of color selective neurons in the visual cortex. In this study, we examined this problem in the inferior temporal (IT of the awake monkey performing a visual fixation task. Single neuron activities were recorded from the anterior and posterior color selective regions in IT cortex (AITC and PITC identified in previous studies where color selective neurons are accumulated. Color stimuli consisted of 28 stimuli that evenly distribute across the gamut of the CRT display defined on the CIE- xychromaticity diagram at two different luminance levels (5 cd/m 2or 20 cd/m 2 and 2 stimuli at white points. The background was maintained at 10 cd/m 2gray. We found that the effect of luminance contrast on the color selectivity was markedly different between AITC and PITC. When we examined the correlation between the responses to the bright stimuli and those to the dark stimuli with the same chromaticity coordinates, most AITC neurons exhibited high correlation whereas many PITC neurons showed no correlation or only weak correlation. In PITC, the effect was specifically large for neutral colors (white, gray, black and for colors with low saturation. These results indicate that the effect of luminance contrast on the color selective responses differs across different areas and suggest that the separation between color signal and luminance signal involves a higher stage of the cortical color processing.

  8. Holding Biological Motion in Working Memory: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqian eLu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Holding biological motion (BM, the movements of animate entities, in working memory (WM is important to our daily life activities. However, the neural substrates underlying the WM processing of BM remain largely unknown. Employing the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique, the current study directly investigated this issue. We used point-light BM animations as the tested stimuli, and explored the neural substrates involved in encoding and retaining BM information in WM. Participants were required to remember two or four BM stimuli in a change-detection task. We first defined a set of potential brain regions devoted to the BM processing in WM in one experiment. We then conducted the second fMRI experiment, and performed time-course analysis over the pre-defined regions, which allowed us to differentiate the encoding and maintenance phases of WM. The results showed that a set of brain regions were involved in encoding BM into WM, including the middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. However, only the middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and inferior parietal lobule were involved in retaining BM into WM. These results suggest that an overlapped network exists between the WM encoding and maintenance for BM; however, retaining BM in WM predominately relies on the mirror neuron system.

  9. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Fronto-parietal contributions to phonological processes in successful artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariya Goranskaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar (AG learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e. of syllables or letters. In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes.

  11. Navigating actions through the rodent parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Whitlock

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The posterior parietal cortex (PPC participates in a manifold of cognitive functions, including visual attention, working memory, spatial processing and movement planning. Given the vast interconnectivity of PPC with sensory and motor areas, it is not surprising that neuronal recordings show that PPC often encodes mixtures of spatial information as well as the movements required to reach a goal. Recent work sought to discern the relative strength of spatial versus motor signaling in PPC by recording single unit activity in PPC of freely behaving rats during selective changes in either the spatial layout of the local environment or in the pattern of locomotor behaviors executed during navigational tasks. The results revealed unequivocally a predominant sensitivity of PPC neurons to locomotor action structure, with subsets of cells even encoding upcoming movements more than 1 second in advance. In light of these and other recent findings in the field, I propose that one of the key contributions of PPC to navigation is the synthesis of goal-directed behavioral sequences, and that the rodent PPC may serve as an apt system to investigate cellular mechanisms for spatial motor planning as traditionally studied in humans and monkeys.

  12. Prefrontal and parietal correlates of cognitive control related to the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Li, Xiaobo; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Fan, Jin; Berwid, Olga G; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2017-05-01

    The protracted and highly variable development of prefrontal cortex regions that support cognitive control has been purported to shape the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurodevelopmental model was tested in a prospectively followed sample of 27 adult probands who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 28 carefully matched comparison subjects aged 21-28 years. Probands were classified with persistent ADHD or remitted ADHD. Behavioral and neural responses to the Stimulus and Response Conflict Task (SRCT) performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were compared in probands and comparison subjects and in probands with persistent and remitted ADHD. Response speed and accuracy for stimulus, response, and combined conflicts did not differ across groups. Orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and parietal activation was lower in probands than comparison subjects, but only for combined conflicts, when demand for cognitive control was highest. Reduced activation for combined conflicts in probands was almost wholly attributable to the persistence of ADHD; orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, anterior cingulate and parietal activation was lower in probands with persistent ADHD than both probands with remitted ADHD and comparison subjects, but did not differ between probands with remitted ADHD and comparison subjects. These data provide the first evidence that prefrontal and parietal activation during cognitive control parallels the adult outcome of ADHD diagnosed in childhood, with persistence of symptoms linked to reduced activation and symptom recovery associated with activation indistinguishable from adults with no history of ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monaural and binaural response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rabbit: effects of sodium pentobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, S; Batra, R; Stanford, T R

    1989-02-01

    1. We studied the effects of sodium pentobarbital on 22 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the rabbit. We recorded changes in the sensitivity of these neurons to monaural stimulation and to ongoing interaural time differences (ITDs). Monaural stimuli were tone bursts at or near the neuron's best frequency. The ITD was varied by delivering tones that differed by 1 Hz to the two ears, resulting in a 1-Hz binaural beat. 2. We assessed a neuron's ITD sensitivity by calculating three measures from the responses to binaural beats: composite delay, characteristic delay (CD), and characteristic phase (CP). To obtain the composite delay, we first derived period histograms by averaging, showing the response at each stimulating frequency over one period of the beat frequency. Second, the period histograms were replotted as a function of their equivalent interaural delay and then averaged together to yield the composite delay curve. Last, we calculated the composite peak or trough delay by fitting a parabola to the peak or trough of this composite curve. The composite delay curve represents the average response to all frequencies within the neuron's responsive range, and the peak reflects the interaural delay that produces the maximum response. The CD and CP were estimated from a weighted fit of a regression line to the plot of the mean interaural phase of the response versus the stimulating frequency. The slope and phase intercept of this regression line yielded estimates of CD and CP, respectively. These two quantities are thought to reflect the mechanism of ITD sensitivity, which involves the convergence of phase-locked inputs on a binaural cell. The CD estimates the difference in the time required for the two inputs to travel from either ear to this cell, whereas the CP reflects the interaural phase difference of the inputs at this cell. 3. Injections of sodium pentobarbital at subsurgical dosages (less than 25 mg/kg) almost invariably altered the neuron's response

  14. Reduced brain N-acetyl-aspartate in frontal lobes suggests neuronal loss in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, M; Walker, P; Bernard, D; Lemesle, M; Martin, D; Baudouin, N; Brunotte, F; Dumas, R

    1996-06-01

    We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in three patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to evaluate the distribution and extent of cortical neuronal damage as demonstrated by decreased N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels. We examined primary motor (precentral gyrus) and parietal neocortical (superior parietal gyrus) regions. ALS was defined with lower and upper motor neuron signs. Compared with matched healthy controls, ALS patients had a significant decrease in NAA levels in the primary motor cortex (p upper motor neuron signs present in the ALS, come from a neuronal loss within the primary motor cortex and may explain the frontal syndrome associated with ALS. Second clinical applications of 1H-MRS could include identification of extent of upper motor neuron involvement, aiding diagnosis of syndromes presenting with an ALS-like syndrome.

  15. Parietal podocytes in normal human glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariety, Jean; Mandet, Chantal; Hill, Gary S; Bruneval, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Although parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule have been described by electron microscopy in the normal human kidney, their molecular composition remains unknown. Ten human normal kidneys that were removed for cancer were assessed for the presence and the extent of parietal podocytes along the Bowman's capsule. The expression of podocyte-specific proteins (podocalyxin, glomerular epithelial protein-1, podocin, nephrin, synaptopodin, and alpha-actinin-4), podocyte synthesized proteins (vascular endothelial growth factor and novH), transcription factors (WT1 and PAX2), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57, and intermediate filaments (cytokeratins and vimentin) was tested. In addition, six normal fetal kidneys were studied to track the ontogeny of parietal podocytes. The podocyte protein labeling detected parietal podocytes in all of the kidneys, was found in 76.6% on average of Bowman's capsule sections, and was prominent at the vascular pole. WT1 and p57 were expressed in some parietal cells, whereas PAX2 was present in all or most of them, so some parietal cells coexpressed WT1 and PAX2. Furthermore, parietal podocytes coexpressed WT1 and podocyte proteins. Cytokeratin-positive cells covered a variable part of the capsule and did not express podocyte proteins. Tuft-capsular podocyte bridges were present in 15.5 +/- 3.7% of the glomerular sections. Parietal podocytes often covered the juxtaglomerular arterioles and were present within the extraglomerular mesangium. Parietal podocytes were present in fetal kidneys. Parietal podocytes that express the same epitopes as visceral podocytes do exist along Bowman's capsule in the normal adult kidney. They are a constitutive cell type of the Bowman's capsule. Therefore, their role in physiology and pathology should be investigated.

  16. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A.; Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H.; Roger, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  17. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  18. Neuronal Intra-Individual Variability Masks Response Selection Differences between ADHD Subtypes—A Need to Change Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annet Bluschke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high intra-individual variability in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, there may be considerable bias in knowledge about altered neurophysiological processes underlying executive dysfunctions in patients with different ADHD subtypes. When aiming to establish dimensional cognitive-neurophysiological constructs representing symptoms of ADHD as suggested by the initiative for Research Domain Criteria, it is crucial to consider such processes independent of variability. We examined patients with the predominantly inattentive subtype (attention deficit disorder, ADD and the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD-C in a flanker task measuring conflict control. Groups were matched for task performance. Besides using classic event-related potential (ERP techniques and source localization, neurophysiological data was also analyzed using residue iteration decomposition (RIDE to statistically account for intra-individual variability and S-LORETA to estimate the sources of the activations. The analysis of classic ERPs related to conflict monitoring revealed no differences between patients with ADD and ADHD-C. When individual variability was accounted for, clear differences became apparent in the RIDE C-cluster (analog to the P3 ERP-component. While patients with ADD distinguished between compatible and incompatible flanker trials early on, patients with ADHD-C seemed to employ more cognitive resources overall. These differences are reflected in inferior parietal areas. The study demonstrates differences in neuronal mechanisms related to response selection processes between ADD and ADHD-C which, according to source localization, arise from the inferior parietal cortex. Importantly, these differences could only be detected when accounting for intra-individual variability. The results imply that it is very likely that differences in neurophysiological processes between ADHD subtypes are underestimated and have not been recognized because intra

  19. Visual Categorization and the Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie K Fitzgerald

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The primate brain is adept at rapidly grouping items and events into functional classes, or categories, in order to recognize the significance of stimuli and guide behavior. Higher cognitive functions have traditionally been considered the domain of frontal areas. However, increasing evidence suggests that parietal cortex is also involved in categorical and associative processes. Previous work showed that the parietal cortex is highly involved in spatial processing, attention and saccadic eye movement planning, and more recent studies have found decision-making signals in LIP. We recently found that a subdivision of parietal cortex, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, reflects learned categories for multiple types of visual stimuli. Additionally, a comparison of categorization signals in parietal and frontal areas found stronger and earlier categorization signals in parietal cortex, arguing that parietal abstract association or category signals are unlikely to arise via feedback from prefrontal cortex (PFC.

  20. Characterization of neuronal damage by iomazenil binding and cerebral blood flow in an ischemic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Akira; Koga, Sukehiko; Matsumura, Kaname; Nakashima, Hiromichi; Takeda, Kan; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ichise, Masanori

    1998-01-01

    I-123-iomazenil is a SPECT probe for central benzodiazepine receptors (BZR) which may reflect intact cortical neuron density after ischemic insults. We evaluated whether neuronal damage in rats could be characterized by iomazenil as compared with cerebral blood flow (CBF). Serial changes in I-125-iomazenil for BZR and I-123-IMP for CBF were analyzed after the unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats by using an in vivo dualtracer technique. Uptake ratios of affected to contralateral regions were calculated. The iomazenil as well as IMP were decreased in all regions except for the cerebellum (remote area). Both iomazenil and IMP increased over time except in the temporal region (ischemic core). The iomazenil uptake was higher than IMP except in the ischemic core between 1 and 3-4 wk when iomazenil was lower than IMP. Iomazenil showed a moderate decrease in the proximal and middle parietal regions (peri-infarct areas) at 3-4 wk. The triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride (TTC) stain at 1 wk demonstrated unstained tissue in the temporal region indicating tissue necrosis. With hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stain at 1 wk, widespread neuronal necrosis with occasional intact neurons were found in the proximal parietal region, and isolated necrotic neurons were represented in the distal parietal region. Iomazenil correlated well with the neuron distribution and the finding of a discrepancy between iomazenil and IMP might be useful in evaluating the neuronal damage. (author)

  1. Frontal and parietal theta burst TMS impairs working memory for visual-spatial conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen M; Jackson, Margaret C; van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-01

    In tasks that selectively probe visual or spatial working memory (WM) frontal and posterior cortical areas show a segregation, with dorsal areas preferentially involved in spatial (e.g. location) WM and ventral areas in visual (e.g. object identity) WM. In a previous fMRI study [1], we showed that right parietal cortex (PC) was more active during WM for orientation, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was more active during colour WM. During WM for colour-orientation conjunctions, activity in these areas was intermediate to the level of activity for the single task preferred and non-preferred information. To examine whether these specialised areas play a critical role in coordinating visual and spatial WM to perform a conjunction task, we used theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce a functional deficit. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS to right PC or left IFG selectively impaired WM for conjunctions but not single features. This is consistent with findings from visual search paradigms, in which frontal and parietal TMS selectively affects search for conjunctions compared to single features, and with combined TMS and functional imaging work suggesting that parietal and frontal regions are functionally coupled in tasks requiring integration of visual and spatial information. Our results thus elucidate mechanisms by which the brain coordinates spatially segregated processing streams and have implications beyond the field of working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The arcuate nucleus of the C57BL/6J mouse hindbrain is a displaced part of the inferior olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu Hong; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus is a prominent cell group in the human hindbrain, characterized by its position on the pial surface of the pyramid. It is considered to be a precerebellar nucleus and has been implicated in the pathology of several disorders of respiration. An arcuate nucleus has not been convincingly demonstrated in other mammals, but we have found a similarly positioned nucleus in the C57BL/6J mouse. The mouse arcuate nucleus consists of a variable group of neurons lying on the pial surface of the pyramid. The nucleus is continuous with the ventrolateral part of the principal nucleus of the inferior olive and both groups are calbindin positive. At first we thought that this mouse nucleus was homologous with the human arcuate nucleus, but we have discovered that the neurons of the human nucleus are calbindin negative, and are therefore not olivary in nature. We have compared the mouse arcuate neurons with those of the inferior olive in terms of molecular markers and cerebellar projection. The neurons of the arcuate nucleus and of the inferior olive share three major characteristics: they both contain neurons utilizing glutamate, serotonin or acetylcholine as neurotransmitters; they both project to the contralateral cerebellum, and they both express a number of genes not present in the major mossy fiber issuing precerebellar nuclei. Most importantly, both cell groups express calbindin in an area of the ventral hindbrain almost completely devoid of calbindin-positive cells. We conclude that the neurons of the hindbrain mouse arcuate nucleus are a displaced part of the inferior olive, possibly separated by the caudal growth of the pyramidal tract during development. The arcuate nucleus reported in the C57BL/6J mouse can therefore be regarded as a subgroup of the rostral inferior olive, closely allied with the ventral tier of the principal nucleus. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation as a Neural Marker of Successful Lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshin eVartanian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence to suggest that successful lying necessitates cognitive effort. We tested this hypothesis by instructing participants to lie or tell the truth under conditions of high and low working memory (WM load. The task required participants to register a response on 80 trials of identical structure within a 2 (WM Load: high, low × 2 (Instruction: truth or lie repeated-measures design. Participants were less accurate and responded more slowly when WM load was high, and also when they lied. High WM load activated the fronto-parietal WM network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and intraparietal cortex. Lying activated areas previously shown to underlie deception, including middle and superior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Critically, successful lying in the high vs. low WM load condition was associated with longer response latency, and it activated the right inferior frontal gyrus—a key brain region regulating inhibition. The same pattern of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus was absent when participants told the truth. These findings demonstrate that lying under high cognitive load places a burden on inhibition, and that the right inferior frontal gyrus may provide a neural marker for successful lying.

  4. Right inferior frontal gyrus activation as a neural marker of successful lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Kwantes, Peter J; Mandel, David R; Bouak, Fethi; Nakashima, Ann; Smith, Ingrid; Lam, Quan

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that successful lying necessitates cognitive effort. We tested this hypothesis by instructing participants to lie or tell the truth under conditions of high and low working memory (WM) load. The task required participants to register a response on 80 trials of identical structure within a 2 (WM Load: high, low) × 2 (Instruction: truth or lie) repeated-measures design. Participants were less accurate and responded more slowly when WM load was high, and also when they lied. High WM load activated the fronto-parietal WM network including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and intraparietal cortex. Lying activated areas previously shown to underlie deception, including middle and superior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Critically, successful lying in the high vs. low WM load condition was associated with longer response latency, and it activated the right inferior frontal gyrus-a key brain region regulating inhibition. The same pattern of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus was absent when participants told the truth. These findings demonstrate that lying under high cognitive load places a burden on inhibition, and that the right inferior frontal gyrus may provide a neural marker for successful lying.

  5. Parietal and premotor cortices: activation reflects imitation accuracy during observation, delayed imitation and concurrent imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Britta; Bischoff, Matthias; Blecker, Carlo; Langhanns, Christine; Kindermann, Stefan; Sauerbier, Isabell; Reiser, Mathias; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Pilgramm, Sebastian

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated whether activation within areas belonging to the action observation and imitation network reveals a linear relation to the subsequent accuracy of imitating a bimanual rhythmic movement measured via a motion capturing system. 20 participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when asked to imitate observed bimanual movements either concurrently versus with a delay (2s) or simply to observe the movements without imitation. Results showed that action observation relates to activation within classic mirror-related areas. Activation patterns were more widespread when participants were asked to imitate the movement. During observation with concurrent imitation, activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) was associated negatively with imitation accuracy. During observation in the delayed imitation condition, higher subsequent imitation accuracy was coupled with higher activation in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and the left parietal operculum (POp). During the delayed imitation itself, a negative association between imitation accuracy and brain activation was revealed in the right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). We conclude that the IPL is involved in online comparison and visuospatial attention processes during imitation, the SPL provides a kinesthetic blueprint during movement observation, the POp preserves body identity, and the vPMC recruits motor representations--especially when no concurrent visual guidance is possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correspondent Functional Topography of the Human Left Inferior Parietal Lobule at Rest and Under Task Revealed Using Resting-State fMRI and Coactivation Based Parcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojian; Xie, Sangma; Guo, Xin; Becker, Benjamin; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-03-01

    The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level. However, whether a consistent functional topographic organization of the LIPL during rest and under task can be revealed remains unknown. Here, they used resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-related coactivation patterns separately to parcellate the LIPL and identified seven subregions. Four subregions were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and three subregions were located in the angular gyrus (AG). The subregion-specific networks and functional characterization revealed that the four anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in sensorimotor processing, movement imagination and inhibitory control, audition perception and speech processing, and social cognition, whereas the three posterior subregions were mainly involved in episodic memory, semantic processing, and spatial cognition. The results revealed a detailed functional organization of the LIPL and suggested that the LIPL is a functionally heterogeneous area. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the functional architecture of the LIPL during rest corresponds with that found in task processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1659-1675, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Functional development of fronto-striato-parietal networks associated with time perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eSmith

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of executive functions, little is known about the neurofunctional development of perceptive functions. Time perception develops during late adolescence, underpinning many functions including motor and verbal processing, as well as late maturing higher order cognitive skills such as forward planning and future-related decision-making. Nothing, however, is known about the neurofunctional changes associated with time perception from childhood to adulthood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we explored the effects of age on the brain activation and functional connectivity of 32 male participants from 10 to 53 years of age during a time discrimination task that required the discrimination of temporal intervals of seconds differing by several hundred milliseconds. Increasing development was associated with progressive activation increases within left lateralised dorsolateral and inferior fronto-parieto-striato-thalamic brain regions. Furthermore, despite comparable task performance, adults showed increased functional connectivity between inferior/dorsolateral interhemispheric fronto-frontal activation as well as between inferior fronto-parietal regions compared with adolescents. Activation in caudate, specifically, was associated with both increasing age and better temporal discrimination. Progressive decreases in activation with age were observed in ventromedial prefrontal cortex, limbic regions and cerebellum. The findings demonstrate age-dependent developmentally dissociated neural networks for time discrimination. With increasing age there is progressive recruitment of later maturing left hemispheric and lateralised fronto-parieto-striato-thalamic networks, known to mediate time discrimination in adults, while earlier developing brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex, limbic and paralimbic areas and cerebellum subserve fine-temporal processing functions in children

  8. Importance of human right inferior frontoparietal network connected by inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus tract in corporeal awareness of kinesthetic illusory movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Kaoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    It is generally believed that the human right cerebral hemisphere plays a dominant role in corporeal awareness, which is highly associated with conscious experience of the physical self. Prompted by our previous findings, we examined whether the right frontoparietal activations often observed when people experience kinesthetic illusory limb movement are supported by a large-scale brain network connected by a specific branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus fiber tracts (SLF I, II, and III). We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while nineteen blindfolded healthy volunteers experienced illusory movement of the right stationary hand elicited by tendon vibration, which was replicated after the scanning. We also scanned brain activity when they executed and imagined right hand movement, and identified the active brain regions during illusion, execution, and imagery in relation to the SLF fiber tracts. We found that illusion predominantly activated the right inferior frontoparietal regions connected by SLF III, which were not substantially recruited during execution and imagery. Among these regions, activities in the right inferior parietal cortices and inferior frontal cortices showed right-side dominance and correlated well with the amount of illusion (kinesthetic illusory awareness) experienced by the participants. The results illustrated the predominant involvement of the right inferior frontoparietal network connected by SLF III when people recognize postural changes of their limb. We assume that the network bears a series of functions, specifically, monitoring the current status of the musculoskeletal system, and building-up and updating our postural model (body schema), which could be a basis for the conscious experience of the physical self. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2006-12-01

    The discovery of premotor and parietal cells known as mirror neurons in the macaque brain that fire not only when the animal is in action, but also when it observes others carrying out the same actions provides a plausible neurophysiological mechanism for a variety of important social behaviours, from imitation to empathy. Recent data also show that dysfunction of the mirror neuron system in humans might be a core deficit in autism, a socially isolating condition. Here, we review the neurophysiology of the mirror neuron system and its role in social cognition and discuss the clinical implications of mirror neuron dysfunction.

  10. Inferior olive mirrors joint dynamics to implement an inverse controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Icaza, Rodrigo; Boahen, Kwabena

    2012-10-01

    To produce smooth and coordinated motion, our nervous systems need to generate precisely timed muscle activation patterns that, due to axonal conduction delay, must be generated in a predictive and feedforward manner. Kawato proposed that the cerebellum accomplishes this by acting as an inverse controller that modulates descending motor commands to predictively drive the spinal cord such that the musculoskeletal dynamics are canceled out. This and other cerebellar theories do not, however, account for the rich biophysical properties expressed by the olivocerebellar complex's various cell types, making these theories difficult to verify experimentally. Here we propose that a multizonal microcomplex's (MZMC) inferior olivary neurons use their subthreshold oscillations to mirror a musculoskeletal joint's underdamped dynamics, thereby achieving inverse control. We used control theory to map a joint's inverse model onto an MZMC's biophysics, and we used biophysical modeling to confirm that inferior olivary neurons can express the dynamics required to mirror biomechanical joints. We then combined both techniques to predict how experimentally injecting current into the inferior olive would affect overall motor output performance. We found that this experimental manipulation unmasked a joint's natural dynamics, as observed by motor output ringing at the joint's natural frequency, with amplitude proportional to the amount of current. These results support the proposal that the cerebellum-in particular an MZMC-is an inverse controller; the results also provide a biophysical implementation for this controller and allow one to make an experimentally testable prediction.

  11. P1-24: Neural Representation of Gloss in the Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Nishio; Naokazu Goda; Hidehiko Komatsu

    2012-01-01

    The variation of the appearance such as gloss provides one of the most important information for object recognition. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms related to the perception of gloss. We examined whether the neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of the monkeys are coding gloss of objects. We made visual stimuli which have various surface reflectance properties, and tested responses of IT neurons to these stimuli while a monkey was performing a visual fixation task...

  12. Q-Ball of Inferior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirbekian, Bagrat; Berger, Mitchel S.; Henry, Roland G.

    2014-01-01

    The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) is historically described as the longest associative bundle in the human brain and it connects various parts of the occipital cortex, temporo-basal area and the superior parietal lobule to the frontal lobe through the external/extreme capsule complex. The exact functional role and the detailed anatomical definition of the IFOF are still under debate within the scientific community. In this study we present a fiber tracking dissection of the right and left IFOF by using a q-ball residual-bootstrap reconstruction of High-Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) data sets in 20 healthy subjects. By defining a single seed region of interest on the coronal fractional anisotropy (FA) color map of each subject, we investigated all the pathways connecting the parietal, occipital and posterior temporal cortices to the frontal lobe through the external/extreme capsule. In line with recent post-mortem dissection studies we found more extended anterior-posterior association connections than the “classical” fronto-occipital representation of the IFOF. In particular the pathways we evidenced showed: a) diffuse projections in the frontal lobe, b) fronto-parietal lobes connections trough the external capsule in almost all the subjects and c) widespread connections in the posterior regions. Our study represents the first consistent in vivo demonstration across a large group of individuals of these novel anterior and posterior terminations of the IFOF detailed described only by post-mortem anatomical dissection. Furthermore our work establishes the feasibility of consistent in vivo mapping of this architecture with independent in vivo methodologies. In conclusion q-ball tractography dissection supports a more complex definition of IFOF, which includes several subcomponents likely underlying specific function. PMID:24945305

  13. Q-ball of inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caverzasi

    Full Text Available The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF is historically described as the longest associative bundle in the human brain and it connects various parts of the occipital cortex, temporo-basal area and the superior parietal lobule to the frontal lobe through the external/extreme capsule complex. The exact functional role and the detailed anatomical definition of the IFOF are still under debate within the scientific community. In this study we present a fiber tracking dissection of the right and left IFOF by using a q-ball residual-bootstrap reconstruction of High-Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI data sets in 20 healthy subjects. By defining a single seed region of interest on the coronal fractional anisotropy (FA color map of each subject, we investigated all the pathways connecting the parietal, occipital and posterior temporal cortices to the frontal lobe through the external/extreme capsule. In line with recent post-mortem dissection studies we found more extended anterior-posterior association connections than the "classical" fronto-occipital representation of the IFOF. In particular the pathways we evidenced showed: a diffuse projections in the frontal lobe, b fronto-parietal lobes connections trough the external capsule in almost all the subjects and c widespread connections in the posterior regions. Our study represents the first consistent in vivo demonstration across a large group of individuals of these novel anterior and posterior terminations of the IFOF detailed described only by post-mortem anatomical dissection. Furthermore our work establishes the feasibility of consistent in vivo mapping of this architecture with independent in vivo methodologies. In conclusion q-ball tractography dissection supports a more complex definition of IFOF, which includes several subcomponents likely underlying specific function.

  14. [Dynamics of the dominance of identified cardioregulatory neurons in the snail Achatina fulica] .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V L; Bugaĭ, V V; Safronova, T A

    2000-08-01

    9 cardioregulating neurones belonging to 5 different functional groups were studied in visceral and right parietal ganglia of the Giant African snail Achatina fulica. The neuronal network included multimodal and multifunctional cells exerting short- or long-lasting chronoionotropic effects on the cardiac electro- and mechanograms. Mechanisms of the differences in the cardioregulating effectiveness of these groups were discussed.

  15. Encefalomenigocele atrésico parietal Parietal atresic encephalomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rivera Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El encefalocele es una anomalía congénita rara, en la que una porción del encéfalo protruye a través de un orificio craneal (evaginación, generalmente situado en la línea media. Clínicamente se caracteriza por una masa epicraneal, de consistencia blanda, muchas veces acompañada de trastornos psicomotores, convulsiones y trastornos de la visión. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido con diagnóstico de encefalomeningocele atrésico parietal, intervenido quirúrgicamente y con evolución satisfactoria.The encephalocele is a uncommon congenital anomaly where a portion of encephalon protrudes through a cranial orifice (evagination, generally located in the middle line. Clinically, it is characterized by a soft epicranial mass often accompanied or psychomotor disorders, convulsions and vision disorders. This is the case of a newborn diagnosed with parietal atresic encephalomeningocele operated on with a satisfactory evolution.

  16. Reshaping the brain after stroke: The effect of prismatic adaptation in patients with right brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crottaz-Herbette, Sonia; Fornari, Eleonora; Notter, Michael P; Bindschaedler, Claire; Manzoni, Laura; Clarke, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Prismatic adaptation has been repeatedly reported to alleviate neglect symptoms; in normal subjects, it was shown to enhance the representation of the left visual space within the left inferior parietal cortex. Our study aimed to determine in humans whether similar compensatory mechanisms underlie the beneficial effect of prismatic adaptation in neglect. Fifteen patients with right hemispheric lesions and 11 age-matched controls underwent a prismatic adaptation session which was preceded and followed by fMRI using a visual detection task. In patients, the prismatic adaptation session improved the accuracy of target detection in the left and central space and enhanced the representation of this visual space within the left hemisphere in parts of the temporal convexity, inferior parietal lobule and prefrontal cortex. Across patients, the increase in neuronal activation within the temporal regions correlated with performance improvements in this visual space. In control subjects, prismatic adaptation enhanced the representation of the left visual space within the left inferior parietal lobule and decreased it within the left temporal cortex. Thus, a brief exposure to prismatic adaptation enhances, both in patients and in control subjects, the competence of the left hemisphere for the left space, but the regions extended beyond the inferior parietal lobule to the temporal convexity in patients. These results suggest that the left hemisphere provides compensatory mechanisms in neglect by assuming the representation of the whole space within the ventral attentional system. The rapidity of the change suggests that the underlying mechanism relies on uncovering pre-existing synaptic connections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Preweaning Polysensorial Enrichment upon Development of the Parietal Cortical Plate of Undernourished Rats: A Stereological Study

    OpenAIRE

    González, Héctor; Adaro, Luis; Hernández, Alejandro; Fernández, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken in order to quantify the effects of early polysensorial enrichment on the development of cortical pyramids, located in the parietal cortex of rats simultaneously submitted to protein-energy undernutrition. A short period of stimulation during suckling significantly decreases the cellular density in the cortical plate (phylogenetic-ontogenetic evolutionary index). Results suggest that the cerebral cortex develops according to a sophisticated neuronal network, ...

  18. Nonlinear processing of a multicomponent communication signal by combination-sensitive neurons in the anuran inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Diverse animals communicate using multicomponent signals. How a receiver's central nervous system integrates multiple signal components remains largely unknown. We investigated how female green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) integrate the multiple spectral components present in male advertisement calls. Typical calls have a bimodal spectrum consisting of formant-like low-frequency (~0.9 kHz) and high-frequency (~2.7 kHz) components that are transduced by different sensory organs in the inner ear. In behavioral experiments, only bimodal calls reliably elicited phonotaxis in no-choice tests, and they were selectively chosen over unimodal calls in two-alternative choice tests. Single neurons in the inferior colliculus of awake, passively listening subjects were classified as combination-insensitive units (27.9%) or combination-sensitive units (72.1%) based on patterns of relative responses to the same bimodal and unimodal calls. Combination-insensitive units responded similarly to the bimodal call and one or both unimodal calls. In contrast, combination-sensitive units exhibited both linear responses (i.e., linear summation) and, more commonly, nonlinear responses (e.g., facilitation, compressive summation, or suppression) to the spectral combination in the bimodal call. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that nonlinearities play potentially critical roles in spectral integration and in the neural processing of multicomponent communication signals.

  19. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger eGeis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here, we measured the responses to FM sweeps in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus. Both up- and downward logarithmic FM sweeps were presented at two different speeds to both the ipsi- and the contralateral ear. Based on the number of action potentials that were fired, between 10-24% of cells were selective for rate or direction of the FM sweeps. A somewhat lower percentage of cells, 6-21%, showed selectivity based on EPSP size. To study the mechanisms underlying the generation of FM selectivity, we compared FM responses with responses to simple tones in the same cells. We found that if pairs of neurons responded in a similar way to simple tones, they generally also responded in a similar way to FM sweeps. Further evidence that FM selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex was obtained by reconstructing FM sweeps from the response to simple tones using three different models. In about half of the direction selective neurons the selectivity was generated by spectrally asymmetric synaptic inhibition. In addition, evidence for direction selectivity based on the timing of excitatory responses was also obtained in some cells. No clear evidence for the local generation of rate selectivity was obtained. We conclude that FM direction selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus by multiple mechanisms.

  20. Classification of frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus reveals continua not discrete classes

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hy...

  1. Decoupled choice-driven and stimulus-related activity in parietal neurons may be misrepresented by choice probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Adam; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2017-09-28

    Trial-by-trial correlations between neural responses and choices (choice probabilities) are often interpreted to reflect a causal contribution of neurons to task performance. However, choice probabilities may arise from top-down, rather than bottom-up, signals. We isolated distinct sensory and decision contributions to single-unit activity recorded from the dorsal medial superior temporal (MSTd) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) areas of monkeys during perception of self-motion. Superficially, neurons in both areas show similar tuning curves during task performance. However, tuning in MSTd neurons primarily reflects sensory inputs, whereas choice-related signals dominate tuning in VIP neurons. Importantly, the choice-related activity of VIP neurons is not predictable from their stimulus tuning, and these factors are often confounded in choice probability measurements. This finding was confirmed in a subset of neurons for which stimulus tuning was measured during passive fixation. Our findings reveal decoupled stimulus and choice signals in the VIP area, and challenge our understanding of choice signals in the brain.Choice-related signals in neuronal activity may reflect bottom-up sensory processes, top-down decision-related influences, or a combination of the two. Here the authors report that choice-related activity in VIP neurons is not predictable from their stimulus tuning, and that dominant choice signals can bias the standard metric of choice preference (choice probability).

  2. Bilateral front-parietal polymicrogyria accompanied by cobblestone lissencephaly: 3T MR imaging findings of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Y.; Battal, B.; Ozcan, E.; Kocaoglu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Background: The cerebral cortex develops in three overlapping stages: cell proliferation, neuronal migration, and cortical organization. Lissencephaly (smooth brain) is a severe malformation of the cerebral cortex that results from impaired neuronal migration. Polymicrogyria is a disorder of late migration or cortical organization, and supposed to reflect a disruption of normal neuronal migration with subsequent disordered cortical organization. A combination of cobblestone lissencephaly and polymicrogyria is very rare in the same patient's brain. Objective: To present clinical and 3T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a 17-year-old male with bilateral fronto-parietal polimicrogyria accompanied by cobblestone lissencaphaly. Materials and methods: A 17-year-old male who had seizures and involuntary muscular spasm from birth, was referred to our Hospital. The patient was evaluated by a complete history, physical examination, a laboratory work-up, and cranial MR examination for evaluate the central nervous system. Results: A sharp wave paroxysm in the left temporal area was observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The neurological examination of our patient was normal. A slight increase have seen in the aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) levels. The other biochemical tests were found to be normal. Cranial MR imaging showed an irregular nodular cortex with hypomyelination of the white matter at the lateral and posterior part of the right occipital lobe. We also observed the changes compatible with polymicrogyria in a large area of the medial parts of the bilateral temporal and parietal lobes. Conclusion: The role of radiological modalities for diagnosis of cortical formation disorders are very important. MR imaging are fairly useful for evaluation of these anomalies

  3. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Raghavendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric - inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up.

  4. Mirror Neurons in Humans: Consisting or Confounding Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turella, Luca; Pierno, Andrea C.; Tubaldi, Federico; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    The widely known discovery of mirror neurons in macaques shows that premotor and parietal cortical areas are not only involved in executing one's own movement, but are also active when observing the action of others. The goal of this essay is to critically evaluate the substance of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission…

  5. [Neuroeffector connections of multimodal neurons in the African snail (Achatina fulica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaĭ, V V; Zhuravlev, V L; Safonova, T A

    2004-02-01

    Using a new method of animal preparation, the efferent connections of giant paired neurons on the dorsal surface of visceral and right parietal ganglia of snail, Achatina fulica, were examined. It was found that spikes in giant neurons d-VLN and d-RPLN evoke postjunctional potentials in different points of the snail body and viscerae (in the heart, in pericardium, in lung cavity and kidney walls, in mantle and body wall muscles, in tentacle retractors and in cephalic artery). The preliminary analysis of synaptic latency and facilitation suggests a direct connections between giant neurons and investigated efferents.

  6. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  7. Excitatory Neuronal Hubs Configure Multisensory Integration of Slow Waves in Association Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kuroki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Multisensory integration (MSI is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60 expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons. In medial and parietal association cortex, we observed spontaneous slow waves that self-organized into hubs defined by long-range excitatory and local inhibitory circuits. Unlike directional source/sink-like flows in sensory areas, medial/parietal excitatory and inhibitory hubs had net-zero balanced inputs. Remarkably, multisensory stimulation triggered rapid phase-locking mainly of excitatory hub activity persisting for seconds after the stimulus offset. Therefore, association cortex tends to form balanced excitatory networks that configure slow-wave phase-locking for MSI. Video Abstract: : Kuroki et al. performed cell-type-specific, wide-field FRET-based calcium imaging to visualize cortical network activity induced by multisensory inputs. They observed phase-locking of cortical slow waves in excitatory neuronal hubs in association cortical areas that may underlie multisensory integration. Keywords: wide-field calcium imaging, multisensory integration, cortical slow waves, association cortex, phase locking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, spontaneous activity, excitatory neuron, inhibitory neuron, mouse

  8. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  9. Inhibition shapes selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus of awake mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary eMayko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC is a major center for integration of auditory information as itreceives ascending projections from a variety of brainstem nuclei as well as descending projectionsfrom the thalamus and auditory cortex. The ascending projections are both excitatory andinhibitory and their convergence at the IC results in a microcircuitry that is important forshaping responses to simple, binaural, and modulated sounds in the IC. Here, we examined therole inhibition plays in shaping selectivity to vocalizations in the IC of awake, normal-hearingadult mice (CBA/CaJ strain. Neurons in the IC of mice show selectivity in their responses tovocalizations, and we hypothesized that this selectivity is created by inhibitory microcircuitryin the IC. We compared single unit responses in the IC to pure tones and a variety of ultrasonicmouse vocalizations before and after iontophoretic application of GABAA receptor (GABAARand glycine receptor (GlyR antagonists. The most pronounced effects of blocking GABAAR andGlyR on IC neurons were to increase spike rates and broaden excitatory frequency tuning curvesin response to pure tone stimuli, and to decrease selectivity to vocalizations. Thus, inhibitionplays an important role in creating selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus.

  10. Experimentally determined chaotic phase synchronization in a neuronal system

    OpenAIRE

    Makarenko, Vladimir; Llinás, Rodolfo

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of the subthreshold oscillatory properties of inferior olivary neurons in vitro indicates that the oscillation is nonlinear and supports low dimensional chaotic dynamics. This property leads to the generation of complex functional states that can be attained rapidly via phase coherence that conform to the category of “generalized synchronization.” Functionally, this translates into neuronal ensemble properties that can support maximum functional permissiveness and that r...

  11. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey A. Knaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions.

  12. Use of explicit memory cues following parietal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Ian G; Jaeger, Antonio; Studer, Bettina; Simons, Jon S

    2012-11-01

    The putative role of the lateral parietal lobe in episodic memory has recently become a topic of considerable debate, owing primarily to its consistent activation for studied materials during functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of recognition. Here we examined the performance of patients with parietal lobe lesions using an explicit memory cueing task in which probabilistic cues ("Likely Old" or "Likely New"; 75% validity) preceded the majority of verbal recognition memory probes. Without cues, patients and control participants did not differ in accuracy. However, group differences emerged during the "Likely New" cue condition with controls responding more accurately than parietal patients when these cues were valid (preceding new materials) and trending towards less accuracy when these cues were invalid (preceding old materials). Both effects suggest insufficient integration of external cues into memory judgments on the part of the parietal patients whose cued performance largely resembled performance in the complete absence of cues. Comparison of the parietal patients to a patient group with frontal lobe lesions suggested the pattern was specific to parietal and adjacent area lesions. Overall, the data indicate that parietal lobe patients fail to appropriately incorporate external cues of novelty into recognition attributions. This finding supports a role for the lateral parietal lobe in the adaptive biasing of memory judgments through the integration of external cues and internal memory evidence. We outline the importance of such adaptive biasing through consideration of basic signal detection predictions regarding maximum possible accuracy with and without informative environmental cues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural Mechanism of Inferring Person's Inner Attitude towards Another Person through Observing the Facial Affect in an Emotional Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ki, Seon Wan

    2010-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the brain mechanism involved in the attribution of person's attitude toward another person, using facial affective pictures and pictures displaying an affectively-loaded situation. Twenty four right-handed healthy subjects volunteered for our study. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain activation during attitude attribution task as compared to gender matching tasks. We identified activation in the left inferior frontal cortex, left superior temporal sulcus, and left inferior parietal lobule during the attitude attribution task, compared to the gender matching task. This study suggests that mirror neuron system and ventrolateral inferior frontal cortex play a critical role in the attribution of a person's inner attitude towards another person in an emotional situation.

  14. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael

    2004-01-01

    For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show....... The medial parietal region may, then, be conceived of as a nodal structure in self-representation, functionally connected to both the right parietal and the medial prefrontal cortices. To determine whether medial parietal cortex in this network is essential for episodic memory retrieval with self...

  15. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously.

  16. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A.; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously. PMID:22701418

  17. Comparison of a Mirror Neuron System among Elders with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and No Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattanachayoto, P.; Tritanon, O.; Laothamatas, J.; Sungkarat, W.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. There are lots of old people suffering from the disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal aging and dementia. An individual with MCI has an increased risk of developing AD. The mirror neuron system (MNS), activated during the observation and execution of actions, has been linked with cognitive processes.The objective of this study is to examine the MNS abnormalities in elders with MCI and AD. Ninety-two subjects (5 MCI,7 mild AD, and 80 cognitively normal) were studied by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the fMRI experiment, subjects were asked to observe a video showing hand movement (tearing a piece of paper) and a control condition (observing a fixation point).The image data were analyzed using SPM2 (Statistical Parametric Mapping).There were significant activations of bilateral inferior frontal lobule and inferior parietal lobule due to the observation of hand movement.The brain activations of the normal group were statistical significant greater than those in the MCI and mild AD groups.There was no significant difference between the MCI and mild AD groups. Elders with MCI and mild AD had fewer MNS activations than the normal controls, suggesting that the dysfunction of MNS may underlie cognitive impairments in MCI and AD patients.These findings imply that fMRI is sufficiently sensitive to detect MNS changes occurring in MCI and AD.

  18. Meta-analysis: how does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning depends on the contribution of posterior parietal cortex (PPC). But PPC is involved in many basic operations—including spatial attention, mathematical cognition, working memory, long-term memory, and language—and the nature of its contribution to reasoning is unclear. Psychological theories of the processes underlying reasoning make divergent claims about the neural systems that are likely to be involved, and better understanding the specific contribution of PPC can help to inform these theories. We set out to address several competing hypotheses, concerning the role of PPC in reasoning: (1) reasoning involves application of formal logic and is dependent on language, with PPC activation for reasoning mainly reflective of linguistic processing; (2) reasoning involves probabilistic computation and is thus dependent on numerical processing mechanisms in PPC; and (3) reasoning is built upon the representation and processing of spatial relations, and PPC activation associated with reasoning reflects spatial processing. We conducted two separate meta-analyses. First, we pooled data from our own studies of reasoning in adults, and examined activation in PPC regions of interest (ROI). Second, we conducted an automated meta-analysis using Neurosynth, in which we examined overlap between activation maps associated with reasoning and maps associated with other key functions of PPC. In both analyses, we observed reasoning-related activation concentrated in the left Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL). Reasoning maps demonstrated the greatest overlap with mathematical cognition. Maintenance, visuospatial, and phonological processing also demonstrated some overlap with reasoning, but a large portion of the reasoning map did not overlap with the map for any other function. This evidence suggests that the PPC’s contribution to reasoning may be most closely related to its role in mathematical cognition, but that a core component of this contribution may be specific to

  19. Meta-analysis: How does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter eWendelken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning depends on the contribution of posterior parietal cortex (PPC. But PPC is involved in many basic operations -- including spatial attention, mathematical cognition, working memory, long-term memory, and language -- and the nature of its contribution to reasoning is unclear. Psychological theories of the processes underlying reasoning make divergent claims about the neural systems that are likely to be involved, and better understanding the specific contribution of PPC can help to inform these theories. We set out to address several competing hypotheses, concerning the role of PPC in reasoning: 1 reasoning involves application of formal logic and is dependent on language, with PPC activation for reasoning mainly reflective of linguistic processing, 2 reasoning involves probabilistic computation and is thus dependent on numerical processing mechanisms in PPC, and 3 reasoning is built upon the representation and processing of spatial relations, and PPC activation associated with reasoning reflects spatial processing. We conducted two separate meta-analyses. First, we pooled data from our own studies of reasoning in adults, and examined activation in PPC regions of interest. Second, we conducted an automated meta-analysis using Neurosynth, in which we examined overlap between activation maps associated with reasoning and maps associated with other key functions of PPC. In both analyses, we observed reasoning-related activation concentrated in the left Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL. Reasoning maps demonstrated the greatest overlap with mathematical cognition. Maintenance, visuospatial, and phonological processing also demonstrated some overlap with reasoning, but a large portion of the reasoning map did not overlap with the map for any other function. This evidence suggests that the PPC’s contribution to reasoning may be most closely related to its role in mathematical cognition, but that a core component of this contribution may be specific

  20. PRENATAL HYPOXIA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF EMBRYOGENESIS DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS CELL MIGRATION, NEURONAL PLASTICITY AND RAT BEHAVIOR IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii S Vasilev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5’ethynyl-2’deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns

  1. Neurocognition and PET: strategies for data analysis in activation studies on working memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautzel, H.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Schmidt, D.; Mueller, H.-W.; Krause, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: In cognitive neuroscience regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging with positron-emission-tomography (PET) is a powerful tool to characterize different aspects of cognitive processes by using different data analysis approaches. By use of an n-back verbal working memory task (varied from 0- to 3-back) we present cognitive subtraction analysis as basic strategy as well as parametric and covariance analyses and discuss the results. Methods: Correlation analyses were performed using the individual performance rate as an external covariate, computing inter-regional correlations, an as network analysis applying structural equation modelling to evaluate the effective connectivity between the involved brain regions. Results: Subtraction analyses revealed a fronto-parietal neuronal network also including the anterior cingulate cortex and the cerebellum. With higher memory load the parametric analysis evidenced linear rCBF increases in prefrontal, pre-motor and inferior parietal areas including the precuneus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. The rCBF correlation with the individual performance as external covariate depicted negative correlations in bilateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions, in the precuneus and the anterior cingulate cortex. The network analysis demonstrated mainly occipito-frontally directed interactions which were predominantly left-hemispheric. Additionally, strong linkages were found between extrastriate and parietal regions as well as within the parietal cortex. Conclusion: The data analysis approaches presented here contribute to an extended and more elaborated understanding of cognitive processes and their different sub-aspects. (orig.) [de

  2. Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T; Erhart, Matthew; Järvinen, Anna M; Korenberg, Julie R; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by an overly gregarious personality, including high empathetic concern for others. Although seemingly disparate from the profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both are associated with deficits in social communication/cognition. Notably, the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in social dysfunction for ASD; yet, the integrity of this network and its association with social functioning in WS remains unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods were used to examine the structural integrity of the MNS of adults with WS versus typically developing (TD) individuals. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a tool typically used to screen for social features of ASD, was also employed to assess the relationships between social functioning with the MNS morphology in WS participants. WS individuals showed reduced cortical surface area of MNS substrates yet relatively preserved cortical thickness as compared to TD adults. Increased cortical thickness of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with increased deficits in social communication, social awareness, social cognition, and autistic mannerisms. However, social motivation was not related to anatomical features of the MNS. Our findings indicate that social deficits typical to both ASD and WS may be attributed to an aberrant MNS, whereas the unusual social drive marked in WS is subserved by substrates distinct from this network.

  3. Adaptation and inhibition underlie responses to time-varying interaural phase cues in a model of inferior colliculus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, Alla; Semple, Malcolm N; Rinzel, John

    2002-10-01

    A mathematical model was developed for exploring the sensitivity of low-frequency inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to interaural phase disparity (IPD). The formulation involves a firing-rate-type model that does not include spikes per se. The model IC neuron receives IPD-tuned excitatory and inhibitory inputs (viewed as the output of a collection of cells in the medial superior olive). The model cell possesses cellular properties of firing rate adaptation and postinhibitory rebound (PIR). The descriptions of these mechanisms are biophysically reasonable, but only semi-quantitative. We seek to explain within a minimal model the experimentally observed mismatch between responses to IPD stimuli delivered dynamically and those delivered statically (McAlpine et al. 2000; Spitzer and Semple 1993). The model reproduces many features of the responses to static IPD presentations, binaural beat, and partial range sweep stimuli. These features include differences in responses to a stimulus presented in static or dynamic context: sharper tuning and phase shifts in response to binaural beats, and hysteresis and "rise-from-nowhere" in response to partial range sweeps. Our results suggest that dynamic response features are due to the structure of inputs and the presence of firing rate adaptation and PIR mechanism in IC cells, but do not depend on a specific biophysical mechanism. We demonstrate how the model's various components contribute to shaping the observed phenomena. For example, adaptation, PIR, and transmission delay shape phase advances and delays in responses to binaural beats, adaptation and PIR shape hysteresis in different ranges of IPD, and tuned inhibition underlies asymmetry in dynamic tuning properties. We also suggest experiments to test our modeling predictions: in vitro simulation of the binaural beat (phase advance at low beat frequencies, its dependence on firing rate), in vivo partial range sweep experiments (dependence of the hysteresis curve on

  4. Interleukin-17A Promotes Parietal Cell Atrophy by Inducing ApoptosisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Atrophic gastritis caused by chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa leads to the loss of gastric glandular cells, including acid-secreting parietal cells. Parietal cell atrophy in a setting of chronic inflammation induces spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia, a critical step in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which inflammation causes parietal cell atrophy and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia are not well defined. We investigated the role of interleukin-17A (IL-17A in causing parietal cell atrophy. Methods: A mouse model of autoimmune atrophic gastritis was used to examine IL-17A production during early and late stages of disease. Organoids derived from corpus glands were used to determine the direct effects of IL-17A on gastric epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to examine IL-17A receptors and the direct effect of signaling on parietal cells. Mice were infected with an IL-17A-producing adenovirus to determine the effects of IL-17A on parietal cells in vivo. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibodies were administered to mice with active atrophic gastritis to evaluate the effects on parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia. Results: Increased IL-17A correlated with disease severity in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. IL-17A caused caspase-dependent gastric organoid degeneration, which could not be rescued with a necroptosis inhibitor. Parietal cells expressed IL-17A receptors and IL-17A treatment induced apoptosis in parietal cells. Overexpressing IL-17A in vivo induced caspase-3 activation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining in parietal cells. Finally, IL-17A neutralizing antibody decreased parietal cell atrophy and metaplasia in mice with chronic atrophic gastritis. Conclusions: These data identify IL-17A as a cytokine that promotes parietal cell apoptosis during atrophic gastritis, a

  5. Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dapretto, Mirella; Davies, Mari S; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Scott, Ashley A; Sigman, Marian; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Iacoboni, Marco

    2005-01-01

    To examine mirror neuron abnormalities in autism, high-functioning children with autism and matched controls underwent fMRI while imitating and observing emotional expressions. Although both groups performed the tasks equally well, children with autism showed no mirror neuron activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis). Notably, activity in this area was inversely related to symptom severity in the social domain, suggesting that a dysfunctional ‘mirror neuron system’ may underli...

  6. Multiplicative mixing of object identity and image attributes in single inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan Murty, N Apurva; Arun, S P

    2018-04-03

    Object recognition is challenging because the same object can produce vastly different images, mixing signals related to its identity with signals due to its image attributes, such as size, position, rotation, etc. Previous studies have shown that both signals are present in high-level visual areas, but precisely how they are combined has remained unclear. One possibility is that neurons might encode identity and attribute signals multiplicatively so that each can be efficiently decoded without interference from the other. Here, we show that, in high-level visual cortex, responses of single neurons can be explained better as a product rather than a sum of tuning for object identity and tuning for image attributes. This subtle effect in single neurons produced substantially better population decoding of object identity and image attributes in the neural population as a whole. This property was absent both in low-level vision models and in deep neural networks. It was also unique to invariances: when tested with two-part objects, neural responses were explained better as a sum than as a product of part tuning. Taken together, our results indicate that signals requiring separate decoding, such as object identity and image attributes, are combined multiplicatively in IT neurons, whereas signals that require integration (such as parts in an object) are combined additively. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Reduced parietal activation in cervical dystonia after parietal TMS interleaved with fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Paulien M.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Bohning, Daryl E.; Hinson, Vanessa K.; George, Mark S.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    Objective: Clinically normal hand movement with altered cerebral activation patterns in cervical dystonia (CD) may imply cerebral adaptation. Since impaired sensorimotor integration appears to play a role in dystonia, left superior parietal cortex modulation with repetitive transcranial magnetic

  8. Agnosia for mirror stimuli: a new case report with a small parietal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, Olivier; Mirlink, Nicolas; Bioux, Sandrine; Bliaux, Evangéline; Lebas, Axel; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Hannequin, Didier

    2014-11-01

    Only seven cases of agnosia for mirror stimuli have been reported, always with an extensive lesion. We report a new case of an agnosia for mirror stimuli due to a circumscribed lesion. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a new experimental procedure to assess visual object mirror and orientation discrimination were assessed 10 days after the onset of clinical symptoms, and 5 years later. The performances of our patient were compared with those of four healthy control subjects matched for age. This test revealed an agnosia for mirror stimuli. Brain imaging showed a small right occipitoparietal hematoma, encompassing the extrastriate cortex adjoining the inferior parietal lobe. This new case suggests that: (i) agnosia for mirror stimuli can persist for 5 years after onset and (ii) the posterior part of the right intraparietal sulcus could be critical in the cognitive process of mirror stimuli discrimination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Brodmann Areas 39 and 40: Human Parietal Association Area and Higher Cortical Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia). Damage to either gyrus causes Gerstmann's syndrome (finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, agraphia and acalculia) and verbal short-term memory impairment. "Angular alexia with agraphia" results from damage to the middle occipital gyrus posterior to the angular gyrus. Alexia and agraphia, with lesions in the angular or supramarginal gyrus, are characterized by kana transposition errors in reading words, which suggests the impairment of sequential phonological processing.

  10. The Impact of Auditory Working Memory Training on the Fronto-Parietal Working Memory Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchneiders

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal working memory task or whether it generalizes to an (across-modal visual working memory task. We used an adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal auditory but not for the (across-modal visual 2-back task. Training-induced activation changes in the auditory 2-back task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extends intra-modal effects to the auditory modality. These results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes as in the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information. By this, these effects are analogical to the activation decreases in the right middle frontal gyrus for the visual modality in our previous study. Furthermore, task-unspecific (across-modal activation decreases in the visual and auditory 2-back task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demands on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with across-modal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual 2-back task reported previously.

  11. Inferior frontal gyrus activation predicts individual differences in perceptual learning of cochlear-implant simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Frank; McGettigan, Carolyn; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart; Scott, Sophie K

    2010-05-26

    This study investigated the neural plasticity associated with perceptual learning of a cochlear implant (CI) simulation. Normal-hearing listeners were trained with vocoded and spectrally shifted speech simulating a CI while cortical responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A condition in which the vocoded speech was spectrally inverted provided a control for learnability and adaptation. Behavioral measures showed considerable individual variability both in the ability to learn to understand the degraded speech, and in phonological working memory capacity. Neurally, left-lateralized regions in superior temporal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were sensitive to the learnability of the simulations, but only the activity in prefrontal cortex correlated with interindividual variation in intelligibility scores and phonological working memory. A region in left angular gyrus (AG) showed an activation pattern that reflected learning over the course of the experiment, and covariation of activity in AG and IFG was modulated by the learnability of the stimuli. These results suggest that variation in listeners' ability to adjust to vocoded and spectrally shifted speech is partly reflected in differences in the recruitment of higher-level language processes in prefrontal cortex, and that this variability may further depend on functional links between the left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus. Differences in the engagement of left inferior prefrontal cortex, and its covariation with posterior parietal areas, may thus underlie some of the variation in speech perception skills that have been observed in clinical populations of CI users.

  12. Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapretto, Mirella; Davies, Mari S; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Scott, Ashley A; Sigman, Marian; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-01-01

    To examine mirror neuron abnormalities in autism, high-functioning children with autism and matched controls underwent fMRI while imitating and observing emotional expressions. Although both groups performed the tasks equally well, children with autism showed no mirror neuron activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis). Notably, activity in this area was inversely related to symptom severity in the social domain, suggesting that a dysfunctional 'mirror neuron system' may underlie the social deficits observed in autism.

  13. Functional segregation and integration within fronto-parietal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlatini, Valeria; Radua, Joaquim; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Leslie, Anoushka; Simmons, Andy; Murphy, Declan G; Catani, Marco; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Experimental data on monkeys and functional studies in humans support the existence of a complex fronto-parietal system activating for cognitive and motor tasks, which may be anatomically supported by the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Advanced tractography methods have recently allowed the separation of the three branches of the SLF but are not suitable for their functional investigation. In order to gather comprehensive information about the functional organisation of these fronto-parietal connections, we used an innovative method, which combined tractography of the SLF in the largest dataset so far (129 participants) with 14 meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We found that frontal and parietal functions can be clustered into a dorsal spatial/motor network associated with the SLF I, and a ventral non-spatial/motor network associated with the SLF III. Further, all the investigated functions activated a middle network mostly associated with the SLF II. Our findings suggest that dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal networks are segregated but also share regions of activation, which may support flexible response properties or conscious processing. In sum, our novel combined approach provided novel findings on the functional organisation of fronto-parietal networks, and may be successfully applied to other brain connections. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Motor role of parietal cortex in a monkey model of hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan; Li, Jingfeng M; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-04-21

    Parietal cortex is central to spatial cognition. Lesions of parietal cortex often lead to hemispatial neglect, an impairment of choices of targets in space. It has been unclear whether parietal cortex implements target choice at the general cognitive level, or whether parietal cortex subserves the choice of targets of particular actions. To address this question, monkeys engaged in choice tasks in two distinct action contexts--eye movements and arm movements. We placed focused reversible lesions into specific parietal circuits using the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and validated the lesion placement using MRI. We found that lesions on the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus [lateral intraparietal area (LIP)] specifically biased choices made using eye movements, whereas lesions on the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus [parietal reach region (PRR)] specifically biased choices made using arm movements. This double dissociation suggests that target choice is implemented in dedicated parietal circuits in the context of specific actions. This finding emphasizes a motor role of parietal cortex in spatial choice making and contributes to our understanding of hemispatial neglect.

  15. Individual Differences in Reasoning and Visuospatial Attention are Associated with Prefrontal and Parietal White Matter Tracts in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Zachary A.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Parasuraman, Raja; Strenziok, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although reasoning and attention are two cognitive processes necessary for ensuring the efficiency of many everyday activities in older adults, the role of white matter integrity in these processes has been little studied. This is an important question due to the role of white matter integrity as a neural substrate of cognitive aging. Here, we sought to examine the white matter tracts subserving reasoning and visuospatial attention in healthy older adults. Method Sixty-one adults aged 60 and older completed a battery of cognitive tests to assess reasoning and visuospatial attention. In addition, diffusion tensor images were collected to assess Fractional Anisotropy (FA) – a measure of white matter integrity. A principle component analysis of the test scores yielded two components: reasoning and visuospatial attention. Whole-brain correlations between FA and the cognitive components were submitted to probabilistic tractography analyses for visualization of cortical targets of tracts. Results For reasoning, bilateral thalamo-anterior prefrontal, anterior corpus callosum, and corpus callosum body tracts interconnecting the superior frontal cortices and right cingulum bundle were found. For visuospatial attention, a right inferior fronto-parietal tract, and bilateral parietal and temporal connections were found. Conclusions We conclude that in older adults, prefrontal cortex white matter tracts and interhemispheric communication are important in higher order cognitive functioning. On the other hand, right-sided fronto-parietal tracts appear to be critical for supporting control of cognitive processes, such as redirecting attention. Researchers may use our results to develop neuroscience-based interventions for older adults targeting brain mechanisms involved in cognitive plasticity. PMID:26986750

  16. Observational learning of new movement sequences is reflected in fronto-parietal coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Helden

    Full Text Available Mankind is unique in her ability for observational learning, i.e. the transmission of acquired knowledge and behavioral repertoire through observation of others' actions. In the present study we used electrophysiological measures to investigate brain mechanisms of observational learning. Analysis investigated the possible functional coupling between occipital (alpha and motor (mu rhythms operating in the 10 Hz frequency range for translating "seeing" into "doing". Subjects observed movement sequences consisting of six consecutive left or right hand button presses directed at one of two target-buttons for subsequent imitation. Each movement sequence was presented four times, intervened by short pause intervals for sequence rehearsal. During a control task subjects observed the same movement sequences without a requirement for subsequent reproduction. Although both alpha and mu rhythms desynchronized during the imitation task relative to the control task, modulations in alpha and mu power were found to be largely independent from each other over time, arguing against a functional coupling of alpha and mu generators during observational learning. This independence was furthermore reflected in the absence of coherence between occipital and motor electrodes overlaying alpha and mu generators. Instead, coherence analysis revealed a pair of symmetric fronto-parietal networks, one over the left and one over the right hemisphere, reflecting stronger coherence during observation of movements than during pauses. Individual differences in fronto-parietal coherence were furthermore found to predict imitation accuracy. The properties of these networks, i.e. their fronto-parietal distribution, their ipsilateral organization and their sensitivity to the observation of movements, match closely with the known properties of the mirror neuron system (MNS as studied in the macaque brain. These results indicate a functional dissociation between higher order areas for

  17. Effects of marijuana use on prefrontal and parietal volumes and cognition in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jenessa S; McQueeny, Tim; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Browning, Erin L; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2015-08-01

    Chronic marijuana (MJ) use among adolescents has been associated with structural and functional abnormalities, particularly in developing regions responsible for higher order cognition. This study investigated prefrontal (PFC) and parietal volumes and executive function in emerging adult MJ users and explored potential gender differences. Participants (ages 18-25) were 27 MJ users and 32 controls without neurologic or psychiatric disorders or heavy other drug use. A series of multiple regressions examined whether group status, past year MJ use, and their interactions with gender predicted ROI volumes. Post hoc analyses consisted of brain-behavior correlations between volumes and cognitive variables and Fisher's z tests to assess group differences. MJ users demonstrated significantly smaller medial orbitofrontal (mOFC; p = 0.004, FDR p = 0.024) and inferior parietal volumes (p = 0.04, FDR p = 0.12); follow-up regressions found that increased past year MJ use did not significantly dose-dependently predict smaller mOFC volume in a sub-sample of individuals with at least one past year MJ use. There were no significant gender interactions. There was a significant brain-behavior difference by group, such that smaller mOFC volumes were associated with poorer complex attention for MJ users (p < 0.05). Smaller mOFC volumes among MJ users suggest disruption of typical neurodevelopmental processes associated with regular MJ use for both genders. These results highlight the need for longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies providing clearer information on timing of neurodevelopmental processes and neurocognitive impacts of youth MJ initiation.

  18. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J Yu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS. This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1 Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant bandwidths across a 50-60 dB range of sound levels; (2 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3 contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise (e. g., virtual space stimuli. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115.

  19. Resting-state fMRI study of patients with fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanova, E.; Petrovskiy, E.; Savelov, A.; Yudkin, D.; Tulupov, A.

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to assess the neural activity of different brain regions in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and the healthy volunteers by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a 1.5 T MRI Achieva scanner (Philips). Results: The fMRI study showed a DMN of brain function in patients with FXS, as well as in the healthy volunteers. Furthermore, it was found that a default mode network of the brain in patients with FXS and healthy volunteers does not have statistically significant differences (p>0.05), which may indicate that the basal activity of neurons in patients with FXS is not reduced. In addition, we have found a significant (pright inferior parietal and right angular gyrus in the resting state in patients with FXS. Conclusion: New data of functional status of the brain in patients with FXS were received. The significant increase in the resting state functional connectivity within the right inferior parietal and right angular gyrus (p<0.001) in patients with FXS was found.

  20. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. P1-24: Neural Representation of Gloss in the Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex

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    Akiko Nishio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the appearance such as gloss provides one of the most important information for object recognition. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms related to the perception of gloss. We examined whether the neurons in the inferior temporal (IT cortex of the monkeys are coding gloss of objects. We made visual stimuli which have various surface reflectance properties, and tested responses of IT neurons to these stimuli while a monkey was performing a visual fixation task. We found that there exist neurons in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus that selectively responded to specific stimuli. The selectivity was largely maintained when the object shape or illumination condition was changed. In contrast, neural selectivity was lost when the pixels of objects were randomly rearranged. In the former manipulation of the stimuli, gloss perceptions were maintained, whereas in the latter manipulation, gloss perception was dramatically changed. These results indicate that these IT neurons selectively responded to gloss, not to the irrelevant local image features or average luminance or color. Next, to understand how the responses of gloss selective neurons are related to perceived gloss, responses of gloss selective neurons were mapped in perceptual gloss space in which glossiness changes uniformly. I found that responses of most gloss selective neurons can be explained by linear combinations of two parameters that are shown to be important for gloss perception. This result suggests that the responses of gloss selective neurons of IT cortex are closely related to gloss perception.

  2. Bilateral, posterior parietal polymicrogyria as part of speech therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Journal of Radiology ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been associated with either diffuse polymicrogyria around the entire extent of the sylvian fissure or in the posterior aspects of the parietal regions, in which case it is called posterior parietal ... This article discusses the possible embryological origin of these

  3. Isolation, culture and adenoviral transduction of parietal cells from mouse gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliddon, Briony L; Nguyen, Nhung V; Gunn, Priscilla A; Gleeson, Paul A; Driel, Ian R van

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe a method for the isolation of intact gastric glands from mice and primary culture and transfection of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Collagenase digestion of PBS-perfused mouse stomachs released large intact gastric glands that were plated on a basement membrane matrix. The heterogeneous gland cell cultures typically contain ∼60% parietal cells. Isolated mouse parietal cells remain viable in culture for up to 5 days and react strongly with an antibody specific to the gastric H + /K + ATPase. Isolated intact mouse gastric glands and primary cultures of mouse parietal cells respond to the secretagogue, histamine. Typical morphological changes from a resting to an acid-secreting active parietal cell were observed. In resting cultures of mouse parietal cells, the H + /K + ATPase displayed a cytoplasmic punctate staining pattern consistent with tubulovesicle element structures. Following histamine stimulation, an expansion of internal apical vacuole structures was observed together with a pronounced redistribution of the H + /K + ATPase from the cytoplasm to the apical vacuoles. A reproducible procedure to express genes of interest exogenously in these cultures of mouse parietal cells was also established. This method combines recombinant adenoviral transduction with magnetic field-assisted transfection resulting in ∼30% transduced parietal cells. Adenoviral-transduced parietal cells maintain their ability to undergo agonist-induced activation. This protocol will be useful for the isolation, culture and expression of genes in parietal cells from genetically modified mice and as such will be an invaluable tool for studying the complex exocytic and endocytic trafficking events of the H + /K + ATPase which underpin the regulation of acid secretion

  4. Neural representation of hand kinematics during prehension in posterior parietal cortex of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jessie; Reitzen, Shari D; Kohlenstein, Jane B; Gardner, Esther P

    2009-12-01

    Studies of hand manipulation neurons in posterior parietal cortex of monkeys suggest that their spike trains represent objects by the hand postures needed for grasping or by the underlying patterns of muscle activation. To analyze the role of hand kinematics and object properties in a trained prehension task, we correlated the firing rates of neurons in anterior area 5 with hand behaviors as monkeys grasped and lifted knobs of different shapes and locations in the workspace. Trials were divided into four classes depending on the approach trajectory: forward, lateral, and local approaches, and regrasps. The task factors controlled by the animal-how and when he used the hand-appeared to play the principal roles in modulating firing rates of area 5 neurons. In all, 77% of neurons studied (58/75) showed significant effects of approach style on firing rates; 80% of the population responded at higher rates and for longer durations on forward or lateral approaches that included reaching, wrist rotation, and hand preshaping prior to contact, but only 13% distinguished the direction of reach. The higher firing rates in reach trials reflected not only the arm movements needed to direct the hand to the target before contact, but persisted through the contact, grasp, and lift stages. Moreover, the approach style exerted a stronger effect on firing rates than object features, such as shape and location, which were distinguished by half of the population. Forty-three percent of the neurons signaled both the object properties and the hand actions used to acquire them. However, the spread in firing rates evoked by each knob on reach and no-reach trials was greater than distinctions between different objects grasped with the same approach style. Our data provide clear evidence for synergies between reaching and grasping that may facilitate smooth, coordinated actions of the arm and hand.

  5. Origin of parietal podocytes in atubular glomeruli mapped by lineage tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kevin; Berger, Katja; Boor, Peter; Jirak, Peggy; Gelman, Irwin H; Arkill, Kenton P; Neal, Christopher R; Kriz, Wilhelm; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-01-01

    Parietal podocytes are fully differentiated podocytes lining Bowman's capsule where normally only parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are found. Parietal podocytes form throughout life and are regularly observed in human biopsies, particularly in atubular glomeruli of diseased kidneys; however, the origin of parietal podocytes is unresolved. To assess the capacity of PECs to transdifferentiate into parietal podocytes, we developed and characterized a novel method for creating atubular glomeruli by electrocoagulation of the renal cortex in mice. Electrocoagulation produced multiple atubular glomeruli containing PECs as well as parietal podocytes that projected from the vascular pole and lined Bowman's capsule. Notably, induction of cell death was evident in some PECs. In contrast, Bowman's capsules of control animals and normal glomeruli of electrocoagulated kidneys rarely contained podocytes. PECs and podocytes were traced by inducible and irreversible genetic tagging using triple transgenic mice (PEC- or Pod-rtTA/LC1/R26R). Examination of serial cryosections indicated that visceral podocytes migrated onto Bowman's capsule via the vascular stalk; direct transdifferentiation from PECs to podocytes was not observed. Similar results were obtained in a unilateral ureter obstruction model and in human diseased kidney biopsies, in which overlap of PEC- or podocyte-specific antibody staining indicative of gradual differentiation did not occur. These results suggest that induction of atubular glomeruli leads to ablation of PECs and subsequent migration of visceral podocytes onto Bowman's capsule, rather than transdifferentiation from PECs to parietal podocytes.

  6. Is GABA neurotransmission enhanced in auditory thalamus relative to inferior colliculus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Kalappa, Bopanna I.; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Ling, Lynne L.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central auditory system. Sensory thalamic structures show high levels of non-desensitizing extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and a reduction in the redundancy of coded information. The present study compared the inhibitory potency of GABA acting at GABAARs between the inferior colliculus (IC) and the medial geniculate body (MGB) using quantitative in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo experimental approaches. In vivo single unit studies compared the ability of half maximal inhibitory concentrations of GABA to inhibit sound-evoked temporal responses, and found that GABA was two to three times (P GABA levels and suggested a trend towards higher GABA concentrations in MGB than in IC. Collectively, these studies suggest that, per unit GABA, high affinity extrasynaptic and synaptic GABAARs confer a significant inhibitory GABAAR advantage to MGB neurons relative to IC neurons. This increased GABA sensitivity likely underpins the vital filtering role of auditory thalamus. PMID:24155003

  7. Segmental Bayesian estimation of gap-junctional and inhibitory conductance of inferior olive neurons from spike trains with complicated dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu eHoang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The inverse problem for estimating model parameters from brain spike data is an ill-posed problem because of a huge mismatch in the system complexity between the model and the brain as well as its non-stationary dynamics, and needs a stochastic approach that finds the most likely solution among many possible solutions. In the present study, we developed a segmental Bayesian method to estimate the two parameters of interest, the gap-junctional (gc and inhibitory conductance (gi from inferior olive spike data. Feature vectors were estimated for the spike data in a segment-wise fashion to compensate for the non-stationary firing dynamics. Hierarchical Bayesian estimation was conducted to estimate the gc and gi for every spike segment using a forward model constructed in the principal component analysis (PCA space of the feature vectors, and to merge the segmental estimates into single estimates for every neuron. The segmental Bayesian estimation gave smaller fitting errors than the conventional Bayesian inference, which finds the estimates once across the entire spike data, or the minimum error method, which directly finds the closest match in the PCA space. The segmental Bayesian inference has the potential to overcome the problem of non-stationary dynamics and resolve the ill-posedness of the inverse problem because of the mismatch between the model and the brain under the constraints based, and it is a useful tool to evaluate parameters of interest for neuroscience from experimental spike train data.

  8. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok [Myongji St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood.

  9. Intradiploic encephalocele of the left parietal bone: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Sock; Huh, Choon Woong; Kim, Dal Soo; Mok, Jin Ho; Kim, In Soo; Yang, Geun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Encephaloceles are generally regarded as midline abnormalities. A 50-year-old man presented with a parietal intradiploic encephalocele manifesting as intermittent headache for the past 6 months. Computed tomography (CT) showed bone destruction associated with a left parietal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated brain herniation within the intradiploic space. Cerebral angiographic imaging showed a normal cerebral vessel pattern within the herniated brain lesion. In this case, surgical treatment may not be necessary in the absence of concurrent symptoms and neurologic deficit. We report the CT, MRI, and angiographic findings of an extremely rare case of parietal intradiploic encephalocele in adulthood

  10. Adaptation can explain evidence for encoding of probabilistic information in macaque inferior temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin

    2017-11-20

    In predictive coding theory, the brain is conceptualized as a prediction machine that constantly constructs and updates expectations of the sensory environment [1]. In the context of this theory, Bell et al.[2] recently studied the effect of the probability of task-relevant stimuli on the activity of macaque inferior temporal (IT) neurons and observed a reduced population response to expected faces in face-selective neurons. They concluded that "IT neurons encode long-term, latent probabilistic information about stimulus occurrence", supporting predictive coding. They manipulated expectation by the frequency of face versus fruit stimuli in blocks of trials. With such a design, stimulus repetition is confounded with expectation. As previous studies showed that IT neurons decrease their response with repetition [3], such adaptation (or repetition suppression), instead of expectation suppression as assumed by the authors, could explain their effects. The authors attempted to control for this alternative interpretation with a multiple regression approach. Here we show by using simulation that adaptation can still masquerade as expectation effects reported in [2]. Further, the results from the regression model used for most analyses cannot be trusted, because the model is not uniquely defined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural Reactivity to Emotional Faces Mediates the Relationship Between Childhood Empathy and Adolescent Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flournoy, John C.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Moore, William E.; Tackman, Allison; Masten, Carrie L.; Mazziotta, John C.; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2017-01-01

    Reactivity to others' emotions can result in empathic concern (EC), an important motivator of prosocial behavior, but can also result in personal distress (PD), which may hinder prosocial behavior. Examining neural substrates of emotional reactivity may elucidate how EC and PD differentially influence prosocial behavior. Participants (N=57) provided measures of EC, PD, prosocial behavior, and neural responses to emotional expressions at age 10 and 13. Initial EC predicted subsequent prosocial behavior. Initial EC and PD predicted subsequent reactivity to emotions in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobule, respectively. Activity in the IFG, a region linked to mirror neuron processes, as well as cognitive control and language, mediated the relation between initial EC and subsequent prosocial behavior. PMID:28262939

  12. Aspirin induces morphological transformation to the secretory state in isolated rabbit parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, U K; Levine, R A

    1991-08-01

    The morphological response of rabbit parietal cells to aspirin was evaluated by grading several ultra-structural features including the extent of the tubulovesicular system, intracellular secretory canaliculi, and microvilli. After exposure of isolated parietal cells and gastric glands to aspirin or histamine, there was an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of secretory to nonsecretory parietal cells, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the aspirin-induced morphological changes. Morphometry in parietal cells showed that aspirin induced a sixfold increase in secretory canalicular membrane elaboration. Aspirin potentiated histamine-induced parietal cell respiration and aminopyrine uptake ratio but did not increase basal respiration or aminopyrine uptake, suggesting an apparent dissociation from aspirin-induced morphological changes.

  13. Parietal epithelial cells: their role in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsules were first described by Sir William Bowman in 1842 in his paper On the Structure and Use of the Malpighian Bodies of the Kidney [London, Taylor, 1842], but since then their functions have remained poorly understood. A large body of evidence has recently suggested that parietal epithelial cells represent a reservoir of renal progenitors in adult human kidney which generate novel podocytes during childhood and adolescence, and can regenerate injured podocytes. The discovery that parietal epithelial cells represent a potential source for podocyte regeneration suggests that podocyte injury can be repaired. However, recent results also suggest that an abnormal proliferative response of renal progenitors to podocyte injury can generate hyperplastic glomerular lesions that are observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and other types of glomerular disorders. Taken together, these results establish an entirely novel view that changes the way of thinking about renal physiology and pathophysiology, and suggest that understanding how self-renewal and fate decision of parietal epithelial cells in response to podocyte injury may be perturbed or modulated will be crucial for obtaining novel tools for prevention and treatment of glomerulosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, S; Yin, T C; Wickesberg, R E

    1979-11-02

    The interaural phase sensitivity of neurons was studied through the use of binaural beat stimuli. The response of most cells was phase-locked to the beat frequency, which provides a possible neural correlate to the human sensation of binaural beats. In addition, this stimulus allowed the direction and rate of interaural phase change to be varied. Some neurons in our sample responded selectively to manipulations of these two variables, which suggests a sensitivity to direction or speed of movement.

  15. Spatial distribution of human neocortical neurons and glial cells according to sex and age measured by the saucer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Anette Kirstine; Petersen, A O; Gardi, Jonathan Eyal

    2007-01-01

    primary neurons in the human neocortex (divided into frontal-, temporal-, parietal- and occipital cortex) of young and old subjects free of neurological or psychological disease to test if age and gender has any influence on the cell distribution in human neocortex. Plots of the spatial distribution...

  16. Inconsistent Effects of Parietal α-tACS on Pseudoneglect across Two Experiments: A Failed Internal Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Veniero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES is being investigated as an experimental and clinical interventional technique in human participants. While promising, important limitations have been identified, including weak effect sizes and high inter- and intra-individual variability of outcomes. Here, we compared two “inhibitory” tES-techniques with supposedly different mechanisms of action as to their effects on performance in a visuospatial attention task, and report on a direct replication attempt. In two experiments, 2 × 20 healthy participants underwent tES in three separate sessions testing different protocols (10 min stimulation each with a montage targeting right parietal cortex (right parietal–left frontal, electrode-sizes: 3cm × 3cm–7 cm × 5 cm, while performing a perceptual line bisection (landmark task. The tES-protocols were compared as to their ability to modulate pseudoneglect (thought to be under right hemispheric control. In experiment 1, sham-tES was compared to transcranial alternating current stimulation at alpha frequency (10 Hz; α-tACS (expected to entrain “inhibitory” alpha oscillations and to cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS (shown to suppress neuronal spiking activity. In experiment 2, we attempted to replicate the findings of experiment 1, and establish frequency-specificity by adding a 45 Hz-tACS condition to α-tACS and sham. In experiment 1, right parietal α-tACS led to the expected changes in spatial attention bias, namely a rightward shift in subjective midpoint estimation (relative to sham. However, this was not confirmed in experiment 2 and in the complete sample. Right parietal c-tDCS and 45 Hz-tACS had no effect. These results highlight the importance of replication studies, adequate statistical power and optimizing tES-interventions for establishing the robustness and reliability of electrical stimulation effects, and best practice.

  17. Neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay S; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-06-01

    Although the attention-enhancing effects of nicotine have been behaviorally and neurophysiologically well-documented, its localized functional effects during selective attention are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention in healthy human nonsmokers. We hypothesized to observe significant effects of nicotine in attention-associated brain areas, driven by nicotine-induced increases in activity as a function of increasing task demands. A single-blind, prospective, randomized crossover design was used to examine neuronal response associated with a go/no-go task after 7 mg nicotine or placebo patch administration in 20 individuals who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task design included two levels of difficulty (ordered vs. random stimuli) and two levels of auditory distraction (silence vs. noise). Significant treatment × difficulty × distraction interaction effects on neuronal response were observed in the hippocampus, ventral parietal cortex, and anterior cingulate. In contrast to our hypothesis, U and inverted U-shaped dependencies were observed between the effects of nicotine on response and task demands, depending on the brain area. These results suggest that nicotine may differentially affect neuronal response depending on task conditions. These results have important theoretical implications for understanding how cholinergic tone may influence the neurobiology of selective attention.

  18. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  19. Functional connectivity of parietal cortex during temporal selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Sarah C; Dasgupta, Samhita; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D

    2015-04-01

    Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997). In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity of intact parietal cortex while typical subjects judged the relative onsets and offsets of rapidly flickering tokens (a phase discrimination task in which right parietal patients are impaired). We found two regions in parietal cortex correlated with task performance: a bilateral posterior TPJ (pTPJ) and an anterior right-lateralized TPJ (R aTPJ). Both regions were deactivated when subjects engaged in the task but showed different patterns of functional connectivity. The bilateral pTPJ was strongly connected to nodes within the default mode network (DMN) and the R aTPJ was connected to the attention network. Accurate phase discriminations were associated with increased functional correlations between sensory cortex (hMT+) and the bilateral pTPJ, whereas accuracy on a control task was associated with yoked activity in the hMT+ and the R aTPJ. We conclude that temporal selective attention is particularly sensitive for revealing information pathways between sensory and core cognitive control networks that, when damaged, can lead to nonspatial attention impairments in right parietal stroke patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inferior Olive HCN1 Channels Coordinate Synaptic Integration and Complex Spike Timing

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    Derek L.F. Garden

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar climbing-fiber-mediated complex spikes originate from neurons in the inferior olive (IO, are critical for motor coordination, and are central to theories of cerebellar learning. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN channels expressed by IO neurons have been considered as pacemaker currents important for oscillatory and resonant dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro, network actions of HCN1 channels enable bidirectional glutamatergic synaptic responses, while local actions of HCN1 channels determine the timing and waveform of synaptically driven action potentials. These roles are distinct from, and may complement, proposed pacemaker functions of HCN channels. We find that in behaving animals HCN1 channels reduce variability in the timing of cerebellar complex spikes, which serve as a readout of IO spiking. Our results suggest that spatially distributed actions of HCN1 channels enable the IO to implement network-wide rules for synaptic integration that modulate the timing of cerebellar climbing fiber signals.

  1. What Neural Substrates Trigger the Adept Scientific Pattern Discovery by Biologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the neural correlates of experts and novices during biological object pattern detection using an fMRI approach in order to reveal the neural correlates of a biologist's superior pattern discovery ability. Sixteen healthy male participants (8 biologists and 8 non-biologists) volunteered for the study. Participants were shown fifteen series of organism pictures and asked to detect patterns amid stimulus pictures. Primary findings showed significant activations in the right middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule amongst participants in the biologist (expert) group. Interestingly, the left superior temporal gyrus was activated in participants from the non-biologist (novice) group. These results suggested that superior pattern discovery ability could be related to a functional facilitation of the parieto-temporal network, which is particularly driven by the right middle temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule in addition to the recruitment of additional brain regions. Furthermore, the functional facilitation of the network might actually pertain to high coherent processing skills and visual working memory capacity. Hence, study results suggested that adept scientific thinking ability can be detected by neuronal substrates, which may be used as criteria for developing and evaluating a brain-based science curriculum and test instrument.

  2. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli eEmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (< 8 Hz oscillation in the spike train, prior and phase-locked to the stimulus onset, was correlated with increased gamma power and neuronal baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance.

  3. Distinct Oscillatory Frequencies Underlie Excitability of Human Occipital and Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Jason; Gosseries, Olivia; Postle, Bradley R

    2017-03-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human occipital and posterior parietal cortex can give rise to visual sensations called phosphenes. We used near-threshold TMS with concurrent EEG recordings to measure how oscillatory brain dynamics covary, on single trials, with the perception of phosphenes after occipital and parietal TMS. Prestimulus power and phase, predominantly in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), predicted occipital TMS phosphenes, whereas higher-frequency beta-band (13-20 Hz) power (but not phase) predicted parietal TMS phosphenes. TMS-evoked responses related to phosphene perception were similar across stimulation sites and were characterized by an early (200 ms) posterior negativity and a later (>300 ms) parietal positivity in the time domain and an increase in low-frequency (∼5-7 Hz) power followed by a broadband decrease in alpha/beta power in the time-frequency domain. These correlates of phosphene perception closely resemble known electrophysiological correlates of conscious perception of near-threshold visual stimuli. The regionally differential pattern of prestimulus predictors of phosphene perception suggests that distinct frequencies may reflect cortical excitability in occipital versus posterior parietal cortex, calling into question the broader assumption that the alpha rhythm may serve as a general index of cortical excitability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alpha-band oscillations are thought to reflect cortical excitability and are therefore ascribed an important role in gating information transmission across cortex. We probed cortical excitability directly in human occipital and parietal cortex and observed that, whereas alpha-band dynamics indeed reflect excitability of occipital areas, beta-band activity was most predictive of parietal cortex excitability. Differences in the state of cortical excitability predicted perceptual outcomes (phosphenes), which were manifest in both early and late patterns of evoked activity, revealing the time

  4. Frontal lobe atrophy in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, J A; Hudson, A J

    1994-08-01

    Neuronal degeneration in the precentral gyrus alone cannot account for the occurrence of spastic paresis in motor neuron diseases. To look for more extensive cortical atrophy we measured MRIs of the upper parts of the frontal and parietal lobes in 11 sporadic cases of classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and an age- and sex-matched group of 49 neurologically normal people. None of the patients had overt dementia or other mental diseases. In PLS there is progressive spastic paresis but in contrast to ALS there is no lower motor neuron degeneration. The surface area of the precentral gyri and the amount of underlying white matter in PLS were consistently approximately 75% of the normal size. By contrast, there was some shrinkage of the precentral gyri in some of the ALS patients but the mean measurements for the group did not differ significantly from the controls. Anterior to the precentral sulci, the cortical surface area in PLS was approximately 85% of that of the controls, with correspondingly reduced white matter. In ALS the cortical surface areas of the anterior frontal lobes did not differ from those of the controls, but the amount of underlying white matter was reduced almost as much in ALS as it was in PLS. The measured changes in the frontal lobes suggest that in PLS there is simultaneous atrophy of the primary, premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cortex, with consequent degeneration of corticospinal and corticoreticular axons descending through the underlying white matter. These changes could account for the progressive upper motor neuron syndrome. In ALS, with no significant frontal cortical atrophy, the shrinkage of the white matter may be due to degeneration of axons projecting to the frontal cortex from elsewhere. Deprivation of afferents could explain the diminution of motor functions of the frontal lobes in ALS and also the changes in word fluency, judgement and attention that

  5. Attention enhances multi-voxel representation of novel objects in frontal, parietal and visual cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Williams, Mark A; Rich, Anina N

    2015-04-01

    Selective attention is fundamental for human activity, but the details of its neural implementation remain elusive. One influential theory, the adaptive coding hypothesis (Duncan, 2001, An adaptive coding model of neural function in prefrontal cortex, Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2:820-829), proposes that single neurons in certain frontal and parietal regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively encode relevant information. This selective representation may in turn support selective processing in more specialized brain regions such as the visual cortices. Here, we use multi-voxel decoding of functional magnetic resonance images to demonstrate selective representation of attended--and not distractor--objects in frontal, parietal, and visual cortices. In addition, we highlight a critical role for task demands in determining which brain regions exhibit selective coding. Strikingly, representation of attended objects in frontoparietal cortex was highest under conditions of high perceptual demand, when stimuli were hard to perceive and coding in early visual cortex was weak. Coding in early visual cortex varied as a function of attention and perceptual demand, while coding in higher visual areas was sensitive to the allocation of attention but robust to changes in perceptual difficulty. Consistent with high-profile reports, peripherally presented objects could also be decoded from activity at the occipital pole, a region which corresponds to the fovea. Our results emphasize the flexibility of frontoparietal and visual systems. They support the hypothesis that attention enhances the multi-voxel representation of information in the brain, and suggest that the engagement of this attentional mechanism depends critically on current task demands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of Phase II Non-inferiority Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the development of inexpensive treatment regimens and less invasive surgical procedures, we are confronted with non-inferiority study objectives. A non-inferiority phase III trial requires a roughly four times larger sample size than that of a similar standard superiority trial. Because of the large required sample size, we often face feasibility issues to open a non-inferiority trial. Furthermore, due to lack of phase II non-inferiority trial design methods, we do not have an opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the experimental therapy through a phase II trial. As a result, we often fail to open a non-inferiority phase III trial and a large number of non-inferiority clinical questions still remain unanswered. In this paper, we want to develop some designs for non-inferiority randomized phase II trials with feasible sample sizes. At first, we review a design method for non-inferiority phase III trials. Subsequently, we propose three different designs for non-inferiority phase II trials that can be used under different settings. Each method is demonstrated with examples. Each of the proposed design methods is shown to require a reasonable sample size for non-inferiority phase II trials. The three different non-inferiority phase II trial designs are used under different settings, but require similar sample sizes that are typical for phase II trials.

  7. Neurocognition and PET: strategies for data analysis in activation studies on working memory; Neurokognition und PET: datenanalytische Strategien bei Aktivierungsstudien zum Arbeitsgedaechtnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautzel, H.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Schmidt, D.; Mueller, H.-W.; Krause, B. J. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (KME), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Aim: In cognitive neuroscience regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging with positron-emission-tomography (PET) is a powerful tool to characterize different aspects of cognitive processes by using different data analysis approaches. By use of an n-back verbal working memory task (varied from 0- to 3-back) we present cognitive subtraction analysis as basic strategy as well as parametric and covariance analyses and discuss the results. Methods: Correlation analyses were performed using the individual performance rate as an external covariate, computing inter-regional correlations, an as network analysis applying structural equation modelling to evaluate the effective connectivity between the involved brain regions. Results: Subtraction analyses revealed a fronto-parietal neuronal network also including the anterior cingulate cortex and the cerebellum. With higher memory load the parametric analysis evidenced linear rCBF increases in prefrontal, pre-motor and inferior parietal areas including the precuneus as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. The rCBF correlation with the individual performance as external covariate depicted negative correlations in bilateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions, in the precuneus and the anterior cingulate cortex. The network analysis demonstrated mainly occipito-frontally directed interactions which were predominantly left-hemispheric. Additionally, strong linkages were found between extrastriate and parietal regions as well as within the parietal cortex. Conclusion: The data analysis approaches presented here contribute to an extended and more elaborated understanding of cognitive processes and their different sub-aspects. (orig.) [German] Ziel, Methoden: Im Bereich der neurokognitiven Aktivierungsstudien mit Messung des regionalen zerebralen Blutflusses (rCBF) mit PET koennen durch Anwendung verschiedener Datenanalysestrategien unterschiedliche Aspekte eines kognitiven Prozesses charakterisiert werden. Unter

  8. Functional differentiation of macaque visual temporal cortical neurons using a parametric action space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeneugden, Joris; Pollick, Frank; Vogels, Rufin

    2009-03-01

    Neurons in the rostral superior temporal sulcus (STS) are responsive to displays of body movements. We employed a parametric action space to determine how similarities among actions are represented by visual temporal neurons and how form and motion information contributes to their responses. The stimulus space consisted of a stick-plus-point-light figure performing arm actions and their blends. Multidimensional scaling showed that the responses of temporal neurons represented the ordinal similarity between these actions. Further tests distinguished neurons responding equally strongly to static presentations and to actions ("snapshot" neurons), from those responding much less strongly to static presentations, but responding well when motion was present ("motion" neurons). The "motion" neurons were predominantly found in the upper bank/fundus of the STS, and "snapshot" neurons in the lower bank of the STS and inferior temporal convexity. Most "motion" neurons showed strong response modulation during the course of an action, thus responding to action kinematics. "Motion" neurons displayed a greater average selectivity for these simple arm actions than did "snapshot" neurons. We suggest that the "motion" neurons code for visual kinematics, whereas the "snapshot" neurons code for form/posture, and that both can contribute to action recognition, in agreement with computation models of action recognition.

  9. Modulation of fronto-parietal connections during the rubber hand illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that parieto-frontal connections play a role in adjusting body ownership during the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Using a motor version of the rubber hand illusion paradigm, we applied single-site and dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate...... and during three RHI conditions: a) agency and ownership, b) agency but no ownership and c) neither agency nor ownership. Parietal-motor communication differed among experimental conditions. The induction of action ownership was associated with an inhibitory parietal-to-motor connectivity, which...... cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1). Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were recorded at rest...

  10. Overlapping Parietal Activity in Memory and Perception: Evidence for the Attention to Memory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Roberto; Mazuz, Yonatan S.; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Olson, Ingrid R.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the retrieval…

  11. Attending to and remembering tactile stimuli: a review of brain imaging data and single-neuron responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, H; Sinclair, R J

    2000-11-01

    Clinical and neuroimaging observations of the cortical network implicated in tactile attention have identified foci in parietal somatosensory, posterior parietal, and superior frontal locations. Tasks involving intentional hand-arm movements activate similar or nearby parietal and frontal foci. Visual spatial attention tasks and deliberate visuomotor behavior also activate overlapping posterior parietal and frontal foci. Studies in the visual and somatosensory systems thus support a proposal that attention to the spatial location of an object engages cortical regions responsible for the same coordinate referents used for guiding purposeful motor behavior. Tactile attention also biases processing in the somatosensory cortex through amplification of responses to relevant features of selected stimuli. Psychophysical studies demonstrate retention gradients for tactile stimuli like those reported for visual and auditory stimuli, and suggest analogous neural mechanisms for working memory across modalities. Neuroimaging studies in humans using memory tasks, and anatomic studies in monkeys support the idea that tactile information relayed from the somatosensory cortex is directed ventrally through the insula to the frontal cortex for short-term retention and to structures of the medial temporal lobe for long-term encoding. At the level of single neurons, tactile (such as visual and auditory) short-term memory appears as a persistent response during delay intervals between sampled stimuli.

  12. Cell-Specific Cholinergic Modulation of Excitability of Layer 5B Principal Neurons in Mouse Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ankur; Kalappa, Bopanna I.; Anderson, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    The neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is crucial for several cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, and learning and memory. Whereas, in most cases, the cellular circuits or the specific neurons via which ACh exerts its cognitive effects remain unknown, it is known that auditory cortex (AC) neurons projecting from layer 5B (L5B) to the inferior colliculus, corticocollicular neurons, are required for cholinergic-mediated relearning of sound localization after occlusion of one ear. Therefore, elucidation of the effects of ACh on the excitability of corticocollicular neurons will bridge the cell-specific and cognitive properties of ACh. Because AC L5B contains another class of neurons that project to the contralateral cortex, corticocallosal neurons, to identify the cell-specific mechanisms that enable corticocollicular neurons to participate in sound localization relearning, we investigated the effects of ACh release on both L5B corticocallosal and corticocollicular neurons. Using in vitro electrophysiology and optogenetics in mouse brain slices, we found that ACh generated nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR)-mediated depolarizing potentials and muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR)-mediated hyperpolarizing potentials in AC L5B corticocallosal neurons. In corticocollicular neurons, ACh release also generated nAChR-mediated depolarizing potentials. However, in contrast to the mAChR-mediated hyperpolarizing potentials in corticocallosal neurons, ACh generated prolonged mAChR-mediated depolarizing potentials in corticocollicular neurons. These prolonged depolarizing potentials generated persistent firing in corticocollicular neurons, whereas corticocallosal neurons lacking mAChR-mediated depolarizing potentials did not show persistent firing. We propose that ACh-mediated persistent firing in corticocollicular neurons may represent a critical mechanism required for learning-induced plasticity in AC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Acetylcholine (ACh) is crucial for cognitive

  13. Significance of parietal projection in radiosotope scintigraphy of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomchenkov, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the isotope scintigraphy of the brain in the parieal projection with the change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector to the plane of the physiological horizontal was revealed. The observation was made on 100 patients with suspected presence of the volumetric process of the brain. Three variants of placing were studied: the parietal projection - standard (collimator plane parallel to the plane of physiological horizontal and strictly perpendicular to the sagittal plane); the placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal, opened at the front (posterio-parietal); placing with an angle of 30 deg between the detector plane and the physiological horizontal opened at the back (anterio-parietal). A comparative analysis of scintigrams with focal processes of the brain showed the largest informativeness of the proposed modification of the parietal projection in the form of a change of the dip angle of the gamma-chamber detector plane to the plane of the physiological horizontal opened at the back; this makes it possible to reveal more thoroughly the focus of the increased, pathological accumulation of the isotope in different parts of the skull, where the use of as standard placing is of small informativeness

  14. Exploiting the gain-modulation mechanism in parieto-motor neurons: application to visuomotor transformations and embodied simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Sylvain; Braud, Raphaël; Gaussier, Philippe; Quoy, Mathias; Pitti, Alexandre

    2015-02-01

    The so-called self-other correspondence problem in imitation demands to find the transformation that maps the motor dynamics of one partner to our own. This requires a general purpose sensorimotor mechanism that transforms an external fixation-point (partner's shoulder) reference frame to one's own body-centered reference frame. We propose that the mechanism of gain-modulation observed in parietal neurons may generally serve these types of transformations by binding the sensory signals across the modalities with radial basis functions (tensor products) on the one hand and by permitting the learning of contextual reference frames on the other hand. In a shoulder-elbow robotic experiment, gain-field neurons (GF) intertwine the visuo-motor variables so that their amplitude depends on them all. In situations of modification of the body-centered reference frame, the error detected in the visuo-motor mapping can serve then to learn the transformation between the robot's current sensorimotor space and the new one. These situations occur for instance when we turn the head on its axis (visual transformation), when we use a tool (body modification), or when we interact with a partner (embodied simulation). Our results defend the idea that the biologically-inspired mechanism of gain modulation found in parietal neurons can serve as a basic structure for achieving nonlinear mapping in spatial tasks as well as in cooperative and social functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses. PMID:26504353

  16. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses.

  17. The structure of the parietal pleura and its relationship to pleural liquid dynamics in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertine, K H; Wiener-Kronish, J P; Staub, N C

    1984-03-01

    We studied the parietal pleura of six sheep to obtain information on pleural structure, blood supply, and lymphatic drainage. In the strict sense, the parietal pleura is composed of a single layer of mesothelial cells and a uniform layer of loose, irregular connective tissue (about 23 micron in width) subjacent to the mesothelial cells. The parietal pleural blood vessels are 10-15 micron from the pleural space. Tracer substances put in the pleural space are removed at specific locations. Colloidal carbon and chick red blood cells are cleared by the parietal pleural lymphatics located over the intercostal spaces at the caudal end of the thoracic wall and over the lateral sides of the pericardial sac. In these areas the mesothelial cells have specialized openings, the stomata, that directly communicate with the underlying lymphatic lacunae. Cells and particulate matter in the pleural space are cleared only by the parietal pleural lymphatics. Compared to the visceral pleura, we believe the thinness of the parietal pleura, the closeness of its blood vessels to the pleural space, and its specialized lymphatic clearance pathways, together indicate that the parietal pleura plays a major role in pleural liquid and protein dynamics in sheep.

  18. Distinct roles of visual, parietal, and frontal motor cortices in memory-guided sensorimotor decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Michael J; Pho, Gerald N; Woodson, Jonathan; Sur, Mriganka

    2016-08-04

    Mapping specific sensory features to future motor actions is a crucial capability of mammalian nervous systems. We investigated the role of visual (V1), posterior parietal (PPC), and frontal motor (fMC) cortices for sensorimotor mapping in mice during performance of a memory-guided visual discrimination task. Large-scale calcium imaging revealed that V1, PPC, and fMC neurons exhibited heterogeneous responses spanning all task epochs (stimulus, delay, response). Population analyses demonstrated unique encoding of stimulus identity and behavioral choice information across regions, with V1 encoding stimulus, fMC encoding choice even early in the trial, and PPC multiplexing the two variables. Optogenetic inhibition during behavior revealed that all regions were necessary during the stimulus epoch, but only fMC was required during the delay and response epochs. Stimulus identity can thus be rapidly transformed into behavioral choice, requiring V1, PPC, and fMC during the transformation period, but only fMC for maintaining the choice in memory prior to execution.

  19. Integration of Visual and Proprioceptive Limb Position Information in Human Posterior Parietal, Premotor, and Extrastriate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-03-02

    The brain constructs a flexible representation of the body from multisensory information. Previous work on monkeys suggests that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) represent the position of the upper limbs based on visual and proprioceptive information. Human experiments on the rubber hand illusion implicate similar regions, but since such experiments rely on additional visuo-tactile interactions, they cannot isolate visuo-proprioceptive integration. Here, we independently manipulated the position (palm or back facing) of passive human participants' unseen arm and of a photorealistic virtual 3D arm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that matching visual and proprioceptive information about arm position engaged the PPC, PMv, and the body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA); activity in the PMv moreover reflected interindividual differences in congruent arm ownership. Further, the PPC, PMv, and EBA increased their coupling with the primary visual cortex during congruent visuo-proprioceptive position information. These results suggest that human PPC, PMv, and EBA evaluate visual and proprioceptive position information and, under sufficient cross-modal congruence, integrate it into a multisensory representation of the upper limb in space. The position of our limbs in space constantly changes, yet the brain manages to represent limb position accurately by combining information from vision and proprioception. Electrophysiological recordings in monkeys have revealed neurons in the posterior parietal and premotor cortices that seem to implement and update such a multisensory limb representation, but this has been difficult to demonstrate in humans. Our fMRI experiment shows that human posterior parietal, premotor, and body-selective visual brain areas respond preferentially to a virtual arm seen in a position corresponding to one's unseen hidden arm, while increasing their communication with regions conveying visual

  20. Patterns of morphological integration between parietal and temporal areas in the human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Pereira-Pedro, Ana Sofia; Bastir, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Modern humans have evolved bulging parietal areas and large, projecting temporal lobes. Both changes, largely due to a longitudinal expansion of these cranial and cerebral elements, were hypothesized to be the result of brain evolution and cognitive variations. Nonetheless, the independence of these two morphological characters has not been evaluated. Because of structural and functional integration among cranial elements, changes in the position of the temporal poles can be a secondary consequence of parietal bulging and reorientation of the head axis. In this study, we use geometric morphometrics to test the correlation between parietal shape and the morphology of the endocranial base in a sample of adult modern humans. Our results suggest that parietal proportions show no correlation with the relative position of the temporal poles within the spatial organization of the endocranial base. The vault and endocranial base are likely to be involved in distinct morphogenetic processes, with scarce or no integration between these two districts. Therefore, the current evidence rejects the hypothesis of reciprocal morphological influences between parietal and temporal morphology, suggesting that evolutionary spatial changes in these two areas may have been independent. However, parietal bulging exerts a visible effect on the rotation of the cranial base, influencing head position and orientation. This change can have had a major relevance in the reorganization of the head functional axis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dissociation of Subtraction and Multiplication in the Right Parietal Cortex: Evidence from Intraoperative Cortical Electrostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaodan; Chen, Chuansheng; Pu, Song; Wu, Chenxing; Li, Yongnian; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinlin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently shown that the left parietal cortex is critical for numerical processing, but the role of the right parietal lobe has been much less clear. This study used the intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation approach to investigate neural dissociation in the right parietal cortex for subtraction and…

  3. Classification of frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus reveals continua not discrete classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alan R; Shackleton, Trevor M; Sumner, Christian J; Zobay, Oliver; Rees, Adrian

    2013-08-15

    A differential response to sound frequency is a fundamental property of auditory neurons. Frequency analysis in the cochlea gives rise to V-shaped tuning functions in auditory nerve fibres, but by the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), the midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, neuronal receptive fields display diverse shapes that reflect the interplay of excitation and inhibition. The origin and nature of these frequency receptive field types is still open to question. One proposed hypothesis is that the frequency response class of any given neuron in the IC is predominantly inherited from one of three major afferent pathways projecting to the IC, giving rise to three distinct receptive field classes. Here, we applied subjective classification, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and other objective statistical measures, to a large population (2826) of frequency response areas from single neurons recorded in the IC of the anaesthetised guinea pig. Subjectively, we recognised seven frequency response classes (V-shaped, non-monotonic Vs, narrow, closed, tilt down, tilt up and double-peaked), that were represented at all frequencies. We could identify similar classes using our objective classification tools. Importantly, however, many neurons exhibited properties intermediate between these classes, and none of the objective methods used here showed evidence of discrete response classes. Thus receptive field shapes in the IC form continua rather than discrete classes, a finding consistent with the integration of afferent inputs in the generation of frequency response areas. The frequency disposition of inhibition in the response areas of some neurons suggests that across-frequency inputs originating at or below the level of the IC are involved in their generation.

  4. Attenuating illusory binding with TMS of the right parietal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Esterman, Michael; Verstynen, Timothy; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    A number of neuroimaging and neuropsychology studies have implicated various regions of parietal cortex as playing a critical role in the binding of color and form into conjunctions. The current study investigates the role of two such regions by examining how parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) influences binding errors known as ‘illusory conjunctions.’ Participants made fewer binding errors after 1 Hz rTMS of the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), while basic perception of featur...

  5. Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessberg, Johan; Stambaugh, Christopher R.; Kralik, Jerald D.; Beck, Pamela D.; Laubach, Mark; Chapin, John K.; Kim, Jung; Biggs, S. James; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2000-11-01

    Signals derived from the rat motor cortex can be used for controlling one-dimensional movements of a robot arm. It remains unknown, however, whether real-time processing of cortical signals can be employed to reproduce, in a robotic device, the kind of complex arm movements used by primates to reach objects in space. Here we recorded the simultaneous activity of large populations of neurons, distributed in the premotor, primary motor and posterior parietal cortical areas, as non-human primates performed two distinct motor tasks. Accurate real-time predictions of one- and three-dimensional arm movement trajectories were obtained by applying both linear and nonlinear algorithms to cortical neuronal ensemble activity recorded from each animal. In addition, cortically derived signals were successfully used for real-time control of robotic devices, both locally and through the Internet. These results suggest that long-term control of complex prosthetic robot arm movements can be achieved by simple real-time transformations of neuronal population signals derived from multiple cortical areas in primates.

  6. A transgenic mouse line for molecular genetic analysis of excitatory glutamatergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgius, Lotta; Restrepo, C. Ernesto; Leao, Richardson N.

    2010-01-01

    Excitatory glutamatergic neurons are part of most of the neuronal circuits in the mammalian nervous system. We have used BAC-technology to generate a BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line where Cre expression is driven by the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) promotor. This BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line...... showed specific expression of Cre in Vglut2 positive cells in the spinal cord with no ectopic expression in GABAergic or glycinergic neurons. This mouse line also showed specific Cre expression in Vglut2 positive structures in the brain such as thalamus, hypothalamus, superior colliculi, inferior...... colliculi and deep cerebellar nuclei together with nuclei in the midbrain and hindbrain. Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to Cre expressing cells in the spinal cord and brain and occurred as early as E 12.5. Known Vglut2 positive neurons showed normal electrophysiological properties in the BAC...

  7. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, K; Kannan, R; Kumar, N Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages.

  8. Investigating the effects of nitrous oxide sedation on frontal-parietal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji-Ho; Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Hong-Gee; Koo, Yong-Seo; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-06-09

    Although functional connectivity has received considerable attention in the study of consciousness, few studies have investigated functional connectivity limited to the sedated state where consciousness is maintained but impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network resulting from nitrous oxide-induced sedation, and to determine the neural correlates of cognitive impairment during consciousness transition states. Electroencephalography was acquired from healthy adult patients who underwent nitrous oxide inhalation to induce cognitive impairment, and was analyzed using Granger causality (GC). Periods of awake, sedation and recovery for GC between frontal and parietal areas in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma and total frequency bands were obtained. The Friedman test with post-hoc analysis was conducted for GC values of each period for comparison. As a sedated state was induced by nitrous oxide inhalation, power in the low frequency band showed increased activity in frontal regions that was reversed with discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Feedback and feedforward connections analyzed in spectral GC were changed differently in accordance with EEG frequency bands in the sedated state by nitrous oxide administration. Calculated spectral GC of the theta, alpha, and beta frequency regions in the parietal-to-frontal direction was significantly decreased in the sedated state while spectral GC in the reverse direction did not show significant change. Frontal-parietal functional connectivity is significantly affected by nitrous oxide inhalation. Significantly decreased parietal-to-frontal interaction may induce a sedated state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Retroperitoneal arteriovenous malformation extending through the inferior vena cava into the heart and causing inferior vena cava dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yon Mi; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo; Park, Pyo Won; Sung, Chang Ohk

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of retroperitoneal arteriovenous malformation extending through the inferior vena cava into the heart, which was associated with dissection of the inferior vena cava in a 32-year-old female. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a double-lumen inferior vena cava and a rod-like solid component attached to a sac-like lesion in the right heart chambers. Digital subtraction angiography showed an arteriovenous malformation draining to the inner lumen of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  10. Spectral summation and facilitation in on- and off-responses for optimized representation of communication calls in mouse inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, Alexander G; Egorova, Marina A; Ehret, Günter

    2017-02-01

    Selectivity for processing of species-specific vocalizations and communication sounds has often been associated with the auditory cortex. The midbrain inferior colliculus, however, is the first center in the auditory pathways of mammals integrating acoustic information processed in separate nuclei and channels in the brainstem and, therefore, could significantly contribute to enhance the perception of species' communication sounds. Here, we used natural wriggling calls of mouse pups, which communicate need for maternal care to adult females, and further 15 synthesized sounds to test the hypothesis that neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult females optimize their response rates for reproduction of the three main harmonics (formants) of wriggling calls. The results confirmed the hypothesis showing that average response rates, as recorded extracellularly from single units, were highest and spectral facilitation most effective for both onset and offset responses to the call and call models with three resolved frequencies according to critical bands in perception. In addition, the general on- and/or off-response enhancement in almost half the investigated 122 neurons favors not only perception of single calls but also of vocalization rhythm. In summary, our study provides strong evidence that critical-band resolved frequency components within a communication sound increase the probability of its perception by boosting the signal-to-noise ratio of neural response rates within the inferior colliculus for at least 20% (our criterion for facilitation). These mechanisms, including enhancement of rhythm coding, are generally favorable to processing of other animal and human vocalizations, including formants of speech sounds. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The mirror mechanism in the parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The mirror mechanism is a basic mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' actions into motor representations of the same actions in the brain of the observer. The mirror mechanism plays an important role in understanding actions of others. In the present chapter we discuss first the basic organization of the posterior parietal lobe in the monkey, stressing that it is best characterized as a motor scaffold, on the top of which sensory information is organized. We then describe the location of the mirror mechanism in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey, and its functional role in areas PFG, and anterior, ventral, and lateral intraparietal areas. We will then present evidence that a similar functional organization is present in humans. We will conclude by discussing the role of the mirror mechanism in the recognition of action performed with tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Action processing and mirror neuron function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jelsone-Swain

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a highly debilitating and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease. It has been suggested that social cognition may be affected, such as impairment in theory of mind (ToM ability. Despite these findings, research in this area is scarce and the investigation of neural mechanisms behind such impairment is absent. Nineteen patients with ALS and eighteen healthy controls participated in this study. Because the mirror neuron system (MNS is thought to be involved in theory of mind, we first implemented a straightforward action-execution and observation task to assess basic MNS function. Second, we examined the social-cognitive ability to understand actions of others, which is a component of ToM. We used fMRI to assess BOLD activity differences between groups during both experiments. Theory of mind was also measured behaviorally using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RME. ALS patients displayed greater BOLD activity during the action-execution and observation task, especially throughout right anterior cortical regions. These areas included the right inferior operculum, premotor and primary motor regions, and left inferior parietal lobe. A conjunction analysis showed significantly more co-activated voxels during both the observation and action-execution conditions in the patient group throughout MNS regions. These results support a compensatory response in the MNS during action processing. In the action understanding experiment, healthy controls performed better behaviorally and subsequently recruited greater regions of activity throughout the prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Lastly, action understanding performance was able to cluster patients with ALS into high and lower performing groups, which then differentiated RME performance. Collectively, these data suggest that social cognition, particularly theory of mind, may be affected in a subset of patients with ALS. This impairment may be related to

  13. Inferior frontal gyrus links visual and motor cortices during a visuomotor precision grip force task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Arfeller, Carola; Erla, Silvia; Nollo, Giandomenico; Cattaneo, Luigi; Braun, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Coordination between vision and action relies on a fronto-parietal network that receives visual and proprioceptive sensory input in order to compute motor control signals. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG) which cortical areas are functionally coupled on the basis of synchronization during visuomotor integration. MEG signals were recorded from twelve healthy adults while performing a unimanual visuomotor (VM) task and control conditions. The VM task required the integration of pinch motor commands with visual sensory feedback. By using a beamformer, we localized the neural activity in the frequency range of 1-30Hz during the VM compared to rest. Virtual sensors were estimated at the active locations. A multivariate autoregressive model was used to estimate the power and coherence of estimated activity at the virtual sensors. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) during VM was observed in early visual areas, the rostral part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right IFG, the superior parietal lobules, and the left hand motor cortex (M1). Functional coupling in the alpha frequency band bridged the regional activities observed in motor and visual cortices (the start and the end points in the visuomotor loop) through the left or right IFG. Coherence between the left IFG and left M1 correlated inversely with the task performance. Our results indicate that an occipital-prefrontal-motor functional network facilitates the modulation of instructed motor responses to visual cues. This network may supplement the mechanism for guiding actions that is fully incorporated into the dorsal visual stream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The contribution of the human posterior parietal cortex to episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sestieri, Carlo; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional–anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push–pull relationship, poten...

  15. Optimized gamma synchronization enhances functional binding of fronto-parietal cortices in mathematically gifted adolescents during deductive reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As enhanced fronto-parietal network has been suggested to support reasoning ability of math-gifted adolescents, the main goal of this EEG source analysis is to investigate the temporal binding of the gamma-band (30-60Hz synchronization between frontal and parietal cortices in adolescents with exceptional mathematical ability, including the functional connectivity of gamma neurocognitive network, the temporal dynamics of fronto-parietal network (phase-locking durations and network lability in time domain, and the self-organized criticality of synchronizing oscillation. Compared with the average-ability subjects, the math-gifted adolescents show a highly integrated fronto-parietal network due to distant gamma phase-locking oscillations, which is indicated by lower modularity of the global network topology, more connector bridges between the frontal and parietal cortices and less connector hubs in the sensorimotor cortex. The time-domain analysis finds that, while maintaining more stable phase dynamics of the fronto-parietal coupling, the math-gifted adolescents are characterized by more extensive fronto-parietal connection reconfiguration. The results from sample fitting in the power-law model further find that the phase-locking durations in the math-gifted brain abides by a wider interval of the power-law distribution. This phase-lock distribution mechanism could represent a relatively optimized pattern for the functional binding of frontal-parietal network, which underlies stable fronto-parietal connectivity and increases flexibility of timely network reconfiguration.

  16. Expression of immediate-early genes in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S S; Mei, L; Chen, J Y; Huang, Z W; Wu, H

    2014-03-12

    Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC), in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus.

  17. The Oft-Neglected Role of Parietal EEG Asymmetry and Risk for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Towers, David N.; Coan, James A.; Allen, John J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively less right parietal activity may reflect reduced arousal and signify risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). Inconsistent findings with parietal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, however, suggest issues such as anxiety comorbidity and sex differences have yet to be resolved. Resting parietal EEG asymmetry was assessed in 306 individuals (31% male) with (n = 143) and without (n = 163) a DSM-IV diagnosis of lifetime MDD and no comorbid anxiety disorders. Past MDD+ women displayed relatively less right parietal activity than current MDD+ and MDD- women, replicating prior work. Recent caffeine intake, an index of arousal, moderated the relationship between depression and EEG asymmetry for women and men. Findings suggest that sex differences and arousal should be examined in studies of depression and regional brain activity. PMID:20525011

  18. Comparative study of unilateral versus bilateral inferior oblique recession/anteriorization in unilateral inferior oblique overaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Attiat M; Kassem, Rehab R

    2018-05-01

    To compare the effect of, and the rate of subsequent development of iatrogenic antielevation syndrome after, unilateral versus bilateral inferior oblique graded recession-anteriorization to treat unilateral inferior oblique overaction. Thirty-four patients with unilateral inferior oblique overaction were included in a randomized prospective study. Patients were equally divided into 2 groups. Group UNI underwent unilateral, group BI bilateral, inferior oblique graded recession-anteriorization. A successful outcome was defined as orthotropia, or within 2 ∆ of a residual hypertropia, in the absence of signs of antielevation syndrome, residual inferior oblique overaction, V-pattern, dissociated vertical deviation, or ocular torticollis. A successful outcome was achieved in 11 (64.7%) and 13 (76.5%) patients in groups UNI and BI, respectively (p = 0.452). Antielevation syndrome was diagnosed as the cause of surgical failure in 6 (35.3%) and 2 (11.8%) patients, in groups UNI and BI, respectively (p = 0.106). The cause of surgical failure in the other 2 patients in group BI was due to persistence of ocular torticollis and hypertropia in a patient with superior oblique palsy and a residual V-pattern and hypertropia in the other patient. The differences between unilateral and bilateral inferior oblique graded recession-anteriorization are insignificant. Unilateral surgery has a higher tendency for the subsequent development of antielevation syndrome. Bilateral surgery may still become complicated by antielevation syndrome, although at a lower rate. In addition, bilateral surgery had a higher rate of undercorrection. Further studies on a larger sample are encouraged.

  19. Phosphene-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation of occipital but not parietal cortex suppresses stimulus visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Evelina; Mazzi, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia; Beck, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the occipital lobe approximately 100 ms after the onset of a stimulus decreases its visibility if it appears in the location of the phosphene. Because phosphenes can also be elicited by stimulation of the parietal regions, we asked if the same procedure that is used to reduce visibility of stimuli with occipital TMS will lead to decreased stimulus visibility when TMS is applied to parietal regions. TMS was randomly applied at 0 to 130 ms after the onset of the stimulus (SOA) in steps of 10 ms in occipital and parietal regions. Participants responded to the orientation of the line stimulus and rated its visibility. We replicate previous reports of phosphenes from both occipital and parietal TMS. As previously reported, we also observed visual suppression around the classical 100 ms window both in the objective line orientation and subjective visibility responses with occipital TMS. Parietal stimulation, on the other hand, did not consistently reduce stimulus visibility in any time window. PMID:24584900

  20. Altered cortical activation during action observation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a parametric functional MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haiqing; Li, Yuxin; Yin, Bo; Tang, Weijun; Yu, Xiangrong; Geng, Daoying [Huashan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yan [Fudan University, Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Huang, Weiyuan [People' s Hospital of Hainan Province, Department of Radiology, Haikou, Hainan Province (China); Zhang, Biyun [Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of radiotherapy, Affiliated Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing (China)

    2015-09-15

    To investigate functional cerebral abnormalities in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during action observation. Thirty patients with ALS and 30 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI with an experimental paradigm while observing a video of repetitive flexion-extension of the fingers at three frequency levels or three complexity levels, alternated with periods of a static hand. A parametric analysis was applied to determine the effects of each of the two factors. Action observation activated similar neural networks as the research on execution of action in the ALS patients and healthy subjects in several brain regions related to the mirror-neuron system (MNS). In the ALS patients, in particular, the dorsal lateral premotor cortex (dPMC), inferior parietal gyrus (IPG), and SMA, were more activated compared with the activation in the controls. Increased activation within the primary motor cortex (M1), dPMC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and superior parietal gyrus (SPG) mainly correlated with hand movement frequency/complexity in the videos in the patients compared with controls. The findings indicated an ongoing compensatory process occurring within the higher order motor-processing system of ALS patients, likely to overcome the loss of function. (orig.)

  1. Altered cortical activation during action observation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a parametric functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haiqing; Li, Yuxin; Yin, Bo; Tang, Weijun; Yu, Xiangrong; Geng, Daoying; Chen, Yan; Huang, Weiyuan; Zhang, Biyun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate functional cerebral abnormalities in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during action observation. Thirty patients with ALS and 30 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI with an experimental paradigm while observing a video of repetitive flexion-extension of the fingers at three frequency levels or three complexity levels, alternated with periods of a static hand. A parametric analysis was applied to determine the effects of each of the two factors. Action observation activated similar neural networks as the research on execution of action in the ALS patients and healthy subjects in several brain regions related to the mirror-neuron system (MNS). In the ALS patients, in particular, the dorsal lateral premotor cortex (dPMC), inferior parietal gyrus (IPG), and SMA, were more activated compared with the activation in the controls. Increased activation within the primary motor cortex (M1), dPMC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and superior parietal gyrus (SPG) mainly correlated with hand movement frequency/complexity in the videos in the patients compared with controls. The findings indicated an ongoing compensatory process occurring within the higher order motor-processing system of ALS patients, likely to overcome the loss of function. (orig.)

  2. From reference to sense: how the brain encodes meaning for speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMenenti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In speaking, semantic encoding is the conversion of a nonverbal mental representation (the reference into a semantic structure suitable for expression (the sense. In this fMRI study on sentence production we investigate how the speaking brain accomplishes this transition from nonverbal to verbal representations. In an overt picture description task, we manipulated repetition of sense (the semantic structure of the sentence and reference (the described situation separately. By investigating brain areas showing response adaptation to repetition of each of these sentence properties, we disentangle the neuronal infrastructure for these two components of semantic encoding. We also performed a control experiment with the same stimuli and design but without any linguistic task to identify areas involved in perception of the stimuli per se. The bilateral inferior parietal lobes were selectively sensitive to repetition of reference, while left inferior frontal gyrus showed selective suppression to repetition of sense. Strikingly, a widespread network of areas associated with language processing (left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral superior parietal lobes and bilateral posterior temporal gyri all showed repetition suppression to both sense and reference processing. These areas are probably involved in mapping reference onto sense, the crucial step in semantic encoding. These results enable us to track the transition from nonverbal to verbal representations in our brains.

  3. Parietal cells-new perspectives in glomerular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miesen, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Smeets, B.

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and

  4. Neural correlates of associative face memory in the anterior inferior temporal cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifuku, Satoshi; Nakata, Ryuzaburo; Sugimori, Michiya; Ono, Taketoshi; Tamura, Ryoi

    2010-11-10

    To investigate the neural basis of the associative aspects of facial identification, we recorded neuronal activity from the ventral, anterior inferior temporal cortex (AITv) of macaque monkeys during the performance of an asymmetrical paired-association (APA) task that required associative pairing between an abstract pattern and five different facial views of a single person. In the APA task, after one element of a pair (either an abstract pattern or a face) was presented as a sample cue, the reward-seeking monkey correctly identified the other element of the pair among various repeatedly presented test stimuli (faces or patterns) that were temporally separated by interstimulus delays. The results revealed that a substantial number of AITv neurons responded both to faces and abstract patterns, and the majority of these neurons responded selectively to a particular associative pair. It was demonstrated that in addition to the view-invariant identity of faces used in the APA task, the population of AITv neurons was also able to represent the associative pairing between faces and abstract patterns, which was acquired by training in the APA task. It also appeared that the effect of associative pairing was not so strong that the abstract pattern could be treated in a manner similar to a series of faces belonging to a unique identity. Together, these findings indicate that the AITv plays a crucial role in both facial identification and semantic associations with facial identities.

  5. Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Jon H; Stepniewska, Iwona

    2016-02-15

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an extensive region of the human brain that develops relatively late and is proportionally large compared with that of monkeys and prosimian primates. Our ongoing comparative studies have led to several conclusions about the evolution of this posterior parietal region. In early placental mammals, PPC likely was a small multisensory region much like PPC of extant rodents and tree shrews. In early primates, PPC likely resembled that of prosimian galagos, in which caudal PPC (PPCc) is visual and rostral PPC (PPCr) has eight or more multisensory domains where electrical stimulation evokes different complex motor behaviors, including reaching, hand-to-mouth, looking, protecting the face or body, and grasping. These evoked behaviors depend on connections with functionally matched domains in premotor cortex (PMC) and motor cortex (M1). Domains in each region compete with each other, and a serial arrangement of domains allows different factors to influence motor outcomes successively. Similar arrangements of domains have been retained in New and Old World monkeys, and humans appear to have at least some of these domains. The great expansion and prolonged development of PPC in humans suggest the addition of functionally distinct territories. We propose that, across primates, PMC and M1 domains are second and third levels in a number of parallel, interacting networks for mediating and selecting one type of action over others. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Neuronal representations of stimulus associations develop in the temporal lobe during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, A; Squire, L R; Zola, S M; Albright, T D

    2001-10-09

    Visual stimuli that are frequently seen together become associated in long-term memory, such that the sight of one stimulus readily brings to mind the thought or image of the other. It has been hypothesized that acquisition of such long-term associative memories proceeds via the strengthening of connections between neurons representing the associated stimuli, such that a neuron initially responding only to one stimulus of an associated pair eventually comes to respond to both. Consistent with this hypothesis, studies have demonstrated that individual neurons in the primate inferior temporal cortex tend to exhibit similar responses to pairs of visual stimuli that have become behaviorally associated. In the present study, we investigated the role of these areas in the formation of conditional visual associations by monitoring the responses of individual neurons during the learning of new stimulus pairs. We found that many neurons in both area TE and perirhinal cortex came to elicit more similar neuronal responses to paired stimuli as learning proceeded. Moreover, these neuronal response changes were learning-dependent and proceeded with an average time course that paralleled learning. This experience-dependent plasticity of sensory representations in the cerebral cortex may underlie the learning of associations between objects.

  7. Nuclear Glycogen Inclusions in Canine Parietal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, S; Lepri, E; Dall'Aglio, C; Marchesi, M C; Vitellozzi, G

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear glycogen inclusions occur infrequently in pathologic conditions but also in normal human and animal tissues. Their function or significance is unclear. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no reports of nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells exist. After initial observations of nuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions during routine histopathology, the authors retrospectively examined samples of gastric mucosa from dogs presenting with gastrointestinal signs for the presence of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions and determined their composition using histologic and electron-microscopic methods. In 24 of 108 cases (22%), the authors observed various numbers of intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions within scattered parietal cells. Nuclei were characterized by marked karyomegaly and chromatin margination around a central optically empty or slightly eosinophilic area. The intranuclear inclusions/pseudoinclusions stained positive with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and were diastase sensitive, consistent with glycogen. Several PAS-positive/diastase-sensitive sections were further examined by transmission electron microscopy, also using periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (PA-TCH-SP) staining to identify polysaccharides. Ultrastructurally, the nuclear inclusions were composed of electron-dense particles that were not membrane bound, without evidence of nuclear membrane invaginations or cytoplasmic organelles in the nuclei, and positive staining with PA-TCH-SP, confirming a glycogen composition. No cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were observed, suggesting that the intranuclear glycogen inclusions were probably synthesized in loco. Nuclear glycogen inclusions were not associated with gastritis or colonization by Helicobacter-like organisms ( P > .05). Our findings suggest that nuclear glycogen inclusions in canine parietal cells could be an incidental finding. Nevertheless, since nuclear glycogen is present in several pathologic

  8. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5glaucoma surgery, phthisis bulbi, or loss of light perception. Of a total of 106 eyes, 58 and 48 eyes underwent AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (Pglaucoma medications was comparable after 1 year (1.3+/-1.2 vs. 1.9+/-0.8 for superior and inferior implants, respectively, P = 0.256). Success rates were also similar at 1 year: 27 eyes (81.8%) versus 20 eyes (95.2%) for superior and inferior implants, respectively (P = 0.227). However, the overall rate of complications, such as implant exposure necessitating removal, cosmetically unappealing appearance, and endophthalmitis, was higher in the inferior group: 12 eyes (25%) versus 3 eyes (5.2%) for superior and inferior groups, respectively, (P = 0.004). Superior and inferior AGV implants have similar intermediate efficacy in terms of IOP reduction, decrease in number of glaucoma medications, and preservation of vision. However

  9. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hanken

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. Methods: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1,5mA was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20min of a 40min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5mA over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. TDCS was delivered for 20min before patients performed a 20min lasting visual vigilance task.Results: Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in reaction time associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation.Conclusions: Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in reaction times during vigilance performance but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  10. Counteracting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with Right Parietal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Katrin; Bosse, Mona; Möhrke, Kim; Eling, Paul; Kastrup, Andreas; Antal, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20 min of a 40-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. tDCS was delivered for 20 min before patients performed a 20-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in RT associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation. Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in RTs during vigilance performance, but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  11. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the [Ca]i transient

  12. Visual Short-Term Memory Activity in Parietal Lobe Reflects Cognitive Processes beyond Attentional Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremata, Summer L; Somers, David C; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-02-07

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and attention are distinct yet interrelated processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires the maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection; therefore, it is important to determine whether overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands. While attention and VSTM activated similar cortical areas, BOLD amplitude and functional connectivity in parietal cortex differentiated the two tasks. Relative to attention, VSTM increased BOLD amplitude in dorsal parietal cortex and decreased BOLD amplitude in the angular gyrus. Additionally, the tasks differentially modulated parietal functional connectivity. Contrasting VSTM and attention, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) 1-2 were more strongly connected with anterior frontoparietal areas and more weakly connected with posterior regions. This divergence between tasks demonstrates that parietal activation reflects memory-specific functions and consequently modulates functional connectivity across the cortex. In contrast, both tasks demonstrated hemispheric asymmetries for spatial processing, exhibiting a stronger contralateral visual field bias in the left versus the right hemisphere across tasks, suggesting that asymmetries are characteristic of a shared selection process in IPS. These results demonstrate that parietal activity and patterns of functional connectivity distinguish VSTM from more general attention processes, establishing a central role of the parietal cortex in maintaining visual information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and

  13. Differential frontal-parietal phase synchrony during hypnosis as a function of hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous dissociative alterations in awareness and perception among highly suggestible individuals following a hypnotic induction may result from disruptions in the functional coordination of the frontal-parietal network. We recorded EEG and self-reported state dissociation in control and hypnosis conditions in two sessions with low and highly suggestible participants. Highly suggestible participants reliably experienced greater state dissociation and exhibited lower frontal-parietal phase synchrony in the alpha2 frequency band during hypnosis than low suggestible participants. These findings suggest that highly suggestible individuals exhibit a disruption of the frontal-parietal network that is only observable following a hypnotic induction. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Response properties of neighboring neurons in the auditory midbrain for pure-tone stimulation: a tetrode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Chandran V; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2007-10-01

    The complex anatomical structure of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), the principal auditory nucleus in the midbrain, may provide the basis for functional organization of auditory information. To investigate this organization, we used tetrodes to record from neighboring neurons in the ICC of anesthetized cats and studied the similarity and difference among the responses of these neurons to pure-tone stimuli using widely used physiological characterizations. Consistent with the tonotopic arrangement of neurons in the ICC and reports of a threshold map, we found a high degree of correlation in the best frequencies (BFs) of neighboring neurons, which were mostly binaural beats. However, the characteristic phases (CPs) of neighboring neurons revealed a significant correlation. Because the CP is related to the neural mechanisms generating the ITD sensitivity, this result is consistent with segregation of inputs to the ICC from the lateral and medial superior olives.

  15. Fear processing and social networking in the absence of a functional amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Benjamin; Mihov, Yoan; Scheele, Dirk; Kendrick, Keith M; Feinstein, Justin S; Matusch, Andreas; Aydin, Merve; Reich, Harald; Urbach, Horst; Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Shah, Nadim J; Kunz, Wolfram S; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Zilles, Karl; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2012-07-01

    The human amygdala plays a crucial role in processing social signals, such as face expressions, particularly fearful ones, and facilitates responses to them in face-sensitive cortical regions. This contributes to social competence and individual amygdala size correlates with that of social networks. While rare patients with focal bilateral amygdala lesion typically show impaired recognition of fearful faces, this deficit is variable, and an intriguing possibility is that other brain regions can compensate to support fear and social signal processing. To investigate the brain's functional compensation of selective bilateral amygdala damage, we performed a series of behavioral, psychophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in two adult female monozygotic twins (patient 1 and patient 2) with equivalent, extensive bilateral amygdala pathology as a sequela of lipoid proteinosis due to Urbach-Wiethe disease. Patient 1, but not patient 2, showed preserved recognition of fearful faces, intact modulation of acoustic startle responses by fear-eliciting scenes, and a normal-sized social network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that patient 1 showed potentiated responses to fearful faces in her left premotor cortex face area and bilaterally in the inferior parietal lobule. The premotor cortex face area and inferior parietal lobule are both implicated in the cortical mirror-neuron system, which mediates learning of observed actions and may thereby promote both imitation and empathy. Taken together, our findings suggest that despite the pre-eminent role of the amygdala in processing social information, the cortical mirror-neuron system may sometimes adaptively compensate for its pathology. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anomalies of the vena cava inferior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, F.R.; Bouwer, A.J.; Bornman, M.S.; Du Plessis, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of anomalous inferior vena cava are presented, with the emphasis on embryology. The firts patient was investigated by venography for a clinically proven varicocele as a probable cause of infertility. A double inferior vena cava was found during venography, and was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). In the second case a left-sided inferior vena cava was an incidental finding when a CT scan was done as a diagnostic procedure in a case of Hodgkin's disease. A short summary of the embryology and the significance of the variants is presented

  17. Total laparoscopic retrieval of inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrashid, Ehsan; Adkar, Shaunak Sanjay; Bennett, Kyla Megan; Zani, Sabino; Cox, Mitchell Wayne

    2015-01-01

    While there is some local variability in the use of inferior vena cava filters and there has been some evolution in the indications for filter placement over time, inferior vena cava filters remain a standard option for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. Indications are clear in certain subpopulations of patients, particularly those with deep venous thrombosis and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation. There are, however, a variety of reported inferior vena cava filter complications in the short and long term, making retrieval of the filter desirable in most cases. Here, we present the case of a morbidly obese patient complaining of chronic abdominal pain after inferior vena cava filter placement and malposition of the filter with extensive protrusion outside the inferior vena cava. She underwent successful laparoscopic retrieval of her malpositioned inferior vena cava filters after failure of a conventional endovascular approach.

  18. Total laparoscopic retrieval of inferior vena cava filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Benrashid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is some local variability in the use of inferior vena cava filters and there has been some evolution in the indications for filter placement over time, inferior vena cava filters remain a standard option for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. Indications are clear in certain subpopulations of patients, particularly those with deep venous thrombosis and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation. There are, however, a variety of reported inferior vena cava filter complications in the short and long term, making retrieval of the filter desirable in most cases. Here, we present the case of a morbidly obese patient complaining of chronic abdominal pain after inferior vena cava filter placement and malposition of the filter with extensive protrusion outside the inferior vena cava. She underwent successful laparoscopic retrieval of her malpositioned inferior vena cava filters after failure of a conventional endovascular approach.

  19. Expression of immediate-early genes in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1, appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC and auditory cortex (AC, in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus.

  20. Functional connectivity between prefrontal and parietal cortex drives visuo-spatial attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Klaartje; Feredoes, Eva; Ruff, Christian C; Driver, Jon

    2017-05-01

    It is well established that the frontal eye-fields (FEF) in the dorsal attention network (DAN) guide top-down selective attention. In addition, converging evidence implies a causal role for the FEF in attention shifting, which is also known to recruit the ventral attention network (VAN) and fronto-striatal regions. To investigate the causal influence of the FEF as (part of) a central hub between these networks, we applied thetaburst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) off-line, combined with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) during a cued visuo-spatial attention shifting paradigm. We found that TBS over the right FEF impaired performance on a visual discrimination task in both hemifields following attention shifts, while only left hemifield performance was affected when participants were cued to maintain the focus of attention. These effects recovered ca. 20min post stimulation. Furthermore, particularly following attention shifts, TBS suppressed the neural signal in bilateral FEF, right inferior and superior parietal lobule (IPL/SPL) and bilateral supramarginal gyri (SMG). Immediately post stimulation, functional connectivity was impaired between right FEF and right SMG as well as right putamen. Importantly, the extent of decreased connectivity between right FEF and right SMG correlated with behavioural impairment following attention shifts. The main finding of this study demonstrates that influences from right FEF on SMG in the ventral attention network causally underly attention shifts, presumably by enabling disengagement from the current focus of attention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Prolonged sound exposure has different effects on increasing neuronal size in the auditory cortex and brainstem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lu, H. P.; Syka, Josef; Chiu, T. W.; Poon, P. W. F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 314, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 42-50 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/11/J005; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1342 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : inferior colliculus * cochlear nucleus * neocortical neurons Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.968, year: 2014

  2. Mechanisms of spectral and temporal integration in the mustached bat inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenstrup, Jeffrey James; Nataraj, Kiran; Sanchez, Jason Tait

    2012-01-01

    This review describes mechanisms and circuitry underlying combination-sensitive response properties in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Combination-sensitive neurons, performing a type of auditory spectro-temporal integration, respond to specific, properly timed combinations of spectral elements in vocal signals and other acoustic stimuli. While these neurons are known to occur in the auditory forebrain of many vertebrate species, the work described here establishes their origin in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. Focusing on the mustached bat, we review several major findings: (1) Combination-sensitive responses involve facilitatory interactions, inhibitory interactions, or both when activated by distinct spectral elements in complex sounds. (2) Combination-sensitive responses are created in distinct stages: inhibition arises mainly in lateral lemniscal nuclei of the auditory brainstem, while facilitation arises in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the midbrain. (3) Spectral integration underlying combination-sensitive responses requires a low-frequency input tuned well below a neuron's characteristic frequency (ChF). Low-ChF neurons in the auditory brainstem project to high-ChF regions in brainstem or IC to create combination sensitivity. (4) At their sites of origin, both facilitatory and inhibitory combination-sensitive interactions depend on glycinergic inputs and are eliminated by glycine receptor blockade. Surprisingly, facilitatory interactions in IC depend almost exclusively on glycinergic inputs and are largely independent of glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs. (5) The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), the lateral lemniscal nuclei, and the IC play critical roles in creating combination-sensitive responses. We propose that these mechanisms, based on work in the mustached bat, apply to a broad range of mammals and other vertebrates that depend on temporally sensitive integration of information across the audible spectrum. PMID:23109917

  3. Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified towards one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictate...

  4. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. Perforation of inferior alveolar nerve by maxillary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La fosa infratemporal es un área anatómica clínicamente importante para la administración de agentes anestésicos locales en odontología y cirugía maxilofacial. Fueron estudiadas variaciones en la anatomía del nervio alveolar inferior y la arteria maxilar en la disección infratemporal. Durante la disección rutinaria de la cabeza en el cadáver de un varón adulto, fue observada una variación excepcional en el origen del nervio alveolar inferior y su relación con las estructuras circundantes. El nervio alveolar inferior se originaba en el nervio mandibular por dos raíces y la primera parte de la arteria maxilar estaba incorporada entre ambas. El origen embriológico de esta variación y sus implicaciones clínicas es debatido. Dado que la arteria maxilar transcurría entre las dos raíces del nervio alveolar inferior, y el nervio estaba fijado entre el foramen oval y el foramen mandibular, el atrapamiento vásculo-nervioso pudo causar entume-cimiento o dolor de cabeza e interferir con la inyección de anestésicos locales en la fosa infratemporal.  Variaciones anatómicas en esta región deben ser tenidas en cuenta, especialmente en casos de tratamiento fallido de neuralgia del trigémino. Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originated from the mandibular nerve by two roots and the first part of the maxillary artery was incorporated between them. An embryologic origin of this variation and its clinical implications is discussed. Because the maxillary artery runs between the two roots of

  5. Functional network-based statistics in depression: Theory of mind subnetwork and importance of parietal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Hou, Yuh-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The functional network analysis of whole brain is an emerging field for research in depression. We initiated this study to investigate which subnetwork is significantly altered within the functional connectome in major depressive disorder (MDD). The study enrolled 52 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD and 40 controls for functional network analysis. All participants received the resting-state functional imaging using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. After preprocessing, we calculated the connectivity matrix of functional connectivity in whole brain for each subject. The network-based statistics of connectome was used to perform group comparisons between patients and controls. The correlations between functional connectivity and clinical parameters were also performed. MDD patients had significant alterations in the network involving "theory of mind" regions, such as the left precentral gyrus, left angular gyrus, bilateral rolandic operculums and left inferior frontal gyrus. The center node of significant network was the left angular gyrus. No significant correlations of functional connectivity within the subnetwork and clinical parameters were noted. Functional connectivity of "theory of mind" subnetwork may be the core issue for pathophysiology in MDD. In addition, the center role of parietal region should be emphasized in future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Spinal afferent neurons projecting to the rat lung and pleura express acid sensitive channels

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    Kummer Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid sensitive ion channels TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 and ASIC3 (acid sensing ion channel-3 respond to tissue acidification in the range that occurs during painful conditions such as inflammation and ischemia. Here, we investigated to which extent they are expressed by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons projecting to lung and pleura, respectively. Methods The tracer DiI was either injected into the left lung or applied to the costal pleura. Retrogradely labelled dorsal root ganglion neurons were subjected to triple-labelling immunohistochemistry using antisera against TRPV1, ASIC3 and neurofilament 68 (marker for myelinated neurons, and their soma diameter was measured. Results Whereas 22% of pulmonary spinal afferents contained neither channel-immunoreactivity, at least one is expressed by 97% of pleural afferents. TRPV1+/ASIC3- neurons with probably slow conduction velocity (small soma, neurofilament 68-negative were significantly more frequent among pleural (35% than pulmonary afferents (20%. TRPV1+/ASIC3+ neurons amounted to 14 and 10% respectively. TRPV1-/ASIC3+ neurons made up between 44% (lung and 48% (pleura of neurons, and half of them presumably conducted in the A-fibre range (larger soma, neurofilament 68-positive. Conclusion Rat pleural and pulmonary spinal afferents express at least two different acid-sensitive channels that make them suitable to monitor tissue acidification. Patterns of co-expression and structural markers define neuronal subgroups that can be inferred to subserve different functions and may initiate specific reflex responses. The higher prevalence of TRPV1+/ASIC3- neurons among pleural afferents probably reflects the high sensitivity of the parietal pleura to painful stimuli.

  7. [Contralateral Recession of the Inferior Oblique Muscle in Grave's Disease Patients with Mild M. rectus inferior fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, A; Raczynski, S; Dekowski, D; Esser, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose effect and the resulting binocular single vision for inferior oblique muscle recession in patients with Grave's orbitopathy. The evaluation covered all patients (n = 13) between 2010-2013 treated with recession of the inferior oblique muscle for vertical deviation caused by inferior fibrosis of the contralateral eye. The inclusion criterion was a small vertical squint angle with excyclotorsion. The corrected vertical squint angle was 3.75° [7 pdpt] (median, min 1.5° [3 pdpt], max 8° [16 pdpt]) in primary position and 5.5° in adduction [11pdpt] (median, min 3°[6 pdpt], max 9°[18pdpt]). Excyclotorsion was 4° [8 pdpt] (median, min 1° [2 pdpt], max 9° [18 pdpt]). Elevation was only slightly impaired and the side difference was 5° (median). The recession distance was preoperatively determined: 0.5° squint angle reduction per mm recession distance (calculation from patients who received surgery before 2010). Inferior oblique recession generated a good field of binocular single vision (BSV) for all patients. All patients reached BSV in the central area (20°) and within 30° of downgaze. Sixty nine percent of the patients were completely diplopia free in downgaze. Diplopia persisted in more than half of the patients in up gaze outside 15°. Squint reduction was 0.5° [1 pdpt] [0.45-0.67]/per mm recession distance in primary position and 0.65° [1.3 pdpt] [0.55-0.76]/per mm for the vertical deviation in adduction. Excyclotorsion was reduced to ≤ 2° in 77 % of the patients. Inferior oblique muscle recession can be very successfully performed on the contralateral eye in patients with mild inferior rectus muscle fibrosis. Surgery at the contralateral yoke muscle prevents the risk of overeffect with resulting diplopia in downgaze, which could occur if small distance recession had been performed at the inferior rectus muscle. An overeffect in relation to inferior oblique recession will only

  8. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% [mean +/- S.E.M.] vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury

  9. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, Nazli; Rajimehr, Reza; Esteky, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance. PMID:25404900

  10. Structural and functional evaluation of cortical motor areas in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosottini, Mirco; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Piazza, Selina; Diciotti, Stefano; Cecchi, Paolo; Fabbri, Serena; Carlesi, Cecilia; Mascalchi, Mario; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2012-03-01

    The structural and functional data gathered with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques about the brain cortical motor damage in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are controversial. In fact some structural MRI studies showed foci of gray matter (GM) atrophy in the precentral gyrus, even in the early stage, while others did not. Most functional MRI (fMRI) studies in ALS reported hyperactivation of extra-primary motor cortices, while contradictory results were obtained on the activation of the primary motor cortex. We aimed to investigate the cortical motor circuitries in ALS patients by a combined structural and functional approach. Twenty patients with definite ALS and 16 healthy subjects underwent a structural examination with acquisition of a 3D T1-weighted sequence and fMRI examination during a maximal force handgrip task executed with the right-hand, the left-hand and with both hands simultaneously. The T1-weighted images were analyzed with Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) that showed several clusters of reduced cortical GM in ALS patients compared to controls including the pre and postcentral gyri, the superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, the supplementary motor area, the superior and inferior parietal cortices and the temporal lobe, bilaterally but more extensive on the right side. In ALS patients a significant hypoactivation of the primary sensory motor cortex and frontal dorsal premotor areas as compared to controls was observed. The hypoactivated areas matched with foci of cortical atrophy demonstrated by VBM. The fMRI analysis also showed an enhanced activation in the ventral premotor frontal areas and in the parietal cortex pertaining to the fronto-parietal motor circuit which paralleled with disease progression rate and matched with cortical regions of atrophy. The hyperactivation of the fronto-parietal circuit was asymmetric and prevalent in the left hemisphere. VBM and fMRI identified structural and functional markers of an extended

  11. Spiral CT in aplasia of the pre-renal inferior vena cava as a cause of phlebothrombosis from the femoral veins to the inferior vena cava; Spiral-CT einer Aplasie der praerenalen Vena cava inferior als Ursache einer Phlebothrombose von den Oberschenkelvenen bis in die Vena cava inferior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweiger, U. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Schedel, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Thiede, U. [Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Digitale Bildbearbeitung; Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The case report focuses on the computed tomography of the thrombotic okklusion of the inferior vena cava, venae iliacae and femorales communes due to congenital interruption of the prerenal inferior vena cava. The embryology of the abnormality was discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Fallstudie wurden die Moeglichkeiten der computertomographischen Diagnostik bei einer durch Teilplasie der `praerenalen` Vena cava inferior hervorgerufenen Thrombose der Vv. femorales superficiales et profundae, der grossen Beckenvenen und der Vena cava inferior erlaeutert. In der Diskussion wurde auf die Embryologie der Missbildung eingegangen. (orig.)

  12. [Unconscious sexual desire: fMRI and EEG evidences from self-expansion theory to mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2010-03-24

    Recent advances in cognitive-social neuroscience allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying dyadic relationships. From a neuronal viewpoint, desire in dyadic relationships involves a specific fronto-temporo-parietal network and also a subcortical network that mediates conscious and unconscious mechanisms of reward, satisfaction, attention, self representation and self-expansion. The integration of this neuroscientific knowledge on the unconscious neurobiological activation for sexual desire in the human brain will provide physicians with new therapeutical and neuroscientific tools to apprehend sexual disorders in couple.

  13. Parietal epithelial cells and podocytes in glomerular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) play an important role within the renal glomerulus, in particular in diseased conditions. In this review, we examine current knowledge about the role of PECs and their interactions with podocytes in development and under

  14. Multimodal responses induced by cortical stimulation of the parietal lobe: a stereo-electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Francione, Stefano; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Marino, Daniela; Provinciali, Leandro; Cardinale, Francesco; Tassi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The functional complexity of the parietal lobe still represents a challenge for neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies. While the somatosensory functions of the anterior parietal cortex are well established, the posterior parietal cortex has a relevant role in processing the sensory information, including visuo-spatial perception, visual attention, visuo-motor transformations and other complex and not completely understood functions. We retrospectively analysed all the clinical manifestations induced by intracerebral bipolar electrical stimulation in 172 patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy (mean age 25.6, standard deviation 11.6; 44% females and 56% males) with at least one electrode stereotactically implanted in the parietal cortex. A total of 1186 electrical stimulations were included in the analysis, of which 88 were subsequently excluded because of eliciting pathological electric activity or inducing ictal symptomatology. In the dominant parietal lobe, clinical responses were observed for 56 (25%) of the low-frequency stimulations and for 76 (50%) of the high-frequency stimulations. In the non-dominant parietal lobe, 111 (27%) low-frequency and 176 (55%) high-frequency stimulations were associated with a clinical response. Body scheme alteration was the only clinical effect showing a lateralization, as they were evoked only in the non-dominant hemisphere. The occurrence of somatosensory sensations, motor symptoms, dysarthria and multimodal responses were significantly associated with stimulation of the postcentral gyrus (odds ratio: 5.83, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 8.77, P < 0.001; odds ratio: 5.44, P = 0.011; odds ratio: 8.33, P = 0.006; respectively). Stimulation of the intraparietal sulcus was associated with the occurrence of sensory illusions or hallucinations (odds ratio: 8.68, P < 0.001) and eyeball/eyelid movements or sensations (odds ratio: 4.35, P = 0.047). To our knowledge, this is the only currently available complete

  15. Fronto-Parietal Brain Responses to Visuotactile Congruence in an Anatomical Reference Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Limanowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one’s real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison. Participants’ index or little finger was synchronously touched with the index or little finger of a virtual hand, under congruent or incongruent orientations of the real and virtual hands. The left ventral premotor cortex responded significantly more strongly to visuotactile co-stimulation of the same versus different fingers of the virtual and real hand. Conversely, the left anterior intraparietal sulcus responded significantly more strongly to co-stimulation of different versus same fingers. Both responses were independent of hand orientation congruence and of spatial congruence of the visuotactile stimuli. Our results suggest that fronto-parietal areas previously associated with multisensory processing within peripersonal space and with tactile remapping evaluate the congruence of visuotactile stimulation on the body according to an anatomical reference frame.

  16. Fronto-Parietal Brain Responses to Visuotactile Congruence in an Anatomical Reference Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowski, Jakub; Blankenburg, Felix

    2018-01-01

    Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one's real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison. Participants' index or little finger was synchronously touched with the index or little finger of a virtual hand, under congruent or incongruent orientations of the real and virtual hands. The left ventral premotor cortex responded significantly more strongly to visuotactile co-stimulation of the same versus different fingers of the virtual and real hand. Conversely, the left anterior intraparietal sulcus responded significantly more strongly to co-stimulation of different versus same fingers. Both responses were independent of hand orientation congruence and of spatial congruence of the visuotactile stimuli. Our results suggest that fronto-parietal areas previously associated with multisensory processing within peripersonal space and with tactile remapping evaluate the congruence of visuotactile stimulation on the body according to an anatomical reference frame.

  17. Kinesthetic alexia due to left parietal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihori, Nami; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Araki, Shigeo; Kawachi, Juro

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the neuropsychological mechanisms of kinesthetic alexia, we asked 7 patients who showed kinesthetic alexia with preserved visual reading after damage to the left parietal region to perform tasks consisting of kinesthetic written reproduction (writing down the same letter as the kinesthetic stimulus), kinesthetic reading aloud, visual written reproduction (copying letters), and visual reading aloud of hiragana (Japanese phonograms). We compared the performance in these tasks and the lesion sites in each patient. The results suggested that deficits in any one of the following functions might cause kinesthetic alexia: (1) the retrieval of kinesthetic images (motor engrams) of characters from kinesthetic stimuli, (2) kinesthetic images themselves, (3) access to cross-modal association from kinesthetic images, and (4) cross-modal association itself (retrieval of auditory and visual images from kinesthetic images of characters). Each of these factors seemed to be related to different lesion sites in the left parietal lobe. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Enhanced Working Memory Binding by Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Birba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer’s patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding. A unique approach to assess this issue is afforded by single-subject direct intracranial electrical stimulation of specific brain regions during a relevant cognitive task. Electrical stimulation has been used both for clinical purposes and to causally probe brain mechanisms. Previous evidence of electrical currents spreading through white matter along well defined functional circuits indicates that visual working memory mechanisms are subserved by a specific widely distributed network. Here, we stimulated the parietal cortex of a subject with intracranial electrodes as he performed the visual STM task. We compared the ensuing results to those from a non-stimulated condition and to the performance of a matched control group. In brief, direct stimulation of the parietal cortex induced a selective improvement in STM. These results, together with previous studies, provide very preliminary but promising ground to examine behavioral changes upon parietal stimulation in AD. We discuss our results regarding: (a the usefulness of the task to target prodromal stages of AD; (b the role of a posterior network in STM binding and in AD; and (c the potential opportunity to improve STM binding through brain stimulation.

  19. Sequential inference as a mode of cognition and its correlates in fronto-parietal and hippocampal brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H B FitzGerald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Normative models of human cognition often appeal to Bayesian filtering, which provides optimal online estimates of unknown or hidden states of the world, based on previous observations. However, in many cases it is necessary to optimise beliefs about sequences of states rather than just the current state. Importantly, Bayesian filtering and sequential inference strategies make different predictions about beliefs and subsequent choices, rendering them behaviourally dissociable. Taking data from a probabilistic reversal task we show that subjects' choices provide strong evidence that they are representing short sequences of states. Between-subject measures of this implicit sequential inference strategy had a neurobiological underpinning and correlated with grey matter density in prefrontal and parietal cortex, as well as the hippocampus. Our findings provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for sequential inference in human cognition, and by exploiting between-subject variation in this measure we provide pointers to its neuronal substrates.

  20. Mediterranean diet, micronutrients and macronutrients, and MRI measures of cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubo, Sara C; Aakre, Jeremiah A; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Syrjanen, Jeremy A; Mielke, Michelle M; Geda, Yonas E; Kremers, Walter K; Machulda, Mary M; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Roberts, Rosebud O

    2017-02-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment, but it is unclear whether it is associated with better brain imaging biomarkers. Among 672 cognitively normal participants (mean age, 79.8 years, 52.5% men), we investigated associations of MeDi score and MeDi components with magnetic resonance imaging measures of cortical thickness for the four lobes separately and averaged (average lobar). Higher MeDi score was associated with larger frontal, parietal, occipital, and average lobar cortical thickness. Higher legume and fish intakes were associated with larger cortical thickness: legumes with larger superior parietal, inferior parietal, precuneus, parietal, occipital, lingual, and fish with larger precuneus, superior parietal, posterior cingulate, parietal, and inferior parietal. Higher carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with lower entorhinal cortical thickness. In this sample of elderly persons, higher adherence to MeDi was associated with larger cortical thickness. These cross-sectional findings require validation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of childhood trauma on left inferior frontal gyrus function during response inhibition across psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Y; O'Reilly, N; Watkeys, O J; Carr, V J; Green, M J

    2018-07-01

    Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs). Among the participants, 71 clinical cases and 21 HCs reported significant levels of childhood trauma exposure, while 41 clinical cases and 32 HCs did not. In the absence of effects on response inhibition performance, childhood trauma exposure was associated with increased activation in the left IFG, and increased connectivity between the left IFG seed region and the cerebellum and calcarine sulcus, in both cases and healthy individuals. There was no main effect of psychosis, and no trauma-by-psychosis interaction for any other region-of-interest. Within the clinical sample, the effects of trauma-exposure on the left IFG activation were mediated by symptom severity. Trauma-related increases in activation of the left IFG were not associated with performance differences, or dependent on clinical diagnostic status; increased IFG functionality may represent a compensatory (overactivation) mechanism required to exert adequate inhibitory control of the motor response.

  2. Functional MRI study of verbal working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Youran; Geng Daoying; Feng Xiaoyuan; Du Yasong; Zhao Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the verbal working memory of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as to explore the characteristics of functional areas of verbal working memory with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Eighteen children were selected in the study. There were 9 ADHD children with inattention subtype and 9 healthy subjects. All patients and healthy subjects completed the cognitive examination and the block- designed N-block verbal working memory task using a GE 3.0 T MR. Data were analyzed by AFNI software. Result: The neural activations of ADHD's children are lower than that of control under verbal working memory. Especially in the areas of bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri, bilateral superior parietal lobules and inferior parietal lobules, right basal ganglia in the 1-BACK task. And bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri, bilateral superior parietal lobules, left cortex inferior parietallobule, right basal ganglia, anterior cingulatecortex in the 2-BACK task. Conclusion: The hypofunctional areas of verbal working memory (including bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex) can be seen in the ADHD children especially who also has lower activation of anterior cingulate cortex under 2-BACK task. (authors)

  3. Effects of age and gender on neural networks of motor response inhibition: from adolescence to mid-adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Lim, Lena; Ecker, Christine; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael; Smith, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Functional inhibitory neural networks mature progressively with age. However, nothing is known about the impact of gender on their development. This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 healthy males and females, between 13 and 38 years, performing a Stop task. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical response inhibition areas of right inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal and temporo-parietal regions. Females showed significantly enhanced activation in left inferior and superior frontal and striatal regions relative to males, while males showed increased activation relative to females in right inferior and superior parietal areas. Importantly, left frontal and striatal areas that showed increased activation in females, also showed significantly increased functional maturation in females relative to males, while the right inferior parietal activation that was increased in males showed significantly increased functional maturation relative to females. The findings demonstrate for the first time that sex-dimorphic activation patterns of enhanced left fronto-striatal activation in females and enhanced right parietal activation in males during motor inhibition appear to be the result of underlying gender differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The contribution of the human posterior parietal cortex to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestieri, Carlo; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2017-02-17

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional-anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push-pull relationship, potentially mediated by prefrontal regions. Moreover, different PPC regions carry out specific functions during retrieval - for example, representing retrieved information, recoding this information based on task demands, or accumulating evidence for memory decisions.

  5. The role of parietal cortex in the formation of colour and motion based concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel William Cheadle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaging evidence shows that separate subdivisions of parietal cortex, in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, are engaged when stimuli are grouped according to colour and to motion (Zeki and Stutters 2013. Since grouping is an essential step in the formation of concepts, we wanted to learn whether parietal cortex is also engaged in the formation of concepts according to these two attributes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and choosing the recognition of concept-based colour or motion stimuli as our paradigm, we found that there was strong concept-related activity in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region whose homologue in the macaque monkey is known to receive direct but segregated anatomical inputs from V4 and V5. Parietal activity related to colour concepts was juxtaposed but did not overlap with activity related to motion concepts, thus emphasizing the continuation of the segregation of colour and motion into the conceptual system. Concurrent retinotopic mapping experiments showed that within the parietal cortex, concept-related activity increases within later stage IPS areas.

  6. Ventral medullary neurones excited from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S M; Smith, P R

    1984-07-01

    In cats anaesthetised with chloralose, the ventral medulla was explored in and around the strip previously identified as the location of the efferent pathway from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas to the spinal cord, in a search for neurones excited by electrical stimulation of the defence areas. Such units were found mostly in the caudal part of this strip, at a depth of not more than 500 microns from the surface. Nearly all were located in the ventral part of nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL) at the level of the rostral pole of the inferior olive. There was evidence of temporal and spatial facilitation, indicating a convergent excitatory input from the defence areas onto neurones in PGL. This is consistent with earlier evidence of a synaptic relay in the efferent pathway at this site. When the pathway is blocked at this site, arterial blood pressure falls profoundly, so activity in these neurones may be essential for the normal level of sympathetic nerve activity.

  7. Investigation of Parietal Polysaccharides from Retama raetam Roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results indicate the presence of the homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonans in pectin. This study constitutes the preliminary data obtained in the biochemical analysis of the parietal compounds of the roots of a species which grows in an arid area in comparison with those of its aerial parts. Keywords: Retama ...

  8. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-08-16

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception.

  9. Parietal seeding of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorale, C; Scibé, R; Siquini, W; Massa, M; Brunelli, A; Landi, E

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VALC) represents the treatment of choice for the symptomatic gallstones. However the occurrence of an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder results a controindication for this surgical technique. We present a case of a 52 years old woman who underwent a VALC; histology revealed a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. For this reason the patient underwent a second operation that is right hepatic trisegmentectomy. Six months later the patient presented with a parietal recurrence at the extraction site of the gallbladder. We discuss the possible mechanism responsible for carcinomatous dissemination during laparoscopic surgery and we raccommend the use of some procedures in order to limit the risk and eventually to treat a neoplastic parietal seeding. These complications suggest the problem about the utility and the future played by video assisted laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of intraabdominal malignancies.

  10. Patterns of brain and cardiovascular activation while solving rule-discovery and rule-application numeric tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Tytus; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Wordecha, Małgorzata; Kępkowicz, Anna; Majewska, Adrianna; Pstrągowska, Aleksandra; Oleksy, Tomasz; Wypych, Marek; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-07-01

    It is known that solving mental tasks leads to tonic increase in cardiovascular activity. Our previous research showed that tasks involving rule application (RA) caused greater tonic increase in cardiovascular activity than tasks requiring rule discovery (RD). However, it is not clear what brain mechanisms are responsible for this difference. The aim of two experimental studies was to compare the patterns of brain and cardiovascular activity while both RD and the RA numeric tasks were being solved. The fMRI study revealed greater brain activation while solving RD tasks than while solving RA tasks. In particular, RD tasks evoked greater activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus and selected areas in the parietal, and temporal cortices, including the precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and the superior temporal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex. In addition, RA tasks caused larger increases in HR than RD tasks. The second study, carried out in a cardiovascular laboratory, showed greater increases in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) while solving RA tasks than while solving RD tasks. The results support the hypothesis that RD and RA tasks involve different modes of information processing, but the neuronal mechanism responsible for the observed greater cardiovascular response to RA tasks than to RD tasks is not completely clear. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Brain-wide neuronal dynamics during motor adaptation in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Misha B; Li, Jennifer M; Orger, Michael B; Robson, Drew N; Schier, Alexander F; Engert, Florian; Portugues, Ruben

    2012-05-09

    A fundamental question in neuroscience is how entire neural circuits generate behaviour and adapt it to changes in sensory feedback. Here we use two-photon calcium imaging to record the activity of large populations of neurons at the cellular level, throughout the brain of larval zebrafish expressing a genetically encoded calcium sensor, while the paralysed animals interact fictively with a virtual environment and rapidly adapt their motor output to changes in visual feedback. We decompose the network dynamics involved in adaptive locomotion into four types of neuronal response properties, and provide anatomical maps of the corresponding sites. A subset of these signals occurred during behavioural adjustments and are candidates for the functional elements that drive motor learning. Lesions to the inferior olive indicate a specific functional role for olivocerebellar circuitry in adaptive locomotion. This study enables the analysis of brain-wide dynamics at single-cell resolution during behaviour.

  12. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  13. Salicylate-induced changes in spontaneous activity of single units in the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Sasaki, C T

    1986-11-01

    Changes in spontaneous neuronal activity of the inferior colliculus in albino guinea pigs before and after administration of sodium salicylate were analyzed. Animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital, and two microelectrodes separated by a few hundred microns were driven through the inferior colliculus. After collecting a sufficiently large sample of cells, sodium salicylate (450 mg/kg) was injected i.p. and recordings again made 2 h after the injection. Comparison of spontaneous activity recorded before and after salicylate administration revealed highly statistically significant differences (p less than 0.001). After salicylate, the mean rate of the cell population increased from 29 to 83 Hz and the median from 26 to 74 Hz. Control experiments in which sodium salicylate was replaced by saline injection revealed no statistically significant differences in cell discharges. Recordings made during the same experiments from lobulus V of the cerebellar vermis revealed no changes in response to salicylate. The observed changes in single-unit activity due to salicylate administration may represent the first systematic evidence of a tinnituslike phenomenon in animals.

  14. Supralinear and Supramodal Integration of Visual and Tactile Signals in Rats: Psychophysics and Neuronal Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, Nader; Tafreshiha, Azadeh; Zoccolan, Davide; Diamond, Mathew E

    2018-02-07

    To better understand how object recognition can be triggered independently of the sensory channel through which information is acquired, we devised a task in which rats judged the orientation of a raised, black and white grating. They learned to recognize two categories of orientation: 0° ± 45° ("horizontal") and 90° ± 45° ("vertical"). Each trial required a visual (V), a tactile (T), or a visual-tactile (VT) discrimination; VT performance was better than that predicted by optimal linear combination of V and T signals, indicating synergy between sensory channels. We examined posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and uncovered key neuronal correlates of the behavioral findings: PPC carried both graded information about object orientation and categorical information about the rat's upcoming choice; single neurons exhibited identical responses under the three modality conditions. Finally, a linear classifier of neuronal population firing replicated the behavioral findings. Taken together, these findings suggest that PPC is involved in the supramodal processing of shape. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-generated movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina eRitterband-Rosenbaum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large body of fMRI and lesion-literature has provided evidence that the Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC is important for sensorimotor integration and sense of agency (SoA. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to explore the role of the IPC during a validated SoA detection task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects’ SoA during self-generated movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-generated movements and 2/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents of an observed movement. Subjects completed three sessions, in which subjects received online rTMS over the right IPC (active condition, over the vertex (CZ (sham condition or no TMS but a sound-matched control. We found that rTMS over right IPC significantly altered SoA of the non-perturbed movements. Following IPC stimulation subjects were more likely to experience self-generated movements as being externally perturbed compared to the control site (P=0.002 and the stimulation-free control (P=0.042. The data support the importance of IPC activation during sensorimotor comparison in order to correctly determine the agent of movements.

  16. Agenesia de veia cava inferior associada à trombose venosa profunda Agenesis of inferior vena cava associated with deep venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Luis Konopka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A agenesia da veia cava inferior é uma anomalia congênita rara, que foi recentemente identificada como um importante fator de risco para o desenvolvimento e a recorrência de trombose venosa profunda de membros inferiores em jovens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar o caso de uma paciente que apresentou trombose venosa profunda dois meses após a realização de cirurgia de varizes. A angiotomografia computadorizada demonstrou a presença de anomalia venosa complexa com ausência da veia cava inferior.The agenesis of the inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly, which was recently identified as an important risk factor for the development and recurrence of deep venous thrombosis especially in young people. The goal of this work was to report the case of a patient who presented deep venous thrombosis approximately two months after varicose vein surgery. The computerized angiotomography demonstrated the presence of a complex venous anomaly with absence of the inferior vena cava.

  17. Parietal and temporal activity during a multimodal dance video game: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, J Adam; Bronner, Shaw; Ono, Yumie; Onozuka, Minoru

    2011-10-03

    Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we studied how playing a dance video game employs coordinated activation of sensory-motor integration centers of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). Subjects played a dance video game, in a block design with 30s of activity alternating with 30s of rest, while changes in oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels were continuously measured. The game was modified to compare difficult (4-arrow), simple (2-arrow), and stepping conditions. Oxy-Hb levels were greatest with increased task difficulty. The quick-onset, trapezoidal time-course increase in SPL oxy-Hb levels reflected the on-off neuronal response of spatial orienting and rhythmic motor timing that were required during the activity. Slow-onset, bell-shaped increases in oxy-Hb levels observed in STG suggested the gradually increasing load of directing multisensory information to downstream processing centers associated with motor behavior and control. Differences in temporal relationships of SPL and STG oxy-Hb concentration levels may reflect the functional roles of these brain structures during the task period. NIRS permits insights into temporal relationships of cortical hemodynamics during real motor tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endovascular management of inferior vena cava filter thrombotic occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Bernardino C; Montero-Baker, Miguel F; Espinoza, Eduardo; Gamero, Maria; Zea-Vera, Rodrigo; Labropoulos, Nicos; Leon, Luis R

    2018-01-01

    Objective Inferior vena cava occlusion is a potentially life-threatening complication related to caval filters. We present our experience with filter-induced inferior vena cava occlusion in order to assess the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of endovascular management. Methods A retrospective review of all patients undergoing inferior vena cava filter placement over a 60-month study period was performed. From this cohort, a total of 10 cases of inferior vena cava occlusion after filter placement were identified. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were extracted. Patients were followed to the last clinic visit or until they died. Results One-hundred eighty filters were placed by our group practice during the study period. Of those, a total of 10 patients were identified. Overall, there were 7 males; the mean age was 57.1 years (25-78 years). The median time between inferior vena cava filter placement and filter occlusion was 105 days (range 5-4745 days). All patients were clinically symptomatic at the time of their presentation. Nine out of 10 patients were successfully managed endovascularly. Trellis™-8 thrombectomy was the most common endovascular strategy performed ( n = 9). Four patients had balloon angioplasty, two of those with stent placement for chronically occluded inferior vena cava/iliac veins. No thromboembolic complications developed during a median follow-up period of 233 days (range 4-1083 days). Conclusions Endovascular management of inferior vena cava occlusion is feasible, safe, and effective in decreasing thrombus burden in the presence of an inferior vena cava filter. Further studies evaluating long-term inferior vena cava patency and optimal surveillance regimen after endovascular management of filter-related inferior vena cava occlusion are warranted.

  19. [Anatomy of fractures of the inferior scapular angle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, J; Tuček, M; Malík, J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the anatomy of fractures of the inferior angle and the adjacent part of the scapular body, based on 3D CT reconstructions. In a series of 375 scapular fractures, we identified a total of 20 fractures of the inferior angle of the scapular body (13 men, 7 women), with a mean patient age of 50 years (range 3373). In all fractures, 3D CT reconstructions were obtained, allowing an objective evaluation of the fracture pattern with a focus on the size and shape of the inferior angle fragment, propagation of the fracture line to the lateral and medial borders of the infraspinous part of the scapular body, fragment displacement and any additional fracture of the ipsilateral scapula and the shoulder girdle. We identified a total of 5 types of fracture involving the distal half of the infraspinous part of the scapular body. The first type, recorded in 5 cases, affected only the apex of the inferior angle, with a small part of the adjacent medial border. The second type, occurring in 4 cases, involved fractures separating the entire inferior angle. The third type, represented by 4 cases, was characterized by a fracture line starting medially close above the inferior angle and passing proximolaterally. The separated fragment had a shape of a big drop, carrying also the distal half of the lateral pillar in addition to the inferior angle. In the fourth type identified in 5 fractures, the separated fragment was formed both by the inferior angle and a variable part of the medial border. The fifth type, being by its nature a transition to the fracture of the infraspinous part of the body, was recorded in 2 cases, with the same V-shaped fragment. Fractures of the inferior angle and the adjacent part of the scapular body are groups of fractures differing from other infraspinous fractures of the scapular body. Although these fractures are highly variable in terms of shape, they have the same course of fracture line and the manner of displacement

  20. Exogenous vs. endogenous attention: Shifting the balance of fronto-parietal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kristin N; Du, Feng; Parks, Emily; Hopfinger, Joseph B

    2018-03-01

    Despite behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for dissociations between endogenous (voluntary) and exogenous (reflexive) attention, fMRI results have yet to consistently and clearly differentiate neural activation patterns between these two types of attention. This study specifically aimed to determine whether activity in the dorsal fronto-parietal network differed between endogenous and exogenous conditions. Participants performed a visual discrimination task in endogenous and exogenous attention conditions while undergoing fMRI scanning. Analyses revealed robust and bilateral activation throughout the dorsal fronto-parietal network for each condition, in line with many previous results. In order to investigate possible differences in the balance of neural activity within this network with greater sensitivity, a priori regions of interest (ROIs) were selected for analysis, centered on the frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) regions identified in previous studies. The results revealed a significant interaction between region, condition, and hemisphere. Specifically, in the left hemisphere, frontal areas were more active than parietal areas, but only during endogenous attention. Activity in the right hemisphere, in contrast, remained relatively consistent for these regions across conditions. Analysis of this activity over time indicates that this left-hemispheric regional imbalance is present within the FEF early, at 3-6.5 s post-stimulus presentation, whereas a regional imbalance in the exogenous condition is not evident until 6.5-8 s post-stimulus presentation. Overall, our results provide new evidence that although the dorsal fronto-parietal network is indeed associated with both types of attentional orienting, regions of the network are differentially engaged over time and across hemispheres depending on the type of attention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential Recruitment of Parietal Cortex during Spatial and Non-spatial Reach Planning

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    Pierre-Michel Bernier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The planning of goal-directed arm reaching movements is associated with activity in the dorsal parieto-frontal cortex, within which multiple regions subserve the integration of arm- and target-related sensory signals to encode a motor goal. Surprisingly, many of these regions show sustained activity during reach preparation even when target location is not specified, i.e., when a motor goal cannot be unambiguously formed. The functional role of these non-spatial preparatory signals remains unresolved. Here this process was investigated in humans by comparing reach preparatory activity in the presence or absence of information regarding upcoming target location. In order to isolate the processes specific to reaching and to control for visuospatial attentional factors, the reaching task was contrasted to a finger movement task. Functional MRI and electroencephalography (EEG were used to characterize the spatio-temporal pattern of reach-related activity in the parieto-frontal cortex. Reach planning with advance knowledge of target location induced robust blood oxygenated level dependent and EEG responses across parietal and premotor regions contralateral to the reaching arm. In contrast, reach preparation without knowledge of target location was associated with a significant BOLD response bilaterally in the parietal cortex. Furthermore, EEG alpha- and beta-band activity was restricted to parietal scalp sites, the magnitude of the latter being correlated with reach reaction times. These results suggest an intermediate stage of sensorimotor transformations in bilateral parietal cortex when target location is not specified.

  2. Mechanisms of recovery from aphasia: evidence from serial xenon 133 cerebral blood flow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopman, D.S.; Rubens, A.B.; Selnes, O.A.; Klassen, A.C.; Meyer, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    In 21 patients who suffered aphasia resulting from left hemisphere ischemic infarction, the xenon 133 inhalation cerebral blood flow technique was used to measure cerebral blood flow within 3 months and 5 to 12 months after stroke. In addition to baseline measurements, cerebral blood flow measurements were also carried out while the patients were performing purposeful listening. In patients with incomplete recovery of comprehension and left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, greater cerebral blood flow occurred with listening in the right inferior frontal region in the late studies than in the early studies. In patients with nearly complete recovery of comprehension and without left posterior temporal-inferior parietal lesions, early listening studies showed diffuse right hemisphere increases in cerebral blood flow. Later listening studies in this latter patient group showed greater cerebral blood flow in the left posterior temporal-inferior parietal region. The study provides evidence for participation of the right hemisphere in language comprehension in recovering aphasics, and for later return of function in left hemisphere regions that may have been functionally impaired early during recovery

  3. Bilateral parietal extradural metastatic ewing's sarcoma simulating acute epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, E.; Imran, M.; Faridi, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sarcomas usually metastasize to lugs. The following case report describes an unusual metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to extradural parietal region bilaterally. The primary was found at lower end of ulna. (author)

  4. Clinical evidence of parietal cortex dysfunction and correlation with extent of allodynia in CRPS type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H; McCabe, C; Harris, N; Hall, J; Lewis, J; Blake, D R

    2013-04-01

    Unusual symptoms such as digit misidentification and neglect-like phenomena have been reported in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), which we hypothesized could be explained by parietal lobe dysfunction. Twenty-two patients with chronic CRPS attending an in-patient rehabilitation programme underwent standard neurological examination followed by clinical assessment of parietal lobe function and detailed sensory testing. Fifteen (68%) patients had evidence of parietal lobe dysfunction. Six (27%) subjects failed six or more test categories and demonstrated new clinical signs consistent with their parietal testing impairments, which were impacting significantly on activities of daily living. A higher incidence was noted in subjects with >1 limb involvement, CRPS affecting the dominant side and in left-handed subjects. Eighteen patients (82%) had mechanical allodynia covering 3-57.5% of the body surface area. Allochiria (unilateral tactile stimulation perceived only in the analogous location on the opposite limb), sensory extinction (concurrent bilateral tactile stimulation perceived only in one limb), referred sensations (unilateral tactile stimulation perceived concurrently in another discrete body area) and dysynchiria (unilateral non-noxious tactile stimulation perceived bilaterally as noxious) were present in some patients. Greater extent of body surface allodynia was correlated with worse parietal function (Spearman's rho = -0.674, p = 0.001). In patients with chronic CRPS, detailed clinical examination may reveal parietal dysfunction, with severity relating to the extent of allodynia. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  5. Does shape discrimination by the mouth activate the parietal and occipital lobes? - near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Kagawa

    Full Text Available A cross-modal association between somatosensory tactile sensation and parietal and occipital activities during Braille reading was initially discovered in tests with blind subjects, with sighted and blindfolded healthy subjects used as controls. However, the neural background of oral stereognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the parietal and occipital cortices are activated during shape discrimination by the mouth using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Following presentation of the test piece shape, a sham discrimination trial without the test pieces induced posterior parietal lobe (BA7, extrastriate cortex (BA18, BA19, and striate cortex (BA17 activation as compared with the rest session, while shape discrimination of the test pieces markedly activated those areas as compared with the rest session. Furthermore, shape discrimination of the test pieces specifically activated the posterior parietal cortex (precuneus/BA7, extrastriate cortex (BA18, 19, and striate cortex (BA17, as compared with sham sessions without a test piece. We concluded that oral tactile sensation is recognized through tactile/visual cross-modal substrates in the parietal and occipital cortices during shape discrimination by the mouth.

  6. Multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the technique of using a bovine pericardium biological prosthesis reinforcement in parietal herniorrhaphy (Tutomesh TUTOGEN) with simple parietal herniorrhaphy, in a potentially contaminated setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Marius; Verhaeghe, Pierre; Skalli, Mehdi; Champault, Gerard; Barrat, Christophe; Sebbag, Hugues; Reche, Fabian; Passebois, Laurent; Beyrne, Daniel; Gugenheim, Jean; Berdah, Stephane; Bouayed, Amine; Michel Fabre, Jean; Nocca, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of parietal synthetic prosthetic reinforcement material in potentially contaminated settings is not recommended, as there is a risk that the prosthesis may become infected. Thus, simple parietal herniorrhaphy, is the conventional treatment, even though there is a significant risk that the hernia may recur. Using new biomaterials of animal origin presently appears to offer a new therapeutic solution, but their effectiveness has yet to be demonstrated. The purpose of this multicenter prospective randomized single-blind study was to compare the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia or abdominal incisional hernia by simple parietal herniorrhaphy without prosthetic reinforcement (Group A), with Tutomesh TUTOGEN biological prosthesis reinforcement parietal herniorrhaphy (Group B), in a potentially contaminated setting. We examined early postoperative complications in the first month after the operation, performed an assessment after one year of survival without recurrence and analyzed the quality of life and pain of the patients (using SF-12 health status questionnaire and Visual Analog Pain Scale) at 1, 6, and 12 months, together with an economic impact study. Hundred and thirty four patients were enrolled between January 2009 and October 2010 in 20 French hospitals. The groups were comparable with respect to their enrollment characteristics, their history, types of operative indications and procedures carried out. At one month post-op, the rate of infectious complications (n(A) = 11(18.33%) vs. n(B) = 12(19.05%), p = 0.919) was not significantly different between the two groups. The assessment after one year of survival without recurrence revealed that survival was significantly greater in Group B (Group A recurrence: 10, Group B: 3; p = 0.0475). No difference in the patients' quality of life was demonstrated at 1, 6, or 12 months. However, at the 1 month follow-up, the "perceived health" rating seemed better in the group with Tutomesh (p

  7. The effect of action observation/execution on mirror neuron system recruitment: an fMRI study in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Roberto; Rocca, Maria A; Fumagalli, Silvia; Cattrysse, Erik; Kerckhofs, Eric; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Action observation and execution activate regions that are part of the motor and mirror neuron systems (MNS). Using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), we defined the presence and extent of MNS activation during three different motor tasks with the dominant, right-upper limb in healthy individuals. The influence of the modality of task administration (execution, observation, observation and execution) was also investigated. fMRI scans during the execution (E) of a motor task, the observation (O) of a video showing the same task performed by another person and the simultaneous observation and execution (OE) of the task were obtained from three groups of healthy subjects (15 subjects per group) randomized to perform: a simple motor (SM) task, a complex motor (CM) task and a finalistic motor (FM) task. Manual dexterity was assessed using the 9-hole peg test and maximum finger tapping frequency. MNS activation was higher during FM than SM or CM tasks, independently from the modality of administration (E, O, or OE). Inferior frontal gyrus recruitment was more significant during SM than CM tasks in the E and O conditions. Compared to SM and FM, CM task resulted in increased recruitment of brain regions involved in complex motor task performance. Compared to O and E, OE resulted in the recruitment of additional, specific, brain areas in the cerebellum, temporal and parietal lobes. The modality of administration and the type of task modulated MNS recruitment during motor acts. This might have practical implications for the set-up of individualized motor rehabilitation strategies.

  8. Added clinical value of the inferior temporal EEG electrode chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Justesen, Anders; Eskelund Johansen, Ann Berit; Martinussen, Noomi Ida; Wasserman, Danielle; Terney, Daniella; Meritam, Pirgit; Gardella, Elena; Beniczky, Sándor

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic added value of supplementing the 10-20 EEG array with six electrodes in the inferior temporal chain. EEGs were recorded with 25 electrodes: 19 positions of the 10-20 system, and six additional electrodes in the inferior temporal chain (F9/10, T9/10, P9/10). Five-hundred consecutive standard and sleep EEG recordings were reviewed using the 10-20 array and the extended array. We identified the recordings with EEG abnormalities that had peak negativities at the inferior temporal electrodes, and those that only were visible at the inferior temporal electrodes. From the 286 abnormal recordings, the peak negativity was at the inferior temporal electrodes in 81 cases (28.3%) and only visible at the inferior temporal electrodes in eight cases (2.8%). In the sub-group of patients with temporal abnormalities (n = 134), these represented 59% (peak in the inferior chain) and 6% (only seen at the inferior chain). Adding six electrodes in the inferior temporal electrode chain to the 10-20 array improves the localization and identification of EEG abnormalities, especially those located in the temporal region. Our results suggest that inferior temporal electrodes should be added to the EEG array, to increase the diagnostic yield of the recordings. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case of Blunt Trauma of the Eyeball Associated With an Inferior Oblique Muscle and an Inferior Rectus Muscle Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keisuke; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Miura, Fumihide; Hiroe, Takashi; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the extraocular muscle in the absence of significant injury to the eyeball and adnexa is uncommon. The authors report a case of blunt trauma of the eyeball associated with an inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle rupture. A 55-year-old man slipped and fell down hitting his eye on an extended windshield wiper blade. Although he had treatment in the emergency room, he complained of diplopia in the primary position 1 day postoperatively. After noticing ruptures of the inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle during exploratory surgery, the authors carefully repaired it. Diplopia in the primary position had disappeared within 1 month after the operation and by 6 months postoperatively. The movement of the eye had almost completely recovered.

  10. Low-threshold potassium currents stabilize IID-sensitivity in the inferior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eKarcz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC is a midbrain nucleus that exhibits sensitivity to differences in interaural time and intensity (ITDs and IIDs and integrates information from the auditory brainstem to provide an unambiguous representation of sound location across the azimuth. Further upstream, in the lateral superior olive (LSO, absence of low-threshold potassium currents in Kcna1-/- mice interfered with response onset timing and restricted IID-sensitivity to the hemifield of the excitatory ear. Assuming the IID-sensitivity in the IC to be at least partly inherited from LSO neurons, the IC IID-encoding was compared between wild-type (Kcna1+/+ and Kcna1-/- mice. We asked whether the effect observed in the Kcna1-/- LSO was (I simply propagated into the IC, (II is enhanced and amplified or, (III alternatively, was compensated and so no longer detectable. Our results show that general IC response properties as well as the distribution of IID-functions were comparable in Kcna1-/- and Kcna1+/+ mice. In agreement with the literature IC neurons exhibited a higher level-invariance of IID-sensitivity compared to LSO neurons. However, manipulating the timing between the inputs of the two ears caused significantly larger shifts of IID-sensitivity in Kcna1-/- mice, whereas in the wild-type IC the IID functions were stable and less sensitive to changes of the temporal relationship between the binaural inputs. We conclude that the IC not only inherits IID-sensitivity from the LSO, but that the convergence with other, non-olivary inputs in the wild-type IC acts to quality-control, consolidate and stabilize IID representation; this necessary integration of inputs is impaired in the absence of the low-threshold potassium currents mediated by Kv1.1.

  11. Decreased pyramidal neuron size in Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Descombes, Sarah; Uppal, Neha; Wicinski, Bridget; Santos, Micaela; Schmeidler, James; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Heinsen, Helmut; Heinsein, Helmut; Schmitz, Christoph; Hof, Patrick R

    2012-07-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and social communication, as well as by the presence of repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests. Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal cortex, which are involved in language processing, imitation function, and sociality processing networks, have been implicated in this complex disorder. Using a stereologic approach, this study aims to explore the presence of neuropathological differences in areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism compared to age- and hemisphere-matched controls. Based on previous evidence in the fusiform gyrus, we expected to find a decrease in the number and size of pyramidal neurons as well as an increase in volume of layers III, V, and VI in patients with autism. We observed significantly smaller pyramidal neurons in patients with autism compared to controls, although there was no difference in pyramidal neuron numbers or layer volumes. The reduced pyramidal neuron size suggests that a certain degree of dysfunction of areas 44 and 45 plays a role in the pathology of autism. Our results also support previous studies that have shown specific cellular neuropathology in autism with regionally specific reduction in neuron size, and provide further evidence for the possible involvement of the mirror neuron system, as well as impairment of neuronal networks relevant to communication and social behaviors, in this disorder.

  12. Subtotal ablation of parietal epithelial cells induces crescent formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, E.M.; Fuss, A.; Uhlig, S.; Jirak, P.; Dijkman, H.; Wetzels, J.; Engel, D.R.; Urzynicok, T.; Heidenreich, S.; Kriz, W.; Kurts, C.; Ostendorf, T.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established

  13. Inferiority is compex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jess

    2017-07-01

    In Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong and the New Research That's Rewriting the Story, author Angela Saini puts forward the idea that bad science has been used to endorse the cultural prejudice that women are both biologically and psychologically second rate to men.

  14. Mirror systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. FMRI evidence of 'mirror' responses to geometric shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Clare; Catmur, Caroline; Cook, Richard; Widmann, Hannah; Heyes, Cecilia; Bird, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons may be a genetic adaptation for social interaction. Alternatively, the associative hypothesis proposes that the development of mirror neurons is driven by sensorimotor learning, and that, given suitable experience, mirror neurons will respond to any stimulus. This hypothesis was tested using fMRI adaptation to index populations of cells with mirror properties. After sensorimotor training, where geometric shapes were paired with hand actions, BOLD response was measured while human participants experienced runs of events in which shape observation alternated with action execution or observation. Adaptation from shapes to action execution, and critically, observation, occurred in ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Adaptation from shapes to execution indicates that neuronal populations responding to the shapes had motor properties, while adaptation to observation demonstrates that these populations had mirror properties. These results indicate that sensorimotor training induced populations of cells with mirror properties in PMv and IPL to respond to the observation of arbitrary shapes. They suggest that the mirror system has not been shaped by evolution to respond in a mirror fashion to biological actions; instead, its development is mediated by stimulus-general processes of learning within a system adapted for visuomotor control.

  16. Regional intercostal bulging of the parietal pleura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, H.; Greene, R.; Lechner, G.; Mavritz, W.; Pichler, W.; Winkler, M.; Zadrobilek, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes bedside radiographs with localized intercostal bulging as the sole indication of tension pneumothorax in six patients with acute deterioration in gas exchange. Relief of the pneumothorax was followed by a rush of gas from the tension space and a prompt improvement in gas exchange. The authors concluded the regional intercostal bulging of the parietal pleura may be the sole indicator of life-threatening tension pneumothorax in patients on mechanical ventilation

  17. Parietal cells?new perspectives in glomerular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Miesen, Laura; Steenbergen, Eric; Smeets, Bart

    2017-01-01

    In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman?s capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertain...

  18. Visual processing of multiple elements in the dyslexic brain: evidence for a superior parietal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Anne Lobier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual attention (VA span deficit hypothesis of developmental dyslexia posits that impaired multiple element processing can be responsible for poor reading outcomes. In VA span impaired dyslexic children, poor performance on letter report tasks is associated with reduced parietal activations for multiple letter processing. While this hints towards a non-specific, attention-based dysfunction, it is still unclear whether reduced parietal activity generalizes to other types of stimuli. Furthermore, putative links between reduced parietal activity and reduced ventral occipito-temporal (vOT in dyslexia have yet to be explored. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in 12 VA span impaired dyslexic adults and 12 adult skilled readers while they carried out a categorization task on single or multiple alphanumeric or non-alphanumeric characters. While healthy readers activated parietal areas more strongly for multiple than single element processing (right-sided for alphanumeric and bilateral for non-alphanumeric, similar stronger multiple element right parietal activations were absent for dyslexic participants. Contrasts between skilled and dyslexic readers revealed significantly reduced right superior parietal lobule (SPL activity for dyslexic readers regardless of stimuli type. Using a priori anatomically defined ROI, we showed that neural activity was reduced for dyslexic participants in both SPL and vOT bilaterally. Finally, we used multiple regressions to test whether SPL activity could predict vOT activity in each group. In the left hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity for both normal and dyslexic readers. In contrast, in the right hemisphere, SPL activity modulated vOT activity only for dyslexic readers. These results bring critical support to the visual attention interpretation of the VA Span deficit. In addition, they offer a new insight on how deficits in automatic vOT based word recognition could arise in developmental dyslexia.

  19. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  20. Better Neuronal Efficiency After Emotional Competences Training: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Hansenne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies demonstrated that adult emotional competences (EC can be improved through relatively brief training. This increase has been investigated, thus far, using self-reported questionnaires and behavioral data. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cerebral correlates underlying improvement in EC. An experimental group received an EC training and a control group received brief sessions of drama improvisation. Participants viewed negative, positive, and neutral pictures while attempting to decrease, increase, or not modulate their emotional reactions. Subjective reactions were assessed via on-line ratings. After the intervention, the training group showed less cerebral activity as compared to the control group within different regions related to emotional regulation and attention including prefrontal regions and the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, the right precentral gyrus and the intraparietal sulcus. These results suggest increased neural efficiency in the training group as a result of emotional competen cies training.

  1. Percent wall thickness evaluated by Gd-DTPA enhanced cine MRI as an indicator of local parietal movement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Masaharu

    1998-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac disease, the basic pathology of which consists of a decrease in left ventricular dilation compliance due to uneven hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in monitoring uneven parietal hypertrophy and kinetics in HCM patients. The present study was undertaken in 47 HCM patients who showed asymmetrical septal hypertrophy to determine if percent thickness can be an indicator of left ventricular local movement using cine MRI. Longest and shortest axis images were acquired by the ECG synchronization method using a 1.5 T MR imager. Cardiac function was analyzed based on longest axis cine images, and telediastolic and telesystolic parietal thickness were measured based on shorter axis cine images at the papillary muscle level. Parietal movement index and percent thickness were used as indicators of local parietal movement. The correlation between these indicators and parietal thickness was evaluated. The percent thickness changed at an earlier stage of hypertrophy than the parietal movement index, thus it is thought to be useful in detecting left ventricular parietal movement disorders at an early stage of HCM. (author)

  2. Percent wall thickness evaluated by Gd-DTPA enhanced cine MRI as an indicator of local parietal movement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Masaharu [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac disease, the basic pathology of which consists of a decrease in left ventricular dilation compliance due to uneven hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in monitoring uneven parietal hypertrophy and kinetics in HCM patients. The present study was undertaken in 47 HCM patients who showed asymmetrical septal hypertrophy to determine if percent thickness can be an indicator of left ventricular local movement using cine MRI. Longest and shortest axis images were acquired by the ECG synchronization method using a 1.5 T MR imager. Cardiac function was analyzed based on longest axis cine images, and telediastolic and telesystolic parietal thickness were measured based on shorter axis cine images at the papillary muscle level. Parietal movement index and percent thickness were used as indicators of local parietal movement. The correlation between these indicators and parietal thickness was evaluated. The percent thickness changed at an earlier stage of hypertrophy than the parietal movement index, thus it is thought to be useful in detecting left ventricular parietal movement disorders at an early stage of HCM. (author)

  3. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  4. Metabolic Hyperactivity of the Medial Posterior Parietal Lobes in Psychogenic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hedera

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorders, including psychogenic tremor (PT, is only emerging. Case Report: This is a single case report of a patient who met diagnostic criteria for PT. He underwent positron emission tomography (PET of brain with 18F-deoxyglucose at resting state. His PET study showed symmetrically increased 18F-deoxyglucose uptake in both posterior medial parietal lobes. There was no corresponding abnormality on structural imaging. Discussion: Hypermetabolism of the medial aspects of posterior parietal lobes bilaterally may reflect abnormal activity of sensory integration that is important in the pathogenesis of PT. This further supports the idea that non-organic movement disorders may be associated with detectable functional brain abnormalities.

  5. Induction of motor associative plasticity in the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Chi-Chao; Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Paine, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    There is anatomical and functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that plays a role in sensorimotor integration. In this study, we applied corticocortical paired-associative stimuli to ipsilateral PPC and M1 (parietal ccPAS) in healthy right......-handed subjects to test if this procedure could modulate M1 excitability and PPC–M1 connectivity. One hundred and eighty paired transcranial magnetic stimuli to the PPC and M1 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms were delivered at 0.2 Hz. We found that parietal ccPAS in the left hemisphere increased...... the excitability of conditioned left M1 assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the input–output curve. Motor behavior assessed by the Purdue pegboard task was unchanged compared with controls. At baseline, conditioning stimuli over the left PPC potentiated MEPs from left M1 when ISI was 8 ms...

  6. The concreteness effect: evidence for dual coding and context availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, F; Heun, R; Erb, M; Granath, D O; Klose, U; Papassotiropoulos, A; Grodd, W

    2000-08-01

    The term concreteness effect refers to the observation that concrete nouns are processed faster and more accurately than abstract nouns in a variety of cognitive tasks. Two models have been proposed to explain the neuronal basis of the concreteness effect. The dual-coding theory attributes the advantage to the access of a right hemisphere image based system in addition to a verbal system by concrete words. The context availability theory argues that concrete words activate a broader contextual verbal support, which results in faster processing, but do not access a distinct image based system. We used event-related fMRI to detect the brain regions that subserve to the concreteness effect. We found greater activation in the lower right and left parietal lobes, in the left inferior frontal lobe and in the precuneus during encoding of concrete compared to abstract nouns. This makes a single exclusive theory unlikely and rather suggests a combination of both models. Superior encoding of concrete words in the present study may result from (1) greater verbal context resources reflected by the activation of left parietal and frontal associative areas, and (2) the additional activation of a non-verbal, perhaps spatial imagery-based system, in the right parietal lobe. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  8. Sensory-parietal cortical stimulation improves motor recovery in severe capsular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ra Gyung; Cho, Jongwook; Ree, Jinkyue; Kim, Hyung-Sun; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Kim, Jin-Myung; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of subcortical white matter strokes in elderly patients is on the rise, but these patients show mixed responses to conventional rehabilitative interventions. To examine whether cortical electrical stimulation can promote motor recovery after white matter stroke, we delivered stimulation to a small or wide region of sensory-parietal cortex for two weeks in a rodent model of circumscribed subcortical capsular infarct. The sham-operated group (SOG) showed persistent and severe motor impairments together with decreased activation in bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striatum. In contrast, sensory-parietal cortex stimulation significantly improved motor recovery: final recovery levels were 72.9% of prelesion levels in the wide stimulation group (WSG) and 37% of prelesion levels in the small stimulation group (SSG). The microPET imaging showed reversal of cortical diaschisis in both groups: in both hemispheres for the WSG, and in the hemisphere ipsilateral to stimulation in the SSG. In addition, we observed activation of the corpus callosum and subcortical corticostriatal structures after stimulation. The results from the c-Fos mapping study were grossly consistent with the microPET imaging. Sensory-parietal cortex stimulation may therefore be a useful strategy for overcoming the limits of rehabilitative training in patients with severe forms of subcortical capsular infarct. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Common Ground for Spatial Cognition? A Behavioral and fMRI Study of Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Spatial Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Levin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial cognition are well documented; males typically outperform females on tasks dealing with mental rotation and spatial navigation, while females tend to outperform males on tasks dealing with object location, relational object location memory, or spatial working memory. Here we investigated both behavioral and neural sex differences in sex-specific spatial abilities. In Experiment 1, sixty-six (30 males, 36 females participants completed computerized mental rotation (MR and spatial working memory (SWM tasks. In Experiment 2, twelve (6 males, 6 females participants were given slightly modified versions of the same tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In both experiments, males outperformed females on the MR task, but no behavioral sex difference was observed on the SWM task. Males showed more activation in left parahippocampal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, inferior frontal gyrus in the MR task. Females showed activation in the left parahippocampal gyrus only. For the study condition of the spatial working memory task, females showed activation in left inferior frontal gyrus, while males activated left inferior parietal and medial frontal areas. In the test conditions, females showed activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. Males activated right medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobe. Interestingly, similar regions – parahippocampal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, and middle temporal gyrus - were found to be active when males solved mental rotation tasks and females solved spatial working memory tasks. Further, performance was modulated by activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus for males and the middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus for females. These data extend previous claims for sex differences in sex specific spatial cognitive abilities by demonstrating

  10. Repetition Suppression in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Predicts Tone Learning Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Takashima, Atsuko; Dediu, Dan; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2016-06-01

    Do individuals differ in how efficiently they process non-native sounds? To what extent do these differences relate to individual variability in sound-learning aptitude? We addressed these questions by assessing the sound-learning abilities of Dutch native speakers as they were trained on non-native tone contrasts. We used fMRI repetition suppression to the non-native tones to measure participants' neuronal processing efficiency before and after training. Although all participants improved in tone identification with training, there was large individual variability in learning performance. A repetition suppression effect to tone was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFGs) before training. No whole-brain effect was found after training; a region-of-interest analysis, however, showed that, after training, repetition suppression to tone in the left IFG correlated positively with learning. That is, individuals who were better in learning the non-native tones showed larger repetition suppression in this area. Crucially, this was true even before training. These findings add to existing evidence that the left IFG plays an important role in sound learning and indicate that individual differences in learning aptitude stem from differences in the neuronal efficiency with which non-native sounds are processed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Added clinical value of the inferior temporal EEG electrode chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Justesen, Anders; Eskelund Johansen, Ann Berit; Martinussen, Noomi Ida

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic added value of supplementing the 10–20 EEG array with six electrodes in the inferior temporal chain. Methods EEGs were recorded with 25 electrodes: 19 positions of the 10–20 system, and six additional electrodes in the inferior temporal chain (F9/10, T9/10, P...... in the inferior chain) and 6% (only seen at the inferior chain). Conclusions Adding six electrodes in the inferior temporal electrode chain to the 10–20 array improves the localization and identification of EEG abnormalities, especially those located in the temporal region. Significance Our results suggest...

  12. Entrained rhythmic activities of neuronal ensembles as perceptual memory of time interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Muto, Akira; Baier, Herwig; Poo, Mu-ming

    2008-11-06

    The ability to process temporal information is fundamental to sensory perception, cognitive processing and motor behaviour of all living organisms, from amoebae to humans. Neural circuit mechanisms based on neuronal and synaptic properties have been shown to process temporal information over the range of tens of microseconds to hundreds of milliseconds. How neural circuits process temporal information in the range of seconds to minutes is much less understood. Studies of working memory in monkeys and rats have shown that neurons in the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex and the thalamus exhibit ramping activities that linearly correlate with the lapse of time until the end of a specific time interval of several seconds that the animal is trained to memorize. Many organisms can also memorize the time interval of rhythmic sensory stimuli in the timescale of seconds and can coordinate motor behaviour accordingly, for example, by keeping the rhythm after exposure to the beat of music. Here we report a form of rhythmic activity among specific neuronal ensembles in the zebrafish optic tectum, which retains the memory of the time interval (in the order of seconds) of repetitive sensory stimuli for a duration of up to approximately 20 s. After repetitive visual conditioning stimulation (CS) of zebrafish larvae, we observed rhythmic post-CS activities among specific tectal neuronal ensembles, with a regular interval that closely matched the CS. Visuomotor behaviour of the zebrafish larvae also showed regular post-CS repetitions at the entrained time interval that correlated with rhythmic neuronal ensemble activities in the tectum. Thus, rhythmic activities among specific neuronal ensembles may act as an adjustable 'metronome' for time intervals in the order of seconds, and serve as a mechanism for the short-term perceptual memory of rhythmic sensory experience.

  13. Characterization of visual percepts evoked by noninvasive stimulation of the human posterior parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Fried

    Full Text Available Phosphenes are commonly evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to study the functional organization, connectivity, and excitability of the human visual brain. For years, phosphenes have been documented only from stimulating early visual areas (V1-V3 and a handful of specialized visual regions (V4, V5/MT+ in occipital cortex. Recently, phosphenes were reported after applying TMS to a region of posterior parietal cortex involved in the top-down modulation of visuo-spatial processing. In the present study, we systematically characterized parietal phosphenes to determine if they are generated directly by local mechanisms or emerge through indirect activation of other visual areas. Using technology developed in-house to record the subjective features of phosphenes, we found no systematic differences in the size, shape, location, or frame-of-reference of parietal phosphenes when compared to their occipital counterparts. In a second experiment, discrete deactivation by 1 Hz repetitive TMS yielded a double dissociation: phosphene thresholds increased at the deactivated site without producing a corresponding change at the non-deactivated location. Overall, the commonalities of parietal and occipital phosphenes, and our ability to independently modulate their excitability thresholds, lead us to conclude that they share a common neural basis that is separate from either of the stimulated regions.

  14. Drenagem anômala de veia pulmonar inferior direita em veia cava inferior associada a apêndice hepático intracardíaco Anomalous drainage of the right inferior pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava associated to intrathoracic hepatic appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Moraes

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o caso de uma paciente de 61 anos de idade, com drenagem anômala de veia pulmonar inferior direita em veia cava inferior, associada a apêndice hepático intratorácico, herniado através de fenda no diafragma. A correção cirúrgica foi realizada por anastomose direta da veia anômala com o átrio esquerdo, pela redução do apêndice hepático para a cavidade abdominal e, finalmente, pelo fechamento do defeito diafragmático. O pós-operatório decorreu sem qualquer complicação. Os autores chamam a atenção para a raridade do caso.The authors present a case of a 61-year-old woman with anomalous drainage of the right inferior pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava associated to an intrathoracic hepatic appendix herniated through a diaphragmatic defect. Surgical correction was obtained by direct anastomosis of the anomalous vein to the left atrium, reduction of the hepatic appendix to the abdominal cavity and closure of the diphragmatic defect. The postoperative course was unevenftul. The rarity of this condition is stressed.

  15. The clinical application of inferior vena caval CO2-DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinhe; Teng Gaojun; Zhu Guangyu; Li Guozhao; Fang Wen; He Shicheng; Deng Tang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and safety of inferior vena caval CO 2 -DSA and evaluate the results of inferior vena cavography using CO 2 -DSA or iodinated contrast media. Methods: 25 patients diagnosed as deep venous thrombosis of lower limb were prepared to conceive the implantation of inferior vena caval filter. The inferior vena cava and right renal vein CO 2 -DSA and iodinated contrast media DSA were carried out through jugular or femoral vein approach in all patients. Results: The inferior vena caval angiography with CO 2 -DSA or iodinated contrast media were carried out successfully in all patients. The quality of the inferior vena caval angiogram showed: with CO 2 as contrast media, 14 cases obtained excellent images and 11 cases had good images; with iodinated contrast media the images of 18 cases were excellent and 7 cases were good. No thrombus and variation of inferior vena cava were found by the two kinds of angiography. The diameter of inferior vena cava showed: (20.01 ± 0.83) mm with CO 2 contrast media and (20.15 ± 0.92) mm with iodinated contrast media, (P=0.006); having statistical significance between them. The safety of angiography with CO 2 presented only 1 case with transient slight decrease of O 2 saturation. No abnormal changes were found in blood pressure, heart rate and so on. Conclusions: Inferior vena caval CO 2 -DSA is feasible and safe, with statistical significance in the measurement of inferior vena caval diameter comparing with iodinated contrast material but with no influence on the implantation of filter. (authors)

  16. Diversity of bilateral synaptic assemblies for binaural computation in midbrain single neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Na; Kong, Lingzhi; Lin, Tao; Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Xiuping; Qi, Jiyao; Yan, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Binaural hearing confers many beneficial functions but our understanding of its underlying neural substrates is limited. This study examines the bilateral synaptic assemblies and binaural computation (or integration) in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the auditory midbrain, a key convergent center. Using in-vivo whole-cell patch-clamp, the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs/IPSPs) of single ICc neurons to contralateral, ipsilateral and bilateral stimulation were recorded. According to the contralateral and ipsilateral EPSP/IPSP, 7 types of bilateral synaptic assemblies were identified. These include EPSP-EPSP (EE), E-IPSP (EI), E-no response (EO), II, IE, IO and complex-mode (CM) neurons. The CM neurons showed frequency- and/or amplitude-dependent EPSPs/IPSPs to contralateral or ipsilateral stimulation. Bilateral stimulation induced EPSPs/IPSPs that could be larger than (facilitation), similar to (ineffectiveness) or smaller than (suppression) those induced by contralateral stimulation. Our findings have allowed our group to characterize novel neural circuitry for binaural computation in the midbrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses and group II (third-trimester fetuses, followed by dissection. Result. (1 Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%. In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2 Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3 Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4 Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position.

  18. Mirror neuron activity associated with social impairments but not age in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G; Kennedy, Hayley A; Rinehart, Nicole J; Tonge, Bruce J; Bradshaw, John L; Taffe, John R; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2012-03-01

    The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not particularly well understood, and biomedical treatment approaches are therefore extremely limited. A prominent explanatory model suggests that social-relating symptoms may arise from dysfunction within the mirror neuron system, while a recent neuroimaging study suggests that these impairments in ASD might reduce with age. Participants with autism spectrum disorder (i.e., DSM-IV autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder) (n = 34) and matched control subjects (n = 36) completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation study in which corticospinal excitability was assessed during the observation of hand gestures. Regression analyses revealed that the ASD group presented with significantly reduced corticospinal excitability during the observation of a transitive hand gesture (relative to observation of a static hand) (p mirror neuron system activity within ventral premotor cortex/inferior frontal gyrus. Among the ASD group, there was also a negative association between putative mirror neuron activity and self-reported social-relating impairments, but there was no indication that mirror neuron impairments in ASD decrease with age. These data provide general support for the mirror neuron hypothesis of autism; researchers now must clarify the precise functional significance of mirror neurons to truly understand their role in the neuropathophysiology of ASD and to determine whether they should be used as targets for the treatment of ASD.

  19. An enlarged parietal foramen in the late archaic Xujiayao 11 neurocranium from Northern China, and rare anomalies among Pleistocene Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF) in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao) site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right) parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual's age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen). In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans.

  20. An enlarged parietal foramen in the late archaic Xujiayao 11 neurocranium from Northern China, and rare anomalies among Pleistocene Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual's age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen. In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans.

  1. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human parietal and ventral extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Andreas; Müller, Notger; Vellage, Anne; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining information in visual working memory is reliably indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA) - a sustained modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) with a topographical maximum over posterior scalp regions contralateral to the memorized input. Based on scalp topography, it is hypothesized that the CDA reflects neural activity in the parietal cortex, but the precise cortical origin of underlying electric activity was never determined. Here we combine ERP recordings with magnetoencephalography based source localization to characterize the cortical current sources generating the CDA. Observers performed a cued delayed match to sample task where either the color or the relative position of colored dots had to be maintained in memory. A detailed source-localization analysis of the magnetic activity in the retention interval revealed that the magnetic analog of the CDA (mCDA) is generated by current sources in the parietal cortex. Importantly, we find that the mCDA also receives contribution from current sources in the ventral extrastriate cortex that display a time-course similar to the parietal sources. On the basis of the magnetic responses, forward modeling of ERP data reveals that the ventral sources have non-optimal projections and that these sources are therefore concealed in the ERP by overlapping fields with parietal projections. The present observations indicate that visual working memory maintenance, as indexed by the CDA, involves the parietal cortical regions as well as the ventral extrastriate regions, which code the sensory representation of the memorized content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery and viewpoint transformations

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    Kiret eDhindsa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g. O’Keefe (1976; Ekstrom et al. (2003; King et al. (2002. According to our BBB model (Byrne et al. (2007, these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal ’window’. Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, where it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al. (2012; Zhang et al. (2012 supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object 1 from visuospatial working memory (we assume working memory due to the order of tasks and the consistency viewpoint, but long-term memory is also possible, 2 after a rotation of viewpoint, or 3 after a rotation and translation (judgement of relative direction. We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation in the core medial temporal to medial parietal. These results are consistent with the BBB model and shed further light on the mechanisms underlying spatial memory, mental imagery and viewpoint

  3. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, K.; Schulte, K.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically

  4. [Successive subcortical hemorrhages in the superior parietal lobule and postcentral gyrus in a 23-year-old female].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Yoshikawa, H; Komai, K; Takamori, M

    1998-04-01

    We report a non-hypertensive 23-year-old female with successive hemorrhages in parietal subcortical regions. She had first experienced a transient pain in the left upper extremity one month before admission. She noticed dysesthesia in the same limb and weakness on her left hand, and, five days after, visited our hospital because of suddenly developed convulsion in the limb and loss of consciousness for a few minutes. Neurological examination revealed distal dominant flaccid paresis, positive pathological reflex and touch and position sense disturbances in the affected limb. Brain CT detected two high-density areas in the parietal lobe. Brain MRI demonstrated an acute phase subcortical hematoma in the left postcentral gyrus and a subacute phase one in the left superior parietal lobule. SPECT indicated hypoperfusion in the left frontal and parietal cortex. Cerebral angiography showed no abnormal findings. Her symptoms gradually improved, but left ulnar-type pseudoradicular sensory impairment remained on discharge. We considered the hemorrhage in this patient have arisen from rupture of cavernous hemangioma, because she was relatively young, the hematomas were oval in shape and successively developed in the left parietal lobe. Our patient suggests that a subcortical hemorrhage in the post-central gyrus causes flaccid paresis and pyramidal tract involvement.

  5. Maksilektomi Inferior pada Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Palatum Durum

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    Sukri Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak          Karsinoma Palatum Durum adalah keganasan daerah kepala dan leher yang jarang terjadi dimana setengah diantaranya merupakan Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa. Pada fase awal keganasan ini dapat bersifat asimptomatis namun dapat juga menimbulkan gejala berupa ulkus yang terasa nyeri pada perkembangan penyakitnya. Operasi maksilektomi inferior merupakan salah satu pilihan tindakan yang dapat dilakukan dalam tatalaksana kasus ini, diikuti oleh pemberian radioterapi. Kasus ini dibuat untuk memahami penatalaksanaan karsinoma palatum durum. Dilaporkan kasus seorang laki-laki 45 tahun dengan diagnosis Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Palatum Durum (Well to Moderately Differentiated Keratinized stadium IVa (T4aN0M0 dilakukan operasi maksilektomi inferior, namun tidak diikuti dengan radioterapi karena pasien menolak. Maksilektomi inferior merupakan pilihan pembedahan pada tumor yang terbatas pada palatum, lantai sinus maksila dan kavum nasi. Prognosis karsinoma sel skuamosa palatum durum cukup baik dan angka harapan hidup lima tahun akan bertambah bila dilakukan operasi diikuti dengan pemberian radioterapi. Kata kunci: Karsinoma sel skuamosa, maksilektomi inferior, radioterapi AbstractCarcinoma of the hard palate is a rare head and neck cancer in which half of it was Squamous Cell Carcinoma. In the initial phase of this malignancy may be asymptomatic, but can also cause symptoms such as painful ulcers in the development of the disease. Inferior maxillectomy is one of the choice of operation that can be performed, followed by radiotherapy to understand the management of carcinoma of the hard palate. Reported one case of a man 45 years old with diagnosis Squamous Cell Carcinoma of hard palate (Well to Moderately Differentiated Keratinized stage IVa (T4aN0M0 treated by inferior maxillectomy surgery, but not followed by radiotherapy because the patient refused. Inferior Maksilektomi is a surgical option in tumor that limited to the palate, floor of the

  6. Latency modulation of collicular neurons induced by electric stimulation of the auditory cortex in Hipposideros pratti: In vivo intracellular recording.

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    Kang Peng

    Full Text Available In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC receives and integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the lower auditory nuclei, contralateral IC, and auditory cortex (AC, and then uploads these inputs to the thalamus and cortex. Meanwhile, the AC modulates the sound signal processing of IC neurons, including their latency (i.e., first-spike latency. Excitatory and inhibitory corticofugal projections to the IC may shorten and prolong the latency of IC neurons, respectively. However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying the corticofugal latency modulation of IC neurons remain unclear. Thus, this study probed these mechanisms via in vivo intracellular recording and acoustic and focal electric stimulation. The AC latency modulation of IC neurons is possibly mediated by pre-spike depolarization duration, pre-spike hyperpolarization duration, and spike onset time. This study suggests an effective strategy for the timing sequence determination of auditory information uploaded to the thalamus and cortex.

  7. Cortical activation in patients with functional hemispherectomy.

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    Leonhardt, G; Bingel, U; Spiekermann, G; Kurthen, M; Müller, S; Hufnagel, A

    2001-10-01

    Functional hemispherectomy, a safe and effective therapeutical procedure in medically intractable epilepsy, offers the chance to investigate a strictly unilateral cortical activation in ipsilateral limb movement. We assessed the pattern of cortical activation in a group of patients following functional hemispherectomy. We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 6 patients postoperatively and 6 normal subjects with positron emission tomography using 15[O]H2O as a tracer. Brain activation was achieved by passive elbow movements of the affected arm. Analysis of group results and between-group comparisons were performed with statistical parametric mapping, (SPM96). In normal subjects brain activation was found contralaterally in the cranial sensorimotor cortex and the supplementary motor area and ipsilaterally in the inferior parietal cortex. In patients significant rCBF increases were found in the inferior parietal cortex, caudal sensorimotor cortex and the supplementary motor area ipsilaterally. The activation was weaker than in normal subjects. Compared with normal subjects patients showed additional activation in the premotor cortex, caudal sensorimotor cortex and the inferior parietal cortex of the remaining hemisphere. Less activation compared with normal subjects was found in the cranial sensorimotor cortex and the supplementary motor area. A functional network connecting the inferior parietal cortex, premotor cortex and the supplementary motor area as well as the existence of ipsilateral projections originating from these regions may explain why these areas are predominantly involved in reorganization confined to a single hemisphere.

  8. Right hemisphere dominance during spatial selective attention and target detection occurs outside the dorsal fronto-parietal network

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    Shulman, Gordon L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; McAvoy, Mark P.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Spatial selective attention is widely considered to be right hemisphere dominant. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, however, have reported bilateral blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in dorsal fronto-parietal regions during anticipatory shifts of attention to a location (Kastner et al., 1999; Corbetta et al., 2000; Hopfinger et al., 2000). Right-lateralized activity has mainly been reported in ventral fronto-parietal regions for shifts of attention to an unattended target stimulus (Arrington et al., 2000; Corbetta et al., 2000). However, clear conclusions cannot be drawn from these studies because hemispheric asymmetries were not assessed using direct voxel-wise comparisons of activity in left and right hemispheres. Here, we used this technique to measure hemispheric asymmetries during shifts of spatial attention evoked by a peripheral cue stimulus and during target detection at the cued location. Stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention in both visual fields evoked right-hemisphere dominant activity in temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). Target detection at the attended location produced a more widespread right hemisphere dominance in frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex, including the TPJ region asymmetrically activated during shifts of spatial attention. However, hemispheric asymmetries were not observed during either shifts of attention or target detection in the dorsal fronto-parietal regions (anterior precuneus, medial intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields) that showed the most robust activations for shifts of attention. Therefore, right hemisphere dominance during stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention and target detection reflects asymmetries in cortical regions that are largely distinct from the dorsal fronto-parietal network involved in the control of selective attention. PMID:20219998

  9. Gastrin receptor characterization: affinity cross-linking of the gastrin receptor on canine gastric parietal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, M.; Park, J.; Yamada, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors applied affinity cross-linking methods to label the gastrin receptor on isolated canine gastric parietal cells in order to elucidate the nature of its chemical structure. 125 I-labeled Leu 15 -gastrin and 125 I-labeled gastrin/sub 2-17/ bound to intact parietal cells and their membranes with equal affinity, and half-maximal inhibition of binding was obtained at an incubation concentration of 3.2 x 10 -10 M unlabeled gastrin. 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/ was cross-linked to plasma membranes or intact parietal cells by incubation in disuccinimidyl suberate. The membrane pellets were solubilized with or without dithiothreitol and applied to electrophoresis on 7.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Autoradiograms revealed a band of labeling at M/sub r/ 76,000 and labeling of this band was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by addition of unlabeled gastrin to the incubation mixture. Dithiothreitol in concentrations as high as 100 mM did not later the electrophoretic mobility of the labeled band. After taking into account the molecular weight of 125 I-gastrin/sub 2-17/, the results suggest that the gastrin receptor on parietal cells is a single protein of M/sub r/ 74,000 without disulfide-linked subunits

  10. Unique and shared roles of the posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cognitive functions

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    Fumi eKatsuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex are two parts of a broader brain network involved in the control of cognitive functions such as working memory, spatial attention, and decision making. The two areas share many functional properties and exhibit similar patterns of activation during the execution of mental operations. However, neurophysiological experiments in non-human primates have also documented subtle differences, revealing functional specialization within the fronto-parietal network. These differences include the ability of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to influence memory performance, attention allocation and motor responses to a greater extent, and to resist interference by distracting stimuli. In recent years, distinct cellular and anatomical differences have been identified, offering insights into how functional specialization is achieved. This article reviews the common functions and functional differences between the dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, and their underlying mechanisms.

  11. Prediction of Reach Goals in Depth and Direction from the Parietal Cortex

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    Matteo Filippini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The posterior parietal cortex is well known to mediate sensorimotor transformations during the generation of movement plans, but its ability to control prosthetic limbs in 3D environments has not yet been fully demonstrated. With this aim, we trained monkeys to perform reaches to targets located at various depths and directions and tested whether the reach goal position can be extracted from parietal signals. The reach goal location was reliably decoded with accuracy close to optimal (>90%, and this occurred also well before movement onset. These results, together with recent work showing a reliable decoding of hand grip in the same area, suggest that this is a suitable site to decode the entire prehension action, to be considered in the development of brain-computer interfaces. : Filippini et al. show that it is possible to use parietal cortex activity to predict in which direction the arm will move and how far it will reach. This opens up the possibility of neural prostheses that can accurately guide reach and grasp using signals from this part of the brain. Keywords: neuroprosthetics, offline neural decoding, reaching in depth, monkey, V6A, machine learning, visuomotor transformations, hand guidance, prehension, robotics

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the parietal cortex alters bias in item and source memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Denise; Chua, Elizabeth F

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging data have shown that activity in the lateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) correlates with item recognition and source recollection, but there is considerable debate about its specific contributions. Performance on both item and source memory tasks were compared between participants who were given bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the parietal cortex to those given prefrontal or sham tDCS. The parietal tDCS group, but not the prefrontal group, showed decreased false recognition, and less bias in item and source discrimination tasks compared to sham stimulation. These results are consistent with a causal role of the PPC in item and source memory retrieval, likely based on attentional and decision-making biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Positron emission tomography studies of neuronal activity patterns during sensory and cognitive stimulations in Alzheimer's disease. A study of cortical attention sites in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    This Ph.D.-thesis describes different subtypes of attention, models for the organization of attention, and the attention deficits in Alzheimer's disease. The experimental part of the study is based on studies of sustained and divided attention to two different sensory modalities; a visual checkerboard stimulation reversing at 7 Hz, and a 110 Hz vibrotactile stimulation of the right hand in a group of healthy elderly subjects (n = 16) age-matched with a group of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (n = 16). The cortical activations during the attention tasks have been mapped using O-15-water and positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during rest and during performance of an attention task. After anatomical standardization and averaging over subjects, activation foci were assessed by a t-statistical evaluation of the differences of rCBF maps acquired before and during the execution of the attention tasks. The rCBF deficits in the Alzheimer patients were compared to rCBF pattern in the healthy elderly and assessed statistically on a voxel-by-voxel basis, revealing a distinct and localized pattern of rCBF deficits extending from the hippocampal area along the longitudinal fascicle to the temporo-parietal cortices with further deficits in the frontal regions. The resting rCBF deficits are distributed with the same pattern as described in neuropathological studies of lesions in Alzheimer's disease. In the healthy elderly, both sustained and divided attention elicited activation of the right inferior parietal lobule (Brodmann Area 19/40) and the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann Area 46). Divided attention favored activation of the right middle frontal gyrus and sustained attention activation of the right inferior parietal lobule. Both the frontal and the parietal attention sites were active during attention to both the visual and the vibrotactile stimuli. These results support a network hypothesis of

  14. Vulnerability of the frontal and parietal regions in hypertensive patients during working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Junying; Tao, Wuhai; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension is related with cognitive decline in the elderly. The frontal-parietal executive system plays an important role in cognitive aging and is also vulnerable to damage in elderly patients with hypertension. Examination of the brain's functional characteristics in frontal-parietal regions of hypertension is likely to be important for understanding the neural mechanisms of hypertension's effect on cognitive aging. We address this issue by comparing hypertension and control-performers in a functional MRI study. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients and 32 elderly controls were tested with n-back task with two load levels. The hypertensive patients exhibited worse executive and memory abilities than control subjects. The patterns of brain activation changed under different working memory loads in the hypertensive patients, who exhibited reduced activation only in the precentral gyrus under low loads and reduced activation in the middle frontal gyrus, left medial superior frontal gyrus and right precuneus under high loads. Thus, more regions of diminished activation were observed in the frontal and parietal regions with increasing task difficulty. More importantly, we found that lower activation in changed frontal and parietal regions was associated with worse cognitive function in high loads. The results demonstrate the relationship between cognitive function and frontoparietal functional activation in hypertension and their relevance to cognitive aging risk. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cognitive decline in hypertension and highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension.

  15. Isquemia aguda de miembros inferiores secundaria a ergortismo

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    Franco J. Vallejo, MD

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de género femenino, de 21 años de edad, quien ingresó por dolor progresivo e intenso en miembros inferiores, y refirió antecedente reciente de ingestión de derivados del ergot. Al examen físico se observó ausencia de pulsos en ambos miembros inferiores. Por angiotomografia se documentó disminución severa, generalizada y bilateral, del calibre de los vasos arteriales de miembros inferiores. Se diagnosticó isquemia arterial aguda secundaria a ergotismo y se inició tratamiento con vasodilatadores y calcio-antagonistas, que resolvió los síntomas en su totalidad.

  16. The Role of Insula-Associated Brain Network in Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ruixue

    2013-01-01

    The insula is believed to be associated with touch-evoked effects. In this work, functional MRI was applied to investigate the network model of insula function when 20 normal subjects received tactile stimulation over segregated areas. Data analysis was performed with SPM8 and Conn toolbox. Activations in the contralateral posterior insula were consistently revealed for all stimulation areas, with the overlap located in area Ig2. The area Ig2 was then used as the seed to estimate the insula-associated network. The right insula, left superior parietal lobule, left superior temporal gyrus, and left inferior parietal cortex showed significant functional connectivity with the seed region for all stimulation conditions. Connectivity maps of most stimulation conditions were mainly distributed in the bilateral insula, inferior parietal cortex, and secondary somatosensory cortex. Post hoc ROI-to-ROI analysis and graph theoretical analysis showed that there were higher correlations between the left insula and the right insula, left inferior parietal cortex and right OP1 for all networks and that the global efficiency was more sensitive than the local efficiency to detect differences between notes in a network. These results suggest that the posterior insula serves as a hub to functionally connect other regions in the detected network and may integrate information from these regions. PMID:23936840

  17. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, [3H]glutamate and [3H]glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus

  18. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. (Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  19. Automatic and Intentional Number Processing Both Rely on Intact Right Parietal Cortex: A Combined fMRI and Neuronavigated TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bien, Nina; Sack, Alexander T.

    2012-01-01

    Practice and training usually lead to performance increase in a given task. In addition, a shift from intentional toward more automatic processing mechanisms is often observed. It is currently debated whether automatic and intentional processing is subserved by the same or by different mechanism(s), and whether the same or different regions in the brain are recruited. Previous correlational evidence provided by behavioral, neuroimaging, modeling, and neuropsychological studies addressing this question yielded conflicting results. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to compare the causal influence of disrupting either left or right parietal cortex during automatic and intentional numerical processing, as reflected by the size congruity effect and the numerical distance effect, respectively. We found a functional hemispheric asymmetry within parietal cortex with only the TMS-induced right parietal disruption impairing both automatic and intentional numerical processing. In contrast, disrupting the left parietal lobe with TMS, or applying sham stimulation, did not affect performance during automatic or intentional numerical processing. The current results provide causal evidence for the functional relevance of right, but not left, parietal cortex for intentional, and automatic numerical processing, implying that at least within the parietal cortices, automatic, and intentional numerical processing rely on the same underlying hemispheric lateralization. PMID:22347175

  20. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

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    Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies.Results: In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement.Conclusions: The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management.

  1. Inferior Oblique Overaction: Anterior Transposition Versus Myectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Behradfar, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sayanjali, Shima; Motevaseli, Tahmine; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of inferior oblique myectomy and anterior transposition for correcting inferior oblique overaction (IOOA). This retrospective study was conducted on 56 patients with IOOA who had either myectomy or anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle from 2010 to 2015. The authors compared preoperative and postoperative inferior oblique muscle function grading (-4 to +4) as the main outcome measure and vertical and horizontal deviation, dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), and A- and V-pattern between the two surgical groups as secondary outcomes. A total of 99 eyes of 56 patients with a mean age of 5.9 ± 6.5 years were included (47 eyes in the myectomy group and 52 eyes in the anterior transposition group). There were no differences in preoperative best corrected visual acuity, amblyopia, spherical equivalent, and primary versus secondary IOOA between the two groups. Both surgical procedures were effective in reducing IOOA and satisfactory results were similar between the two groups: 61.7% and 67.3% in the myectomy and anterior transposition groups, respectively (P = .56). After adjustment for the preoperative DVD, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups postoperatively. The preoperative hypertropia was 6 to 14 and 6 to 18 prism diopters (PD) in the myectomy and anterior transposition groups, respectively. After surgery, no patient had a vertical deviation greater than 5 PD. Both the inferior oblique myectomy and anterior transposition procedures are effective in reducing IOOA with similar satisfactory results. DVD and hypertropia were also corrected similarly by these two surgical procedures. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(4):232-237.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery, and viewpoint transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Kiret; Drobinin, Vladislav; King, John; Hall, Geoffrey B; Burgess, Neil; Becker, Suzanna

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g., O'Keefe, 1976; King et al., 2002; Ekstrom et al., 2003). According to our BBB model (Byrne et al., 2007), these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal "window." Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, in which it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012) supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object (1) from visuospatial working memory (we assume transient working memory due to the order of tasks and the absence of change in viewpoint, but long-term memory retrieval is also possible), (2) after a rotation of viewpoint, or (3) after a rotation and translation of viewpoint (judgment of relative direction). We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation (ROT and JRD, i.e., conditions 2 and 3) in the core medial temporal to medial parietal circuit identified by the BBB model. These results are consistent with the

  3. Haptically guided grasping. FMRI shows right-hemisphere parietal stimulus encoding, and bilateral dorso-ventral parietal gradients of object- and action-related processing during grasp execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia eMarangon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks. None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.

  4. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior turbinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Harper, Jr., MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the inferior nasal turbinate. The patient, a 68-year-old Caucasian male, presented with 4–6 weeks of epistaxis that was resistant to nasal packing and septal cautery. Upon inspection in the operating room, a small mass was excised from the inferior turbinate. High-power H&E-stained microscopy demonstrated bundles of malignant smooth muscle cells, and immunohistochemical stains were strongly positive for desmin, smooth muscle actin and vimentin, while negative for pankeratin EA1/EA3 and CaM 5.2, suggesting leiomyosarcoma as the diagnosis. Clear margins were obtained at a second surgery. At the time of this writing it is 8 months since his last surgery and he has remained symptom free.

  5. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Uhlig, S.; Fuss, A.; Mooren, F.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Floege, J.; Moeller, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal

  6. The role of frontal and parietal brain areas in bistable perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, T.; Brascamp, J.; Pearson, J.; van Ee, R.; Blake, R.

    2011-01-01

    When sensory input allows for multiple, competing perceptual interpretations, observers' perception can fluctuate over time, which is called bistable perception. Imaging studies in humans have revealed transient responses in a right-lateralized network in the frontal-parietal cortex (rFPC) around

  7. Positron emission tomography studies of neuronal activity patterns during sensory and cognitive stimulations in Alzheimer`s disease. A study of cortical attention sites in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, Peter

    1997-12-31

    This Ph.D.-thesis describes different subtypes of attention, models for the organization of attention, and the attention deficits in Alzheimer`s disease. The experimental part of the study is based on studies of sustained and divided attention to two different sensory modalities; a visual checkerboard stimulation reversing at 7 Hz, and a 110 Hz vibrotactile stimulation of the right hand in a group of healthy elderly subjects (n = 16) age-matched with a group of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer`s disease (n = 16). The cortical activations during the attention tasks have been mapped using O-15-water and positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during rest and during performance of an attention task. After anatomical standardization and averaging over subjects, activation foci were assessed by a t-statistical evaluation of the differences of rCBF maps acquired before and during the execution of the attention tasks. The rCBF deficits in the Alzheimer patients were compared to rCBF pattern in the healthy elderly and assessed statistically on a voxel-by-voxel basis, revealing a distinct and localized pattern of rCBF deficits extending from the hippocampal area along the longitudinal fascicle to the temporo-parietal cortices with further deficits in the frontal regions. The resting rCBF deficits are distributed with the same pattern as described in neuropathological studies of lesions in Alzheimer`s disease. In the healthy elderly, both sustained and divided attention elicited activation of the right inferior parietal lobule (Brodmann Area 19/40) and the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann Area 46). Divided attention favored activation of the right middle frontal gyrus and sustained attention activation of the right inferior parietal lobule. Both the frontal and the parietal attention sites were active during attention to both the visual and the vibrotactile stimuli. These results support a network hypothesis of

  8. Neurons responsive to face-view in the primate ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanski, L M; Diehl, M M

    2011-08-25

    Studies have indicated that temporal and prefrontal brain regions process face and vocal information. Face-selective and vocalization-responsive neurons have been demonstrated in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and some prefrontal cells preferentially respond to combinations of face and corresponding vocalizations. These studies suggest VLPFC in nonhuman primates may play a role in communication that is similar to the role of inferior frontal regions in human language processing. If VLPFC is involved in communication, information about a speaker's face including identity, face-view, gaze, and emotional expression might be encoded by prefrontal neurons. In the following study, we examined the effect of face-view in ventrolateral prefrontal neurons by testing cells with auditory, visual, and a set of human and monkey faces rotated through 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and -30°. Prefrontal neurons responded selectively to either the identity of the face presented (human or monkey) or to the specific view of the face/head, or to both identity and face-view. Neurons which were affected by the identity of the face most often showed an increase in firing in the second part of the stimulus period. Neurons that were selective for face-view typically preferred forward face-view stimuli (0° and 30° rotation). The neurons which were selective for forward face-view were also auditory responsive compared to other neurons which responded to other views or were unselective which were not auditory responsive. Our analysis showed that the human forward face (0°) was decoded better and also contained the most information relative to other face-views. Our findings confirm a role for VLPFC in the processing and integration of face and vocalization information and add to the growing body of evidence that the primate ventrolateral prefrontal cortex plays a prominent role in social communication and is an important model in understanding the cellular mechanisms of communication

  9. FMRI evidence of 'mirror' responses to geometric shapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Press

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons may be a genetic adaptation for social interaction. Alternatively, the associative hypothesis proposes that the development of mirror neurons is driven by sensorimotor learning, and that, given suitable experience, mirror neurons will respond to any stimulus. This hypothesis was tested using fMRI adaptation to index populations of cells with mirror properties. After sensorimotor training, where geometric shapes were paired with hand actions, BOLD response was measured while human participants experienced runs of events in which shape observation alternated with action execution or observation. Adaptation from shapes to action execution, and critically, observation, occurred in ventral premotor cortex (PMv and inferior parietal lobule (IPL. Adaptation from shapes to execution indicates that neuronal populations responding to the shapes had motor properties, while adaptation to observation demonstrates that these populations had mirror properties. These results indicate that sensorimotor training induced populations of cells with mirror properties in PMv and IPL to respond to the observation of arbitrary shapes. They suggest that the mirror system has not been shaped by evolution to respond in a mirror fashion to biological actions; instead, its development is mediated by stimulus-general processes of learning within a system adapted for visuomotor control.

  10. fMRI Evidence of ‘Mirror’ Responses to Geometric Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Clare; Catmur, Caroline; Cook, Richard; Widmann, Hannah; Heyes, Cecilia; Bird, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Mirror neurons may be a genetic adaptation for social interaction [1]. Alternatively, the associative hypothesis [2], [3] proposes that the development of mirror neurons is driven by sensorimotor learning, and that, given suitable experience, mirror neurons will respond to any stimulus. This hypothesis was tested using fMRI adaptation to index populations of cells with mirror properties. After sensorimotor training, where geometric shapes were paired with hand actions, BOLD response was measured while human participants experienced runs of events in which shape observation alternated with action execution or observation. Adaptation from shapes to action execution, and critically, observation, occurred in ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Adaptation from shapes to execution indicates that neuronal populations responding to the shapes had motor properties, while adaptation to observation demonstrates that these populations had mirror properties. These results indicate that sensorimotor training induced populations of cells with mirror properties in PMv and IPL to respond to the observation of arbitrary shapes. They suggest that the mirror system has not been shaped by evolution to respond in a mirror fashion to biological actions; instead, its development is mediated by stimulus-general processes of learning within a system adapted for visuomotor control. PMID:23251653

  11. EFEKTIVITAS TEKNIK MANAJEMEN DIRI UNTUK MENGATASI INFERIORITY FEELING

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    Kartika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Siswa yang memiliki inferiority feeling selalu memandang rendah kemampuan yang dimiliki oleh dirinya. Untuk menutupi harga dirinya yang lemah, mereka akan melakukan kompensasi dengan cara menarik diri, bersikap agresif, ataupun membuat alasan. Sebagai upaya mengatasi inferiority feeling adalah dengan mengimplementasikan konseling kelompok dengan teknik manajemen diri. Teknik ini lebih menekankan pada pengelolaan diri yang timbul dari keinginan diri siswa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas konseling kelompok dengan menggunakan teknik manajemen diri untuk mengatasi inferiority feeling. Pengambilan subyek penelitian dilakukan secara non random menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuasi eksperimen dengan desain non equivalent pretest posttest design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intervensi menggunakan teknik manajemen diri efektif untuk menurunkan inferiority feeling pada subyek penelitian. Rekomendasi: (a Konselor sekolah, melakukan pemantauan secara berkala kepada siswa yang telah menjalani intervensi untuk melihat pengaruh jangka panjang dari intervensi yang telah diberikan; (b bagi peneliti selanjutnya dapat melakukan penelitian dengan keterlibatan pihak keluarga ataupun sahabat sebagai pendukung dalam memperoleh data mengenai keadaan sesungguhnya yang dialami oleh konsel

  12. Involvement of sensory neurons in bone defect repair in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henmi, Akiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Echigo, Seishi; Sasano, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated bone repair in sensory-denervated rats, compared with controls, to elucidate the involvement of sensory neurons. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of capsaicin to denervate sensory neurons. Rats treated with the same amount of vehicle served as controls. A standardized bone defect was created on the parietal bone. We measured the amount of repaired bone with quantitative radiographic analysis and the mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and cathepsin K with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative radiographic analysis showed that the standard deviations and coefficients of variation for the amount of repaired bone were much higher in the capsaicin-treated group than in the control group at any time point, which means that larger individual differences in the amount of repaired bone were found in capsaicin-treated rats than controls. Furthermore, radiographs showed radiolucency in pre-existing bone surrounding the standardized defect only in the capsaicin-treated group, and histological observation demonstrated some multinuclear cells corresponding to the radiolucent area. Real-time PCR indicated that there was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of osteocalcin and cathepsin K between the control group and the capsaicin-treated group. These results suggest that capsaicin-induced sensory denervation affects the bone defect repair. (author)

  13. Action potential bursts in central snail neurons elicited by paeonol: roles of ionic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-hung; Lin, Pei-lin; Hsu, Hui-yu; Wu, Ya-ting; Yang, Han-yin; Lu, Dah-yuu; Huang, Shiang-suo; Hsieh, Ching-liang; Lin, Jaung-geng

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxyacetophenone (paeonol) on the electrophysiological behavior of a central neuron (right parietal 4; RP4) of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac). Methods: Intracellular recordings and the two-electrode voltage clamp method were used to study the effects of paeonol on the RP4 neuron. Results: The RP4 neuron generated spontaneous action potentials. Bath application of paeonol at a concentration of ≥500 μmol/L reversibly elicited action potential bursts in a concentration-dependent manner. Immersing the neurons in Co2+-substituted Ca2+-free solution did not block paeonol-elicited bursting. Pretreatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 or the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro 31-8220 did not affect the action potential bursts. Voltage-clamp studies revealed that paeonol at a concentration of 500 μmol/L had no remarkable effects on the total inward currents, whereas paeonol decreased the delayed rectifying K+ current (IKD) and the fast-inactivating K+ current (IA). Application of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP 5 mmol/L), an inhibitor of IA, or charybdotoxin 250 nmol/L, an inhibitor of the Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)), failed to elicit action potential bursts, whereas tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA 50 mmol/L), an IKD blocker, successfully elicited action potential bursts. At a lower concentration of 5 mmol/L, TEA facilitated the induction of action potential bursts elicited by paeonol. Conclusion: Paeonol elicited a bursting firing pattern of action potentials in the RP4 neuron and this activity relates closely to the inhibitory effects of paeonol on the IKD. PMID:21042287

  14. Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea R; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Kirschen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal working memory (VWM engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters and modality (auditory and visual dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44, insular, cingulate (BA 32, and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40 regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI and right inferior (HVIII cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19 and left parietal (BA7/40 cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22. In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.

  16. Where do bright ideas occur in our brain? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies of domain-specific creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Palermo, Liana; Nori, Raffaella; Palmiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the neural underpinnings of creativity, failing to find a clear anatomical localization. We aimed to provide evidence for a multi-componential neural system for creativity. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 45 fMRI studies. Three individual ALE analyses were performed to assess creativity in different cognitive domains (Musical, Verbal, and Visuo-spatial). The general ALE revealed that creativity relies on clusters of activations in the bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes. The individual ALE revealed different maximal activation in different domains. Musical creativity yields activations in the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, in the left cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral and fusiform gyri. Verbal creativity yields activations mainly located in the left hemisphere, in the prefrontal cortex, middle and superior temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral and supramarginal gyri, middle occipital gyrus, and insula. The right inferior frontal gyrus and the lingual gyrus were also activated. Visuo-spatial creativity activates the right middle and inferior frontal gyri, the bilateral thalamus and the left precentral gyrus. This evidence suggests that creativity relies on multi-componential neural networks and that different creativity domains depend on different brain regions. PMID:26322002

  17. Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Chen, S. H. Annabel; Desmond, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters) and modality (auditory and visual) dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44), insular, cingulate (BA 32), and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40) regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI) and right inferior (HVIII) cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI) cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19) and left parietal (BA7/40) cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22). In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load. PMID:20714061

  18. Parietal theta burst TMS: Functional fractionation observed during bistable perception not evident in attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Kanai, Ryota; Brascamp, Jan W

    2016-02-01

    When visual input is ambiguous, perception spontaneously alternates between interpretations: bistable perception. Studies have identified two distinct sites near the right intraparietal sulcus where inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the frequency of occurrence of these alternations, but strikingly with opposite directions of effect for the two sites. Lesion and TMS studies on spatial and sustained attention have also indicated a parcellation of right parietal cortex, into areas serving distinct attentional functions. We used the exact TMS procedure previously employed to affect bistable perception, yet measured its effect on spatial and sustained attention tasks. Although there was a trend for TMS to affect performance, trends were consistently similar for both parietal sites, with no indication of opposite effects. We interpret this as signifying that the previously observed parietal fractionation of function regarding the perception of ambiguous stimuli is not due to TMS-induced modification of spatial or sustained attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptional landscape of glomerular parietal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina A Gharib

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs. In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire.

  20. Optogenetic and pharmacological suppression of spatial clusters of face neurons reveal their causal role in face gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraz, Arash; Boyden, Edward S; DiCarlo, James J

    2015-05-26

    Neurons that respond more to images of faces over nonface objects were identified in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of primates three decades ago. Although it is hypothesized that perceptual discrimination between faces depends on the neural activity of IT subregions enriched with "face neurons," such a causal link has not been directly established. Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological methods, we reversibly suppressed the neural activity in small subregions of IT cortex of macaque monkeys performing a facial gender-discrimination task. Each type of intervention independently demonstrated that suppression of IT subregions enriched in face neurons induced a contralateral deficit in face gender-discrimination behavior. The same neural suppression of other IT subregions produced no detectable change in behavior. These results establish a causal link between the neural activity in IT face neuron subregions and face gender-discrimination behavior. Also, the demonstration that brief neural suppression of specific spatial subregions of IT induces behavioral effects opens the door for applying the technical advantages of optogenetics to a systematic attack on the causal relationship between IT cortex and high-level visual perception.

  1. Temporo-Parietal and Fronto-Parietal Lobe Contributions to Theory of Mind and Executive Control: An fMRI Study of Verbal Jokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eChan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Getting a joke’ always requires resolving an apparent incongruity but the particular cognitive operations called upon vary depending on the nature of the joke itself. Previous research has identified the primary neural correlates of the cognitive and affective processes called upon to respond to humor generally, but little work has been done on the substrates underlying the distinct cognitive operations required to comprehend particular joke types. This study explored the neural correlates of the cognitive processes required to successfully comprehend three joke types: bridging-inference jokes, exaggeration jokes and ambiguity jokes. For all joke types, the left dlPFC appeared to support common cognitive mechanisms, such as script-shifting, while the vACC was associated with affective appreciation. The temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ and MTG was associated with bridging-inference jokes, suggesting involvement of these regions with ‘theory of mind’ processing. The ventral fronto-parietal lobe (IPL and IFG was associated with both exaggeration and ambiguity jokes, suggesting that it supports executive control processes such as retrieval from episodic memory, self-awareness, and language-based decoding. The social-affective appreciation of verbal jokes was associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC, and parahippocampal gyrus. These results allow a more precise account of the neural

  2. Brain fMRI study of crave induced by cue pictures in online game addicts (male adolescents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueji; Ying, Huang; Seetohul, Ravi M; Xuemei, Wang; Ya, Zheng; Qian, Li; Guoqing, Xu; Ye, Sun

    2012-08-01

    To study crave-related cerebral regions induced by game figure cues in online game addicts. fMRI brain imaging was done when the subjects were shown picture cues of the WoW (World of Warcraft, Version: 4.1.014250) game. 10 male addicts of WoW were selected as addicts' group, and 10 other healthy male non-addicts who were matched by age, were used as non-game addicts' group. All volunteers participated in fMRI paradigms. WoW associated cue pictures and neutral pictures were shown. We examined functional cerebral regions activated by the pictures with 3.0 T Philips MRI. The imaging signals' database was analyzed by SPM5. The correlation between game craving scores and different image results were assessed. When the game addicts watch the pictures, some brain areas show increased signal activity namely: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral temporal cortex, cerebellum, right inferior parietal lobule, right cuneus, right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, left caudate nucleus. But in these same brain regions we did not observe remarkable activities in the control group. Differential image signal densities of the addict group were subtracted from the health control group, results of which were expressed in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobe and inferior temporal gyrus, cerebellum, right insular and the right angular gyrus. The increased imaging signal densities were significant and positively correlated with the craving scale scores in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and right inferior parietal lobe. Craving of online game addicts was successfully induced by game cue pictures. Crave related brain areas are: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and right inferior parietal lobe. The brain regions are overlapped with cognitive and emotion related processing brain areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Parietal intradiploic encephalocele: Report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Millán-Juncos, José M

    2015-06-01

    Encephaloceles consist of brain tissue and meninges that has herniated through a skull defect, usually located in the midline. They are seen more commonly in children and very rarely in adults. We present a case of an 84-year-old patient who was incidentally diagnosed with a lytic bone lesion in the right parietal intradiploic space, after computed tomography of the head was performed. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed herniation of brain tissue through the defect. Magnetic resonance imaging was crucial in demonstrating the presence of parenchyma and its continuity with the rest of the brain, consequently distinguishing it from other entities. We report the imaging findings of a parietal indradiploic encephalocele with its differential diagnosis and a review of the relevant literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. El contexto del arte parietal. La tecnología de los artistas en la Cueva de Tito Bustillo (Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moure Romanillo, Alfonso

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available This study overlaps in part with a communication presented to the «Colloque International d'Art Parietal Paléolithique» held at Perigueux-Le Thot in december 1984. The technological responses contained in a decorated zone of the cave of Tito Bustillo are analyzed, as well as the activities carried out on living floors related to the preparation and completion of the parietal art.

    El trabajo coincide parcialmente con la comunicación presentada al «Colloque International d'Art Parietal Paléolithique» celebrado en Perigueux-Le Thot, en diciembre de 1984. Se analizan las respuestas tecnológicas contenidas en un área de decoración de la cueva de Tito Bustillo (Asturias, así como las actividades en áreas de estancia relacionadas con la preparación y ejecución del arte parietal.

  5. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms. (orig.)

  6. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms.

  7. Haptically Guided Grasping. fMRI Shows Right-Hemisphere Parietal Stimulus Encoding, and Bilateral Dorso-Ventral Parietal Gradients of Object- and Action-Related Processing during Grasp Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Mattia; Kubiak, Agnieszka; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation, and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks). None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial) parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.

  8. Longitudinal course of cortical thickness decline in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Kasper, Elisabeth; Machts, Judith; Bittner, Daniel; Kaufmann, Jörn; Benecke, Reiner; Teipel, Stefan; Vielhaber, Stefan; Prudlo, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    To determine longitudinal rates of cortical atrophy in classical Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS variants. Rates of cortical thinning were determined between 2 scans, 3-15 months apart, in 77 ALS patients: 51 classical, 12 upper motor neuron (UMN), and 14 lower motor neuron (LMN) ALS variants. Cortical thickness at the first assessment was compared with 60 healthy controls matched by age and gender. Atrophy rates were compared between patient sub-groups and correlated with disease duration, progression, and severity. Using a cross-sectional analysis, we found a significant difference in cortical thickness between ALS patients and controls in the motor and extra-motor areas (left medial orbito frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal gyrus, bilateral insular cortex, right fusiform gyrus, bilateral precuneus). Using a longitudinal analysis, we found a significant decline of cortical thickness in frontal, temporal, and parietal regions over the course of the study in ALS patients. Effects were independent of the clinical subtype, with exception of the precentral gyrus (p gyrus, the UMN-dominant subjects exhibited intermediate rates of atrophy, and the classical ALS patients exhibited no such change. Atrophy of the precentral gyrus in classical ALS indicates a floor effect at the first assessment, resulting in a lack of further atrophy over time. Structural loss of the precentral gyrus appears to be an early sign of classical ALS. Over time, patterns of cortical thinning in extra-motor areas can be identified in ALS, regardless of the phenotype.

  9. Altered spontaneous brain activity in adolescent boys with pure conduct disorder revealed by regional homogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaocui; Dong, Daifeng; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed abnormal neural activity in several brain regions of adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) performing various tasks. However, little is known about the spontaneous neural activity in people with CD in a resting state. The aims of this study were to investigate CD-associated regional activity abnormalities and to explore the relationship between behavioral impulsivity and regional activity abnormalities. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans were administered to 28 adolescents with CD and 28 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HCs). The rs-fMRI data were subjected to regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. ReHo can demonstrate the temporal synchrony of regional blood oxygen level-dependent signals and reflect the coordination of local neuronal activity facilitating similar goals or representations. Compared to HCs, the CD group showed increased ReHo bilaterally in the insula as well as decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus, left anterior cerebellum anterior, and right posterior cerebellum. In the CD group, mean ReHo values in the left and the right insula correlated positively with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) total scores. The results suggest that CD is associated with abnormal intrinsic brain activity, mainly in the cerebellum and temporal-parietal-limbic cortices, regions that are related to emotional and cognitive processing. BIS scores in adolescents with CD may reflect severity of abnormal neuronal synchronization in the insula.

  10. Calretinin as a marker for premotor neurons involved in upgaze in human brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eAdamczyk

    2015-12-01

    indicated by co-expression of glutamate decarboxylase in a subpopulation. Calretinin-positive neurons ensheathed by perineuronal nets in the human y-group are considered as the homologue premotor neurons described in monkey, projecting to superior rectus and inferior oblique motoneurons. In conclusion, combined immunostaining for parvalbumin, perineuronal nets and calretinin may well be suited for the specific identification and subsequent analysis of premotor upgaze pathways in clinical cases of isolated up- or downgaze deficits.

  11. Developmental changes of neuronal networks associated with strategic social decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Elisabeth; Schmalor, Antonia; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Wolff, Stephan; Galka, Andreas; Möhring, Jan; Gerber, Wolf-Dieter; Petermann, Franz; Stephani, Ulrich; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2014-04-01

    One of the important prerequisites for successful social interaction is the willingness of each individual to cooperate socially. Using the ultimatum game, several studies have demonstrated that the process of decision-making to cooperate or to defeat in interaction with a partner is associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula (AI), and inferior frontal cortex (IFC). This study investigates developmental changes in this neuronal network. 15 healthy children (8-12 years), 15 adolescents (13-18 years) and 15 young adults (19-28 years) were investigated using the ultimatum game. Neuronal networks representing decision-making based on strategic thinking were characterized using functional MRI. In all age groups, the process of decision-making in reaction to unfair offers was associated with hemodynamic changes in similar regions. Compared with children, however, healthy adults and adolescents revealed greater activation in the IFC and the fusiform gyrus, as well as the nucleus accumbens. In contrast, healthy children displayed more activation in the AI, the dorsal part of the ACC, and the DLPFC. There were no differences in brain activations between adults and adolescents. The neuronal mechanisms underlying strategic social decision making are already developed by the age of eight. Decision-making based on strategic thinking is associated with age-dependent involvement of different brain regions. Neuronal networks underlying theory of mind and reward anticipation are more activated in adults and adolescents with regard to the increasing perspective taking with age. In relation to emotional reactivity and respective compensatory coping in younger ages, children have higher activations in a neuronal network associated with emotional processing and executive control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of glutamatergic, GABAergic, and glycinergic neurons in the auditory pathways of macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T; Inoue, K; Takada, M

    2015-12-03

    Macaque monkeys use complex communication calls and are regarded as a model for studying the coding and decoding of complex sound in the auditory system. However, little is known about the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the auditory system of macaque monkeys. In this study, we examined the overall distribution of cell bodies that expressed mRNAs for VGLUT1, and VGLUT2 (markers for glutamatergic neurons), GAD67 (a marker for GABAergic neurons), and GLYT2 (a marker for glycinergic neurons) in the auditory system of the Japanese macaque. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and GAD67 in order to compare the distribution of proteins and mRNAs. We found that most of the excitatory neurons in the auditory brainstem expressed VGLUT2. In contrast, the expression of VGLUT1 mRNA was restricted to the auditory cortex (AC), periolivary nuclei, and cochlear nuclei (CN). The co-expression of GAD67 and GLYT2 mRNAs was common in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL), CN, and superior olivary complex except for the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which expressed GLYT2 alone. In contrast, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, thalamus, and AC expressed GAD67 alone. The absence of co-expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the medial geniculate, medial superior olive, and VNLL suggests that synaptic responses in the target neurons of these nuclei may be different between rodents and macaque monkeys. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some problems with non-inferiority tests in psychotherapy research: psychodynamic therapies as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2018-02-14

    In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others. We conclude that non-inferiority trials have specific risks of different types of validity problems, usually favoring an (erroneous) non-inferiority conclusion. Non-inferiority trials require the definition of non-inferiority margins, and currently used thresholds have a tendency to be inflationary, not protecting sufficiently against degradation. The use of non-inferiority approaches can lead to the astonishing result that one single analysis can suggest both, superiority of the comparator (here: CBT) and non-inferiority of the other treatment (here PDT) at the same time. We provide recommendations how to improve the quality of non-inferiority trials, and we recommend to consider them among other criteria when evaluating manuscripts examining non-inferiority trials. If psychotherapeutic families (such as PDT and CBT) differ on the number of investigating trials, and in the fields of clinical applications, and in other validity aspects mentioned above, conclusions about their general non-inferiority are no more than a best guess, typically expressing the favored approach of the lead author.

  14. Distinct regions of right temporo-parietal junction are selective for theory of mind and exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jonathan; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Brown, Emery N; Saxe, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, a cortical region in the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) is recruited when participants read stories about people's thoughts ('Theory of Mind'). Both fMRI and lesion studies suggest that a region near the RTPJ is associated with attentional reorienting in response to an unexpected stimulus. Do Theory of Mind and attentional reorienting recruit a single population of neurons, or are there two neighboring but distinct neural populations in the RTPJ? One recent study compared these activations, and found evidence consistent with a single common region. However, the apparent overlap may have been due to the low resolution of the previous technique. We tested this hypothesis using a high-resolution protocol, within-subjects analyses, and more powerful statistical methods. Strict conjunction analyses revealed that the area of overlap was small and on the periphery of each activation. In addition, a bootstrap analysis identified a reliable 6-10 mm spatial displacement between the peak activations of the two tasks; the same magnitude and direction of displacement was observed in within-subjects comparisons. In all, these results suggest that there are neighboring but distinct regions within the RTPJ implicated in Theory of Mind and orienting attention.

  15. The organization of the posterior parietal cortex devoted to upper limb actions: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Stefania; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present fMRI study examined whether upper‐limb action classes differing in their motor goal are encoded by different PPC sectors. Action observation was used as a proxy for action execution. Subjects viewed actors performing object‐related (e.g., grasping), skin‐displacing (e.g., rubbing the skin), and interpersonal upper limb actions (e.g., pushing someone). Observation of the three action classes activated a three‐level network including occipito‐temporal, parietal, and premotor cortex. The parietal region common to observing all three action classes was located dorsally to the left intraparietal sulcus (DIPSM/DIPSA border). Regions specific for observing an action class were obtained by combining the interaction between observing action classes and stimulus types with exclusive masking for observing the other classes, while for regions considered preferentially active for a class the interaction was exclusively masked with the regions common to all observed actions. Left putative human anterior intraparietal was specific for observing manipulative actions, and left parietal operculum including putative human SII region, specific for observing skin‐displacing actions. Control experiments demonstrated that this latter activation depended on seeing the skin being moved and not simply on seeing touch. Psychophysiological interactions showed that the two specific parietal regions had similar connectivities. Finally, observing interpersonal actions preferentially activated a dorsal sector of left DIPSA, possibly the homologue of ventral intraparietal coding the impingement of the target person's body into the peripersonal space of the actor. These results support the importance of segregation according to the action class as principle of posterior parietal cortex organization for action observation and by implication for action execution. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3845–3866, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley

  16. Cerebrocerebellar networks during articulatory rehearsal and verbal working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S H Annabel; Desmond, John E

    2005-01-15

    Converging evidence has implicated the cerebellum in verbal working memory. The current fMRI study sought to further characterize cerebrocerebellar participation in this cognitive process by revealing regions of activation common to a verbal working task and an articulatory control task, as well as regions that are uniquely activated by working memory. Consistent with our model's predictions, load-dependent activations were observed in Broca's area (BA 44/6) and the superior cerebellar hemisphere (VI/CrusI) for both working memory and motoric rehearsal. In contrast, activations unique to verbal working memory were found in the inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and the right inferior cerebellum hemisphere (VIIB). These findings provide evidence for two cerebrocerebellar networks for verbal working memory: a frontal/superior cerebellar articulatory control system and a parietal/inferior cerebellar phonological storage system.

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On direct comparison of the two groups, Fl subjects showed additional activation in parts of primary visual cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, inferior and middle frontal gyrus. Conversely, FDs showed greater activation in inferior frontal gyms, precentral gyms, putamen, caudate nucleus and superior parietal lobule as compared ...

  18. Sustained attention is associated with right superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior parietal white matter microstructure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarborg, Brith; Skak Madsen, Kathrine; Vestergaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention develops during childhood and has been linked to the right fronto-parietal cortices in functional imaging studies; however, less is known about its relation to white matter (WM) characteristics. Here we investigated whether the microstructure of the WM underlying and connecting...... the right fronto-parietal cortices was associated with sustained attention performance in a group of 76 typically developing children aged 7-13 years. Sustained attention was assessed using a rapid visual information processing paradigm. The two behavioral measures of interest were the sensitivity index d......' and the coefficient of variation in reaction times (RT(CV) ). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was extracted from the WM underlying right dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and parietal cortex (PC), and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as equivalent...

  19. Emotion processing fails to modulate putative mirror neuron response to trained visuomotor associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Kirkovski, Melissa; Fornito, Alex; Paton, Bryan; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Enticott, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activation of the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS) can be elicited via visuomotor training. This is generally interpreted as supporting an associative learning account of the mirror neuron system (MNS) that argues against the ontogeny of the MNS to be an evolutionary adaptation for social cognition. The current study assessed whether a central component of social cognition, emotion processing, would influence the MNS activity to trained visuomotor associations, which could support a broader role of the MNS in social cognition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assessed repetition suppression to the presentation of stimulus pairs involving a simple hand action and a geometric shape that was either congruent or incongruent with earlier association training. Each pair was preceded by an image of positive, negative, or neutral emotionality. In support of an associative learning account of the MNS, repetition suppression was greater for trained pairs compared with untrained pairs in several regions, primarily supplementary motor area (SMA) and right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG). This response, however, was not modulated by the valence of the emotional images. These findings argue against a fundamental role of emotion processing in the mirror neuron response, and are inconsistent with theoretical accounts linking mirror neurons to social cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inferior ectopic pupil and typical ocular coloboma in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naho; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-08-01

    Ocular coloboma is sometimes accompanied by corectopia in humans and therefore ectopic pupil may indicate ocular coloboma in experimental animals. The RCS strain of rats has a low incidence of microphthalmia. We found that inferior ectopic pupil is associated exclusively with small-sized eyes in this strain. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether inferior ectopic pupil is associated with iridal coloboma and other types of ocular coloboma in RCS rats. Both eyes of RCS rats were examined clinically, and those with inferior ectopic pupils underwent morphologic and morphometric examinations. In a prenatal study, coronal serial sections of eyeballs from fetuses at gestational day 16.5 were examined by using light microscopy. Ectopic pupils in RCS rats were found exclusively in an inferior position, where the iris was shortened. Fundic examination revealed severe chorioretinal coloboma in all cases of inferior ectopic pupil. The morphologic characteristics closely resembled those of chorioretinal coloboma in humans. Histopathologic examination of primordia showed incomplete closure of the optic fissure in 4 eyeballs of RCS fetuses. Neither F(1) rats nor N(2) (progeny of RCS × BN matings) displayed any ocular anomalies, including ectopic pupils. The RCS strain is a suitable model for human ocular coloboma, and inferior ectopic pupil appears to be a strong indicator of ocular coloboma.

  1. Changes in spontaneous brain activity in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Zhang, Min-Ming; Zheng, Xu-Ning; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Wang, Jue

    2013-08-09

    Resting state brain activity can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of the present study was (a) to investigate abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in early PD patients using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method and (b) to demonstrate the potential of using changes in abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity for monitoring the progression of PD during its early stages. Seventeen early PD patients were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared with seventeen gender- and age-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI scans using a 1.5T General Electric Signa Excite II scanner. The MRI scan protocol included whole-brain volumetric imaging using a 3D inversion recovery prepared (IR-Prep) fast spoiled gradient-echo pulse sequence and 2D multi-slice (22 axial slices covering the whole brain) resting-state fMRI using an echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Images were analyzed in SPM5 together with a ReHo algorithm using the in-house software program REST. A corrected threshold of pbrain regions, including the left cerebellum, left parietal lobe, right middle temporal lobe, right sub-thalamic nucleus areas, right superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), right precuneus lobe, left MFG and left IPL. Additionally, significantly reduced ReHo was also observed in the early PD patients in the following brain regions: the left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus, right anterior cingulum, and bilateral lingual gyrus. Moreover, in PD patients, ReHo in the left putamen was negatively correlated with the UPDRS scores (r=-0.69). These results indicate that the abnormal resting state spontaneous brain activity associated with patients with early PD can be revealed by Reho analysis. Copyright

  2. Axonal recordings from medial superior olive neurons obtained from the lateral lemniscus of the chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremen, Peter; Joris, Philip X

    2013-10-30

    Interaural time differences (ITDs) are a major cue for localizing low-frequency (binaural beats and dichotic noise bursts to characterize the best delay versus characteristic frequency distribution, and compared the data to recordings we obtained in the inferior colliculus (IC). In contrast to most reports in other rodents, many best delays were close to zero ITD, both in MSO and IC, with a majority of the neurons recorded in the LL firing maximally within the presumed ethological ITD range.

  3. Neuronal Oscillations Indicate Sleep-dependent Changes in the Cortical Memory Trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Moritz; Finger, Holger; Kater, Maren-Jo; Schenk, Christoph; Gruber, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Sleep promotes the consolidation of newly acquired associative memories. Here we used neuronal oscillations in the human EEG to investigate sleep-dependent changes in the cortical memory trace. The retrieval activity for object-color associations was assessed immediately after encoding and after 3 hr of sleep or wakefulness. Sleep had beneficial effects on memory performance and led to reduced event-related theta and gamma power during the retrieval of associative memories. Furthermore, event-related alpha suppression was attenuated in the wake group for memorized and novel stimuli. There were no sleep-dependent changes in retrieval activity for missed items or items retrieved without color. Thus, the sleep-dependent reduction in theta and gamma oscillations was specific for the retrieval of associative memories. In line with theoretical accounts on sleep-dependent memory consolidation, decreased theta may indicate reduced mediotemporal activity because of a transfer of information into neocortical networks during sleep, whereas reduced parietal gamma may reflect effects of synaptic downscaling. Changes in alpha suppression in the wake group possibly index reduced attentional resources that may also contribute to a lower memory performance in this group. These findings indicate that the consolidation of associative memories during sleep is associated with profound changes in the cortical memory trace and relies on multiple neuronal processes working in concert.

  4. Effects of rearranged vision on event-related lateralizations of the EEG during pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Isabelle; Franz, Volker H; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Gotz, Karl G; Wascher, Edmund

    2005-01-01

    We used event-related lateralizations of the EEG (ERLs) and reversed vision to study visuomotor processing with conflicting proprioceptive and visual information during pointing. Reversed vision decreased arm-related lateralization, probably reflecting the simultaneous activity of left and right arm specific neurons: neurons in the hemisphere contralateral to the observed action were probably activated by visual feedback, neurons in the hemisphere contralateral to the response side by the somatomotor feedback. Lateralization related to the target in parietal cortex increased, indicating that visual to motor transformation in parietal cortex required additional time and resources with reversed vision. A short period of adaptation to an additional lateral displacement of the visual field increased arm-contralateral activity in parietal cortex during the movement. This is in agreement with the, which showed that adaptation to a lateral displacement of the visual field is reflected in increased parietal involvement during pointing.

  5. Inferior hilar window on lateral chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.; Webb, W.R.; Klein, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the accuracy of lateral chest radiography in the detection of masses in the inferior hilar window, a normally avascular hilar region anterior to the lower lobe bronchi. Fifty patients with normal thoracic CT scans and 25 with hilar masses/adenopathy were selected retrospectively. The 75 corresponding lateral chest radiographs were blindly evaluated for visibility of the anterior walls of the lower lobe bronchi and the presence and laterality of abnormal soft tissue (>1 cm) in the inferior hilar window. Only a 7 x 7-cm square of the lateral radiograph was viewed

  6. Odd-skipped labels a group of distinct neurons associated with the mushroom body and optic lobe in the adult Drosophila brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Peter; Larsen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory processing has been intensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster. However, we still know little about the descending neural pathways from the higher order processing centers and how these connect with other neural circuits. Here we describe, in detail, the adult projections patterns that arise from a cluster of 78 neurons, defined by the expression of the Odd-skipped transcription factor. We term these neurons Odd neurons. By using expression of genetically encoded axonal and dendritic markers, we show that a subset of the Odd neurons projects dendrites into the calyx of the mushroom body (MB) and axons into the inferior protocerebrum. We exclude the possibility that the Odd neurons are part of the well-known Kenyon cells whose projections form the MB and conclude that the Odd neurons belong to a previously not described class of extrinsic MB neurons. In addition, three of the Odd neurons project into the lobula plate of the optic lobe, and two of these cells extend axons ipsi- and contralaterally in the brain. Anatomically, these cells do not resemble any previously described lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs) in Drosophila. We show that the Odd neurons are predominantly cholinergic but also include a small number of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Finally, we provide evidence that the Odd neurons are a hemilineage, suggesting they are born from a defined set of neuroblasts. Our anatomical analysis hints at the possibility that subgroups of Odd neurons could be involved in olfactory and visual processing. PMID:23749685

  7. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [ 3 H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [ 3 H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [ 3 H]AMPA binding data

  8. Caracterización del injerto parietal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Díaz Fernández

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 22 pacientes en los que se utilizó el injerto parietal autógeno para reconstruir defectos del cráneo, en los servicios de Cirugía Maxilofacial y Neurocirugía del Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Saturnino Lora", de Santiago de Cuba, desde 1988 hasta 1991. El método de extracción del injerto con división in situ resultó el más empleado y el que ofreció las mejores posibilidades de reconstrucción en cuanto a forma, volumen y flexibilidad, por lo que se recomienda en los defectos pequeños y medianos, sobre todo de la región frontal y áreas adyacentes, donde el contorno y la simetría son los 2 aspectos fundamentales que se deben conseguir. El método de división, in vitro se utilizó en las reconstrucciones de las deformidades de grandes dimensiones, particularmente en aquellas que no incluían la frente. El índice de complicaciones fue bajoIt was carried out a descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study of 22 patients in whom an autogenous parietal graft was used to reconstruct cranial defects at the Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery Department of the "Saturnino Lora" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba, from 1988 to 1991. The graft extraction method with division in situ was the most used and offered the best possibilities for reconstruction as regards form, volume and flexibility. Therefore, it is recommended for small and medium defects, particularly of the frontal region and adjacent areas, where contour and symmetry are the two fundamental aspects to be taken into consideration. The method of division in vitro was used to reconstruct large deformities, specially those in which the forehead was not included. The complications index was low

  9. Posterior parietal cortex and episodic encoding: insights from fMRI subsequent memory effects and dual-attention theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; Wagner, Anthony D

    2009-02-01

    The formation of episodic memories--memories for life events--is affected by attention during event processing. A leading neurobiological model of attention posits two separate yet interacting systems that depend on distinct regions in lateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC). From this dual-attention perspective, dorsal PPC is thought to support the goal-directed allocation of attention, whereas ventral PPC is thought to support reflexive orienting to information that automatically captures attention. To advance understanding of how parietal mechanisms may impact event encoding, we review functional MRI studies that document the relationship between lateral PPC activation during encoding and subsequent memory performance (e.g., later remembering or forgetting). This review reveals that (a) encoding-related activity is frequently observed in human lateral PPC, (b) increased activation in dorsal PPC is associated with later memory success, and (c) increased activation in ventral PPC predominantly correlates with later memory failure. From a dual-attention perspective, these findings suggest that allocating goal-directed attention during event processing increases the probability that the event will be remembered later, whereas the capture of reflexive attention during event processing may have negative consequences for event encoding. The prevalence of encoding-related activation in parietal cortex suggests that neurobiological models of episodic memory should consider how parietal-mediated attentional mechanisms regulate encoding.

  10. Frontal and parietal cortical interactions with distributed visual representations during selective attention and action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Natalie; Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C; Rushworth, Matthew F S

    2013-10-16

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity.

  11. Frontal and Parietal Cortical Interactions with Distributed Visual Representations during Selective Attention and Action Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Mark; Nobre, Anna C.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we studied how distributed visual representations in human occipitotemporal cortex are modulated by attention and link their modulation to concurrent activity in frontal and parietal cortex. We detected similar occipitotemporal patterns during a simple visuoperceptual task and an attention-to-working-memory task in which one or two stimuli were cued before being presented among other pictures. Pattern strength varied from highest to lowest when the stimulus was the exclusive focus of attention, a conjoint focus, and when it was potentially distracting. Although qualitatively similar effects were seen inside regions relatively specialized for the stimulus category and outside, the former were quantitatively stronger. By regressing occipitotemporal pattern strength against activity elsewhere in the brain, we identified frontal and parietal areas exerting top-down control over, or reading information out from, distributed patterns in occipitotemporal cortex. Their interactions with patterns inside regions relatively specialized for that stimulus category were higher than those with patterns outside those regions and varied in strength as a function of the attentional condition. One area, the frontal operculum, was distinguished by selectively interacting with occipitotemporal patterns only when they were the focus of attention. There was no evidence that any frontal or parietal area actively inhibited occipitotemporal representations even when they should be ignored and were suppressed. Using MVPA to decode information within these frontal and parietal areas showed that they contained information about attentional context and/or readout information from occipitotemporal cortex to guide behavior but that frontal regions lacked information about category identity. PMID:24133250

  12. Cerebellar projections to the red nucleus and inferior olive originate from separate populations of neurons in the rat: A non-fluorescent double labeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Teune (Thea); J. van der Burg (Johannes); T.J.H. Ruigrok (Tom)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the rat, the extent of collateralization of projections from the cerebellar nuclei to the red nucleus and inferior olive was investigated using a retrograde double labeling technique. The combination of tracers selected, cholera toxin-β-subunit and WGA-BSA-gold, not only enabled the

  13. A basic review on the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hesham

    2014-01-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve block is the most common injection technique used in dentistry and many modifications of the conventional nerve block have been recently described in the literature. Selecting the best technique by the dentist or surgeon depends on many factors including the success rate and complications related to the selected technique. Dentists should be aware of the available current modifications of the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in order to effectively choose between these modifications. Some operators may encounter difficulty in identifying the anatomical landmarks which are useful in applying the inferior alveolar nerve block and rely instead on assumptions as to where the needle should be positioned. Such assumptions can lead to failure and the failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block has been reported to be 20-25% which is considered very high. In this basic review, the anatomical details of the inferior alveolar nerve will be given together with a description of its both conventional and modified blocking techniques; in addition, an overview of the complications which may result from the application of this important technique will be mentioned.

  14. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kitaura

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate cortical electric neuronal activity as an indicator of brain function, in a mental arithmetic task that requires sustained attention, as compared to the resting state condition. The two questions of interest are the cortical localization of different oscillatory activities, and the directional effective flow of oscillatory activity between regions of interest, in the task condition compared to resting state. In particular, theta and alpha activity are of interest here, due to their important role in attention processing. Methods: We adapted mental arithmetic as an attention ask in this study. Eyes closed 61-channel EEG was recorded in 14 participants during resting and in a mental arithmetic task (“serial sevens subtraction”. Functional localization and connectivity analyses were based on cortical signals of electric neuronal activity estimated with sLORETA (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Functional localization was based on the comparison of the cortical distributions of the generators of oscillatory activity between task and resting conditions. Assessment of effective connectivity was based on the iCoh (isolated effective coherence method, which provides an appropriate frequency decomposition of the directional flow of oscillatory activity between brain regions. Nine regions of interest comprising nodes from the dorsal and ventral attention networks were selected for the connectivity analysis. Results: Cortical spectral density distribution comparing task minus rest showed significant activity increase in medial prefrontal areas and decreased activity in left parietal lobe for the theta band, and decreased activity in parietal-occipital regions for the alpha1 band. At a global level, connections among right hemispheric nodes were predominantly decreased during the task condition, while connections among left hemispheric nodes were predominantly increased. At more

  15. The neural basis for simulated drawing and the semantic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Greg S; Farias, Dana; Davis, Christine H

    2009-03-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of the mental simulation of drawing (1) investigated the neural substrates of drawing and (2) delineated the semantic aspects of drawing. The goal was to advance our understanding of how drawing a familiar object is linked to lexical semantics and therefore a viable method to use to rehabilitate aphasia. We hypothesized that the semantic aspects of drawing familiar objects compared to drawing non-objects would yield greater activation in the inferior temporal cortex and the inferior frontal cortex of the left hemisphere. To test this hypothesis, eight right-handed subjects performed an fMRI experiment that directly contrasted drawing familiar objects to non-objects using mental imagery. Simulated drawing recruited a large, distributed network of frontal, parietal, and temporal structures. In the contrast comparing drawing familiar objects to non-objects there was stronger activation in the left hemisphere within the inferior temporal, anterior inferior frontal, inferior parietal and superior frontal cortices. The activation within the inferior temporal cortex was associated with visual semantic processing and semantic mediated naming. We suggest that the anterior inferior frontal activation is linked to the inferior temporal cortex and is involved in the selection of specific semantic features of the object as well as retrieval of information regarding the perceptual aspects of the object.

  16. Symplastic Leiomyoma in the Suprarenal Inferior Vena Cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahveci, Volkan; Ogur, Torel; Cipe, Gokhan; Ozdemir, Sevim; Hazinedaroglu, Selcuk

    2012-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumors of the soft tissue and may develop in any location where smooth muscle is present. Leiomyoma in the inferior vena cava is a rarely seen pathology, and symplastic leiomyoma is also a rare histological variant of leiomyoma. In this case, we present a rare histological variant of symplastic leiomyoma in the inferior vena cava (IVC). This is the first radiologically reported case of a symplastic leiomyoma of the IVC

  17. Dissociating Neural Correlates of Meaningful Emblems from Meaningless Gestures in Deaf Signers and Hearing Non-Signers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fatima T.; Patkin, Debra J.; Kim, Jieun; Braun, Allen R.; Horwitz, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Emblems are meaningful, culturally-specific hand gestures that are analogous to words. In this fMRI study, we contrasted the processing of emblematic gestures with meaningless gestures by pre-lingually Deaf and hearing participants. Deaf participants, who used American Sign Language, activated bilateral auditory processing and associative areas in the temporal cortex to a greater extent than the hearing participants while processing both types of gestures relative to rest. The hearing non-signers activated a diverse set of regions, including those implicated in the mirror neuron system, such as premotor cortex (BA 6) and inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) for the same contrast. Further, when contrasting the processing of meaningful to meaningless gestures (both relative to rest), the Deaf participants, but not the hearing, showed greater response in the left angular and supramarginal gyri, regions that play important roles in linguistic processing. These results suggest that whereas the signers interpreted emblems to be comparable to words, the non-signers treated emblems as similar to pictorial descriptions of the world and engaged the mirror neuron system. PMID:22968047

  18. Effects of chewing in working memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Kashikura, Kenichi; Nonaka, Hiroi; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2008-05-09

    It has been generally suggested that chewing produces an enhancing effect on cognitive performance-related aspects of memory by the test battery. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that chewing is associated with activation of various brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the relation between cognitive performances affected by chewing and the neuronal activity in specified regions in the brain. We therefore examined the effects of chewing on neuronal activities in the brain during a working memory task using fMRI. The subjects chewed gum, without odor and taste components, between continuously performed two- or three-back (n-back) working memory tasks. Chewing increased the BOLD signals in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 9 and 46) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the n-back tasks. Furthermore, there were more prominent activations in the right premotor cortex, precuneus, thalamus, hippocampus and inferior parietal lobe during the n-back tasks after the chewing trial. These results suggest that chewing may accelerate or recover the process of working memory besides inducing improvement in the arousal level by the chewing motion.

  19. Primary cultures of glomerular parietal epithelial cells or podocytes with proven origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabgani, N.; Grigoleit, T.; Schulte, K.; Sechi, A.; Sauer-Lehnen, S.; Tag, C.; Boor, P.; Kuppe, C.; Warsow, G.; Schordan, S.; Mostertz, J.; Chilukoti, R.K.; Homuth, G.; Endlich, N.; Tacke, F.; Weiskirchen, R.; Fuellen, G.; Endlich, K.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) as well as in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In this study, transgenic mouse lines were used to isolate pure, genetically tagged primary cultures of PECs or

  20. An atretic parietal cephalocele associated with multiple intracranial and eye anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, I.; Yelgec, S.; Aydin, K.; Akalan, N.

    1998-01-01

    We present the cranial MRI findings in a 4-month-old girl with an atretic parietal cephalocele associated with multiple cerebral and ocular anomalies including lobar holoprosencephaly, a Dandy-Walker malformation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, grey-matter heterotopia, extra-axial cysts in various locations, bilateral microphthalmia and a retroocular cyst. (orig.)

  1. Lateralization of Egocentric and Allocentric Spatial Processing after Parietal Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Conson, Massimiliano; Trojano, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to verify whether left and right parietal brain lesions may selectively impair egocentric and allocentric processing of spatial information in near/far spaces. Two Right-Brain-Damaged (RBD), 2 Left-Brain-Damaged (LBD) patients (not affected by neglect or language disturbances) and eight normal controls were submitted…

  2. Sound to language: different cortical processing for first and second languages in elementary school children as revealed by a large-scale study using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    A large-scale study of 484 elementary school children (6-10 years) performing word repetition tasks in their native language (L1-Japanese) and a second language (L2-English) was conducted using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Three factors presumably associated with cortical activation, language (L1/L2), word frequency (high/low), and hemisphere (left/right), were investigated. L1 words elicited significantly greater brain activation than L2 words, regardless of semantic knowledge, particularly in the superior/middle temporal and inferior parietal regions (angular/supramarginal gyri). The greater L1-elicited activation in these regions suggests that they are phonological loci, reflecting processes tuned to the phonology of the native language, while phonologically unfamiliar L2 words were processed like nonword auditory stimuli. The activation was bilateral in the auditory and superior/middle temporal regions. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in the inferior frontal region (right dominant), and in the inferior parietal region with interactions: low-frequency words elicited more right-hemispheric activation (particularly in the supramarginal gyrus), while high-frequency words elicited more left-hemispheric activation (particularly in the angular gyrus). The present results reveal the strong involvement of a bilateral language network in children's brains depending more on right-hemispheric processing while acquiring unfamiliar/low-frequency words. A right-to-left shift in laterality should occur in the inferior parietal region, as lexical knowledge increases irrespective of language.

  3. The basic circuit of the IC: tectothalamic neurons with different patterns of synaptic organization send different messages to the thalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Oliver, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) in the midbrain of the auditory system uses a unique basic circuit to organize the inputs from virtually all of the lower auditory brainstem and transmit this information to the medial geniculate body (MGB) in the thalamus. Here, we review the basic circuit of the IC, the neuronal types, the organization of their inputs and outputs. We specifically discuss the large GABAergic (LG) neurons and how they differ from the small GABAergic (SG) and the more numerous glutamatergic neurons. The somata and dendrites of LG neurons are identified by axosomatic glutamatergic synapses that are lacking in the other cell types and exclusively contain the glutamate transporter VGLUT2. Although LG neurons are most numerous in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), an analysis of their distribution suggests that they are not specifically associated with one set of ascending inputs. The inputs to ICC may be organized into functional zones with different subsets of brainstem inputs, but each zone may contain the same three neuron types. However, the sources of VGLUT2 axosomatic terminals on the LG neuron are not known. Neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and IC itself that express the gene for VGLUT2 only are the likely origin of the dense VGLUT2 axosomatic terminals on LG tectothalamic neurons. The IC is unique since LG neurons are GABAergic tectothalamic neurons in addition to the numerous glutamatergic tectothalamic neurons. SG neurons evidently target other auditory structures. The basic circuit of the IC and the LG neurons in particular, has implications for the transmission of information about sound through the midbrain to the MGB. PMID:22855671

  4. Distinct timescales of population coding across cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Caroline A; Piasini, Eugenio; Panzeri, Stefano; Harvey, Christopher D

    2017-08-03

    The cortex represents information across widely varying timescales. For instance, sensory cortex encodes stimuli that fluctuate over few tens of milliseconds, whereas in association cortex behavioural choices can require the maintenance of information over seconds. However, it remains poorly understood whether diverse timescales result mostly from features intrinsic to individual neurons or from neuronal population activity. This question remains unanswered, because the timescales of coding in populations of neurons have not been studied extensively, and population codes have not been compared systematically across cortical regions. Here we show that population codes can be essential to achieve long coding timescales. Furthermore, we find that the properties of population codes differ between sensory and association cortices. We compared coding for sensory stimuli and behavioural choices in auditory cortex and posterior parietal cortex as mice performed a sound localization task. Auditory stimulus information was stronger in auditory cortex than in posterior parietal cortex, and both regions contained choice information. Although auditory cortex and posterior parietal cortex coded information by tiling in time neurons that were transiently informative for approximately 200 milliseconds, the areas had major differences in functional coupling between neurons, measured as activity correlations that could not be explained by task events. Coupling among posterior parietal cortex neurons was strong and extended over long time lags, whereas coupling among auditory cortex neurons was weak and short-lived. Stronger coupling in posterior parietal cortex led to a population code with long timescales and a representation of choice that remained consistent for approximately 1 second. In contrast, auditory cortex had a code with rapid fluctuations in stimulus and choice information over hundreds of milliseconds. Our results reveal that population codes differ across cortex

  5. Central and peripheral components of writing critically depend on a defined area of the dominant superior parietal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Bongetta, Daniele; Bianchini, Simonetta; Berardesca, Marta; Arienta, Cesare

    2010-07-30

    Classical neuropsychological models of writing separate central (linguistic) processes common to oral spelling, writing and typing from peripheral (motor) processes that are modality specific. Damage to the left superior parietal gyrus, an area of the cortex involved in peripheral processes specific to handwriting, should generate distorted graphemes but not misspelled words, while damage to other areas of the cortex like the frontal lobe should produce alterations in written and oral spelling without distorted graphemes. We describe the clinical and neuropsychological features of a patient with combined agraphia for handwriting and typewriting bearing a small glioblastoma in the left parietal lobe. His agraphia resolved after antiedema therapy and we tested by bipolar cortical stimulation his handwriting abilities during an awake neurosurgical procedure. We found that we could reversibly re-induce the same defects of writing by stimulating during surgery a limited area of the superior parietal gyrus in the same patient and in an independent patient that was never agraphic before the operation. In those patients stimulation caused spelling errors, poorly formed letters and in some cases a complete cessation of writing with minimal or no effects on oral spelling. Our results suggest that stimulating a specific area in the superior parietal gyrus we can generate different patterns of agraphia. Moreover, our findings also suggest that some of the central processes specific for typing and handwriting converge with motor processes at least in the limited portion of the superior parietal gyrus we mapped in our patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Syndecan-1 in the mouse parietal peritoneum microcirculation in inflammation.

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    Paulina M Kowalewska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138 was shown to regulate inflammatory responses by binding chemokines and cytokines and interacting with adhesion molecules, thereby modulating leukocyte trafficking to tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of syndecan-1 and its role in leukocyte recruitment and chemokine presentation in the microcirculation underlying the parietal peritoneum. METHODS: Wild-type BALB/c and syndecan-1 null mice were stimulated with an intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus LTA, Escherichia coli LPS or TNFα and the microcirculation of the parietal peritoneum was examined by intravital microscopy after 4 hours. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine syndecan-1 expression in the peritoneal microcirculation using fluorescent antibodies. Blocking antibodies to adhesion molecules were used to examine the role of these molecules in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in response to LTA. To determine whether syndecan-1 co-localizes with chemokines in vivo, fluorescent antibodies to syndecan-1 were co-injected intravenously with anti-MIP-2 (CXCL2, anti-KC (CXCL1 or anti-MCP-1 (CCL2. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Syndecan-1 was localized to the subendothelial region of peritoneal venules and the mesothelial layer. Leukocyte rolling was significantly decreased with LPS treatment while LTA and TNFα significantly increased leukocyte adhesion compared with saline control. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were not different in syndecan-1 null mice. Antibody blockade of β2 integrin (CD18, ICAM-1 (CD54 and VCAM-1 (CD106 did not decrease leukocyte adhesion in response to LTA challenge while blockade of P-selectin (CD62P abrogated leukocyte rolling. Lastly, MIP-2 expression in the peritoneal venules was not dependent on syndecan-1 in vivo. Our data suggest that syndecan-1 is expressed in the parietal peritoneum microvasculature but does not regulate leukocyte

  7. Activity in human visual and parietal cortex reveals object-based attention in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Benjamin; Kaiser, Jochen; Rahm, Benjamin; Bledowski, Christoph

    2015-02-25

    Visual attention enables observers to select behaviorally relevant information based on spatial locations, features, or objects. Attentional selection is not limited to physically present visual information, but can also operate on internal representations maintained in working memory (WM) in service of higher-order cognition. However, only little is known about whether attention to WM contents follows the same principles as attention to sensory stimuli. To address this question, we investigated in humans whether the typically observed effects of object-based attention in perception are also evident for object-based attentional selection of internal object representations in WM. In full accordance with effects in visual perception, the key behavioral and neuronal characteristics of object-based attention were observed in WM. Specifically, we found that reaction times were shorter when shifting attention to memory positions located on the currently attended object compared with equidistant positions on a different object. Furthermore, functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate pattern analysis of visuotopic activity in visual (areas V1-V4) and parietal cortex revealed that directing attention to one position of an object held in WM also enhanced brain activation for other positions on the same object, suggesting that attentional selection in WM activates the entire object. This study demonstrated that all characteristic features of object-based attention are present in WM and thus follows the same principles as in perception. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353360-10$15.00/0.

  8. Endogenous BDNF is required for long-term memory formation in the rat parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mariana; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Monica R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Medina, Jorge H

    2005-01-01

    Information storage in the brain is a temporally graded process involving different memory phases as well as different structures in the mammalian brain. Cortical plasticity seems to be essential to store stable long-term memories, although little information is available at the moment regarding molecular and cellular events supporting memory consolidation in the neocortex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates both short-term synaptic function and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in hippocampal and cortical neurons. We have recently demonstrated that endogenous BDNF in the hippocampus is involved in memory formation. Here we examined the role of BDNF in the parietal cortex (PCx) in short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) formation of a one-trial fear-motivated learning task in rats. Bilateral infusions of function-blocking anti-BDNF antibody into the PCx impaired both STM and LTM retention scores and decreased the phosphorylation state of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). In contrast, intracortical administration of recombinant human BDNF facilitated LTM and increased CREB activation. Moreover, inhibitory avoidance training is associated with a rapid and transient increase in phospho-CREB/total CREB ratio in the PCx. Thus, our results indicate that endogenous BDNF is required for both STM and LTM formation of inhibitory avoidance learning, possibly involving CREB activation-dependent mechanisms. The present data support the idea that early sensory areas constitute important components of the networks subserving memory formation and that information processing in neocortex plays an important role in memory formation.

  9. Laminar thickness alterations in the fronto-parietal cortical mantle of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Elseline Hoekzema

    Full Text Available Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD was initially regarded as a disorder exclusive to childhood, nowadays its prevalence in adulthood is well established. The development of novel techniques for quantifying the thickness of the cerebral mantle allows the further exploration of the neuroanatomical profiles underlying the child and adult form of the disorder. To examine the cortical mantle in children and adults with ADHD, we applied a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness to anatomical brain MRI scans acquired from children with (n = 43 and without ADHD (n = 41, as well as a group of adult neurotypical individuals (n = 31, adult patients with a history of stimulant treatment (n = 31 and medication-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 24. We observed several clusters of reduced laminar cortical thickness in ADHD patients in comparison to neurotypical individuals. These differences were primarily located in the dorsal attention network, including the bilateral inferior and superior parietal cortex and a section of the frontal cortex (centered on the superior frontal and precentral gyrus bilaterally. Further laminar thickness deficits were observed in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and medial occipital cortex. The deficits in the cortical surface were especially pronounced in the child sample, while adult patients showed a more typical laminar thickness across the cerebral mantle. These findings show that the neuroanatomical profile of ADHD, especially the childhood form of the disorder, involves robust alterations in the cortical mantle, which are most prominent in brain regions subserving attentional processing.

  10. Bilateral fronto-parietal integrity in young chronic cigarette smokers: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in China and other countries. Previous studies have demonstrated gray matter loss in chronic smokers. However, only a few studies assessed the changes of white matter integrity in this group. Based on those previous reports of alterations in white matter integrity in smokers, the aim of this study was to examine the alteration of white matter integrity in a large, well-matched sample of chronic smokers and non-smokers.Using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to measure the differences of whole-brain white matter integrity between 44 chronic smoking subjects (mean age, 28.0±5.6 years and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched comparison non-smoking volunteers (mean age, 26.3±5.8 years. DTI was performed on a 3-Tesla Siemens scanner (Allegra; Siemens Medical System. The data revealed that smokers had higher fractional anisotropy (FA than healthy non-smokers in almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal tracts consisting of a major white matter pathway, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF.We found the almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal whiter matter changes in a relatively large sample of chronic smokers. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking involves alterations of bilateral fronto-parietal connectivity.

  11. Noninvasive brain stimulation of the parietal lobe for improving neurologic, neuropsychologic, and neuropsychiatric deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Miniussi, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) tools that are now widely used in neuroscientific research in humans. The fact that both TMS and tES are able to modulate brain plasticity and, in turn, affect behavior is opening up new horizons in the treatment of brain circuit and plasticity disorders. In the present chapter, we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of NIBS, describing the electromagnetic and physical foundations of TMS and tES, as well as the current knowledge of the neurophysiologic basis of their effects on brain activity and plasticity. In the main part, we will outline studies aimed at improving persistent symptoms and deficits in patients suffering from neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders featured by dysfunction of the parietal lobe. The emerging view is that NIBS of parietal areas holds the promise to overcome various sensory, motor, and cognitive disorders that are often refractory to standard medical or behavioral therapies. The chapter closes with an outlook on further developments in this realm, discussing novel therapeutic approaches that could lead to more effective rehabilitation procedures, better suited for the specific parietal lobe dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Symptomatic duodenal perforation by inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista Sincos, Anna Pw; Sincos, Igor R; Labropoulos, Nicos; Donegá, Bruno C; Klepacz, Andrea; Aun, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is rare and life threatening. Our objective is to find out number of occurrences and compare diagnosis and treatments. Method The reference list of Malgor's review in 2012 was considered as well as all new articles with eligible features. Search was conducted on specific databases: MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde. Results Most of the patients presented with upper abdominal pain and the use of radiologic studies was crucial for diagnosis. The most common treatment was laparotomy with filter or strut removal plus duodenum repair. However, clinical conditions of patients must be considered and the endovascular technique with endograft deployment into inferior vena cava may be an alternative. Conclusion Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is uncommon and in high-risk surgical patients endovascular repair must be considered.

  13. Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function. PMID:25408634

  14. INTRINSIC ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MAMMALIAN NEURONS AND CNS FUNCTION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified towards one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

  15. Parietal pleural invasion/adhesion of subpleural lung cancer: Quantitative 4-dimensional CT analysis using dynamic-ventilatory scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Kotaro, E-mail: ksakuma@ohara-hp.or.jp [Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, 6-11 Omachi, Fukushima City, Fukushima 960-8611 (Japan); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima City, Fukushima 960-1295 (Japan); Yamashiro, Tsuneo, E-mail: clatsune@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Moriya, Hiroshi, E-mail: hrshmoriya@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, 6-11 Omachi, Fukushima City, Fukushima 960-8611 (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki, E-mail: sadayuki@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Ito, Hiroshi, E-mail: h-ito@fmu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima City, Fukushima 960-1295 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • 4DCT can be used for assessment of pleural invasion/adhesion by lung cancer. • Quantitative 4DCT indices of lung cancer and adjacent structures are described. • An automatic analysis of pleural invasion/adhesion would be developed in the future. - Abstract: Purpose: Using 4-dimensional dynamic-ventilatory scanning by a 320-row computed tomography (CT) scanner, we performed a quantitative assessment of parietal pleural invasion and adhesion by peripheral (subpleural) lung cancers. Methods: Sixteen patients with subpleural lung cancer underwent dynamic-ventilation CT during free breathing. Neither parietal pleural invasion nor adhesion was subsequently confirmed by surgery in 10 patients, whereas the other 6 patients were judged to have parietal pleural invasion or adhesion. Using research software, we tracked the movements of the cancer and of an adjacent structure such as the rib or aorta, and converted the data to 3-dimensional loci. The following quantitative indices were compared by the Mann-Whitney test: cross-correlation coefficient between time curves for the distances moved from the inspiratory frame by the cancer and the adjacent structure, the ratio of the total movement distances (cancer/adjacent structure), and the cosine similarities between the inspiratory and expiratory vectors (from the cancer to the adjacent structure) and between vectors of the cancer and of the adjacent structure (from inspiratory to expiratory frames). Results: Generally, the movements of the loci of the lung cancer and the adjacent structure were similar in patients with parietal pleural invasion/adhesion, while they were independent in patients without. There were significant differences in all the parameters between the two patient groups (cross-correlation coefficient and the movement distance ratio, P < 0.01; cosine similarities, P < 0.05). Conclusion: These observations suggest that quantitative indices by dynamic-ventilation CT can be utilized as a

  16. Gyri of the human parietal lobe: Volumes, spatial extents, automatic labelling, and probabilistic atlases.

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    Heather M Wild

    Full Text Available Accurately describing the anatomy of individual brains enables interlaboratory communication of functional and developmental studies and is crucial for possible surgical interventions. The human parietal lobe participates in multimodal sensory integration including language processing and also contains the primary somatosensory area. We describe detailed protocols to subdivide the parietal lobe, analyze morphological and volumetric characteristics, and create probabilistic atlases in MNI152 stereotaxic space. The parietal lobe was manually delineated on 3D T1 MR images of 30 healthy subjects and divided into four regions: supramarginal gyrus (SMG, angular gyrus (AG, superior parietal lobe (supPL and postcentral gyrus (postCG. There was the expected correlation of male gender with larger brain and intracranial volume. We examined a wide range of anatomical features of the gyri and the sulci separating them. At least a rudimentary primary intermediate sulcus of Jensen (PISJ separating SMG and AG was identified in nearly all (59/60 hemispheres. Presence of additional gyri in SMG and AG was related to sulcal features and volumetric characteristics. The parietal lobe was slightly (2% larger on the left, driven by leftward asymmetries of the postCG and SMG. Intersubject variability was highest for SMG and AG, and lowest for postCG. Overall the morphological characteristics tended to be symmetrical, and volumes also tended to covary between hemispheres. This may reflect developmental as well as maturation factors. To assess the accuracy with which the labels can be used to segment newly acquired (unlabelled T1-weighted brain images, we applied multi-atlas label propagation software (MAPER in a leave-one-out experiment and compared the resulting automatic labels with the manually prepared ones. The results showed strong agreement (mean Jaccard index 0.69, corresponding to a mean Dice index of 0.82, average mean volume error of 0.6%. Stereotaxic

  17. NeuronBank: a tool for cataloging neuronal circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Katz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivi