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Sample records for inferior colliculus revealed

  1. Adaptive adjustment of connectivity in the inferior colliculus revealed by focal pharmacological inactivation.

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    Gold, J I; Knudsen, E I

    2001-04-01

    In the midbrain sound localization pathway of the barn owl, a map of auditory space is synthesized in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) and transmitted to the optic tectum. Early auditory experience shapes these maps of auditory space in part by modifying the tuning of the constituent neurons for interaural time difference (ITD), a primary cue for sound-source azimuth. Here we show that these adaptive modifications in ITD tuning correspond to changes in the pattern of connectivity within the inferior colliculus. We raised owls with an acoustic filtering device in one ear that caused frequency-dependent changes in sound timing and level. As reported previously, device rearing shifted the representation of ITD in the ICX and tectum but not in the primary source of input to the ICX, the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). We applied the local anesthetic lidocaine (QX-314) iontophoretically in the ICC to inactivate small populations of neurons that represented particular values of frequency and ITD. We measured the effect of this inactivation in the optic tecta of a normal owl and owls raised with the device. In the normal owl, inactivation at a critical site in the ICC eliminated responses in the tectum to the frequency-specific ITD value represented at the site of inactivation in the ICC. The location of this site was consistent with the known pattern of ICC-ICX-tectum connectivity. In the device-reared owls, adaptive changes in the representation of ITD in the tectum corresponded to dramatic and predictable changes in the locations of the critical sites of inactivation in the ICC. Given that the abnormal representation of ITD in the tectum depended on frequency and was likely conveyed directly from the ICX, these results suggest that experience causes large-scale, frequency-specific adjustments in the pattern of connectivity between the ICC and the ICX.

  2. Monopolar intracochlear pulse trains selectively activate the inferior colliculus.

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    Schoenecker, Matthew C; Bonham, Ben H; Stakhovskaya, Olga A; Snyder, Russell L; Leake, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    Previous cochlear implant studies using isolated electrical stimulus pulses in animal models have reported that intracochlear monopolar stimulus configurations elicit broad extents of neuronal activation within the central auditory system-much broader than the activation patterns produced by bipolar electrode pairs or acoustic tones. However, psychophysical and speech reception studies that use sustained pulse trains do not show clear performance differences for monopolar versus bipolar configurations. To test whether monopolar intracochlear stimulation can produce selective activation of the inferior colliculus, we measured activation widths along the tonotopic axis of the inferior colliculus for acoustic tones and 1,000-pulse/s electrical pulse trains in guinea pigs and cats. Electrical pulse trains were presented using an array of 6-12 stimulating electrodes distributed longitudinally on a space-filling silicone carrier positioned in the scala tympani of the cochlea. We found that for monopolar, bipolar, and acoustic stimuli, activation widths were significantly narrower for sustained responses than for the transient response to the stimulus onset. Furthermore, monopolar and bipolar stimuli elicited similar activation widths when compared at stimulus levels that produced similar peak spike rates. Surprisingly, we found that in guinea pigs, monopolar and bipolar stimuli produced narrower sustained activation than 60 dB sound pressure level acoustic tones when compared at stimulus levels that produced similar peak spike rates. Therefore, we conclude that intracochlear electrical stimulation using monopolar pulse trains can produce activation patterns that are at least as selective as bipolar or acoustic stimulation.

  3. Study of the inferior colliculus in patients with schizophrenia by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

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    Martinez-Granados, B; Martinez-Bisbal, M C; Sanjuan, J; Aguilar, E J; Marti-Bonmati, L; Molla, E; Celda, B

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Previous studies have suggested morphometric and functional abnormalities in the inferior colliculus in patients with schizophrenia. Auditory hallucinations are one of the central symptoms in schizophrenia. In this complex and multidimensional event both attention and emotion are thought to play a key role. AIM. To study metabolic changes in the inferior colliculus, a nucleus integrated in the auditory pathway, in patients with schizophrenia and the possible relationship with auditory hallucinations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging studies were performed in 30 right-handed patients with chronic schizophrenia (19 of them with auditory hallucinations) and 28 controls. A magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging 2D slice was acquired and the voxels representative of both inferior colliculi were selected. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) peak areas were measured. RESULTS. The patients with schizophrenia showed a NAA/Cr significant reduction in the right inferior colliculus compared to the control subjects. The metabolic data in the right inferior colliculus were correlated with emotional auditory hallucinations items. CONCLUSIONS. The contribution of the inferior colliculus on neural underpinnings of auditory hallucinations is particularly relevant for the right inferior colliculus and is centered on attention-emotional component of this symptom.

  4. PERIPHERAL HEARING LOSS CAUSES HYPEREXCITABILITY OF THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS

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    Sun Wei

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has been found to suggest that early development of the central auditory system is dependent on acoustic stimuli. Peripheral damage caused by noise exposure and ototoxic drugs can induce functional and anatomical changes along the auditory pathways. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a unique structure in the auditory system located between the primary auditory nuclei of the brainstem and the thala-mus. Damage to the IC inhibitory circuitry may affect central auditory processing and sound perception. Here, we review some of the striking electrophysiological changes in the IC that occur after noise exposure and ototoxic drug treatment. A common occurrence that emerges in the IC after peripheral damage is hyper-excitability of sound-evoked response. The hyperexcitability of the IC is likely related with reduced inhibi-tory response that requires normal peripheral inputs. Early age hearing loss can result in a long lasting in-creased susceptibility to audiogenic seizure which is related to hyperactivity in the IC evoked by loud sounds. Our studies suggest that hearing loss can cause increased IC neuron responsiveness which may be related to tinnitus, hyperacusis, and audiogenic seizure.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of the inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants

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    Reiman, Milla; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Johansson, Reijo [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Turku (Finland); Jaeaeskelaeinen, Satu K. [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Turku (Finland); Kujari, Harry [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Pathology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [Turku University Central Hospital, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2009-08-15

    Preterm and low-birth-weight infants have an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) are an effective method to detect subtle deficits in impulse conduction in the auditory pathway. Abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be associated with perinatal white-matter injury and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate the possibility of a correlation between BAEP and DTI of the inferior colliculus in preterm infants. DTI at term age and BAEP measurements were performed on all very-low-birth-weight or very preterm study infants (n=56). FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the inferior colliculus were measured from the DTI. Shorter BAEP wave I, III, and V latencies and I-III and I-V intervals and higher wave V amplitude correlated with higher FA of the inferior colliculus. The association between the DTI findings of the inferior colliculus and BAEP responses suggests that DTI can be used to assess the integrity of the auditory pathway in preterm infants. (orig.)

  6. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

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    H.R.A.P. Geis (H.-Rüdiger A.P.); J.G.G. Borst (Gerard)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFrequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM) stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here,

  7. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  8. Deactivation of the inferior colliculus by cooling demonstrates intercollicular modulation of neuronal activity

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    Llwyd David Orton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The auditory pathways coursing through the brainstem are organised bilaterally in mirror image about the midline and at several levels the two sides are interconnected. One of the most prominent points of interconnection is the commissure of the inferior colliculus (CoIC. Anatomical studies have revealed that these fibres make reciprocal connections which follow the tonotopic organisation of the inferior colliculus (IC, and that the commissure contains both excitatory and, albeit fewer, inhibitory fibres. The role of these connections in sound processing is largely unknown. Here we describe a method to address this question in the anaesthetised guinea pig. We used a cryoloop placed on one IC to produce reversible deactivation while recording electrophysiological responses to sounds in both ICs. We recorded single units, multi-unit clusters and local field potentials (LFPs before, during and after cooling. The degree and spread of cooling was measured with a thermocouple placed in the IC and other auditory structures. Cooling sufficient to eliminate firing was restricted to the IC contacted by the cryoloop. The temperature of other auditory brainstem structures, including the contralateral IC and the cochlea were minimally affected. Cooling below 20 °C reduced or eliminated the firing of action potentials in frequency laminae at depths corresponding to characteristic frequencies up to ~8 kHz. Modulation of neural activity also occurred in the un-cooled IC with changes in single unit firing and LFPs. Components of LFPs signalling lemniscal afferent input to the IC showed little change in amplitude or latency with cooling, whereas the later components, which likely reflect inter- and intra-collicular processing, showed marked changes in form and amplitude. We conclude that the cryoloop is an effective method of selectively deactivating one IC in guinea pig, and demonstrate that auditory processing in the IC is strongly influenced by the other.

  9. Responses from two firing patterns in inferior colliculus neurons to stimulation of the lateral lemniscus dorsal nucleus

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    Li, Xiao-ting; Wang, Ning-yu; Wang, Yan-jun; Xu, Zhi-qing; Liu, Jin-feng; Bai, Yun-fei; Dai, Jin-sheng; Zhao, Jing-yi

    2016-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid neurons (GABAergic neurons) in the inferior colliculus are classified into various patterns based on their intrinsic electrical properties to a constant current injection. Although this classification is associated with physiological function, the exact role for neurons with various firing patterns in acoustic processing remains poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed characteristics of inferior colliculus neurons in vitro, and recorded responses to stimulation of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Seven inferior colliculus neurons were tested and were classified into two firing patterns: sustained-regular (n = 4) and sustained-adapting firing patterns (n = 3). The majority of inferior colliculus neurons exhibited slight changes in response to stimulation and bicuculline. The responses of one neuron with a sustained-adapting firing pattern were suppressed after stimulation, but recovered to normal levels following application of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist. One neuron with a sustained-regular pattern showed suppressed stimulation responses, which were not affected by bicuculline. Results suggest that GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus exhibit sustained-regular or sustained-adapting firing patterns. Additionally, GABAergic projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the inferior colliculus are associated with sound localization. The different neuronal responses of various firing patterns suggest a role in sound localization. A better understanding of these mechanisms and functions will provide better clinical treatment paradigms for hearing deficiencies. PMID:27335563

  10. Responses from two firing patterns in inferior colliculus neurons to stimulation of the lateral lemniscus dorsal nucleus

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    Xiao-ting Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid neurons (GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus are classified into various patterns based on their intrinsic electrical properties to a constant current injection. Although this classification is associated with physiological function, the exact role for neurons with various firing patterns in acoustic processing remains poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed characteristics of inferior colliculus neurons in vitro, and recorded responses to stimulation of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Seven inferior colliculus neurons were tested and were classified into two firing patterns: sustained-regular (n = 4 and sustained-adapting firing patterns (n = 3. The majority of inferior colliculus neurons exhibited slight changes in response to stimulation and bicuculline. The responses of one neuron with a sustained-adapting firing pattern were suppressed after stimulation, but recovered to normal levels following application of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist. One neuron with a sustained-regular pattern showed suppressed stimulation responses, which were not affected by bicuculline. Results suggest that GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus exhibit sustained-regular or sustained-adapting firing patterns. Additionally, GABAergic projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to the inferior colliculus are associated with sound localization. The different neuronal responses of various firing patterns suggest a role in sound localization. A better understanding of these mechanisms and functions will provide better clinical treatment paradigms for hearing deficiencies.

  11. Responses from two ifring patterns in inferior colliculus neurons to stimulation of the lateral lemniscus dorsal nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ting Li; Ning-yu Wang; Yan-jun Wang; Zhi-qing Xu; Jin-feng Liu; Yun-fei Bai; Jin-sheng Dai; Jing-yi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Theγ-aminobutyric acid neurons (GABAergic neurons) in the inferior colliculus are classiifed into various patterns based on their intrin-sic electrical properties to a constant current injection. Although this classiifcation is associated with physiological function, the exact role for neurons with various ifring patterns in acoustic processing remains poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed characteristics of inferior colliculus neuronsin vitro, and recorded responses to stimulation of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Seven inferior colliculus neurons were tested and were classiifed into two ifring patterns: sustained-regular (n = 4) and sustained-adapting ifring patterns (n = 3). The majority of inferior colliculus neurons exhibited slight changes in response to stimulation and bicuculline. The responses of one neuron with a sustained-adapting ifring pattern were suppressed after stimulation, but recovered to normal levels following application of theγ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist. One neuron with a sustained-regular pattern showed suppressed stimulation responses, which were not affected by bicuculline. Results suggest that GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus exhibit sustained-regular or sustained-adapting ifring patterns. Additionally, GABAergic projections from the dorsal nu-cleus of the lateral lemniscus to the inferior colliculus are associated with sound localization. The different neuronal responses of various ifring patterns suggest a role in sound localization. A better understanding of these mechanisms and functions will provide better clinical treatment paradigms for hearing deifciencies.

  12. Local inhibition of GABA affects precedence effect in the inferior colliculus

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    Yanjun Wang; Ningyu Wang; Dan Wang; Jun Jia; Jinfeng Liu; Yan Xie; Xiaohui Wen; Xiaoting Li

    2014-01-01

    The precedence effect is a prerequisite for faithful sound localization in a complex auditory envi-ronment, and is a physiological phenomenon in which the auditory system selectively suppresses the directional information from echoes. Here we investigated how neurons in the inferior col-liculus respond to the paired sounds that produce precedence-effect illusions, and whether their ifring behavior can be modulated through inhibition with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We recorded extracellularly from 36 neurons in rat inferior colliculus under three conditions:no injection, injection with saline, and injection with gamma-aminobutyric acid. The paired sounds that produced precedence effects were two identical 4-ms noise bursts, which were deliv-ered contralaterally or ipsilaterally to the recording site. The normalized neural responses were measured as a function of different inter-stimulus delays and half-maximal interstimulus delays were acquired. Neuronal responses to the lagging sounds were weak when the inter-stimulus delay was short, but increased gradually as the delay was lengthened. Saline injection produced no changes in neural responses, but after local gamma-aminobutyric acid application, responses to the lagging stimulus were suppressed. Application of gamma-aminobutyric acid affected the normalized response to lagging sounds, independently of whether they or the paired sounds were contralateral or ipsilateral to the recording site. These observations suggest that local inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid in the rat inferior colliculus shapes the neural responses to lagging sounds, and modulates the precedence effect.

  13. Anatomical characterization of subcortical descending projections to the inferior colliculus in mouse.

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    Patel, Mili B; Sons, Stacy; Yudintsev, Georgiy; Lesicko, Alexandria M H; Yang, Luye; Taha, Gehad A; Pierce, Scott M; Llano, Daniel A

    2017-03-01

    Descending projections from the thalamus and related structures to the midbrain are evolutionarily highly conserved. However, the basic organization of this auditory thalamotectal pathway has not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the anatomical and neurochemical features of this pathway. Analysis of the distributions of retrogradely labeled cells after focal injections of retrograde tracer into the inferior colliculus (IC) of the mouse revealed that most of the subcortical descending projections originated in the brachium of the IC and the paralaminar portions of the auditory thalamus. In addition, the vast majority of thalamotectal cells were found to be negative for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, or calretinin. Using two different strains of GAD-GFP mice, as well as immunostaining for GABA, we found that a subset of neurons in the brachium of the IC is GABAergic, suggesting that part of this descending pathway is inhibitory. Finally, dual retrograde injections into the IC and amygdala plus corpus striatum as well into the IC and auditory cortex did not reveal any double labeling. These data suggest that the thalamocollicular pathway comprises a unique population of thalamic neurons that do not contain typical calcium-binding proteins and do not project to other paralaminar thalamic forebrain targets, and that a previously undescribed descending GABAergic pathway emanates from the brachium of the IC. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:885-900, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Regulation of self-renewing neural progenitors by FGF/ERK signaling controls formation of the inferior colliculus.

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    Dee, Alexander; Li, Kairong; Heng, Xin; Guo, Qiuxia; Li, James Y H

    2016-10-15

    The embryonic tectum displays an anteroposterior gradient in development and produces the superior colliculus and inferior colliculus. Studies suggest that partition of the tectum is controlled by different strengths and durations of FGF signals originated from the so-called isthmic organizer at the mid/hindbrain junction; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We show that deleting Ptpn11, which links FGF with the ERK pathway, prevents inferior colliculus formation by depleting a previously uncharacterized stem cell zone. The stem-zone loss is attributed to shortening of S phase and acceleration of cell cycle exit and neurogenesis. Expression of a constitutively active Mek1 (Mek1(DD)), the known ERK activator, restores the tectal stem zone and the inferior colliculus without Ptpn11. By contrast, Mek1(DD) expression fails to rescue the tectal stem zone and the inferior colliculus in the absence of Fgf8 and the isthmic organizer, indicating that FGF and Mek1(DD) initiate qualitatively and/or quantitatively distinctive signaling. Together, our data show that the formation of the inferior colliculus relies on the provision of new cells from the tectal stem zone. Furthermore, distinctive ERK signaling mediates Fgf8 in the control of cell survival, tissue polarity and cytogenetic gradient during the development of the tectum.

  15. Binaural electric-acoustic interactions recorded from the inferior colliculus of Guinea pigs: the effect of masking observed in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.

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    Noh, Heil; Lee, Dong-Hee

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the electric-acoustic interactions within the inferior colliculus of guinea pigs and to observe how central masking appears in invasive neural recordings of the inferior colliculus (IC). A platinum-iridium wire was inserted to scala tympani through cochleostomy with a depth no greater than 1 mm for intracochlear stimulation of electric pulse train. A 5 mm 100 µm, single-shank, thin-film, penetrating recording probe was inserted perpendicularly to the surface of the IC in the coronal plane at an angle of 30-40° off the parasagittal plane with a depth of 2.0-2.5 mm. The peripheral and central masking effects were compared using electric pulse trains to the left ear and acoustic noise to the left ear (ipsilateral) and to the right ear (contralateral). Binaural acoustic stimuli were presented with different time delays and compared with combined electric and acoustic stimuli. The averaged evoked potentials and total spike numbers were measured using thin-film electrodes inserted into the central nucleus of the IC. Ipsilateral noise had more obvious effects on the electric response than did contralateral noise. Contralateral noise decreased slightly the response amplitude to the electric pulse train stimuli. Immediately after the onset of acoustic noise, the response pattern changed transiently with shorter response intervals. The effects of contralateral noise were evident at the beginning of the continuous noise. The total spike number decreased when the binaural stimuli reached the IC most simultaneously. These results suggest that central masking is quite different from peripheral masking and occurs within the binaural auditory system, and this study showed that the effect of masking could be observed in the IC recording. These effects are more evident and consistent with the psychophysical data from spike number analyses than with the previously reported gross potential data.

  16. Intracellular responses to frequency modulated tones in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus

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    Ruediger eGeis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency modulations occur in many natural sounds, including vocalizations. The neuronal response to frequency modulated (FM stimuli has been studied extensively in different brain areas, with an emphasis on the auditory cortex and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Here, we measured the responses to FM sweeps in whole-cell recordings from neurons in the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus. Both up- and downward logarithmic FM sweeps were presented at two different speeds to both the ipsi- and the contralateral ear. Based on the number of action potentials that were fired, between 10-24% of cells were selective for rate or direction of the FM sweeps. A somewhat lower percentage of cells, 6-21%, showed selectivity based on EPSP size. To study the mechanisms underlying the generation of FM selectivity, we compared FM responses with responses to simple tones in the same cells. We found that if pairs of neurons responded in a similar way to simple tones, they generally also responded in a similar way to FM sweeps. Further evidence that FM selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex was obtained by reconstructing FM sweeps from the response to simple tones using three different models. In about half of the direction selective neurons the selectivity was generated by spectrally asymmetric synaptic inhibition. In addition, evidence for direction selectivity based on the timing of excitatory responses was also obtained in some cells. No clear evidence for the local generation of rate selectivity was obtained. We conclude that FM direction selectivity can be generated within the dorsal cortex of the mouse inferior colliculus by multiple mechanisms.

  17. Frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus: nonlinearity and binaural interaction

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    Yu, Jane J.; Young, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    The tuning, binaural properties, and encoding characteristics of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) were investigated to shed light on nonlinearities in the responses of these neurons. Results were analyzed for three types of neurons (I, O, and V) in the CNIC of decerebrate cats. Rate responses to binaural stimuli were characterized using a 1st- plus 2nd-order spectral integration model. Parameters of the model were derived using broadband stimuli with random spectral shapes (RSS). This method revealed four characteristics of CNIC neurons: (1) Tuning curves derived from broadband stimuli have fixed (i. e., level tolerant) bandwidths across a 50–60 dB range of sound levels; (2) 1st-order contralateral weights (particularly for type I and O neurons) were usually larger in magnitude than corresponding ipsilateral weights; (3) contralateral weights were more important than ipsilateral weights when using the model to predict responses to untrained noise stimuli; and (4) 2nd-order weight functions demonstrate frequency selectivity different from that of 1st-order weight functions. Furthermore, while the inclusion of 2nd-order terms in the model usually improved response predictions related to untrained RSS stimuli, they had limited impact on predictions related to other forms of filtered broadband noise [e. g., virtual-space stimuli (VS)]. The accuracy of the predictions varied considerably by response type. Predictions were most accurate for I neurons, and less accurate for O and V neurons, except at the lowest stimulus levels. These differences in prediction performance support the idea that type I, O, and V neurons encode different aspects of the stimulus: while type I neurons are most capable of producing linear representations of spectral shape, type O and V neurons may encode spectral features or temporal stimulus properties in a manner not easily explained with the low-order model. Supported by NIH grant DC00115. PMID:23675323

  18. Taurine acts as a glycine receptor agonist in slices of rat inferior colliculus.

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    Xu, Han; Wang, Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Xu, Tian-Le; Chen, Lin

    2006-10-01

    Taurine is an important endogenous amino acid for neural development and for many physiological functions, but little is known about its functional role in the central auditory system. We investigated in young rats (P10-P14) the effects of taurine on the neuronal responses and synaptic transmissions in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) with a brain slice preparation and with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Perfusion of taurine at 1mM reliably evoked a current across the membrane and decreased the input resistance in neurons of the ICC. Taurine also depressed the spontaneous and current-evoked firing of ICC neurons. All these effects were reversible after washout and could be blocked by 3 microM strychnine, an antagonist of glycine receptors, but not by 10 microM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABA(A) receptors. When the inhibitory receptors were not pharmacologically blocked, taurine reversibly reduced the postsynaptic currents/potentials evoked by electrically stimulating the commissure of the inferior colliculus or the ipsilateral lateral lemniscus. The results demonstrate that taurine reduces the neuronal excitability and depresses the synaptic transmission in the ICC by activating glycine-gated chloride channels. Our findings suggest that taurine acts as a ligand of glycine receptors in the ICC and can be involved in the information processing of the central auditory system similarly like the neurotransmitter glycine.

  19. Dopamine D2-like receptors modulate unconditioned fear: role of the inferior colliculus.

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    Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction of dopamine release or D2 receptor blockade in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system clearly reduces conditioned fear. Injections of haloperidol, a preferential D2 receptor antagonist, into the inferior colliculus (IC enhance the processing of unconditioned aversive information. However, a clear characterization of the interplay of D2 receptors in the mediation of unconditioned and conditioned fear is still lacking. METHODS: The present study investigated the effects of intra-IC injections of the D2 receptor-selective antagonist sulpiride on behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM, auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs to loud sounds recorded from the IC, fear-potentiated startle (FPS, and conditioned freezing. RESULTS: Intra-IC injections of sulpiride caused clear proaversive effects in the EPM and enhanced AEPs induced by loud auditory stimuli. Intra-IC sulpiride administration did not affect FPS or conditioned freezing. CONCLUSIONS: Dopamine D2-like receptors of the inferior colliculus play a role in the modulation of unconditioned aversive information but not in the fear-potentiated startle response.

  20. Regularly firing neurons in the inferior colliculus have a weak interaural intensity difference sensitivity.

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    Nasimi, Ali; Rees, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    The spike discharge regularity may be important in the processing of information in the auditory pathway. It has already been shown that many cells in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus fire regularly in response to monaural stimulation by the best frequency tones. The aim of this study was to find how the regularity of units was affected by adding ipsilateral tone, and how interaural intensity difference sensitivity is related to regularity. Single unit recordings were performed from 66 units in the inferior colliculus of the anaesthetized guinea pig in response to the best frequency tone. Regularity of firing was measured by calculating the coefficient of variation as a function of time of a unit's response. There was a positive correlation between coefficient of variation and interaural intensity difference sensitivity, indicating that highly regular units had very weak and irregular units had strong interaural intensity difference sensitivity responses. Three effects of binaural interaction on the sustained regularity were observed: constant coefficient of variation despite change in rate (66% of the units), negative (20%) and positive (13%) rate-CV relationships. A negative rate-coefficient of variation relationship was the dominant pattern of binaural interaction on the onset regularity.

  1. Inhibition shapes selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus of awake mice

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    Zachary eMayko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC is a major center for integration of auditory information as itreceives ascending projections from a variety of brainstem nuclei as well as descending projectionsfrom the thalamus and auditory cortex. The ascending projections are both excitatory andinhibitory and their convergence at the IC results in a microcircuitry that is important forshaping responses to simple, binaural, and modulated sounds in the IC. Here, we examined therole inhibition plays in shaping selectivity to vocalizations in the IC of awake, normal-hearingadult mice (CBA/CaJ strain. Neurons in the IC of mice show selectivity in their responses tovocalizations, and we hypothesized that this selectivity is created by inhibitory microcircuitryin the IC. We compared single unit responses in the IC to pure tones and a variety of ultrasonicmouse vocalizations before and after iontophoretic application of GABAA receptor (GABAARand glycine receptor (GlyR antagonists. The most pronounced effects of blocking GABAAR andGlyR on IC neurons were to increase spike rates and broaden excitatory frequency tuning curvesin response to pure tone stimuli, and to decrease selectivity to vocalizations. Thus, inhibitionplays an important role in creating selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus.

  2. Signaled two-way avoidance learning using electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus as negative reinforcement: effects of visual and auditory cues as warning stimuli

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    A.C. Troncoso

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus is a primary relay for the processing of auditory information in the brainstem. The inferior colliculus is also part of the so-called brain aversion system as animals learn to switch off the electrical stimulation of this structure. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether associative learning occurs between aversion induced by electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus and visual and auditory warning stimuli. Rats implanted with electrodes into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus were placed inside an open-field and thresholds for the escape response to electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus were determined. The rats were then placed inside a shuttle-box and submitted to a two-way avoidance paradigm. Electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus at the escape threshold (98.12 ± 6.15 (A, peak-to-peak was used as negative reinforcement and light or tone as the warning stimulus. Each session consisted of 50 trials and was divided into two segments of 25 trials in order to determine the learning rate of the animals during the sessions. The rats learned to avoid the inferior colliculus stimulation when light was used as the warning stimulus (13.25 ± 0.60 s and 8.63 ± 0.93 s for latencies and 12.5 ± 2.04 and 19.62 ± 1.65 for frequencies in the first and second halves of the sessions, respectively, P0.05 in both cases. Taken together, the present results suggest that rats learn to avoid the inferior colliculus stimulation when light is used as the warning stimulus. However, this learning process does not occur when the neutral stimulus used is an acoustic one. Electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus may disturb the signal transmission of the stimulus to be conditioned from the inferior colliculus to higher brain structures such as amygdala

  3. Topography of acoustic response characteristics in the midbrain inferior colliculus of Kunming mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Topography of acoustic response characteristics of the midbrain inferior colliculus (IC) of the Kunming mouse was studied by using extracellular recording techniques. The characteristic frequency (CF) range represented in the different divisions of the IC differed markedly: 4-15 kHz in the dorsal cortex (DC), 10-70 kHz in the central nucleus (CN), and 4-35 kHz in the external cortex (EC). The CF in the CN increased from dorsal and lateral to ventral and medial, higher CFs represented at its ventromedial part and lower CFs at its dorsal part. The isofrequency contours of CFs were incurvate. Minimum thresholds (MT) of the auditory neurons in DC and the central part of CN were lower (about 10 dB SPL), but considerably higher in the dorsal and ventral region of EC. Results suggest that each of the divisions in the mouse IC may have different auditory functions.

  4. Interaural time sensitivity of high-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S; Sujaku, Y

    1984-11-01

    Recent psychoacoustic experiments have shown that interaural time differences provide adequate cues for lateralizing high-frequency sounds, provided the stimuli are complex and not pure tones. We present here physiological evidence in support of these findings. Neurons of high best frequency in the cat inferior colliculus respond to interaural phase differences of amplitude modulated waveforms, and this response depends upon preservation of phase information of the modulating signal. Interaural phase differences were introduced in two ways: by interaural delays of the entire waveform and by binaural beats in which there was an interaural frequency difference in the modulating waveform. Results obtained with these two methods are similar. Our results show that high-frequency cells can respond to interaural time differences of amplitude modulated signals and that they do so by a sensitivity to interaural phase differences of the modulating waveform.

  5. Dissonance encoding in human inferior colliculus covaries with individual differences in dislike of dissonant music.

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    Kim, Seung-Goo; Lepsien, Jöran; Fritz, Thomas Hans; Mildner, Toralf; Mueller, Karsten

    2017-07-18

    Harmony is one of the most fundamental elements of music that evokes emotional response. The inferior colliculus (IC) has been known to detect poor agreement of harmonics of sound, that is, dissonance. Electrophysiological evidence has implicated a relationship between a sustained auditory response mainly from the brainstem and unpleasant emotion induced by dissonant harmony. Interestingly, an individual's dislike of dissonant harmony of an individual correlated with a reduced sustained auditory response. In the current paper, we report novel evidence based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for such a relationship between individual variability in dislike of dissonance and the IC activation. Furthermore, for the first time, we show how dissonant harmony modulates functional connectivity of the IC and its association with behaviourally reported unpleasantness. The current findings support important contributions of low level auditory processing and corticofugal interaction in musical harmony preference.

  6. Response of auditory units in the barn owl's inferior colliculus to continuously varying interaural phase differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseff, A; Haresign, T

    1992-06-01

    1. We studied the response of single units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the barn owl (Tyto alba) to continuously varying interaural phase differences (IPDs) and static IPDs. Interaural phase was varied in two ways: continuously, by delivering tones to each ear that varied by a few hertz (binaural beat, Fig. 1), and discretely, by delaying in fixed steps the phase of sound delivered to one ear relative to the other (static phase). Static presentations were repeated at several IPDs to characterize interaural phase sensitivity. 2. Units sensitive to IPDs responded to the binaural beat stimulus over a broad range of delta f(Fig. 4). We selected a 3-Hz delta f for most of our comparative measurements on the basis of constraints imposed by our stimulus generation system and because it allowed us to reduce the influence of responses to stimulus onset and offset (Fig. 3A). 3. Characteristic interaural time or phase sensitivity obtained by the use of the binaural beat stimulus were comparable with those obtained by the use of the static technique (Fig. 5; r2 = 0.93, Fig. 6). 4. The binaural beat stimulus facilitated the measurement of characteristic delay (CD) and characteristic phase (CP) of auditory units. We demonstrated that units in the owl's inferior colliculus (IC) include those that are maximally excited by specific IPDs (CP = 0 or 1.0) as well as those that are maximally suppressed by specific IPDs (CP = 0.5; Figs. 7 and 8). 5. The selectivity of units sensitive to IPD or interaural time difference (ITD) were weakly influenced by interaural intensity difference (IID).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián eHormigo; José de Anchieta de Castro e Horta Junior; Ricardo eGómez-Nieto; López García, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) and the locus coeruleus (LC) are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry and confocal microscopy analysis to descr...

  8. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hormigo, Sebastián; Horta Júnior, José de Anchieta de Castro e; Gómez-Nieto, Ricardo; López, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) and the locus coeruleus (LC) are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry, and confocal microscopy (CM) analysis to...

  9. Changes in the response properties of inferior colliculus neurons relating to tinnitus

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    Joel I Berger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is often identified in animal models by using the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS. Impaired gap detection following acoustic over-exposure (AOE is thought to be caused by tinnitus ‘filling in’ the gap, thus reducing its salience. This presumably involves altered perception, and could conceivably be caused by changes at the level of the neocortex, i.e. cortical reorganization. Alternatively, reduced gap detection ability might reflect poorer temporal processing in the brainstem, caused by AOE; in which case, impaired gap detection would not be a reliable indicator of tinnitus. We tested the latter hypothesis by examining gap detection in inferior colliculus (IC neurons following AOE. Seven of nine unilaterally noise-exposed guinea pigs exhibited behavioural evidence of tinnitus. In these tinnitus animals, neural gap detection thresholds in the IC significantly increased in response to broadband noise stimuli, but not to pure tones or narrowband noise. In addition, when IC neurons were sub-divided according to temporal response profile (onset vs. sustained firing patterns, we found a significant increase in the proportion of onset-type responses after AOE. Importantly, however, gap detection thresholds were still considerably shorter than gap durations commonly used in objective behavioural tests for tinnitus. These data indicate that the neural changes observed in the IC are insufficient to explain deficits in behavioural gap detection that are commonly attributed to tinnitus. The subtle changes in IC neuron response profiles following AOE warrant further investigation.

  10. Stimulus-specific adaptation and deviance detection in the inferior colliculus

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    Yaneri eAguilar Ayala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deviancy detection in the continuous flow of sensory information into the central nervous system is of vital importance for animals. The task requires neuronal mechanisms that allow for an efficient representation of the environment by removing statistically redundant signals. Recently, the neuronal principles of auditory deviance detection have been approached by studying the phenomenon of stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA. SSA is a reduction in the responsiveness of a neuron to a common or repetitive sound while the neuron remains highly sensitive to rare sounds (Ulanovsky et al., 2003. This phenomenon could enhance the saliency of unexpected, deviant stimuli against a background of repetitive signals. SSA shares many similarities with the evoked potential known as the ‘mismatch negativity,’ and it has been linked to cognitive process such as auditory memory and scene analysis (Winkler et al., 2009 as well as to behavioral habituation (Netser et al., 2011. Neurons exhibiting SSA can be found at several levels of the auditory pathway, from the inferior colliculus (IC up to the auditory cortex (AC. In this review, we offer an account of the state-of-the art of SSA studies in the IC with the aim of contributing to the growing interest in the single-neuron electrophysiology of auditory deviance detection. The dependence of neuronal SSA on various stimulus features, e.g., probability of the deviant stimulus and repetition rate, and the roles of the AC and inhibition in shaping SSA at the level of the IC are addressed.

  11. Human inferior colliculus activity relates to individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Kraus, Nina; Wong, Patrick C M

    2012-03-01

    A challenge to learning words of a foreign language is encoding nonnative phonemes, a process typically attributed to cortical circuitry. Using multimodal imaging methods [functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) and auditory brain stem responses (ABR)], we examined the extent to which pretraining pitch encoding in the inferior colliculus (IC), a primary midbrain structure, related to individual variability in learning to successfully use nonnative pitch patterns to distinguish words in American English-speaking adults. fMRI-A indexed the efficiency of pitch representation localized to the IC, whereas ABR quantified midbrain pitch-related activity with millisecond precision. In line with neural "sharpening" models, we found that efficient IC pitch pattern representation (indexed by fMRI) related to superior neural representation of pitch patterns (indexed by ABR), and consequently more successful word learning following sound-to-meaning training. Our results establish a critical role for the IC in speech-sound representation, consistent with the established role for the IC in the representation of communication signals in other animal models.

  12. Serotonin in the inferior colliculus fluctuates with behavioral state and environmental stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ian C; Rebec, George V; Hurley, Laura M

    2010-04-01

    Neuromodulation by serotonin (5-HT) could link behavioral state and environmental events with sensory processing. Within the auditory system, the presence of 5-HT alters the activity of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), but the conditions that influence 5-HT neurotransmission in this region of the brain are unknown. We used in vivo voltammetry to measure extracellular 5-HT in the IC of behaving mice to address this issue. Extracellular 5-HT increased with the recovery from anesthesia, suggesting that the neuromodulation of auditory processing is correlated with the level of behavioral arousal. Awake mice were further exposed to auditory (broadband noise), visual (light) or olfactory (2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT) stimuli, presented with food or confined in a small arena. Only the auditory stimulus or restricted movement increased the concentration of extracellular 5-HT in the IC. Changes occurred within minutes of stimulus onset, with the auditory stimulus increasing extracellular 5-HT by an average of 5% and restricted movement increasing it by an average of 14%. These findings suggest that the neuromodulation of auditory processing by 5-HT is a dynamic process that is dependent on internal state and behavioral conditions.

  13. Distribution of GABAergic cells in the inferior colliculus that project to the thalamus

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    Jeffrey G Mellott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A GABAergic component has been identified in the projection from the inferior colliculus (IC to the medial geniculate body (MG in cats and rats. We sought to determine if this GABAergic pathway exists in guinea pig, a species widely used in auditory research. The guinea pig IC contains GABAergic cells, but their relative abundance in the IC and their relative contributions to tectothalamic projections are unknown. We identified GABAergic cells with immunochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD and determined that ~21% of IC neurons are GABAergic. We then combined retrograde tracing with GAD immunohistochemistry to identify the GABAergic tectothalamic projection. Large injections of Fast Blue, red fluorescent beads or FluoroGold were deposited to include all subdivisions of the MG. The results demonstrate a GABAergic pathway from each IC subdivision to the ipsilateral MG. GABAergic cells constitute ~22% of this ipsilateral pathway. In addition, each subdivision of the IC had a GABAergic projection to the contralateral MG. Measured by number of tectothalamic cells, the contralateral projection is about 10% of the size of the ipsilateral projection. GABAergic cells constitute about 20% of the contralateral projection. In summary, the results demonstrate a tectothalamic projection in guinea pigs that originates in part from GABAergic cells that project ipsilaterally or contralaterally to the MG. The results show similarities to both rats and cats, and carry implications for the role of GABAergic tectothalamic projections vis-à-vis the presence (in cats or near absence (in rats and guinea pigs of GABAergic interneurons in the MG.

  14. Age-related neurochemical changes in the rhesus macaque inferior colliculus.

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    James eEngle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (ARHL is marked by audiometric hearing deficits that propagate along the auditory pathway. Neurochemical changes as a function of aging have also been identified in neurons along the auditory pathway in both rodents and carnivores, however, very little is known about how these neurochemicals change in the non-human primate. To examine how these compensatory neurochemical changes relate to normal aging and audiometric sensitivity along the auditory pathway, we collected auditory brainstem responses (ABRs and brain specimens from seven rhesus monkeys spanning in age from 15 to 35 years old, and examined the relationship between click evoked ABR thresholds and the ABR evoked pure tone average and changes in the number of parvalbumin and NADPH-diaphorase positive cells in the auditory midbrain. We found that the number of parvalbumin positive cells in the central nucleus and the surrounding cortex regions of the inferior colliculus were strongly correlated with advancing age and ABR pure tone average. We also found that the numbers of NADPHd positive cells in these same regions were not associated with normal aging or changes in the ABR thresholds. These findings suggest that the auditory midbrain undergoes an up-regulation of parvalbumin expressing neurons with aging that is related to changes in the processing of frequencies across the audiometric range.

  15. An in vivo investigation of inferior colliculus single neuron responses to cochlear nucleus pulse train stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Stefan J; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Rathbone, Graeme D; Paolini, Antonio G

    2012-12-01

    The auditory brain stem implant (ABI) is being used clinically to restore hearing to patients unable to benefit from a cochlear implant (CI). Speech perception outcomes for ABI users are typically poor compared with most CI users. The ABI is implanted either on the surface of or penetrating through the cochlear nucleus in the auditory brain stem and uses stimulation strategies developed for auditory nerve stimulation with a CI. Although the stimulus rate may affect speech perception outcomes with current stimulation strategies, no studies have systematically investigated the effect of stimulus rate electrophysiologically or clinically. We therefore investigated rate response properties and temporal response properties of single inferior colliculus (IC) neurons from penetrating ABI stimulation using stimulus rates ranging from 100 to 1,600 pulses/s in the rat. We found that the stimulus rate affected the proportion of response types, thresholds, and dynamic ranges of IC activation. The stimulus rate was also found to affect the temporal properties of IC responses, with higher rates providing more temporally similar responses to acoustic stimulation. Suppression of neural firing and inhibition in IC neurons was also found, with response properties varying with the stimulus rate. This study demonstrated that changes in the ABI stimulus rate results in significant differences in IC neuron response properties. Due to electrophysiological differences, the stimulus rate may also change perceptual properties. We suggest that clinical evaluation of the ABI stimulus rate should be performed.

  16. Dichotic sound localization properties of duration-tuned neurons in the inferior colliculus of the big brown bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Riziq; Aubie, Brandon; Faure, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies on duration-tuned neurons (DTNs) from the mammalian auditory midbrain have typically evoked spiking responses from these cells using monaural or free-field acoustic stimulation focused on the contralateral ear, with fewer studies devoted to examining the electrophysiological properties of duration tuning using binaural stimulation. Because the inferior colliculus (IC) receives convergent inputs from lower brainstem auditory nuclei that process sounds from each ear, many midbrain neurons have responses shaped by binaural interactions and are selective to binaural cues important for sound localization. In this study, we used dichotic stimulation to vary interaural level difference (ILD) and interaural time difference (ITD) acoustic cues and explore the binaural interactions and response properties of DTNs and non-DTNs from the IC of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Our results reveal that both DTNs and non-DTNs can have responses selective to binaural stimulation, with a majority of IC neurons showing some type of ILD selectivity, fewer cells showing ITD selectivity, and a number of neurons showing both ILD and ITD selectivity. This study provides the first demonstration that the temporally selective responses of DTNs from the vertebrate auditory midbrain can be selective to binaural cues used for sound localization in addition to having spiking responses that are selective for stimulus frequency, amplitude, and duration.

  17. Dynamic temporal signal processing in the inferior colliculus of echolocating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Philip H.-S.; Wu, Chung Hsin; Wang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    In nature, communication sounds among animal species including humans are typical complex sounds that occur in sequence and vary with time in several parameters including amplitude, frequency, duration as well as separation, and order of individual sounds. Among these multiple parameters, sound duration is a simple but important one that contributes to the distinct spectral and temporal attributes of individual biological sounds. Likewise, the separation of individual sounds is an important temporal attribute that determines an animal's ability in distinguishing individual sounds. Whereas duration selectivity of auditory neurons underlies an animal's ability in recognition of sound duration, the recovery cycle of auditory neurons determines a neuron's ability in responding to closely spaced sound pulses and therefore, it underlies the animal's ability in analyzing the order of individual sounds. Since the multiple parameters of naturally occurring communication sounds vary with time, the analysis of a specific sound parameter by an animal would be inevitably affected by other co-varying sound parameters. This is particularly obvious in insectivorous bats, which rely on analysis of returning echoes for prey capture when they systematically vary the multiple pulse parameters throughout a target approach sequence. In this review article, we present our studies of dynamic variation of duration selectivity and recovery cycle of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the frequency-modulated bats to highlight the dynamic temporal signal processing of central auditory neurons. These studies use single pulses and three biologically relevant pulse-echo (P-E) pairs with varied duration, gap, and amplitude difference similar to that occurring during search, approach, and terminal phases of hunting by bats. These studies show that most collicular neurons respond maximally to a best tuned sound duration (BD). The sound duration to which these neurons are

  18. Inhibition Shapes Response Selectivity in the Inferior Colliculus by Gain Modulation

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    Joshua X Gittelman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological block of inhibition is often used to determine if inhibition contributes to spike selectivity, in which a preferred stimulus evokes more spikes than a null stimulus. When inhibitory block reduces spike selectivity, a common interpretation is that differences between the preferred- and null-evoked inhibitions created the selectivity from less-selective excitatory inputs. In models based on empirical properties of cells from the inferior colliculus of awake bats, we show that inhibitory differences are not required. Instead, inhibition can enhance spike selectivity by changing the gain, the ratio of output spikes to input current. Within the model, we made preferred stimuli that evoked more spikes than null stimuli using five distinct synaptic mechanisms. In two cases, synaptic selectivity (the differences between the preferred and null inputs was entirely excitatory, and in two it was entirely inhibitory. In each case, blocking inhibition eliminated spike selectivity. Thus, observing spike rates following inhibitory block did not distinguish among the cases where synaptic selectivity was entirely excitatory or inhibitory. We then did the same modeling experiment using empirical synaptic conductances derived from responses to preferred and null sounds. In most cases, inhibition in the model enhanced spike selectivity mainly by gain modulation and firing rate reduction. Sometimes, inhibition reduced the null gain to zero, eliminating null-evoked spikes. In some cases, inhibition increased the preferred gain more than the null gain, enhancing the difference between the preferred- and null-evoked spikes. Finally, inhibition kept firing rates low. When selectivity is quantified by the selectivity index (SI, the ratio of the difference to the sum of the spikes evoked by the preferred and null stimuli, inhibitory block reduced the SI by increasing overall firing rates. These results are consistent with inhibition shaping spike

  19. Excitatory and inhibitory projections in parallel pathways from the inferior colliculus to the auditory thalamus

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    Jeffrey Garrett Mellott

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual subdivisions of the medial geniculate body (MG receive a majority of their ascending inputs from 1 or 2 subdivisions of the inferior colliculus (IC. This establishes parallel pathways that provide a model for understanding auditory projections from the IC through the MG and on to auditory cortex. A striking discovery about the tectothalamic circuit was identification of a substantial GABAergic component. Whether GABAergic projections match the parallel pathway organization has not been examined. We asked whether the parallel pathway concept is reflected in guinea pig tectothalamic pathways and to what degree GABAergic cells contribute to each pathway. We deposited retrograde tracers into individual MG subdivisions (ventral, MGv; medial, MGm; dorsal, MGd; suprageniculate, MGsg to label tectothalamic cells and used immunochemistry to identify GABAergic cells. The MGv receives most of its IC input (~75% from the IC central nucleus (ICc; MGd and MGsg receive most of their input (~70% from IC dorsal cortex (ICd; and MGm receives substantial input from both ICc (~40% and IC lateral cortex (~40%. Each MG subdivision receives additional input (up to 32% from non-dominant IC subdivisions, suggesting cross-talk between the pathways. The proportion of GABAergic cells in each pathway depended on the MG subdivision. GABAergic cells formed ~20% of IC inputs to MGv or MGm, ~11% of inputs to MGd, and 4% of inputs to MGsg. Thus, non-GABAergic (i.e., glutamatergic cells are most numerous in each pathway with GABAergic cells contributing to different extents. Despite smaller numbers of GABAergic cells, their distributions across IC subdivisions mimicked the parallel pathways. Projections outside the dominant pathways suggest opportunities for excitatory and inhibitory crosstalk. The results demonstrate parallel tectothalamic pathways in guinea pigs and suggest numerous opportunities for excitatory and inhibitory interactions within and between pathways.

  20. A computational model of inferior colliculus responses to amplitude modulated sounds in young and aged rats

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    Cal Francis Rabang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC receives ascending excitatory and inhibitory inputs from multiple sources, but how these auditory inputs converge to generate IC spike patterns is poorly understood. Simulating patterns of in vivo spike train data from cellular and synaptic models creates a powerful framework to identify factors that contribute to changes in IC responses, such as those resulting in age-related loss of temporal processing. A conductance-based single neuron IC model was constructed, and its responses were compared to those observed during in vivo IC recordings in rats. IC spike patterns were evoked using amplitude-modulated (AM tone or noise carriers at 20-40 dB above threshold and were classified as low-pass, band-pass, band-reject, all-pass, or complex based on their rate modulation transfer function (rMTF tuning shape. Their temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs were also measured. These spike patterns provided experimental measures of rate, vector strength and firing pattern for comparison with model outputs. Patterns of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic convergence to IC neurons were based on anatomical studies and generalized input tuning for modulation frequency. Responses of modeled ascending inputs were derived from experimental data from previous studies. Adapting and sustained IC intrinsic models were created, with adaptation created via calcium-activated potassium currents. Short-term synaptic plasticity was incorporated into the model in the form of synaptic depression, which was shown to have a substantial effect on the magnitude and time course of the IC response. The most commonly observed IC response subtypes were recreated and enabled dissociation of inherited response properties from those that were generated in IC. Furthermore, the model was used to make predictions about the consequences of reduction in inhibition for age-related loss of temporal processing due to a reduction in GABA seen anatomically with

  1. Representation of interaural time difference in the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Takahashi, T; Konishi, M

    1987-10-01

    This paper investigates the role of the central nucleus of the barn owl's inferior colliculus in determination of the sound-source azimuth. The central nucleus contains many neurons that are sensitive to interaural time difference (ITD), the cue for azimuth in the barn owl. The response of these neurons varies in a cyclic manner with the ITD of a tone or noise burst. Response maxima recur at integer multiples of the period of the stimulating tone, or, if the stimulus is noise, at integer multiples of the period corresponding to the neuron's best frequency. Such neurons can signal, by means of their relative spike rate, the phase difference between the sounds reaching the left and right ears. Since an interaural phase difference corresponds to more than one ITD, these neurons represent ITD ambiguously. We call this phenomenon phase ambiguity. The central nucleus is tonotopically organized and its neurons are narrowly tuned to frequency. Neurons in an array perpendicular to isofrequency laminae form a physiological and anatomical unit; only one ITD, the array-specific ITD, activates all neurons in an array at the same relative level. We, therefore, may say that, in the central nucleus, an ITD is conserved in an array of neurons. Array-specific ITDs are mapped and encompass the entire auditory space of the barn owl. Individual space-specific neurons of the external nucleus, which receive inputs from a wide range of frequency channels (Knudsen and Konishi, 1978), are selective for a unique ITD. Space-specific neurons do not show phase ambiguity when stimulated with noise (Takahashi and Konishi, 1986). Space-specific neurons receive inputs from arrays that are selective for the same ITD. The collective response of the neurons in an array may be the basis for the absence of phase ambiguity in space-specific neurons.

  2. Projections of the cochlear nuclei and nucleus laminaris to the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T T; Konishi, M

    1988-08-08

    The barn owl determines the directions from which sounds emanate by computing the interaural differences in the timing and intensity of sounds. These cues for sound localization are processed in independent channels originating at nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus angularis (NA), the cochlear nuclei. The cells of NM are specialized for encoding the phase of sounds in the ipsilateral ear. The cells of NA are specialized for encoding the intensity of sounds in the ipsilateral ear. NM projects solely, bilaterally, and tonotopically to nucleus laminaris (NL). NL and NA project to largely nonoverlapping zones in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc), thus forming hodological subdivisions in which time and intensity information may be processed. The terminal field of NL occupies a discrete zone in the rostromedial portion of the contralateral ICc, which we have termed the "core" of ICc. The terminal field of NA surrounds the core of ICc and thus forms a "shell" around it. The projection from NL to the core conserves tonotopy. Low-frequency regions of NL project to the dorsal portions of the core whereas higher-frequency regions project to more ventral portions. This innervation pattern is consistent with earlier physiological studies of tonotopy. Physiological studies have also suggested that NL and the core of ICs contain a representation of the location of a sound source along the horizontal axis. Our data suggest that the projection from NL to the core preserves spatiotopy. Thus, the dorsal portion of NL on the left, which contains a representation of eccentric loci in the right hemifield, innervates the area of the right ICc core that represents eccentric right loci. The more ventral portion of the left NL, which represents loci close to the vertical meridian, innervates the more rostral portions of the right core, which also represents loci near the vertical meridian.

  3. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain. PMID:25865218

  4. Circuits for Processing Dynamic Interaural Intensity Disparities in the Inferior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, George D.

    2013-01-01

    Interaural intensity disparities (IIDs), the cues all animals use to localize high frequency sounds, are initially processed in the lateral superior olive (LSO) by a subtractive process where inputs from one ear excite and inputs from the other ear inhibit LSO neurons. Such cells are called excitatory-inhibitory (EI) neurons and are prominent not only in the LSO but also in higher nuclei, which include the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and inferior colliculus (IC). The IC is of particular interest since its EI cells receive diverse innervation patterns from a large number of lower nuclei, which include the DNLLs and LSOs, and thus comprise a population with diverse binaural properties. The first part of this review focuses on the circuits that create EI cells in the LSO, DNLL and IC. The second section then turns to the responses evoked by dynamic IIDs that change over time, as with multiple sounds that emanate from different regions of space or moving sound sources. I show that many EI neurons in the IC respond to dynamic IIDs in ways that are not predictable from their responses to static IIDs, IIDs presented one at a time. In the final section, results from in vivo whole cell recording in the IC are presented and address the connectional basis for the responsiveness to dynamic IIDs. The principal conclusion is that EI cells comprise a diverse population. The diversity is created by the particular set of inputs each EI type receives and is expressed in the differences in the responses to dynamic IIDs that are generated by those inputs. These results show that the construction of EI neurons in the IC imparts features that not only encode the location of an individual sound source, but also that allow animals to determine the direction of a moving sound and to focus and localize a single sound in midst of many sounds, as typically occurs in the daily lives of all animals. PMID:22343068

  5. FIRING PROPERTY OF INFERIOR COLLICULUS NEURONS AFFECTED BY FMR1 GENE MUTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brittany Mott; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation affecting up to 1 in 4000 individuals. The syn-drome is induced by a mutation in the FMR1 gene, causing a deficiency in its gene by-product FMRP. Impairment in the nor-mal functioning of FMRP leads to learning and memory deficits and heightened sensitivity to sensory stimuli, including sound (hyperacusis). The molecular basis of fragile X syndrome is thoroughly understood;however, the neural mechanisms underly-ing hyperacusis have not yet been determined. As the inferior colliculus (IC) is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway, the current study addresses the questions underlying the neural mechanism of hyperacusis within the IC of fragile X mice. Acute experiments were performed in which electrophysiological recordings of the IC in FMR1-KO and WT mice were measured. Results showed that Q-values for WT were significantly larger than that of FMR-1 KO mice, indicating that WT mice exhibit sharper tuning curves than FMR1-KO mice. We also found the ratio of the monotonic neurons in the KO mice was much higher than the WT mice. These results suggest that lack of FMRP in the auditory system affects the developmental maturation and function of structures within the auditory pathway, and in this case specifically the IC. The dysfunction ob-served within the auditory neural pathway and in particular the IC may be related to the increased susceptibility to sound as seen in individuals with fragile X syndrome. Our study may help on understanding the mechanisms of the fragile X syndrome and hyperacusis.

  6. Immunocytochemical profiles of inferior colliculus neurons in the rat and their changes with aging

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    Ladislav eOuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC plays a strategic role in the central auditory system in relaying and processing acoustical information, and therefore its age-related changes may significantly influence the quality of the auditory function. A very complex processing of acoustical stimuli occurs in the IC, as supported also by the fact that the rat IC contains more neurons than all other subcortical auditory structures combined. GABAergic neurons, which predominantly co-express parvalbumin, are present in the central nucleus of the IC in large numbers and to a lesser extent in the dorsal and external/lateral cortices of the IC. On the other hand, calbindin and calretinin are prevalent in the dorsal and external cortices of the IC, with only a few positive neurons in the central nucleus. The relationship between calbindin and calretinin expression in the IC and any neurotransmitter system has not yet been well established, but the distribution and morphology of the immunoreactive neurons suggest that they are at least partially non-GABAergic cells. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase (a key enzyme for GABA synthesis and calcium binding proteins in the IC of rats undergoes pronounced changes with aging that involve mostly a decline in protein expression and a decline in the number of immunoreactive neurons. Similar age-related changes in glutamate decarboxylase, calbindin and calretinin expression are present in the IC of two rat strains with differently preserved inner ear function up to late senescence (Long-Evans and Fischer 344, which suggests that these changes do not depend exclusively on peripheral deafferentation but are, at least partially, of central origin. These changes may be associated with the age-related deterioration in the processing of the temporal parameters of acoustical stimuli, which is not correlated with hearing threshold shifts, and therefore may contribute to central presbycusis.

  7. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-07-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain.

  8. NADPH-diaphorase-positive neurons in the human inferior colliculus: morphology, distribution and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinova-Palova, D; Landzhov, B; Dzhambazova, E; Edelstein, L; Minkov, M; Fakih, K; Minkov, R; Paloff, A; Ovtscharoff, W

    2017-05-01

    Using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reaction with nitroblue tetrazolium, we provided a detailed investigation of the distribution, dimensional characteristics and morphology of NADPH-d-positive neurons in the three main subdivisions of the human inferior colliculus (IC): central nucleus, pericentral nucleus, and external nucleus. In accordance with their perikaryal diameter, dendritic and axonal morphology, these neurons were categorized as large (averaging up to 45 μm in diameter), medium (20-30 µm), small (13-16 µm) and very small (7-10 µm). Their morphological differences could contribute to varying functionality and processing capacity. Our results support the hypothesis that large and medium NADPH-d-positive cells represent projection neurons, while the small cells correspond to interneurons. Heretofore, the very small NADPH-d-positive neurons have not been described in any species. Their functions-and if they are, indeed, the smallest neurons in the IC of humans-remain to be clarified. Owing to their location, we posit that they are interneurons that connect the large NADPH-d-positive neurons and thereby serve as an anatomical substrate for information exchange and processing before feeding forward to higher brain centers. Our results also suggest that the broad distribution of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the human IC is closely tied to the neuromodulatory action of NO on collicular neurotransmitters such as GABA and glutamate, and to calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin. A deeper understanding of the relationship between NADPH-d-positive fibers in all IC connections and their co-localization with other neurotransmitters and calcium-binding proteins will assist in better defining the function of NO in the context of its interplay with the cerebral cortex, the sequelae of the aging process and neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Transient down-regulation of sound-induced c-Fos protein expression in the inferior colliculus after ablation of the auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Clarkson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We tested whether lesions of the excitatory glutamatergic projection from the auditory cortex to the inferior colliculus induce plastic changes in neurons of this nucleus. Changes in neuronal activation in the inferior colliculus deprived unilaterally of the cortico-collicular projection were assessed by quantitative c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Densitometry and stereology measures of sound-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the inferior colliculus showed diminished labeling at 1, 15, 90 and 180 days after lesions to the auditory cortex suggesting protein down-regulation, at least up to 15 days post-lesion. Between 15 and 90 days after the lesion, c-Fos labeling recovers, approaching control values at 180 days. Thus, glutamatergic excitation from the cortex maintains sound-induced activity in neurons of the inferior colliculus. Subdivisions of this nucleus receiving a higher density of cortical innervation such as the dorsal cortex showed greater changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity, suggesting that the anatomical strength of the projection correlates with effect strength. Therefore, after damage of the corticofugal projection, neurons of the inferior colliculus down-regulate and further recover sound-induced c-Fos protein expression. This may be part of cellular mechanisms aimed at balancing or adapting neuronal responses to altered synaptic inputs.

  10. Natural vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus are broadly encoded by a small number of independent multi-unit clusters

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    Dominika eLyzwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How complex natural sounds are represented by the main converging center of the auditory midbrain, the central inferior colliculus, is an open question. We applied neural discrimination to determine the variation of detailed encoding of individual vocalizations across the best frequency gradient of the central inferior colliculus. The analysis was based on collective responses from several neurons. These multi-unit spike trains were recorded from guinea pigs exposed to a spectrotemporally rich set of eleven species-specific vocalizations. Spike trains of disparate units from the same recording were combined in order to investigate whether groups of multi-unit clusters represent the whole set of vocalizations more reliably than only one unit, and whether temporal response correlations between them facilitate an unambiguous neural representation of the vocalizations. We found a spatial distribution of the capability to accurately encode groups of vocalizations across the best frequency gradient. Different vocalizations are optimally discriminated at different locations of the best frequency gradient. Furthermore, groups of a few multi-unit clusters yield improved discrimination over only one multi-unit cluster betweenall tested vocalizations. However, temporal response correlations between units do not yield better discrimination. Our study is based on a large set of units of simultaneously recorded responses from several guinea pigs and electrode insertion positions. Our findings suggest abroadly distributed code for behaviorally relevant vocalizations in the mammalian inferior colliculus.Responses from a few non-interacting units are sufficient to faithfully represent the whole set of studied vocalizations with diverse spectrotemporal properties.

  11. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF EFAVIRENZ ON THE BRAIN AND INFERIOR COLLICULUS WEIGHTS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Adjene

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic administration of Efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV type-1 on the weight of the brain and inferior colliculus of adult wistar rats was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=16, with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n=8 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group received 600 mg/70 kg body weight of Efavirenz dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days (thirty days through the orogastric tube. The control group received equal volume of distilled water daily for 30 days through the same route. The rats were fed with grower's mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment and the brains were carefully dissected out, dried, weighed and recorded using the Mettler Toledo weighing balance. The findings indicate that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the dry brain weight and an increase in the relative dry brain weight of the treatment group as compared with the control group in this experiment. There was also a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the weight of the dry inferior colliculus per total dry brain weight in the treatment group when compared with the control group. However, the relative dry inferior colliculus weight was significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the treatment group also than that of the control group in this experiment

  12. Spatial selectivity and binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the great horned owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the processing of auditory cues for sound localization in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Previous studies have shown that the barn owl, whose ears are asymmetrically oriented in the vertical plane, has a 2-dimensional, topographic representation of auditory space in the external division of the inferior colliculus (ICx). As in the barn owl, the great horned owl's ICx is anatomically distinct and projects to the optic tectum. Neurons in ICx respond over only a small range of azimuths (mean = 32 degrees), and azimuth is topographically mapped. In contrast to the barn owl, the great horned owl has bilaterally symmetrical ears and its receptive fields are not restricted in elevation. The binaural cues available for sound localization were measured both with cochlear microphonic recordings and with a microphone attached to a probe tube in the auditory canal. Interaural time disparity (ITD) varied monotonically with azimuth. Interaural intensity differences (IID) also changed with azimuth, but the largest IIDs were less than 15 dB, and the variation was not monotonic. Neither ITD nor IID varied systematically with changes in the vertical position of a sound source. We used dichotic stimulation to determine the sensitivity of ICx neurons to these binaural cues. Best ITD of ICx units was topographically mapped and strongly correlated with receptive-field azimuth. The width of ITD tuning curves, measured at 50% of the maximum response, averaged 72 microseconds. All ICx neurons responded only to binaural stimulation and had nonmonotonic IID tuning curves. Best IID was weakly, but significantly, correlated with best ITD (r = 0.39, p less than 0.05). The IID tuning curves, however, were broad (mean 50% width = 24 dB), and 67% of the units had best IIDs within 5 dB of 0 dB IID. ITD tuning was sensitive to variations in IID in the direction opposite to that expected for time-intensity trading, but the magnitude of this effect was only

  13. Anatomical differences in the human inferior colliculus relate to the perceived valence of musical consonance and dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Renders, Wiske; Müller, Karsten; Schmude, Paul; Leman, Marc; Turner, Robert; Villringer, Arno

    2013-10-01

    Helmholtz himself speculated about a role of the cochlea in the perception of musical dissonance. Here we indirectly investigated this issue, assessing the valence judgment of musical stimuli with variable consonance/dissonance and presented diotically (exactly the same dissonant signal was presented to both ears) or dichotically (a consonant signal was presented to each ear--both consonant signals were rhythmically identical but differed by a semitone in pitch). Differences in brain organisation underlying inter-subject differences in the percept of dichotically presented dissonance were determined with voxel-based morphometry. Behavioral results showed that diotic dissonant stimuli were perceived as more unpleasant than dichotically presented dissonance, indicating that interactions within the cochlea modulated the valence percept during dissonance. However, the behavioral data also suggested that the dissonance percept did not depend crucially on the cochlea, but also occurred as a result of binaural integration when listening to dichotic dissonance. These results also showed substantial between-participant variations in the valence response to dichotic dissonance. These differences were in a voxel-based morphometry analysis related to differences in gray matter density in the inferior colliculus, which strongly substantiated a key role of the inferior colliculus in consonance/dissonance representation in humans.

  14. Linear processing of interaural level difference underlies spatial tuning in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Sean J; Young, Eric D

    2013-02-27

    The spatial location of sounds is an important aspect of auditory perception, but the ways in which space is represented are not fully understood. No space map has been found within the primary auditory pathway. However, a space map has been found in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (BIN), which provides a major auditory projection to the superior colliculus. We measured the spectral processing underlying auditory spatial tuning in the BIN of unanesthetized marmoset monkeys. Because neurons in the BIN respond poorly to tones and are broadly tuned, we used a broadband stimulus with random spectral shapes (RSSs) from which both spatial receptive fields and frequency sensitivity can be derived. Responses to virtual space (VS) stimuli, based on the animal's own ear acoustics, were compared with the predictions of a weight-function model of responses to the RSS stimuli. First-order (linear) weight functions had broad spectral tuning (approximately three octaves) and were excitatory in the contralateral ear, inhibitory in the ipsilateral ear, and biased toward high frequencies. Responses to interaural time differences and spectral cues were relatively weak. In cross-validation tests, the first-order RSS model accurately predicted the measured VS tuning curves in the majority of neurons, but was inaccurate in 25% of neurons. In some cases, second-order weighting functions led to significant improvements. Finally, we found a significant correlation between the degree of binaural weight asymmetry and the best azimuth. Overall, the results suggest that linear processing of interaural level difference underlies spatial tuning in the BIN.

  15. Passive stimulation and behavioral training differentially transform temporal processing in the inferior colliculus and primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Maike; Beitel, Ralph E; Schreiner, Christoph E; Leake, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    In profoundly deaf cats, behavioral training with intracochlear electric stimulation (ICES) can improve temporal processing in the primary auditory cortex (AI). To investigate whether similar effects are manifest in the auditory midbrain, ICES was initiated in neonatally deafened cats either during development after short durations of deafness (8 wk of age) or in adulthood after long durations of deafness (≥3.5 yr). All of these animals received behaviorally meaningless, "passive" ICES. Some animals also received behavioral training with ICES. Two long-deaf cats received no ICES prior to acute electrophysiological recording. After several months of passive ICES and behavioral training, animals were anesthetized, and neuronal responses to pulse trains of increasing rates were recorded in the central (ICC) and external (ICX) nuclei of the inferior colliculus. Neuronal temporal response patterns (repetition rate coding, minimum latencies, response precision) were compared with results from recordings made in the AI of the same animals (Beitel RE, Vollmer M, Raggio MW, Schreiner CE. J Neurophysiol 106: 944-959, 2011; Vollmer M, Beitel RE. J Neurophysiol 106: 2423-2436, 2011). Passive ICES in long-deaf cats remediated severely degraded temporal processing in the ICC and had no effects in the ICX. In contrast to observations in the AI, behaviorally relevant ICES had no effects on temporal processing in the ICC or ICX, with the single exception of shorter latencies in the ICC in short-deaf cats. The results suggest that independent of deafness duration passive stimulation and behavioral training differentially transform temporal processing in auditory midbrain and cortex, and primary auditory cortex emerges as a pivotal site for behaviorally driven neuronal temporal plasticity in the deaf cat. Behaviorally relevant vs. passive electric stimulation of the auditory nerve differentially affects neuronal temporal processing in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus

  16. Neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat show stimulus-specific adaptation for frequency, but not for intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Daniel; Wang, Xin; Nieto-Diego, Javier; Krumbholz, Katrin; Malmierca, Manuel S

    2016-04-12

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to a low-intensity probe sound tend to be suppressed by a preceding high-intensity adaptor sound. Nevertheless, rare low-intensity deviant sounds presented among frequent high-intensity standard sounds in an intensity oddball paradigm can elicit an electroencephalographic mismatch negativity (MMN) response. This has been taken to suggest that the MMN is a correlate of true change or "deviance" detection. A key question is where in the ascending auditory pathway true deviance sensitivity first emerges. Here, we addressed this question by measuring low-intensity deviant responses from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized rats. If the IC exhibits true deviance sensitivity to intensity, IC neurons should show enhanced responses to low-intensity deviant sounds presented among high-intensity standards. Contrary to this prediction, deviant responses were only enhanced when the standards and deviants differed in frequency. The results could be explained with a model assuming that IC neurons integrate over multiple frequency-tuned channels and that adaptation occurs within each channel independently. We used an adaptation paradigm with multiple repeated adaptors to measure the tuning widths of these adaption channels in relation to the neurons' overall tuning widths.

  17. Response properties of neurons in the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Hermann; Mazer, James A; von Campenhausen, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) is particularly important for the processing of interaural time differences (ITDs). In the barn owl, neuronal best frequencies in a subnucleus of the ICC, the ICCcore, span the animal's entire hearing range (approximately equal to 200-10 000 Hz). This means that low-frequency ITD-sensitive ICCcore neurons in the owl can be directly compared to ITD-sensitive mammalian ICC neurons with similar best frequencies as well as to the high-frequency ITD-sensitive neurons usually studied in owls. This report represents a first attempt to systematically describe important physiological properties of ICCcore neurons in the barn owl, with particular attention to the low-frequency region (owl's physiological ITD range. ITD tuning widths were inversely correlated with neuronal best frequency. None of the ICCcore neurons studied were sensitive to interaural level differences. Monaural inputs to ICCcore cells were typically binaurally balanced, i.e. they exhibited similar response thresholds, dynamic ranges, slopes and saturation levels, for both left and right ear monaural stimulation.

  18. Neural representations of concurrent sounds with overlapping spectra in rat inferior colliculus: Comparisons between temporal-fine structure and envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Wang, Qian; Li, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Perceptual segregation of multiple sounds, which overlap in both time and spectra, into individual auditory streams is critical for hearing in natural environments. Some cues such as interaural time disparities (ITDs) play an important role in the segregation, especially when sounds are separated in space. In this study, we investigated the neural representation of two uncorrelated narrowband noises that shared the identical spectrum in the rat inferior colliculus (IC) using frequency-following-response (FFR) recordings, when the ITD for each noise stimulus was manipulated. The results of this study showed that recorded FFRs exhibited two distinctive components: the fast-varying temporal fine structure (TFS) component (FFRTFS) and the slow-varying envelope component (FFRENV). When a single narrowband noise was presented alone, the FFRTFS, but not the FFRENV, was sensitive to ITDs. When two narrowband noises were presented simultaneously, the FFRTFS took advantage of the ITD disparity that was associated with perceived spatial separation between the two concurrent sounds, and displayed a better linear synchronization to the sound with an ipsilateral-leading ITD. However, no effects of ITDs were found on the FFRENV. These results suggest that the FFRTFS and FFRENV represent two distinct types of signal processing in the auditory brainstem and contribute differentially to sound segregation based on spatial cues: the FFRTFS is more critical to spatial release from masking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences in synaptic and intrinsic properties result in topographic heterogeneity of temporal processing of neurons within the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Lina; Pecka, Michael; Kajopoulos, Jasmin; Gleiss, Helge; Li, Lu; Leibold, Christian; Felmy, Felix

    2016-11-01

    The identification and characterization of organization principals is essential for the understanding of neural function of brain areas. The inferior colliculus (IC) represents a midbrain nexus involved in numerous aspects of auditory processing. Likewise, neurons throughout the IC are tuned to a diverse range of specific stimulus features. Yet beyond a topographic arrangement of the cochlea-inherited frequency tuning, the functional organization of the IC is not well understood. Particularly, a common principle that links the diverse tuning characteristics is unknown. Here we used in vitro patch clamp recordings combined with laser-uncaging, and in vivo single cell recordings to study the spatial and functional organization principles of the central IC. We identified a topographic bias of ascending synaptic input timing that is balanced between inhibition and excitation and co-varies with in vivo first-spike latency. This bias was paralleled post-synaptically by differences in biophysical membrane properties and firing patterns, with integrating neurons predominantly found in the dorso-medial part, and coincidence-detector neurons biased to the ventro-lateral IC. Importantly, these cellular and network features translated into distinct temporal processing capabilities irrespectively of the neurons' characteristic frequency. Our data therefore imply that heterogeneity of synaptic inputs, intrinsic properties and temporal processing are functional principles that underlie the spatial organization of the central IC.

  20. Modulation of cochlear afferent response by the lateral olivocochlear system: activation via electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, J Alan; Liberman, M Charles

    2003-11-01

    The olivocochlear (OC) efferent innervation of the mammalian inner ear consists of two subdivisions, medial (MOC) and lateral (LOC), with different peripheral terminations on outer hair cells and cochlear afferent terminals, respectively. The cochlear effects of electrically activating MOC efferents are well known, i.e., response suppression effected by reducing outer hair cells' contribution to cochlear amplification. LOC peripheral effects are unknown, because their unmyelinated axons are difficult to electrically stimulate. Here, stimulating electrodes are placed in the inferior colliculus (IC) to indirectly activate the LOC system, while recording cochlear responses bilaterally from anesthetized guinea pigs. Shocks at some IC sites produced novel cochlear effects attributable to activation of the LOC system: long-lasting (5-20 min) enhancement or suppression of cochlear neural responses (compound action potentials and round window noise), without changes in cochlear responses dominated by outer hair cells (otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics). These novel effects also differed from classic MOC effects in their lack of dependence on the level and frequency of the acoustic stimulus. These effects disappeared on sectioning the entire OC bundle, but not after selective lesioning of the MOC tracts or the cochlea's autonomic innervation. We conclude that the LOC pathway comprises two functional subdivisions, capable of inducing slow increases or decreases in response magnitudes in the auditory nerve. Such a system may be useful in maintaining accurate binaural comparisons necessary for sound localization in the face of slow changes in interaural sensitivity.

  1. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián eHormigo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC and the locus coeruleus (LC are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry and confocal microscopy analysis to describe a projection from the LC to the IC. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA injections into the LC showed that the LC-IC projection is mainly ipsilateral (90% and reaches, to a major extent, the dorsal and lateral part of the IC and the intercollicular commissure. Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is noradrenergic, given that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH colocalize with the BDA-labeled fibers from the LC. To determine the total field of the LC innervations in the IC, we destroyed the LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then studied the distribution and density of TH- and DBH-immunolabeled axons in the IC. In the DSP-4 treated animals, the number of axonal fibers immunolabeled for TH and DBH were deeply decreased throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the IC and its subdivisions compared to controls. Our densitometry results showed that the IC receives up to 97% of its noradrenergic innervations from the LC neurons and only 3% from non-coeruleus neurons. Our results also indicate that TH immunoreactivity in the IC was less impaired than the immunoreactivity for DBH after DSP-4 administration. This is consistent with the existence of an important dopaminergic projection from the substantia nigra to the IC. In conclusion, our study demonstrates and quantifies the noradrenergic projection from the LC to the IC and its

  2. Limited segregation of different types of sound localization information among classes of units in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Steven M; Young, Eric D

    2005-08-17

    The auditory system uses three cues to decode sound location: interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and spectral notches (SNs). Initial processing of these cues is done in separate brainstem nuclei, with ITDs in the medial superior olive, ILDs in the lateral superior olive, and SNs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. This work addresses the nature of the convergence of localization information in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Ramachandran et al. (1999) argued that ICC neurons of types V, I, and O, respectively, receive their predominant inputs from ITD-, ILD-, and SN-sensitive brainstem nuclei, suggesting that these ICC response types should be differentially sensitive to localization cues. Here, single-unit responses to simultaneous manipulation of pairs of localization cues were recorded, and the mutual information between discharge rate and individual cues was quantified. Although rate responses to cue variation were generally consistent with those expected from the hypothesized anatomical connections, the differences in information were not as large as expected. Type I units provide the most information, especially about SNs in the physiologically useful range. Type I and O units provide information about ILDs, even at low frequencies at which actual ILDs are very small. ITD information is provided by a subset of all low-frequency neurons. Type V neurons provide information mainly about ITDs and the average binaural intensity. These results are the first to quantify the relative representation of cues in terms of information and suggest a variety of degrees of cue integration in the ICC.

  3. Modulation of major voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in cultured neurons of the rat inferior colliculus by lidocaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu YU; Lin CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the present study was to explore how lidocaine as a thera-peutic drug for tinnitus targets voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels and changes the excitability of central auditory neurons. Methods: Membrane cur-rents mediated by major voltage- and ligand-gated channels were recorded from primary cultured neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC) in rats with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in the presence and absence of lidocaine. The effects of lidocaine on the current-evoked firing of action potentials were also exam-ined. Results: Lidocaine at 100 μmol/L significantly suppressed voltage-gated sodium currents, transient outward potassium currents, and the glycine-induced chloride currents to 87.66%±2.12%, 96.33%±0.35%, and 91.46%±2.69% of that of the control level, respectively. At 1 mmol/L, lidocaine further suppressed the 3 currents to 70.26%±4.69%, 62.80% ±2.61%, and 89.11%±3.17% of that of the control level, respectively, However, lidocaine at concentrations lower than 1 mmol/L did not significantly affect GABA- or aspartate-induced currents. At a higher concentration (3 retool/L), lidocaine slightly depressed the GABA-in-duced current to 87.70%±1.87% of that of the control level. Finally, lidocaine at 100 μmol/L was shown to significantly suppress the current-evoked firing of IC neurons to 58.62%±11.22% of that of the control level, indicating that lidocaine decreases neuronal excitability. Conclusion: Although the action of lidocaine on the ion channels and receptors is complex and non-specific, it has an overall inhibitory effect on IC neurons at a clinically-relevant concentration, suggesting a central mechanism for lidocaine to suppress tinnitus.

  4. The effect of correlated neuronal firing and neuronal heterogeneity on population coding accuracy in guinea pig inferior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oran Zohar

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the considerable noise in single-cell responses to a stimulus can be overcome by pooling information from a large population. Theoretical studies indicated that correlations in trial-to-trial fluctuations in the responses of different neurons may limit the improvement due to pooling. Subsequent theoretical studies have suggested that inherent neuronal diversity, i.e., the heterogeneity of tuning curves and other response properties of neurons preferentially tuned to the same stimulus, can provide a means to overcome this limit. Here we study the effect of spike-count correlations and the inherent neuronal heterogeneity on the ability to extract information from large neural populations. We use electrophysiological data from the guinea pig Inferior-Colliculus to capture inherent neuronal heterogeneity and single cell statistics, and introduce response correlations artificially. To this end, we generate pseudo-population responses, based on single-cell recording of neurons responding to auditory stimuli with varying binaural correlations. Typically, when pseudo-populations are generated from single cell data, the responses within the population are statistically independent. As a result, the information content of the population will increase indefinitely with its size. In contrast, here we apply a simple algorithm that enables us to generate pseudo-population responses with variable spike-count correlations. This enables us to study the effect of neuronal correlations on the accuracy of conventional rate codes. We show that in a homogenous population, in the presence of even low-level correlations, information content is bounded. In contrast, utilizing a simple linear readout, that takes into account the natural heterogeneity, even of neurons preferentially tuned to the same stimulus, within the neural population, one can overcome the correlated noise and obtain a readout whose accuracy grows linearly with the size of

  5. Dual sensitivity of inferior colliculus neurons to ITD in the envelopes of high-frequency sounds: experimental and modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Devore, Sasha; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Human listeners are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs) in the envelopes of sounds, which can serve as a cue for sound localization. Many high-frequency neurons in the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) are sensitive to envelope-ITDs of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) sounds. Typically, envelope-ITD-sensitive IC neurons exhibit either peak-type sensitivity, discharging maximally at the same delay across frequencies, or trough-type sensitivity, discharging minimally at the same delay across frequencies, consistent with responses observed at the primary site of binaural interaction in the medial and lateral superior olives (MSO and LSO), respectively. However, some high-frequency IC neurons exhibit dual types of envelope-ITD sensitivity in their responses to SAM tones, that is, they exhibit peak-type sensitivity at some modulation frequencies and trough-type sensitivity at other frequencies. Here we show that high-frequency IC neurons in the unanesthetized rabbit can also exhibit dual types of envelope-ITD sensitivity in their responses to SAM noise. Such complex responses to SAM stimuli could be achieved by convergent inputs from MSO and LSO onto single IC neurons. We test this hypothesis by implementing a physiologically explicit, computational model of the binaural pathway. Specifically, we examined envelope-ITD sensitivity of a simple model IC neuron that receives convergent inputs from MSO and LSO model neurons. We show that dual envelope-ITD sensitivity emerges in the IC when convergent MSO and LSO inputs are differentially tuned for modulation frequency. PMID:24155013

  6. Glutamate receptor antagonism in inferior colliculus attenuates elevated startle response of high anxiety diazepam-withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A; De Ross, J; Castilho, V M; Brandão, M L; Nobre, M J

    2009-07-07

    Rats segregated according to low (LA) or high (HA) anxiety levels have been used as an important tool in the study of fear and anxiety. Since the efficacy of an anxiolytic compound is a function of the animal's basal anxiety level, it is possible that chronic treatment with a benzodiazepine (Bzp) affects LA and HA animals differently. Based on these assumptions, this study aimed to provide some additional information on the influence of acute, chronic (18 days) and withdrawal effects (48 h) from diazepam (10 mg/kg), in rats with LA or HA levels, on startle response amplitude. For this purpose, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test was used. In addition, the role of glutamate receptors of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (cIC), the most important mesencephalic tectum integrative structure of the auditory pathways and a brain region that is linked to the processing of auditory information of aversive nature, was also evaluated. Our results showed that, contrary to the results obtained in LA rats, long-term treatment with diazepam promoted anxiolytic and aversive effects in HA animals that were tested under chronic effects or withdrawal from this drug, respectively. In addition, since Bzp withdrawal may function as an unconditioned stressor, the negative affective states observed in HA rats could be a by-product of GABA-glutamate imbalance in brain systems that modulate unconditioned fear and anxiety behaviors, since the blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the cIC clearly reduced the aversion promoted by diazepam withdrawal.

  7. Effects of microinjections of apomorphine and haloperidol into the inferior colliculus on the latent inhibition of the conditioned emotional response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Liana L; Pereira, Ellen C H M; Pagini, Cássia H; Coimbra, Norberto C; Brandão, Marcus L; Ferrari, Elenice A M

    2009-03-01

    Electrical or chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) induces fear-like behaviors. More recently, consistent evidence has shown that electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the IC supports Pavlovian conditioning and latent inhibition (LI). LI is characterized by retardation in conditioning and also by an impaired ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli, after a non-reinforced pre-exposure to the conditioned stimulus. LI has been proposed as a behavioral model of cognitive abnormalities seen in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether dopaminergic mechanisms in the IC are involved in LI of the conditioned emotional response (CER). To induce LI, a group of rats was pre-exposed (PE) to six tones in two sessions, while rats that were not pre-exposed (NPE) had two sessions without tone presentations. The conditioning consisted of two tone presentations to the animal, followed immediately by a foot shock. PE and NPE rats received IC microinjections of physiological saline, the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (9.0 microg/0.5 microL/side), or the dopaminergic antagonist haloperidol (0.5 microg/0.5 microL/side) before both pre-exposure and conditioning. During the test, the PE rats that received saline or haloperidol had a lower suppression of the licking response compared to NPE rats that received vehicle or haloperidol, indicating that latent inhibition was induced. There was no significant difference in the suppression ratio in rats that received apomorphine injections into the IC, indicating reduced latent inhibition. These results suggest that dopamine-mediated mechanisms of the IC are involved in the development of LI.

  8. Late postnatal shifts of parvalbumin and nitric oxide synthase expression within the GABAergic and glutamatergic phenotypes of inferior colliculus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hisataka; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Jinno, Shozo

    2017-03-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is partitioned into three subdivisions: the dorsal and lateral cortices (DC and LC) and the central nucleus (ICC), and serves as an integration center of auditory information. Recent studies indicate that a certain population of IC neurons may represent the non-GABAergic phenotype, while they express well-established cortical/hippocampal GABAergic neuron markers. In this study we used the optical disector to investigate the phenotype of IC neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV) and/or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in C57BL/6J mice during the late postnatal period. Four major types of IC neurons were defined by the presence (+) or absence (-) of PV, NOS, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67): PV(+) /NOS(-) /GAD67(+) , PV(+) /NOS(+) /GAD67(+) , PV(+) /NOS(-) /GAD67(-) , and PV(-) /NOS(+) /GAD67(-) . Fluorescent in situ hybridization for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 mRNA indicated that almost all GAD67(-) IC neurons represented the glutamatergic phenotype. The numerical densities (NDs) of total GAD67(+) IC neurons remained unchanged in all subdivisions. The NDs of PV(+) /NOS(-) /GAD67(+) neurons and PV(-) /NOS(+) /GAD67(-) neurons were reduced with age in the ICC, while they remained unchanged in the DC and LC. By contrast, the NDs of PV(+) /NOS(+) /GAD67(+) neurons and PV(+) /NOS(-) /GAD67(-) neurons were increased with age in the ICC, although there were no changes in the DC and LC. The cell body size of GAD67(+) IC neurons did not vary according to the expression of PV with or without NOS. The present findings indicate that the expression of PV and NOS may shift with age within the GABAergic and glutamatergic phenotypes of IC neurons during the late postnatal period. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:868-884, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormigo, Sebastián; Horta Júnior, José de Anchieta de Castro E; Gómez-Nieto, Ricardo; López, Dolores E

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) and the locus coeruleus (LC) are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry, and confocal microscopy (CM) analysis to describe a projection from the LC to the IC. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injections into the LC showed that the LC-IC projection is mainly ipsilateral (90%) and reaches, to a major extent, the dorsal and lateral part of the IC and the intercollicular commissure. Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is noradrenergic, given that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) colocalize with the BDA-labeled fibers from the LC. To determine the total field of the LC innervations in the IC, we destroyed the LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then studied the distribution and density of TH- and DBH-immunolabeled axons in the IC. In the DSP-4 treated animals, the number of axonal fibers immunolabeled for TH and DBH were deeply decreased throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the IC and its subdivisions compared to controls. Our densitometry results showed that the IC receives up to 97% of its noradrenergic innervations from the LC neurons and only 3% from non-coeruleus neurons. Our results also indicate that TH immunoreactivity in the IC was less impaired than the immunoreactivity for DBH after DSP-4 administration. This is consistent with the existence of an important dopaminergic projection from the substantia nigra to the IC. In conclusion, our study demonstrates and quantifies the noradrenergic projection from the LC to the IC and its

  10. Early monaural occlusion alters the neural map of interaural level differences in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogdans, J; Knudsen, E I

    1993-08-13

    Monaural occlusion during early life causes adaptive changes in the tuning of units in the owl's optic tectum to interaural level differences (ILD) that tend to align the auditory with the visual map of space. We investigated whether these changes could be due to experience-dependent plasticity occurring in the auditory pathway prior to the optic tectum. Units were recorded in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx), which is a major source of auditory input to the optic tectum. The tuning of ICx units to ILD was measured in normal barn owls and in barn owls raised with one ear occluded. ILD tuning at each recording site was measured with dichotic noise bursts, presented at a constant average binaural level, 20 dB above threshold. The best ILD at each site was defined as the midpoint of the range of ILD values which elicited more than 50% of the maximum response. A physiological map of ILD was found in the ICx of normal owls: best ILDs changed systematically from right-ear-greater to left-ear-greater as the electrode progressed from dorsal to ventral. Best ILDs ranged from 13 dB right-ear-greater to 15 dB left-ear-greater and progressed at an average rate of 12 dB/mm. The representations of ILD were similar on both sides of the brain. In the ICx of owls raised with one ear occluded, the map of ILD was shifted in the adaptive direction: ILD tuning was shifted towards values favoring the non-occluded ear (the direction that would restore a normal space map). The average magnitude of the shift was on the order of 8-10 dB in each of 4 owls. In one owl, the mean shift in ILD tuning was almost identical on both sides of the brain. In another owl, the mean shift was much larger on the side ipsilateral to the occlusion than on the contralateral side. In both cases, the mean shifts measured in each ICx were comparable to the mean shifts measured in the optic tectum on the same sides of the brain. Thus, the adjustments in ILD tuning that have been observed in

  11. Aminoglycosides block the Kv3.1 potassium channel and reduce the ability of inferior colliculus neurons to fire at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Qiong J; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2005-03-01

    The Kv3.1 potassium channel is expressed at high levels in auditory nuclei and contributes to the ability of auditory neurons to fire at high frequencies. We have tested the effects of streptomycin, an agent that produces progressive hearing loss, on the firing properties of inferior colliculus neurons and on Kv3.1 currents in transfected cells. We found that in inferior colliculus neurons, intracellular streptomycin decreased the current density of a high threshold, noninactivating outward current and reduced the rate of repolarization of action potentials and the ability of these neurons to fire at high frequencies. Furthermore, potassium current in CHO cells transfected with the Kv3.1 gene was reduced by 50% when cells were cultured in the presence of streptomycin or when streptomycin was introduced intracellularly in the pipette solution. In the presence of intracellular streptomycin, the activation rate of Kv3.1 current increased and inhibition by extracellular TEA become voltage-dependent. The data indicate that streptomycin inhibits Kv3.1 currents by inducing a conformational change in the Kv3.1 channel. The hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics may be partially mediated by their inhibition of Kv3.1 current in auditory neurons.

  12. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus in salicylate-induced tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jin-Cherng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in the gene expressions for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and/or interleukin-1β (IL-1β during tinnitus have not been previously reported. We evaluated tinnitus and mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B genes in cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC of mice after intraperitoneal injections of salicylate. Methods Forty-eight 3-month-old male SAMP8 mice were randomly and equally divided into two groups: salicylate-treated and saline-treated. All mice were trained to perform an active avoidance task for 5 days. Once conditioned, an active avoidance task was performed 2 hours after daily intraperitoneal injections of saline, either alone or containing 300 mg/kg sodium salicylate. Total numbers of times (tinnitus score the mice climbed during the inter-trial silent period for 10 trials were recorded daily for 4 days (days 7 to 10, and then mice were euthanized for determination of mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NR2B genes in cochlea and IC at day 10. Results Tinnitus scores increased in response to daily salicylate treatments. The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α increased significantly for the salicylate-treated group compared to the control group in both cochlea (1.89 ± 0.22 vs. 0.87 ± 0.07, P p = 0.0040. mRNA expression levels for the IL-1β gene also increased significantly in the salicylate group compared to the control group in both cochlea (3.50 ± 1.05 vs. 2.80 ± 0.28, p versus 1.24 ± 0.52, p = 0.0013. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between tinnitus scores and expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NR2B genes in cochlea and IC. In addition, expression levels of the TNF-α gene were positively correlated with those of the NR2Bgene in both cochlea and IC; whereas, the expression levels of the IL-1β gene was positively correlated with that of the NR2B gene in IC, but not in cochlea. Conclusion We

  13. Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and superior paraolivary nucleus create directional selectivity of frequency modulations in the inferior colliculus: A comparison of bats with other mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, George D.; Gittelman, Joshua X; Li, Na; Xie, Ruili

    2010-01-01

    This review considers four auditory brainstem nuclear groups and shows how studies of both bats and other mammals have provided insights into their response properties and the impact of their convergence in the inferior colliculus (IC). The four groups are octopus cells in the cochlear nucleus, their connections with the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) and the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), and the connections of the VNLL and SPON with the IC. The theme is that the respo...

  14. Determining auditory-evoked activities from multiple cells in layer 1 of the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus of mice by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Hirose, Junichi; Murase, Kazuyuki; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-11-24

    Layer 1 of the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus (DCIC) is distinguished from other layers by its cytoarchitecture and fiber connections. However, the information of the sound types represented in layer 1 of the DCIC remains unclear because placing electrodes on such thin structures is challenging. In this study, we utilized in vivo calcium imaging to assess auditory-evoked activities in multiple cells in layer 1 of DCIC and to characterize sound stimuli producing strong activity. Most cells examined showed strong responses to broad-band noise and low-frequency tone bursts of high sound intensity. In some cases, we successfully obtained frequency response areas, which are receptive fields to tone frequencies and intensities, and ~30% of these showed V-shape tunings. This is the first systematic study to record auditory responses of cells in layer 1 of DCIC. These results indicate that cells in this area are selective to tones with low frequency, implying the importance of such auditory information in the neural circuitry of layer 1 of DCIC.

  15. Enhancement of acoustic evoked potentials and impairment of startle reflex induced by reduction of GABAergic control of the neural substrates of aversion in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge; Sandner, Guy; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2003-10-01

    The neural network of the inferior colliculus (IC), implicated in the generation of defensive behavior to aversive acoustic stimuli, is under tonic GABAergic control. Dopamine also seems to have a modulatory role in these neural circuits. It is still unclear how such changes in transmission of acoustic information influence the motor expression of the defensive behavior. Startle reaction to a sudden noise has been used as an effective way to measure the motor reactivity of rats to fearful acoustic stimuli. In this work we examined the processing of sensorial information--assessed by the recording of auditory evoked potentials (AEP)--and the behavioral effects--evaluated by the freezing and startle responses--during the reduction of GABA levels caused by microinjections of semicarbazide (SMC, 6 microg/0.2 microl), a glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor, into the IC. These data were compared to the effects of the overall arousal elicited by apomorphine (APO, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The results obtained show that IC microinjections of SMC induced freezing behavior, enhanced the AEP and impaired the startle reaction to a loud sound. On the other hand, APO changed neither the AEP nor the startle in the same experimental conditions. These results suggest that the release of GABAergic control of the neural substrates of aversion in the IC results in an increased processing of auditory information along with an inhibitory influence on the motor pathways responsible for the startle response.

  16. Role of frequency band integration in sharpening frequency tunings of the inferior colliculus neurons in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feijian; CHEN Qicai; JEN Philip H.S.; SHEN Junxian

    2004-01-01

    By means of a particular two-tone stimulation paradigm in combination of using a pair of electrodes for simultaneously recording from two inferior colliculus (IC) neurons, the current in vivo study is undertaken to explore the role of frequency band integration (FBI) in sharpening of frequency tuning in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Three major results are found: (1) The paired neurons correlated to FBI are located not only within the same frequency filter bandwidth (FFB), but also across different FFBs. The relations of their frequency tuning curves (FTCs) are mainly of two types: the flank-overlapped and overlaid patterns. (2) Although the sharpness of FTCs between paired neurons is mutual, the sharpening efficiency of neurons located within the same FFB is higher than that of neurons across FFBs, and the FTCs of neurons with the best frequencies (BF) of 20-30 kHz are most strongly sharpened. (3) The strength of FBI is weak near the BF but gradually increased with frequencies away from the BF of sound stimuli. This suggests that the dynamical FBI of the IC neurons located within and across the FFBs might be involved in the formation of functional FFB structures.

  17. Effects of pulse phase duration and location of stimulation within the inferior colliculus on auditory cortical evoked potentials in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuheiser, Anke; Lenarz, Minoo; Reuter, Guenter; Calixto, Roger; Nolte, Ingo; Lenarz, Thomas; Lim, Hubert H

    2010-12-01

    The auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which consists of a single shank array designed for stimulation within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), has been developed for deaf patients who cannot benefit from a cochlear implant. Currently, performance levels in clinical trials for the AMI are far from those achieved by the cochlear implant and vary dramatically across patients, in part due to stimulation location effects. As an initial step towards improving the AMI, we investigated how stimulation of different regions along the isofrequency domain of the ICC as well as varying pulse phase durations and levels affected auditory cortical activity in anesthetized guinea pigs. This study was motivated by the need to determine in which region to implant the single shank array within a three-dimensional ICC structure and what stimulus parameters to use in patients. Our findings indicate that complex and unfavorable cortical activation properties are elicited by stimulation of caudal-dorsal ICC regions with the AMI array. Our results also confirm the existence of different functional regions along the isofrequency domain of the ICC (i.e., a caudal-dorsal and a rostral-ventral region), which has been traditionally unclassified. Based on our study as well as previous animal and human AMI findings, we may need to deliver more complex stimuli than currently used in the AMI patients to effectively activate the caudal ICC or ensure that the single shank AMI is only implanted into a rostral-ventral ICC region in future patients.

  18. Acute and Long-Term Effects of Noise Exposure on the Neuronal Spontaneous Activity in Cochlear Nucleus and Inferior Colliculus Brain Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gröschel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise exposure leads to an immediate hearing loss and is followed by a long-lasting permanent threshold shift, accompanied by changes of cellular properties within the central auditory pathway. Electrophysiological recordings have demonstrated an upregulation of spontaneous neuronal activity. It is still discussed if the observed effects are related to changes of peripheral input or evoked within the central auditory system. The present study should describe the intrinsic temporal patterns of single-unit activity upon noise-induced hearing loss of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and VCN and the inferior colliculus (IC in adult mouse brain slices. Recordings showed a slight, but significant, elevation in spontaneous firing rates in DCN and VCN immediately after noise trauma, whereas no differences were found in IC. One week postexposure, neuronal responses remained unchanged compared to controls. At 14 days after noise trauma, intrinsic long-term hyperactivity in brain slices of the DCN and the IC was detected for the first time. Therefore, increase in spontaneous activity seems to develop within the period of two weeks, but not before day 7. The results give insight into the complex temporal neurophysiological alterations after noise trauma, leading to a better understanding of central mechanisms in noise-induced hearing loss.

  19. Acute and long-term effects of noise exposure on the neuronal spontaneous activity in cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschel, Moritz; Ryll, Jana; Götze, Romy; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Noise exposure leads to an immediate hearing loss and is followed by a long-lasting permanent threshold shift, accompanied by changes of cellular properties within the central auditory pathway. Electrophysiological recordings have demonstrated an upregulation of spontaneous neuronal activity. It is still discussed if the observed effects are related to changes of peripheral input or evoked within the central auditory system. The present study should describe the intrinsic temporal patterns of single-unit activity upon noise-induced hearing loss of the dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and VCN) and the inferior colliculus (IC) in adult mouse brain slices. Recordings showed a slight, but significant, elevation in spontaneous firing rates in DCN and VCN immediately after noise trauma, whereas no differences were found in IC. One week postexposure, neuronal responses remained unchanged compared to controls. At 14 days after noise trauma, intrinsic long-term hyperactivity in brain slices of the DCN and the IC was detected for the first time. Therefore, increase in spontaneous activity seems to develop within the period of two weeks, but not before day 7. The results give insight into the complex temporal neurophysiological alterations after noise trauma, leading to a better understanding of central mechanisms in noise-induced hearing loss.

  20. Distinct effects of haloperidol in the mediation of conditioned fear in the mesolimbic system and processing of unconditioned aversive information in the inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraju, S; Nobre, M J; Saito, V M N; Brandao, M L

    2014-03-07

    Chemical and electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) causes defensive behavior. Electrical stimulation of the IC at the escape threshold enhances dopamine (DA) release in the prefrontal cortex. Intra-ventral tegmental area injections of quinpirole at doses that act presynaptically reduce the release of DA in the terminal fields of the mesolimbic system and clearly reduce conditioned fear in several animal models of anxiety. However, little is known about the involvement of DA in the mediation of unconditioned fear, such as the reactivity to acute stressors. The present study investigated the neural substrates mediated by DA transmission associated with emotional changes triggered by the activation or inhibition of D2 receptors during conditioned and unconditioned fear. We examined the effects of systemic or local injections of the DA-receptor antagonist and agonist haloperidol and quinpirole, respectively, into the IC in rats subjected to fear-potentiated startle, a Pavlovian paradigm that uses loud sounds as the unconditioned stimulus and light previously paired with footshock as the conditioned stimulus. We also assessed auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded from electrodes implanted in the IC. Intraperitoneal haloperidol administration dose-dependently enhanced AEPs induced by loud tones and inhibited fear-potentiated startle. Intra-IC injections of quinpirole left AEPs unchanged, suggesting that an optimal level of postsynaptic D2 receptors in the IC may regulate the transmission of aversive information through the midbrain tectum. These findings provide evidence of opposing DA-mediated mechanisms in fear/anxiety processes that depend on the area under study. The activity of the neural substrates of conditioned fear was attenuated by haloperidol, whereas midbrain neural substrates of unconditioned fear were enhanced. Thus, DA appears to regulate unconditioned fear at the midbrain level, likely by reducing the sensory gating of aversive

  1. Increased responsiveness and failure of habituation in neurons of the external nucleus of inferior colliculus associated with audiogenic seizures of the genetically epilepsy-prone rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, D N; Faingold, C L

    1996-10-01

    Initiation of audiogenic seizures (AGS) emanates from the inferior colliculus (IC) to other IC subnuclei in the genetically epilepsy-prone rat (GEPR). The external nucleus of IC (ICx) is a suggested site of convergence of the auditory output onto the sensorimotor integration network components for AGS in the brainstem. Neuronal firing was recorded from the ICx of the awake, freely moving GEPR and normal Sprague-Dawley rats using microwire electrodes in the present study. Auditory stimuli consisted of 12-kHz tones (100 ms, 5-ms rise-fall at rates of 1/4s, 1/2s, and 1/s). AGS incidence in the GEPR is highest at 12 kHz. In the GEPR, ICx neuronal responses to acoustic stimuli were significantly greater than those seen in normal rats. This increased ICx firing was observed at relatively high acoustic intensities (> 80 dB SPL), which are near the threshold for AGS induction. Repetition-induced response attenuation (habituation) is commonly observed in ICx neurons, which appears to be overcome in the GEPR during AGS initiation. Tonic, acoustically evoked ICx neuronal firing was observed just prior to wild running. ICx firing was suppressed during the tonic and postictal phases of AGS. Recovery of ICx responses occurred when the animal regained postural control. Abnormal, intense output has previously been observed in the GEPR IC central nucleus (ICc) neurons. The neuronal firing pattern changes observed in the ICx in the present study may result from this intense ICc output. Diminished efficacy of GABA, which has been observed in several regions of the GEPR brain, including the IC, in a number of previous studies, may be involved in the exaggerated ICx responses to acoustic stimuli in the GEPR. Participation of the ICx in the AGS neuronal network may be subserved by this acoustic hyperresponsiveness.

  2. Effects of salicylate on dopamine levels in rat inferior colliculus%水杨酸钠对大鼠下丘多巴胺水平影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊秀; 刘轶君; 毛兰群; 李学佩; 马芙蓉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate dopamine level changes in the inferior colliculus induced by salicylate and the role of dopamine in the mechanisms of tinnitus. Methods In an animal model of salicylate-induced tinnitus, we employed microdialysis combined with electrochemical methodologies to monitor changes of dopamine in rat inferior colliculus. Re-sults Salicylate produced significant decrease in dopamine levels in the inferior colliculus, to a minimum of 49 ± 9%of base-line around 3 h post injection, followed by a return to the baseline by the end of the fifth hour. In contrast, saline did not pro-duce any clear changes. Conclusion The decrease of dopamine in the inferior colliculus may be involved in the generation of tinnitus. Our in vivo data provide direct evidence of the important roles the dopaminergic system plays in the generation of tinnitus.%目的:探讨听觉中枢核团下丘内多巴胺水平的变化在耳鸣发病机制中的作用。方法在水杨酸钠诱导建立的耳鸣动物模型基础上,利用微透析技术结合高效液相电化学检测方法,活体、动态研究水杨酸钠作用后大鼠下丘内多巴胺水平的变化。结果水杨酸钠引起大鼠下丘多巴胺水平显著性地降低。大约3小时后下丘内多巴胺水平降至最低,达到基础值的49±9%,然后缓慢的升高,大约5小时后恢复到基线水平。生理盐水对照组未引起任何明显的变化。结论大鼠下丘内多巴胺水平的显著性降低可能与水杨酸钠诱导的耳鸣产生有关,这些活体数据为多巴胺这一调节人们精神活动的重要递质参与耳鸣的发生提供直接的实验证据。

  3. Encoding of the amplitude modulation of pulsatile electrical stimulation in the feline cochlear nucleus by neurons in the inferior colliculus; effects of stimulus pulse rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Douglas; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor; Yadav, Kamal; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2013-10-01

    Objectives. Persons without a functional auditory nerve cannot benefit from cochlear implants, but some hearing can be restored by an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) with stimulating electrodes implanted on the surface of the cochlear nucleus (CN). Most users benefit from their ABI, but speech recognition tends to be poorer than for users of cochlear implants. Psychophysical studies suggest that poor modulation detection may contribute to the limited performance of ABI users. In a cat model, we determined how the pulse rate of the electrical stimulus applied within or on the CN affects temporal and rate encoding of amplitude modulation (AM) by neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Approach. Stimulating microelectrodes were implanted chronically in and on the cats' CN, and multi-site recording microelectrodes were implanted chronically into the ICC. Encoding of AM pulse trains by neurons in the ICC was characterized as vector strength (VS), the synchrony of neural activity with the AM, and as the mean rate of neuronal action potentials (neuronal spike rate (NSR)). Main results. For intranuclear microstimulation, encoding of AM as VS was up to 3 dB greater when stimulus pulse rate was increased from 250 to 500 pps, but only for neuronal units with low best acoustic frequencies, and when the electrical stimulation was modulated at low frequencies (10-20 Hz). For stimulation on the surface of the CN, VS was similar at 250 and 500 pps, and the dynamic range of the VS was reduced for pulse rates greater than 250 pps. Modulation depth was encoded strongly as VS when the maximum stimulus amplitude was held constant across a range of modulation depth. This ‘constant maximum’ protocol allows enhancement of modulation depth while preserving overall dynamic range. However, modulation depth was not encoded as strongly as NSR. Significance. The findings have implications for improved sound processors for present and future ABIs. The performance of

  4. Binaural interaction in low-frequency neurons in inferior colliculus of the cat. II. Effects of changing rate and direction of interaural phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T C; Kuwada, S

    1983-10-01

    We used the binaural beat stimulus to study the interaural phase sensitivity of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons in the cat. The binaural beat, produced by delivering tones of slightly different frequencies to the two ears, generates continuous and graded changes in interaural phase. Over 90% of the cells that exhibit a sensitivity to changes in the interaural delay also show a sensitivity to interaural phase disparities with the binaural beat. Cells respond with a burst of impulses with each complete cycle of the beat frequency. The period histogram obtained by binning the poststimulus time histogram on the beat frequency gives a measure of the interaural phase sensitivity of the cell. In general, there is good correspondence in the shapes of the period histograms generated from binaural beats and the interaural phase curves derived from interaural delays and in the mean interaural phase angle calculated from them. The magnitude of the beat frequency determines the rate of change of interaural phase and the sign determines the direction of phase change. While most cells respond in a phase-locked manner up to beat frequencies of 10 Hz, there are some cells tht will phase lock up to 80 Hz. Beat frequency and mean interaural phase angle are linearly related for most cells. Most cells respond equally in the two directions of phase change and with different rates of change, at least up to 10 Hz. However, some IC cells exhibit marked sensitivity to the speed of phase change, either responding more vigorously at low beat frequencies or at high beat frequencies. In addition, other cells demonstrate a clear directional sensitivity. The cells that show sensitivity to the direction and speed of phase changes would be expected to demonstrate a sensitivity to moving sound sources in the free field. Changes in the mean interaural phase of the binaural beat period histograms are used to determine the effects of changes in average and interaural intensity on the phase sensitivity

  5. Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and superior paraolivary nucleus create directional selectivity of frequency modulations in the inferior colliculus: a comparison of bats with other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, George D; Gittelman, Joshua X; Li, Na; Xie, Ruili

    2011-03-01

    This review considers four auditory brainstem nuclear groups and shows how studies of both bats and other mammals have provided insights into their response properties and the impact of their convergence in the inferior colliculus (IC). The four groups are octopus cells in the cochlear nucleus, their connections with the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) and the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), and the connections of the VNLL and SPON with the IC. The theme is that the response properties of neurons in the SPON and VNLL map closely onto the synaptic response features of a unique subpopulation of cells in the IC of bats whose inputs are dominated by inhibition. We propose that the convergence of VNLL and SPON inputs generates the tuning of these IC cells, their unique temporal responses to tones, and their directional selectivities for frequency modulated (FM) sweeps. Other IC neurons form directional properties in other ways, showing that selective response properties are formed in multiple ways. In the final section we discuss why multiple formations of common response properties could amplify differences in population activity patterns evoked by signals that have similar spectrotemporal features.

  6. Functional Mapping of the Human Auditory Cortex: fMRI Investigation of a Patient with Auditory Agnosia from Trauma to the Inferior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliva, Oren; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Hall, Michelle; Bultitude, Janet H; Koller, Kristin; Rafal, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    To use functional magnetic resonance imaging to map the auditory cortical fields that are activated, or nonreactive, to sounds in patient M.L., who has auditory agnosia caused by trauma to the inferior colliculi. The patient cannot recognize speech or environmental sounds. Her discrimination is greatly facilitated by context and visibility of the speaker's facial movements, and under forced-choice testing. Her auditory temporal resolution is severely compromised. Her discrimination is more impaired for words differing in voice onset time than place of articulation. Words presented to her right ear are extinguished with dichotic presentation; auditory stimuli in the right hemifield are mislocalized to the left. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine cortical activations to different categories of meaningful sounds embedded in a block design. Sounds activated the caudal sub-area of M.L.'s primary auditory cortex (hA1) bilaterally and her right posterior superior temporal gyrus (auditory dorsal stream), but not the rostral sub-area (hR) of her primary auditory cortex or the anterior superior temporal gyrus in either hemisphere (auditory ventral stream). Auditory agnosia reflects dysfunction of the auditory ventral stream. The ventral and dorsal auditory streams are already segregated as early as the primary auditory cortex, with the ventral stream projecting from hR and the dorsal stream from hA1. M.L.'s leftward localization bias, preserved audiovisual integration, and phoneme perception are explained by preserved processing in her right auditory dorsal stream.

  7. Whisker-related afferents in superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A; Favero, Morgana

    2016-05-01

    Rodents use their whiskers to explore the environment, and the superior colliculus is part of the neural circuits that process this sensorimotor information. Cells in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus integrate trigeminotectal afferents from trigeminal complex and corticotectal afferents from barrel cortex. Using histological methods in mice, we found that trigeminotectal and corticotectal synapses overlap somewhat as they innervate the lower and upper portions of the intermediate granular layer, respectively. Using electrophysiological recordings and optogenetics in anesthetized mice in vivo, we showed that, similar to rats, whisker deflections produce two successive responses that are driven by trigeminotectal and corticotectal afferents. We then employed in vivo and slice experiments to characterize the response properties of these afferents. In vivo, corticotectal responses triggered by electrical stimulation of the barrel cortex evoke activity in the superior colliculus that increases with stimulus intensity and depresses with increasing frequency. In slices from adult mice, optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing trigeminotectal and corticotectal fibers revealed that cells in the intermediate layers receive more efficacious trigeminotectal, than corticotectal, synaptic inputs. Moreover, the efficacy of trigeminotectal inputs depresses more strongly with increasing frequency than that of corticotectal inputs. The intermediate layers of superior colliculus appear to be tuned to process strong but infrequent trigeminal inputs and weak but more persistent cortical inputs, which explains features of sensory responsiveness, such as the robust rapid sensory adaptation of whisker responses in the superior colliculus. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. 卡铂对灰鼠中枢听觉系统的影响%Carboplatin results in neuron loss in the cochlear nucleus but not the inferior colliculus or auditory cortex of chinchilla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建和; 杨伟炎; 丁大连; 孙伟; Sandra McFadden; Richard Salvi

    2003-01-01

    Objective Carboplatin selectively destroys inner hair cells (IHC)and typeⅠspiral ganglion neurons in the chinchilla cochlea;however,its effects on the central auditory system are largely unknown.The aim of this study was to determine if carboplatin treatment affects neuron survival in the cochlear nucleus (CN),inferior colliculus(IC)or auditory cortex(AC)of the chinchilla.Methods Chinchillas were treated with carboplatin(100mg/kg IP).Three weeks later,they were sacrificed and perfused intracardially with fixative.Surface preparations of Corti's organ were analyzed for hair cell loss.Serial frozen sections taken from the CN, IC and AC were stained with toluidine blue,and neurons were counted in representative sections from two normal(control)and four carboplatin-treated chinchillas. Results The results showed that carboplatin destroyed approximately 80% of the IHC,but almost none of the outer hair cells (OHC). In the central auditory system, carboplatin resulted in a significant loss of neurons in the anteroventral, posteroventral and dorsal divisions of the CN, but not in the IC or AC. Conclusionon Future studies will determine if the loss of neurons in the CN is a direct result of carboplatin neurotoxicity or a secondary effect of inner hair cell and spiral ganglion neuron loss in the auditory periphery.%目的卡铂选择性破坏灰鼠的内毛细胞和Ⅰ型传入神经末梢已被人们所证实,但是,卡铂是否损害耳蜗核、下丘和听觉皮层还不清楚,本文旨在观察卡铂对灰鼠听觉中枢的毒性作用.方法采用恒低温冷冻连续脑组织切片,以中枢听觉系统神经元的密度来评价卡铂对灰鼠中枢听觉系统的影响.结果发现注射卡铂3和4周后,耳蜗背侧核和腹侧核神经元明显的减少,与正常动物比较有显著性差异.而下丘和听觉皮层神经元的变化与正常灰鼠比较无明显差异.结论说明注射卡铂3和4周后对耳蜗核有明显的毒性作用,可引起耳蜗核神

  9. 单侧耳蜗损毁后小鼠耳蜗核及下丘生长相关蛋白-43的表达%The Expression of GAP-43 in Cochlear Nucleus and Inferior Colliculus after Unilateral Cochlear Damage in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶放蕾; 李世超; 陈蓓; 王晓东

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of the expression of growth associated protein -43(GAP 43) in cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus (IC) in rats after unilateral cochlear damage at different time points after surgery ,and explore the remodeling and repair process of synapse in brainstem auditory center of rats after auditory deprivation .Methods Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups :the 3 ,7 ,15 ,30 ,60 days group (with u-nilateral cochlea damage) and the control group (without cochlea damage) with 5 rats in each group .The immuno-histochemical SP method was used to detect the expression of GAP -43 in cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus at different time points after cochlea damaged in the control group .Results After the unilateral cochlear ear was dam-aged at 3 ,7 ,15 days ,GAP -43 in operation side cochlear nucleus were expressed and the expression level signifi-cantly increased compared with normal control group .After 30 days postoperatively ,GAP - 43 expression level decreased ,but it was still higher than normal control group .After 60 days postoperatively ,GAP - 43 expression level was slightly higher than that of normal control group .After 3 days postoperatively ,GAP - 43 expression level was higher than normal control group .After 7 ,15 days postoperatively ,expression levels were increased .After 30 , 60 days postoperatively ,the expressions gradually decreased ,but still higher than the normal control group .Conclusion After unilateral cochlea damaged ,GAP - 43 was expressed an obvious dynamic change process in cochlear nucleus and infe-rior colliculus .It may reflect the axonal regeneration and synaptic plasticity after hearing loss in brainstem auditory neurons .%目的:研究小鼠单侧耳蜗损毁后不同时间点耳蜗核(cochlear nucleus ,CN )和下丘(inferior collicu-lus ,IC)生长相关蛋白-43(growth associated protein -43,GAP-43)的表达变化,探讨小鼠脑干听觉中枢的可塑性

  10. Subcomponents and connectivity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus revealed by diffusion spectrum imaging fiber tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The definitive structure and functional role of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF are still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the connectivity, asymmetry and segmentation patterns of this bundle. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI analysis was performed on ten healthy adults and a 90-subject DSI template (NTU-90 Atlas. In addition, a new tractography approach based on the anatomic subregions and two regions of interest (ROI was evaluated for the fiber reconstructions. More widespread anterior-posterior connections than previous standard definition of the IFOF were found. This distinct pathway demonstrated a greater inter-subjects connective variability with a maximum of 40% overlap in its central part. The statistical results revealed no asymmetry between the left and right hemispheres and no significant differences existed in distributions of the IFOF according to sex. In addition, five subcomponents within the IFOF were identified according to the frontal areas of originations. As the subcomponents passed through the anterior floor of the external capsule, the fibers radiated to the posterior terminations. The most common connection patterns of the subcomponents were as follows: IFOF-I, from frontal polar cortex to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe and pericalcarine; IFOF-II, from orbito-frontal cortex to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe and pericalcarine; IFOF-III, from inferior frontal gyrus to inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe, occipital pole and pericalcarine; IFOF-IV, from middle frontal gyrus to occipital pole and inferior occipital lobe; IFOF-V, from superior frontal gyrus to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe and middle occipital lobe. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of high resolution diffusion tensor tractography with sufficient

  11. Response bias reveals enhanced attention to inferior visual field in signers of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Matthew W G; Seymour, Jenessa L; Hauser, Peter C

    2016-04-01

    Deafness results in cross-modal plasticity, whereby visual functions are altered as a consequence of a lack of hearing. Here, we present a reanalysis of data originally reported by Dye et al. (PLoS One 4(5):e5640, 2009) with the aim of testing additional hypotheses concerning the spatial redistribution of visual attention due to deafness and the use of a visuogestural language (American Sign Language). By looking at the spatial distribution of errors made by deaf and hearing participants performing a visuospatial selective attention task, we sought to determine whether there was evidence for (1) a shift in the hemispheric lateralization of visual selective function as a result of deafness, and (2) a shift toward attending to the inferior visual field in users of a signed language. While no evidence was found for or against a shift in lateralization of visual selective attention as a result of deafness, a shift in the allocation of attention from the superior toward the inferior visual field was inferred in native signers of American Sign Language, possibly reflecting an adaptation to the perceptual demands imposed by a visuogestural language.

  12. 石杉碱甲对D-半乳糖致衰老大鼠海马及下丘Lamin A/C、prelamin A及FACE1表达的影响%The effect of huperzine A on the levels of lamin A/C, prelamin A and FACE1 in the hippocampus and inferior colliculus of D-galactose-treated aging rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高占娟; 阮清伟; 胡晓娜; 刘方; 马海芬; 董方元; 保志军

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究D-半乳糖致衰老大鼠海马及下丘lamin A/C、prelamin A、FACE1的水平变化,并进一步明确石杉碱甲对D-半乳糖诱导的这些蛋白变化的影响及其意义.方法 36只健康雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组、D-半乳糖治疗组和D-半乳糖联合石杉碱甲组.D-半乳糖组每天皮下注射D-半乳糖300mg/Kg,共8w; D-半乳糖联合石杉碱甲组每天D-半乳糖300 mg/Kg联合石杉碱甲0.1 mg/Kg共同皮下注射,共8w.对照组皮下注射等量生理盐水.应用蛋白免疫印迹杂交(Western blotting)方法检测3组大鼠海马、下丘lamin A/C、prelaminA和FACE1的表达.结果 海马中,lamin A在对照组、D半乳糖+石杉碱甲组、D-半乳糖组中逐渐降低,lamin C水平逐渐升高,prelamin A在对照组中最高,D-半乳糖组与D-半乳糖+石杉碱甲组无明显差异;FACE1在D-半乳糖+石杉碱甲组水平最高,对照组中水平最低.下丘中,lamin A水平在D-半乳糖+石杉碱甲组最高,D-半乳糖组中最低;D-半乳糖组和D-半乳糖+石杉碱甲组laminC水平较对照组升高,D-半乳糖组与D-半乳糖+石杉碱甲组之间的差异无统计学意义;prelamin A水平在对照组中最低,D-半乳糖+石杉碱甲组中最高;FACE1水平在对照组、D-半乳糖+石杉碱甲组、D-半乳糖组中逐渐升高.结论 Lamin A降低、lamin C及FACE1升高预示着D-半乳糖诱导的海马及下丘衰老.石杉碱甲可以在一定程度上改善部分指标的变化,说明它有一定的延缓海马及下丘衰老的作用.%Objective To investigate the changes of lamin A/C、prelamin A、FACE1 in the hippocampus and inferior colliculus of D-galactose treated aging rats.And also,to identify the effects and significance of huperzine A on the proteins changes induced by D-galactose.Method Thirty-six healthy male SD rats were randomly assigned into three groups:normal group,D-galactose treatment group and D-galactose combined with huperzine A treatment group

  13. fMRI adaptation reveals mirror neurons in human inferior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Trevor T-J; Cunnington, Ross; Williams, Mark A; Kanwisher, Nancy; Mattingley, Jason B

    2008-10-28

    Mirror neurons, as originally described in the macaque, have two defining properties [1, 2]: They respond specifically to a particular action (e.g., bringing an object to the mouth), and they produce their action-specific responses independent of whether the monkey executes the action or passively observes a conspecific performing the same action. In humans, action observation and action execution engage a network of frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. However, it is unclear whether these responses reflect the activity of a single population that represents both observed and executed actions in a common neural code or the activity of distinct but overlapping populations of exclusively perceptual and motor neurons [3]. Here, we used fMRI adaptation to show that the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) responds independently to specific actions regardless of whether they are observed or executed. Specifically, responses in the right IPL were attenuated when participants observed a recently executed action relative to one that had not previously been performed. This adaptation across action and perception demonstrates that the right IPL responds selectively to the motoric and perceptual representations of actions and is the first evidence for a neural response in humans that shows both defining properties of mirror neurons.

  14. Sources of subcortical projections to the superior colliculus in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S B; Ginsburgh, C L; Henkel, C K; Stein, B E

    1979-03-15

    A comprehensive search for subcortical projections to the cat superior colliculus was conducted using the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method. Over 40 different subcortical structures project to the superior colliculus. The more notable among these are grouped under the following categories. Visual structures: ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, pretectal area (nucleus of the optic tract, posterior pretectal nucleus, nuclei of the posterior commissure). Auditory structures: inferior colliculus (external and pericentral nuclei), dorsomedial periolivary nucleus, nuclei of the trapezoid body, ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Somatosensory structures: sensory trigeminal complex (all divisions, but mainly the gamma division of nucleus oralis), dorsal column nuclei (mostly cuneate nucleus), and the lateral cervical nucleus. Catecholamine nuclei: locus coeruleus, raphe dorsalis, and the parabrachial nuclei. Cerebellum: medial, interposed, and lateral nuclei, and the perihypoglossal nuclei. Reticular areas: zona incerta, substantia nigra, midbrain tegmentum, nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis, and the hypothalamus. Evidence is presented that only the parabigeminal nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, and the posterior pretectal nucleus project to the superficial collicular layers (striatum griseum superficiale and stratum opticum), while all other afferents terminate in the deeper layers of the colliculus. Also presented is information concerning the rostrocaudal distribution of some of these afferent connections. These findings stress the multiplicity and diversity of inputs to the deeper collicular layers, and more specifically, identify multiple sources of the physiologically well-known representations of the somatic and auditory modalities in the colliculus.

  15. Organization and Responses to Sound in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R.A.P. Geis (H.-Rüdiger A.P.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe obvious evolutionary advantage that hearing offers for finding prey, avoiding predators or communication has led to a sensory modality with remarkable properties. In most animals, hearing allows to detect minute pressure changes in the surroundings, but still works at sound intensiti

  16. Neurophysiological investigations in the colliculus inferior of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuweiler, Gerhard

    1970-01-01

    The horseshoe-bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum is the best known representative of those bats using constant frequency sounds for echolocation. Schnitzler (1968) has shown, that horseshoe-bats compensate Dopplershifts during flight by lowering the emitted constant frequency so that the heard echofreque

  17. Bilateral iliac vein thrombosis after seat belt-related trauma revealing hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granel, Brigitte; Serratrice, Jacques; Bartoli, Jean Michel; Disdier, Patrick; Piquet, Philippe; Weiller, Pierre-Jean

    2002-01-01

    Hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava can be revealed by a deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs. Associated precipitating factors or clotting defects leading to thrombosis are frequently observed. A case of bilateral iliac veins thrombosis occurring after a motor vehicle accident with seat belt injury is reported, revealing hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava. This young man was totally asymptomatic up to the crash, and did not have coagulation abnormalities. The patient had a very good outcome after anticoagulant treatment with complete regression of venous thromboses. Hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava was a predisposing anatomic abnormality that led to thrombosis, but seat belt trauma was probably the precipitating factor. This observation should be kept in mind in the evaluation of a deep venous lower limb thrombosis.

  18. Anterior spinal and bulbar artery supply to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery revealed by a ruptured aneurysm: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Joseph; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Chauvet, Dorian; Di Maria, Federico; Chiras, Jacques; Clarençon, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is a vessel located between the intra- and extracranial circulation. The artery is characterized by a complex embryological development and numerous anatomical variants. The authors present a case of the PICA supplied by both a hypertrophic anterior spinal artery and a hypoplastic bulbar artery. This unusual arrangement somehow completes the list of previously published variants, and the spontaneous rupture of a related aneurysm confirmed the fragility of this network. The authors discuss anatomical and treatment considerations.

  19. Neurofilament proteins are preferentially expressed in descending output neurons of the cat the superior colliculus: a study using SMI-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Santamaria, V; Stein, B E; McHaffie, J G

    2006-01-01

    Physiological studies indicate that the output neurons in the multisensory (i.e. intermediate and deep) laminae of the cat superior colliculus receive converging information from widespread regions of the neuraxis, integrate this information, and then relay the product to regions of the brainstem involved in the control of head and eye movements. Yet, an understanding of the neuroanatomy of these converging afferents has been hampered because many terminals contact distal dendrites that are difficult to label with the neurochemical markers generally used to visualize superior colliculus output neurons. Here we show that the SMI-32 antibody, directed at the non-phosphorylated epitopes of high molecular weight neurofilament proteins, is an effective marker for these superior colliculus output neurons. It is also one that can label their distal dendrites. Superior colliculus sections processed for SMI-32 revealed numerous labeled neurons with varying morphologies within the deep laminae. In contrast, few labeled neurons were observed in the superficial laminae. Neurons with large somata in the lateral aspects of the deep superior colliculus were particularly well labeled, and many of their secondary and tertiary dendrites were clearly visible. Injections of the fluorescent biotinylated dextran amine into the pontine reticular formation revealed that approximately 80% of the SMI-32 immunostained neurons also contained retrogradely transported biotinylated dextran amine, indicating that SMI-32 is a common cytoskeletal component expressed in descending output neurons. Superior colliculus output neurons also are known to express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, and many SMI-32 immunostained neurons also proved to be parvalbumin immunostained. These studies suggest that SMI-32 can serve as a useful immunohistochemical marker for detailing the somatic and dendritic morphology of superior colliculus output neurons and for facilitating evaluations of their input

  20. Heterogeneous afferents to the inferior parietal lobule of the rhesus monkey revealed by the retrograde transport method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divac, I; Lavail, J H; Rakic, P; Winston, K R

    1977-03-11

    The sources of afferent connections to the inferior parietal lobule (rostral part of the area 7 of Brodman; PF and rostral part of PG of von Bonin and Bailey) were examined with the retrograde transport method in infant and adult rhesus monkeys. Two to 3 days after injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the cortex, the animals were anesthetized, and the brains fixed and processed for the histochemical demonstration of the enzyme marker. Labeled neurons were found in layer III in the ipsilateral prefrontal, parietal, occipital and temporal cortices, notably in areas 5, 19, 22 and 46 of Brodmann, and in area 7 of the contralateral parietal cortex. In the thalamus, HRP-positive cells were located ipsilaterally in the medial pulvinar nucleus in the nuclei centrum medianum and parafascicularis, as well as in the rostral thalamus, lateral and medial to the mammillothalamic tract, in the nucleus ventralis anterior and nucleus paracentralis. Numerous labeled cells were also identified in the magnocellular nuclei of the basal forebrain, in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei, and in the locus coeruleus. Most of the cells in these regions were located in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the injections, but a number of them were also found in the contralateral hemispher. In adult monkeys, brownish granules in the cytoplasm of some cells were interpreted as endogenous pigment or due to various pigment precursors. However, all 14 locations listed above were identified in the infant monkey in which endogenous pigment was not a confounding factor.

  1. Retinal Origin of Direction Selectivity in the Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuefeng; Barchini, Jad; Ledesma, Hector Acaron; Koren, David; Jin, Yanjiao; Liu, Xiaorong; Wei, Wei; Cang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Detecting visual features in the environment such as motion direction is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. Here, we optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly-tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction selective retinal input is linearly amplified by the intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity. Finally, using 2-photon calcium imaging, we show that SC direction selectivity is dramatically reduced in transgenic mice that have decreased retinal selectivity. Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC, and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina. PMID:28192394

  2. Retinal origin of direction selectivity in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuefeng; Barchini, Jad; Ledesma, Hector Acaron; Koren, David; Jin, Yanjiao; Liu, Xiaorong; Wei, Wei; Cang, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    Detecting visual features in the environment, such as motion direction, is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. We optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction-selective retinal input is linearly amplified by intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity. Finally, using two-photon calcium imaging, we show that SC direction selectivity is dramatically reduced in transgenic mice that have decreased retinal selectivity. Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina.

  3. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Raghavendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric - inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up.

  4. Inflammatory responses in the rat superior colliculus after eye enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Marina S; Britto, Luiz R G

    2014-02-01

    Ocular enucleation induces profound morphological alterations in central visual areas. However, little is known about the response of glial cells and possible inflammatory processes in visual brain areas resulting from eye enucleation. In this study, immunoblotting and immunostaining assays revealed increased expression of astrocyte and microglia markers in the rat superior colliculus (SC) between 1 and 15 days after contralateral enucleation. A transient increase of neuronal COX-2 protein expression was also found in the SC. To evaluate the role of an anti-inflammatory drug in attenuating both COX-2 and glial cell activation, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) was administered (1 mg/kg i.p., for 3 days) to enucleated rats. Immunoblotting data revealed that DEX treatment significantly inhibited COX-2 protein expression. Postlesion immunostaining for astrocyte and microglia markers was also significantly reduced by DEX treatment. These findings suggest that the removal of retinal ganglion cell input generates inflammatory responses in central retinorecipient structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural interactions in unilateral colliculus and between bilateral colliculi modulate auditory signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hui-Xian; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2013-01-01

    In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. There are widespread neural interactions in unilateral (one) IC and between bilateral (two) ICs that could modulate auditory signal processing such as the amplitude and frequency selectivity of IC neurons. These neural interactions are either inhibitory or excitatory, and are mostly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, the majority of interactions are inhibitory while excitatory interactions are in the minority. Such unbalanced properties between excitatory and inhibitory projections have an important role in the formation of unilateral auditory dominance and sound location, and the neural interaction in one IC and between two ICs provide an adjustable and plastic modulation pattern for auditory signal processing. PMID:23626523

  6. Neural interactions in unilateral colliculus and between bilateral colliculi modulate auditory signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hui-Xian; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2013-01-01

    In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. There are widespread neural interactions in unilateral (one) IC and between bilateral (two) ICs that could modulate auditory signal processing such as the amplitude and frequency selectivity of IC neurons. These neural interactions are either inhibitory or excitatory, and are mostly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, the majority of interactions are inhibitory while excitatory interactions are in the minority. Such unbalanced properties between excitatory and inhibitory projections have an important role in the formation of unilateral auditory dominance and sound location, and the neural interaction in one IC and between two ICs provide an adjustable and plastic modulation pattern for auditory signal processing.

  7. Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs

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    Spencer Yvonne I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. Feedstuff containing BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM may have been fed to pigs prior to the ban of mammalian MBM in feed of farmed livestock in the United Kingdom in 1996, but there is no evidence of the natural occurrence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE in the domestic pig. Furthermore, experimental transmission of BSE to pigs by the oral route has been unsuccessful. A study was conducted to investigate whether the localised vacuolar changes in the porcine brain were associated with a transmissible aetiology and therefore biologically significant. Two groups of ten pigs were inoculated parenterally with vacuolated rostral colliculus from healthy pigs either born before 1996 or born after 1996. Controls included ten pigs similarly inoculated with rostral colliculus from New Zealand-derived pigs and nine pigs inoculated with a bovine BSE brain homogenate. Results None of the pigs inoculated with rostral colliculus developed a TSE-like neurological disease up to five years post inoculation when the study was terminated, and disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, was not detected in the brains of these pigs. By contrast, eight of nine BSE-inoculated pigs developed neurological signs, two of which had detectable PrPd by postmortem tests. No significant histopathological changes were detected to account for the clinical signs in the PrPd-negative, BSE-inoculated pigs. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that vacuolation in the porcine rostral colliculus is not caused by a transmissible agent and is probably a clinically insignificant

  8. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with bilateral inferior collicular hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. An 8-year-old boy presented with progressive behavioral changes, cognitive decline and myoclonic jerks, progressing to a bed bound state over 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in the subcortical areas of the left occipital lobe and brachium of the inferior colliculus on both sides. EEG showed bilateral, synchronous periodic discharges. Serum/cerebrospinal fluid measles IgG titer was significantly positive. The overall features were suggestive of SSPE. MRI finding of bilateral inferior colliculus changes on MRI without significant involvement of other commonly involved areas suggests an uncommon/rare imaging pattern of SSPE.

  9. A novel BK channel-targeted peptide suppresses sound evoked activity in the mouse inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, L. L.; Brecht, E. J.; Philpo, A.; Iyer, S.; Wu, N. S.; Mihic, S. J.; Aldrich, R. W.; Pierce, J.; Walton, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated (BK) channels are broadly expressed in neurons and muscle where they modulate cellular activity. Decades of research support an interest in pharmaceutical applications for modulating BK channel function. Here we report a novel BK channel-targeted peptide with functional activity in vitro and in vivo. This 9-amino acid peptide, LS3, has a unique action, suppressing channel gating rather than blocking the pore of heterologously expressed human BK channels. With an IC50 in the high picomolar range, the apparent affinity is higher than known high affinity BK channel toxins. LS3 suppresses locomotor activity via a BK channel-specific mechanism in wild-type or BK channel-humanized Caenorhabditis elegans. Topical application on the dural surface of the auditory midbrain in mouse suppresses sound evoked neural activity, similar to a well-characterized pore blocker of the BK channel. Moreover, this novel ion channel-targeted peptide rapidly crosses the BBB after systemic delivery to modulate auditory processing. Thus, a potent BK channel peptide modulator is open to neurological applications, such as preventing audiogenic seizures that originate in the auditory midbrain. PMID:28195225

  10. Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwada, S; Yin, T C; Wickesberg, R E

    1979-11-02

    The interaural phase sensitivity of neurons was studied through the use of binaural beat stimuli. The response of most cells was phase-locked to the beat frequency, which provides a possible neural correlate to the human sensation of binaural beats. In addition, this stimulus allowed the direction and rate of interaural phase change to be varied. Some neurons in our sample responded selectively to manipulations of these two variables, which suggests a sensitivity to direction or speed of movement.

  11. Preference for concentric orientations in the mouse superior colliculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadlou, Mehran; Heimel, J Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The superior colliculus is a layered structure important for body- and gaze-orienting responses. Its superficial layer is, next to the lateral geniculate nucleus, the second major target of retinal ganglion axons and is retinotopically organized. Here we show that in the mouse there is also a

  12. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  13. The Histopathological Effect of Sildenafil Citrate on Superior Colliculus of Adult Male Rat

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    Amany Shams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preclinical and very limited clinical studies suggest that sildenafil may have therapeutic potential in selected neurological disorders. However, many neurological side effects of sildenafil have been reported. This work aimed to clarify the histopathological effect of sildenafil citrate on the superior colliculus (SC of adult male albino rat. Material and methods: 24 adult male albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. The first 3 groups were received respectively sildenafil citrate orally at doses 0.25, 0.70 and 1.43mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days while the 4th group was used as control. At end of the treatment, the superior colliculi were undergone light and electron microscopic investigation. Results: In the control group, superficial part of the SC has neural cells and myelinated nerve fibers. With least dose of sildenafil, the superficial part of SC revealed disturbance in neural tissue with dilated capillaries and vacuoles. Some neurons showed deeply stained nuclei shrunken cytoplasm. Some cells showed enlarged mitochondria and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. With medium dose of sildenafil, SC showed more disturbances; stripped myelin sheaths or widely separated myelin lamellae, dilated blood vessels with large vacuoles around them and many neurons with apoptotic criteria. However, maximum dose of sildenafil induced massive destruction of edematous neural tissue; invasion of the surface with massive blood vessels, marked decrease in thickness of myelin sheaths and the neural cells revealed degenerative and apoptotic changes. The mean number and size of cells revealed significantly progressive decrease in all treated rats with increasing doses of the drug. Conclusion: Long-term, daily use of sildenafil can lead to pathological effect in the superior colliculus which may be implicated in visual disturbance and this effect is dose dependent, so neurological effect of sildenafil necessitates further investigations. [J

  14. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahemey, R.; Warfield, A.T.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  15. Comparison between conventional MR arthrograhphy and abduction and external rotation MR arthrography in revealing tears of the antero-inferior glenoid labrum

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    Choi, Jung Ah; Suh, Sang Il; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cha, Sang Hoon [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Gyu; Lee, Ki Yeol [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee [Konkok University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To compare, in terms of their demonstration of tears of the anterior glenoid labrum, oblique axial MR arthrography obtained with the patient's shoulder in the abduction and external rotation (ABER) position, with conventional axial MR arthrography obtained with the patient's arm in the neutral position. MR arthrography of the shoulder, including additional oblique axial sequences with the patient in the ABER position, was performed in 30 patients with a clinical history of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. The degree of anterior glenoid labral tear or defect was evaluated in both the conventional axial and the ABER position by two radiologists. Decisions were reached by consensus, and a three-point scale was used: grade 1=normal; grade 2=probable tear, diagnosed when subtle increased signal intensity in the labrum was apparent; grade 3=definite tear/defect, when a contrast material-filled gap between the labrum and the glenoid rim or deficient labrum was present. The scores for each imaging sequence were averaged and to compare conventional axial and ABER position scans, Student's t test was performed. In 21 (70%) of 30 patients, the same degree of anterior instability was revealed by both imaging sequences. Eight (27%) had a lower grade in the axial position than in the ABER position, while one (3%) had a higher grade in the axial position. Three whose axial scan was grade 1 showed only equivocal evidence of tearing, but their ABER-position scan, in which a contrast material-filled gap between the labrum and the glenoid rim was present, was grade 3. The average grade was 2.5 (SD=0.73) for axial scans and 2.8 (SD=0.46) for the ABER position. The difference between axial and ABER-position scans was statistically significant (p<0.05). MR arthrography with the patient's shoulder in the ABER position is more efficient than conventional axial scanning in revealing the degree of tear or defect of the anterior glenoid labrum. When equivocal

  16. Orientational and directional selectivities of visual neurons in the superior colliculus of the cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 王磊; 王毅; 刁云程

    1996-01-01

    Based on quantitative analyses of the response characteristics of visual neurons in the superior colliculus to moving optical bar stimuli, it is demonstrated for the first time that the visual neurons in superior colliculus of the cat have, to some extent, orientational selectivity. The significance of this selectivity is discussed in reference to its morphological substrate and physiological functions. In addition, both the directional and orientational selectivities in the superior colliculus are relatively weak when compared with those in the primary visual cortex, and the majority of the neurons prefer upward or downward motion in the visual field.

  17. Age-related audiovisual interactions in the superior colliculus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Piché, M; Lepore, F; Guillemot, J-P

    2016-04-21

    It is well established that multisensory integration is a functional characteristic of the superior colliculus that disambiguates external stimuli and therefore reduces the reaction times toward simple audiovisual targets in space. However, in a condition where a complex audiovisual stimulus is used, such as the optical flow in the presence of modulated audio signals, little is known about the processing of the multisensory integration in the superior colliculus. Furthermore, since visual and auditory deficits constitute hallmark signs during aging, we sought to gain some insight on whether audiovisual processes in the superior colliculus are altered with age. Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10-12 months) and aged (21-22 months) rats. Looming circular concentric sinusoidal (CCS) gratings were presented alone and in the presence of sinusoidally amplitude modulated white noise. In both groups of rats, two different audiovisual response interactions were encountered in the spatial domain: superadditive, and suppressive. In contrast, additive audiovisual interactions were found only in adult rats. Hence, superior colliculus audiovisual interactions were more numerous in adult rats (38%) than in aged rats (8%). These results suggest that intersensory interactions in the superior colliculus play an essential role in space processing toward audiovisual moving objects during self-motion. Moreover, aging has a deleterious effect on complex audiovisual interactions.

  18. Dissociated neurons and glial cells derived from rat inferior colliculi after digestion with papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Odett; Aliuos, Pooyan; Wissel, Kirsten; Lenarz, Thomas; Werner, Darja; Reuter, Günter; Kral, Andrej; Warnecke, Athanasia

    2013-01-01

    The formation of gliosis around implant electrodes for deep brain stimulation impairs electrode-tissue interaction. Unspecific growth of glial tissue around the electrodes can be hindered by altering physicochemical material properties. However, in vitro screening of neural tissue-material interaction requires an adequate cell culture system. No adequate model for cells dissociated from the inferior colliculus (IC) has been described and was thus the aim of this study. Therefore, IC were isolated from neonatal rats (P3_5) and a dissociated cell culture was established. In screening experiments using four dissociation methods (Neural Tissue Dissociation Kit [NTDK] T, NTDK P; NTDK PN, and a validated protocol for the dissociation of spiral ganglion neurons [SGN]), the optimal media, and seeding densities were identified. Thereafter, a dissociation protocol containing only the proteolytic enzymes of interest (trypsin or papain) was tested. For analysis, cells were fixed and immunolabeled using glial- and neuron-specific antibodies. Adhesion and survival of dissociated neurons and glial cells isolated from the IC were demonstrated in all experimental settings. Hence, preservation of type-specific cytoarchitecture with sufficient neuronal networks only occurred in cultures dissociated with NTDK P, NTDK PN, and fresh prepared papain solution. However, cultures obtained after dissociation with papain, seeded at a density of 2×10(4) cells/well and cultivated with Neuro Medium for 6 days reliably revealed the highest neuronal yield with excellent cytoarchitecture of neurons and glial cells. The herein described dissociated culture can be utilized as in vitro model to screen interactions between cells of the IC and surface modifications of the electrode.

  19. Varices en Miembros Inferiores

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Insuficiencia venosa, es cuando las venas de las extremidades inferiores no son capaces de devolver al corazón toda la sangre que les llega y de hacerlo al ritmo y velocidad debidos, se puede afirmar que sufren insuficiencia venosa.

  20. Inferiority is compex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jess

    2017-07-01

    In Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong and the New Research That's Rewriting the Story, author Angela Saini puts forward the idea that bad science has been used to endorse the cultural prejudice that women are both biologically and psychologically second rate to men.

  1. Varices en Miembros Inferiores

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Insuficiencia venosa, es cuando las venas de las extremidades inferiores no son capaces de devolver al corazón toda la sangre que les llega y de hacerlo al ritmo y velocidad debidos, se puede afirmar que sufren insuficiencia venosa.

  2. Spatial determinants of multisensory integration in cat superior colliculus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, M A; Stein, B E

    1996-05-01

    1. Although a representation of multisensory space is contained in the superior colliculus, little is known about the spatial requirements of multisensory stimuli that influence the activity of neurons here. Critical to this problem is an assessment of the registry of the different receptive fields within individual multisensory neurons. The present study was initiated to determine how closely the receptive fields of individual multisensory neurons are aligned, the physiological role of that alignment, and the possible functional consequences of inducing receptive-field misalignment. 2. Individual multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus of anesthetized, paralyzed cats were studied with the use of standard extracellular recording techniques. The receptive fields of multisensory neurons were large, as reported previously, but exhibited a surprisingly high degree of spatial coincidence. The average proportion of receptive-field overlap was 86% for the population of visual-auditory neurons sampled. 3. Because of this high degree of intersensory receptive-field correspondence, combined-modality stimuli that were coincident in space tended to fall within the excitatory regions of the receptive fields involved. The result was a significantly enhanced neuronal response in 88% of the multisensory neurons studied. If stimuli were spatially disparate, so that one fell outside its receptive field, either a decreased response occurred (56%), or no intersensory effect was apparent (44%). 4. The normal alignment of the different receptive fields of a multisensory neuron could be disrupted by passively displacing the eyes, pinnae, or limbs/body. In no case was a shift in location or size observed in a neuron's other receptive field(s) to compensate for this displacement. The physiological result of receptive-field misalignment was predictable and based on the location of the stimuli relative to the new positions of their respective receptive fields. Now, for example, one

  3. Multisensory Response Modulation in the Superficial Layers of the Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Nidiffer, Aaron; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is made up of seven distinct layers. Based on overall differences in neuronal morphology, afferent and efferent projection patterns, physiological properties, and presumptive behavioral role, the upper three layers have been classically grouped together as the superficial layers and the remaining four layers collectively make up the deep layers. Although the superficial layers receive their primary inputs from the retina and primary visual cortex, the deep layers receive inputs from extrastriate visual cortical areas and from auditory, somatosensory, and motor-related structures. In contrast, there is no evidence of monosynaptic nonvisual inputs to the superficial layers. However, more recent studies have revealed anatomical connections between the superficial and deep layers, thus providing the substrate for possible communication between these two functional divisions of the SC. In this study, we provide physiological evidence for auditory influences on visual responses in the superficial layers of the SC. Using extracellular recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity, we demonstrate multisensory effects in the superficial layers of the cat SC such that subthreshold auditory activity (as seen in the LFP) modulates visual responses (reflected in spiking activity) when the two stimuli are presented together. These results have important implications for our understanding of the functional organization of the SC and for the neural basis of multisensory integration in general. PMID:24647954

  4. Adult plasticity of spatiotemporal receptive fields of multisensory superior colliculus neurons following early visual deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, David W.; Krueger, Juliane; Fister, Matthew C.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous work has established that the integrative capacity of multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) matures over a protracted period of postnatal life (Wallace and Stein, 1997), and that the development of normal patterns of multisensory integration depends critically on early sensory experience (Wallace et al., 2004). Although these studies demonstrated the importance of early sensory experience in the creation of mature multisensory circuits, it remains unknown whether the reestablishment of sensory experience in adulthood can reverse these effects and restore integrative capacity. Methods The current study tested this hypothesis in cats that were reared in absolute darkness until adulthood and then returned to a normal housing environment for an equivalent period of time. Single unit extracellular recordings targeted multisensory neurons in the deep layers of the SC, and analyses were focused on both conventional measures of multisensory integration and on more recently developed methods designed to characterize spatiotemporal receptive fields (STRF). Results Analysis of the STRF structure and integrative capacity of multisensory SC neurons revealed significant modifications in the temporal response dynamics of multisensory responses (e.g., discharge durations, peak firing rates, and mean firing rates), as well as significant changes in rates of spontaneous activation and degrees of multisensory integration. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of early sensory experience in the establishment of normal multisensory processing architecture and highlight the limited plastic potential of adult multisensory circuits. PMID:20404413

  5. Incarcerated inferior lumbar (Petit's) hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarcioğlu, H; Sökmen, S; Atila, K; Karademir, S

    2003-09-01

    Petit's hernia is an uncommon abdominal wall defect in the inferior lumbar triangle. Colonic incarceration through the inferior lumbar triangle, which causes mechanical obstructive symptoms, necessitates particular diagnostic and management strategy. We present a rare case of inferior lumbar hernia, leading to mechanical bowel obstruction, successfully treated with prosthetic mesh reinforcement repair.

  6. Modeling the value of strategic actions in the superior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhushan Thevarajah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In learning models of strategic game play, an agent constructs a valuation (action value over possible future choices as a function of past actions and rewards. Choices are then stochastic functions of these action values. Our goal is to uncover a neural signal that correlates with the action value posited by behavioral learning models. We measured activity from neurons in the superior colliculus (SC, a midbrain region involved in planning saccadic eye movements, in monkeys while they performed two saccade tasks. In the strategic task, monkeys competed against a computer in a saccade version of the mixed-strategy game “matching-pennies”. In the instructed task, stochastic saccades were elicited through explicit instruction rather than free choices. In both tasks, neuronal activity and behavior were shaped by past actions and rewards with more recent events exerting a larger influence. Further, SC activity predicted upcoming choices during the strategic task and upcoming reaction times during the instructed task. Finally, we found that neuronal activity in both tasks correlated with an established learning model, the Experience Weighted Attraction model of action valuation (Ho, Camerer, and Chong, 2007. Collectively, our results provide evidence that action values hypothesized by learning models are represented in the motor planning regions of the brain in a manner that could be used to select strategic actions.

  7. Spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2017-09-01

    Presbyacusis reflects dysfunctions present along the central auditory pathway. Given that the topographic representation of the auditory directional spatial map is deteriorated in the superior colliculus of aged animals, therefore, are spectral and temporal auditory processes altered with aging in the rat's superior colliculus? Extracellular single-unit recordings were conducted in the superior colliculus of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats. In the spectral domain, level thresholds in aged rats were significantly increased when superior colliculus auditory neurons were stimulated with pure tones or Gaussian noise bursts. The sharpness of the frequency response tuning curve at 10 dB SPL above threshold was also significantly broader among the aged rats. Furthermore, in the temporal domain, the minimal silent gap thresholds to Gaussian noises were significantly longer in aged rats. Hence, these results highlight that spectral and temporal auditory processing in the superior colliculus are impaired during aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of bandwidths in the inferior colliculus and the auditory nerve. II: Measurement using a temporally manipulated stimulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mc Laughlin (Myles); J.N. Chabwine; M. van der Heijden (Marcel); P.X. Joris (Philip)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTo localize low-frequency sounds, humans rely on an interaural comparison of the temporally encoded sound waveform after peripheral filtering. This process can be compared with cross-correlation. For a broadband stimulus, after filtering, the correlation function has a damped oscillatory

  9. Processing temporal modulations in binaural and monaural auditory stimuli by neurons in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, Douglas C; Roberts, Jason M; Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Kim, Duck O; Filipovic, Blagoje

    2009-01-01

    .... To examine the limits of binaural temporal processing at these brain levels, we used the binaural beat stimulus, which causes a fluctuating interaural phase difference, while recording from neurons...

  10. Semicontinuidad Inferior por Redes

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuán, Arturo; Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta una construcción de la noción de semicontinuidad inferior a través de las redes. Dicha construcción es diferente a las usualmente presentadas, pues no usa imágenes inversas de conjuntos o filtros. Adicionalmente, se demuestra la equivalencia de una definición usual con la definición propuesta y se presenta un ejemplo de funcionales semicontinuos en donde sea útil la definición propuesta.

  11. Non-Stationarity in Multisensory Neurons in the Superior Colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Perrault

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The superior colliculus (SC integrates information from multiple sensory modalities to facilitate the detection and localization of salient events. The efficacy of multisensory integration is traditionally measured by comparing the magnitude of the response elicited by a cross-modal stimulus to the responses elicited by its modality-specific component stimuli, and because there is an element of randomness in the system, these calculations are made using response values averaged over multiple stimulus presentations in an experiment. Recent evidence suggests that multisensory integration in the SC is highly plastic and these neurons adapt to specific anomalous stimulus configurations. This raises the question whether such adaptation occurs during an experiment with traditional stimulus configurations; that is, whether the state of the neuron and its integrative principles are the same at the beginning and end of the experiment, or whether they are altered as a consequence of exposure to the testing stimuli even when they are pseudo-randomly interleaved. We find that unisensory and multisensory responses do change during an experiment, and these changes are predictable. Responses that are initially weak tend to potentiate, responses that are initially strong tend to habituate, and the efficacy of multisensory integration waxes or wanes accordingly during the experiment as predicted by the principle of inverse effectiveness. These changes are presumed to reflect two competing mechanisms in the SC: potentiation reflecting increases in the expectation that a stimulus will occur at a given location, habituation reflecting decreases in stimulus novelty. These findings indicate plasticity in multisensory integration that allows animals to adapt to rapidly changing environmental events while suggesting important caveats in the interpretation of experimental data: the neuron studied at the beginning of an experiment is not the same at the end of it.

  12. Spatiotemporal structure of visual receptive fields in macaque superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churan, Jan; Guitton, Daniel; Pack, Christopher C

    2012-11-01

    Saccades are useful for directing the high-acuity fovea to visual targets that are of behavioral relevance. The selection of visual targets for eye movements involves the superior colliculus (SC), where many neurons respond to visual stimuli. Many of these neurons are also activated before and during saccades of specific directions and amplitudes. Although the role of the SC in controlling eye movements has been thoroughly examined, far less is known about the nature of the visual responses in this area. We have, therefore, recorded from neurons in the intermediate layers of the macaque SC, while using a sparse-noise mapping procedure to obtain a detailed characterization of the spatiotemporal structure of visual receptive fields. We find that SC responses to flashed visual stimuli start roughly 50 ms after the onset of the stimulus and last for on average ~70 ms. About 50% of these neurons are strongly suppressed by visual stimuli flashed at certain locations flanking the excitatory center, and the spatiotemporal pattern of suppression exerts a predictable influence on the timing of saccades. This suppression may, therefore, contribute to the filtering of distractor stimuli during target selection. We also find that saccades affect the processing of visual stimuli by SC neurons in a manner that is quite similar to the saccadic suppression and postsaccadic enhancement that has been observed in the cortex and in perception. However, in contrast to what has been observed in the cortex, decreased visual sensitivity was generally associated with increased firing rates, while increased sensitivity was associated with decreased firing rates. Overall, these results suggest that the processing of visual stimuli by SC receptive fields can influence oculomotor behavior and that oculomotor signals originating in the SC can shape perisaccadic visual perception.

  13. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals probability-dependent changes in functional connectivity between right inferior frontal cortex and primary motor cortex during go/no-go performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, A.D. van; Neubert, F.X.; Wildenberg, W.P.M. van den; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Mars, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    The functional role of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) in mediating human behavior is the subject of ongoing debate. Activation of the rIFC has been associated with both response inhibition and with signaling action adaptation demands resulting from unpredicted events. The goal of this

  14. Colliculus atlantis: an insufficiently considered anatomic structure in open-mouth radiography of the cervical spine; Der Colliculus atlantis - eine wenig beachtete anatomische Struktur - im transoralen Roentgenbild der Halswirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidberger, H.R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria); Weiglein, A.H. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Anatomisches Inst.

    1998-12-01

    Purpose: To study the time and mode of the development of the colliculus atlantis, the rate of its occurrence, the causes for its absence, and the radiological-clinical importance in the analysis of open-mouth-view radiographs. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of standardized radiographs of the cervical spine in more than 20 000 adults and 100 children. Study of 234 human skeletons of different ages and of 38 isolated adult atlases. Cadaveric dissection of 42 adults (age 48-87). Axial radiographs of isolated atlases and analysis of the bony structures of the colliculus atlantis. Results: The colliculus atlantis develops between age 10 and 13 years. It is always present after age 13 years. For the development of the colliculus atlantis a normal function of the craniocervical joints is necessary. In congenital dysmorphias of the craniocervical region with dysfunction of the craniocervical joints and in fractures of the dens axis before age 10 years with instable healing the colliculus atlantis is absent. Conclusions: The colliculus atlantis is developed at age 13 years apart from some rare exceptions as mentioned. Changes of the site and the structure of the colliculus atlantis allow an early diagnosis of certain traumatically and inflammatory diseases of this region. Furthermore, it serves as an additional parameter in functional analysis of the craniocervical joints. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Untersuchungen ueber den Zeitpunkt und die Art der Entstehung des Colliculus atlantis, die Haeufigkeit des Vorkommens, die Ursachen seines Fehlens und seine radiologisch-klinische Bedeutung bei der Analyse transoraler Roentgenaufnahmen. Methode: Retrospektive Analyse streng standardisierter Roentgenaufnahmen der Halswirbelsaeule von mehr als 20 000 Erwachsenen und 100 Kindern. Untersuchungen von 234 menschlichen Skeletten verschiedenen Alters und 38 isolierten Atlanten von Erwachsenen. Frische Sektionen von 42 Erwachsenen (48-87 Jahre). Axiale Roentgenaufnahmen

  15. Physiological properties of neurons in superficial layers of superior colliculus of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑; 罗茀荪

    1996-01-01

    Neurons in superficial layers of the superior colliculus of the rabbit are classified into three types by their electrophysiological properties. Among them, two types belong to projecting neurons which send axons to the thalamic pulvinar (N=52) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (N = 54) respectively. All other neurons are pooled into the third type (N=99). Projecting neurons of both types receive monosynaptic visual inputs via optic tract fibers of similar conduction velocity, indicating that in the superior colliculus of the rabbit, there is no difference in conduction velocity between the two pathways. They also receive trisynaptic inhibitory inputs, most likely via recurrent inhibitory circuits. The third type of neurons receives disynaptic optic and trisynaptic inhibitory inputs. The function of neurons of the third type is studied.

  16. Noninverted images in inferior mirages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Inferior mirages over sun-exposed roads often appear in isolated strips at their near sides and the reflected scenery exhibits multiple images. This effect is explained as due to slight undulations of the road's surface. At the same time, some of these images, although they are reflections, are not

  17. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals probability-dependent changes in functional connectivity between right inferior frontal cortex and primary motor cortex during go/no-go performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dilene van Campen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional role of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC in mediating human behavior is the subject of ongoing debate. Activation of the rIFC has been associated with both response inhibition and with signaling action adaptation demands resulting from unpredicted events. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of rIFC by combining a go/no-go paradigm with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS over rIFC and the primary motor cortex (M1 to probe the functional connectivity between these brain areas. Participants performed a go/no-go task with 20% or 80% of the trials requiring response inhibition (no-go trials in a classic and a reversed version of the task, respectively. Responses were slower to infrequent compared to frequent go trials, while commission errors were more prevalent to infrequent compared to frequent no-go trials. We hypothesized that if rIFC is involved primarily in response inhibition, then rIFC should exert an inhibitory influence over M1 on no-go (inhibition trials regardless of no-go probability. If, by contrast, rIFC has a role on unexpected trials other than just response inhibition then rIFC should influence M1 on infrequent trials regardless of response demands. We observed that rIFC suppressed M1 excitability during frequent no-go trials, but not during infrequent no-go trials, suggesting that the role of rIFC in response inhibition is context dependent rather than generic. Importantly, rIFC was found to facilitate M1 excitability on all low frequent trials, irrespective of whether the infrequent event involved response inhibition, a finding more in line with a predictive coding framework of cognitive control.

  18. Expression of messenger RNAs for glutamic acid decarboxylase, preprotachykinin, cholecystokinin, somatostatin, proenkephalin and neuropeptide Y in the adult rat superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A R; Heavens, R P; Yellachich, L A; Sirinathsinghji, D J

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus is an important subcortical integrator of sensorimotor behaviours. It is multi-layered, each layer containing specific neuronal types and possessing distinct input/output relationships. Here we use in situ hybridisation methods to map the distribution of seven neurotransmitters/neuromodulator systems in adult rat superior colliculus. Coronal sections were probed for preprotachykinin, cholecystokinin, somatostatin, proenkephalin, neuropeptide Y and the enzymes glutamic acid decarboxylase and choline acetyltransferase, markers for GABA and acetylcholine respectively. Cells expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA were the most abundant, the highest density being found in the superficial layers. Many cells containing proprotachykinin messenger RNA were found in stratum zonale and the upper two-thirds of stratum griseum superficiale; cells were also located in deeper tectal laminae, particularly caudomedially. Most cholecystokinin messenger RNA expressing cells were located in the superficial layers with a prominent band in the middle third of stratum griseum superficiale. Cells expressing moderate to high levels of somatostatin messenger RNA formed a dense band in the lower third of stratum griseum superficiale/upper stratum opticum; two less distinct tiers of labelling were seen in deeper layers. These in situ hybridisation data reveal three distinct sub-laminae in rat stratum griseum superficiale. Cells expressing moderate to low levels of proenkephalin messenger RNA were located in lower stratum griseum superficiale/upper stratum opticum and intermediate laminae. A cluster of enkephalinergic cells was located medially in the deep tectal laminae. Expression of neuropeptide Y messenger RNA was relatively low and mostly confined to cells in stratum griseum superficiale and stratum opticum. No choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA was detected. This in situ analysis of seven different neurotransmitters

  19. Effects of forward masking on the responses of the inferior collicular neurons in the big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Ruihong; WU Feijian; P. H. S. Jen; SUN Xinde

    2003-01-01

    The present study explores the forward masking of the two-tone stimuli in sequence that evoked responses in the inferior colliculus (IC) of the echolocating bats. The results indicate that forward masking is obvious in the acoustic responses of the IC neurons to the two-tone stimuli. Meanwhile the intensity sensitivity of the neurons responding to the probe increases with the inter-tone interval decreasing. The effects of forward masking are correlated with the relative intensity and the interval between the masker and probe. That is, the effects of forward masking are reduced with the masker intensity decreasing and enhanced with the probe intensity decreasing and the inter-tone interval shortened. The present study suggests that there is a correlation between the characteristics of the response to the probe and the dynamic conditions of the postsynaptic currents in the IC neurons.

  20. Suprarenal symplastic leiomyoma of the inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekci, Ilknur; Demirkan, Arda; Sözener, Ulas; Cakmak, Atil; Demirer, Seher; Alaçayir, Iskender; Ekinci, Cemil

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of a leiomyoma in the inferior vena cava that appeared in the image to be located in the adrenal gland. En bloc excision of the tumor with the right adrenal gland and the involved segment of the vena cava was carried out. Histopathological work-up of the tumor revealed smooth muscle fibers and marked nuclear pleomorphism consistent with symplastic leiomyoma. This case report presents a distinct histological variant of the rarely seen primary smooth muscle tumor of the inferior vena cava.

  1. Modeling the minimal newborn's intersubjective mind: the visuotopic-somatotopic alignment hypothesis in the superior colliculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pitti

    Full Text Available The question whether newborns possess inborn social skills is a long debate in developmental psychology. Fetal behavioral and anatomical observations show evidences for the control of eye movements and facial behaviors during the third trimester of pregnancy whereas specific sub-cortical areas, like the superior colliculus (SC and the striatum appear to be functionally mature to support these behaviors. These observations suggest that the newborn is potentially mature for developing minimal social skills. In this manuscript, we propose that the mechanism of sensory alignment observed in SC is particularly important for enabling the social skills observed at birth such as facial preference and facial mimicry. In a computational simulation of the maturing superior colliculus connected to a simulated facial tissue of a fetus, we model how the incoming tactile information is used to direct visual attention toward faces. We suggest that the unisensory superficial visual layer (eye-centered and the deep somatopic layer (face-centered in SC are combined into an intermediate layer for visuo-tactile integration and that multimodal alignment in this third layer allows newborns to have a sensitivity to configuration of eyes and mouth. We show that the visual and tactile maps align through a Hebbian learning stage and and strengthen their synaptic links from each other into the intermediate layer. It results that the global network produces some emergent properties such as sensitivity toward the spatial configuration of face-like patterns and the detection of eyes and mouth movement.

  2. Traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alcalá-Galiano, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Montalvo-Moreno, Juan José

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic neuromas are rare entities which characteristically arise subsequently to surgery and are usually accompanied by pain, typically neuralgic. We present an unusual case of an intraosseous traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve following tooth extraction. A 56-year-old man consulted for paresthesias and hyperesthesia in the left mandibular region following extraction of the left mandibular third molar (#38). The panoramic radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion in the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and CT demonstrated the existence of a mass within the canal, producing widening of the same. Nerve-sparing excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the left inferior alveolar nerve. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and there are no signs of recurrence.

  3. Deep venous thrombosis in a young woman with hypoplastic inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavens, Matthias; Moors, Boudewijn; Thomis, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    We present a 33-year-old woman with deep venous thrombosis of the left iliac vein and the left lower limb. A computed tomography scan of her abdomen revealed a hypoplastic inferior vena cava and agenesis of the right kidney. Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava are uncommon and are sometimes an unrecognized cause of deep venous thrombosis.

  4. Tuberculosis pulmonar de campos inferiores

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra González; Marcelo Fernández Casares; Matías Baldini; Alfredo Monteverde

    2010-01-01

    La tuberculosis (TB) que compromete sólo los campos pulmonares inferiores (TBCI) es poco frecuente en el adulto y en general está asociada a alguna causa de inmunodepresión. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue determinar la incidencia de TBCI en nuestra población y comparar sus características respecto de la TB pulmonar de localización habitual. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva en el período de 2004 a 2008, 42 pacientes con TBCI que fueron comparados con 84 pacientes con TB pulmonar de loc...

  5. Distinct representation and distribution of visual information by specific cell types in mouse superficial superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Samuel D; Murphy, Gabe J

    2014-10-01

    The superficial superior colliculus (sSC) occupies a critical node in the mammalian visual system; it is one of two major retinorecipient areas, receives visual cortical input, and innervates visual thalamocortical circuits. Nonetheless, the contribution of sSC neurons to downstream neural activity and visually guided behavior is unknown and frequently neglected. Here we identified the visual stimuli to which specific classes of sSC neurons respond, the downstream regions they target, and transgenic mice enabling class-specific manipulations. One class responds to small, slowly moving stimuli and projects exclusively to lateral posterior thalamus; another, comprising GABAergic neurons, responds to the sudden appearance or rapid movement of large stimuli and projects to multiple areas, including the lateral geniculate nucleus. A third class exhibits direction-selective responses and targets deeper SC layers. Together, our results show how specific sSC neurons represent and distribute diverse information and enable direct tests of their functional role.

  6. Endogenous attention signals evoked by threshold contrast detection in human superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Sucharit; Ress, David

    2014-01-15

    Human superior colliculus (SC) responds in a retinotopically selective manner when attention is deployed on a high-contrast visual stimulus using a discrimination task. To further elucidate the role of SC in endogenous visual attention, high-resolution fMRI was used to demonstrate that SC also exhibits a retinotopically selective response for covert attention in the absence of significant visual stimulation using a threshold-contrast detection task. SC neurons have a laminar organization according to their function, with visually responsive neurons present in the superficial layers and visuomotor neurons in the intermediate layers. The results show that the response evoked by the threshold-contrast detection task is significantly deeper than the response evoked by the high-contrast speed discrimination task, reflecting a functional dissociation of the attentional enhancement of visuomotor and visual neurons, respectively. Such a functional dissociation of attention within SC laminae provides a subcortical basis for the oculomotor theory of attention.

  7. Heterogeneity in the spatial receptive field architecture of multisensory neurons of the superior colliculus and its effects on multisensory integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Dipanwita; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory integration has been widely studied in neurons of the mammalian superior colliculus (SC). This has led to the description of various determinants of multisensory integration, including those based on stimulus- and neuron-specific factors. The most widely characterized of these illustrate the importance of the spatial and temporal relationships of the paired stimuli as well as their relative effectiveness in eliciting a response in determining the final integrated output. Although...

  8. Tuberculosis pulmonar de campos inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis (TB que compromete sólo los campos pulmonares inferiores (TBCI es poco frecuente en el adulto y en general está asociada a alguna causa de inmunodepresión. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue determinar la incidencia de TBCI en nuestra población y comparar sus características respecto de la TB pulmonar de localización habitual. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva en el período de 2004 a 2008, 42 pacientes con TBCI que fueron comparados con 84 pacientes con TB pulmonar de localización habitual (grupo control. Se excluyeron pacientes con HIV. La TBCI representó el 6% del total de TB pulmonar. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a edad, sexo, presencia de cavidades en la radiografía, días de evolución y nivel de albúmina. La TBCI tuvo significativamente mayor proporción de comorbilidades (p < 0.001, presencia de condensación (p < 0.001 y compromiso unilateral (p < 0.001 en la radiografía de tórax, junto con mayor número de internaciones (p = 0.02. Cabe destacar que sólo16 de los 42 pacientes con TBCI (38% tenían alguna comorbilidad demostrada. La TBCI puede presentarse aun sin comorbilidades asociadas y debe sospecharse en neumonías de evolución tórpida independientemente de su localización.

  9. Leiomioma benigno metastatizante de veia cava inferior: rara complicação tardia de histerectomia Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of inferior vena cava: a rare condition following hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Filgueiras

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Large vessel tumors diagnosis is usually difficult. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma is a rare condition occurring inside peripheral vessels. There are few publications about this tumor inside inferior vena cava. A 54 years old female patient is presented with a previous hysterectomy for myomas. She complained of no specific symptoms 18 months after surgery. Computer tomography revealed a 7.5 x 3.5 x 4.0 cm mass at inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle. After surgical management and immunohistochemical screening biopsy, the diagnosis was benign metastasizing leiomyoma of inferior vena cava. The patient recovery was uneventful. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of inferior vena cava is a very rare condition, and must be suspected in patients with primary leiomyosarcoma, especially in women previously submitted to hysterectomy for leiomyomatosis.

  10. A Model of the Superior Colliculus Predicts Fixation Locations during Scene Viewing and Visual Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Hossein; Vitu, Françoise; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2017-02-08

    Modern computational models of attention predict fixations using saliency maps and target maps, which prioritize locations for fixation based on feature contrast and target goals, respectively. But whereas many such models are biologically plausible, none have looked to the oculomotor system for design constraints or parameter specification. Conversely, although most models of saccade programming are tightly coupled to underlying neurophysiology, none have been tested using real-world stimuli and tasks. We combined the strengths of these two approaches in MASC, a model of attention in the superior colliculus (SC) that captures known neurophysiological constraints on saccade programming. We show that MASC predicted the fixation locations of humans freely viewing naturalistic scenes and performing exemplar and categorical search tasks, a breadth achieved by no other existing model. Moreover, it did this as well or better than its more specialized state-of-the-art competitors. MASC's predictive success stems from its inclusion of high-level but core principles of SC organization: an over-representation of foveal information, size-invariant population codes, cascaded population averaging over distorted visual and motor maps, and competition between motor point images for saccade programming, all of which cause further modulation of priority (attention) after projection of saliency and target maps to the SC. Only by incorporating these organizing brain principles into our models can we fully understand the transformation of complex visual information into the saccade programs underlying movements of overt attention. With MASC, a theoretical footing now exists to generate and test computationally explicit predictions of behavioral and neural responses in visually complex real-world contexts.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The superior colliculus (SC) performs a visual-to-motor transformation vital to overt attention, but existing SC models cannot predict saccades to visually

  11. The Distinct Role of the Amygdala, Superior Colliculus and Pulvinar in Processing of Central and Peripheral Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Inês; Soares, Sandra C.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Visual processing of ecologically relevant stimuli involves a central bias for stimuli demanding detailed processing (e.g., faces), whereas peripheral object processing is based on coarse identification. Fast detection of animal shapes holding a significant phylogenetic value, such as snakes, may benefit from peripheral vision. The amygdala together with the pulvinar and the superior colliculus are implicated in an ongoing debate regarding their role in automatic and deliberate spatial processing of threat signals. Methods Here we tested twenty healthy participants in an fMRI task, and investigated the role of spatial demands (the main effect of central vs. peripheral vision) in the processing of fear-relevant ecological features. We controlled for stimulus dependence using true or false snakes; snake shapes or snake faces and for task constraints (implicit or explicit). The main idea justifying this double task is that amygdala and superior colliculus are involved in both automatic and controlled processes. Moreover the explicit/implicit instruction in the task with respect to emotion is not necessarily equivalent to explicit vs. implicit in the sense of endogenous vs. exogenous attention, or controlled vs. automatic processes. Results We found that stimulus-driven processing led to increased amygdala responses specifically to true snake shapes presented in the centre or in the peripheral left hemifield (right hemisphere). Importantly, the superior colliculus showed significantly biased and explicit central responses to snake-related stimuli. Moreover, the pulvinar, which also contains foveal representations, also showed strong central responses, extending the results of a recent single cell pulvinar study in monkeys. Similar hemispheric specialization was found across structures: increased amygdala responses occurred to true snake shapes presented to the right hemisphere, with this pattern being closely followed by the superior colliculus and the

  12. Traumatismos de veia cava inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleinaldo de Almeida Costa

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, o perfil clínico e as estratégias operatórias dos ferimentos de Veia Cava Inferior (VCI. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os prontuários de 76 doentes com ferimento de VCI atendidos nos dois prontossocorros de Manaus, no período de janeiro de 1997 a julho de 2002. Mecanismo de lesão, mortalidade, estado hemodinâmico, índice de trauma abdominal penetrante (PATI, achados intra-operatórios e conduta cirúrgica foram estudados. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e nove (65% doentes sofreram lesão por arma branca, 26 (34% por arma de fogo e um por traumatismo abdominal fechado. Quarenta e um (54% doentes sobreviveram. Quase todos chegaram acordados, entretanto 40% estavam hipotensos (pressão arterial sistólica < 70mmHg. O índice de trauma abdominal penetrante (PATI médio foi maior que 40. À laparotomia, todos demonstraram sangramento retroperitoneal ativo ou hematoma retroperitoneal em expansão. Vinte e um pacientes possuíam lesão de VCI retro-hepática, enquanto nos outros 55 a lesão era infra-hepática. O reparo operatório predominante foi a venorrafia lateral em 65 doentes. Houve necessidade de tóraco-freno-laparotomia em quatro doentes do total de oito doentes que foram à toracotomia direita por lesão retro-hepática. Foram realizados shunts átrio-cavais em seis doentes, dos quais três sobreviveram. CONCLUSÕES: O ferimento de VCI é uma lesão de alta letalidade e possui uma relação intrínseca com a violência urbana. A sobrevivência depende de uma imediata e vigorosa reposição de volume, um manejo operatório adequado e todo esforço em evitar-se hipotermia.

  13. [Inferior vestibular neuritis: diagnosis using VEMP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Repik, I

    2012-02-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are a new method to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. The sacculocollic reflex of the cervical VEMP to air conduction (AC) reflects predominantly saccular function due to saccular afferents to the inferior vestibular nerve. We describe a case of inferior vestibular neuritis as a rare differential diagnosis of vestibular neuritis. Clinical signs were a normal caloric response, unilaterally absent AC cVEMPs and bilaterally preserved ocular VEMPs (AC oVEMPs).

  14. Direct projections from the dorsal premotor cortex to the superior colliculus in the macaque (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, Claudia; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter

    2015-11-01

    The dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) is part of the cortical network for arm movements during reach-related behavior. Here we investigate the neuronal projections from the PMd to the midbrain superior colliculus (SC), which also contains reach-related neurons, to investigate how the SC integrates into a cortico-subcortical network responsible for initiation and modulation of goal-directed arm movements. By using anterograde transport of neuronal tracers, we found that the PMd projects most strongly to the deep layers of the lateral part of the SC and the underlying reticular formation corresponding to locations where reach-related neurons have been recorded, and from where descending tectofugal projections arise. A somewhat weaker projection targets the intermediate layers of the SC. By contrast, terminals originating from prearcuate area 8 mainly project to the intermediate layers of the SC. Thus, this projection pattern strengthens the view that different compartments in the SC are involved in the control of gaze and in the control or modulation of reaching movements. The PMD-SC projection assists in the participation of the SC in the skeletomotor system and provides the PMd with a parallel path to elicit forelimb movements.

  15. Defining the non-inferiority margin and analyzing non-inferiority: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althunian, Turki A; de Boer, Anthonius; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Klungel, Olaf H

    2017-03-02

    Non-inferiority trials are used to assess whether the effect of a new drug is not worse than an active comparator by more than a non-inferiority margin. If the difference between the new drug and the active comparator does not exceed this pre-specified margin, non-inferiority can be concluded. This margin must be specified based on clinical and statistical reasoning; however, it is considered as one the most challenging step in the design of non-inferiority trials. Regulators recommend that the margin should be defined based on the historical evidence of the active comparator (the latter is often the well-established standard treatment of the disease), which can be performed by different approaches. There are several factors and assumptions that need to be accounted for during the process of defining the margin and during the analysis of non-inferiority. Three methods are commonly used to analyze non-inferiority trials: the fixed-margin method, the point-estimate method, and the synthesis method. This article provides an overview of analyzing non-inferiority inferiority and choosing the non-inferiority margin.

  16. Clinical studies on inferior right hepatic veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Many small veins are called accessory, short hepatic veins in addition to the right, middle and left hepatic veins. The size of these veins varied from a pinhole to 1 cm; the size of inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) is thicker than that of short hepatic veins or more than 1 cm occasionally. Adults have a higher incidence rate of the IRHV. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The size of IRHVs is related to the size of the right hepatic vein, i.e. the larger the diameter of the right hepatic vein, the smaller the diameter of the IRHVs, and vice versa. The IRHVs are divided into superior, medial and inferior groups, separately named the superior, medial and inferior right hepatic veins according to the position of the IRHV entering the inferior vena cava. The superior right hepatic vein mainly drains the superior part of segmentⅦ, and the medial right hepatic vein drains the middle part of segmentⅦ. A thicker IRHV mainly drains segmentⅥ and the inferior part of segmentⅦ and a thinner IRHV drains the inferior part of segmentⅤ. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical signiifcance of these studies on IRHVs is varied: (1) Hepatic caudate lobe resection could be introduced after study on the veins of that lobe. (2) It is very important to identify the draining region of the IRHV for guiding hepatic segmentectomy. The postero-inferior area of the right lobe can be preserved along with the hypertrophic IRHV even if the entire main right hepatic vein is resected during segmentectomy ofⅦ andⅧwith right hepatic vein resection for patients with primary liver cancer. (3) The ligation of the major hepatic vein for the treatment of juxtahepatic vein injury is recommended because of severe hemorrhagic shock and dififculty in

  17. Thermographic assessment of reversible inferior alveolar nerve deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, V; Gratt, B M; Flack, V

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate thermography's potential as a diagnostic alternative for evaluating neurosensory deficits of the inferior alveolar nerve. Electronic thermography was used to evaluate the alterations in facial thermal patterns attendant to a conduction defect of the inferior alveolar nerve induced in 12 subjects using 2% lidocaine. The rates of onset and duration of sensory block, as visualized by thermography, were related to the results of conventional neurosensory testing. Comparison of the rate of response change within each measurement system revealed that changes in facial skin temperature manifest the induced deficit earlier than discriminative tests. Also, the prolonged elevation of thermal asymmetry suggested that electronic thermography has the ability to detect subtle changes in nerve function that are not discernible by physical neurosensory tests relying on patient response. Although cutaneous temperature increases were highest in the field of observation near the sensory distribution of the mental nerve, an inexplicable warming of the contralateral side of the face and neck was also observed. These attendant findings emphasize the need for further studies on the pathophysiologic mechanisms of facial thermal changes to better understand thermography's diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility for monitoring inferior alveolar nerve dysfunction.

  18. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrfuss, J; Vogt, V L; Fiebach, C J; von Cramon, D Y; Tittgemeyer, M

    2012-02-15

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focused on the iFEF. Recently, it was suggested that the iFEF is located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. A similar location was proposed for the inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), an area thought to be involved in cognitive control processes. The present study used fMRI to clarify the topographical and functional relationship of the iFEF and the IFJ in the left hemispheres of individual participants. The results show that both the iFEF and the IFJ are indeed located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. Nevertheless, the activations were spatially dissociable in every individual examined. The IFJ was located more towards the depth of the inferior precentral sulcus, close to the junction with the inferior frontal sulcus, whereas the iFEF assumed a more lateral, posterior and superior position. Furthermore, the results provided evidence for a functional double dissociation: the iFEF was activated only in a comparison of saccades vs. button presses, but not in a comparison of incongruent vs. congruent Stroop conditions, while the opposite pattern was found at the IFJ. These results provide evidence for a spatial and functional dissociation of two directly adjacent areas in the left posterior frontal lobe.

  19. Leiomioma benigno metastatizante de veia cava inferior: rara complicação tardia de histerectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Filgueiras

    Full Text Available Large vessel tumors diagnosis is usually difficult. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma is a rare condition occurring inside peripheral vessels. There are few publications about this tumor inside inferior vena cava. A 54 years old female patient is presented with a previous hysterectomy for myomas. She complained of no specific symptoms 18 months after surgery. Computer tomography revealed a 7.5 x 3.5 x 4.0 cm mass at inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle. After surgical management and immunohistochemical screening biopsy, the diagnosis was benign metastasizing leiomyoma of inferior vena cava. The patient recovery was uneventful. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of inferior vena cava is a very rare condition, and must be suspected in patients with primary leiomyosarcoma, especially in women previously submitted to hysterectomy for leiomyomatosis.

  20. Whisker motor cortex reorganization after superior colliculus output suppression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Carlo; Maggiolini, Emma; Franchi, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    The effect of unilateral superior colliculus (SC) output suppression on the ipsilateral whisker motor cortex (WMC) was studied at different time points after tetrodotoxin and quinolinic acid injections, in adult rats. The WMC output was assessed by mapping the movement evoked by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and by recording the ICMS-evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses from contralateral whisker muscles. At 1 h after SC injections, the WMC showed: (i) a strong decrease in contralateral whisker sites, (ii) a strong increase in ipsilateral whisker sites and in ineffective sites, and (iii) a strong increase in threshold current values. At 6 h after injections, the WMC size had shrunk to 60% of the control value and forelimb representation had expanded into the lateral part of the normal WMC. Thereafter, the size of the WMC recovered, returning to nearly normal 12 h later (94% of control) and persisted unchanged over time (1-3 weeks). The ICMS-evoked EMG response area decreased at 1 h after SC lesion and had recovered its baseline value 12 h later. Conversely, the latency of ICMS-evoked EMG responses had increased by 1 h and continued to increase for as long as 3 weeks following the lesion. These findings provide physiological evidence that SC output suppression persistently withdrew the direct excitatory drive from whisker motoneurons and induced changes in the WMC. We suggest that the changes in the WMC are a form of reversible short-term reorganization that is induced by SC lesion. The persistent latency increase in the ICMS-evoked EMG response suggested that the recovery of basic WMC excitability did not take place with the recovery of normal explorative behaviour. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Spatial transformations between superior colliculus visual and motor response fields during head-unrestrained gaze shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Morteza; Sajad, Amirsaman; Wang, Hongying; Yan, Xiaogang; Crawford, John Douglas

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported that visuomotor activity in the superior colliculus (SC)--a key midbrain structure for the generation of rapid eye movements--preferentially encodes target position relative to the eye (Te) during low-latency head-unrestrained gaze shifts (DeSouza et al., 2011). Here, we trained two monkeys to perform head-unrestrained gaze shifts after a variable post-stimulus delay (400-700 ms), to test whether temporally separated SC visual and motor responses show different spatial codes. Target positions, final gaze positions and various frames of reference (eye, head, and space) were dissociated through natural (untrained) trial-to-trial variations in behaviour. 3D eye and head orientations were recorded, and 2D response field data were fitted against multiple models by use of a statistical method reported previously (Keith et al., 2009). Of 60 neurons, 17 showed a visual response, 12 showed a motor response, and 31 showed both visual and motor responses. The combined visual response field population (n = 48) showed a significant preference for Te, which was also preferred in each visual subpopulation. In contrast, the motor response field population (n = 43) showed a preference for final (relative to initial) gaze position models, and the Te model was statistically eliminated in the motor-only population. There was also a significant shift of coding from the visual to motor response within visuomotor neurons. These data confirm that SC response fields are gaze-centred, and show a target-to-gaze transformation between visual and motor responses. Thus, visuomotor transformations can occur between, and even within, neurons within a single frame of reference and brain structure.

  2. The superior colliculus is sensitive to gestalt-like stimulus configuration in hemispherectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Loraine; Celeghin, Alessia; Marzi, Carlo A; Tamietto, Marco; Ptito, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Patients with cortical blindness following a lesion to the primary visual cortex (V1) may retain nonconscious visual abilities (blindsight). One intriguing, though largely unexplored question, is whether nonconscious vision in the blind hemifield of hemianopic patients can be sensitive to higher-order perceptual organization, and which V1-independent structure underlies such effect. To answer this question, we tested two rare hemianopic patients who had undergone hemispherectomy, and in whom the only post-chiasmatic visual structure left intact in the same side of the otherwise damaged hemisphere was the superior colliculus (SC). By using a variant of the redundant target effect (RTE), we presented single dots, patterns composed by the same dots organized in quadruple gestalt-like configurations, or patterns of four dots arranged in random configurations, either singly to the intact visual hemifield or bilaterally to both hemifields. As reported in a number of prior studies on blindsight patients, we found that bilateral stimulation yielded faster reaction times (RTs) than single stimulation of the intact field for all conditions (i.e., there was an implicit RTE). In addition to this effect, both patients showed a further speeding up of RTs when the gestalt-like, but not the random shape, quadruple patterns were projected to their blind hemifield during bilateral stimulation. Because other retino-recipient subcortical and cortical structures in the damaged hemisphere are absent, the SC on the lesioned side seems solely responsible for such an effect. The present results provide initial support to the notion that nonconscious vision might be sensitive to perceptual organization and stimulus configuration through the pivotal contribution of the SC, which can enhance the processing of gestalt-like or structured stimuli over meaningless or randomly assembled ones and translate them into facilitatory motor outputs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  3. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Castro Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics.

  4. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  5. Portal Decompression Using the Inferior Mesenteric Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gorini

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report five patients with variceal hemorrhage, in three cases secondary to diffuse thrombosis of the portal, superior mesenteric and splenic veins. Mesenteric angiography demonstrated patency of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV in each, and successful portal decompression by anastomosis of the IMV to the left renal vein (n=4 or the inferior vena cava (n=1 was accomplished. Bleeding was permanently controlled: four patients have survived from one to eight years post-operatively. Because shunt procedures utilizing the IMV are technically straightforward, subtotally decompress the portal system and avoid the right upper quadrant, they may be advantageous in certain clinical settings.

  6. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrfuss, J.; Vogt, V.L.; Fiebach, C.J.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Tittgemeyer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focuse

  7. COMPARISON OF PARTIAL INFERIOR TURBINECTOMY AND SUBMUCOSAL DIATHERMY FOR HYPERTROPHIED INFERIOR TURBINATE IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Chandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The inferior turbinate is the first point of contact of allergen in the nose. In patients with allergic rhinitis the turbinate hypertrophies and its mucosa becomes purplish edematous. This leads to significant obstruction of airway. Hence reduction of this hypertrophied inferior turbinate is essential. AIM: To analyze & evaluate the efficacy of sub mucosal diathermy and partial inferior turbinectomy in the treatment of symptomatic hypertrophied inferior turbinates in allergic rhinitis patients in a rural setup. METHODS AND MATERIAL S: A prospective clinical study of 132 patients between age group of 15 - 55 years of eith er sex were enrolled in the study with bilateral Inferior. Turbinate Hypertrophy who had history of failed medical line of treatment. After informing , the patients were randomized into two groups to eliminate bias byallotting them alternately into the groups. Patients in Group I underwent. Submucosal diathermy and Group II patients underwent Partial Inferior. Turbinectomy. Postoperative follow up was done at regular intervals by objective& subjective assessment. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Friedman test and Ch i Square test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In group I significant improvement of nasal airflow was seen in 14% patients & 85.9% had moderate improvement. In group II 41.3% of patients had significant improvement & 58.6% had moderate i mprovement. Statistically by analyzing the ranks of subjective nasal obstruction and objective nasal obstruction of Group - I & Group - IIwe conclude that Group - II subjects showed more improvement than Group I. CONCLUSIONS: Various surgical methods have been t ried for enlarged inferior turbinate secondary to allergic rhinitis. Of them the well - known techniques are s ubmucosal Diathermy & Partial Inferior Turbinectomy. In this study Partial Inferior Turbinectomy was found to be more effective in relieving nasal ob structionin allergic rhinitis patients for

  8. Iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, non-randomised, descriptive study is to characterise the neurosensory deficit and associated neurogenic discomfort in 52 patients with iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). All patients were examined and followed up according to a protocol assess...

  9. A case of inferior lumbar hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhyasagar M. Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report a case of inferior lumbar hernia. The patient underwent preperitoneal meshplasty. The patient is well on follow up with no recurrence. The relevant literature has been reviewed and management discussed in brief. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000: 33-35

  10. Linking express saccade occurance to stimulus properties and sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Robert A; Levy, Ron; Munoz, Douglas P

    2015-08-01

    Express saccades represent the fastest possible eye movements to visual targets with reaction times that approach minimum sensory-motor conduction delays. Previous work in monkeys has identified two specific neural signals in the superior colliculus (SC: a midbrain sensorimotor integration structure involved in gaze control) that are required to execute express saccades: 1) previsual activity consisting of a low-frequency increase in action potentials in sensory-motor neurons immediately before the arrival of a visual response; and 2) a transient visual-sensory response consisting of a high-frequency burst of action potentials in visually responsive neurons resulting from the appearance of a visual target stimulus. To better understand how these two neural signals interact to produce express saccades, we manipulated the arrival time and magnitude of visual responses in the SC by altering target luminance and we examined the corresponding influences on SC activity and express saccade generation. We recorded from saccade neurons with visual-, motor-, and previsual-related activity in the SC of monkeys performing the gap saccade task while target luminance was systematically varied between 0.001 and 42.5 cd/m(2) against a black background (∼0.0001 cd/m(2)). Our results demonstrated that 1) express saccade latencies were linked directly to the arrival time in the SC of visual responses produced by abruptly appearing visual stimuli; 2) express saccades were generated toward both dim and bright targets whenever sufficient previsual activity was present; and 3) target luminance altered the likelihood of producing an express saccade. When an express saccade was generated, visuomotor neurons increased their activity immediately before the arrival of the visual response in the SC and saccade initiation. Furthermore, the visual and motor responses of visuomotor neurons merged into a single burst of action potentials, while the visual response of visual-only neurons was

  11. BOLD temporal dynamics of rat superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus following short duration visual stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condon Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The superior colliculus (SC and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are important subcortical structures for vision. Much of our understanding of vision was obtained using invasive and small field of view (FOV techniques. In this study, we use non-invasive, large FOV blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD fMRI to measure the SC and LGN's response temporal dynamics following short duration (1 s visual stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments are performed at 7 tesla on Sprague Dawley rats stimulated in one eye with flashing light. Gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences are used to provide complementary information. An anatomical image is acquired from one rat after injection of monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION, a blood vessel contrast agent. BOLD responses are concentrated in the contralateral SC and LGN. The SC BOLD signal measured with gradient-echo rises to 50% of maximum amplitude (PEAK 0.2±0.2 s before the LGN signal (p<0.05. The LGN signal returns to 50% of PEAK 1.4±1.2 s before the SC signal (p<0.05. These results indicate the SC signal rises faster than the LGN signal but settles slower. Spin-echo results support these findings. The post-MION image shows the SC and LGN lie beneath large blood vessels. This subcortical vasculature is similar to that in the cortex, which also lies beneath large vessels. The LGN lies closer to the large vessels than much of the SC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The differences in response timing between SC and LGN are very similar to those between deep and shallow cortical layers following electrical stimulation, which are related to depth-dependent blood vessel dilation rates. This combined with the similarities in vasculature between subcortex and cortex suggest the SC and LGN timing differences are also related to depth-dependent dilation rates. This study shows for the first time that BOLD responses in the rat SC and LGN following short duration visual stimulation are

  12. [A case of left posterior inferior temporal infarction with right homonymous upper quadrantanopsia and alexia with agraphia for Kanji].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yoshikazu; Takanashi, Taiji; Mihara, Etsuko; Shoji, Takuro; Kinoshita, Kaori; Shimizu, Yasutaka

    2011-06-01

    Alexia with agraphia usually represents damage in angular gyrus. We report an unusual case of alexia with agraphia caused by a posterior inferior temporal lesion. A 82-year-old, right-handed man was admitted because of reading disorder. Visual acuity was 0.7 OD and 0.7 OS. Goldmann perimetry revealed right homonymous upper quadrantanopsia. Standard Language Test of Aphasia revealed mild anomia and severe alexia with agraphia for kanji. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated left temporal and posterior infarction in the posterior cerebral artery region. Single photon emission computed tomography revealed decreased blood flow in the left inferior temporal, parahippocampal, fusiform, lingual and inferior occipital gyri. There were no significant lesions nor any decreased of blood flow in the angular gyrus. It is suggested that reading and writing of ideograms such as Kanji is related not only to the angular gyrus but also to the posterior inferior temporal lobe and medial posterior lobe of the visual cortex.

  13. Bilateral inferior dislocation of the hip——a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kishan R Bhagwat; Bhavuk Garg; Sameer Aggarwal; Mandeep S Dhillon

    2012-01-01

    Inferior dislocation of the hip is the rarest type in hip dislocation.Very few cases have been reported in the anglophonic literature,most of which involved the pediatric age group.Surprisingly,we came across a 30-year-old patient with a bilateral inferior hip dislocation.He had sustained a road traffic accident and the attitude of both hip joints was flexion and abduction.The diagnosis was confirmed by radiographs which revealed the long axis of the femur at an angle of 110 (fight) degrees and 100 (left) degrees respectively away from the axis.Closed reduction under sedation was successfully performed.Skin traction for a period of 6 weeks was advised and the follow-up revealed an excellent result.We present the details of this case,the first of its kind along with a review of the literature,discussing the various modes and mechanisms of injury inducing inferior dislocation of the hip.

  14. Marker-Negative Pheochromocytoma Associated with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poudyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma associated with inferior vena cava (IVC thrombosis is very rare. A 27-year-old female presented with right flank pain and hypertensive urgency. Contrast-enhanced CT abdomen and gadolinium-contrast MRI abdomen revealed right adrenal mass suspicious of malignancy with invasion and compression to the right IVC wall along with IVC thrombus extending from the level of renal veins to the level of confluence with hepatic veins. Her routine laboratory investigations including 24-hour urine fractionated metanephrines, vanillylmandelic acid, and cortisol were normal. Right adrenalectomy with IVC thrombectomy was done. Perioperative period was uneventful. Histopathology of the mass turned out to be pheochromocytoma with thrombus revealing fibroadipose tissue with fibrin. Pheochromocytoma may present with IVC thrombus as well as normal serum and urinary markers. Thus, clinical suspicion is imperative in perioperative management of adrenal mass.

  15. Reconstrucción de extremidad inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrett Brian, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de la extremidad inferior es parte esencial de la cirugía plástica y se concentra en el tratamiento de heridas y defectos causados por trauma, cáncer, o procesos de enfermedades crónicas. Durante los últimos 25 años, los avances en técnicas de cirugía plástica tales como la transferencia libre de tejidos tecnologías más avanzadas de cuidado de heridas han revolucionado este campo, permitiendo salvar extremidades que de otro modo habrían sido amputadas. Este documento analizará el campo de la reconstrucción de extremidades inferiores concentrándose en la evaluación de defectos y heridas de pierna y las variadas opciones de tratamiento.

  16. The bihemispheric posterior inferior cerebellar artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Sean P. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Neurosurgery, Boston, MA (United States); Ozanne, Augustin; Alvarez, Hortensia; Lasjaunias, Pierre [Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostic et Therapeutique, Hopital de Bicetre-Universite Paris-sud Orsay (France)

    2005-11-01

    Rarely, a solitary posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) will supply both cerebellar hemispheres. We report four cases of this variant. We present a retrospective review of clinical information and imaging of patients undergoing angiography at our institution to identify patients with a bihemispheric PICA. There were four patients: three males and one female. One patient presented with a ruptured arteriovenous malformation, and one with a ruptured aneurysm. Two patients had normal angiograms. The bihemispheric PICA was an incidental finding in all cases. The bihemispheric vessel arose from the dominant left vertebral artery, and the contralateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery was absent or hypoplastic. In all cases, contralateral cerebellar supply arose from a continuation of the ipsilateral PICA distal to the choroidal point and which crossed the midline dorsal to the vermis. We conclude that the PICA may supply both cerebellar hemispheres. This rare anatomic variant should be considered when evaluating patients with posterior fossa neurovascular disease. (orig.)

  17. Dual joint space arthrography in temporomandibular joint disorders: Comparison with single inferior joint space arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Sik; Chang, Duk Soo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Woo Sun; Sung, Jung Ho; Jun, Young Hwan [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    The temporomandibular joint(TMJ) is really a complex of two synovial space separated by fibrocartilaginous disc. Single inferior joint space arthrography is commonly performed for evaluation of TMJ disorders, which is known to be superior in demonstrating joint dynamics. But it reveals only the inferior surface of the disc. Therefore, dual space arthrography is superior to demonstrate the soft tissue anatomic feature of the joint such as disc position and shape. Authors performed 83 TMJ arthrograms in TMJ problems. Initially, the inferior joint space was done and then the superior space was sequentially contrasted. The follow results were noted: 1. In all cases, dual space arthrography revealed accurate disc shape and positions. 2. Concordant findings between the two techniques: 68 cases (82%). Discordance between the two techniques: 15 cases (18%) 3. Possible causes of discordance between inferior and dual space arthrography. a) Normal varians of anterior recess: 3 cases b) Posterior disc displacement: 4 cases c) Influence of the patient's head position change :4 cases d) False perforation: 2 cases e) Reduction change: 2 cases 4. In 5 cases with anterior displacement, dual space arthrography gave additional findings such as adhesion within the superior space, which could not be evaluated by single inferior space.

  18. Does Wal-Mart Sell Inferior Goods?

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Basker

    2008-01-01

    I estimate the aggregate income elasticity of Wal-Mart's and Target's revenues using quarterly data for 1997-2006. I find that Wal-Mart's revenues increase during bad times, whereas Target's revenues decrease, consistent with Wal-Mart selling "inferior goods" in the technical sense of the term. An upper bound on the aggregate income elasticity of demand for Wal-Mart's wares is -0.5.

  19. Predictions Shape Confidence in Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Maxine T; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-10-05

    It is clear that prior expectations shape perceptual decision-making, yet their contribution to the construction of subjective decision confidence remains largely unexplored. We recorded fMRI data while participants made perceptual decisions and confidence judgments, manipulating perceptual prior expectations while controlling for potential confounds of attention. Results show that subjective confidence increases as expectations increasingly support the decision, and that this relationship is associated with BOLD activity in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG). Specifically, rIFG is sensitive to the discrepancy between expectation and decision (mismatch), and higher mismatch responses are associated with lower decision confidence. Connectivity analyses revealed expectancy information to be represented in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and sensory signals to be represented in intracalcarine sulcus. Together, our results indicate that predictive information is integrated into subjective confidence in rIFG, and reveal an occipital-frontal network that constructs confidence from top-down and bottom-up signals. This interpretation was further supported by exploratory findings that the white matter density of right orbitofrontal cortex negatively predicted its respective contribution to the construction of confidence. Our findings advance our understanding of the neural basis of subjective perceptual processes by revealing an occipitofrontal functional network that integrates prior beliefs into the construction of confidence. Perceptual decision-making is typically conceived as an integration of bottom-up and top-down influences. However, perceptual decisions are accompanied by a sense of confidence. Confidence is an important facet of perceptual consciousness yet remains poorly understood. Here we implicate right inferior frontal gyrus in constructing confidence from the discrepancy between perceptual judgment and its prior probability. Furthermore, we place right

  20. Maxillary antral lavage using inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochloulis, G; Hern, J D; Hollis, L J; Tolley, N S

    1996-08-01

    Antral puncture and lavage through the inferior meatus is a minor but common otolaryngological procedure, usually performed under local anaesthesia. We describe a new method of introducing local anaesthetic into the inferior meatus, via the use of a soft intravenous cannula connected to a syringe containing 10 per cent cocaine paste. We have called this new technique inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia (IMCA).

  1. Inferior venacaval compression due to excessive abdominal packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.B. Santhosh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inferior venacaval compression is a common problem in late pregnancy. It can also occur due to compression of inferior venacava by abdominal or pelvic tumors. We report a case of acute iatrogenic inferior venacaval compression due to excessive abdominal packing during an intraabdominal surgery.

  2. Increased functional connectivity between superior colliculus and brain regions implicated in bodily self-consciousness during the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Tempelmann, Claus; Berthoz, Alain; Heinze, Hans-Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Bodily self-consciousness refers to bodily processes operating at personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal spatial dimensions. Although the neural underpinnings of representations of personal and peripersonal space associated with bodily self-consciousness were thoroughly investigated, relatively few is known about the neural underpinnings of representations of extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness. In the search to unravel brain structures generating a representation of the extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the implication of the superior colliculus (SC) in bodily illusions, and more specifically in the rubber hand illusion (RHi), which constitutes an established paradigm to study the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness. We observed activation of the colliculus ipsilateral to the manipulated hand associated with eliciting of RHi. A generalized form of context-dependent psychophysiological interaction analysis unravelled increased illusion-dependent functional connectivity between the SC and some of the main brain areas previously involved in bodily self-consciousness: right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), bilateral ventral premotor cortex (vPM), and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We hypothesize that the collicular map of the extrapersonal space interacts with maps of the peripersonal and personal space generated at rTPJ, vPM and the postcentral gyrus, producing a unified representation of space that is relevant for bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that processes of multisensory integration of bodily-related sensory inputs located in this unified representation of space constitute one main factor underpinning emergence of bodily self-consciousness.

  3. Design of Phase II Non-inferiority Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the development of inexpensive treatment regimens and less invasive surgical procedures, we are confronted with non-inferiority study objectives. A non-inferiority phase III trial requires a roughly four times larger sample size than that of a similar standard superiority trial. Because of the large required sample size, we often face feasibility issues to open a non-inferiority trial. Furthermore, due to lack of phase II non-inferiority trial design methods, we do not have an opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the experimental therapy through a phase II trial. As a result, we often fail to open a non-inferiority phase III trial and a large number of non-inferiority clinical questions still remain unanswered. In this paper, we want to develop some designs for non-inferiority randomized phase II trials with feasible sample sizes. At first, we review a design method for non-inferiority phase III trials. Subsequently, we propose three different designs for non-inferiority phase II trials that can be used under different settings. Each method is demonstrated with examples. Each of the proposed design methods is shown to require a reasonable sample size for non-inferiority phase II trials. The three different non-inferiority phase II trial designs are used under different settings, but require similar sample sizes that are typical for phase II trials.

  4. Acute inferior myocardial infarction with right ventricular infarction is more prone to develop cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M A; Roy, A K; Islam, M Z; Aditya, G; Bhuiyan, A S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock is rare in isolated acute inferior myocardial infarction but there is relationship of cardiogenic shock with inferior myocardial infarction if associated with right ventricular infarction. A prospective study was carried out to see the association of cardiogenic shock with inferior myocardial infarction if associated with right ventricular infarction. This study was conducted from January 2011 to November 2011. A total of 100 cases were selected as study population which was taken from the Department of Cardiology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Among them 50 were in Group A and 50 were in Group B. Group A was the patients of acute myocardial infarction with right ventricular infarction. Group B was the patients of acute myocardial infarction without right ventricular infarction. It revealed that 9(18%) in Group A and 3(6%) in Group B developed cardiogenic shock which is statistically significant (pcardiogenic shock.

  5. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. Perforation of inferior alveolar nerve by maxillary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La fosa infratemporal es un área anatómica clínicamente importante para la administración de agentes anestésicos locales en odontología y cirugía maxilofacial. Fueron estudiadas variaciones en la anatomía del nervio alveolar inferior y la arteria maxilar en la disección infratemporal. Durante la disección rutinaria de la cabeza en el cadáver de un varón adulto, fue observada una variación excepcional en el origen del nervio alveolar inferior y su relación con las estructuras circundantes. El nervio alveolar inferior se originaba en el nervio mandibular por dos raíces y la primera parte de la arteria maxilar estaba incorporada entre ambas. El origen embriológico de esta variación y sus implicaciones clínicas es debatido. Dado que la arteria maxilar transcurría entre las dos raíces del nervio alveolar inferior, y el nervio estaba fijado entre el foramen oval y el foramen mandibular, el atrapamiento vásculo-nervioso pudo causar entume-cimiento o dolor de cabeza e interferir con la inyección de anestésicos locales en la fosa infratemporal.  Variaciones anatómicas en esta región deben ser tenidas en cuenta, especialmente en casos de tratamiento fallido de neuralgia del trigémino. Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originated from the mandibular nerve by two roots and the first part of the maxillary artery was incorporated between them. An embryologic origin of this variation and its clinical implications is discussed. Because the maxillary artery runs between the two roots of

  6. Decompression of inferior alveolar nerve: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Tiago Miguel Santos; Gomes, Joana Marques

    2011-01-01

    Paresthesia as a result of mechanical trauma is one of the most frequent sensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. This case report describes surgical treatment for paresthesia caused by a compressive phenomenon within the mandibular canal. The cause of the compression, a broken instrument left in the patient's mouth during previous endodontic therapy, was identified during routine radiography and computed tomography. Once the foreign object was removed by surgery, the paresthesia resolved quickly. This case highlights the potential for an iatrogenic mechanical cause of paresthesia.

  7. Prognostic significance of right bundle branch block in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction

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    Iwasaki,Jun

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    There is little information available concerning the influence of right bundle branch block (RBBB on the prognosis of patients with inferior myocardial infarction (MI. In this study we evaluated the influence of RBBB on the short-term prognosis of patients with inferior MI. Our study subjects were 1,265 hospitalized patients with Q wave MI. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on the presence or absence of RBBB and on the location of the infarction. RBBB was classified into 4 categories according to the timing of its appearance and its duration as new permanent, transient, old and age indeterminate. In-hospital death and pulmonary congestion were observed more frequently in patients with RBBB than in those without RBBB. Moreover, in inferior MI as in anterior MI, in-hospital death and pulmonary congestion occurred more frequently in new permanent RBBB patients than in patients with other types of RBBB. Multivariate regression analysis reveals that new permanent RBBB was a strong independent predictor for an adverse short-term prognosis in patients with inferior MI, as well as in patients with anterior MI. New permanent RBBB during inferior MI is a strong independent predictor for increased in-hospital mortality, regardless of the infarction location.

  8. [MASSIVE HEMORRHAGE FROM THE FISTULA FORMATION BETWEEN CUTANEOUS URETEROSTOMY AND INFERIOR EPIGASTRIC ARTERY: A CASE REPORT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Tadamasa; Mori, Kenichi; Shin, Toshitaka; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminori; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Sato, Yoshiyasu; Matsubara, Takanori; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Kamei, Noritaka; Hongo, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    A 87-year-old man received radical nephroureterectomy for right renal pelvic cancer in 2009 and left cutaneous ureterostomy after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in 2013. He visited the hospital for exchanging a 7 or 8 Fr single-J catheter every 2 to 4 weeks. Eleven months after the 2nd operation, massive bleeding from the stoma occurred when ureteral catheter was exchanged. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed that left inferior epigastric artery was located close to left ureter. Angiography of the left inferior epigastric artery didn't show an obvious fistula, but revealed the stoma was surrounded by ramified new blood vessels from left inferior epigastric artery. We suspected a rupture of the vessels and performed embolization for the branch of inferior epigastric artery to left ureter. This embolization made it possible for the bleeding to be controlled. Massive bleeding from the branch of inferior epigastric artery is very rare, and we report the case and review the literature.

  9. Inferior alveolar nerve injuries associated with mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Salwan Yousif Hanna; Ismael, Waleed Khaleel; Al-Assaf, Dhuha A; Omer, Saad Salem

    2012-11-01

    The study evaluates the incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injuries in mandibular fractures, the duration of their recovery, and the factors associated with them. Fifty-two patients with mandibular fractures involving the ramus, angle, and body regions were included in this study; the inferior alveolar nerve was examined for neurological deficit posttraumatically using sharp/blunt differentiation method, and during the follow-up period the progression of neural recovery was assessed. The incidence of neural injury of the inferior alveolar nerve was 42.3%, comminuted and displaced linear fractures were associated with higher incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injury and prolonged recovery time, and recovery of inferior alveolar nerve function occurred in 91%.Fractures of the mandible involving the ramus, angle, and body regions, and comminuted and displaced linear fractures are factors that increase the incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injuries. Missile injuries can be considered as another risk factor.

  10. Total laparoscopic retrieval of inferior vena cava filter

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    Ehsan Benrashid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is some local variability in the use of inferior vena cava filters and there has been some evolution in the indications for filter placement over time, inferior vena cava filters remain a standard option for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. Indications are clear in certain subpopulations of patients, particularly those with deep venous thrombosis and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation. There are, however, a variety of reported inferior vena cava filter complications in the short and long term, making retrieval of the filter desirable in most cases. Here, we present the case of a morbidly obese patient complaining of chronic abdominal pain after inferior vena cava filter placement and malposition of the filter with extensive protrusion outside the inferior vena cava. She underwent successful laparoscopic retrieval of her malpositioned inferior vena cava filters after failure of a conventional endovascular approach.

  11. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

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    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  12. A neural locus for spatial-frequency specific saccadic suppression in visual-motor neurons of the primate superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yang; Hafed, Ziad M

    2017-04-01

    Saccades cause rapid retinal-image shifts that go perceptually unnoticed several times per second. The mechanisms for saccadic suppression have been controversial, in part because of sparse understanding of neural substrates. In this study we uncovered an unexpectedly specific neural locus for spatial frequency-specific saccadic suppression in the superior colliculus (SC). We first developed a sensitive behavioral measure of suppression in two macaque monkeys, demonstrating selectivity to low spatial frequencies similar to that observed in earlier behavioral studies. We then investigated visual responses in either purely visual SC neurons or anatomically deeper visual motor neurons, which are also involved in saccade generation commands. Surprisingly, visual motor neurons showed the strongest visual suppression, and the suppression was dependent on spatial frequency, as in behavior. Most importantly, suppression selectivity for spatial frequency in visual motor neurons was highly predictive of behavioral suppression effects in each individual animal, with our recorded population explaining up to ~74% of behavioral variance even on completely different experimental sessions. Visual SC neurons had mild suppression, which was unselective for spatial frequency and thus only explained up to ~48% of behavioral variance. In terms of spatial frequency-specific saccadic suppression, our results run contrary to predictions that may be associated with a hypothesized SC saccadic suppression mechanism, in which a motor command in the visual motor and motor neurons is first relayed to the more superficial purely visual neurons, to suppress them and to then potentially be fed back to cortex. Instead, an extraretinal modulatory signal mediating spatial-frequency-specific suppression may already be established in visual motor neurons.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Saccades, which repeatedly realign the line of sight, introduce spurious signals in retinal images that normally go unnoticed. In

  13. Partial breast reconstruction with mini superficial inferior epigastric artery and mini deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Aldona J; Eldor, Liron

    2010-08-01

    In this study, partial breast reconstruction was undertaken after breast conservation therapy using mini abdominal free flaps on both an immediate and delayed basis.Patient demographics, oncologic status, reconstructive data, and complications were collected from medical records.Twelve patients (age range 39-60) were included in this study with a mean follow-up time of 5 years. Ten mini superficial inferior epigastric artery flaps and 2 mini deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps were used (7 immediate and 5 delayed reconstructions). No flap lost, 1 minor abdominal wound dehiscence, and no local or distant recurrences were noted. Good to excellent results were reported by 91% of the women.In properly selected patients with high motivation toward breast conservation, tailored abdominal mini-free flaps can safely and satisfactorily be implemented for the reconstruction of partial mastectomy defects. Patients should be comprehensively educated on the potential future implications of using the abdominal donor site for partial breast reconstruction.

  14. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. LA PERFORACION DEL NERVIO ALVEOLAR INFERIOR POR LA ARTERIA MAXILAR

    OpenAIRE

    Vanishree S Nayak; Ramachandra Bhat K; Prakash Billakanti Babu

    2011-01-01

    Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originate...

  15. GABAergic inhibition modulates intensity sensitivity of temporally patterned pulse trains in the inferior collicular neurons in big brown bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Rui-Hong; Wu, Fei-Jian; Jen, Philip H-S; Sun, Xin-De

    2007-12-25

    The echolocating big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) emit trains of frequency-modulated (FM) biosonar signals with duration, amplitude, repetition rate, and sweep structure changing systematically during interception of their prey. In the present study, the sound stimuli of temporally patterned pulse trains at three different pulse repetition rates (PRRs) were used to mimic the sounds received during search, approach, and terminal stages of echolocation. Electrophysiological method was adopted in recordings from the inferior colliculus (IC) of midbrain. By means of iontophoretic application of bicuculline, the effect of GABAergic inhibition on the intensity sensitivity of IC neurons responding to three different PRRs of 10, 30 and 90 pulses per second (pps) was examined. The rate-intensity functions (RIFs) were acquired. The dynamic range (DR) of RIFs was considered as a criterion of intensity sensitivity. Comparing the average DR of RIFs at different PRRs, we found that the intensity sensitivity of some neurons improved, but that of other neurons decayed when repetition rate of stimulus trains increased from 10 to 30 and 90 pps. During application of bicuculline, the number of impulses responding to the different pulse trains increased under all stimulating conditions, while the DR differences of RIFs at different PRRs were abolished. The results indicate that GABAergic inhibition was involved in modulating the intensity sensitivity of IC neurons responding to pulse trains at different PRRs. Before and during bicuculline application, the percentage of changes in responses was maximal in lower stimulus intensity near to the minimum threshold (MT), and decreased gradually with the increment of stimulus intensity. This observation suggests that GABAergic inhibition contributes more effectively to the intensity sensitivity of the IC neurons responding to pulse trains at lower sound level.

  16. Surgical extraction of impacted inferior third molars at risk for inferior alveolar nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallesio, Cesare; Berrone, Mattia; Ruga, Emanuele; Boffano, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to prospectively assess the intraoperative findings and the radiographic signs of a study population of patients with impacted third molars at risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury. One hundred thirty-four patients with impacted mandibular third molars at risk for nerve injury were included in the study. Radiographic signs of possible close relationship between the 2 structures and intraoperative exposition or damage of the inferior alveolar nerve were recorded. The follow-up controls comprised clinical examinations and assessment for the sensation of the lower lip and chin. In 24 patients, a real contiguity was encountered between the third molars and nerve. Among these, intraoperative neural exposition was observed in 19 patients. Four patients complained of postoperative temporary hypoesthesia. No deficit of sensibility was found in cases with no exposition of the nerve. The accidental exposition of the inferior alveolar nerve is associated with an increased risk for neural injuries. At panoramic radiograph, the presence of signs of bifid and radiolucent apex, superimposition, and radiolucent root band should be considered at high risk for neural damage.

  17. Maturation of multisensory integration in the superior colliculus: expression of nitric oxide synthase and neurofilament SMI-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Santamaria, Veronica; McHaffie, John G; Stein, Barry E

    2008-11-25

    Nitric oxide (NO) containing (nitrergic) interneurons are well-positioned to convey the cortical influences that are crucial for multisensory integration in superior colliculus (SC) output neurons. However, it is not known whether nitrergic interneurons are in this position early in life, and might, therefore, also play a role in the functional maturation of this circuit. In the present study, we investigated the postnatal developmental relationship between these two populations of neurons using Beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH) histochemistry and SMI-32 immunocytochemistry to label presumptive interneurons and output neurons, respectively. SMI-32 immunostained neurons were proved to mature and retained immature anatomical features until approximately 8 postnatal weeks. In contrast, nitrergic interneurons developed more rapidly. They had achieved their adult-like anatomy by 4 postnatal weeks and were in a position to influence the dendritic elaboration of output neurons. It is this dendritic substrate through which much of the cortico-collicular influence is expressed. Double-labeling experiments showed that the dendritic and axonal processes of nitrergic interneurons already apposed the somata and dendrites of SMI-32 labeled neurons even at the earliest age examined. The results suggest that nitrergic interneurons play a role in refining the cortico-collicular projection patterns that are believed to be essential for SC output neurons to engage in multisensory integration and to support normal orientation responses to cross-modal stimuli.

  18. Competition driven by retinal waves promotes morphological and functional synaptic development of neurons in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Moran; Xu, Hong-Ping; Crair, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Prior to eye opening, waves of spontaneous activity sweep across the developing retina. These "retinal waves," together with genetically encoded molecular mechanisms, mediate the formation of visual maps in the brain. However, the specific role of wave activity in synapse development in retino-recipient brain regions is unclear. Here we compare the functional development of synapses and the morphological development of neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) of wild-type (WT) and transgenic (β2-TG) mice in which retinal wave propagation is spatially truncated (Xu HP, Furman M, Mineur YS, Chen H, King SL, Zenisek D, Zhou ZJ, Butts DA, Tian N, Picciotto MR, Crair MC. Neuron 70: 1115-1127, 2011). We use two recently developed brain slice preparations to examine neurons and synapses in the binocular vs. mainly monocular SC. We find that retinocollicular synaptic strength is reduced whereas the number of retinal inputs is increased in the binocular SC of β2-TG mice compared with WT mice. In contrast, in the mainly monocular SC the number of retinal inputs is normal in β2-TG mice, but, transiently, synapses are abnormally strong, possibly because of enhanced activity-dependent competition between local, "small" retinal wave domains. These findings demonstrate that retinal wave size plays an instructive role in the synaptic and morphological development of SC neurons, possibly through a competitive process among retinofugal axons.

  19. Distractor evoked deviations of saccade trajectory are modulated by fixation activity in the superior colliculus: computational and behavioral evidence.

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    Zhiguo Wang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that saccades may deviate towards or away from task irrelevant visual distractors. This observation has been attributed to active suppression (inhibition of the distractor location unfolding over time: early in time inhibition at the distractor location is incomplete causing deviation towards the distractor, while later in time when inhibition is complete the eyes deviate away from the distractor. In a recent computational study, Wang, Kruijne and Theeuwes proposed an alternative theory that the lateral interactions in the superior colliculus (SC, which are characterized by short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, are sufficient for generating both deviations towards and away from distractors. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature, ran model simulations and conducted two behavioral experiments to further explore this unconventional theory. Confirming predictions generated by the model simulations, the behavioral experiments show that a saccades deviate towards close distractors and away from remote distractors, and b the amount of deviation depends on the strength of fixation activity in the SC, which can be manipulated by turning off the fixation stimulus before or after target onset (Experiment 1, or by varying the eccentricity of the target and distractor (Experiment 2.

  20. Distractor evoked deviations of saccade trajectory are modulated by fixation activity in the superior colliculus: computational and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Theeuwes, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that saccades may deviate towards or away from task irrelevant visual distractors. This observation has been attributed to active suppression (inhibition) of the distractor location unfolding over time: early in time inhibition at the distractor location is incomplete causing deviation towards the distractor, while later in time when inhibition is complete the eyes deviate away from the distractor. In a recent computational study, Wang, Kruijne and Theeuwes proposed an alternative theory that the lateral interactions in the superior colliculus (SC), which are characterized by short-distance excitation and long-distance inhibition, are sufficient for generating both deviations towards and away from distractors. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature, ran model simulations and conducted two behavioral experiments to further explore this unconventional theory. Confirming predictions generated by the model simulations, the behavioral experiments show that a) saccades deviate towards close distractors and away from remote distractors, and b) the amount of deviation depends on the strength of fixation activity in the SC, which can be manipulated by turning off the fixation stimulus before or after target onset (Experiment 1), or by varying the eccentricity of the target and distractor (Experiment 2).

  1. PARTIAL INFERIOR TURBINECTOMY FOR INFERIOR TURBINATE HYPERTROPHY: REVIEW OF 30 CASES

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    Vishnu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To compare the preoperative and postoperative subjective, objective parameters and postoperative complications of 30 patients with nasal obstruction due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy following partial inferior turbinectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS A prospective observational study involving 30 patients with nasal obstruction due to inferior turbinate hypertrophy was done at SGMC, TVM from January 2014 to June 2015. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively based on subjective and objective parameters. Postoperative evaluation was done at day 1, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months based on subjective and objective parameters and postoperative complications. RESULTS Snoring among the study population decreased from 26.7% to 10% at the end of 1 month and was further reduced 3.3% at the end of 3 months. Feeling of nasal obstruction, present in all patients, preoperatively was reduced to 36.7%, 16.7% and 3.3% at the end of 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months respectively. Among preoperative objective parameters, cold spatula test which was showing decreased fogging for all patients initially, following the procedure showed improvement in fogging in 70%, 90%, 100% of patients at the end of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. Anterior rhinoscopy showing large turbinate in all patients preoperatively, showed reduction in turbinate size in 70%, 86.73% and 96.7% at the end of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months respectively. Radiological evidence of enlarged inferior turbinate present in all patients was reduced to 3.3% at the end of 3 months. Occurrence of postoperative reactionary haemorrhage on day 1 was 43.3%. Nasal crust formation was not seen in 6.7% of the patients by the end of 3 months. Nasal pain was seen in 6.7% of the patients at the end of 1 week. Remote sequelae like synechiae and atrophic rhinitis were not reported in any of the patients during the assessment time period. CONCLUSION PIT is an effective technique for

  2. Through the looking glass: understanding non-inferiority

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    Wittes Janet T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-inferiority trials test whether a new product is not unacceptably worse than a product already in use. This paper introduces concepts related to non-inferiority, and discusses the regulatory views of both the European Medicines Agency and the United States Food and Drug Administration.

  3. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  4. Cognitive priming in sung and instrumental music: activation of inferior frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, B; Koelsch, S; Escoffier, N; Bigand, E; Lalitte, P; Friederici, A D; von Cramon, D Y

    2006-07-15

    Neural correlates of the processing of musical syntax-like structures have been investigated via expectancy violation due to musically unrelated (i.e., unexpected) events in musical contexts. Previous studies reported the implication of inferior frontal cortex in musical structure processing. However - due to the strong musical manipulations - activations might be explained by sensory deviance detection or repetition priming. Our present study investigated neural correlates of musical structure processing with subtle musical violations in a musical priming paradigm. Instrumental and sung sequences ended on related and less-related musical targets. The material controlled sensory priming components, and differences in target processing required listeners' knowledge on musical structures. Participants were scanned with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while performing speeded phoneme and timbre identification judgments on the targets. Behavioral results acquired in the scanner replicated the facilitation effect of related over less-related targets. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal linked to target processing revealed activation of right inferior frontal areas (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, frontal operculum, anterior insula) that was stronger for less-related than for related targets, and this was independent of the material carrying the musical structures. This outcome points to the implication of inferior frontal cortex in the processing of syntactic relations also for musical material and to its role in the processing and integration of sequential information over time. In addition to inferior frontal activation, increased activation was observed in orbital gyrus, temporal areas (anterior superior temporal gyrus, posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, posterior middle temporal gyrus) and supramarginal gyrus.

  5. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens’ arithmetic scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the grey matter (GM volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS. Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children’s arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  6. Heterogeneity in the spatial receptive field architecture of multisensory neurons of the superior colliculus and its effects on multisensory integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Dipanwita; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory integration has been widely studied in neurons of the mammalian superior colliculus (SC). This has led to the description of various determinants of multisensory integration, including those based on stimulus- and neuron-specific factors. The most widely characterized of these illustrate the importance of the spatial and temporal relationships of the paired stimuli as well as their relative effectiveness in eliciting a response in determining the final integrated output. Although these stimulus-specific factors have generally been considered in isolation (i.e., manipulating stimulus location while holding all other factors constant), they have an intrinsic interdependency that has yet to be fully elucidated. For example, changes in stimulus location will likely also impact both the temporal profile of response and the effectiveness of the stimulus. The importance of better describing this interdependency is further reinforced by the fact that SC neurons have large receptive fields, and that responses at different locations within these receptive fields are far from equivalent. To address these issues, the current study was designed to examine the interdependency between the stimulus factors of space and effectiveness in dictating the multisensory responses of SC neurons. The results show that neuronal responsiveness changes dramatically with changes in stimulus location – highlighting a marked heterogeneity in the spatial receptive fields of SC neurons. More importantly, this receptive field heterogeneity played a major role in the integrative product exhibited by stimulus pairings, such that pairings at weakly responsive locations of the receptive fields resulted in the largest multisensory interactions. Together these results provide greater insight into the interrelationship of the factors underlying multisensory integration in SC neurons, and may have important mechanistic implications for multisensory integration and the role it plays in shaping

  7. Inferior dislocation of the hip: a case series and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer Aggarwal; Vishal Kumar; Kishan Ramachandra Bhagwat; Vokkaleri Shankaranarayana Shashikanth; Holalu Shankaralingegowda Ravikumar

    2012-01-01

    Inferior hip dislocation is the rarest type among all hip dislocations.Very few cases have been reported in the English literature.Most of the earlier reported cases involves the pediatric age group.No single case series could be found in the English literature.We came across 4 cases of inferior hip dislocation with a varied age profile (range 10 to 56 years,mean 33.8 years).Patients with this disease usually complained of pain and kept the thigh flexed and abducted.The diagnosis can be confirmed by radiographs which reveal that the long axis of the femur varies in alignment with respect to the spine from parallel to an angle almost 90° away from the axis.In our series,closed reduction was successful in all patients,either under sedation or general anaesthesia.Skin traction for a period of 6 weeks was applied in all of them and follow-up revealed pain-free,stable and mobile hips.In this study we present the details of these cases along with a review of literature discussing the various modes and mechanisms that produce inferior hip dislocation.

  8. Inferior dislocation of the hip: a case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Sameer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Inferior hip dislocation is the rarest type among all hip dislocations. Very few cases have been re-ported in the English literature. Most of the earlier reported cases involves the pediatric age group. No single case series could be found in the English literature. We came across 4 cases of inferior hip dislocation with a varied age profile (range 10 to 56 years, mean 33.8 years. Patients with this disease usually complained of pain and kept the thigh flexed and abducted. The diagnosis can be confirmed by radiographs which reveal that the long axis of the femur varies in alignment with respect to the spine from parallel to an angle almost 90° away from the axis. In our series, closed reduction was successful in all patients, either under seda-tion or general anaesthesia. Skin traction for a period of 6 weeks was applied in all of them and follow-up revealed pain-free, stable and mobile hips. In this study we present the details of these cases along with a review of literature discussing the various modes and mechanisms that pro-duce inferior hip dislocation. Key words: Hip dislocation; Therapeutics; Traction; Weight-bearing

  9. The effect of shoulder position on inferior glenohumeral mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dexter W; Talbott, Nancy R

    2017-03-09

    Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Inferior mobilizations are used to treat patients with shoulder dysfunctions. Common positions recommended for promoting an inferior glide include: (1) an open-packed position (OPP) in which the shoulder is in 55° of abduction, 30° of horizontal adduction, and no rotation; (2) neutral position (NP) of the shoulder; and (3) position of 90° of shoulder abduction (ABDP). Studies comparing the impact of position on inferior mobilization are lacking. To determine the effect of shoulder position on humeral movement and mobilization force during inferior mobilizations. Twenty-three subjects were tested bilaterally. Subjects were placed in the OPP, and an ultrasound transducer placed over the superior glenohumeral joint. As inferior mobilization forces were applied through a dynamometer, ultrasound images were taken at rest and during 3 grades of inferior mobilization. This process was repeated in the NP and the ABDP. In the NP, movements during grade 1, 2, and 3 mobilizations were 1.8, 3.8, and 4.5 mm, respectively. Movements measured in the OPP (1.0, 2.4, and 3.6 mm, respectively) and in the ABDP (1.0, 2.2, and 2.3 mm, respectively) were less. Forces were higher in the NP during grade 1, 2, and 3 mobilizations (51.8, 138.7, and 202.1 N, respectively) than in the OPP (37.2, 91.2, and 139.9 N, respectively) and the ABPD (42.5, 115.3, and 165.5 N, respectively). Mobilization position altered the movement and force during inferior mobilizations. Shoulder position should be considered when utilizing inferior mobilizations. NA. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adrenocortical carcinoma with extension to the inferior vena cava and right atrium: 20-month-old girl with TP53 mutation

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    Terry L. Levin, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-month-old female presented with respiratory distress and a right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava and right atrium. The mass was initially thought to be neuroblastoma. Pathology later revealed adrenocortical carcinoma. Inferior vena cava extension is far more common in adrenocortical carcinoma than neuroblastoma, and its presence should prompt clinical and laboratory evaluation for an adrenocortical tumor. The genetic findings in TP53 associated with this disease are discussed.

  11. Activation in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule Reflects the Representation of Musical Structure beyond Simple Pitch Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T.; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Robitaille, Nicolas; Schönwiesner, Marc; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Pitch discrimination tasks typically engage the superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. It is currently unclear whether these regions are equally involved in the processing of incongruous notes in melodies, which requires the representation of musical structure (tonality) in addition to pitch discrimination. To this aim, 14 participants completed two tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, one in which they had to identify a pitch change in a series of non-melodic repeating tones and a second in which they had to identify an incongruous note in a tonal melody. In both tasks, the deviants activated the right superior temporal gyrus. A contrast between deviants in the melodic task and deviants in the non-melodic task (melodic > non-melodic) revealed additional activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. Activation in the inferior parietal lobule likely represents processes related to the maintenance of tonal pitch structure in working memory during pitch discrimination. PMID:27195523

  12. Septic thrombophlebitis of the inferior mesenteric vein and associated mesenteric abscess complicating sigmoid diverticulitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seong Jae; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Beom Ha; Lee, Min Hee; Hong, Hyun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Thrombophlebitis occurs secondarily to inflammatory conditions of adjacent organs, and radiologic finding is essential for diagnosis. However, because of the rarity on clinical cases that involve the inferior mesenteric vein, many radiologists are unfamiliar with its location and appearance. We experience a case of septic thrombophlebitis with abscess complication sigmoid diverticulitis. CT scans reveals a low density thrombus and air in the inferior mesenteric vein, combining with perivascular fat infiltration, and focal wall defects with abscess formation. After surgical treatment, the abscess was not visible in the follow-up CT scans. Septic thrombophlebitis of the inferior mesenteric vein, although being a rare disease, should be diagnosed on CT according to the given unique location, the appearance of inflamed vein and the adjacent descending mesocolon.

  13. Optic nerve, superior colliculus, visual thalamus, and primary visual cortex of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Emily C; Sawyer, Eva K; Kaas, Jon H

    2017-02-11

    The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) are members of a diverse clade of carnivorous mammals known as pinnipeds. Pinnipeds are notable for their large, ape-sized brains, yet little is known about their central nervous system. Both the northern elephant seal and California sea lion spend most of their lives at sea, but each also spends time on land to breed and give birth. These unique coastal niches may be reflected in specific evolutionary adaptations to their sensory systems. Here, we report on components of the visual pathway in these two species. We found evidence for two classes of myelinated fibers within the pinniped optic nerve, those with thick myelin sheaths (elephant seal: 9%, sea lion: 7%) and thin myelin sheaths (elephant seal: 91%, sea lion: 93%). In order to investigate the architecture of the lateral geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, and primary visual cortex, we processed brain sections from seal and sea lion pups for Nissl substance, cytochrome oxidase, and vesicular glutamate transporters. As in other carnivores, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus consisted of three main layers, A, A1, and C, while each superior colliculus similarly consisted of seven distinct layers. The sea lion visual cortex is located at the posterior side of cortex between the upper and lower banks of the postlateral sulcus, while the elephant seal visual cortex extends far more anteriorly along the dorsal surface and medial wall. These results are relevant to comparative studies related to the evolution of large brains.

  14. Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle as the initial treatment of a snapped inferior rectus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Aquino, B I; Riemann, C D; Lewis, H; Traboulsi, E I

    2001-02-01

    Snapping or tearing of an extraocular muscle refers to its rupture across its width, usually at the junction between muscle and tendon several millimeters behind the insertion. Tearing occurs during strabismus or retinal reattachment surgery, or after trauma. If the proximal end of the muscle cannot be located, transposition procedures are necessary to achieve ocular realignment. These surgical procedures carry the risk of anterior segment ischemia, especially in the elderly. Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle has been used for the treatment of inferior oblique overaction, especially in the presence of a dissociated vertical deviation, and in patients with fourth nerve palsy. We transposed the inferior oblique muscle insertion in a 73-year-old woman with a snapped inferior rectus muscle.

  15. Effect of modified inferior oblique anterior transposition on dissociated vertical strabismus patients with inferior oblique muscle hyperfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Lang Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle on the treatment of dissociated vertical deviation(DVDin children with inferior oblique overaction(IOOAand unequal inferior oblique transposition of the treatment of IOOA with the eyes of the asymmetry of DVD efficacy, associated with the lower oblique hyperfunction DVD patients to provide more effective treatment. METHODS: Eighty patients with hyperfunction who were treated in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2015 were randomly selected and treated with anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle. Patients were followed up for 1 to 30mo. We compared the vertical incline at the original incline from far(5m, near(33cmdistance and IOOA degree before and after operations, and the correlation between the two. We also compared the vertical incline at the original incline from far(5m, near(33cmdistance and IOOA degree before and after operations in 30 eyes(20 patientswith bilateral asymmetry DVD and IOOA who received unequal inferior oblique transposition. The incidence of antielevation syndrome(AESwas observed after operations. RESULTS: The mean prism diopters(PDat 5m before operations was 19.5±0.15, the average PD after operations was 3.5±0.18, at 5m the original incline was 16±0.21PD. The mean PD at 33cm was 18.6±0.20 before operation, 4.5±0.26 after operations, and 14.1±0.16 at 33cm the original incline, the difference was statistically significant(Pr=0.554, Pr=0.454, P PPCONCLUSION: Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle has a good therapeutic effect on isolated vertical strabismus patients with inferior oblique hyperfunction. While the incidence of postoperative AES is low in patients received unequal inferior oblique muscle transposition.

  16. Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Phosphatidylcholine and Executive Functions in Healthy, Older Adults

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    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and executive functions in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher plasma levels of phosphatidylcholine are associated with better performance on a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the prefrontal cortex (PFC that have been implicated in cognitive flexibility. Methods: We examined 72 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 in an observational, cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between blood biomarkers of phosphatidylcholine, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test, and gray matter structure of regions within the PFC. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions and we controlled for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index.Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the PFC, the left inferior PFC (Brodmann’s Area 45, mediates the relationship between phosphatidylcholine blood biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that the inferior PFC acts as a mediator of the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and cognitive flexibility in cognitively intact older adults. This report demonstrates a novel structural mediation between plasma phosphatidylcholine levels and cognitive flexibility. Future work should examine the potential mechanisms underlying this mediation, including phosphatidylcholine-dependent cell membrane integrity of the inferior PFC and phosphatidylcholine-dependent cholinergic projections to the inferior PFC.

  17. STUDY ON VARIATIONS OF INFERIOR SEGMENTAL BRANCH OF RENAL ARTERY

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    Chandragirish S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The segmental arteries of the kidney supply the organ in such a way that, each renal pole receives its own artery while, the anterior portion between the poles is supplied by an upper and lower segmental vessel. These two arteries also include in their territory the lateral edge of the kidney and adjacent to the strip of parenchyma on the dorsal or posterior aspect of the organ. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery is very important for surgeries in its distribution area in kidney. Materials and Methods: 100 kidneys (Fifty pairs intact with abdominal aorta were collected from department of Forensic medicine, JSS Medical College and Mysore Medical College. For study of segmental variation Corrosion cast technique method was used. The variations of inferior segmental branch of renal artery were observed and recorded. Results: In present study type I inferior segmental branch of renal artery were found in - 59% cases, type II in - 6% cases, type III in - 28% cases, type IV in - 2% cases. Conclusion: The inferior segmental artery from the anterior division of the renal artery is the commonest event –arising in 59%. This is Type I, the normal type. It arises from the renal artery (28% or from the posterior division (6% or from the aorta (2%. The knowledge of inferior segmental branch of renal artery helpful in kidney transplantation and renal surgery because these type of surgeries success mainly depends on arterial ligations.

  18. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  19. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (pmyasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected.

  20. Inferior Flap Tympanoplasty: A Novel Technique for Anterior Perforation Closure

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    Haim Gavriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report a novel tympanoplasty modification for anterior tympanic membrane perforation closure. Materials and Methods. A prospective study on 13 patients who underwent inferior tympanoplasty between December 2008 and May 2011 was carried out. In our technique, an inferior rather than a posterior flap is raised and the graft is laid from the inferior direction to obtain better access to the anterior part of the tympanic membrane perforation and provide better support. Results. A total of 13 patients underwent the novel inferior tympanoplasty technique with a mean age of 33 years. Six patients had undergone tympanoplasties and/or mastoidectomies in the past, 3 in the contralateral ear. A marginal perforation was observed in 3 cases, total perforation in 2 and subtotal in 1 case. The mean preoperative pure-tone average was 40.4 dB (10 to 90 dB, compared to 26.5 dB (10 to 55 dB postoperatively. All perforations were found to be closed but one (92.3% success rate. Conclusions. The inferior tympanoplasty technique provides a favorable outcome in terms of tympanic membrane closure and hearing improvement for anterior perforations, even in difficult and complex cases. It is based on a well-known technique and is easy to implement.

  1. Symptomatic duodenal perforation by inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista Sincos, Anna Pw; Sincos, Igor R; Labropoulos, Nicos; Donegá, Bruno C; Klepacz, Andrea; Aun, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is rare and life threatening. Our objective is to find out number of occurrences and compare diagnosis and treatments. Method The reference list of Malgor's review in 2012 was considered as well as all new articles with eligible features. Search was conducted on specific databases: MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde. Results Most of the patients presented with upper abdominal pain and the use of radiologic studies was crucial for diagnosis. The most common treatment was laparotomy with filter or strut removal plus duodenum repair. However, clinical conditions of patients must be considered and the endovascular technique with endograft deployment into inferior vena cava may be an alternative. Conclusion Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is uncommon and in high-risk surgical patients endovascular repair must be considered.

  2. Isquemia aguda de miembros inferiores secundaria a ergortismo

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    Franco J. Vallejo, MD

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de género femenino, de 21 años de edad, quien ingresó por dolor progresivo e intenso en miembros inferiores, y refirió antecedente reciente de ingestión de derivados del ergot. Al examen físico se observó ausencia de pulsos en ambos miembros inferiores. Por angiotomografia se documentó disminución severa, generalizada y bilateral, del calibre de los vasos arteriales de miembros inferiores. Se diagnosticó isquemia arterial aguda secundaria a ergotismo y se inició tratamiento con vasodilatadores y calcio-antagonistas, que resolvió los síntomas en su totalidad.

  3. Agenesia de veia cava inferior associada à trombose venosa profunda Agenesis of inferior vena cava associated with deep venous thrombosis

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    Clovis Luis Konopka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A agenesia da veia cava inferior é uma anomalia congênita rara, que foi recentemente identificada como um importante fator de risco para o desenvolvimento e a recorrência de trombose venosa profunda de membros inferiores em jovens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar o caso de uma paciente que apresentou trombose venosa profunda dois meses após a realização de cirurgia de varizes. A angiotomografia computadorizada demonstrou a presença de anomalia venosa complexa com ausência da veia cava inferior.The agenesis of the inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly, which was recently identified as an important risk factor for the development and recurrence of deep venous thrombosis especially in young people. The goal of this work was to report the case of a patient who presented deep venous thrombosis approximately two months after varicose vein surgery. The computerized angiotomography demonstrated the presence of a complex venous anomaly with absence of the inferior vena cava.

  4. Rectal cancer presenting tumor thrombosis in the inferior vena cava and common iliac vein: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sun Jung; Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Boem Ha; Park, Sung Il; Hong, Soo Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Park, Jeong Mi [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    We report the radiologic findings of a rectal carcinoma case with tumor thrombus in the inferior vana cava and left common iliac vein of a 48-year-old woman. The patient complained of swelling in the left leg and consequently underwent a lymphoscintigraphy, CT venography, abdominal CT, PET-CT, pelvis MRI, and ultrasound doppler. The rectal cancer was determined via a colonoscopy. The tissue biopsy of tumor thrombus in the IVC was done during insertion of IVC filter and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was revealed by pathology.

  5. Inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Faizan; Latif Zafar Jilani; Mazhar Abbas; Yasir Salam Siddiqui; Aamir Bin Sabir; M.K.A.Sherwani; Saifullah Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Inferior glenohumeral dislocation is the least common type of glenohumeral dislocations.It may be associated with fractures of the adjacent bones and neurovascular compromise.It should be treated immediately by close reduction.The associated neuropraxia usually recovers with time.Traction-counter traction method is commonly used for reduction followed by immobilization of the shoulder for three weeks.Here,we report a case of inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture with transient neurovascular compromise and present a brief review of the literature.

  6. Maksilektomi Inferior pada Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Palatum Durum

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    Sukri Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak          Karsinoma Palatum Durum adalah keganasan daerah kepala dan leher yang jarang terjadi dimana setengah diantaranya merupakan Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa. Pada fase awal keganasan ini dapat bersifat asimptomatis namun dapat juga menimbulkan gejala berupa ulkus yang terasa nyeri pada perkembangan penyakitnya. Operasi maksilektomi inferior merupakan salah satu pilihan tindakan yang dapat dilakukan dalam tatalaksana kasus ini, diikuti oleh pemberian radioterapi. Kasus ini dibuat untuk memahami penatalaksanaan karsinoma palatum durum. Dilaporkan kasus seorang laki-laki 45 tahun dengan diagnosis Karsinoma Sel Skuamosa Palatum Durum (Well to Moderately Differentiated Keratinized stadium IVa (T4aN0M0 dilakukan operasi maksilektomi inferior, namun tidak diikuti dengan radioterapi karena pasien menolak. Maksilektomi inferior merupakan pilihan pembedahan pada tumor yang terbatas pada palatum, lantai sinus maksila dan kavum nasi. Prognosis karsinoma sel skuamosa palatum durum cukup baik dan angka harapan hidup lima tahun akan bertambah bila dilakukan operasi diikuti dengan pemberian radioterapi. Kata kunci: Karsinoma sel skuamosa, maksilektomi inferior, radioterapi AbstractCarcinoma of the hard palate is a rare head and neck cancer in which half of it was Squamous Cell Carcinoma. In the initial phase of this malignancy may be asymptomatic, but can also cause symptoms such as painful ulcers in the development of the disease. Inferior maxillectomy is one of the choice of operation that can be performed, followed by radiotherapy to understand the management of carcinoma of the hard palate. Reported one case of a man 45 years old with diagnosis Squamous Cell Carcinoma of hard palate (Well to Moderately Differentiated Keratinized stage IVa (T4aN0M0 treated by inferior maxillectomy surgery, but not followed by radiotherapy because the patient refused. Inferior Maksilektomi is a surgical option in tumor that limited to the palate, floor of the

  7. Pseudo-dissection of ascending aorta in inferior myocardial infarction.

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    Grahame K. Goode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection is a cardiac emergency which can present as inferior myocardial infarction. It has high morbidity and mortality requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Rapid advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have facilitated the early diagnosis of this condition and in ruling out this potentially catastrophic illness. We report an interesting case of a 57 year- old -man who presented with inferior myocardial infarction requiring thrombolysis and temporary pacing wire for complete heart block. An echocardiogram was highly suspicious of aortic dissection. CT scan confirmed that the malposition of the temporary pacing wire through the aorta mimicked aortic dissection.

  8. Spontaneous healing and complete disappearance of a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery dissecting aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tsung-Ming; Cheng, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Wu-Fu; Hsu, Shih-Wei

    2014-05-01

    A 7-month-old baby presented with a 4-day history of drowsiness and vomiting after a falling accident. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and variable stages of subdural hematoma in bilateral occipital and left temporal subdural spaces. A partially thrombosed aneurysm was noted in the right craniocervical junction. Ophthalmological examination revealed bilateral retinal petechial hemorrhages. Conventional cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting aneurysm in the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Endovascular embolization was suggested, but the family refused. After conservative treatment, follow-up MRI revealed that the PICA aneurysm had remodeled and ultimately disappeared completely at the 10th month. This case illustrates the relatively plastic nature of intracranial aneurysms in pediatric patients. More studies are necessary to clarify the natural history of spontaneously thrombosed aneurysms to assist in their overall management.

  9. Time-dependent changes in eye-specific segregation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus of postnatal mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qing CHEN; Yu-pu DIAO; Jing-gang DUAN; Li-yuan CUI; Jia-yi ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Eye-specific segregation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and superior colliculus (SC) starts from the embryonic stage and continues to develop postnatally until eye-opening in mice. However, there have been few systematic studies on the details of this developmental process. Here, we carried out time-dependent studies of eye-specific segregation in the dLGN and SC. Our results demonstrated that the development of eye-specific segregation in the SC is completed before postnatal day 12 (P12), which is earlier than in the dLGN (P20). During the whole period, ipsilateral and overlapping axonal projections decreased continuously in both the dLGN and SC. On the other hand, contralateral axonal projections showed little change, except for a slight decrease between P8 and P20 in the dLGN.

  10. Inferior J waves in patients with vasospastic angina might be a risk factor for ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumimoto, Tomoko; Ueyama, Takeshi; Shimizu, Akihiko; Yoshiga, Yasuhiro; Ono, Makoto; Kato, Takayoshi; Ishiguchi, Hironori; Okamura, Takayuki; Yamada, Jutaro; Yano, Masafumi

    2017-09-01

    There is little information about the relationship between J waves and the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients with vasospastic angina (VSA). The present study aimed to assess the incidence of J waves and the occurrence of VF in patients with VSA. The subjects consisted of 62 patients with VSA diagnosed by acetylcholine provocation tests in our institution from 2002 to 2014. We investigated the VF events, prevalence of J waves, and relationship between the VF events and J waves. J waves were observed in 16 patients (26%) and VF events were documented in 11 (18%). The incidence of VF in the patients with J waves was significantly higher than that in those without J waves (38% vs 11%, p=0.026). J waves were observed in the inferior leads in 14 patients, lateral leads in 5, and anterior leads in 3. A univariate analysis indicated that the incidence of VF in the inferior leads of J wave positive patients (46%=6/14) was significantly (p=0.01) higher than that in the inferior leads of J wave negative patients (10%=5/48). The J waves in the anterior and/or lateral leads were not related to the incidence of VF. Notched type and slurred type J waves were not associated with VF. A multivariate analysis revealed that J waves in VSA patients were associated with VF [odds ratio (OR) 6.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-29.93, p=0.02] and organic stenosis (OR 6.98, 95% CI 1.39-35.08, p=0.02). Further, J waves in the inferior leads were strongly correlated with VF (OR 11.85, 95% CI 2.05-68.42, p=0.006). The results suggest that the existence of J waves, especially in the inferior leads, might be a risk factor for VF in VSA patients. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resonant cholinergic dynamics in cognitive and motor decision-making:Attention, category learning, and choice in neocortex, superior colliculus, and optic tectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance or concrete (high vigilance. Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine.

  12. Resonant Cholinergic Dynamics in Cognitive and Motor Decision-Making: Attention, Category Learning, and Choice in Neocortex, Superior Colliculus, and Optic Tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Palma, Jesse; Versace, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance) or concrete (high vigilance). Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the mammalian and avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine.

  13. Dysregulated left inferior parietal activity in schizophrenia and depression: functional connectivity and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I. Müller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal cortex (IPC is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state and task-dependent (MACM analyses we aimed at characterizing this particular region with regard to its connectivity and function. Across both approaches, results revealed functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal seed region with bilateral IPC, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PrC/PCC, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, left middle frontal (MFG as well as inferior frontal (IFG gyrus. Network-level functional characterization further revealed that on the one hand, all interconnected regions are part of a network involved in memory processes. On the other hand, sub-networks are formed when emotion, language, social cognition and reasoning processes are required. Thus, the IPC-region that is dysregulated in both depression and schizophrenia is functionally connected to a network of regions which, depending on task demands may form sub-networks. These results therefore indicate that dysregulation of left IPC in depression and schizophrenia might not only be connected to deficits in audiovisual integration, but is possibly also associated to impaired memory and deficits in emotion processing in these patient groups.

  14. Endodontic-related inferior alveolar nerve and mental foramen paresthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D R

    1997-10-01

    Paresthesia is a condition that involves perverted sensations of pain, touch, or temperature. It has a variety of possible causes. This article presents a literature review and case reports of endodontically related inferior alveolar nerve and mental foramen paresthesia. Nondrug prevention methods and the dental uses of dexamethasone are also discussed.

  15. Alexia caused by a fusiform or posterior inferior temporal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Takeuchi, S; Takada, T; Horiuchi, E; Nakase, H; Sakuta, M

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the alexia and agraphia of three patients with different lesions using Japanese kanji (morphograms) and kana (phonograms) and made a lesion-to-symptom analysis. Patient 1 (pure alexia for both kanji and kana and minor agraphia for kanji after a fusiform lesion) made more paragraphic errors for kanji, whereas patient 2 (alexia with agraphia for kanji after a posterior inferior temporal lesion) showed severe reading and writing disturbances and more agraphic errors for kanji. Brodmann Area 37 was affected in both patients, but in patient 2 the lesion was located lateral to that in patient 1. Patient 3 showed agraphia without alexia after restricted lesion to the angular gyrus. We believe that pure alexia (patient 1) results from a disconnection between the medial fusiform gyrus and posterior inferior temporal area (the lateral fusiform and inferior temporal gyri), whereas alexia with agraphia for kanji (patient 2), corresponding to lexical agraphia in Western countries, results from damage to the posterior inferior temporal area, in which whole-word images of words are thought to be stored. Furthermore, restricted lesion in the angular gyrus (patient 3) does not produce alexia; the alexic symptom of "angular" alexia with agraphia may be the result of damage to the adjacent lateral occipital gyri.

  16. Renal Angiomyolipoma Associated with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombus

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    Xavier Durand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old woman was found to have an inferior vena cava involvement of a known sinusal angiomyolipoma incompletely resected three years beforehand. Intravascular extension into the IVC of angiomyolipoma has rarely been reported. We present a new case and reconsider the literature about this uncommon complication of a benign renal tumor.

  17. Transhepatic approach for extracardiac inferior cavopulmonary connection stent fenestration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Damien

    2012-02-01

    We report on a 3-year-old male who underwent transcatheter stent fenestration of the inferior portion of an extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection in the setting of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Transhepatic approach, following an unsuccessful attempt from the femoral vein facilitated delivery of a diabolo-shaped stent.

  18. INVOLVEMENT OF THE INFERIOR CAVAL VEIN IN ADRENAL METASTASIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDALEN, KC; VANDRIEL, MF; MENSINK, HJA

    1992-01-01

    A patient was referred to our hospital for resection of a large renal cell carcinoma with invasion of the inferior caval vein, diagnosed as such with CT, angiography and cavography. The history mentioned partial resection of the left lung for lung carcinoma 16 months before. At operation the tumor c

  19. [Resection of leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotov, S P; Pyshkin, S A; Malyshev, M Iu; Safuanov, A Kh; Borovikov, D A; Siniukov, D M; Tereshin, O S; Panov, I O

    2013-01-01

    Experience in treatment of leiomyosarcoma of the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava at any separately taken clinic is scarce. Given a rare nature of the pathology involved, whose diagnosis and management require joint participation of various-specialty physicians, we have considered it wise to present our own clinical case report.

  20. INFERIOR VENA-CAVA OBSTRUCTION AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWERS, MAM; DEJONG, KP; PEETERS, PMJG; BIJLEVELD, CMA; KLOMPMAKER, IJ; SLOOFF, MJH

    1994-01-01

    Post-operative inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction is reported as an uncommon complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We report 6 cases after 245 OLT's in the period between March '79 and December '92. Compression or torsion of the IVC or a technical problem were underlying cause

  1. INVOLVEMENT OF THE INFERIOR CAVAL VEIN IN ADRENAL METASTASIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDALEN, KC; VANDRIEL, MF; MENSINK, HJA

    1992-01-01

    A patient was referred to our hospital for resection of a large renal cell carcinoma with invasion of the inferior caval vein, diagnosed as such with CT, angiography and cavography. The history mentioned partial resection of the left lung for lung carcinoma 16 months before. At operation the tumor c

  2. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  3. An unusual delayed complication of inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joanna; Marley, John

    2010-01-01

    Systemic and localised complications after administration of local anaesthetic for dental procedures are well recognised. We present two cases of patients with trismus and sensory deficit that arose during resolution of trismus as a delayed complication of inferior alveolar nerve block.

  4. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Associated with Graves' Disease Presenting As Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis with Bilateral Lower Limb DVT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old lady who presented with bilateral lower limb swelling and a thyroid swelling with clinical features consistent with thyrotoxicosis. Investigations revealed the presence of a thrombus in bilateral external, internal iliac veins, and inferior vena cava extending up to its infrahepatic part. Hormone profile and radioiodine uptake scan confirmed the diagnosis of Graves' disease. Further workup revealed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (confirmed after a repeat test at 12 weeks). The patient was treated with antithyroid drugs and anticoagulants. The patient improved with normalization of thyroid function and partial recanalization of the infrahepatic part of inferior vena cava. Hyperthyroidism has been implicated as a potential hypercoagulable state; however, the association of Graves' disease with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is limited to isolated case reports. This case highlights a new mechanism underlying hypercoagulability associated with Graves' disease.

  5. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews I. Multiple subdivisions revealed through acetylcholinesterase and Cat-301 chemoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Tree shrews are highly visual mammals closely related to primates. They have a large visual pulvinar complex, but its organization and relation to visual cortex is only partly known. We processed brain sections through the pulvinar with seven different procedures in an effort to reveal histologically distinct compartments. The results revealed three major subdivisions. A dorsal subdivision, Pd, stains darkly for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and occupies the dorsoposterior one-third of the pulvinar complex. A ventral subdivision, Pv, stains darkly when processed with the Cat-301 antibody and occupies the ventroanterior fifth of the pulvinar complex along the brachium of the superior colliculus. Unexpectedly, part of Pv is ventral to the brachium. A large central subdivision, Pc, stains moderately dark for AChE and cytochrome oxidase (CO), and very light for Cat-301. Pc includes about half of the pulvinar complex, with parts on both sides of the brachium of the superior colliculus. These architectonic results demonstrate that the pulvinar complex of tree shrews is larger and has more subdivisions than previously described. The complex resembles the pulvinar of primates by having a portion ventral to the brachium and by having histochemically distinct nuclei; the number of nuclei is less than in primates, however.

  6. Inferior frontal sensitivity to common speech sounds is amplified by increasing word intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Kenneth I; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Keren, Noam I; Harris, Kelly C; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2011-11-01

    The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) exhibits increased responsiveness when people listen to words composed of speech sounds that frequently co-occur in the English language (Vaden, Piquado, & Hickok, 2011), termed high phonotactic frequency (Vitevitch & Luce, 1998). The current experiment aimed to further characterize the relation of phonotactic frequency to LIFG activity by manipulating word intelligibility in participants of varying age. Thirty six native English speakers, 19-79 years old (mean=50.5, sd=21.0) indicated with a button press whether they recognized 120 binaurally presented consonant-vowel-consonant words during a sparse sampling fMRI experiment (TR=8 s). Word intelligibility was manipulated by low-pass filtering (cutoff frequencies of 400 Hz, 1000 Hz, 1600 Hz, and 3150 Hz). Group analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between phonotactic frequency and LIFG activity, which was unaffected by age and hearing thresholds. A region of interest analysis revealed that the relation between phonotactic frequency and LIFG activity was significantly strengthened for the most intelligible words (low-pass cutoff at 3150 Hz). These results suggest that the responsiveness of the left inferior frontal cortex to phonotactic frequency reflects the downstream impact of word recognition rather than support of word recognition, at least when there are no speech production demands. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Genes in Inferior and Superior Spikelets of Rice Cultivars with Contrasting Panicle-Compactness and Grain-Filling Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Sekhar

    Full Text Available Breeding programs for increasing spikelet number in rice have resulted in compactness of the panicle, accompanied by poor grain filling in inferior spikelets. Although the inefficient utilization of assimilate has been indicated as responsible for this poor grain filling, the underlying cause remains elusive. The current study utilized the suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify 57 and 79 genes that overexpressed in the superior and inferior spikelets (with respect to each other, respectively, of the compact-panicle rice cultivar Mahalaxmi. Functional categorization of these differentially expressed genes revealed a marked metabolic difference between the spikelets according to their spatial location on the panicle. The expression of genes encoding seed storage proteins was dominant in inferior spikelets, whereas genes encoding regulatory proteins, such as serine-threonine kinase, zinc finger protein and E3 ligase, were highly expressed in superior spikelets. The expression patterns of these genes in the inferior and superior spikelets of Mahalaxmi were similar to those observed in another compact-panicle cultivar, OR-1918, but differed from those obtained in two lax-panicle cultivars, Upahar and Lalat. The results first suggest that the regulatory proteins abundantly expressed in the superior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars and in both the superior and inferior spikelets of lax-panicle cultivars but poorly expressed in the inferior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars promote grain filling. Second, the high expression of seed-storage proteins observed in the inferior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars appears to inhibit the grain filling process. Third, the low expression of enzymes of the Krebs cycle in inferior spikelets compared with superior spikelets of compact-panicle cultivars is bound to lead to poor ATP generation in the former and consequently limit starch biosynthesis, an ATP-consuming process

  8. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  9. PEMANFAATAN BIJI KAKAO INFERIOR CAMPURAN SEBAGAI SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN DAN ANTIBAKTERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianto Tri Chandra Kusuma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH] There are about 30% of cocoa beans still classified as inferior or low quality beans due to diseases. Low-quality cocoa beans can be used as the source of polyphenolic substances. The purpose of this study was to determine the potency of inferior cocoa beans with various particle sizes as raw materials for polyphenol extraction, and the use of polyphenol-rich cocoa extracts as antioxidant and antibacterial substances. The research was conducted in two stages, namely preliminary research and primary research. This preliminary study aimed to obtain polyphenol-rich cocoa bean extract and to examine antioxidant activity using DPPH method. The next research was to conduct antibacterial test against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis using well diffusion method treated using polyphenols of each type of various particle size (16 mesh, 25 mesh, 35 mesh with concentrations of 0 ppm, 25.000 ppm, 50.000 ppm, 75.000 ppm, 100.000 ppm. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and the inhibition power against bacteria was observed. The results showed that the greater the concentration of polyphenol extracts and the smaller size of the filter powder cocoa resulted in the increase of bacterial growth inhibition area. Keywords: Polyphenol; Cocoa beans; Escherichia coli; Bacillus subtilis [INDONESIAN] Biji kakao inferior merupakan biji buah kakao bermutu rendah karena terserang penyakit dan belum termanfaatkan secara maksimal. Biji kakao berkualitas rendah dapat dimanfaatkan dengan cara mengekstrak kandungan polifenolnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui potensi ekstrak polifenol biji kakao inferior dengan variasi ukuran partikel sebagai bahan yang memiliki aktivitas antioksidan dan penghambat pertumbuhan bakteri. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua tahap, yaitu penelitian pendahuluan dan penelitian utama. Penelitian pendahuluan bertujuan untuk memperoleh esktrak polifenol dari biji kakao inferior campuran yang terserang penyakit

  10. Predictors of inferior outcome in community acquired bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streharova, A; Krcmery, V; Kisac, P; Kalavsky, E; Holeckova, K; Lesnakova, A; Luzinsky, L; Adamkovicova, E; Pavlikova, Z; Spilakova, N; Kacunova, B; Dovalova, V; Wiczmandyova, O; Spanik, S; Liskova, A; Chovancova, D; Kovac, M; Ondrusova, A; Bauer, F; Benca, J; Rudinsky, B; Sramka, M; Kralova, J; Krsakova, J; Krumpolcova, M; Findova, L; Svabova, V; Sladeckova, V; Seckova, S; Saniova, J; Pavlicova, B; Taziarova, M; Bukovinova, P; Kolenova, A; Horvathova, E; Hvizdak, F; Luzica, R; Rolnikova, B; Bocakova, A; Grey, E; Bielova, M; Huttova, M; Sabo, I; Jalili, N

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mortality and sequellae within cases from Nationwide survey of community acquired meningitis and identify risk factors for inferior outcome. Risk factors such as underlying disease (diabetes mellitus, cancer, trauma, neonatal age, splenectomy, alcoholism, sepsis, other infections), etiology, clinical symptoms and outcome (death, improvement and cured after modifications of ATB therapy, cured without change of therapy, cured with neurologic sequellae) were recorded and analysed with univariate analysis (chi2 or t test for trends, CDC Atlanta 2004). Analysing risk factors for inferior outcome (death or cured with neurologic sequellae), we compared patients who died or survived with neurologic sequellae to all patients with community acquired bacterial meningitis. Univariate analysis showed that trauma (palcohol abuse (pdiabetes, S. aureus (pdiabetes mellitus (palcoholism (palcohol abuse (p<0.05), craniocerbral trauma (p<0.05) and less common in meningitis with pneumococcal etiology (p<0.05).

  11. Right Ventricular Involvement in either Anterior or Inferior Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Abtahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike left ventricular function, less attention has been paid to Right Ventricular (RV function after Myocardial Infarction (MI. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare RV function in patients with inferior and anterior MI. Patients and Methods: During the study period, 60 patients consecutively presented to the Emergency Department with chest pain were divided into two groups based on their electrocardiographic findings. Accordingly, 25 patients had inferior MI (IMI group and 35 ones had anterior MI (AMI group. Echocardiography was performed 48 hours after starting the standard therapy. Conventional echocardiographic parameters and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI measurements were acquired from the standard views. Student t-test and the chi-square test were respectively used for comparisons of the normally distributed continuous and categorical variables in the two groups. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

  12. Electronic thermography for the assessment of inferior alveolar nerve deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratt, B M; Shetty, V; Saiar, M; Sickles, E A

    1995-08-01

    Neurosensory deficit is one of the major complications encountered in oral and maxillofacial surgery. OBJECTIVES. To determine the efficacy of electronic thermography in objectively assessing neurosensory deficits of the inferior alveolar nerve. STUDY DESIGN. Three studies were conducted measuring skin temperature over the chin region of the face at 0.1 degree C accuracy. RESULTS. (1) Thermal symmetry of the chin region in normal subjects (delta T = 0.2 degree C, SD = 0.02 degree C); (2) Induction of transient thermal asymmetry by local anesthetic injection (delta T = +0.4 degree C, SD = 0.2 degree C); (3) nine subjects with neurologic alterations of the inferior alveolar nerve (delta T = +0.5 degree C, SD = 0.2 degree C). Statistically significant differences were found between control group and experimental groups at p alveolar nerve injury or by pharmacologic nerve block.

  13. Inferior turbinate osteoma as a cause of unilateral nose obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovac, Stjepan; Hadzibegović, Ana Danić; Markesić, Josip

    2012-11-01

    Osteomas are benign, slow growing bone tumors often seen in paranasal sinuses, mostly in the frontal sinus, whereas they are rare in the nasal cavity. Inferior turbinate osteoma is extremely rare and our case is the third reported in the literature to date. Symptoms vary depending on the location, size and spreading and nasal obstruction is the most common symptom. Treatment of osteomas is surgical and is reserved only for rapidly growing osteomas with symptoms of infection or compression. Although endoscopic surgery is preferred modality, external approach with lateral rhinotomy should be considered with larger osteomas especially those that involve the ethmoid labyrinth. In cases like ours, when large osteoma is localized on the inferior nasal turbinate, sublabial incision through the vestibulum is very suitable approach because it provides wide access and good visibility and leaves no visible scar.

  14. Bruxism elicited by inferior alveolar nerve injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Marcello; Coiana, Carlo; Secci, Simona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the history of a patient who received an injury to the right inferior alveolar nerve after placement of a dental implant, with bruxism noted afterward. The symptoms were managed by the use of an occlusal appliance worn at night and occasionally during the day, associated with increased awareness of parafunction during the day to reduce muscle pain and fatigue. Paresthesia of the teeth, gingiva, and lower lip persisted but were reduced during appliance use.

  15. Optional inferior vena caval filters: where are we now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, A N

    2008-08-01

    With the advent of newer optional\\/retrievable inferior vena caval filters, there has been a rise in the number of filters inserted globally. This review article examines the currently available approved optional filter models, outlines the clinical indications for filter insertion and examines the expanding indications. Additionally, the available evidence behind the use of optional filters is reviewed, the issue of anticoagulation is discussed and possible future filter developments are considered.

  16. [Surgical treatment of leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotov, S P; Panov, I O; Tereshin, O S; Vazhenin, A V

    2012-01-01

    The presented review of the literature is generalization of the currently existing data of foreign and Russian literature concerning treatment of a rare non-organic retroperitoneal tumour from smooth-muscle tissue, i. e., leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava. The authors also formulate and lay down the basic principles of surgical interventions depending on the scope and level of the lesion, as well statistical analysis of the outcomes of surgical management of the this severely ill patient cohort.

  17. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  18. Las alteraciones posturales en miembros inferiores en el surf

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cuando el equilibrio neuromuscular no es óptimo durante la práctica de un deporte, es posible que, a largo plazo, aparezcan trastornos posturales que, dependiendo del tiempo de entrenamiento, pueden convertirse en un obstáculo para la salud. Es por esto, que mediante esta investigación he pretendido mostrar las alteraciones posturales que el surf puede llegar a provocar en quienes lo practican. Objetivo: Analizar las alteraciones posturales en los miembros inferiores de surfist...

  19. Primary and secondary overacting inferior oblique muscles: an ultrastructural study.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, E.; Ludatscher, R. M.; Zonis, S

    1984-01-01

    Biopsy material from primary and secondary overacting inferior oblique muscles were examined by light and electron microscopy. Most muscle fibres were in different stages of atrophy. A high variation of alterations was encountered in all muscles. The most striking abnormalities were huge accumulations of mitochondria and muscle vacuolisation related mainly to the enlargement of the tubules of sarcoplasmic reticulum. The mitochondrial aggregates and vacuolisation occupied more muscle surface i...

  20. Truncal ataxia from infarction involving the inferior olivary nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Ryoo, Sookyung; Moon, So Young; Seo, Sand Won; Na, Duk L

    2012-08-01

    Truncal ataxia in medullary infarction may be caused by involvement of the lateral part of the medulla; however, truncal ataxia in infarction involving the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) has received comparatively little attention. We report a patient with truncal ataxia due to medial medullary infarction located in the ION. A lesion in the ION could produce a contralateral truncal ataxia due to increased inhibitory input to the contralesional vestibular nucleus from the contralesional flocculus.

  1. Distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Salomão

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 7-year-old boy presenting with recurrent episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm (PICA, successfully operated, is reported.' The low incidence of intracranial aneurysms in the first decade of life and the rare occurrence of distal PICA aneurysms are unusual features of this case. The theories regarding the origin of intracranial berry aneurysms are discussed.

  2. [Aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Juan Oscar Alarcón; de Andrade, Guilherme Cabral

    2002-12-01

    The intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation have been reported between 5 and 10% of all cerebral aneurysms and the aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are considered rare, can cause cerebello pontine angle (CPA) syndrome with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since 1948 few cases were described in the literature. We report on a 33 year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to sacular aneurysm of the left AICA. She was submitted to clipage of the aneurysm without complications.

  3. Intraosseous schwannoma originating in inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kenichiro; Ogane, Satoru; Muramatsu, Kyotaro; Ohata, Hitoshi; Uchiyama, Takeshi; Takano, Nobuo; Shibahara, Takahiko; Eguchi, Jun; Murakami, Satoshi; Matsuzaka, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas (neurilemmomas) are benign neoplasms derived from Schwann cells of the neurilemma and appear most frequently on the auditory nerve or peripheral nerves of the skin. They arise in the oral and maxillofacial region infrequently, and very rarely in the center of the jaw. We herein present a case of a rare mandibular intraosseous schwannoma derived from the main trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve in a 33-year-old man. Fusiform expansion in the mandibular canal was observed and a mass showing the target sign in the mandibular canal was confirmed on T2-weighted and Gd contrastenhanced T1-weighted MRI. Based on these findings, an inferior alveolar nerve-derived schwannoma or other benign nervous system neoplasm was diagnosed. A buccal side cortical bone flap in the mandibular molar region was removed to expose the mass, which was then peeled away from the nerve fibers and completely removed. Some inferior alveolar nerve fibers that were connected to the mass were removed at the same time, but the remaining nerve fiber bundle was preserved. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a schwannoma with Antoni type A and Antoni type B regions. Although the patient experienced extremely mild paresthesia in the skin over the mental region and mental foramen at immediately after surgery, this had almost entirely disappeared at 7 years and 4 months later, and there has been no tumor recurrence.

  4. [Inferior vertical nystagmus: is magnetic resonance imaging mandatory?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Sánchez, Jonathan; Rueda-Marcos, Almudena; Sanz-Fernández, Ricardo; Martín-Sanz, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Introduccion. La aparicion de un nistagmo vertical inferior clasicamente obliga a descartar una patologia vascular o de la union craneocervical mediante resonancia magnetica (RM). Estudios recientes demuestran una baja rentabilidad de esta prueba, ya que sugieren que este signo oculomotor puede tener una causa vestibular periferica, sobre todo cuando el paciente presenta un vertigo posicional paroxistico benigno (VPPB) del canal semicircular superior. Objetivo. Comprobar la rentabilidad de la RM en una poblacion de pacientes con nistagmo de posicion vertical inferior. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 42 pacientes consecutivos a los que se les realizo una historia clinica, exploracion fisica, y pruebas vestibulares caloricas y rotatorias. A todos ellos se les practico una RM craneal y cervical. Resultados. El 52% de los pacientes con nistagmo de posicion vertical inferior presentaba una clinica y exploracion fisica compatibles con VPPB del canal semicircular superior. La RM fue normal en un 67%, un 26% mostraba datos de espondilopatia y un 5% de microangiopatia cerebral no relacionados con la clinica del paciente. La prevalencia de malformacion de Arnold-Chiari de tipo I fue de un 9% en la poblacion estudiada, sin que nadie tuviera un antecedente reciente de VPPB. Los resultados obtenidos en las pruebas complementarias vestibulares no aportaron informacion adicional para llegar a un diagnostico etiologico. Conclusion. En los pacientes con un VPPB, la RM craneal y las pruebas vestibulares tienen una baja rentabilidad diagnostica, y se debe evaluar la necesidad real de esta prueba con el contexto clinico.

  5. Prosthetic replacement of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava for leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Giacobbi, Daniela; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Ceccanei, Gianluca

    2006-09-01

    Resection of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava associated with prosthetic graft replacement for caval leiomyosarcoma is an acceptable procedure to obtain prolonged and good-quality survival. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 40 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary center and an affiliated secondary care center. Eleven patients, with a mean age of 51 years, who have primary leiomyosarcoma of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava. All of the patients underwent radical resection of the tumor en bloc with the affected segment of the vena cava. Reconstruction consisted of 10 cavocaval polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and 1 cavobiliac graft. An associated right nephrectomy was performed in 2 cases. The left renal vein was reimplanted in the graft in 3 cases. Cumulative disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and graft patency rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. No patients died in the postoperative period. The cumulative (SE) disease-specific survival rate was 53% (21%) at 5 years. The cumulative (SE) disease-free survival rate was 44% (19%) at 5 years. The cumulative (SE) graft patency rate was 67% (22%) at 5 years. Radical resection followed by prosthetic graft reconstruction is a valuable method for treating primary leiomyosarcoma of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava.

  6. Inferior vestibular neuritis in a fighter pilot: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Su Jiang; Jia, Hong Bo; Xu, Po; Zheng, Ying Juan

    2013-06-01

    Spatial disorientation in airplane pilots is a leading factor in many fatal flying accidents. Spatial orientation is the product of integrative inputs from the proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual systems. One condition that can lead to sudden pilot incapacitation in flight is vestibular neuritis. Vestibular neuritis is commonly diagnosed by a finding of unilateral vestibular failure, such as a loss of caloric response. However, because caloric response testing reflects the function of only the superior part of the vestibular nerve, it cannot detect cases of neuritis in only the inferior part of the nerve. We describe the case of a Chinese naval command fighter pilot who exhibited symptoms suggestive of vestibular neuritis but whose caloric response test results were normal. Further testing showed a unilateral loss of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). We believe that this pilot had pure inferior nerve vestibular neuritis. VEMP testing plays a major role in the diagnosis of inferior nerve vestibular neuritis in pilots. We also discuss this issue in terms of aeromedical concerns.

  7. Non-inferiority study design: lessons to be learned from cardiovascular trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Stuart J; Kaul, Sanjay; Bogers, Ad J J C; Kappetein, A Pieter

    2012-06-01

    The non-inferiority trial design has gained popularity within the last decades to compare a new treatment to the standard active control. In contrast to superiority trials, this design is complex and is based on assumptions that cannot be validated directly. Many readers and even investigators, therefore, have difficulty grasping the full methodological nature of non-inferiority trials. Non-inferiority margins are often arbitrarily chosen such that a favourable margin can bias a trial towards declaring non-inferiority. Pitfalls of non-inferiority trials are not fully appreciated, and without having identified these shortcomings, objective conclusions from non-inferiority trials cannot be made. This methodological review elaborates on what is a non-inferiority trial, why such a trial is performed, what the hazards are, and how conclusions from non-inferiority trials are derived, by providing examples of recent cardiovascular trials.

  8. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gintaras Juodzbalys; Hom-Lay Wang; Gintautas Sabalys

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement. Material and Methods Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveo...

  9. The left occipitotemporal system in reading: disruption of focal fMRI connectivity to left inferior frontal and inferior parietal language areas in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Sanne; Klaver, Peter; Bucher, Kerstin; Maurer, Urs; Schulz, Enrico; Brem, Silvia; Martin, Ernst; Brandeis, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a severe reading disorder, which is characterized by dysfluent reading and impaired automaticity of visual word processing. Adults with dyslexia show functional deficits in several brain regions including the so-called "Visual Word Form Area" (VWFA), which is implicated in visual word processing and located within the larger left occipitotemporal VWF-System. The present study examines functional connections of the left occipitotemporal VWF-System with other major language areas in children with dyslexia. Functional connectivity MRI was used to assess connectivity of the VWF-System in 18 children with dyslexia and 24 age-matched controls (age 9.7-12.5 years) using five neighboring left occipitotemporal regions of interest (ROIs) during a continuous reading task requiring phonological and orthographic processing. First, the results revealed a focal origin of connectivity from the VWF-System, in that mainly the VWFA was functionally connected with typical left frontal and parietal language areas in control children. Adjacent posterior and anterior VWF-System ROIs did not show such connectivity, confirming the special role that the VWFA plays in word processing. Second, we detected a significant disruption of functional connectivity between the VWFA and left inferior frontal and left inferior parietal language areas in the children with dyslexia. The current findings add to our understanding of dyslexia by showing that functional disconnection of the left occipitotemporal system is limited to the small VWFA region crucial for automatic visual word processing, and emerges early during reading acquisition in children with dyslexia, along with deficits in orthographic and phonological processing of visual word forms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The preperitoneal approach to the groin and the inferior epigastric vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, R C

    2005-03-01

    Preperitoneal, a word coined by Nyhus in the 1960s, has been applied not only to posterior approaches that he, Stoppa, and Wantz popularized but to anterior exposures of the groin, which divide the transversalis fascia. This assumes that all give similar views of the easily cleaved space of Bogros. However, accumulated anatomical observations reveal the transversalis fascia as having not one but two layers. The inferior epigastric vessels run between rather than in the preperitoneal space, which is avascular and has its own fascia lining the peritoneum. Historical evidence shows that both the midline Cheatle-Henry and lateral Ugahary-Kugel approaches, which transect the abdominal wall, provide excellent exposure of the avascular preperitoneal space. However, neither the unilateral posterior McEvedy approach nor the anterior approach does, as only part of the musculature and fasciae are retracted. The inferior epigastric vasculature and posterior lamina transversalis fascia, which remain in situ, block the view. Unless they are disrupted or circumvented, neither of the latter approaches or subsequent repairs should be labeled preperitoneal.

  11. Congenital rubella with agenesis of the inferior cerebellar vermis and total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, C; Meyer, R; Odendaal, H; Geerts, L

    2013-08-01

    Congenital rubella infection has been associated with a number of abnormalities including cardiac, central nervous system and placental complications. We present a case with multiple fetal abnormalities detected on prenatal ultrasound, and confirmed postnatally, that included a single umbilical artery, severe tricuspid regurgitation, micrognathia and agenesis of the inferior cerebellar vermis. Postnatal echocardiography additionally revealed unobstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) into the coronary sinus. Placental examination showed signs of placentitis, and polymerase chain reaction on neonatal serum was positive for rubella. Following a multidisciplinary team review, it was decided to provide only supportive care, and the infant died at 6 months of age owing to a respiratory tract infection. To our knowledge, TAPVD and agenesis of the inferior cerebellar vermis have not been reported previously in association with congenital rubella infection. This case illustrates how congenital infection may present in atypical ways and stresses the importance of considering congenital infection in the differential diagnosis of fetal anomalies when multiple features are present.

  12. Cushing's disease; inferior petrosal sinus venography and samplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Hyun Chul; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Sang Sup [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    Hypersecretion of ACTH in patients with Cushing's syndrome originates from either a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease) or an ectopic ACTH-secreting tumor. These 2 entities may be clinically indistinguishable, and additional difficulty arise because pituitary microadenomas may be radiologically occult. Recently, bilateral selective venous sampling from the inferior petrosal sinuses became the procedure of choice for confirming a false negative study of a combined hormonal test and pituitary ACTH hypersecretion. We performed selective venous catheterization and sampling for ACTH. The central location of the lesion was detected in 1 case (intersinus gradient = 1.1 : 1), and the remaining 5 cases revealed lateralization of the lesions (intersinus gradient = 3.7 - 20.1 : 1), which correlated well with transsphenoidal microadenomectomies in all the cases. We concluded that selective venous ACTH sampling from the inferior petroal sinus is a reliable and useful aid in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease when standard clinical and biochemical studies are inconclusive.

  13. ERP adaptation provides direct evidence for early mirror neuron activation in the inferior parietal lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Nicole; Brandt, Emily S L; Mohr, Bettina; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Mirror neuron systems are frequently investigated by assessing overlapping brain activity during observation and execution of actions; however, distinct neuronal subpopulations may be activated that fall below the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance techniques. This shortfall can be resolved using repetition suppression paradigms that identify physiological adaptation processes caused by repeated activation of identical neuronal circuits. Here, event-related potentials were used to investigate the time course of mirror neuron circuit activation using repetition suppression within and across action observation and action execution modalities. In a lip-reading and speech production paradigm, the N170 component indexed stimulus repetition by adapting to both cross-modal and intra-modal repetitions in the left hemisphere. Neuronal source localization revealed activation of the left inferior parietal lobule during cross-modal relative to intra-modal trials. These results provide support for the position that the same neuronal circuits are activated in perceiving and performing articulatory actions. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that inferior parietal lobule mirror neurons are activated relatively early in time, which indicates partly automatic processes of linguistic perception and mirroring. Repetition suppression paradigms therefore help to elucidate neuronal correlates of different cognitive processes and may serve as a starting point for advanced electrophysiological research on mirror neurons.

  14. Complete atrioventricular block in an adult with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries with interrupted inferior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namsik Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old man got admitted as he was suffering from dizziness for 3 days. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed complete atrioventricular (AV block with ventricular rhythm of 35/min. We found that he had no inferior vena cava (IVC which drained into right atrium in the middle of temporary pacing lead insertion. Venous drainage into superior vena cava from dilated azygos vein was identified after venogram. Echocardiogram revealed a congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CCTGA. Chest computed tomography (CT angiogram revealed AV and ventriculoarterial discordance with reversed ventricles and interrupted IVC with azygos continuation. DDD pacemaker was implanted via left axillary vein without any problem.

  15. Primary Intraventricular Brain Abscess Resulting in Isolated Dilation of the Inferior Horn and Unilateral Hydrocephalus

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    Joji Inamasu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary intraventricular brain abscesses are rare, and there are no established treatment guidelines for this condition. We report a case in which isolated ventricular dilatation and unilateral hydrocephalus developed after seemingly successful conservative management and which required surgical diversion of the cerebrospinal fluid. A 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with high-grade fever and headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed abscesses in the bilateral posterior horn. Although surgical evacuation of the abscesses was considered, conservative management with antibiotics was selected because of the paucity of severe neurological deficits and the concern that an attempt to evacuate the intraventricular abscess might lead to inadvertent rupture of the abscess capsule and acute ventriculitis. Despite reduction in the abscess volume, the patient developed an altered mental status 4 weeks after admission. Follow-up MRI revealed isolated dilation of the left inferior horn, compressing the brainstem. Emergency fenestration of the dilated inferior horn was performed, and endoscopic observation revealed an encapsulated abscess with adhesion to the ventricular wall which was thought responsible for the ventricular dilation and unilateral hydrocephalus. Two weeks after the initial surgery, the unilateral hydrocephalus was treated by placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Eradication of the intraventricular brain abscesses without surgical evacuation may justify the conservative management of this patient. However, the possibility that earlier surgical evacuation might have prevented development of the isolated ventricular dilation cannot be denied. Additional clinical experience is required to determine which treatment (surgical vs. conservative is more appropriate in patients with primary intraventricular brain abscesses.

  16. Anesthetic technique for inferior alveolar nerve block: a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Geller Palti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective pain control in Dentistry may be achieved by local anesthetic techniques. The success of the anesthetic technique in mandibular structures depends on the proximity of the needle tip to the mandibular foramen at the moment of anesthetic injection into the pterygomandibular region. Two techniques are available to reach the inferior alveolar nerve where it enters the mandibular canal, namely indirect and direct; these techniques differ in the number of movements required. Data demonstrate that the indirect technique is considered ineffective in 15% of cases and the direct technique in 13-29% of cases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative technique for inferior alveolar nerve block using several anatomical points for reference, simplifying the procedure and enabling greater success and a more rapid learning curve. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 193 mandibles (146 with permanent dentition and 47 with primary dentition from dry skulls were used to establish a relationship between the teeth and the mandibular foramen. By using two wires, the first passing through the mesiobuccal groove and middle point of the mesial slope of the distolingual cusp of the primary second molar or permanent first molar (right side, and the second following the oclusal plane (left side, a line can be achieved whose projection coincides with the left mandibular foramen. RESULTS: The obtained data showed correlation in 82.88% of cases using the permanent first molar, and in 93.62% of cases using the primary second molar. CONCLUSION: This method is potentially effective for inferior alveolar nerve block, especially in Pediatric Dentistry.

  17. Hemianopsia altitudinal inferior por aracnoidite optoquiasmática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Melaragno Filho

    1949-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente de 48 anos de idade, queixando-se de falta de visão nas metades inferiores dos campos visuais, há aproximadamente um ano. A doença evoluiu progressivamente após sinusotomia maxilar e frontal. Os diversos exames complementares realizados nada revelaram de anormal. Reação de Wassermann sempre negativa no sangue. Ao exame oftalmoscópico ficou patenteado, em AO, franca atrofia, no setor superior das papilas e edema pronunciado em suas metades inferiores. O exame campimétrico revelou nítida hemianopsia altitudinal inferior. As demais funções neurológicas e o exame clínico geral nada mais demonstraram de anormal. A iodoventriculografia evidenciou sinais radiológicos de aracnoidite optoquiasmática. À intervenção cirúrgica, foi verificada a existência de aracnoidite intensa na região quiasmática, com compressão dos nervos ópticos e do próprio quiasma. Após a intervenção cirúrgica, exames oftalmoscópicos sucessivos demonstraram melhora franca da acuidade visual em AO e discreto aumento dos campos visuais. Finalizando, os AA. tecem considerações sôbre as prováveis causas etiológicas dêsse tipo de reação meníngea.

  18. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia relieved by microscopic endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuhashi, Takaaki; Nakagawa, Kan-Ichi; Matsumoto, Miho; Kasahara, Masataka; Igarashi, Tomoko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2003-11-01

    We experienced two cases of inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia caused by root canal medicaments, which were successfully relieved by microscopic endodontic treatment. In the first case, the paresthesia might have been attributable to infiltration of calcium hydroxide into the mandibular canal through the root canals of the mandibular left second molar tooth. In the second case, the paresthesia might have been attributable to infiltration of paraformaldehyde through the root canals of the mandibular right second molar tooth. The paresthesia was relieved in both cases by repetitive microscopic endodontic irrigation using physiological saline solution in combination with oral vitamin B12 and adenosine triphosphate.

  19. Tuberculosis pulmonar de campos inferiores Lower lung field tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra González; Marcelo Fernández Casares; Matías Baldini; Alfredo Monteverde

    2010-01-01

    La tuberculosis (TB) que compromete sólo los campos pulmonares inferiores (TBCI) es poco frecuente en el adulto y en general está asociada a alguna causa de inmunodepresión. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue determinar la incidencia de TBCI en nuestra población y comparar sus características respecto de la TB pulmonar de localización habitual. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva en el período de 2004 a 2008, 42 pacientes con TBCI que fueron comparados con 84 pacientes con TB pulmonar de loc...

  20. Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J; Frith, Chris D

    2009-08-12

    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG.

  1. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Koeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM.

  2. Leiomiossarcoma da veia cava inferior: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lemos Nascif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de paciente do sexo feminino, 48 anos, com quadro clínico de dor abdominal de moderada intensidade e abaulamento do abdome. Ao exame físico constatou-se massa abdominal palpável. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou volumosa massa retroperitoneal, com realce heterogêneo e íntima relação com a veia cava inferior. Realizou-se ressecção em bloco da massa e do segmento invadido da veia cava. A histologia revelou leiomiossarcoma.

  3. Symptomatic caval penetration by a Celect inferior vena cava filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogue, Conor O.; John, Philip R.; Connolly, Bairbre L.; Rea, David J.; Amaral, Joao G. [Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Division of Image Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    We report a case of penetration of the inferior vena cava (IVC) by all four primary struts of a Celect caval filter in a 17-year-old girl with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. The girl presented with acute lower abdominal and right leg pain 17 days after filter insertion. An abdominal radiograph demonstrated that the filter had moved caudally and that the primary struts had splayed considerably since insertion. Contrast-enhanced CT confirmed that all four primary struts had penetrated the IVC wall. There was a small amount of retroperitoneal hemorrhage. The surrounding vessels and viscera were intact. The filter was subsequently retrieved without complication. (orig.)

  4. Inferior epigastric artery: Surface anatomy, prevention and management of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Clare; Merkur, Harry

    2016-04-01

    The anatomical position of the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) subjects it to risk of injury during abdominal procedures that are close to the artery, such as laparoscopic trocar insertion, insertion of intra-abdominal drains, Tenckhoff(®) catheter (peritoneal dialysis catheter) and paracentesis. This article aims to raise the awareness of the anatomical variations of the course of the IEA in relation to abdominal landmarks in order to define a safer zone for laparoscopic ancillary trocar placement. Methods of managing the IEA injury as well as techniques to minimise the risk of injury to the IEA are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Duplicate inferior vena cava filters: more is not always better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Anup; Javed, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the inferior vena cava (IVC) has been reported in literature. This achieves clinical significance in the setting of lower extremity venous thromboembolism with a contraindication for anticoagulation. We describe a case of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis with duplicate IVC. Anticoagulation was contraindicated in this case leading to successful treatment with double IVC filters. We conducted a PubMed search for all current English language published literature, where filters were placed in the presence of duplicate IVC. We suggest that patients with deep vein thrombosis should have an accurate assessment of venous anatomy before IVC filter placement. Duplication of IVC, although rare, should be considered as this has management implications.

  6. Pre-expanded Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Sharon E; Webster, Nicholas D; Wong, Stacy; Saint-Cyr, Michel H

    2017-01-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap can be used to cover large defects of the proximal lower extremity, abdominal wall, perineum, vulva, and buttock. Pre-expanding DIEP flaps cause a possible delay phenomenon improving vascularity, decrease donor site morbidity, and increase the area that can be covered. Pre-expansion requires staged procedures, has risk of extrusion and infection, causes temporary contour deformity during the expansion process, and requires a longer course. Pre-expanded DIEP flaps can be a useful flap with proper patient selection and planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeth, Oliver; Zeymer, Uwe; Schiele, Rudolf; Zahn, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM. PMID:20811565

  8. Renal transplantation in a child with thrombosed inferior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The external iliac vein is commonly used in renal transplantation for vascular anastomosis of the allograft renal vein. However, there are rare instances when the transplant surgeon may encounter thrombosis of the ilio-caval vein during surgery, making renal transplantation a challenge. Often, these patients are considered unsuitable for renal transplantation. We report a case of thrombosis of the inferior vena cava in an asymptomatic pediatric patient in whom the splenic vein was used, at transplantation, for venous drainage. This case highlights that pre-operative Doppler screening should be performed in all potential renal transplant recipients.

  9. Laparoscopic management of inferior lumbar hernia (Petit triangle hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, T; Eyuboglu, E; Aydingoz, O

    2005-05-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare defects in the posterolateral abdominal wall that may be congenital or acquired. We present a case of laparoscopic approach to repair an acquired inferior triangle (Petit) lumbar hernia in a woman by using polytetrafluoroethylene mesh. The size of the hernia was 8 x 10 cm. The length of her hospital stay was 2 days. The patient resumed normal activities in less than 2 weeks. The main advantage of this approach is excellent operative visualization, thus avoiding injury to structures near the hernia during repair. Patients benefit from a minimally invasive approach with less pain, shortened hospital course, less analgesic requirements, better cosmetic result, and minimal life-style interference.

  10. Amiloidosis renal en paciente con osteomielitis de extremidad inferior

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    María Vicente Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La amiloidosis secundaria (AA sistémica es una entidad frecuente, asociada con enfermedades inflamatorias e infecciones de larga evolución, así como con algunas neoplasias. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 58 años, con antecedente de úlcera en miembro inferior derecho de más de 30 años de evolución y con síndrome nefrótico secundario a amiloidosis AA.

  11. Changes in Otx2 and Parvalbumin Immunoreactivity in the Superior Colliculus in the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-β Knockout Mice

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    Juanjuan Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The superior colliculus (SC, a relay nucleus in the subcortical visual pathways, is implicated in socioemotional behaviors. Homeoprotein Otx2 and β subunit of receptors of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR-β have been suggested to play an important role in development of the visual system and development and maturation of GABAergic neurons. Although PDGFR-β-knockout (KO mice displayed socio-emotional deficits associated with parvalbumin (PV-immunoreactive (IR neurons, their anatomical bases in the SC were unknown. In the present study, Otx2 and PV-immunolabeling in the adult mouse SC were investigated in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Although there were no differences in distribution patterns of Otx2 and PV-IR cells between the wild type and PDGFR-β KO mice, the mean numbers of both of the Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR-β KO mice. Furthermore, average diameters of Otx2- and PV-IR cells were significantly reduced in the PDGFR-β KO mice. These findings suggest that PDGFR-β plays a critical role in the functional development of the SC through its effects on Otx2- and PV-IR cells, provided specific roles of Otx2 protein and PV-IR cells in the development of SC neurons and visual information processing, respectively.

  12. Transient Automatic Writing Behavior following a Left Inferior Capsular Genu Infarction

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    Keisuke Suzuki

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old, right-handed woman was admitted to the hospital with decreased spontaneity. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a left inferior capsular genu infarction. 99mTC-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography revealed a left-dominant diffuse hypoperfusionin the basal ganglia and frontal lobe. The patient showed abulia and increased writing activity without motor or sensory deficit. The writing was mainly perseverative, and words written along lines were legible and without spatial distortions. This augmented writing behavior disappeared on day 21. The writing characteristic was more similar to automatic writing behavior than hypergraphia. Dissociation between speech and writing behavior was present in our patient. We suggest that a disconnection within the frontal-subcortical circuit contributed to the development of motor perseveration in writing.

  13. LMCA thrombosis presenting as inferior wall myocardial infarction successfully treated with intracoronary tenecteplase

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    Tom Devasia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Received: 23/10/15, Reviewed: 9/11/15, Accepted: 8/12/15 Keywords: DOI: ABSTRACT We report a case of 40 year old male who presented with chest pain and diaphoresis. General and systemic examination was unremarkable. Electrocardiogram was suggestive of inferior wall myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram revealed large thrombus in left main coronary artery. In view of risk of distal embolisation with thrombectomy, intracoronary tenecteplase was administered following which there was complete resolution of thrombus in left main system. A thorough workup of the cause including thrombotic panel (Protein C, Protein S was carried out and was negative. Patient made a successful recovery and is doing well on follow-up.

  14. Diversion of the inferior vena cava following repair of atrial septal defect causing hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ellen; Moritz, Dennis; Perdue, Romaine; Cansino, Silvestre

    2004-05-01

    Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are a common congenital abnormality, and operative repair is a routine, safe procedure. Diversion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) into the left atrium is an unusual complication following ASD closure. We report a case that illustrates the problem created by this right-to-left shunt. A middle-aged woman underwent ASD repair. She developed hypoxemia postoperatively. A transthoracic echocardiogram confirmed a right-to-left shunt, found only with agitated saline injected into the femoral vein, not into the basilic vein. Surgical reexploration revealed a residual ASD diverting IVC flow into the left atrium, which was repaired with a pericardial patch. Echocardiography with agitated saline injected from the femoral vein is an easy method to diagnose this uncommon complication.

  15. Acute cervical artery dissection after a dental procedure due to a second inferior molar infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Montserrat G; Riesco, Nuria; Murias, Eduardo; Calleja, Sergio

    2015-06-02

    Periodontal infections might represent one of the causative factors for cervical artery dissection. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman admitted due to headache. The patient had been suffering from a right second inferior molar infection with a cervical phlegmon for 1 week prior to admission. On 2 October 2014, the patient went to the dentist and a molar extraction was performed in the morning. In the afternoon, the patient began to experience right hemifacial pain that progressed towards an intense and bilateral headache. Neurological status at the time of admission revealed right miosis, ptosis and conjuntival hyperaemia. A CT angiography showed a right internal carotid artery dissection provoking a high-degree stenosis. The relationship between periodontal infection and vascular disease has been previously presented. Microbial agents may directly, and inflammatory and immunological host response indirectly, influence inflammatory changes in cervical arteries favouring dissections with minor traumas. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Transient Automatic Writing Behavior following a Left Inferior Capsular Genu Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2009-05-09

    A 79-year-old, right-handed woman was admitted to the hospital with decreased spontaneity. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a left inferior capsular genu infarction. (99m) TC-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography revealed a left-dominant diffuse hypoperfusionin the basal ganglia and frontal lobe. The patient showed abulia and increased writing activity without motor or sensory deficit. The writing was mainly perseverative, and words written along lines were legible and without spatial distortions. This augmented writing behavior disappeared on day 21. The writing characteristic was more similar to automatic writing behavior than hypergraphia. Dissociation between speech and writing behavior was present in our patient. We suggest that a disconnection within the frontal-subcortical circuit contributed to the development of motor perseveration in writing.

  17. MICROCIRUGÍA RECONSTRUCTIVA EN TRAUMA DE EXTREMIDADES INFERIORES

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    Dr. Günther Mangelsdorff G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La complejidad y extensión de las lesiones traumáticas del miembro inferior son muy variables, incluyendo dehiscencias de abordajes quirúrgicos en lesiones cerradas, fracturas expuestas, avulsiones y amputaciones. El aporte de la cirugía plástica en estos pacientes radica especialmente en la reconstrucción mediante la movilización local o a distancia de tejidos vitales bien irrigados. La microcirugía es una herramienta fundamental para lograr reconstrucciones complejas con un diseño versátil, así los colgajos libres otorgan coberturas bien vascularizadas y se adaptan a requerimientos tan diversos. El éxito final de una reconstrucción debe ser evaluado en cuanto a la reinserción del paciente a sus actividades de vida diaria y a su calidad de vida. La coordinación y trabajo con los distintos profesionales necesarios en este proceso permite aproximarse a este objetivo. Revisaremos en este artículo las estrategias de reconstrucción en trauma de extremidad inferior y las técnicas de reconstrucción microquirúrgica más utilizadas.

  18. Isolated loss of inferior pubic ramus: a case report

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    Saber Aly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction It has been stated that regulation of the development of the iliac bone is different from that of the ischium and pubis. There are well-known clinical syndromes concerned with hypoplasia of ischiopubic bone, such as small patella syndrome, nail-patella syndrome, ischiopubic-patellar hypoplasia, and ischiopubic hypoplasia. Case presentation A fit and otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman presented with pain in the left lower limb of 6 months duration. She sought advice from an orthopedic surgeon and was referred for exclusion of a primary soft tissue neoplasm. There was no history of trauma, chronic medical illness or surgical operations. Full systemic examination, laboratory investigations and whole body imaging showed no soft tissue swelling or any other bony defects. Isolated loss of the left inferior pubic ramus and thinning of the superior pubic ramus were detected, raising the question of whether the lesion was a secondary osteolytic lesion, a primary osteolytic lesion or due to endocrine disease. Conclusion Isolated loss of the inferior pubic ramus with no concomitant bony or soft tissue anomalies is previously unreported. To the best of the author's knowledge, this finding has not been described previously.

  19. Successful thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer in a patient with anatomic variation of the left inferior pulmonary vein

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    Nakano,Hideharu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary lung cancer with a rare distribution pattern of left inferior pulmonary vein (PV, encountered in the thoracoscopic left lower lobectomy. Thoracoscopic observation revealed 2 trunks of inferior PV (ventral and dorsal branch at the stem level. The ventral trunk consisted of a branch of vein (V(5 from the lingular segment and venous ramifications (V(8a, V(9 and V(10a from the basal segment. On the other hand, a branch of vein (V(6 from the superior segment in the lower lobe and other veins (V(8b and V(10b + c from the basal segment emptied together into the dorsal trunk. We successfully carried out a thoracoscopic left lower lobectomy without excision of the aberrant vein (V(5. Retrospective review of the preoperative chest CT demonstrates the double trunk inferior PV and the aberrant lingular branch emptying with V(8a into the ventral trunk. Knowledge of the branching variations of PV from preoperative evaluations leads to appropriate thoracoscopic procedures for lung cancer.

  20. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

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    Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies.Results: In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement.Conclusions: The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management.

  1. Geometry of inferior endplates of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jigang; Liu, Hao; Rong, Xin; Li, Huibo; Wang, Beiyu; Gong, Quan

    2016-03-01

    Device subsidence is a well-known complication following cervical disc arthroplasty. Its occurrence has been closely tied with the endplate-implant contact interface. But current literature on the geometry of cervical endplate is very scarce. The aim of this anatomical investigation was to analyze geometry of inferior endplates of the cervical vertebrae, thereby identifying the common endplate shape patterns and providing morphological reference values consummating the design of the implant. Reformatted CT scans of 85 individuals were analyzed and endplate concave depth, endplate concave apex location, sagittal diameter of endplate, coronal concave angle, as well as transverse diameter of endplate were measured in mid-sagittal plane and specified coronal plane. According to the endplate concave apex location, the inferior endplates in mid-sagittal plane were classified into 3 types: type I with posteriorly positioned apex, type II with middle situated concave apex and type III with anteriorly positioned apex. Moreover, the inferior endplates in specified coronal plane were also classified into three types: concave, flat and irregular. Based on visual assessment, for the mid-sagittal plane, type I endplate accounted for 26.9% of all the 510 endplates of 85 individuals, while the proportion of type II and type III endplates were 53.9 and 19.2% respectively. For the specified coronal plane, 68.6% of all the 510 endplates were evaluated as concave, 26.9% as flat and the remaining 4.5% as irregular. Among all measured segments, C3 had the largest endplate concave depth values in mid-sagittal plane, while C7 the least; C5 and C6 had the largest sagittal endplate diameter values, while C2 the least. For each level, the sagittal endplate concave depth and endplate diameter of females were significantly smaller than those of males (P0.05). Increasing from C2 to C7, the endplate transverse diameters of females were significantly smaller than those of males (Psagittal and

  2. Preservation of the recipient inferior vena cava in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F; Herrera, J; Mora, N P; Nuño, J; Turrión, V S; Vicente, E; Ardaiz, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty piggy-back (PB) liver transplantations (LT) were compared with 20 LT performed by the standard technique in order to evaluate whether or not the theoretical haemodynamic advantages of the preservation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) have any impact on the final results of the LT. Statistically significant differences were observed in the duration of the hepatectomy, which was longer for PB LT (192 min vs. 146 min), and in the duration of the anhepatic phase, which was shorter in that group (52 min vs. 76 min). There were no differences in the duration of the complete surgical procedure, consumption of blood products, incidence of postoperative acute renal failure, number of reoperations or survival.

  3. Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex: one decade on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Adam R; Robbins, Trevor W; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-04-01

    In our TICS Review in 2004, we proposed that a sector of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) in humans is critical for inhibiting response tendencies. Here we survey new evidence, discuss ongoing controversies, and provide an updated theory. We propose that the rIFC (along with one or more fronto-basal-ganglia networks) is best characterized as a brake. This brake can be turned on in different modes (totally, to outright suppress a response; or partially, to pause), and in different contexts (externally, by stop or salient signals; or internally, by goals). We affirm inhibition as a central component of executive control that relies upon the rIFC and associated networks, and explain why rIFC disruption could generally underpin response control disorders.

  4. Efficiency of Intraligamentary Anesthesia of Inferior Molars for Endodontic Treatment

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    Peycheva K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The periodontal ligament injection appears to be the most consistently reliable in achieving clinically adequate pulpal anaesthesia. Materials and Methods: 130 inferior molar teeth; technique: The tooth was first cleaned with chlorhexidine 0.2% solution. The penetration of the ligament is performed with special intraligamentary needle (30 G - 9, 17,21 mm “sliding” along the side of the tooth, 300º angle between the needle and the tooth, having taken the care of determining support points which will prevent the needle from twisting. The penetration must be deep enough to obtain the seal required for the injection, injection for each root in particular points; volume of solution per root is 0.2-0.4 ml. Results: In 125 cases the technique was absolutely efficient. In only 5 cases with pulpitis chronica ulcerosa there was need for additional intrapulpal anesthesia. Conclusions: The method could be used as a primary anesthetic method for endodontic treatment.

  5. Infrahepatic inferior vena cava agenesis with bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeik, Nedaa; Wickstrom, Kelly K; Schumacher, Clark W; Sullivan, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare and are estimated to be present in 0.07-8.7% of the general population. IVC agenesis (IVCA) is found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is an extremely rare and unusual presentation of IVCA. We report a unique case of a 23-year-old previously healthy man presenting with infrahepatic IVCA-induced bilateral RVT with azygos and hemiazygos continuation. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case in the literature of IVCA-induced RVT and the first to affect the bilateral renal veins in the absence of any other thrombogenic risk factors or any lower extremity venous complications. We also present a literature review of IVCA-induced vein thrombosis and highlight the lack of literature to manage this condition.

  6. Evaluation of lidocaine and mepivacaine for inferior third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Gabriela Granja; Vasconcelos, Belmiro Cavalcanti Do Egito; Gomes, Ana Cláudia Amorim; Albert, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2% lidocaine and 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for postoperative pain control. A group of 35 patients, both genders were recruited, whose had ages ranged from 13 to 27 years-old and had two inferior third molars in similar positions to be extracted. The cartridges were distributed to the patients according to a randomised pattern, where lidocaine was in the control group and mepivacaine in the experimental group. Results showed no significant association between the anesthetics and postoperative pain, pulp sensibility after one hour, gender, tooth position and duration of the surgical procedure. It was shown that lidocaine and mepivacaine have similar time of anesthesia, they are adequate for surgical procedures that last one hour, and there was no difference between the two anesthetics in relation to the severety of post-operative pain.

  7. Electrophysiological properties of inferior olive neurons: A compartmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, N; Doya, K; Kawato, M

    1999-08-01

    As a step in exploring the functions of the inferior olive, we constructed a biophysical model of the olivary neurons to examine their unique electrophysiological properties. The model consists of two compartments to represent the known distribution of ionic currents across the cell membrane, as well as the dendritic location of the gap junctions and synaptic inputs. The somatic compartment includes a low-threshold calcium current (I(Ca_l)), an anomalous inward rectifier current (I(h)), a sodium current (I(Na)), and a delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K_dr)). The dendritic compartment contains a high-threshold calcium current (I(Ca_h)), a calcium-dependent potassium current (I(K_Ca)), and a current flowing into other cells through electrical coupling (I(c)). First, kinetic parameters for these currents were set according to previously reported experimental data. Next, the remaining free parameters were determined to account for both static and spiking properties of single olivary neurons in vitro. We then performed a series of simulated pharmacological experiments using bifurcation analysis and extensive two-parameter searches. Consistent with previous studies, we quantitatively demonstrated the major role of I(Ca_l) in spiking excitability. In addition, I(h) had an important modulatory role in the spike generation and period of oscillations, as previously suggested by Bal and McCormick. Finally, we investigated the role of electrical coupling in two coupled spiking cells. Depending on the coupling strength, the hyperpolarization level, and the I(Ca_l) and I(h) modulation, the coupled cells had four different synchronization modes: the cells could be in-phase, phase-shifted, or anti-phase or could exhibit a complex desynchronized spiking mode. Hence these simulation results support the counterintuitive hypothesis that electrical coupling can desynchronize coupled inferior olive cells.

  8. Pseudoaneurisma Ventricular Izquierdo en Cara Inferior con Flujo Bidireccional

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    Adrián J Da Silva-De Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los pseudoaneurismas son complicaciones infrecuentes de los infartos del miocardio. Consisten en un saco pericárdico que comunica con la cavidad ventricular a través de un cuello de menor diámetro. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 68 años de edad, con DM II e HTA, sufre Infarto Agudo del Miocardio en Mayo del 2008, presentando disnea y tos por una semana, con diaforesis profusa de inicio súbito y síncope sin dolor precordial. El electrocardiograma reporta zonas de isquemia transmural y subendocárdica en caras inferolateral y lateral alta, respectivamente, y zona eléctricamente inactivable en cara inferior. El ecocardiograma transtorácico muestra el ventrículo izquierdo con dilatación severa, disminución de la fracción de eyección (25% y un pseudoaneurisma de la pared inferior con cuello de 3 mm a través del cual se evidencia flujo bidireccional, de entrada al ventrículo durante la diástole y salida al pseudoaneurisma en sístole. El flujo bidireccional y el gasto cardíaco disminuido contribuyen a evitar el taponamiento cardiaco, sin embargo, en condiciones de mayor demanda el pseudoaneurisma podría perforarse y ocasionar dicha entidad. De ello, la importancia del diagnostico diferencial con los aneurismas verdaderos, lo cual permite llevar a cabo la terapéutica adecuada y evitar tal complicación.

  9. Pseudoaneurisma Ventricular Izquierdo en Cara Inferior con Flujo Bidireccional

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    Adrián J Da Silva-De Abreu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los pseudoaneurismas son complicaciones infrecuentes de los infartos del miocardio. Consisten en un saco pericárdico que comunica con la cavidad ventricular a través de un cuello de menor diámetro. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 68 años de edad, con DM II e HTA, sufre Infarto Agudo del Miocardio en Mayo del 2008, presentando disnea y tos por una semana, con diaforesis profusa de inicio súbito y síncope sin dolor precordial. El electrocardiograma reporta zonas de isquemia transmural y subendocárdica en caras inferolateral y lateral alta; respectivamente, y zona eléctricamente inactivable en cara inferior. El ecocardiograma transtorácico muestra el ventrículo izquierdo con dilatación severa, disminución de la fracción de eyección (25% y un pseudoaneurisma de la pared inferior con cuello de 3 mm a través del cual se evidencia flujo bidireccional: de entrada al ventrículo durante la diástole y salida al pseudoaneurisma en sístole. El flujo bidireccional y el gasto cardíaco disminuido contribuyen a evitar el taponamiento cardiaco, sin embargo, en condiciones de mayor demanda el pseudoaneurisma podría perforarse y ocasionar dicha entidad. De ello, la importancia del diagnostico diferencial con los aneurismas verdaderos, lo cual permite llevar a cabo la terapéutica adecuada y evitar tal complicación. Palabras claves: Pseudoaneurisma, Infarto del Miocardio, Diabetes.

  10. Blunt injury to the inferior gluteal artery: case report of a rare "near miss" event

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Wei; Pan Jinshe; Smith Wade R; Liu Huaijun; Zhang Qi; Zhang Yingze

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic injuries of the inferior gluteal artery are rare, the majority of which are aneurysms due to sharp or blunt trauma. We report the rare case of a "near miss" event of a patient with an acute hemorrhagic mass in the right buttock caused by blunt trauma to the inferior gluteal artery without "hard" clinical signs of vascular injury. Despite the unusual presentation, diffuse injury of the inferior gluteal artery branches was diagnosed by ultrasonography and angiography. This ar...

  11. Efficacy of low level laser therapy on neurosensory recovery after injury to the inferior alveolar nerve

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    Gorur Ilker

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most severe complication after the removal of mandibular third molars is injury to the inferior alveolar nerve or the lingual nerve. These complications are rather uncommon (0.4% to 8.4% and most of them are transient. However, some of them persist for longer than 6 months, which can leave various degrees of long-term permanent disability. While several methods such as pharmacologic therapy, microneurosurgery, autogenous and alloplastic grafting can be used for the treatment of long-standing sensory aberrations in the inferior alveolar nerve, there are few reports regarding low level laser treatment. This paper reports the effects of low level laser therapy in 4 patients with longstanding sensory nerve impairment following mandibular third molar surgery. Methods Four female patients had complaints of paresthesia and dysesthesia of the lip, chin and gingiva, and buccal regions. Each patient had undergone mandibular third molar surgery at least 1 year before. All patients were treated with low level laser therapy. Clinical neurosensory tests (the brush stroke directional discrimination test, 2-point discrimination test, and a subjective assessment of neurosensory function using a visual analog scale were used before and after treatment, and the responses were plotted over time. Results When the neurosensory assessment scores after treatment with LLL therapy were compared with the baseline values prior to treatment, there was a significant acceleration in the time course, as well as in the magnitude, of neurosensory return. The VAS analysis revealed progressive improvement over time. Conclusion Low level laser therapy seemed to be conducive to the reduction of long-standing sensory nerve impairment following third molar surgery. Further studies are worthwhile regarding the clinical application of this treatment modality.

  12. NMDA receptor blockade alters the intracellular distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus

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    R.E. de Bittencourt-Navarrete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a molecular messenger involved in several events of synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Ca2+ influx through the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR triggers the synthesis of NO by activating the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in postsynaptic densities. Therefore, NMDAR and nNOS are part of the intricate scenario of postsynaptic densities. In the present study, we hypothesized that the intracellular distribution of nNOS in the neurons of superior colliculus (SC superficial layers is an NMDAR activity-dependent process. We used osmotic minipumps to promote chronic blockade of the receptors with the pharmacological agent MK-801 in the SC of 7 adult rats. The effective blockade of NMDAR was assessed by changes in the protein level of the immediate early gene NGFI-A, which is a well-known NMDAR activity-dependent expressing transcription factor. Upon chronic infusion of MK-801, a decrease of 47% in the number of cells expressing NGFI-A was observed in the SC of treated animals. Additionally, the filled dendritic extent by the histochemical product of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate diaphorase was reduced by 45% when compared to the contralateral SC of the same animals and by 64% when compared to the SC of control animals. We conclude that the proper intracellular localization of nNOS in the retinorecipient layers of SC depends on NMDAR activation. These results are consistent with the view that the participation of NO in the physiological and plastic events of the central nervous system might be closely related to an NMDAR activity-dependent function.

  13. Spiral CT in aplasia of the pre-renal inferior vena cava as a cause of phlebothrombosis from the femoral veins to the inferior vena cava; Spiral-CT einer Aplasie der praerenalen Vena cava inferior als Ursache einer Phlebothrombose von den Oberschenkelvenen bis in die Vena cava inferior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweiger, U. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Schedel, H. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Thiede, U. [Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Digitale Bildbearbeitung; Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The case report focuses on the computed tomography of the thrombotic okklusion of the inferior vena cava, venae iliacae and femorales communes due to congenital interruption of the prerenal inferior vena cava. The embryology of the abnormality was discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Fallstudie wurden die Moeglichkeiten der computertomographischen Diagnostik bei einer durch Teilplasie der `praerenalen` Vena cava inferior hervorgerufenen Thrombose der Vv. femorales superficiales et profundae, der grossen Beckenvenen und der Vena cava inferior erlaeutert. In der Diskussion wurde auf die Embryologie der Missbildung eingegangen. (orig.)

  14. Sudden deafness as an initial presenting symptom of posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E J; Yoon, Y J

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports on two patients with posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction whose only presenting complaint was acute unilateral hearing loss. In the two cases reported, sudden hearing loss was an initial symptom, with no other neurological signs. Infarction in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery was diagnosed using brain magnetic resolution imaging. The patients had some degree of hearing improvement 3 or 4 days after initial treatment. In this article, new cases of posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction presenting as sudden deafness, without prominent neurological signs, are described. Otologists should be aware that hearing loss can sometimes appear as a warning sign of impending posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction.

  15. Estudo comparativo entre dois protocolos anestésicos envolvendo bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior convencional e de Vazirani-Akinosi para exodontia de terceiro molar inferior

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo de Paula Ribeiro Borges; Liane Maciel De Almeida Souza; Maria Luisa Silveira Souto; Liliane Poconé Dantas; Mônica Silveira Paixão; Francisco Carlos Groppo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The inferior alveolar nerve block has a high percentage of failure in dentistry. To improve this ratio, has been studied different alternatives, as different techniques, as well as anesthetics.OBJECTIVE:Evaluate two different techniques (conventional technique and Vazirani-Akinosi) for inferior alveolar nerve block, and compare them regarding their effectiveness and quantify the percentage of positive aspirations in both techniques.MATERIAL AND METHOD: 160 patients were evaluate...

  16. A new method in thoracoscopic inferior mediastinal lymph node biopsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanlı Maruf

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We performed video-thoracoscopy with a video-mediastinoscope to conduct a mediastinal lymph node biopsy. Here, we discuss the various advantages of the method. Case presentation A 56-year-old Turkish Caucasian man had been complaining of dyspnea on exertion, hacking cough, fever and continuous sweating for one and a half months. Thoracic computed tomography revealed enlarged paratracheal and aorticopulmonary lymph nodes, the largest of which was 1 cm in diameter and reticulo-micronodular interstitial infiltration extending symmetrically to the pleural surfaces in both pulmonary perihilar areas. Computed tomography supported positron emission tomography showed increased fluorodeoxyglucose retention in lymph nodes in both hilar areas (10R and 10L (maximum standardized uptake values 5.6 and 5.7, and in the right lower paratracheal (4R (maximum standardized uptake value 4.1 and right para-esophageal (8 (maximum standardized uptake value 8.9 lymph nodes. Pathological examination of the right lymph node number 8 biopsy using the video-mediastinoscope revealed the presence of granulomatous inflammation. No problems were observed during the postoperative period. Conclusion The use of the video-mediastinoscope for inferior lymph node biopsy in thoracoscopy is an easy, safe and practical method, especially in patients with pleural adhesions.

  17. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  18. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  19. Inferior vena cava dimensions in patients with acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Yepes-Hurtado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume contraction frequently contributes to the development of acute kidney injury.  The rapid assessment of volume status in patients with acute kidney injury could improve decision making and outcomes. Methods: The maximum and minimum diameters and percent collapsibility of the inferior vena cava (IVC were measured in 30 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit with laboratory evidence of acute kidney injury.  These measurements were made on the day of admission and 24 hours following admission.  Information about age, gender, body mass index, serum creatinine levels, and fluid balances was recorded. Results: This study included 30 patients with a mean age is 62.4 ±16.0 years.  The mean initial creatinine was 4.3 ± 4.2 mg/dL (range: 1.7 mg/dL to 22.1 mg/dL.  The mean fractional excretion of sodium was 2.06 ± 2.65%.  The mean maximum diameter of inferior vena cava was 1.8 ± 0.5 cm with the range is 0.4-2.65 cm.  The mean percent collapse was 32 ± 20%.  Five patients had evidence of hypovolemia using guidelines from the American Society of Echocardiology; 6 patients had evidence of hypervolemia.  Nineteen patients had measurements between these 2 categories.  There is no significant change in mean diameters following fluid administration for 24 hours.  An initial IVC diameter of 0.94 cm predicted ≥ 30% collapsibility with an area under the curve is 0.748. Discussion: Patients with acute kidney injury based on laboratory measurements had evidence for hypovolemia, euvolemia, and hypervolemia based on IVC measurements.  There was no consistent change in IVC dimensions following fluid administration, even though the creatinine fell in most patients.  Simple bedside measurements of IVC dimensions can facilitate fluid administration decisions but must be used with clinical assessment.

  20. Simultaneous paresthesia of the lingual nerve and inferior alveolar nerve caused by a radicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Akiko; Kondoh, Toshirou; Suzuki, Mami; Noguchi, Kazuhide; Ito, Ko; Seto, Kanichi

    2005-10-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve is sometimes affected by periapical pathoses and mandibular cysts. However, mandibular intraosseous lesions have not been reported to disturb the lingual nerve. A case of simultaneous paresthesia of the right lingual nerve and the right inferior alveolar nerve is presented. The possible mechanisms of this extremely uncommon condition are discussed.

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Gene Expression in Rice Superior and Inferior Grains by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongzheng; Peng, Ting; Zhao, Yafan; Du, Yanxiu; Zhang, Jing; Li, Junzhou; Xin, Zeyu; Zhao, Quanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Poor grain filling of inferior grains located on lower secondary panicle branch causes great drop in rice yield and quality. Dynamic gene expression patterns between superior and inferior grains were examined from the view of the whole transcriptome by using RNA-Seq method. In total, 19,442 genes were detected during rice grain development. Genes involved in starch synthesis, grain storage and grain development were interrogated in particular in superior and inferior grains. Of the genes involved in sucrose to starch transformation process, most were expressed at lower level in inferior grains at early filling stage compared to that of superior grains. But at late filling stage, the expression of those genes was higher in inferior grains and lower in superior grains. The same trends were observed in the expression of grain storage protein genes. While, evidence that genes involved in cell cycle showed higher expression in inferior grains during whole period of grain filling indicated that cell proliferation was active till the late filling stage. In conclusion, delayed expression of most starch synthesis genes in inferior grains and low capacity of sink organ might be two important factors causing low filling rate of inferior grain at early filling stage, and shortage of carbohydrate supply was a limiting factor at late filling stage. PMID:26355995

  2. Thickening of the inferior glenohumeral capsule: an ultrasound sign for shoulder capsular contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Paul; Delarue, Yohann; Duparc, Fabrice; Dacher, Jean Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to measure the inferior glenohumeral capsule thickness of shoulders clinically affected by capsular contracture by comparison to the contralateral asymptomatic side. Bilateral shoulder ultrasound (US) examinations of 20 patients with clinically or MRI proven unilateral capsular contracture were retrospectively assessed. Inferior capsule evaluation was performed with a transducer placed within the axilla in maximally abducted shoulders. Measurements were symmetrically performed orthogonally to the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) in the axial plane; the coronal plane was used to ensure the tension of the IGHL. The significance of any difference in thickening was assessed with the Mann-Whitney test. The average thickness was 4.0 mm in shoulders with capsular contracture vs. 1.3 mm in asymptomatic contralateral shoulders (P contracture and inferior capsule thickness increase showed US features of other painful diseases of the rotator cuff. The thickness of the inferior capsule is measurable through ultrasound examination and appears to be increased in shoulders with capsular contracture. Exploration of the inferior aspect of the shoulder joint could be added to shoulder US examination protocols for capsular contracture assessment even if other rotator cuff abnormalities are diagnosed by US. • Ultrasound is increasingly used to diagnose shoulder problems. • The thickness of the inferior glenohumeral ligament is measurable in the axilla. • The inferior glenohumeral ligament appears thickened in shoulders with capsular contracture. • Capsular contracture ultrasound features can be associated with other rotator cuff problems.

  3. Inferior displacement of the lower eyelid during intraoperative quantification in blepharoptosis surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Zako, Masahiro; Iwaki, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine inferior displacement of the lower eyelid during eye closing in intraoperative quantification of blepharoptosis surgery. Methods: A series of lower eyelid movements during eye closing in intraoperative quantification of blepharoptosis surgery were examined in 30 eyelids of 15 patients (6 males and 9 females; mean age 70.0 years; range 43–81 years) with bilateral aponeurotic blepharoptosis. Results: Inferior displacement of the lower eyelid was observed in all eyelids examined, although the extent varied in each patient (range 2.0–4.5 mm; mean 3.2 mm). Inferior displacement occurred with upward eye movement caused by Bell’s phenomenon. Many wrinkles were simultaneously observed as a result of contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle. After maintaining the inferiorly displaced state for several seconds, 20 lower eyelids in 10 patients naturally moved superiorly to a resting position. On the other hand, 10 lower eyelids in 5 patients remained in the same inferior position for more than 5 seconds, after which we had to manually elevate them to a resting position. The eyes then moved inferiorly to their resting position with a decrease in the number of lower eyelid wrinkles. Once the patients opened their eyes, inferior displacement of the lower eyelid completely disappeared. Conclusions: Inferior displacement of the lower eyelid during eye closing increases the amount of lagophthalmos. This phenomenon needs to be considered for quantifying the intraoperative lagophthalmos level during blepharoptosis surgery. PMID:21383948

  4. Generalizing Screen Inferiority--Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Yael; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2016-01-01

    Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper.…

  5. Gravity-dependent nystagmus and inner-ear dysfunction suggest anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Miller, Benjamin R; Sundararajan, Sophia; Katirji, Bashar

    2014-04-01

    Cerebellar lesions may present with gravity-dependent nystagmus, where the direction and velocity of the drifts change with alterations in head position. Two patients had acute onset of hearing loss, vertigo, oscillopsia, nausea, and vomiting. Examination revealed gravity-dependent nystagmus, unilateral hypoactive vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and hearing loss ipsilateral to the VOR hypofunction. Traditionally, the hypoactive VOR and hearing loss suggest inner-ear dysfunction. Vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and nystagmus may suggest peripheral or central vestibulopathy. The gravity-dependent modulation of nystagmus, however, localizes to the posterior cerebellar vermis. Magnetic resonance imaging in our patients revealed acute cerebellar infarct affecting posterior cerebellar vermis, in the vascular distribution of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). This lesion explains the gravity-dependent nystagmus, nausea, and vomiting. Acute onset of unilateral hearing loss and VOR hypofunction could be the manifestation of inner-ear ischemic injury secondary to the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) compromise. In cases of combined AICA and PICA infarction, the symptoms of peripheral vestibulopathy might masquerade the central vestibular syndrome and harbor a cerebellar stroke. However, the gravity-dependent nystagmus allows prompt identification of acute cerebellar infarct. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, S; Toshiro, H; Sekiguchi, E; Okita, R; Yamaga, H; Ozaki, F; Moriwaki, H; Matsumoto, T; Ueyoshi, A; Roger, P

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas.

  7. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  8. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS) and Subspine Hip Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Patrick; Filan, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Abnormal morphology of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) and the subspine region of the acetabular rim are increasingly being recognised as a source of symptomatic extra-articular hip impingement. This review article aims to highlight important differences in the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of extra-articular hip impingement from both the AIIS and subspine bony regions, and the outcome following surgical intervention. Methods A literature review was undertaken to examine the supporting evidence for AIIS and subspine hip impingement. A narrative account of the Author’s professional experience in this area, including operative technique for arthroscopic correction, is also presented. Results Abnormal morphology of the AIIS and subspine region has been classified using cadaveric, radiological and arthroscopic means; the clinical presentation and operative treatment has been documented in several case series studies. Dual pathology is often present - recognition and treatment of both intra- and extra-articular components are necessary for good postoperative outcome. Conclusions AIIS and sub-spine hip impingement should be considered as distinct pathological entities, which may also co-exist. Symptom relief can be expected following arthroscopic deformity correction with the treatment of concomitant intra-articular pathology. Failure to recognise and treat the extra-articular component may affect postoperative outcome. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066737

  9. Skeletal stability after inferior maxillary repositioning without interpositional graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S E; Moreira, R W F; de Moraes, M; Asprino, L; Araujo, M M

    2012-04-01

    True vertical maxillary deficiency is a characteristic of short face syndrome. In these patients, inferior repositioning of the maxilla (IRM) is indicated to improve facial aesthetics and function, but this procedure has been described as the most unstable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term, post surgical stability of IRM, fixed with four 2.0mm L-shaped miniplates, without any type of graft. A cephalometric study was performed, analysing linear measurements (anterior nasal spine, the A point, top of the incisor, top of the buccal-mesial cusp of the first molar, and posterior nasal spine on an X-Y coordinate system) traced immediately preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and at least 6 months post operatively. Eight young adult patients who underwent IRM were studied. The average results of this study were: surgical movement of 4.65 mm at I point, 5.32 mm at anterior nasal spine (ANS) point, and 4.70 mm at A point and relapses of 1.60 mm (35%), 2.23 mm (43%) and 2.10 mm (46%), respectively. It was concluded, that IRM using this type of internal rigid fixation without graft is unstable.

  10. Advanced Techniques for Removal of Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliescu, Bogdan; Haskal, Ziv J., E-mail: ziv2@mac.com [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have proven valuable for the prevention of primary or recurrent pulmonary embolism in selected patients with or at high risk for venous thromboembolic disease. Their use has become commonplace, and the numbers implanted increase annually. During the last 3 years, in the United States, the percentage of annually placed optional filters, i.e., filters than can remain as permanent filters or potentially be retrieved, has consistently exceeded that of permanent filters. In parallel, the complications of long- or short-term filtration have become increasingly evident to physicians, regulatory agencies, and the public. Most filter removals are uneventful, with a high degree of success. When routine filter-retrieval techniques prove unsuccessful, progressively more advanced tools and skill sets must be used to enhance filter-retrieval success. These techniques should be used with caution to avoid damage to the filter or cava during IVC retrieval. This review describes the complex techniques for filter retrieval, including use of additional snares, guidewires, angioplasty balloons, and mechanical and thermal approaches as well as illustrates their specific application.

  11. Preliminary experience with Option inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shams I; Elmi, Azadeh; Hedgire, Sandeep; Yeddula, Kalpana; Ganguli, Suvranu; Walker, T Gregory; Salazar, Gloria M; Wicky, Stephan; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Option inferior vena cava (IVC) filter during placement and short-term follow-up. A total of 165 patients (mean age: 60-years) who received Option IVC filter from June 2009 to July 2011 were included. In all, 42 patients presented with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 26 with pulmonary embolism (PE), and 17 with both. All outcomes were examined until April 30, 2012. The filters were successfully deployed in 161patients. During follow-up (mean, 9.5 ± 0.68months), 10 patients were diagnosed with post-filter PE and 13 patients with DVT. There were no instances of fatal PE. Follow-up abdominal computed tomography was available in 60 patients and demonstrated filter-related problems in 8 patients (2: penetration of filter legs, 5: asymptomatic nonocclusive thrombus, and 1: caval occlusion). There were no instances of filter migration or fracture. In total, 27 filters were successfully retrieved after a mean of 5.27 ± 0.76 months. The Option filter was effective and safe during implantation and short-term follow-up and associated with high technical success at retrieval.

  12. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower- versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  14. The Quantitative Analysis to Inferior Oil with Electronic Nose Based on Adaptive Multilayer Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Men

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study makes the three acryl glycerin polymers, oxidation three acryl glycerins, and low carbon number fatty acid as inferior oil feature index. Using double steady state stochastic resonance signal-to-noise ratio analysis methods make the quantitative analysis to inferior oil. This paper analyzes the stochastic resonance. Introduces the principle detection system structure based on adaptive multilayer stochastic resonance algorithm in inferior oil quantitativeanalysis; and make adaptive double stochastic resonance model and inferior oil as example, give the simulation and numerical analysis of this model of the system. The results show that the system can obtain more accurate quality the proportion of the inferior oil information. At the same time, this method can effectively solve the semiconductor gas sensors of the baseline drift problem. The method of stochastic resonance has a lot of application prospect in improving the system performance.

  15. Clinical observation of the abnormality of inferior oblique tendon in congenital superior oblique muscle paralytic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To measure the abnormality of the inferior oblique tendon in patients with congenital superior oblique muscle paralysis.METHODS: In this cross-sectional, self-control designed study, the tensity of the inferior oblique tendon of both the paralytic and nonparalytic eye were measured during the operations in 30 patients who were diagnosed with exotropia(including intermittent exotropia and constant exotropia accompanied with single superior oblique muscle paralysis. The tensity of the tendon was measured as the maximal distance of which the inferior oblique tendon could be lifted from the scleraRESULTS: Inferior oblique had different degrees of thickness, but was tougher and tighter than that of nonparalytic eye. There was a significant difference(PCONCLUSION: The inferior oblique tendon is stronger and less relaxant in the paralytic eyes.

  16. Coding for stimulus velocity by temporal patterning of spike discharges in visual cells of cat superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, G

    1993-07-01

    Statistical analyses, performed on extracellularly recorded spike trains generated by 69 single motion sensitive visual cells in the intermediate layers of superior colliculi of pretrigeminal cat preparations, revealed that--even in the unstimulated condition (38/69)--most neuronal spike discharge patterns tended to switch between two stochastically distinct states, in the form of rapidly alternating "bursting" (high frequency) and "resting" (low frequency) episodes. The numbers of consecutive interspike intervals within a given state were, as a rule, independent integer-valued random variables with discrete probability distributions, in essential agreement with the semi-Markov model proposed by Ekholm and Hyvärinen [(1970) Biophysical Journal, 10, 773-796]. The introduction of visual stimuli (47/69) moving with velocities of 2-160 deg/sec caused systematic and reproducible changes in the ratio of bursting to resting activities, decreases in overall discharge variability, and increases in signal transinformation flow. Moreover, with one group of stimulated cells (28/47), increasing stimulus velocity caused increasingly precise ("stimulus-forced") synchronization of bursting episodes with specific phases of stimulus movement; while for a smaller group (12/47), stimulus-related alternations between bursting and resting states assumed the form of semi-rhythmical burst discharges within the characteristic 60-80 Hz "gamma oscillation" range ("stimulus-induced" synchronization). For a minority of cells (7/47), switching between bursting and resting states--although characteristically modified by stimulus velocity--remained largely desynchronized with all phases of stimulus transit. It was argued that such temporal patterns of discharge may constitute elements of a candidate "distribution" code for movement detection by the cat visual system.

  17. REVEALED ALTRUISM

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C; Friedman, Daniel; Sadiraj, Vjollca

    2009-01-01

    This pap er develops a theory of revealed preferences over oneís own and othersímonetary payo§s. We intro duce ìmore altruistic thanî(MAT), a partial ordering over preferences, and interpret it with known parametric mo dels. We also intro duce and illustrate ìmore generous thanî (MGT), a partial ordering over opp ortunity sets. Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Örst mover (FM) cho oses a more or less gen...

  18. Functional topography of the right inferior parietal lobule structured by anatomical connectivity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wei, Xuehu; Zheng, Dingchen; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-12-01

    The nature of the relationship between structure and function is a fundamental question in neuroscience, especially at the macroscopic neuroimaging level. Although mounting studies have revealed that functional connectivity reflects structural connectivity, whether similar structural and functional connectivity patterns can reveal corresponding similarities in the structural and functional topography remains an open problem. In our current study, we used the right inferior parietal lobule (RIPL), which has been demonstrated to have similar anatomical and functional connectivity patterns at the subregional level, to directly test the hypothesis that similar structural and functional connectivity patterns can inform the corresponding topography of this area. In addition, since the association between the RIPL regions and particular functions and networks is still largely unknown, post-hoc functional characterizations and connectivity analyses were performed to identify the main functions and cortical networks in which each subregion participated. Anatomical and functional connectivity-based parcellations of the RIPL have consistently identified five subregions. Our functional characterization using meta-analysis-based behavioral and connectivity analyses revealed that the two anterior subregions (Cl1 and Cl2) primarily participate in interoception and execution, respectively; whereas the posterior subregion (Cl3) in the SMG primarily participates in attention and action inhibition. The two posterior subregions (Cl4, Cl5) in the AG were primarily involved in social cognition and spatial cognition, respectively. These results indicated that similar anatomical and functional connectivity patterns of the RIPL are reflected in corresponding structural and functional topographies. The identified cortical connectivity and functional characterization of each subregion may facilitate RIPL-related clinical research. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4316-4332, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  19. Inferior vena cava filters in pulmonary embolism: A historic controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Rodriguez, David; Navarrete, Aline; Parra-Cantu, Carolina; Joya-Harrison, Jorge; Vazquez, Eduardo; Ramirez-Rivera, Alicia

    Rationale for non-routine use of inferior venous cava filters (IVCF) in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. Thrombosis mechanisms involved with IVCF placement and removal, the blood-contacting medical device inducing clotting, and the inorganic polyphosphate in the contact activation pathway were analyzed. In addition, we analyzed clinical evidence from randomized trials, including patients with and without cancer. Furthermore, we estimated the absolute risk reduction (ARR), the relative risk reduction (RRR), and the number needed to treat (NNT) based on the results of each study using a frequency table. Finally, we analyzed the outcome of our PE patients that were submitted to thrombolysis with short and long term follow-up. IVCF induces thrombosis by several mechanisms including placement and removal, rapid protein adsorption, and simultaneous surface-induced activation via the contact activation pathway. Also, inorganic polyphosphate has an important role as a procoagulant, reversing the effect of anticoagulants. Randomized control trials included 904 cancer and non-cancer PE patients. In terms of ARR, RRR, and NNT, there is no evidence for routine use of IVCF. In 290 patients with proved PE, extensive thrombotic burden and right ventricular dysfunction under thrombolysis and oral anticoagulation, we observed a favorable outcome in a short- and long-term follow-up; additionally, IVCF was only used in 5% of these patients. Considering the complex mechanisms of thrombosis related with IVCF, the evidence from randomized control trials and ARR, RRR, and NNT obtained from venous thromboembolism patients with and without cancer, non-routine use of IVCF is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Inferior Rectus Transposition: A Novel Procedure for Abducens Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Federico G; Chang, Melinda Y; Pineles, Stacy L

    2017-05-01

    Superior rectus transposition has been popularized for the treatment of abduction deficiencies. Potential complications include induced vertical deviation and torsion. A new procedure, the inferior rectus transposition (IRT), may be similarly beneficial for patients at risk for postoperative vertical deviation or incyclotropia. The purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of patients undergoing IRT. Prospective, interventional case series. Five patients in an academic pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus practice with a complete lateral rectus palsy who underwent IRT were studied. Changes in anomalous head posture, ocular rotations, ocular alignment, and torsion preoperatively to postoperatively were compared. The patients ranged in age from 19-89 years. There was a significant correction in the angle of esotropia (ET) from 39±17Δ (14-55Δ) to 12 ± 9.8Δ (0-22Δ) postoperatively (P = .02). Two of 5 patients had preoperative hypertropia of the affected eye (1.4 ± 2.2Δ; range, 2-5Δ). One of those had no vertical deviation postoperatively and 1 patient resulted in 2Δ hypotropia. One patient without vertical misalignment preoperatively developed a small postoperative vertical deviation. Torticollis significantly improved from 31.4 ± 11.6° to 5 ± 5.8° (P = .004). All patients improved abduction, with a mean of -4.4 ± 0.5 preoperatively to -3.4 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = .07). Initial postoperative follow-up in patients with abducens palsy undergoing IRT shows a significant improvement in ocular alignment and torticollis. In patients with preoperative hypertropia, IRT resulted in a downward shifting effect on the operated eye. IRT may be a beneficial procedure for patients with preoperative hypertropia or intorsion requiring transposition procedures. Future studies with larger populations and longer durations of follow-up will be required before this procedure can be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. AN ACCESSORY/ABERRANT LEFT INFERIOR POLAR ARTERY AR ISING FROM THE AORTIC BIFURCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The frequently to rarely occurring wide range of va riations in the renal vasculature are considered critical issue that surgeons should have a thorough envision and appreciation of the condition. During the routine prosection hours for the preclinical MBBS students at Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital and Research Centre, while dissecting a male cadaver revealed an interesting variation. The Main Renal Artery (MRA was arising from the aorta about 1.8 cm below the Superior Mesentric Arte ry (SMA extending laterally towards the hilum of the kidney. At about 1.5 cm below the orig in of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery (IMA from the antero lateral aspect of the Aortic Bifurca tion, an aberrant renal artery measuring 4.5 cm in length, was seen coursing upwards, backwards a nd laterally & made its portal of entry by penetrating into the medial border and extending on to the posterior surface by piercing the capsule just half cm. above its lower pole. The urete r and the gonadal vessels were superficial to it. A thorough knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal tra nsplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm and conservat ive or radical renal surgery.

  2. Conservative treatment of anterior inferior and superior avulsion fractures of spina iliaca in adolescent amateur footballer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Hatay Gölge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS and the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS avulsion fracture is a rare injury of pelvis. It usually occurs during the sport activities especially in football while hitting the ball. It is commonly misdiagnosed so that a detailed history and physical examination have a great importance. We present two cases of AIIS and ASIS avulsion fracture. Both of the patients applied to outpatient clinics with hip pain and difficulty in walking. History revealed the complaints started after hitting the ball during the football match and hip movements were limited. The patients were fifteen and sixteen years and after physical examination and radiological evaluation, avulsion fracture of the AIIS and the ASIS were diagnosed. Patients were treated conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and limited weight bearing with crutches for a month. The patients were free of pain and had full range of hip movements after one month period. At the end of the second month patients returned to active sports. AIIS and ASIS avulsion fractures are more common in adolescent football players but clinicians sometimes fail to diagnose this rare injury. We emphasize the importance of the detailed history and clinical examination and direct radiography could be enough for the diagnosis.

  3. Polygynous supercolonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, an inferior colony founder.

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    Kautz, S; Pauls, S U; Ballhorn, D J; Lumbsch, H T; Heil, M

    2009-12-01

    In ant-plant protection mutualisms, plants provide nesting space and nutrition to defending ants. Several plant-ants are polygynous. Possessing more than one queen per colony can reduce nestmate relatedness and consequently the inclusive fitness of workers. Here, we investigated the colony structure of the obligate acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, which competes for nesting space with several congeneric and sympatric species. Pseudomyrmex peperi had a lower colony founding success than its congeners and thus, appears to be competitively inferior during the early stages of colony development. Aggression assays showed that P. peperi establishes distinct, but highly polygynous supercolonies, which can inhabit large clusters of host trees. Analysing queens, workers, males and virgin queens from two supercolonies with eight polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed a maximum of three alleles per locus within a colony and, thus, high relatedness among nestmates. Colonies had probably been founded by one singly mated queen and supercolonies resulted from intranidal mating among colony-derived males and daughter queens. This strategy allows colonies to grow by budding and to occupy individual plant clusters for time spans that are longer than an individual queen's life. Ancestral states reconstruction indicated that polygyny represents the derived state within obligate acacia-ants. We suggest that the extreme polygyny of Pseudomyrmex peperi, which is achieved by intranidal mating and thereby maintains high nestmate relatedness, might play an important role for species coexistence in a dynamic and competitive habitat.

  4. Fat necrosis in deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps: an ultrasound-based review of 202 cases.

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    Peeters, Wouter J; Nanhekhan, Lloyd; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Fabré, Gerd; Vandevoort, Marc

    2009-12-01

    In autologous breast reconstruction after mastectomy, fat necrosis is a rather common complication that may lead to secondary corrective surgery. The understanding of fat necrosis until now has been limited because previous studies were based exclusively on physical examination and used diverse definitions. The authors retrospectively reviewed the incidence of fat necrosis and the correlation of several risk factors in 202 deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps for breast reconstruction. The incidence of fat necrosis was based on both physical examination and ultrasound imaging. The following risk factors were studied: age, smoking, body mass index, timing of reconstruction, and timing and extent of radiation therapy fields. Physical examination revealed a palpable mass or nodule in 14 percent of the DIEP flaps (28 of 202). Ultrasound examination added another 21 percent of DIEP flaps (42 of 202) with a firm area of scar tissue (diameter >or=5 mm). The overall ultrasound incidence of fat necrosis in this study was 35 percent (71 of 202). Although the overall ultrasound incidence of fat necrosis was very high, only 7 percent of the DIEP flaps (15 of 202) needed to undergo an extra surgical procedure for removal of this area. In contrast to previous studies, none of the risk factors studied was statistically significant for the occurrence of fat necrosis. These results suggest that there is no significant association between previously suspected risk factors and fat necrosis. The overall incidence of fat necrosis, however, is much higher than previously accepted, even though the need for corrective surgery is limited.

  5. Greater Left Inferior Frontal Activation for SVO than VOS during Sentence Comprehension in Kaqchikel

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    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kim, Jungho

    2016-01-01

    Cortical activations during the processing of Kaqchikel transitive sentences with canonical and non-canonical word orders were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Kaqchikel is an endangered Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. The word order in this language is relatively flexible. We observed higher cortical activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus for sentences with the subject-verb-object (SVO) word order, as compared to sentences with the verb-object-subject (VOS) word order, suggesting that Kaqchikel sentences are easier to process when they have the VOS order than when they have the SVO order. This supports the traditional analysis of Mayan word order: the syntactically simplest word order of transitive sentences in Mayan languages, including Kaqchikel, is VOS. More importantly, the results revealed that the subject-before-object word order preference in sentence comprehension, previously observed in other languages, might not reflect a universal aspect of human languages. Rather, processing preference may be language-specific to some extent, reflecting syntactic differences in individual languages. PMID:27790165

  6. Life-Threatening Retropharyngeal Hemorrhage Secondary to Rupture of the Inferior Thyroid Artery

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    Cristina G. Calogero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inferior thyroid artery (ITA rupture is rare and may progress to life-threatening conditions. We present a patient who visited the emergency department after an episode of syncope and dizziness in which he had a mechanical fall that resulted in abrasions and a hematoma to his left forehead. The patient presented with dysphagia and anterior neck swelling that progressed rapidly into airway compromise requiring endotracheal intubation. Emergent computed tomography revealed a large retropharyngeal hematoma, with active arterial extravasation that was thought to be arising from the thyrocervical trunk on the left. The hematoma measured approximately 6.7 cm transversely and 3.2 cm anteroposteriorly and extended from the level of the lower nasopharynx, down the neck into the retropharyngeal and danger space and into the mediastinum posterior to the esophagus, overall approximately 25 cm. The larynx was deviated anteriorly and there was esophageal compression. An emergent arteriogram and catheterization confirmed bleeding from branches of the ITA, and successful embolization was performed. It is important to recognize the ITA rupture as a potential etiology of an acute airway compromise. In emergent situations, while securing an airway is a priority, rapidly initiating diagnostic testing to confirm the diagnosis and arranging for arterial embolization can be life-saving.

  7. Non-inferiority clinical trials: Practical issues and current regulatory perspective

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    Sandeep K Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-inferiority clinical trials are being performed with an increasing frequency now-a-days, because it helps in finding a new treatment that have approximately the same efficacy, but may offer other benefits such as better safety profile. Non-inferiority clinical trials aim to demonstrate that the test product is no worse than the comparator by more than a pre-specified small amount. There are several fundamental differences between non-inferiority and superiority trials. Some practical issues concerning the non-inferiority trials are assay sensitivity, choice of the non-inferiority margin, sample size estimation, choice of active-control, and analysis of non-inferiority clinical trials. For serious infections such as hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA has recently recommended that it is possible to define a reliable and consistent estimate of the efficacy of active treatment relative to placebo from available data, which can serve as the basis for defining a new inferiority margin for an active-controlled, non-inferiority trial. But for some indications with a high rate of resolution without antibacterial drug therapy such as acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB, and acute bacterial otitis media (ABOM, the US FDA has recommended that the available data will not support the use of a non-inferiority design and other trial designs (i.e., superiority designs should be used to provide the evidence of effectiveness in these three indications.

  8. Inferior displacement of the lower eyelid during intraoperative quantification in blepharoptosis surgery

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    Hirohiko Kakizaki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hirohiko Kakizaki, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Masahiro Zako, Masayoshi IwakiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, JapanPurpose: To examine inferior displacement of the lower eyelid during eye closing in intraoperative quantification of blepharoptosis surgery.Methods: A series of lower eyelid movements during eye closing in intraoperative quantification of blepharoptosis surgery were examined in 30 eyelids of 15 patients (6 males and 9 females; mean age 70.0 years; range 43–81 years with bilateral aponeurotic blepharoptosis.Results: Inferior displacement of the lower eyelid was observed in all eyelids examined, although the extent varied in each patient (range 2.0–4.5 mm; mean 3.2 mm. Inferior displacement occurred with upward eye movement caused by Bell's phenomenon. Many wrinkles were simultaneously observed as a result of contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle. After maintaining the inferiorly displaced state for several seconds, 20 lower eyelids in 10 patients naturally moved superiorly to a resting position. On the other hand, 10 lower eyelids in 5 patients remained in the same inferior position for more than 5 seconds, after which we had to manually elevate them to a resting position. The eyes then moved inferiorly to their resting position with a decrease in the number of lower eyelid wrinkles. Once the patients opened their eyes, inferior displacement of the lower eyelid completely disappeared.Conclusions: Inferior displacement of the lower eyelid during eye closing increases the amount of lagophthalmos. This phenomenon needs to be considered for quantifying the intraoperative lagophthalmos level during blepharoptosis surgery.Keywords: blepharoptosis surgery, eye closing, inferior displacement, intraoperative quantification, lower eyelid 

  9. [Massive inferior vena cava thrombosis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic hepatorenal disease].

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    Peces, R; Gil, F; Costero, O; Pobes, A

    2002-01-01

    We report a 68-year-old man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, who developed multiple venous thromboses (inferior vena cava, left renal vein and iliofemoral veins) caused by local compression of the intrahepatic inferior vena cava by hepatic cysts. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of inferior vena cava thrombosis caused by hepatic cysts compression. Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were effective in documenting the venous thromboses and the underlying lesions non-invasively. Long-term anticoagulation was an efficient and safe treatment.

  10. Creation of the permanent inferior vena cava filter for prevention of pulmonary artery embolism

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    Yа.O. Povar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a new permanent cava filter to improve functional capacities of the construction and achieve high clinical parameters. A new geometry of the permanent inferior vena cava filter was presented which has high blood clot-capturing ability, does not cause thrombus fragmentation, makes migration impossible. The inferior vena cava filter does not injure the vessel wall and preserves integrity under long-term use. The inferior vena cava filter installation is safe and controllable, the filter self-positioning and reposition are possible, the delivery system size is 6F, the blood flow changing is minimal.

  11. Revealing Rembrandt

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    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  12. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

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    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses.

  13. Fulminant Buddchiari syndrome caused by renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor with inferior vena cava thrombus extending to atrium.

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    Mete, Uttam K; Singh, Dig Vijay; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kakkar, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the kidney are rare, the diagnosis usually being made at histopathology. A young female presented with a massive right renal mass with features of hepatic dysfunction. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a large tumor of right kidney with tumor thrombus extending from inferior vena cava (IVC) to right atrium with features suggesting Buddchiari syndrome (BCS). Needle biopsy of mass showed a round cell neoplasm and positive staining for neuron specific enolase and minimum inhibitory concentration-2 on immunohistochemistry. She was managed with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of renal PNET with inferior IVC tumor thrombus extending to right atrium with BCS. We suggest that renal PNET should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in young adults presenting with a large kidney mass extending to IVC that shows evidence of necrosis on imaging, which may be associated with BCS as in index case.

  14. Structural connectivity in a single case of progressive prosopagnosia: the role of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus.

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    Grossi, Dario; Soricelli, Andrea; Ponari, Marta; Salvatore, Elena; Quarantelli, Mario; Prinster, Anna; Trojano, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Progressive prosopagnosia (PP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a progressive and selective inability to recognize and identify faces of familiar people. Here we report a patient (G.S.) with PP, mainly related to a prominent deficit in recognition of familiar faces, without a semantic (cross-modal) impairment. An in-depth evaluation showed that his deficit extended to other classes of objects, both living and non-living. A follow-up neuropsychological assessment did not reveal substantial changes after about 1 year. Structural MRI showed predominant right temporal lobe atrophy. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed to elucidate structural connectivity of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the two major tracts that project through the core fusiform region to the anterior temporal and frontal cortices, respectively. Right ILF was markedly reduced in G.S., while left ILF and IFOFs were apparently preserved. These data are in favour of a crucial role of the neural circuit subserved by right ILF in the pathogenesis of PP.

  15. Risk of inferior vena cava compression syndrome during fetal MRI in the supine position - a retrospective analysis.

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    Kienzl, Daniela; Berger-Kulemann, Vanessa; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Weber, Michael; Bettelheim, Dieter; Pusch, Franz; Prayer, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Inferior vena cava compression syndrome (VCCS) is a serious complication of supine fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations, particularly during late gestation. This morphologic study correlated the occurrence of VCCS with the grade of inferior vena cava (IVC) compression. There were 56 fetal MRI in the supine position [median gestational weeks (GW) 27+4] and 16 fetal MRI in the lateral position (median GW 30+6) retrospectively analyzed. The grade of maternal IVC compression was determined by the maximal anterior-posterior diameter (DAP) at the level of L4/L5. Fetal head position and right-sided uterus volume were analyzed. Clinical VCCS-related symptoms during fetal MRI were assessed. A noncompressed IVC was present in 1.8% (n=1) and a DAP of 5 to <10 mm in 33.3% (n=19) and 1 to <5 mm in 64.9% (n=36). The DAP was independent of fetal head position (P=0.99) and showed no significant correlation with gestational age (r=0.33). IVC compression increased with right-sided uterus volume (r=-0.328; P=0.014). There was a significant difference in DAP in the lateral position compared with the supine position (P<0.001). Clinical assessment revealed no symptoms of VCCS in any woman. The presented data support the concept of physiologic compensation for significantly reduced venous backflow in the supine position during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

  16. Language outcomes after resection of dominant inferior parietal lobule gliomas.

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    Southwell, Derek G; Riva, Marco; Jordan, Kesshi; Caverzasi, Eduardo; Li, Jing; Perry, David W; Henry, Roland G; Berger, Mitchel S

    2017-01-06

    OBJECTIVE The dominant inferior parietal lobule (IPL) contains cortical and subcortical regions essential for language. Although resection of IPL tumors could result in language deficits, little is known about the likelihood of postoperative language morbidity or the risk factors predisposing to this outcome. METHODS The authors retrospectively examined a series of patients who underwent resections of gliomas from the dominant IPL. Postoperative language outcomes were characterized across the patient population. To identify factors associated with postoperative language morbidity, the authors then compared features between those patients who experienced postoperative deficits and those who experienced no postoperative language dysfunction. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were identified for analysis. Long-term language deficits occurred in 29.2% of patients (7 of 24): 3 of these patients had experienced preoperative language deficits, whereas new long-term language deficits occurred in 4 patients (16.7%; 4 of 24). Of those patients who exhibited preoperative language deficits, 62.5% (5 of 8) experienced long-term resolution of their language deficits with surgical treatment. All patients underwent intraoperative brain mapping by direct electrical stimulation. Awake, intraoperative cortical language mapping was performed on 17 patients (70.8%). Positive cortical language sites were identified in 23.5% of these patients (4 of 17). Awake, intraoperative subcortical language mapping was performed in 8 patients (33.3%). Positive subcortical language sites were identified in 62.5% of these patients (5 of 8). Patients with positive cortical language sites exhibited a higher rate of long-term language deficits (3 of 4, 75%), compared with those who did not (1 of 13, 7.7%; p = 0.02). Although patients with positive subcortical language sites exhibited a higher rate of long-term language deficits than those who exhibited only negative sites (40.0% vs 0.0%, respectively), this

  17. Tuberculosis pulmonar de campos inferiores Lower lung field tuberculosis

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    Alejandra González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis (TB que compromete sólo los campos pulmonares inferiores (TBCI es poco frecuente en el adulto y en general está asociada a alguna causa de inmunodepresión. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue determinar la incidencia de TBCI en nuestra población y comparar sus características respecto de la TB pulmonar de localización habitual. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva en el período de 2004 a 2008, 42 pacientes con TBCI que fueron comparados con 84 pacientes con TB pulmonar de localización habitual (grupo control. Se excluyeron pacientes con HIV. La TBCI representó el 6% del total de TB pulmonar. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a edad, sexo, presencia de cavidades en la radiografía, días de evolución y nivel de albúmina. La TBCI tuvo significativamente mayor proporción de comorbilidades (p Tuberculosis (TB that affects lower lung fields (LLFTB is infrequent in the adult population and is generally associated with immunodeficiency. The objective of our study was to determine the incidence of LLFTB in our patients population and compare the characteristics of these patients with those who presented TB of typical pulmonary localization. We studied 42 patients with LLFTB retrospectively between 2004 and 2008 and compared them to 84 patients with TB of typical localization (control group. HIV-positive patients were excluded. LLFTB represented 6% of the pulmonary TB cases. No significant differences were found with respect to age, sex, the presence of cavities in chest x-rays, days of evolution, and albumin levels. LLFTB had a significantly greater proportion of comorbilities (p < 0.001, the presence of condensation (p < 0.001, and unilateral involvement (p < 0.001, with a higher number of hospital admissions (p = 0.02. The observation that only 16 of the 42 patients with LLFTB (38% had a notable comorbility is important. Thus, LLFTB can be present without associated comorbilities and must be suspected in

  18. Surgical treatment for ruptured anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms

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    TONG Xiao-guang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA aneurysm is an extremely raretumor, which can cause severe results after ruptured. This article retrospectively analyzed the clinical symptoms, imaging manifestations, surgical approaches, endovascular therapy and postoperative outcomes of 12 cases with AICA aneurysms, so as to provide reference for clinical practice. Methods Clinical data of patients with AICA aneurysms, who were treated in our hospital between June 2004 and June 2012, were carefully collected and studied. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS scores were used to evaluate the patients' living status. Results There were 12 patients (the average age was 54 years old with 13 ruptured aneurysms, accounting for 0.19% of all aneurysms (6467 cases treated in the same period. CT showed simple subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in 6 patients, simple ventricular hemorrhage in 1 patient and SAH complicated with ventricular hemorrhage in 5 patients. According to Hunt-Hess Grade, 2 patients were classified as Grade Ⅰ; 7 were Grade Ⅱ; 3 were Grade Ⅲ. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA showed there were 10 saccular aneurysms and 3 fusiform aneurysms. Three aneurysms were located in the proximal segment of AICA (the junction of AICA and basilar artery, 3 premeatal segment (first bifurcation of AICA, 3 meatal and 4 postmeatal. The mean diameter was 3.90 mm. Three patients with 4 aneurysms were treated with microsurgery, of which clipping was carried out in 2 patients with 3 aneurysms and trapping in 1 case. Other 9 patients were treated with endovascular therapy, of which 2 cases underwent coil embolization, 3 stent-assisted coil, and 4 parent artery occlusion (PAO. Postoperative complications included facial paralysis (1 case, dysphagia and coughing when drinking (1 case and contralateral hemianopia in both eyes (1 case. Follow-up was available in all of these cases for a mean of 36.41 months, with GOS scores 3 in 1 case, 4 in 2 cases and 5 in 9

  19. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injury in Trauma-Induced Mandible Fractures.

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    Tay, Andrew Ban Guan; Lai, Juen Bin; Lye, Kok Weng; Wong, Wai Yee; Nadkarni, Nivedita V; Li, Wenyun; Bautista, Dianne

    2015-07-01

    This prospective observational cohort study sought to determine the prevalence of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury after mandibular fractures before and after treatment and to elucidate factors associated with the incidence of post-treatment IAN injury and time to normalization of sensation. Consenting patients with mandibular fractures (excluding dentoalveolar, pathologic, previous fractures, or mandibular surgery) were prospectively evaluated for subjective neurosensory disturbance (NSD) and underwent neurosensory testing before treatment and then 1 week, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Eighty patients (men, 83.8%; mean age, 30.0 yr; standard deviation, 12.6 yr) with 123 mandibular sides (43 bilateral) were studied. Injury etiology included assault (33.8%), falls (31.3%), motor vehicle accidents (25.0%), and sports injuries (6.3%). Half the fractures (49.6%) involved the IAN-bearing posterior mandible; all condylar fractures (13.0%) had no NSD. Treatment included open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF; 74.8%), closed reduction and fixation (22.0%), or no treatment (3.3%). Overall prevalence of IAN injury was 33.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.8-42.6) before treatment and 53.8% (95% CI, 46.0-61.6) after treatment. In the IAN-bearing mandible, the prevalence was 56.2% (95% CI, 43.2-69.2) before treatment and 72.9% (95% CI, 63.0-82.7) after treatment. In contrast, this prevalence in the non-IAN-bearing mandible was 12.6% (95% CI, 4.1-21.1) before treatment and 31.6% (95% CI, 20.0-43.3) after treatment. Factors associated with the development of post-treatment IAN injury included fracture site and gap distance (a 1-mm increase was associated with a 27% increase in odds of post-treatment sensory alteration). Time to normalization after treatment was associated with type of treatment (ORIF inhibited normalization) and fracture site (IAN-bearing sites took longer to normalize). IAN injury was 4 times more likely in IAN-bearing posterior mandibular

  20. Outcome of inferior vena cava and noncaval venous leiomyosarcomas.

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    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio', Francesco; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Masci, Federica; Vietri, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor arising from the smooth muscle cells of arteries and veins. LMS may affect both the inferior vena cava (IVC) and non-IVC veins. Because of its rarity, the experience with the outcome of the disease originating from the IVC compared with that with non-IVC offspring is overall limited. In this study, we compared the clinical features and outcomes after operative resection of IVC and non-IVC LMS to detect possible significant differences that could affect treatment and prognosis. Twenty-seven patients undergoing operative resection of a venous LMS at a single tertiary care center and one secondary care hospital were reviewed retrospectively and divided into 2 groups: IVC-LMS (Group A, n = 18) and non-IVC LMS (Group B, n = 9). As primary end points, postoperative mortality and morbidity, disease-specific survival and, if applicable, patency of venous reconstruction were considered. Bivariate differences were compared with the χ(2) test. Disease-specific survival was expressed by a life-table analysis and compared using the log-rank test. No postoperative mortality was observed in either group. Postoperative morbidity was 28% in group A and 11% in group B (P = .33). The mean duration of follow-up was 60 months (range, 13-140). Disease-specific survival was 60% in group A and 75% in group B at 3 years (P = .48), and it was 54% in group A and 62% in group B at 5 years (P = .63). Seven grafts were occluded in group A (39%) and 1of 3 were occluded in group B (33%) (P = .85). IVC and non-IVC LMS exhibit similar outcomes in terms of postoperative course and survival. Operative resection associated with vascular reconstruction, if applicable, eventually followed by radiation and chemotherapy may be curative and is associated with good functional results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Circulating microRNA profile in patients with membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava

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    SUN, GUI-XIANG; SU, YONG; LI, YING; ZHANG, YA-FENG; XU, LI-CHUN; ZU, MAO-HENG; HUANG, SHUI-PING; ZHANG, JIN-PENG; LU, ZHAO-JUN

    2016-01-01

    Membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava (MOVC) is a common type of Budd-Chiari syndrome. However, the pathogenesis of MOVC has not been fully elucidated. Recent studies demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are involved in multiple diseases. To the best of our knowledge, specific changes in the expression of miRNAs in MOVC patients have not been previously assessed. The present study used a microarray analysis, followed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) validation, with the aim to access the miRNA expression levels in the plasma of 34 MOVC patients, compared with those in healthy controls. The results revealed a total of 16 differentially expressed miRNAs in MOVC patients. Subsequently, RT-qPCR analysis verified the statistically consistent expression of 5 selected miRNAs (miR-125a-5p, miR-133b, miR-423-5p, miR-1228-5p and miR-1266), in line with the results of the microarray analysis. These 5 miRNAs, which were described as crucial regulators in numerous biological processes and vascular diseases, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MOVC. Bioinformatics analysis of target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that these predicted targets were significantly enriched and involved in several key signaling pathways important for MOVC, including the ErbB, Wnt, MAPK and VEGF signaling pathway. In conclusion, miRNAs may involve in multiple signaling pathways contributing to the pathological processes of MOVC. The present study offers an intriguing new perspective on the involvement of miRNAs in MOVC; however, the precise underlying mechanisms require further validation. PMID:26997997

  2. The Impact of Perforator Number on Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Breast Reconstruction

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    Ritwik Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Perforator flaps minimize abdominal site morbidity during autologous breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the number of perforators harvested influences the overall deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP flap survival and flap-related complications. Methods A retrospective review was performed of all DIEP flaps performed at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania from 2006 to 2011. The outcomes assessed included flap loss and major complications. We compared flaps by the number of total perforators (1-4 and then carried out a subgroup analysis comparing flaps with one perforator to flaps with multiple perforators. Lastly, we conducted a post-hoc analysis based on body mass index (BMI categorization. Results Three hundred thirty-three patients underwent 395 DIEP flaps. No significant differences were noted in the flap loss rate or the overall complications across perforator groups. However, the subgroup analysis revealed significantly higher rates of fat necrosis in the case of one-perforator flaps than in the case of multiple-perforator flaps (10.2% vs. 3.1%, P=0.009. The post-hoc analysis revealed a significant increase in the flap loss rate with increasing BMI (40=42.9%, P<0.001 in the DIEP flaps, but no increase in fat necrosis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the number of perforators does not impact the rate of flap survival. However, the rate of fat necrosis may be significantly higher in DIEP flaps based on a single perforator. Multiple perforators should be utilized if possible to decrease the risk of fat necrosis.

  3. Deep Venous Thrombosis Associated With Inferior Vena Cava Abnormalities And Hypoplastic Kidney In Siblings

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    Duicu Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital inferior vena cava anomalies have a reduced frequency in general population, many times being an asymptomatic finding. Patients caring such anomalies are at risk to develop deep vein thrombosis. In this paper, we present 2 siblings with deep venous thrombosis and inferior vena cava abnormalities, with a symptomatic onset at similar age. The inferior vena cava abnormality was documented by an angio-CT in each case. The thrombophilic workup was negative. Patients were treated with conservative therapy: low molecular weight heparin anticoagulants converted later to oral anticoagulant with resolution of symptoms and disappearance of the thrombus. Finally, in the absence of any risk factor in a young patient admitted with deep vein thrombosis investigations to exclude inferior vena cava anomalies are mandatory.

  4. Anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction with sudden deafness and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Doi, Mitsuru; Fukada, Yasuyo; Hayashi, Miwa; Suzuki, Takeo; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    We report a patient with anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction, which manifested as profound deafness, transient vertigo, and minimal cerebellar signs. We suspect that ischaemia of the left internal auditory artery, which originates from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, caused the deafness and transient vertigo. A small lesion in the middle cerebellar peduncle in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory and no lesion in the dentate nucleus in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory are thought to explain the minimal cerebellar signs despite the relatively large size of the infarction. Thus a relatively large infarction of the vertebral-basilar territory can manifest as sudden deafness with vertigo. Neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, is strongly recommended for patients with sudden deafness and vertigo to exclude infarction of the vertebral-basilar artery territory.

  5. Progress and Outlook on Technologies for Processing Inferior Crude Oil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Qingtang

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth of the global petroleum refining industry and the main technologies and measures for China to process inferior crude oil were introduced. The main technologies and measures include the control over equipment corrosion induced by sour and acidic crude, in particular the corrosion of atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, the development of technology for processing inferior residue,and the development of desulfurization technology and sulfur recovery technology in the course of processing of petroleum products. In order to meet the needs for national economic development, China's refining enterprises will uninterruptedly develop and prefect technologies for processing inferior crude,enhance the process and equipment management, sum up the experience for better processing of inferior crude, so as to provide high-quality oil products and petrochemical feedstocks to public with better economic return.

  6. A mixed approach for proving non-inferiority in clinical trials with binary endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousson, Valentin; Seifert, Burkhardt

    2008-04-01

    When a new treatment is compared to an established one in a randomized clinical trial, it is standard practice to statistically test for non-inferiority rather than for superiority. When the endpoint is binary, one usually compares two treatments using either an odds-ratio or a difference of proportions. In this paper, we propose a mixed approach which uses both concepts. One first defines the non-inferiority margin using an odds-ratio and one ultimately proves non-inferiority statistically using a difference of proportions. The mixed approach is shown to be more powerful than the conventional odds-ratio approach when the efficacy of the established treatment is known (with good precision) and high (e.g. with more than 56% of success). The gain of power achieved may lead in turn to a substantial reduction in the sample size needed to prove non-inferiority. The mixed approach can be generalized to ordinal endpoints.

  7. Inferior mesenteric artery branch avulsion from blunt trauma--CT findings. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M; Posniak, H; Gomes, G

    1992-01-01

    Mesenteric arterial injuries are uncommon following blunt abdominal trauma. We describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of a patient with avulsion of a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery following a low-speed motor vehicle accident.

  8. Permanent neurologic deficit after inferior alveolar nerve block: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Z; Findler, M; Lossos, A; Barak, S; Katz, J

    1996-10-01

    Permanent neurologic damage after an inferior dental nerve block is reported. Clinical manifestations included hemisensory syndrome, facial nerve palsy, hearing impairment, and ataxia. Possible mechanisms and preventive measures are discussed.

  9. Exposed inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle during surgical removal of a residual cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffano, Paolo; Gallesio, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Iatrogenic neurodeficiency is one of the most distressing complications to any surgical procedure. The prediction of close proximity of the oral lesions to the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle is extremely important. Furthermore, iatrogenic neurosensory dysfunctions of the facial region involve important medicolegal issues. In this report, we describe the case of a patient who did not show either paresthesia or anesthesia after the surgical removal of a mandibular residual cyst that exhibited adherence to the inferior alveolar nerve bundle.

  10. [Investigation of the age-dependent development of brachygnathia inferior in the East Friesian milk sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielmeier, Ricarda; Kerkmann, Andrea; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Shortness of the lower jaw (brachygnathia inferior, underbite) is a common anomaly in sheep. In order to study the age-dependent development of brachygnathia inferior, data of 73 East Friesian milk sheep from a breeding experiment over six generations were analysed. Data were recorded in regular intervals of four weeks from birth up to an age of at least 25 weeks. Brachygnathia inferior was determined by the distance between the edge of the central incisor of the lower jaw and the anterior surrounding of the upper jaw (DIFF-UK) using a measuring tape. Four main types of brachygnathia inferior were distinguished using means, standard deviations and maximum values of the individual animals.The thresholds were a maximum and mean DIFF-UK of 0.5 cm and a standard deviation of 0.266 cm. A total of 14 sheep (main types 3 and 4) showed an obvious brachygnathia inferior with mean DIFF-UK larger than 0.5 cm whereof ten animals showed a large variation of DIFF-UK values (standard deviation > 0.226 cm). Mean DIFF-UK values of 59 sheep were smaller than 0.5 cm (main types 1 and 2). One of these 59 animals had during the first four weeks of life DIFF-UK values of 1 cm and than decreasing values reaching zero within the next nine months (main type 2). Five of the 58 animals with main type 1 had a perfect occlusion of jaws, all with DIFF-UK values at zero during the whole recording period. Parents with severe or mild brachygnathia inferior had severely affected progeny. Selection of sheep for breeding with a perfect occlusion of jaws decreases the risk to pass on the hereditary disposition for brachygnathia inferior. An early inspection of potential breeding animals is advisable to detect all cases of brachygnathia inferior even if the underbite decreases in the first year of life.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of isolated interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation to superior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Thi Cam Giang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of inferior vena cava is an uncommon congenital abnormality. It is usually associated with other structural anomalies, typically left isomerism. We report a case of interrupted inferior vena cava with azygos continuation diagnosed as an isolated finding during routine prenatal ultrasound scan, confirmed by post-natal echocardiography. Detailed ultrasound examination of the fetal anatomy failed to demonstrate other anomalies. The neonatal course of this fetus was uneventful.

  12. Sample Size Estimation for Non-Inferiority Trials: Frequentist Approach versus Decision Theory Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Bouman

    Full Text Available Non-inferiority trials are performed when the main therapeutic effect of the new therapy is expected to be not unacceptably worse than that of the standard therapy, and the new therapy is expected to have advantages over the standard therapy in costs or other (health consequences. These advantages however are not included in the classic frequentist approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. In contrast, the decision theory approach of sample size calculation does include these factors. The objective of this study is to compare the conceptual and practical aspects of the frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials, thereby demonstrating that the decision theory approach is more appropriate for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials.The frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials are compared and applied to a case of a non-inferiority trial on individually tailored duration of elastic compression stocking therapy compared to two years elastic compression stocking therapy for the prevention of post thrombotic syndrome after deep vein thrombosis.The two approaches differ substantially in conceptual background, analytical approach, and input requirements. The sample size calculated according to the frequentist approach yielded 788 patients, using a power of 80% and a one-sided significance level of 5%. The decision theory approach indicated that the optimal sample size was 500 patients, with a net value of €92 million.This study demonstrates and explains the differences between the classic frequentist approach and the decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. We argue that the decision theory approach of sample size estimation is most suitable for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials.

  13. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min [Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting.

  14. Patient-specific factors in the proximity of the inferior alveolar nerve to the tooth apex

    OpenAIRE

    Adigüzel, Özkan; Yiğit-Özer, Senem; KAYA, Sadullah; AKKUŞ, Zeki

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether age and gender differences are predictive factors for inferior alveolar nerve position with respect to mandibular first molar roots. Study Design: Cone-beam computed tomography scans [0.2-mm3 voxel size; n = 200 (100 males, 100 females)] of patients aged 15–65 years showing mandibular first and second molars were included in this study. Patients with pathoses that might affect inferior alveolar nerve position, including second molar and/or first premolar extrac...

  15. Patient-specific factors in the proximity of the inferior alveolar nerve to the tooth apex

    OpenAIRE

    Adigüzel, Özkan; Yigit Özer, Senem; Akkus, Zeki

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether age and gender differences are predictive factors for inferior alveolar nerve position with respect to mandibular first molar roots. Study Design: Cone-beam computed tomography scans [0.2-mm 3 voxel size; n = 200 (100 males, 100 females)] of patients aged 15-65 years showing mandibular first and second molars were included in this study. Patients with pathoses that might affect inferior alveolar nerve position, including second molar and/or first...

  16. Spontaneous alignment of crowded inferior incisives after the extractionof temporary canines

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Manrique, Tomás Oriel; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica. Facultad de Odontología UNMSM. Lima Perú.; Calderón Cortez, Iván; Estudiante de pre grado. Facultad de Odontología UNMSM. Lima Perú.; Orellana Manrique, Martín; Estudiante de Maestría. Facultad de Odontología UNMSM. Lima Perú.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the behavior of permanent inferior incisives after the primary canine’s extractions. The study was carried out in the Pediatric Clinic of Dental Faculty of San Marcos University. The sample was conformed by 10 patients, male and female children, between 8 and 9 years of age, with good general health, having Class I malocclusion and severe crowding of the inferior incisives. It was taken Cephalometric and Panoramic radiographies, as well as models to make the ortho...

  17. Sample Size Estimation for Non-Inferiority Trials: Frequentist Approach versus Decision Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, A C; ten Cate-Hoek, A J; Ramaekers, B L T; Joore, M A

    2015-01-01

    Non-inferiority trials are performed when the main therapeutic effect of the new therapy is expected to be not unacceptably worse than that of the standard therapy, and the new therapy is expected to have advantages over the standard therapy in costs or other (health) consequences. These advantages however are not included in the classic frequentist approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. In contrast, the decision theory approach of sample size calculation does include these factors. The objective of this study is to compare the conceptual and practical aspects of the frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials, thereby demonstrating that the decision theory approach is more appropriate for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials. The frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials are compared and applied to a case of a non-inferiority trial on individually tailored duration of elastic compression stocking therapy compared to two years elastic compression stocking therapy for the prevention of post thrombotic syndrome after deep vein thrombosis. The two approaches differ substantially in conceptual background, analytical approach, and input requirements. The sample size calculated according to the frequentist approach yielded 788 patients, using a power of 80% and a one-sided significance level of 5%. The decision theory approach indicated that the optimal sample size was 500 patients, with a net value of €92 million. This study demonstrates and explains the differences between the classic frequentist approach and the decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. We argue that the decision theory approach of sample size estimation is most suitable for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials.

  18. Inflammatory trigeminal nerve and tract lesions associated with inferior alveolar nerve anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, N F; Parratt, J D E; Garsia, R; Brazier, D H; Cremer, P D

    2013-11-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve blocks are commonly performed for dental anaesthesia. The procedure is generally safe with a low rate of complications. We report a patient with a reproducible, delayed-onset sensory deficit associated with contrast-enhancing lesions in the trigeminal nerve, pons and medulla following inferior alveolar nerve local anaesthesia. We propose that this previously undescribed condition is a form of Type IV hypersensitivity reaction.

  19. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ilana Shavit; Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods We performed li...

  20. Measuring the Pressure in the Superficial Inferior Epigastric Vein to Monitor for Venous Congestion in Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator Breast Reconstructions : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen M.; Audolfsson, Thorir; Whitaker, Iain S.; Werker, Paul M. N.; Acosta, Rafael; Liss, Anders G.

    2010-01-01

    During deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap dissection, we noted that in many cases the superficial vein on the ipsilateral side of the flap was engorged and tense, and in others, it was empty. This led us to believe that the pressure is increased as the result of preferential outf

  1. Issues on the selection of non-inferiority margin in clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yan; WU Xiao-yan; LI Kang

    2009-01-01

    Objective The determination of non-inferiority margin is an important and confusing issue which directly influences the acceptability of a new medication. We reviewed the published literature, International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) Guidelines and Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) papers on the selection of non-inferiority margin and the corresponding statistical tests in clinical trials, in order to provide practical recommendations and suggestions for establishing reference criteria for the non-inferiority margin in China.Data sources The literature on the selection of a non-inferiority margin and statistical tests was mainly extracted from relevant English articles on non-inferior clinical trials published from 1990 to 2007. The starting point (1990) was chosen due to lack of such papers published prior to 1990. This literature was searched via PubMed, Medline and Chinese Knowledge Information (CNKI). ICH guidelines and CPMP papers were downloaded from their official websites. The keywords "clinical trial", "non-inferiority" and "non-inferiority margin" were used.Study selection Forty-three original articles and critical reviews, ICH E10 guideline and CPMP papers were selected.Results The non-inferiority testing with treatment difference and ratio are commonly used, where the non-inferiority margin is determined with and without historical data. Traditionally, this margin is treated as a fixed value, while developed methods take the variation into account in the determination of this margin, on which the test depends is more convincing. The mixed margin consisting of a margin based on treatment difference and a margin based on treatment ratio can exactly control the type Ⅰ error at the desirable level and obtain a better power. In this review, we also provide some recommendations and suggestions for the selection of the non-inferiority margin in the western

  2. No Effects of Bilateral tDCS over Inferior Frontal Gyrus on Response Inhibition and Aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Dambacher

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is defined as the capacity to adequately withdraw pre-planned responses. It has been shown that individuals with deficits in inhibiting pre-planned responses tend to display more aggressive behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is involved in both, response inhibition and aggression. While response inhibition is mostly associated with predominantly right prefrontal activity, the neural components underlying aggression seem to be left-lateralized. These differences in hemispheric dominance are conceptualized in cortical asymmetry theories on motivational direction, which assign avoidance motivation (relevant to inhibit responses to the right and approach motivation (relevant for aggressive actions to the left prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed to directly address the inverse relationship between response inhibition and aggression by assessing them within one experiment. Sixty-nine healthy participants underwent bilateral transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS to the inferior frontal cortex. In one group we induced right-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined right prefrontal anodal and left prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. In a second group we induced left-hemispheric fronto-cortical dominance by means of a combined left prefrontal anodal and right prefrontal cathodal tDCS montage. A control group received sham stimulation. Response inhibition was assessed with a go/no-go task (GNGT and aggression with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP. We revealed that participants with poorer performance in the GNGT displayed more aggression during the TAP. No effects of bilateral prefrontal tDCS on either response inhibition or aggression were observed. This is at odds with previous brain stimulation studies applying unilateral protocols. Our results failed to provide evidence in support of the prefrontal cortical asymmetry model in the domain of response inhibition and aggression. The absence of t

  3. Cerebellar inhibitory output shapes the temporal dynamics of its somatosensory inferior olivary input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogri, Roni; Segalis, Eyal; Mintz, Matti

    2014-08-01

    The cerebellum is necessary and sufficient for the acquisition and execution of adaptively timed conditioned motor responses following repeated paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. The underlying plasticity depends on the convergence of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli signals relayed to the cerebellum by the pontine nucleus and the inferior olive (IO), respectively. Adaptive timing of conditioned responses relies on the correctly predicted onset of the unconditioned stimulus, usually a noxious somatosensory stimulus. We addressed two questions: First, does the IO relay information regarding the duration of somatosensory stimuli to the cerebellum? Multiple-unit recordings from the IO of anesthetized rats that received periorbital airpuffs of various durations revealed that sustained somatosensory stimuli are invariably transformed into phasic IO outputs. The phasic response was followed by a post-peak depression in IO activity as compared to baseline, providing the cerebellum with a highly synchronous signal, time-locked to the stimulus' onset. Second, we sought to examine the involvement of olivocerebellar interactions in this signal transformation. Cerebello-olivary inhibition was interrupted using temporary pharmacological inactivation of cerebellar output nuclei, resulting in more sustained (i.e., less synchronous) IO responses to sustained somatosensory stimuli, in which the post-peak depression was substituted with elevated activity as compared to baseline. We discuss the possible roles of olivocerebellar negative-feedback loops and baseline cerebello-olivary inhibition levels in shaping the temporal dynamics of the IO's response to somatosensory stimuli and the consequences of this shaping for cerebellar plasticity and its ability to adapt to varying contexts.

  4. Low dimensional representation of face space by face-selective inferior temporal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Sina; Dehaqani, Mohammad-Reza A; Esteky, Hossein

    2017-05-01

    The representation of visual objects in primate brain is distributed and multiple neurons are involved in encoding each object. One way to understand the neural basis of object representation is to estimate the number of neural dimensions that are needed for veridical representation of object categories. In this study, the characteristics of the match between physical-shape and neural representational spaces in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex were evaluated. Specifically, we examined how the number of neural dimensions, stimulus behavioral saliency and stimulus category selectivity of neurons affected the correlation between shape and neural representational spaces in IT cortex. Single-unit recordings from monkey IT cortex revealed that there was a significant match between face space and its neural representation at lower neural dimensions, whereas the optimal match for the non-face objects was observed at higher neural dimensions. There was a statistically significant match between the face and neural spaces only in the face-selective neurons, whereas a significant match was observed for non-face objects in all neurons regardless of their category selectivity. Interestingly, the face neurons showed a higher match for the non-face objects than for the faces at higher neural dimensions. The optimal representation of face space in the responses of the face neurons was a low dimensional map that emerged early (~150 ms post-stimulus onset) and was followed by a high dimensional and relatively late (~300 ms) map for the non-face stimuli. These results support a multiplexing function for the face neurons in the representation of very similar shape spaces, but with different dimensionality and timing scales. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of inferior myocardial defect between planar and SPECT image of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Momose, Mitsuru; Kashikura, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Nobusuke; Saito, Katsumi; Asano, Ryuta; Hosoda, Saichi; Kusakabe, Kiyoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    Discordant findings of inferior MIBG defect between SPECT and planar images were sometimes observed in the clinical studies. In this study, we compared inferior myocardial findings between planar and SPECT image of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy in 29 patients. All patients were estimated as normal in anterior accumulation of MIBG. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the visual finding of inferior defect in the planar and SPECT image; normal group (normal inferior accumulation of MIBG both in the planar and SPECT image, N=10), discordance group (inferior MIBG defect was only observed in the SPECT image, but was not observed in the planar image, N=7), inferior defect group (inferior MIBG defect was observed both in the planar and SPECT image, N=12). Inferior/anterior count ratio of SPECT and planar image were 0.96{+-}0.11 vs. 0.97{+-}0.05 in normal group, 0.59{+-}0.21 vs. 0.99{+-}0.13 in discordance group, 0.46{+-}0.13 vs. 0.82{+-}0.04 in inferior defect group. Liver/heart count ratio was significantly higher in the discordance group (2.07{+-}0.49) than that in the normal (1.14{+-}0.15) and inferior defect group (1.45{+-}0.39). In phantom study, it has been reported that increased liver accumulation of MIBG causes artifactual inferior defect adjacent to the liver. These data indicate that increased liver/heart count ratio may cause artifactual inferior defect on MIBG SPECT image in the clinical studies. Planar image evaluation may be helpful to distinct the artifactual inferior defect on SPECT image. (author).

  6. Restoration of diaphragmatic function after diaphragm reinnervation by inferior laryngeal nerve; experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barros Angelique

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess the possibilities of reinnervation in a paralyzed hemidiaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve in rabbits. Reinnervation of a paralyzed diaphragm could be an alternative to treat patients with ventilatory insufficiency due to upper cervical spine injuries. Material and method Rabbits were divided into five groups of seven rabbits each. Groups I and II were respectively the healthy and the denervated control groups. The 3 other groups were all reinnervated using three different surgical procedures. In groups III and IV, phrenic nerve was respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the trunk of the inferior laryngeal nerve. In group V, the fifth and fourth cervical roots were respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the nerve of the sternothyroid muscle (originating from the hypoglossal nerve. Animals were evaluated 4 months later using electromyography, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements, sonomicrometry and histological examination. Results A poor inspiratory activity was found in quiet breathing in the reinnervated groups, with an increasing pattern of activity during effort. In the reinnervated groups, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements and sonomicrometry were higher in group III with no significant differencewith groups IV and V. Conclusion Inspiratory contractility of an hemidiaphragm could be restored with immediate anastomosis after phrenic nerve section between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve.

  7. Differences in superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery blood flow spectrum parameters in subacute thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the differences in superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery blood flow spectrum parameters in subacute thyroiditis. Methods:A Total of 40 cases of patients with subacute thyroiditis and 40 cases of healthy volunteers were selected for study and enrolled in pathology group and control group respectively, color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to detect peak blood flow velocities (Vmax) of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery as well as resistance index (RI), and serum was collected to detect thyroid hormone contents, infection indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results:Peak blood flow velocities Vmax of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, and resistance index RI was not different from that of control group;FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, ESR, CRP, PCT and MDA of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, and SOD and TAOC were significantly lower than those of control group;Vmax of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery were positively correlated with FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, ESR, CRP, PCT and MDA, and negatively correlated with SOD and TAOC. Conclusion:Peak blood flow velocities (Vmax) of superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery in subacute thyroiditis are significantly accelerated, Vmax has good consistency with thyroid hormone contents, infection indexes and oxidative stress indexes, and it can accurately assess the severity of the disease.

  8. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

  9. Inferior Oblique Muscle Weakening: Is It Possible to Quantify Its Effects on Horizontal Deviations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Taylan Sekeroglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate and quantify the effect of inferior oblique muscle weakening on horizontal deviations. Methods. The medical files of patients who had undergone an inferior oblique weakening as a single procedure were all reviewed. The main measures were the type of inferior oblique overaction (IOOA, pre- and postoperative amount of IOOA, and horizontal deviations in primary position. Results. The study was conducted with 66 patients (30 males, 36 females. The median age was 11 years (1–49. Of the 66 patients, 30 (45.5% had primary and 36 (54.5% had secondary IOOA. The most common procedure was inferior oblique anteriorization in 32 patients (48.5%. The mean postoperative horizontal and vertical deviations and the amount of IOOA were decreased postoperatively ( for all. The median amount of correction of horizontal near and distance deviations was (0–20. The preoperative amount of IOOA, the presence of fourth nerve palsy, and the type of the weakening procedure had no significant effect on the amount of correction of horizontal deviations. Conclusion. The inferior oblique weakening procedures have secondary effects and warrant reduction of horizontal deviations in varying degrees. This should be borne in mind in planning a simultaneous horizontal muscle surgery and setting the surgical amount.

  10. Growth in the area of the inferior dental foramen of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, G; West, V C

    1983-01-01

    The object of the present investigation was to see if the bone around the inferior dental nerve remodelled during mandibular growth and development. The investigation was carried out by injecting 27 albino Lewis rats with three fluorescent bone seeking dyes--oxytetracycline HCl (OTC), alizarin red S (ARS), and 2,4 bis-[N,N'-di' (carbomethyl-aminomethyl)] fluorescein (DCAF)--and then studying the bone around the inferior dental foramen. The mandibles of the animals were studied both macroscopically and microscopically under ultraviolet light to investigate the growth processes occurring and to see if the inferior dental foramen was relocated during growth. A quantitative analysis utilizing two specimens was also carried out for the same purpose. The results of both the qualitative and the quantitative analyses showed that the bone around the inferior dental nerve remodeled during mandibular growth. The mandible grew in an upward and backward direction, and the inferior dental foramen was correspondingly relocated in an upward and backward direction to maintain exactly the same position relative to the condyle and the posterior border of the ramus. This study, then, supports Moss's concept of the "unloaded" nerve, and is in keeping with his view of mandibular growth based on the functional matrix theory.

  11. ROLE OF RADIO FREQUENCY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INFERIOR TURBINATE HYPERTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgery of inferior turbinates is a divisive subject. Surgical management includes functional and invasive procedures. Radiofrequency ablation –A Minimally invasive well-designed daycare nasal surgery which also preserves mucosal function of the inferior turbinate. OBJECTIVE: To appraise the efficacy of radiofrequency in the management of inferior turbinate hypertrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: current study is a prospective cram conducted in the Department of ENT from August 2013 to August 2014 with 100 patients who had nasal obstruction due to Inferior turbinate hypertrophy and obstinate to medical therapy. Patients were excluded if they had history or physical examination that indicate other causes of nasal obstruction like nasal polyp, nasal tumors, previous nasal surgeries, diabetes mellitus, severe nasal deformities, coagulopathy disorders, severe systemic diseases, radiotherapy to nose. The study was based on history of diagnosis, clinical examination, diagnostic nasal endoscopy and imaging. We used radio frequency generator BM-780II unit with power of 70watt radio wave emission in bipolar mode for 5-9seconds, stopped the emission once visual blanching of mucous membrane occurred. Postoperative follow up scheduled as follows: 1stmonth, 3rdmonth, 6thmonth, 12thmonth. RESULTS: Among 100 patients 92 patients completely relieved of symptoms, 8 patients showed no improvement based on both subjective and objective parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Simple, harmless, minimally invasive, daycare procedure advantages made the Radiofrequency tissue ablation procedure as one amongst the best apt surgical option for management of inferior turbinate hypertrophy and the current study added credit to its efficiency once again.

  12. Thermography for the clinical assessment of inferior alveolar nerve deficit: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratt, B M; Sickles, E A; Shetty, V

    1994-01-01

    Neurosensory deficit is a major complication encountered in maxillofacial surgery. This study assessed the ability of electronic thermography to identify inferior alveolar nerve deficits in a pilot clinical study. The study population comprised six patients with inferior alveolar nerve deficit and 12 normal subjects. Frontally projected facial thermograms were taken on 18 subjects and measured using an Agema 870 unit and thermal image computer. Mathematical analysis of thermal measurements included temperature and delta T calculations of the anatomic zone over the mental region of the face. Results included (1) high levels of thermal symmetry of the chin in normal subjects (delta T = 0.1 degree C, standard deviation = 0.1 degree C); (2) low levels of thermal symmetry in patients with inferior alveolar nerve deficits (delta T = +0.5 degree C, standard deviation = 0.2 degree C); (3) statistically significant differences in delta T values (t = 4.82, P > .001) in patients with inferior alveolar nerve deficit; and (4) absolute temperature variations of the mental region in both groups. This pilot study demonstrated thermal asymmetry in patients with inferior alveolar nerve deficit and suggests that electronic thermography has promise as a simple, objective, noninvasive method for evaluating nerve deficits. However, more extensive studies are needed before thermographic procedures are accepted clinically.

  13. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Shavit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods: We performed literature investigation through MEDLINE (PubMed electronic database and manual search through dental journals to find articles concerning inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement. The search was restricted to English language articles published during the last 10 years, from December 2004 to March 2014. Results: In total, we found 33 articles related to the topic, of which 27 were excluded due to incompatibility with established inclusion criteria. Six articles were eventually chosen to be suitable. The studies presented diagnostic methods of inferior alveolar nerve sensory deficit, and we carried out an assessment of the proportion of patients diagnosed within different time intervals from the time the injury occurred. Conclusions: Various diagnostic methods have been developed throughout the years for dealing with 1 quite frequent complication in the implantology field - inferior alveolar nerve injury. Concurrently, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment was proved repeatedly. According to the results of the data analysis, a relatively high percentage of the practitioners successfully accomplished this target and achieved good treatment outcomes.

  14. Importance of human right inferior frontoparietal network connected by inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus tract in corporeal awareness of kinesthetic illusory movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Kaoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    It is generally believed that the human right cerebral hemisphere plays a dominant role in corporeal awareness, which is highly associated with conscious experience of the physical self. Prompted by our previous findings, we examined whether the right frontoparietal activations often observed when people experience kinesthetic illusory limb movement are supported by a large-scale brain network connected by a specific branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus fiber tracts (SLF I, II, and III). We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while nineteen blindfolded healthy volunteers experienced illusory movement of the right stationary hand elicited by tendon vibration, which was replicated after the scanning. We also scanned brain activity when they executed and imagined right hand movement, and identified the active brain regions during illusion, execution, and imagery in relation to the SLF fiber tracts. We found that illusion predominantly activated the right inferior frontoparietal regions connected by SLF III, which were not substantially recruited during execution and imagery. Among these regions, activities in the right inferior parietal cortices and inferior frontal cortices showed right-side dominance and correlated well with the amount of illusion (kinesthetic illusory awareness) experienced by the participants. The results illustrated the predominant involvement of the right inferior frontoparietal network connected by SLF III when people recognize postural changes of their limb. We assume that the network bears a series of functions, specifically, monitoring the current status of the musculoskeletal system, and building-up and updating our postural model (body schema), which could be a basis for the conscious experience of the physical self.

  15. Avoiding injury to the inferior alveolar nerve by routine use of intraoperative radiographs during implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Jeffrey; Mastin, Chris; Le, Bach

    2008-01-01

    Injury to the inferior alveolar nerve during implant placement in the posterior atrophic mandible is a rare but serious complication. Although a preoperative computerized tomography scan can help determine the distance from the alveolar ridge to the nerve canal, variables such as magnification errors, ridge anatomy, and operator technique can increase the chance for complications. The routine use of intraoperative periapical radiographs during the drilling sequence is an inexpensive and reliable tool, allowing the operator to confidently adjust the direction and depth of the implant during placement. Most important, it helps avoid the risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve in cases in which there is limited vertical alveolar bone. Using this technique for 21 implants placed in the posterior atrophic mandible, with less than 10 mm of vertical bone to the inferior alveolar nerve canal, the authors observed no incidents of postoperative paresthesia.

  16. Variação anatômica venosa rara em membros inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andreia de Moraes Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo A anatomia do sistema venoso dos membros inferiores é uma das mais complexas no corpo humano. Devido a essa condição, é de extrema importância saber identificar variações que possam acometê-la, como as malformações congênitas. Em casos de agenesia de veias profundas, como uma malformação vascular rara, o quadro clínico pode manifestar-se com insuficiência venosa crônica, que pode evoluir com edema, hiperpigmentação e úlcera de membro inferior. Assim, em muitos casos, torna-se uma doença incapacitante e de difícil tratamento. Apresenta-se um caso de agenesia de segmento venoso femoropoplíteo no membro inferior direito em paciente de 36 anos de idade, que cursou com edema e varizes de grosso calibre no membro acometido.

  17. Blunt injury to the inferior gluteal artery: case report of a rare "near miss" event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traumatic injuries of the inferior gluteal artery are rare, the majority of which are aneurysms due to sharp or blunt trauma. We report the rare case of a "near miss" event of a patient with an acute hemorrhagic mass in the right buttock caused by blunt trauma to the inferior gluteal artery without "hard" clinical signs of vascular injury. Despite the unusual presentation, diffuse injury of the inferior gluteal artery branches was diagnosed by ultrasonography and angiography. This article highlights the importance of considering an arterial injury following blunt trauma to the buttock with subsequent pain and swelling. Appreciation of this rare injury pattern is necessary in order to facilitate rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  18. Application of inferior major bone flap craniotomy decompression in brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the application of inferior major boneflap craniotomy decompression in brain injury operation.Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in 218 cases with brain injuries who were admitted to our department from January 1995 to December 1999 and treated with the inferior major bone flap craniotomy decompression.Results: Of 218 cases, 121 cases (55.50%) were cured according to GOS, 39 (18.30%) were with good recovery or moderate disability, 13 (5.60%) with severe deformity, 3 (1.40%) vegetative life, the rest 42 (19.20%) died after operation; no encephalocele or incarceration were found.Conclusions: The inferior major bone flap craniotomy decompression can remove hematoma timely and completely, is better than general craniotomy decompression and has a positive effect on brain injuries especially when bone flap is small.

  19. Acute retroperitoneal bleeding due to inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrón JA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA, although uncommon, are increasingly being detected. We describe a case of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured IMA aneurysm associated with stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA and celiac trunk, successfully treated with surgery. Methods A 65-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock. Abdominal CT scan showed an aneurysm of the inferior mesenteric artery with retroperitoneal hematoma. In addition, an obstructive disease of the superior mesenteric artery and celiac axis was observed. Results Upon emergency laparotomy a ruptured inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm was detected. The aneurysm was excised and the artery reconstructed by end-to-end anastomosis. Conclusions This report discusses the etiology, presentation, diagnosis and case management of inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms.

  20. [Several common types of counterfeit and inferior drugs in Chinese medicinal materials market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimei; Chen, Keli

    2012-04-01

    Though there are many species of counterfeit and inferior drugs of Chinese Medicinal Materials in the market, the means of fabrication is common. According to our investigating and reports in the literature it is found that the counterfeits and inferior drugs exist in 4 styles: counterfeits, reused medicinal materials and their slices which have been extracted by boiling water or ethanol, medicinal materials and their slices which have been added with non-medicinal parts or chemicals, medicinal materials which have no enough growth time or have been reserved for a long time. Through summarizing the styles and their common characteristics of the counterfeits and inferior drugs,it is helpful to raise vigilance and detect them.

  1. In situ preservation of the inferior parathyroid gland during central neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; Wu, K; Shi, L H; Sun, Y Y; Li, F B; Xie, L

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative hypocalcaemia due to dysfunction of the parathyroid glands is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy plus central neck dissection (CND). There is a lack of surgical techniques described to help preserve the inferior parathyroid gland in situ during CND. The objective of this study was to introduce the 'TBP layer' (layer of thymus-blood vessel-inferior parathyroid gland) concept for preserving the inferior parathyroid gland in situ during CND, and to evaluate its effectiveness. The study group included patients with primary papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy with CND using the new surgical concept between January and December 2014. The control group included sex- and age-matched patients who underwent conventional total thyroidectomy with CND between January 2012 and December 2013. The proportion of inferior parathyroid glands preserved in situ and postoperative hypoparathyroidism rates in the two groups were compared. There were 181 patients in the study group and 306 in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in tumour size, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, and number of harvested and metastatic central lymph nodes. The rate of inferior parathyroid gland preservation in situ was significantly improved from 37·9 to 76·3 per cent on the left side (P < 0·001), and from 52·0 to 77·9 per cent on the right side (P < 0·001), in the study group compared with the control group. The incidence of transient hypoparathyroidism decreased significantly from 35·0 to 7·2 per cent (P < 0·001). Applying the proposed surgical concept improved the rate of inferior parathyroid gland preservation in situ and decreased the incidence of transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. INFERIOR TURBINECTOMY FOR NASAL OBSTRUCTION-STUDY O F 219 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE : To determine the success rate of inferior turbine ctomy for nasal obstruction. To study complications of inferior turb inectomy. To study the histopathological changes in the inferior turbinate specimens. METHOD : This prospective, single blinded, randomized study of 219 consecutive patients carried out in two tertiary le vel centres from January 2010 to October 2011. The patients were asse ssed preoperatively and postoperatively both subjectively and objectively. The patients who were refractory to the directed conservative treatment for chronic nasal obstruction underwent i nferior turbinectomy on both sides and septoplasty if required. The inferior turbinectomy spe cimen was sent for histopathological examination. NOSE Questionnaires were used for subj ective assessment and rigid nasal endoscopy used for objective assessment. Follow up do ne at 1 week, 1 month and 6 months after surgery. Friedman test applied for assessment o f the improvement. RESULTS : 92 % (n=203 of patients relieved of nasal obstruction fo r which they approached. The improvement is statistically significant both subjectively and objectively. The common complications in present study is postoperative nasal synechia which o ccurred in 5% (n=10. Bleeding occurred in 4%(n=8. Dryness and crusting occurred in 2%(n=4 and foul odour in 2% (n=4. The present study also showed that most common cause for turbinate enlargement is chronic nonspecific inflammatory hypertrophy followed by aller gic turbinate hypertrophy. CONCLUSION : -The results show that inferior turbinectomy is t he good method of achieving relief from the nasal obstruction with minimal morb idity. Histopathological examination showed that most common cause of turbinate enlargem ent is chronic non specific turbinate hypertrophy and it proves beyond doubt that unnecessa ry excessive antiallergic treatment should be avoided in patients with chronic nasal obs truction KEY WORDS: inferior

  3. Inferior oblique weakening surgery on ocular torsion in congenital superior oblique palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinho Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate changes in fundus excyclotorsion after inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy.METHODS:The records of 21 patients undergoing strabismus surgery by a single surgeon between 2009 and 2012 were examined. Only patients who had undergone an inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy, with or without horizontal rectus muscle surgery, were evaluated. Digital fundus photographs were obtained, and the angle formed by a horizontal line passing through the optic disc center and a reference line connecting the foveola and optic disc center was measured. Associated clinical factors examined include age at the time of surgery, presence or absence of a head tilt, degree of preoperative vertical deviation, torsional angle, inferior oblique muscle overaction/superior oblique muscle underaction, and surgery laterality. Whether the procedure was performed alone or in combination with a horizontal rectus muscle surgery was also examined.RESULTS:Mean preoperative torsional angle was 12.0±6.4°, which decreased to 6.9±5.7° after surgery (P<0.001, paired t-test. Torsional angle also decreased from 15.1±7.0° to 6.2±4.3° in the myectomy group (P<0.001, paired t-test but there were no significant changes in the myotomy group (P=0.093, Wilcoxon signed rank test. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that preoperative torsional angle, degree of inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery independently and significantly affected postoperative torsional angle.CONCLUSION:Mean torsional angle decreased after inferior oblique myectomy. Degree of preoperative torsional angle, inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery influence postoperative torsional angle.

  4. Interrupted inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation in an adult with a persistent left superior vena cava and left single coronary artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Jin; Kwon, Se Hwan; Ahn, Sung Eun; Kim, Soo Joong; Oh, Joo Hyeong [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our institution for medical screening due to an incidental finding on abdominal ultrasonography. She underwent chest, abdomen and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Her MDCT revealed absence of the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC), with hemiazygos continuation and a left single coronary artery. The dilated hemiazygos vein drained directly into the persistent left superior vena cava (SVC). Herein, we reported a very rare case combining an incidentally found interrupted IVC with hemiazygos vein continuation, persistent left SVC and a left single coronary artery diagnosed by MDCT.

  5. Synchronous transperitoneal laparoscopic resection of right retroperitoneal schwannoma and left kidney monotypic PEComa in the presence of a duplicated inferior vena cava (IVC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Linhui; Wu, Zhenjie; Li, Mingmin; Wang, Huiqing; Sheng, Jing; Huang, Jun; Liao, Songbai; Sun, Yinghao

    2012-07-01

    A 21-year-old female presented with a retroperitoneal mass in the right side and a centrally located renal mass in the left kidney with an aberrant vascular anatomy of a double inferior vena cava. The 2 tumors were radically excised by a transperitoneal laparoscopic approach in one session. Histopathologic examination revealed the right retroperitoneal lesion to be a schwannoma and the renal mass to be a cluster of monotypic neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComas). The latter is a rare tumor.

  6. Significance of Radiological Variables Studied on Orthopantamogram to Pridict Post-Operative Inferior Alveoler Nerve Paresthesia After Third Molar Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Sachin; Mishra, Nitin; Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Sharma, Shalini

    2014-01-01

    Context: Removal of impacted third molar is a procedure that is often associated with post-operative complications. The rate of complications is somewhat high because of its proximity to the vital structures. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia is one of the common complications of impacted their molar surgery. This is due to intimate relationship between roots of mandibular third molar and inferior alveolar canal. To access the proximity of inferior alveolar canal to third molar many diagnos...

  7. Testicular tumors with tumor thrombosis within the inferior vena cava: Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lim, Joo Won; Park, Seong Jin [Kyung Hee Univ. Hospital/College of Medicine/Kyung Hee Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Testicular tumors are almost all malignant tumors and can develop in younger age groups. Testicular tumors are mostly curable, with reported cases of tumor thrombosis within the inferior vena cava being rare. Two patients, aged 35 years and 37 years old complaining of testicular pain and lower abdominal pain were diagnosed with testicular tumors by ultrasound. In addition, tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava was diagnosed concomitantly at the time of the diagnosis by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we report testicular tumors accompanied by tumor thrombus, which is an extremely rare finding, with limited reports available. Pathologic diagnoses were seminoma and mixed germ cell tumors, respectively.

  8. Calidad de vida en pacientes con amputación de extremidad inferior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muniesa, J.M; Pou, M; Marco, E; Boza, R; Guillén, A; Duarte, E; Escalada, F; Belmonte, R; Tejero, M

    2009-01-01

    ... o que pongan en peligro la vida del individuo 2 . En este contexto es evidente que la amputación de una extremidad inferior, cualquiera que sea su causa, comporta una fuerte repercusión en aspectos físicos, funcionales y emocionales pues afecta la calidad de vida de la persona amputada 3–6 . Sin embargo, éste es uno de los aspectos menos estudiados en la bibliografía que hace referencia a los pacientes afectos de amputación de extremidad inferior ya que la mayoría de los trabajos se han centrado en el estudio ...

  9. Osteonecrosis del maxilar inferior por bifosfonatos. Presentación de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Sartori, P.; G. Rajcovich; N. Taborda; M.C. Saleme Daza; C Nally

    2015-01-01

    La osteonecrosis del maxilar inferior secundaria a la administración de bifosfonatos es una patología infrecuente. Se produce en los pacientes medicados con esta droga, ya sea por vía oral o endovenosa, que luego de realizarse un procedimiento odontológico presentan necrosis ósea en la mandíbula. Desde el primer reporte en el año 2003, se evidenció un crecimiento exponencial de esta patología. Presentamos dos casos clínicos de osteonecrosis del maxilar inferior por la administración de bif...

  10. Involvement of the right inferior longitudinal fascicle in visual hemiagnosia: a brain stimulation mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Coello, Alejandro; Duvaux, Sophie; De Benedictis, Alessandro; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Neural foundations underlying visual agnosia are poorly understood. The authors present the case of a patient who underwent awake surgery for a right basal temporooccipital low-grade glioma in which direct electrostimulation was used both at the cortical and subcortical level. Brain mapping over the inferior longitudinal fascicle generated contralateral visual hemiagnosia. These original findings are in agreement with recent tractography data that have confirmed the existence of an occipitotemporal pathway connecting occipital visual input to higher-level processing in temporal lobe structures. This is the first report of a true transient visual hemiagnosia elicited through electrostimulation, supporting the crucial role of inferior longitudinal fascicle in visual recognition.

  11. Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Subtotal Occlusion of the Inferior Vena Cava and a Right Atrial Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Steinberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma usually metastasizes to regional lymph nodes, lung, and bones but can rarely invade the inferior vena cava with intravascular extension to the right atrium. We present the case of a 75-year-old man who was admitted for generalized oedema and was found to have advanced HCC with invasion of the inferior vena cava and endovascular extension to the right atrium. In contrast to the great majority of hepatocellular carcinoma, which usually develops on the basis of liver cirrhosis due to identifiable risk factors, none of those factors were present in our patient.

  12. Colgajos de perforantes de las arterias epigástricas inferiores profunda y superficial Deep and superficial inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Gagnon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el desarrollo de los colgajos miocutáneos de recto abdominal (TRAM, el abdomen inferior ha sido reconocido como la principal área dadora de tejidos autólogos de alta calidad, especialmente útiles en reconstrucción mamaria. Más recientemente la habilidad para obtener componentes adiposocutáneos similares sin sacrificar el músculo recto ha revolucionado el campo de la Cirugía Reconstructiva. El advenimiento de los colgajos de perforantes ha permitido a los cirujanos plásticos lograr los mismos buenos resultados estéticos que con los colgajos miocutáneos tradicionales, pero con un considerable descenso en la morbilidad del área donante. Con los colgajos de perforantes de la arteria epigástrica inferior profunda (DIEP y de la arteria epigástrica inferior superficial (SIEA, los pacientes han incrementado sus opciones de reconstrucción. Este artículo revisa la anatomía quirúrgica de la pared abdominal relativa a los colgajos SIEA y DIEP. Se explican detalladamente los pasos principales para la preparación preoperatoria, la técnica quirúrgica y los cuidados postoperatorios. Se discuten las ventajas y desventajas y se presen- tan los trucos técnicos que pueden ayudar a mejorar el resultado final. Además se ilustran con ayuda de casos clínicos las indicaciones típicas y atípicas.Following the development of the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap, the lower abdomen has been recognized as a prime source of high quality autogenous tissue, especially useful in breast reconstruction. More recently, the ability to harvest a similar adipocutaneous component without sacrifice of the rectus muscle has revolutionized the field of reconstructive surgery. The advent of perforator flaps has allowed plastic surgeons to achieve the same highly esthetic results as with the former myocutaneous flaps while significantly decreasing the donor site morbidity. With the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP flap and

  13. Estudo comparativo entre dois protocolos anestésicos envolvendo bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior convencional e de Vazirani-Akinosi para exodontia de terceiro molar inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Paula Ribeiro Borges

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior (BNAI apresenta alta porcentagem de falha na Odontologia. A fim de melhorar esse índice, vêm-se estudando diferentes alternativas, como diferentes técnicas e soluções anestésicas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas diferentes técnicas - técnica convencional e de Vazirani-Akinosi - para o bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior, bem como compará-las quanto à sua efetividade e quantificar o percentual de aspirações positivas nas duas diferentes técnicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 160 pacientes de ambos os sexos, sendo 80 submetidos ao bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior de Vazirani-Akinosi e bloqueio do nervo bucal (G1, e 80 submetidos ao bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior convencional e ao bloqueio do nervo bucal (G2. Em ambos os grupos, utilizou-se a combinação de articaína 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 para bloqueio do nervo bucal, e lidocaína 2% com epinefrina 1:100.000 para bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior. Foram avaliados: a quantidade de aspirações positivas, a eficácia da anestesia e o momento em que ocorreu a falha anestésica durante o procedimento cirúrgico. RESULTADO: Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p = 0,2453 entre os grupos G1 e G2 observando-se a eficácia e o índice de aspirações positivas, e o momento em que ocorreu a falha anestésica, observando-se uma maior eficácia de ambas as técnicas, quando comparadas com a literatura (90% CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença significativa entre o BNAI pela técnica convencional e o BNAI pela técnica de Vazirani-Akinosi quanto a quantidade de aspirações positivas e eficácia, sendo que o uso da articaína 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 no bloqueio do nervo bucal possivelmente aumentou a eficácia anestésica de ambas as técnicas.

  14. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia caused by a dentigerous cyst associated with three teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Mahmut; Baş, Burcu; Yildiz, Levent

    2007-09-01

    The dentigerous cyst is a common pathologic entity associated with an impacted tooth, usually third molars. They generally are asymptomatic, being found on routine dental radiographic examination. This report describes the case of a 43 year old male with a large dentigerous cyst associated with mandibular canine, first and second premolar teeth that caused paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve.

  15. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injury after Mandibular Third Molar Extraction: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sarikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the comprehensive overview of literature data about injury to the inferior alveolar nerve after lower third molar extraction to discover the prevalence of injury, the risk factors, recovery rates, and alternative methods of treatment. Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic databases. Articles from January 2009 to June 2014 were searched. English language articles with a minimum of 6 months patient follow-up and injury analysis by patient’s reporting, radiographic, and neurosensory testing were selected. Results: In total, 84 literature sources were reviewed, and 14 of the most relevant articles that are suitable to the criteria were selected. Articles were analyzed on men and women. The influence of lower third molar extraction (especially impacted on the inferior alveolar nerve was clearly seen. Conclusions: The incidence of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve after lower third molar extraction was about 0.35 - 8.4%. The injury of the inferior alveolar nerve can be predicted by various radiological signs. There are few risk factors that may increase the risk of injury to the nerve such as patients over the age of 24 years old, with horizontal impactions, and extraction by trainee surgeons. Recovery is preferable and permanent injury is very rare.

  16. Outcome of inferior and superior rectus recession in Graves' orbitopathy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, Hinke Marijke; Saeed, Peerooz; Groenveld, Linda; Kloos, Roel; Mourits, Maarten P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical effect of unilateral inferior rectus recession (IR-group) with or without a recession of contralateral superior rectus (IR-SR-group) on squint angle and motility restrictions in Graves' Orbitopathy (GO) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. MATERIALS AND METH

  17. Lexical retrieval constrained by sound structure: The role of the left inferior frontal gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharp, D.; Scott, S.K.; Cutler, A.; Wise, R.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography was used to investigate two competing hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in word generation. One proposes a domain-specific organization, with neural activation dependent on the type of information being processed, i.e., surface sound stru

  18. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use.

  19. Randomized Controlled Non-Inferiority Trial of a Telehealth Treatment for Chronic Stuttering: The Camperdown Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Brenda; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although there are treatments that can alleviate stuttering in adults for clinically significant periods, in Australia there are barriers to the accessibility and availability of best-practice treatment. Aims: This parallel group, non-inferiority randomized controlled trial with multiple blinded outcome assessments investigated whether…

  20. 75 FR 9228 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Non-Inferiority Clinical Trials; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Non- Inferiority Clinical Trials.'' This draft guidance provides sponsors and review staff in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) with the agency's interpretation of the underlying principles involved in the......

  1. Fatal thrombotic complications of hepatic cystic compression of the inferior vena: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Kai Leung; Chi-Ming Lee; Hsin-Chi Chen

    2005-01-01

    Of 5% of patients who develop liver cysts, only 10-15%of them come for medical attention, typically because of dull right upper quadrant pain, abdominal bloating or early satiety. We treated a 77-year-old female with a rare complication of inferior vena cava thrombosis. The patient expired due to septic shock and multiple organ failure.

  2. Application of augmented reality for inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yu-Jin; Kang, Sang-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to apply augmented reality (AR) technology in the medical field include the introduction of AR techniques into dental practice. The present report introduces a simple method of applying AR during an inferior alveolar nerve block, a procedure commonly performed in dental clinics.

  3. Prominence vs. Aboutness in Sequencing: A Functional Distinction within the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Grewe, Tanja; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the neural bases of syntactic comprehension suggests that activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (lIFG) correlates with the processing of word order variations. However, there are inconsistencies with respect to the specific subregion within the IFG that is implicated by these findings: the pars opercularis or the pars…

  4. Evaluation of macular thickness change after inferior oblique muscle recession surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Turan-Vural

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in macular thickness following inferior oblique muscle recession surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight eyes from 21 patients undergoing ocular muscle surgery were included. Patients were grouped into three groups based on the type of surgical intervention: Group I (n = 12, inferior oblique recession surgery alone; Group II (n = 12, inferior oblique plus horizontal muscle surgery; Group III (n = 14, horizontal muscle surgery alone. Each eye was scanned using the optical coherence tomography (OCT device preoperatively and on the first postoperative day to measure macular thickness. Results: Following surgery, a significant increase in foveal thickness occurred in Group I (P < 0.05 and Group II (P < 0.01. In addition, a statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to the increase in foveal thickness (P = 0.016, with significantly lower changes in Group III. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that inferior oblique muscle recession surgery is associated with an increase in macular thickness.

  5. Age-Related Increase in Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity and Social Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Thioux, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; van der Gaag, Christiaan; Ketelaars, Cees; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypoactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus during the perception of facial expressions has been interpreted as evidence for a deficit of the mirror neuron system in children with autism. We examined whether this dysfunction persists in adulthood, and how brain activity in the mirror

  6. Cementoblastoma benigno associado a segundo pré molar inferior : relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Mahl, Carlos Eduardo Winck; Gegler, Aderson; Fontanella, Vania Regina Camargo

    2003-01-01

    0 cementoblastoma benigno é uma lesao produtora de cemento que constitui apenas 1% dos tumores odontogenicos, na maioria dos casos esta associada a molares inferiores e acomete adultos jovens. Relata-se urn caso no qual observa-se uma apresentagao atipica quanto localizacao e faixa etaria.

  7. Inferior fronto-temporo-occipital connectivity: a missing link between maltreated girls and neglectful mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; León, Inmaculada; Góngora, Daylin; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Byrne, Sonia; Bobes, María A

    2016-10-01

    The neurobiological alterations resulting from adverse childhood experiences that subsequently may lead to neglectful mothering are poorly understood. Maternal neglect of an infant's basic needs is the most prevalent type of child maltreatment. We tested white matter alterations in neglectful mothers, the majority of whom had also suffered maltreatment in their childhood, and compared them to a matched control group. The two groups were discriminated by a structural brain connectivity pattern comprising inferior fronto-temporo-occipital connectivity, which constitutes a major portion of the face-processing network and was indexed by fewer streamlines in neglectful mothers. Mediation and regression analyses showed that fewer streamlines in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus tract (ILF-R) predicted a poorer quality of mother-child emotional availability observed during cooperative play and that effect depended on the respective interactions with left and right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO-R/L), with no significant impact of psychopathological and cognitive conditions. Volume alteration in ILF-R but not in IFO-L modulated the impact of having been maltreated on emotional availability. The findings suggest the altered inferior fronto-temporal-occipital connectivity, affecting emotional visual processing, as a possible common neurological substrate linking a history of childhood maltreatment with maternal neglect.

  8. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions, associat

  9. [The syndrome of blepharophimosis-ptosis-dystopia of the inferior puncta lacrimalia and epicanthus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, L

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a family with 28 members belonging to four generations. 12 of them show an association of blepharophimosis--ptosis--dystopia of the inferior lacrimal points and epicanthus. 9 members of the family in the 3rd and 4th generations were examined and a dominant mode of transmission was evidenced.

  10. Age-Related Increase in Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity and Social Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Thioux, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; van der Gaag, Christiaan; Ketelaars, Cees; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypoactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus during the perception of facial expressions has been interpreted as evidence for a deficit of the mirror neuron system in children with autism. We examined whether this dysfunction persists in adulthood, and how brain activity in the mirror ne

  11. Lexical retrieval constrained by sound structure: The role of the left inferior frontal gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharp, D.; Scott, S.K.; Cutler, A.; Wise, R.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography was used to investigate two competing hypotheses about the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in word generation. One proposes a domain-specific organization, with neural activation dependent on the type of information being processed, i.e., surface sound

  12. Aberrant network integrity of the inferior frontal cortex in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kullmann

    2014-01-01

    These results suggest that AN patients have reduced connectivity within the cognitive control system of the brain and increased connectivity within regions important for salience processing. Due to its fundamental role in inhibitory behavior, including motor response, altered integrity of the inferior frontal cortex could contribute to hyperactivity in AN.

  13. Sex segregation and equality in a multicultural society: inferiority as a standard for legal acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein van den Brink

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the legal acceptability of old and new forms of sex segregation, using a multilayered ‘inferiority test’ that can be regarded as a specification of (international equality and non-discrimination standards. The test is applied to a number of topical cases of sex segregation: 1 A traditional case of rather uncontested sex segregation in sports, specifically in amateur football; 2 A more controversial case that seems to be on the rise once again: sex-segregated education; 3 The highly controversial case of sex-segregated integration courses in the Netherlands. The outcome shows that each sex-segregated practice is problematic in the light of one or more criteria of this inferiority test, but not necessarily the same criteria. Specific attention is paid to the merits of the test in a multicultural context. The inferiority test is a useful tool in dealing with multicultural complexity, although not in every respect. It allows the impact of sex segregation on minority women to be taken into account, as well as cultural and religious reasons which women may have in demanding sex-segregation facilities, unless this will result in perpetuating their or other women’s subordination. Our findings suggest that the inferiority test is quite useful as an analytical tool to assess contested practices of sex segregation. However, the multilayered character of the test needs some fine-tuning when the various elements of the test lead to different conclusions.

  14. Sex segregation and equality in a multicultural society: inferiority as a standard for legal acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Marjolein van den; Loenen, T.; Tigchelaar, Jet

    2010-01-01

    This contribution explores the legal acceptability of old and new forms of sex segregation, using a multilayered ‘inferiority test’ that can be regarded as a specification of (inter)national equality and non-discrimination standards. The test is applied to a number of topical cases of sex

  15. Related anomalies of origin of left vertebral and left inferior thyroid arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartor, K.; Freckmann, N.; Boeker, D.K.

    1981-01-01

    The known rare occurrence of related anomalies of origin of vertebral and inferior thyroid arteries appears not to be documented in the angiographic literature. Three cases with manifestation on the left side are presented. Embryology is discussed briefly. Knowledge of such anomalies is of importance to surgeons as well as angiographers.

  16. The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Cortex to Spoken Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Leech, Robert; Beckmann, Christian F.; Woodhead, Zoe; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions confined to the parietal lobe. We compared Speech with…

  17. The contribution of the inferior parietal cortex to spoken language production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geranmayeh, F.; Brownsett, S.L.; Leech, R.; Beckmann, Christian; Woodhead, Z.; Wise, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions

  18. "A Hidden Part of Me": Latino/a Students, Silencing, and the Epidermalization of Inferiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Jason G.; Raible, John

    2014-01-01

    Using Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Latino/a Critical Race Theory (LatCrit) as analytical tools, this article examines the experiences of a seven Latino/a high school students at various points of engagement with the school-to-prison pipeline. Building on and extending Franz Fanon's (1952) concept of the epidermalization of inferiority, the…

  19. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  20. Permutation test for non-inferiority of the linear to the optimal combination of multiple tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Lu, Ying

    2009-03-01

    We proposed a permutation test for non-inferiority of the linear discriminant function to the optimal combination of multiple tests based on Mann-Whitney statistic estimate of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Monte Carlo simulations showed its good performance.

  1. Moyamoya disease associated with an anterior inferior cerebellar artery arising from a persistent trigeminal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Sawada, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S. [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501 (Japan); Koizumi, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga, 849-8501 (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The authors present a case of moyamoya disease associated with a persistent trigeminal artery from which the anterior inferior cerebellar artery arose. We reviewed previously reported cases of moyamoya disease associated with persistent carotid-basilar arterial anastomosis and investigated the embryology of this rare arterial variation. (orig.)

  2. Left Inferior Frontal Cortex and Syntax: Function, Structure and Behaviour in Patients with Left Hemisphere Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Devereux, Barry J.; Zhuang, Jie; Papoutsi, Marina; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 150 years, neurobiological models of language have debated the role of key brain regions in language function. One consistently debated set of issues concern the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic processing. Here we combine measures of functional activity, grey matter integrity and performance in patients with left…

  3. Drenagem anômala de veia pulmonar inferior direita em veia cava inferior associada a apêndice hepático intracardíaco Anomalous drainage of the right inferior pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava associated to intrathoracic hepatic appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Moraes

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o caso de uma paciente de 61 anos de idade, com drenagem anômala de veia pulmonar inferior direita em veia cava inferior, associada a apêndice hepático intratorácico, herniado através de fenda no diafragma. A correção cirúrgica foi realizada por anastomose direta da veia anômala com o átrio esquerdo, pela redução do apêndice hepático para a cavidade abdominal e, finalmente, pelo fechamento do defeito diafragmático. O pós-operatório decorreu sem qualquer complicação. Os autores chamam a atenção para a raridade do caso.The authors present a case of a 61-year-old woman with anomalous drainage of the right inferior pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava associated to an intrathoracic hepatic appendix herniated through a diaphragmatic defect. Surgical correction was obtained by direct anastomosis of the anomalous vein to the left atrium, reduction of the hepatic appendix to the abdominal cavity and closure of the diphragmatic defect. The postoperative course was unevenftul. The rarity of this condition is stressed.

  4. VALIDACIÓN DE LA RADIOGRAFÍA PANORÁMICA EN LA DETERMINACIÓN DE LA POSICIÓN DEL TERCER MOLAR INFERIOR RESPECTO AL CONDUCTO DENTARIO INFERIOR EN CRÁNEOS DE ADULTOS. AREQUIPA.2013

    OpenAIRE

    OCOLA TICONA, BERLIE CESAR

    2014-01-01

    RADIOGRAFÍA PANORÁMICA HISTORIA Y EVOLUCIÓN FUNDAMENTOS DE LA RADIOGRAFÍA PANORÁMICA TERCEROS MOLARES CRITERIOS GENERALES CASUÍSTICA ETIOLOGÍA ETIOPATOGENIA CONDICIONES ANATÓMICAS DIAGNOSTICO CLASIFICACIÓN DE LAS IMPACTACIONES DEL TERCER MOLAR RELACIÓN DEL TERCER MOLAR INFERIOR CON EL CONDUCTO DENTARIO INFERIOR FORMAS DE PREVENCIÓN

  5. Study duration for three-arm non-inferiority survival trials designed for accrual by cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Li, Yiqun; Hou, Yan; Li, Kang; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2016-03-17

    Study planning is particularly complex for survival trials because it usually involves an accrual period and a continued observation period after accrual closure. The three-arm clinical trial design, which includes a test treatment, an active reference, and a placebo control, is the gold standard design for the assessment of non-inferiority. The existing statistical methods of calculating minimal sample size for non-inferiority trials with three-arm design and survival-type endpoints cannot take into consideration the accrual rate of patients to the trial, the length of accrual period, the length of continued observation period after accrual closure, and unbalanced allocation of the total sample size. The purpose of this paper is to develop a statistical method, which allows for all these sources of variability for planning non-inferiority trials with the gold standard design for censored, exponentially distributed time-to-event data. The proposed method is based on the assumption of exponentially distributed failure times and a non-inferiority test formulated in terms of the retention of effect hypotheses. It can be used to calculate the duration of accrual required to assure a desired power for non-inferiority trials with active and placebo control. We illustrate the use of the method by considering a randomized, active- and placebo-controlled trial in depression associated with Parkinson's disease. We then explore the validity of the proposed method by simulation studies. An R-language program for the implementation of the proposed algorithm is provided as supplementary material. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Choroid is thinner in inferior region of optic disks of normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    To determine the thickness of the choroid across the posterior pole of normal eyes. Twenty-eight clinic-based normal eyes (54.1 ± 20.0 years, -3.6 ± 4.1 diopter) were studied. The macula and retina around the optic disk were scanned with a spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic instrument. The retinal mapping program with the enhanced depth imaging technique was used, and the borders of the choroid were drawn manually in each optical coherence tomographic image. A choroidal thickness map was constructed by the built-in program, and the choroidal thickness in the different sectors of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid was measured and compared. The choroid inferior to the optic disk was significantly thinner than that in the other sectors of the outer ring of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid (superior, 196 ± 62 μm; inferior, 146 ± 47 μm; nasal, 183 ± 80 μm; and temporal, 193 ± 64 μm, P choroidal thickness at the nasal sector of the macular region was significantly thinner than other regions of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid (superior, 268 ± 74 μm; inferior, 245 ± 73 μm; nasal, 190 ± 68 μm; temporal, 268 ± 63 μm; and central, 258 ± 88 μm; P Choroidal thickness maps showed that the thinner choroidal area spreads around the optic disk and the inferior part of the posterior pole. The thinner choroid inferior to the optic disk may be a natural anatomical architecture of normal eyes, and this area may be more susceptible to hypoxia or to elevated intraocular pressures.

  7. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention ameliorates complete atrioventricular block complicating acute inferior myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Su Nam Lee, You-Mi Hwang, Gee-Hee Kim, Ji-Hoon Kim, Ki-Dong Yoo, Chul-Min Kim, Keon-Woong MoonDepartment of Internal Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South KoreaObjective: Complete atrioventricular block (CAVB in acute inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is associated with poor clinical outcomes after noninvasive treatment. This study was designed to determine the effect of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with CAVB complicating acute inferior STEMI, at a single center.Methods: We enrolled 138 consecutive patients diagnosed with STEMI involving the inferior wall; of these, 27 patients had CAVB. All patients received primary PCI. The clinical characteristics, procedural data, and clinical outcomes were compared in patients with versus without CAVB. Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar between patients with and without CAVB. Patients with CAVB were more likely to present with cardiogenic shock, and CAVB was caused primarily by right coronary artery occlusion. Door-to-balloon time was similar between those two groups. After primary PCI, CAVB was reversed in all patients. The peak creatinine phosphokinase level, left ventricular ejection fraction and in-hospital mortality rate were similar between the two groups. After a median follow up of 318 days, major adverse cardiac events did not differ between the groups (8.1% in patients without CAVB; 11.1% in patients with CAVB (P=0.702.Conclusion: We conclude that primary PCI can ameliorate CAVB-complicated acute inferior STEMI, with an acceptable rate of major adverse cardiac events, and suggest that primary PCI should be the preferred reperfusion therapy in patients with CAVB complicating acute inferior myocardial infarction. Keywords: major adverse cardiac events, PCI-capable hospital

  8. Quality of reporting of clinical non-inferiority and equivalence randomised trials - update and extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller Petra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-inferiority and equivalence trials require tailored methodology and therefore adequate conduct and reporting is an ambitious task. The aim of our review was to assess whether the criteria recommended by the CONSORT extension were followed. Methods We searched the Medline database and the Cochrane Central Register for reports of randomised non-inferiority and equivalence trials published in English language. We excluded reports on bioequivalence studies, reports targeting on other than the main results of a trial, and articles of which the full-text version was not available. In total, we identified 209 reports (167 non-inferiority, 42 equivalence trials and assessed the reporting and methodological quality using abstracted items of the CONSORT extension. Results Half of the articles did not report on the method of randomisation and only a third of the trials were reported to use blinding. The non-inferiority or equivalence margin was defined in most reports (94%, but was justified only for a quarter of the trials. Sample size calculation was reported for a proportion of 90%, but the margin was taken into account in only 78% of the trials reported. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis were presented in less than half of the reports. When reporting the results, a confidence interval was given for 85% trials. A proportion of 21% of the reports presented a conclusion that was wrong or incomprehensible. Overall, we found a substantial lack of quality in reporting and conduct. The need to improve also applied to aspects generally recommended for randomised trials. The quality was partly better in high-impact journals as compared to others. Conclusions There are still important deficiencies in the reporting on the methodological approach as well as on results and interpretation even in high-impact journals. It seems to take more than guidelines to improve conduct and reporting of non-inferiority and equivalence

  9. Heart block and cardiac embolization of fractured inferior vena cava filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Abudayyeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A 66-year-old man underwent a placement of an inferior vena cava filter before a gastric surgery 9 years prior, presented to the emergency room with a complete atrioventricular block. Chest x-ray and transthoracic echocardiogram showed struts migrating to right ventricle with tricuspid regurgitation. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and declined an open surgical intervention due to the location of the embolized fragments and the patient’s overall condition. It was also felt that the fragments had migrated chronically and were adhered to the cardiac structures. Methods: The patient underwent a dual-chamber permanent pacemaker implantation. Post-implant fluoroscopy showed no displacement of the inferior vena cava filter struts due to the pacemaker leads indicating that the filter fracture had likely been a chronic process. Results: This case highlights a rare combination of complications related to inferior vena cava filter fractures and the importance of assessing for such fractures in chronic placements. Inferior vena cava filter placement for a duration greater than 1 month can be associated with filter fractures and strut migration which may lead to, although rare, serious or fatal complications such as complete atrioventricular conduction system disruption and valvular damage including significant tricuspid regurgitation. Conclusions: Assessing for inferior vena cava filter fractures in chronic filter placement is important to avoid such complications. When possible, retrieval of the filter should be considered in all patients outside the acute setting in order to avoid filter-related complications. Filter retrieval rates remain low even when a retrievable filter is in place and the patient no longer has a contraindication to anticoagulation.

  10. Colgajo de pectoral mayor basado en perforantes internas inferiores: Doble plano invertido Pectoral muscle flap based on inferior-internal perforators: Inverted dual plane

    OpenAIRE

    V. O. Vassaro; A. H. Ali; D. M. Capponi

    2010-01-01

    El polo inferior de la mama en ocasiones puede estar afectado en su espesor por diferentes causas, como el simple paso del tiempo, resecciones oncológicas, extrusiones protésicas por infección, seromas, fístulas, etc. Describimos en este trabajo una alternativa quirúrgica para brindar una mayor cobertura al cuadrante ínferointerno de la glándula mamaria, utilizando un colgajo de músculo pectoral en su porción distal, basado en la irrigación de sus perforantes internas.Some times, the mammary ...

  11. A RARE CASE OF EXTENSIVE THROMBOSIS OF INFERIOR VENA CAVA, PORTAL VEIN, SPLENIC VEIN AND SUPERIOR MESENTRIC VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While the most common presentation of venous thromboembolic disease is deep vein thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary thromboembolism, rarer manifestations are thrombosis of jugular vein, cerebral sinus and inferior vena cava. Here we are presenting a rare case of inferior vena caval thrombosis with multiple thrombus in portal vein, splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein

  12. Evaluation of Early and Late Term Outcomes of Radiofrequency Surgery in the Treatment of Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Salihoglu

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Inferior turbinate RFA can be used alone effectively in the treatment of nasal obstruction caused by ITH. Results of inferior turbinate RFA are satisfactory for at least one year without causing impairment in physiologic mucociliary activity or other adverse effects. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(1.000: 34-39

  13. A randomized controlled, non-inferiority trial of modified natural versus artificial cycle for cryo-thawed embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, E. R.; Cohlen, B. J.; Al-Oraiby, A.; Brinkhuis, E. A.; Broekmans, F. J M; De Bruin, J. P.; Van Den Dool, G.; Fleisher, K.; Friederich, J.; Goddijn, M.; Hoek, A.; Hoozemans, D. A.; Kaaijk, E. M.; Koks, C. A M; Laven, J. S E; Van Der Linden, P. J Q; Manger, A. P.; Slappendel, E.; Spinder, T.; Kollen, B. J.; Macklon, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    studyquestion: Are live birth rates (LBRs) after artificial cycle frozen-thawed embryo transfer (AC-FET) non-inferior to LBRs after modified natural cycle frozen-thawed embryo transfer (mNC-FET)? summaryanswer: AC-FET is non-inferior to mNC-FET with regard to LBRs, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rat

  14. 小鼠下丘神经元对声音起始瞬时声压的时间反应特性%Temporal Response Properties of Neurons in Mouse Inferior Colliculus to Instantaneous Sound Pressure of Sound Stimulus Onset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛文东; 杨晓丽; 王晓; 杨尉国; 肖中举

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨声音刺激与神经元第一发放延时之间的编码关系是否可通过所示方程来更好地表现出来.方法: 在4~6周BALB/c小鼠下丘神经元上,采用在体细胞外记录方法,采用不同起始动态特征的纯音包络波对小鼠下丘神经元给予双耳声音刺激,并同时改变声刺激的3个实验控制参数:上升函数、上升时间(分别设为2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 millisecond,ms)和稳态声压(阈值到90 decibel,dB),并记录对应于特定上升函数、上升时间和稳态声压时的第一动作电位发放延时.然后以特定的数理模型对单位神经元数据进行分析处理,以确定声音起始瞬时声压与神经元第一发放延时之间的关系.结果:共记录到70个神经元反应.通过分析发现,推导出来的方程中的时间转换常数(T)和声压指数(K)是预测神经元第一发放延时的重要参数.结论:声音包络波的瞬时声压与小鼠下丘神经元第一发放延时良好的对应关系可通过此方程的两个常数预测出来.

  15. A 75 years old man with edema and inferior gastrointestinal bleeding Hombre de 75 años con edemas y sangrado digestivo inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jaime Varela Aguirre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 75 year old man is presented. He consulted because of generalized edema and the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome was done. Histologic study of a renal biopsy reported a glomerulopathy of minimal changes. Treatment with steroids improved of proteinuria, but on reducing the doses, proteinuria returned. In a second hospitalization deep venous thrombosis and gastrointestinal bleeding were diagnosed. A cava vein filter was implanted, colonoscopy was performed and Polyposis Coli was found. A non Hodgkin lymphoma compatible with MANTLE CELL lymphoma (lymphomatous polyposis vs MALT lymphoma was reported in the colonic biopsy. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 75 años, quien consultó por edemas generalizados originados en un síndrome nefrótico, secundario a una glomerulopatía clasificada como de cambios mínimos. Se le iniciaron esteroides con mejoría de su proteinuria, pero al disminuir las dosis de éstos, recayó, por lo que requirió nueva hospitalización en la que se le documentaron trombosis venosa profunda y sangrado por tracto gastrointestinal inferior. Se le implantó un filtro de vena cava inferior y se le practicó una colonoscopia, en la que se encontró poliposis coli. Al estudio histológico se reportó un linfoma no Hodgkin compatible con un linfoma del manto (poliposis linfomatoide versus linfoma marginal tipo MALT de bajo grado.

  16. Aneurisma da artéria cerebelar ântero-inferior: relato de caso Aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Oscar Alarcón Adorno

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas intracranianos do sistema vértebro-basilar representam cerca de 5 a 10% de todos os aneurismas cerebrais. Os aneurismas da artéria cerebelar ântero-inferior (AICA são considerados raros, podendo causar síndrome do ângulo ponto cerebelar, com ou sem hemorragia subaracnóidea. Desde 1948, foram descritos poucos casos na literatura. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente, de 33 anos, na qual, após investigação de quadro de hemorragia subaracnóidea, diagnosticou-se aneurisma sacular da AICA esquerda. Foi submetida a clipagem do aneurisma, com ótimo resultado pós operatório.The intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation have been reported between 5 and 10% of all cerebral aneurysms and the aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA are considered rare, can cause cerebello pontine angle (CPA syndrome with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since 1948 few cases were described in the literature. We report on a 33 year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to sacular aneurysm of the left AICA. She was submitted to clipage of the aneurysm without complications.

  17. Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome caused by a disconnection between the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus and the supplementary motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Ibáñez-Plágaro, Francisco Javier; Valle-Folgueral, José Manuel; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso

    2012-11-01

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a rare type of suprabulbar palsy characterized by an automatic-voluntary dissociation of the orofacial musculature. Here, the authors report an original case of FCMS that occurred intraoperatively while resecting the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. This 25-year-old right-handed man with an incidentally diagnosed right frontotemporoinsular tumor underwent surgery using an asleep-awake-asleep technique with direct cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation and a transopercular approach to the insula. While resecting the anterior part of the pars opercularis the patient suffered sudden anarthria and bilateral facial weakness. He was unable to speak or show his teeth on command, but he was able to voluntarily move his upper and lower limbs. This syndrome lasted for 8 days. Postoperative diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed that connections of the pars opercularis of the right inferior frontal gyrus with the frontal aslant tract (FAT) and arcuate fasciculus (AF) were damaged. This case supplies evidence for localizing the structural substrate of FCMS. It was possible, for the first time in the literature, to accurately correlate the occurrence of FCMS to the resection of connections between the FAT and AF, and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus. The FAT has been recently described, but it may be an important connection to mediate supplementary motor area control of orofacial movement. The present case also contributes to our knowledge of complication avoidance in operculoinsular surgery. A transopercular approach to insuloopercular gliomas can generate FCMS, especially in cases of previous contralateral lesions. The prognosis is favorable, but the patient should be informed of this particular hazard, and the surgeon should anticipate the surgical strategy in case the syndrome occurs intraoperatively in an awake patient.

  18. Inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia caused by endodontic pathosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M; Lajolo, C; Deli, G; Silveri, C

    2001-12-01

    Sensory disturbances such as anesthesia, hypoesthesia, hyperesthesia, and paresthesia may be present in the oral cavity, stemming from many local and systemic factors. Paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve is quite rare because of the unique anatomy of this nerve. Among other effects, periapical lesions can damage the nerve, resulting in paresthesia of its innervated area. Only a few cases of paresthesia caused by these lesions are reported in the literature. In this report we present a case of paresthesia of the right inferior alveolar nerve; discuss the anatomy, pathobiology, and etiology; and suggest that a periapical lesion affecting the lower right second molar (No. 31) may have been the cause. The routine x-rays (intraoral and panorex) and the axial and cross-sectional tomographs of the mandible by means of computed tomography contribute to making this case a good example of nerve injury.

  19. Infection-related mental and inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia: literature review and presentation of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D R

    1997-07-01

    A review of the literature on infection-related mental and inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia is given. This is followed by 2 case reports. The first case is of a mandibular left second molar in which a chloropercha overfill puff occurred in the vicinity of the inferior alveolar canal. The tooth remained asymptomatic until 2 and 1/2 yr later, when the periapical lesion enlarged and swelling, pain, and paresthesia developed. The paresthesia resolved 2 weeks following periapical surgery. The second case is of a mandibular right first premolar in which paresthesia began 1 day after the initial endodontic treatment. The intracanal medication was formocresol on a cotton pellet that was squeezed dry. The paresthesia was treated by irrigation, antibiotics, and dexamethasone. The paresthesia lasted 7 weeks, and when it resolved the root canal was filled with gutta-percha/eucapercha. Almost 9 months later, the tooth remained asymptomatic.

  20. An Interpretation of Jane Eyre’s Feeling of Inferiority at Gateshead in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳梅

    2015-01-01

    Jane Eyre has been the focus of numerous critics and scholars since its publication in 1847 and they have made a great contribution to the study of Jane Eyre, exploring it from different perspectives. Most of critics and readers regard Jane Eyre as an independent and brave feminism fighter to challenge the tradition in Victorian period while they tend to pay less attention to the invisible side of Jane Eyre. Jane Eyre is not always so brave and strong and confident to face her life, which can be discovered from her language and behavior when she confronts conflicts. This is Jane Eyre ’s feeling of inferiority. From the perspective of Alfred Adler’s individual psychology, this thesis studies Jane Eyre’s feeling of inferiority at Gateshead.

  1. Radiofrequency Coblation Versus Intramural Bipolar Cautery for the Treatment of Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anil N; Brewster, Douglas; Mitzen, Kelly; Mullin, David

    2015-09-01

    Compare intramural bipolar electrocautery and radiofrequency coblation in the treatment of inferior turbinate hypertrophy with regards to objective and subjective improvement in nasal obstruction, rate and type of complications, experience during the procedure, and rate of recovery. Prospective, single-blinded study. Single tertiary medical center from 2008 to 2010. Forty-one adult patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy refractory to medical management were treated with radiofrequency coblation in one nostril and intramural bipolar cautery in the other. Subjective and objective data, including use of a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for subjective outcomes, acoustic rhinometry, and nasal endoscopy, were then obtained from each patient comparing the 2 techniques. Radiofrequency coblation was significantly less painful than intramural bipolar cautery during the procedure (P = .03) and during the early postoperative period (P hypertrophy with less discomfort during the procedure and early post-operative period. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Transvenous embolization of a dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula via the inferior ophthalmic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Kevin S; Ng, John D; Falardeau, Julie; Roberts, Warren G; Petersen, Bryan; Nesbit, Gary M; Barnwell, Stanley L

    2007-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of right periocular pain, diplopia, ocular injection, progressive proptosis, and periocular swelling. She had an unremarkable past medical history, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and complete blood count were normal. A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula was suspected, and an MRI demonstrated enlargement of the superior ophthalmic vein posterior to the globe and enlargement of the inferior ophthalmic vein throughout its entire course. Cerebral arteriography demonstrated a dural cavernous sinus fistula. The inferior ophthalmic vein was accessed via the inferonasal orbital space and was catheterized for delivery of multiple platinum coils to the cavernous sinus fistula. Follow-up venograms demonstrated occlusion of the fistula. At 2-month follow-up, there was a residual sixth nerve palsy and resolution of symptoms, including proptosis and periocular swelling.

  3. A comparison of methods for sample size estimation for non-inferiority studies with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julious, Steven A; Owen, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Non-inferiority trials are motivated in the context of clinical research where a proven active treatment exists and placebo-controlled trials are no longer acceptable for ethical reasons. Instead, active-controlled trials are conducted where a treatment is compared to an established treatment with the objective of demonstrating that it is non-inferior to this treatment. We review and compare the methodologies for calculating sample sizes and suggest appropriate methods to use. We demonstrate how the simplest method of using the anticipated response is predominantly consistent with simulations. In the context of trials with binary outcomes with expected high proportions of positive responses, we show how the sample size is quite sensitive to assumptions about the control response. We recommend when designing such a study that sensitivity analyses be performed with respect to the underlying assumptions and that the Bayesian methods described in this article be adopted to assess sample size.

  4. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: Distal ulnar artery reconstruction with autologous inferior epigastric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hadley E; Dirks, Marco; Patterson, Robert B

    2004-12-01

    Digital artery embolization and ulnar artery thrombosis are consequences of repetitive trauma and can lead to digit loss and debility from ischemia and cold intolerance. We postulate that an arterial autograft is a theoretically superior conduit to traditional saphenous vein, and report reconstruction with inferior epigastric artery. Three adult male smokers, ages 39 to 49 years, had severe digital ischemia and cold-induced vasospasm. Arteriograms confirmed occlusion of the distal ulnar artery without direct perfusion of the superficial palmar arch, distal digital artery embolization, and normal proximal vasculature. All reconstructions were performed from the distal most patent ulnar artery at the wrist to the superficial palmar arch (1 patient) or sequentially to the involved common digital arteries (2 patients), with inferior epigastric artery. Handling characteristics and size match between the arterial autografts and bypassed arteries was excellent. Patency has been confirmed with duplex scanning at follow-up of 8 to 24 months, with resolution of cold intolerance and successful digital preservation.

  5. Distichiasis following transconjunctival approach to the inferior orbital rim and orbital floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Salhi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zygoma fractures are often associated with orbital floor fractures, which can be approached through a transconjunctival or transcutaneous incision. The transconjunctival approach has gained popularity over the transcutaneous one for its overall lower complication rate. We describe a patient with a zygoma fracture where the inferior orbital rim and orbital floor were exposed, reduced and fixated through a transconjunctival incision. Postoperatively, the patient developed a row of eyelashes posterior to the normal lash line, a condition termed distichiasis, causing corneal irritation and ulceration. This is believed to be caused by the postoperative eyelid inflammation induced by the transconjunctival incision. The condition was treated by electrolysis with no recurrence of symptoms. This condition has never been described as a postoperative complication of a transconjunctival approach to an inferior orbital rim and orbital floor fracture.

  6. Memory of music: roles of right hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yagishita, Sho; Kikyo, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigated neural correlates of retrieval success for music memory using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. To minimize the interference from MRI scan noise, we used sparse temporal sampling technique. Newly composed music materials were employed as stimuli, which enabled us to detect regions in absence of effects of experience with the music stimuli in this study. Whole brain analyses demonstrated significant retrieval success activities in the right hippocampus, bilateral lateral temporal regions, left inferior frontal gyrus and left precuneus. Anatomically defined region-of-interests analyses showed that the activity of the right hippocampus was stronger than that of the left, while the activities of the inferior frontal gyri showed the reverse pattern. Furthermore, performance-based analyses demonstrated that the retrieval success activity of the right hippocampus was positively correlated with the corrected recognition rate, suggesting that the right hippocampus contributes to the accuracy of music retrieval outcome.

  7. Multiple Stability of a Sparsely Encoded Attractor Neural Network Model for the Inferior Temporal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Tomoyuki; Uezu, Tatsuya; Okada, Masato

    2008-12-01

    We study a neural network model for the inferior temporal cortex, in terms of finite memory loading and sparse coding. We show that an uncorrelated Hopfield-type attractor and some correlated attractors have multiple stability, and examine the retrieval dynamics for these attractors when the initial state is set to a noise-degraded memory pattern. Then, we show that there is a critical initial overlap: that is, the system converges to the correlated attractor when the noise level is large, and otherwise to the Hopfield-type attractor. Furthermore, we study the time course of the correlation between the correlated attractors in the retrieval dynamics. On the basis of these theoretical results, we resolve the controversy regarding previous physiologic experimental findings regarding neuron properties in the inferior temporal cortex and propose a new experimental paradigm.

  8. Hyaluronidase increases the duration of mepivacaine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempestini Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto; de Brito, Mayara Aguilar Dias; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Simonetti, Maria Prazeres Barbalho; Rocha, Rodney Garcia; Borsatti, Maria Aparecida

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the duration of the effect of mepivacaine when hyaluronidase is injected immediately prior to the end of pulpal anesthesia. Forty bilateral, symmetrical third molar surgeries were performed in 20 healthy patients. Inferior alveolar nerve block was induced using 2.8 mL 2% mepivacaine with epinephrine. Hyaluronidase (75 turbidity-reducing units) or a placebo was injected 40 minutes after the beginning of pulpar anesthesia (randomized and double-blind trial). The duration of effect in the pulpal and gingival tissues was evaluated by response to painful electrical stimuli applied to the adjacent premolar, and by mechanical stimuli (pin prick) to the vestibular gingiva, respectively. In both tissues, the duration of anesthetic effect with hyaluronidase was longer (P mepivacaine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

  9. Exames por Imagem na Avaliação da Distância entre Terceiros Molares Inferiores e o Nervo Alveolar Inferior: Revisão de Literatura

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    TCC (graduação) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Odontologia. A cirurgia de extração do terceiro molar inferior é um dos procedimentos mais comuns dentre as cirurgias dento alveolares. Desta forma, tornam-se frequentes as complicações advindas deste procedimento cirúrgico, sendo a mais comum a lesão/trauma do nervo alveolar inferior, visto sua proximidade com o terceiro molar inferior, que pode acarretar em danos significativos para o paciente como a p...

  10. Estilos de personalidad, modos de afrontamiento y clima social familiar en pacientes amputados de miembro inferior

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Acosta, Ana Gloria

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación es relacionar estilos de personalidad, modos de afrontamiento al estrés y clima social familiar en pacientes amputados de miembro inferior. El estudio es de tipo correlacional; la muestra estuvo conformada por 100 participantes varones y 81 mujeres, que fueron atendidos en un establecimiento de salud de Lima y evaluados con los cuestionarios MIPS, COPE y escala FES. Los resultados indican que existe relación significativa entre estilos de personalidad,...

  11. Inferior vena cava aneurysm in an infant presenting with a renal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta-Roch, José L; García-Abós, Miriam; Sirvent-Cerdá, Sara; de Prada, Inmaculada; Martínez de Azagra, Amelia; Ollero, Jose M; Madero-López, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Aneurysm of the inferior vena cava is a rare finding in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 5-month-old infant presenting with anemia, hypertension, and dehydration in the emergency room. A renal mass was found with ultrasound and MRI and a renal tumor was first considered. Histopathologic review of the surgical specimen led to the diagnosis of aneurysmal dilatation of the vena cava.

  12. Osteonecrosis del maxilar inferior por bifosfonatos. Presentación de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sartori

    2015-01-01

    Desde el primer reporte en el año 2003, se evidenció un crecimiento exponencial de esta patología. Presentamos dos casos clínicos de osteonecrosis del maxilar inferior por la administración de bifosfonatos, con el objetivo de difundir y crear conciencia entre los profesionales de la salud, considerando que no existe un tratamiento efectivo para esta entidad.

  13. Anterior inferior iliac spine fracture: Another component of seat belt syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisal HUSSIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seat belt syndrome occurs when seat belts are used improperly, and it is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The spectrum of seat belt syndrome includes spinal, intra-abdominal and vascular injury. Here, we report the case of anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion fracture in association with seat belt injuries in a 24-year old man involved in a head on motor vehicle collision. 

  14. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-11-30

    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  15. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    . Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...... that better response inhibition (i.e. lower false alarm rate) of negative faces would be associated with higher FA in right IFG, right preSMA, and bilateral SLF in adolescents....

  16. Serial repositioning of a Guenther tulip retrievable inferior vena cava filter in a pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, Ehsan A.; Rosen, J. Choi; Torres, Carlos; Valenti, David A. [McGill University Health Center, Department of Radiology, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    We report an 11-year-old boy who required inferior vena cava (IVC) filtration for a prolonged period of time. A retrievable IVC filter was placed and repositioned three times, providing a total of 60 days of IVC filtration. The filter was removed when his risk of pulmonary embolus had decreased substantially. This is a relatively uncommon practice in the pediatric population. The technique is presented, and the available literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  17. Obesity at diagnosis is associated with inferior outcomes in hormone receptor-positive operable breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparano, Joseph A; Wang, Molin; Zhao, Fengmin; Stearns, Vered; Martino, Silvana; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Perez, Edith A; Saphner, Tom; Wolff, Antonio C; Sledge, George W; Wood, William C; Fetting, John; Davidson, Nancy E

    2012-12-01

    Obesity has been associated with inferior outcomes in operable breast cancer, but the relation between body mass index (BMI) and outcomes by breast cancer subtype has not been previously evaluated. The authors evaluated the relation between BMI and outcomes in 3 adjuvant trials coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group that included chemotherapy regimens with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, including E1199, E5188, and E3189. Results are expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox proportional hazards models (HR >1 indicates a worse outcome). All P values are 2-sided. When evaluated as a continuous variable in trial E1199, increasing BMI within the obese (BMI, ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI, 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) ranges was associated with inferior outcomes in hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu-negative disease for disease-free survival (DFS; P = .0006) and overall survival (OS; P = .0007), but not in HER-2/neu-overexpressing or triple-negative disease. When evaluated as a categorical variable, obesity was associated with inferior DFS (HR, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.46; P = .0008) and OS (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.13-1.67; P = .002) in hormone receptor-positive disease, but not other subtypes. In a model including obesity, disease subtype, and their interaction, the interaction term was significant for OS (P = .02) and showed a strong trend for DFS (P = .07). Similar results were found in 2 other trials (E5188, E3189). In a clinical trial population that excluded patients with significant comorbidities, obesity was associated with inferior outcomes specifically in patients with hormone receptor-positive operable breast cancer treated with standard chemohormonal therapy. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  18. Afección musculoesquelética asociada a amputados de miembro inferior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lagares Alonso, A.M; Lagares Alonso, N; Álvarez Salas, M; Garcés Pérez, L; Lérida Benitez, L; Romero Romero, B

    2012-01-01

    ... y el tratamiento de las afecciones que se asocian a los amputados de miembro inferior de la Unidad de Prótesis y Ortesis del Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena de Sevilla. En segundo lugar, comparar estos datos con la bibliografía. Material y método Realizamos un estudio descriptivo transversal, en el que se incluyeron 46 pacientes con amputaciones de miembro...

  19. Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor Expression in Preganglionic Neurons of the Rat Inferior Salivatory Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, M.; Chiego, D.J.; Bradley, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate receptor (GluR) subunit composition of inferior salivatory nucleus (ISN) neurons was studied by immunohistochemical staining of retrogradely labeled neurons. Preganglionic ISN neurons innervating the von Ebner or parotid salivary glands were labeled by application of a fluorescent tracer to the lingual-tonsilar branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve or the otic ganglion respectively. We used polyclonal antibodies to glutamate receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, NR2B, (NMDA receptor subunits)...

  20. Reciprocal ST segment changes in acute inferior myocardial infarction: Clinical, hemodynamic and angiographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem El Atroush

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The significance of reciprocal ST depression on the electrocardiogram during the course of inferior MI remains uncertain, opinion is divided as to whether it is a benign electrical phenomenon or a sign of a greater myocardial necrosis and more frequent left coronary artery disease, from our study we support the latter opinion. This simple ECG finding may be used to differentiate high risk patients for a more aggressive approach.

  1. The impact of orientation filtering on face-selective neurons in monkey inferior temporal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Taubert; Valerie Goffaux; Goedele Van Belle; Wim Vanduffel; Rufin Vogels

    2016-01-01

    Faces convey complex social signals to primates. These signals are tolerant of some image transformations (e.g. changes in size) but not others (e.g. picture-plane rotation). By filtering face stimuli for orientation content, studies of human behavior and brain responses have shown that face processing is tuned to selective orientation ranges. In the present study, for the first time, we recorded the responses of face-selective neurons in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex to intact and scr...

  2. New quantitative classification of the anatomical relationship between impacted third molars and the inferior alveolar nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei-Quan; Chen, Michael Y.C.; Huang, Heng-Li; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background Before extracting impacted lower third molars, dentists must first identify the spatial relationship between the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and an impacted lower third molar to prevent nerve injury from the extraction. Nevertheless, the current method for describing the spatial relationship between the IAN and an impacted lower third molar is deficient. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the relative position between impacted lower third molars and the...

  3. Skin and mucosal ischemia as a complication after inferior alveolar nerve block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Pedro Christian; Valeria, Camila; Nuñez, Nicolás; Perez-Rojas, Francisco; Coronado, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    The anesthetic block of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is one of the most common techniques used in dental practice. The local complications are due to the failures on the anesthetic block or to anatomic variations in the tap site such as intravascular injection, skin ischemia and ocular problems. The aim of this article is to present a case and discuss the causes of itching and burning sensation, blanching, pain and face ischemia in the oral cavity during the IAN block.

  4. Prenatal Calcification of the Inferior Vena Cava and Renal Veins in a Normal Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ranch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal calcification of the inferior vena cava (IVC and renal veins is a rare condition with unclear etiology and prognosis. It occurs with renal vein thrombosis in utero and is associated with congenital anomalies and abnormal prenatal hemodynamic status. We report a rare case of prenatal IVC and renal vein calcification in a normal neonate without any history of compromised prenatal or perinatal condition, or significant deterioration of kidney function.

  5. A case of renal cell carcinoma with an extensive inferior vena cava thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Alfreijat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most prevalent primary renal malignant neoplasm in adults. Most of the cases are usually found incidentally. It is commonly associated with venous thrombosis. We demonstrate a case of a RCC which was associated with an extensive thrombus that reached the upper part of the inferior vena cava (IVC. We also perform a brief literature review about the association between RCC and IVC thrombosis.

  6. Retrograde Stent Placement for Coil Embolization of a Wide-Necked Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hong Gee; Chun, Young IL; Choi, Jin Woo; Cho, Joon; Moon, Won Jin [University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Solander, Sten [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Wide-necked aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are infrequently encountered in cerebrovascular practice, and endovascular treatment is difficult or impossible even with the use of several neck remodeling techniques. We present the case of a patient with a wide-necked aneurysm of the PICA, which was treated by the retrograde stenting through the contralateral vertebral artery and vertebrobasilar junction with antegrade coil embolization.

  7. Amputados de la extremidad inferior: estudio prospectivo y resultados del tratamiento rehabilitador

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Estévez, Florián

    1999-01-01

    Programa: Avances en traumatología [ES]Hemos realizado un estudio prospectivo de todos los pacientes en los que se ha realizado cualquier tipo de amputación de la extremidad inferior durante el período comprendido entre el mes de enero de 1990 y septiembre de 1997 en el Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora del Pino de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, constituyendo un total de 262 casos.

  8. CT demonstration of accessory nasal turbinates: secondary middle turbinate and bifid inferior turbinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksungur, Erol H. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Bicakci, Kenan [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Inal, Mehmet [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Akguel, Erol [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Binokay, Figen [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Aydogan, Barlas [Department of ENT, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Oguz, Mahmut [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Normally, there are three pairs of nasal turbinates in the nasal cavity. Coronal computed tomographies of 253 cases of sinusitis were examined for the presence of additional turbinates and bilateral secondary middle turbinates were detected in two cases. Also, we describe another accessory turbinate, 'bifid inferior turbinate', in one of these cases. Existence of these accessory turbinates may occur during embryologic development of lateral nasal wall.

  9. The Posterolateral Portal: Optimizing Anchor Placement and Labral Repair at the Inferior Glenoid

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; McCormick, Frank; Erickson, Brandon J.; Gupta, Anil K.; Abrams, Geoff D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    The Bankart lesion is considered the critical lesion in anterior shoulder instability, in which the anteroinferior glenoid labrum separates from the glenoid rim. Technical advances in arthroscopy have ushered in a shift from open to arthroscopic Bankart repair. When one is performing an arthroscopic Bankart repair, proper portal placement is critical for success in labral preparation and anchor placement. Frequently, standard anterior portals are insufficient for inferior glenoid anchor place...

  10. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome with gastrointestinal bleeding,splenic hemangiomas and left inferior vena cava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a congenital vascular anomaly characterized by a triad of varicose veins,cutaneous capillary malformation,and hypertrophy of bone and(or)soft tissue.Gastrointestinal vascular malformations in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome may present with gastrointestinal bleeding.The majority of patients with spleenic hemangiomatosis and/or left inferior vena cava are asymptomatic.We herein report a case admitted to the gastroenterology clinic with life-threatening hematochezia and symptomatic ir...

  11. Periprocedural temporary pacing in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction

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    Hwang YM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available You Mi Hwang,1 Chul-Min Kim,2 Keon-Woong Moon2 1Department of Cardiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Internal Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South KoreaObjective: High-degree atrioventricular block (AVB, including complete AVB in acute inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, is not uncommon. However, there is no study evaluating the clinical differences between patients who have undergone temporary pacing (TP and patients who have not. The present study was designed to investigate whether TP has any prognostic significance in inferior STEMI complicated by complete AVB.Methods: From January 2009 to December 2014, 295 consecutive patients diagnosed with inferior wall STEMI in a university hospital were reviewed. All of them underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Among the 295 patients, there were 72 patients with complete AVB. The clinical characteristics, procedural data, and long-term major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events were compared in patients with and without TP.Results: Baseline clinical and procedural characteristics were similar between patients with and without TP. Patients with TP were more likely to present with cardiogenic shock; thus, additional interventions were attempted via a femoral approach, as patients received further treatment with intra-aortic balloon pumps and were subjected to additional cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most cases of complete AVB were primarily caused by right coronary artery occlusion. After a median follow-up period of 344 (range, 105.5–641 days, major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events did not differ between the groups (P=0.528.Conclusion: We conclude that primary PCI without TP is acceptable in complete AVB-complicated acute inferior STEMI. To avoid delay in reperfusion, we suggest that primary PCI should be the first priority therapy rather than treating

  12. Compartment syndrome in patients with massive venous thrombosis after inferior vena cava filter placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfin, Addisu; Lum, Ying Wei; Nayfeh, Tariq; Mears, Simon C

    2011-03-11

    Massive venous thrombosis, which can occur acutely after inferior vena cava filter placement, has 2 forms: phlegmasia cerulea dolens and phlegmasia alba dolens. In phlegmasia cerulea dolens, complete occlusion of venous outflow occurs. In the milder phlegmasia alba dolens version, collateral venous flow out of the limb remains despite the venous thrombosis. This article presents, to our knowledge, the first 2 cases of massive venous thrombosis (1 phlegmasia cerulea dolens, 1 phlegmasia alba dolens) below inferior vena cava filters occurring after the acute period. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens and phlegmasia alba dolens can present as compartment syndrome. Prompt fasciotomies were performed, but the underlying massive venous thrombosis was not addressed surgically. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens and phlegmasia alba dolens have high morbidity and mortality. The patient with phlegmasia alba dolens required leg and thigh fasciotomies and eventually required an above-knee amputation. The patient with phlegmasia cerulea dolens developed compartment syndrome in the left leg, right leg, and right thigh. Although he underwent decompression of all of these compartments, he died from multiple organ failure. A multidisciplinary approach with the vascular service and the intensivists is required in the treatment of patients with massive venous thrombosis. Treatment goals include preventing additional propagation of the thrombus via anticoagulation, with strong consideration for catheter-directed thrombolysis or thrombectomy and fasciotomies for compartment syndrome. The orthopedic surgeon should keep phlegmasia cerulea dolens and phlegmasia alba dolens in the differential for compartment syndrome, especially in patients who have had a history of acute or chronic inferior vena cava filter placement.

  13. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava level II involvement: curative resection and reconstruction of renal veins

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    Wang Quan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVCL is a rare retroperitoneal tumor. We report two cases of level II (middle level, renal veins to hepatic veins IVCL, who underwent en bloc resection with reconstruction of bilateral or left renal venous return using prosthetic grafts. In our cases, IVCL is documented to be occluded preoperatively, therefore, radical resection of tumor and/or right kidney was performed and the distal end of inferior vena cava was resected and without caval reconstruction. None of the patients developed edema or acute renal failure postoperatively. After surgical resection, adjuvant radiation therapy was administrated. The patients have been free of recurrence 2 years and 3 months, 9 months after surgery, respectively, indicating the complete surgical resection and radiotherapy contribute to the better survival. The reconstruction of inferior vena cava was not considered mandatory in level II IVCL, if the retroperitoneal venous collateral pathways have been established. In addition to the curative resection of IVCL, the renal vascular reconstruction minimized the risks of procedure-related acute renal failure, and was more physiologically preferable. This concept was reflected in the treatment of the two patients reported on.

  14. Re-formulating non-inferiority trials as superiority trials: The case of binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalski, Valerie L; Berger, Vance W

    2009-02-01

    Non-inferiority trials are conducted for a variety of reasons including to show that a new treatment has a negligible reduction in efficacy or safety when compared to the current standard treatment, or a more complex setting of showing that a new treatment has a negligible reduction in efficacy when compared to the current standard yet is superior in terms of other treatment characteristics. The latter reason for conducting a non-inferiority trial presents the challenge of deciding on a balance between a suitable reduction in efficacy, known as the non-inferiority margin, in return for a gain in other important treatment characteristics/findings. It would be ideal to alleviate the dilemma on the choice of margin in this setting by reverting to a traditional superiority trial design where a single p -value for superiority of both the most important endpoint (efficacy) and the most important finding (treatment characteristic) is provided. We discuss how this can be done using the information-preserving composite endpoint (IPCE) approach and consider binary outcome cases in which the combination of efficacy and treatment characteristics, but not one itself, paints a clear picture that the novel treatment is superior to the active control. 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Corticofugal modulation of frequency tuning of inferior collicular neurons in big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the possible mechanism of corticofugal modulation of excitatory frequency tuning curves (EFTCs) of midbrain neurons, we examined the change of sharpness, frequency-intensity response area, minimum threshold of both EFTCs and inhibitory frequency tuning curves (IFTCs) of inferior collicular neurons during corticofugal modulation using two-tone inhibition paradigm and micro-electrical stimulation technique. Our data showed that corticofugal inhibition increased sharpness, minimum threshold, and decreased the frequency-intensity response area of EFTCs, at the same time it decreased the sharpness, minimum threshold but increased the frequency-intensity response area of IFTCs. The opposite results were observed for EFTCs and IFTCs of corticofugally facilitated inferior collicular neurons. During corticofugal inhibition, the per-cent change of frequency-intensity response area of EFTCs had significant correlation with the percent change of that of IFTCs. These data suggest that cortical neurons are likely to improve frequency information processing of inferior col-licular neurons by modulation of IFTCs.

  16. Demand on verbal working memory delays haemodynamic response in the inferior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Guillaume; Ibarrola, Danielle; Démonet, Jean-François; Cardebat, Dominique

    2003-05-01

    Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to test the involvement of the inferior prefrontal cortex in verbal working memory. Pairs of French nouns were presented to ten native French speakers who had to make semantic or grammatical gender decisions. Verbal working memory involvement was manipulated by making the categorization of the second noun optional. Decisions could be made after processing the first noun only (RELEASE condition) or after processing the two nouns (HOLD condition). Reaction times suggested faster processing for gender than for semantic category in RELEASE. Despite the absence of anatomical difference across tasks and conditions in the wide activated network, the haemodynamic response peak latencies of the inferior prefrontal cortex were significantly delayed in HOLD versus RELEASE while no such peak delay was observed in the superior temporal gyrus. Interestingly, this pattern did not interact with language tasks. This study shows that cognitive manipulation can influence haemodynamic time-course and suggests that the main cognitive process determining inferior prefrontal activation is verbal working memory rather than specific linguistic processes such as grammatical or semantic analysis.

  17. Role of suture anchors in management of fractures of inferior pole of patella

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    Anand Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The traditional recommendation for displaced comminuted inferior pole fractures is excision of the comminuted pole followed by reattachment of the patellar tendon with transosseous suture. To the best of our knowledge there has been no previous published study mentioning the use of suture anchors for fracture inferior pole of patella. We present a retrospective analysis of five cases of patients doing well at final follow-up of two years. Materials and Methods: Five patients treated at our institute using suture anchors for repair of comminuted inferior pole fractures of patella between January 2007 to March 2007. (range 28 years-55 years. There were three males and two females. Results: The average follow-up was 25 months (range 24 months-26 months. The patients were evaluated for range of motion, strength, patellofemoral scores and any alteration of patellar height. The outcome of the procedure was assessed with use of the patellofemoral scoring system of Noyes et al, 5 as adapted by Saltzman et al. 6 The final patellofemoral score (maximum 100 points was 94.6 (range 93-96. Conclusion: We believe it is a novel extended indication of the use of suture anchors and should be in the armament of every trauma surgeon.

  18. Impaired Motor Learning in a Disorder of the Inferior Olive: Is the Cerebellum Confused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Wong, Aaron L; Optican, Lance M; Zee, David S

    2017-02-01

    An attractive hypothesis about how the brain learns to keep its motor commands accurate is centered on the idea that the cerebellar cortex associates error signals carried by climbing fibers with simultaneous activity in parallel fibers. Motor learning can be impaired if the error signals are not transmitted, are incorrect, or are misinterpreted by the cerebellar cortex. Learning might also be impaired if the brain is overwhelmed with a sustained barrage of meaningless information unrelated to simultaneously appearing error signals about incorrect performance. We test this concept in subjects with syndrome of oculopalatal tremor (OPT), a rare disease with spontaneous, irregular, roughly pendular oscillations of the eyes thought to reflect an abnormal, synchronous, spontaneous discharge to the cerebellum from the degenerating neurons in the inferior olive. We examined motor learning during a short-term, saccade adaptation paradigm in patients with OPT and found a unique pattern of disturbed adaptation, quite different from the abnormal adaption when the cerebellum is involved directly. Both fast (seconds) and slow (minutes) timescales of learning were impaired. We suggest that the spontaneous, continuous, synchronous output from the inferior olive prevents the cerebellum from receiving the error signals it needs for appropriate motor learning. The important message from this study is that impaired motor adaptation and resultant dysmetria is not the exclusive feature of cerebellar disorders, but it also highlights disorders of the inferior olive and its connections to the cerebellum.

  19. Right ventricular involvement in patients with inferior myocardial infarction, correlation of electrocardiographic findings with echocardiography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sumbul; Rajani, Ali Raza; Govindaswamy, Pushparani; Radaideh, Ghazi Ahmed; Abubaraka, Harb Ahmed; Qureshi, Tariq Ilyas; Arshad, Hassaan Bin

    2017-03-01

    To determine the right ventricular involvement in patients with inferior myocardial infarction by echocardiography in relation to electrocardiographic findings. This observational, prospective study was conducted at Rashid Hospital, Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, from January to September 2013, and comprised patients with inferior myocardial infarction. All patients aged above 18 years were included. Right ventricular myocardial infarction was defined by the electrocardiographic criteria of > 1mV ST elevation in V4R-V5R leads. RV infarction was assessed on echocardiography by fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and tricuspid annular systolic velocity by tissue Doppler imaging. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Of the 73 patients, there were 68(93%) men and 5(7%) women. The three modalities used to assess the right ventricular infarction showed right ventricular involvement in 36(49.3%) cases by fractional area change, 28(38.4%) cases by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and 31(42.5%) cases by tissue Doppler imaging in patients with inferior myocardial infarction. Tissue Doppler imaging and right ventricular function showed low degree of negative correlation (p=0.16) while the correlation between tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and right ventricular function showed significant positive correlation (pright ventricular infarction by echocardiography helped to diagnose right ventricular infarction in greater number of cases compared to surface electrocardiogram.

  20. Significance of precordial ST-segment depression in inferior acute myocardial infarction as determined by echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, L A; Sprynger, M; Gilis, F; Carlier, J

    1986-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the significance of precordial ST-segment depression in inferior wall acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. No clinical studies have used 2-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography to compare AMI location in patients with or without so-called reciprocal ST changes. Therefore, the clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and angiographic features of 22 patients with their first transmural inferior AMI were prospectively examined. During the first day of AMI an echocardiographic mapping of the area of necrosis was obtained using all conventional views and a ventricular segmentation related to anatomic landmarks. Patients were categorized according to the presence (group I, n = 13) or absence (group II, n = 9) of precordial ST-segment depression, defined as more than 1 mm, measured 80 ms after the J point in at least 2 of the leads V1 to V4. Basal posterolateral akinesia was observed in 11 of the 13 patients in group I and in no patient in group II (p less than 0.001). Posterior right ventricular free wall akinesia was more frequent in group II (p less than 0.02). There was no difference in the prevalence of significant left anterior descending artery (LAD) narrowing (group I, 4 patients; group II, 3 patients). Posterolateral involvement should be strongly considered in the presence of precordial ST-segment depression in association with transmural inferior AMI.