Sample records for infective endocarditis analysis

  1. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning;


    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with En...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  2. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske


    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever,...

  3. [Update on infective endocarditis].

    Parize, P; Mainardi, J-L


    Infective endocarditis has continuously evolved since its first clinical description by William Osler in the late 19th century. The epidemiological and microbiological profile of the disease has changed as the result of the progress of the medical care and demographic mutation in industrialized countries. Furthermore, advances in anti-infective therapy and in cardiovascular surgery have contributed to an improvement in the management and the prognosis of this severe infectious disease. During the past decade, the recommendations on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have changed dramatically. Guidelines on management of infective endocarditis and state-of-the-art articles have been published recently and this work aims to outline current recommendations about this evolving disease.

  4. Dermatologic manifestations of infective endocarditis*

    Gomes, Rafael Tomaz; Tiberto, Larissa Rezende; Bello, Viviane Nardin Monte; Lima, Margarete Aparecida Jacometo; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado


    Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, infective endocarditis still shows considerable morbidity and mortality rates. The dermatological examination in patients with suspected infective endocarditis may prove very useful, as it might reveal suggestive abnormalities of this disease, such as Osler’s nodes and Janeway lesions. Osler’s nodes are painful, purple nodular lesions, usually found on the tips of fingers and toes. Janeway lesions, in turn, are painless erythematous macules that usually affect palms and soles. We report a case of infective endocarditis and highlight the importance of skin examination as a very important element in the presumptive diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  5. Serious complications after infective endocarditis

    Gill, Sabine


    The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....

  6. An analysis of clinical characteristics,etiologies and prognosis of 218 patients with infective endocarditis



    Objective To describe the profile of patients with infective endocarditis(IE)and assess prognostic factors of IE.Methods Clinical and etiology data of 218 patients with IE were collected retrospectively from January 2011to January 2013.The distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of pathogens causing IE were evaluated.Prognostic factors associated with IE were determined by univariate and multivariate regression analysis.Results

  7. Candida infective endocarditis.

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C


    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  8. Infective endocarditis: the European viewpoint.

    Tornos, Pilar; Gonzalez-Alujas, Teresa; Thuny, Frank; Habib, Gilbert


    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a difficult and complex disease. In recent years epidemiology and microbiology have changed. In developed countries IE is now affecting older patients and patients with no previously known valve disease. Prosthetic IE (prosthetic valve endocarditis [PVE]) and endocarditis in patients with pacemakers and other devices (cardiac device related infective endocarditis [CDRIE]) are becoming more frequent. The number of Staphylococcus aureus IE is increasing related to the number of endocarditis that occurs because of health care associated procedures, especially in diabetics or patients on chronic hemodialysis. The change in the underlying population and the increase in the number of cases caused by very virulent organism explain why the disease still carries a poor prognosis and a high mortality. The variety of clinical manifestations and complications, as well as the serious prognosis, makes it mandatory that IE patients need to be treated in experienced hospitals with a collaborative approach between different specialists, involving cardiologists, infectious disease specialists, microbiologists, surgeons, and frequently others, including neurologists and radiologists. Only an early diagnosis followed by risk stratification and a prompt institution of the correct antibiotic treatment as well as an appropriate and timed surgical indication may improve mortality figures. The recent European Guidelines try to provide clear and simple recommendations, obtained by expert consensus after thorough review of the available literature to all specialists involved in clinical decision-making of this difficult and changing disease.

  9. Endocarditis - children

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  10. Optimal timing for early surgery in infective endocarditis: a meta-analysis.

    Liang, Fuxiang; Song, Bing; Liu, Ruisheng; Yang, Liu; Tang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanming


    To systematically review early surgery and the optimal timing of surgery in patients with infective endocarditis (IE), a search for foreign and domestic articles on cohort studies about the association between early surgery and infective endocarditis published from inception to January 2015 was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM), Wanfang and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The studies were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the data were extracted and the quality of the method of the included studies was assessed. Then, the meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Sixteen cohort studies, including 8141 participants were finally included. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that, compared with non-early surgery, early surgery in IE lowers the incidence of in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42, 0.77); P = 0.000, I(2) = 73.1%] and long-term mortality [OR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.43, 0.77); P = 0.001, I(2) = 67.4%]. Further, performing operation within 2 weeks had a more favourable effect on long-term mortality [OR = 0.63, 95% CI (0.41, 0.97); P = 0.192, I(2) = 39.4%] than non-early surgery. In different kinds of IE, we found that early surgery for native valve endocarditis (NVE) had a lower in-hospital [OR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.31, 0.69); P = 0.001, I(2) = 73.0%] and long-term [OR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.40, 0.81); P = 0.001, I(2) = 68.9%] mortality than the non-early surgery group. However, for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), in-hospital mortality did not differ significantly [OR = 0.83, 95% CI (0.65, 1.06); P = 0.413, I(2) = 0.0%] between early and non-early surgery. We concluded that early surgery was associated with lower in-hospital and long-term mortality compared with non-early surgical treatment for IE, especially in NVE. However, the optimal timing of surgery remains unclear. Additional larger prospective clinical

  11. [Surgical indication and timing in infective endocarditis].

    Di Eusanio, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Viale, Pierluigi; Rapezzi, Claudio; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto


    Infective endocarditis is a complex disease to treat. Despite considerable improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic management, mortality in infective endocarditis remains high. Recent data converge in giving a central role to surgery that, within a multidisciplinary approach and with earlier timing, primarily aims to eradicate the infection rather than to treat its acute or chronic complications. In this paper, we sought to review and comment on current available data and last recommendations for the management of patients with infective endocarditis.

  12. Metagenomic analysis for detecting pathogens in culture-negative infective endocarditis.

    Fukui, Yuto; Aoki, Kotaro; Okuma, Shinnosuke; Sato, Takahiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro


    Pathogen identification is important for proper diagnosis and optimal treatment of infective endocarditis (IE). Blood and valve cultures are the gold standard for detecting pathogens responsible for IE. However, these tests only detect culturable pathogens, and have low sensitivity, especially in patients previously treated with antibiotics. Culture-negative IE is still a major clinical problem and a diagnostic challenge. Recently, metagenomic analysis using next generation sequencing has been used to detect pathogens directly from clinical samples. However, there are very few reports of the use of metagenomic analysis for pathogen identification in culture-negative IE cases and the usefulness of this new method is unknown. Here, we report a case of successful pathogen detection with metagenomic analysis in a patient of culture-negative IE. The patient underwent valve replacement surgery and received antibiotics for 5 weeks and survived. Using metagenomic analysis of resected vegetation, we detected Abiotrophia defectiva, which is often associated with culture-negative IE due to its fastidious growth. This method may be useful for pathogen identification in future cases of culture-negative IE.

  13. Endocarditis infecciosa: Una enfermedad cambiante Infective endocarditis: A changing disease

    José Horacio Casabé


    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances en el diagnóstico y en el tratamiento antibiótico y quirúrgico, la endocarditis infecciosa sigue siendo una enfermedad con una mortalidad elevada. Los estudios llevados a cabo en nuestro país y en otros países demostraron que el perfil clínico del paciente ha cambiado. Existe mayor prevalencia de pacientes añosos con enfermedad degenerativa valvular, las endocarditis protésicas y nosocomiales son más frecuentes y aumentó la presencia del Staphylococcus aureus. Estos cambios podrían justificar la ausencia de disminución en la mortalidad de esta enfermedad y plantean la necesidad de encarar enfoques más agresivos de tratamiento mediante la confección de estudios prospectivos bien diseñados y controlados.In spite of the advance in diagnosis and antibiotic and surgical treatment, mortality of infective endocarditis remains high. Recent studies in various countries and in Argentina have shown that the clinical profile of infective endocarditis has changed. Currently the patients are older with higher frequency of degenerative valve disease and prosthetic valve and nosocomial endocarditis. The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus as etiological agent has increased. These changes may justify the absence of decrease in mortality and suggests that more aggressive measures are needed based on prospective, well designed and controlled trials.

  14. Clinical Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Chapagain, Bikash; Joshi, Astha; Brennessel, Debra J.


    Crucial to the management of staphylococcal bacteremia is an accurate evaluation of associated endocarditis, which has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Because the clinical presentation of endocarditis can be nonspecific, the judicious use of echocardiography is important in distinguishing patients at high risk of developing endocarditis. In the presence of high-risk clinical features, an early transesophageal echocardiogram is warranted without prior transthoracic echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for staphylococcal infective endocarditis that might warrant earlier transesophageal echocardiography and to describe the incidence of endocarditis in cases of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by means of chart review of 91 patients consecutively admitted to a community hospital from January 2009 through January 2013. Clinical risk factors of patients with staphylococcal bacteremia were compared with risk factors of patients who had definite diagnoses of infective endocarditis. There were 69 patients with bacteremia alone (76%) and 22 patients with endocarditis (24%), as verified by echocardiography. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (P=0.024), the presence of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker (P=0.006) or a prosthetic heart valve (P=0.003), and recent hospitalization (P=0.048) were significantly associated with developing infective endocarditis in patients with S. aureus bacteremia. The incidence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteremia was similar in the bacteremia and infective-endocarditis groups (P=0.437). In conclusion, identified high-risk clinical factors in the presence of bacteremia can suggest infective endocarditis. Early evaluation with transesophageal echocardiography might well be warranted. PMID:28265207


    E. Y. Ponomareva


    Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.

  16. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ihlemann, Nikolaj;


    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.......Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult....

  17. [Trends in infective endocarditis in a medium-sized University Hospital in Italy: analysis of 232 cases].

    Pallotto, Carlo; Martinelli, Laura; Baldelli, Franco; Bucaneve, Gianpaolo; Cecchini, Enisia; Malincarne, Lisa; Pasticci, Maria Bruna


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 232 cases of infective endocarditis (IE), admitted to the Clinica delle Malattie Infettive of Perugia Italy from 1973 to 2012. The analysis was retrospective until 2004. After this year, all the consecutive IE cases were included by utilizing the same prospective observational protocol of the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI). Out of 232 EI cases, 200 (86.2 %) were definite. Over the 40-year period, a statistically significant increase was observed in the patients' age, the rate of IE admissions and prosthetic device IEs. The rate of healthcare-associated IEs also increased in the last 10 years (p=NS). Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent comorbidity. There were no variations in the rate of S. aureus and streptococcal IEs. Central nervous system complications and surgery were reported in 19.4 percent and 29.3 percent of the cases, respectively. The in-hospital mortality was 18.9 percent. In conclusion, the epidemiological and clinical trends of this study are in agreement with the literature. The difference in S. aureus endocarditis, neurological complications and surgery rates may be due to the fact that this was a single centre and, for its first part, a retrospective study. A shared, multidisciplinary protocol may be useful to improve the outcome of patients with IE and its epidemiology.

  18. Infective endocarditis and cancer in the elderly

    García-Albéniz, Xabier; Hsu, John; Lipsitch, Marc; Logan, Roger W.; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Hernán, Miguel A


    Background Little is known about the magnitude of the association between infective endocarditis and cancer, and about the natural history of cancer patients with concomitant diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Methods We used the SEER-Medicare linked database to identify individuals aged 65 years or more diagnosed with colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancer, and without any cancer diagnosis (5% random Medicare sample from SEER areas) between 1992–2009. We identified infective endocarditis from the ICD-9 diagnosis of each admission recorded in the Medpar file and its incidence rate 90 days around cancer diagnosis. We also estimated the overall survival and CRC-specific survival after a concomitant diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Results The peri-diagnostic incidence of infective endocarditis was 19.8 cases per 100,000 person-months for CRC, 5.7 cases per 100,000 person-months for lung cancer, 1.9 cases per 100,000 person-months for breast cancer, 4.1 cases per 100,000 person-months for prostate cancer and 2.4 cases per 100,000 person-months for individuals without cancer. Two-year overall survival was 46.4% (95% CI 39.5, 54.5%) for stage I–III CRC patients with concomitant endocarditis and 73.1% (95% CI 72.9, 73.3%) for those without it. Conclusion In this elderly population, the incidence of infective endocarditis around CRC diagnosis was substantially higher than around the diagnosis of lung, breast and prostate cancers. A concomitant diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients with CRC diagnosis is associated with shorter survival. PMID:26683995

  19. Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains

    Chen, Ming; Kemp, Michael; Bruun, Niels E;


    Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison...... of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae...

  20. Emergency Department Management Of Acute Infective Endocarditis.

    Schauer, Steven G; Pfaff, James A; Cuenca, Peter John


    Infective endocarditis has a high rate of mortality, and most patients suspected of having the disease will require hospital admission. This review examines the literature as it pertains specifically to emergency clinicians who must maintain vigilance for risk factors and obtain a thorough history, including use of intravenous drugs, in order to guide the workup and treatment. Properly obtained cultures are critical during the evaluation, as they direct the course of antibiotic therapy. Although transthoracic echocardiography is widely available in United States emergency departments, it is not sensitive or specific enough to rule out a diagnosis of infective endocarditis. In high-risk patients, transesophageal echocardiography should be considered.

  1. Surgery in current therapy for infective endocarditis

    S.J. Head (Stuart); M. Mostafa Mokhles (M.); R.L.J. Osnabrugge (Ruben); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); A.P. Kappetein (Arie Pieter)


    textabstractThe introduction of the Duke criteria and transesophageal echocardiography has improved early recognition of infective endocarditis but patients are still at high risk for severe morbidity or death. Whether an exclusively antibiotic regimen is superior to surgical intervention is subject

  2. Infective endocarditis caused by Veillonella of dental origin.

    Prpić-Mehicić, G; Marsan, T; Miletić, I; Buntak-Kobler, D


    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether Veillonella could cause transitory bacteriemia and endocarditis in both pure and mixed cultures when the port of entrance for infection was made in rats' incisors. Incisors of 54 male Zgr: whistar conventional rats were inoculated with pure culture of Veillonella (18 animals) and with mixed culture of S. mutans and Veillonella (18 animals). Remaining 18 incisors (the control group) were treated with saline solution. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 21 and 52 days respectively. Two positive hemocultures were obtained in mixed infection after 21 days of experimental procedure. Histopatological analysis of endocardial tissue revealed changes in 7 (12.96%) cases. Occurrence of acute endocarditis (one case) and chronical (four cases) ones depended on duration of mixed infections. For chronical endocarditis that appears in two animals with pure Veillonela culture we are at a loss of explanation. In conclusion, on the rats model Veillonella can penetrate into circulation in association with S. mutans via the pulp tissue and could be involved in infective endocarditis.

  3. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

    Dreier Jens


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  4. Endocarditis infecciosa activa: 152 casos Active infective endocarditis: 152 cases

    Lucía R. Kazelian


    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad de baja incidencia que en las últimas décadas mostró modificaciones respecto de su presentación, posibilidad diagnóstica y tratamiento. A pesar de estos avances, la mortalidad hospitalaria sigue siendo muy elevada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa activa y su relación con la mortalidad hospitalaria a lo largo de 16 años. Se realizó un registro prospectivo entre 1994 y 2010 de pacientes ingresados con endocarditis. Se analizaron características clínicas, evolución y tratamiento y se registraron los eventos intrahospitalarios. Ingresaron 152 pacientes, 64.5% varones, edad 45 ± 16 años, las causas más frecuentes de cardiopatía de base fueron: congénita 32 (21% y reumática 20 (13.2%. Los motivos de internación fueron síndrome febril 116 (76.3% e insuficiencia cardíaca 61 (40.1%. Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 106 (69.7% de los casos, el más frecuente fue Streptococcus viridans. El ecocardiograma mostró vegetaciones en 123 (80.9% de los pacientes y 88 (57.8% presentaron complicaciones durante su internación, siendo la más frecuente la insuficiencia cardíaca. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en 96 (63.1% de los casos, fundamentalmente por insuficiencia cardíaca en 66. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 46 (30.2%. El desarrollo de complicaciones en la internación, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria, mientras que la presencia de vegetaciones resultó un predictor independiente de mejor supervivencia. La identificación temprana de estos predictores descriptos podría ayudar a mejorar los resultados.Active infective endocarditis (IE is a disease of low incidence that has showed changes in presentation, diagnosis and treatment options during the past decades. Despite these advances

  5. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung


    This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan.We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk.A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98-2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis.This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy.

  6. Clinical Practice Guidelines Infective Endocarditis Treatment.

    Lázaro de la Cruz Avilés


    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Infective Endocarditis Treatment. Infectious disease affecting the endocardium produces vegetations and could also affect the septum, the chordae tendinae or mural endocardium. It includes concept, risk factors, classification (and special groups and an update and review of the main clinical aspects, complications and treatment stressing the antibiotic therapy. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  7. Polymicrobial infective endocarditis caused by Neisseria sicca and Haemophilus parainfluenzae

    Nikoloz Koshkelashvili


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a common clinical problem in industrialized countries. Risk factors include abnormal cardiac valves, a history of endocarditis, intracardiac devices, prosthetic valves and intravenous drug use. We report a case of polymicrobial infective endocarditis in a 33 year-old female with a history chronic heroin use caused by Neisseria sicca and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. We believe the patient was exposed to these microbes by cleansing her skin with saliva prior to injection. Pairing a detailed history with the consideration of atypical agents is crucial in the proper diagnosis and management of endocarditis in patients with high-risk injection behaviors.

  8. Infective Endocarditis and Aortic Valve Abscess in an Infant.

    Williamson, Kristy A; Gmuca, Sabrina; Rosman, Eliyahu C; Thomas, Philomena


    Infective endocarditis is relatively uncommon in the pediatric population, but when it does occur, results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Children at risk for endocarditis are typically those with an underlying congenital heart condition. Furthermore, an endocardial abscess is a very rare yet serious complication of infective endocarditis. We describe a case of a 23-month-old previously healthy male infant with no known congenital heart disease who returned to the emergency department after a recent hospitalization for pneumococcal bacteremia, presenting acutely ill but without fever. He was found to be in congestive heart failure due to endocarditis and an aortic root abscess.

  9. Prevention of Infective (Bacterial) Endocarditis: Wallet Card

    ... the American Heart Association’s Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee together with national and international experts on ... by the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease. Circulation, 2007; 116: 1736-1754. Accessible at http:// ...

  10. [Infective endocarditis: review of 36 cases].

    Lupis, Francesco; Giordano, Salvatore; Pampinella, Diego; Scarlata, Francesco; Romano, Amelia


    In a retrospective study of cases of infective endocarditis (IE) observed in adult patients, the data of patients hospitalized for definite IE in the Cardiosurgery Unit of ARNAS-Civico in Palermo (Italy) from March 2003 to September 2006 were analysed. All cases were classified according to the modified Duke criteria. In all, 36 immunocompetent patients with "definite" IE were included (20 males and 16 females with a median age of 54 years). The aortic valve (23/36, 64%) was the most commonly involved, followed by the mitral (19/36, 52.7%) and tricuspid valve (4/36, 11%). In 10 patients (27.7%), a double localization was observed. Blood culture yielded a positive result in 15 cases. Staphylococci and enterococci were the pathogens most commonly identified. Valvular diseases and previous cardiosurgical procedures were the risk factors most commonly noted. Four patients developed complications during the course of the disease, one of whom died. In patients with positive blood culture, antibiotics were prescribed on the basis of susceptibility test results. In patients with negative blood culture, empiric therapy was directed against Gram+ bacteria (glycopeptides, aminoglycosides and betalactams). Surgical therapy was necessary in 25 patients (69.4%). The patients were subsequently enrolled in a cardiological and infectivological follow-up. Our results showed that rapid diagnosis, correct antibiotic therapy and early surgical treatment improve the outcome in patients with infective endocarditis.

  11. A severe infective endocarditis successfully treated with linezolid

    Graziano Antonio Minafra


    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in surgical and medical therapy, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is often associated with a severe prognosis. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman, with  PVE and bacterial endocarditis (Streptococcus bovis successfully treated with linezolid. Linezolid is a bacteriostatic oxazolidinone antibiotic that has been proven to be effective for the treatment of patients with pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections, and infections due to Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid is not yet recognised as a standard therapy for infective endocarditis, but its use becomes a necessity when infection is due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  12. Critical Questions About Left-Sided Infective Endocarditis.

    San Román, J Alberto; Vilacosta, Isidre; López, Javier; Sarriá, Cristina


    Research in different topics in cardiovascular medicine is evolving rapidly. However, this is not the case for endocarditis, despite its being the cardiovascular disease with the highest mortality and, at the same time, the entity with relatively less scientific evidence supporting its treatment. Many problems are delaying research: it is an uncommon disease, few multicenter registries are ongoing, financing for research in this topic is lacking, randomization is costly, difficult, and considered unethical by some, and conclusions coming from propensity score analysis are taken as if they came from randomized trials. In this review, we put forward the main issues in need of evidence and propose a different approach to advance the understanding of left-sided infective endocarditis. We summarize the limited evidence available, the questions that are pending, and how we should proceed to answer them.

  13. Sinus of Valsalva Pseudoaneurysm as a Sequela to Infective Endocarditis

    Siegel, Robert J.


    Pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon sequela of infective endocarditis. We treated a 44-year-old man who had an active case of group B streptococcal infective endocarditis of the aortic valve despite no evidence of valvular dysfunction or vegetation on his initial transesophageal echocardiogram. After completing 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, the patient developed a sinus of Valsalva pseudoaneurysm and severe aortic regurgitation caused by partial detachment of the left coronary cusp. We used a pericardial patch to close the pseudoaneurysm and repair the coronary cusp. This case shows the importance of routine clinical follow-up evaluation in infective endocarditis, even after completion of antibiotic therapy. Late sequelae associated with infective endocarditis or its therapy include recurrent infection, heart failure caused by valvular dysfunction (albeit delayed), and antibiotic toxicity such as aminoglycoside-induced nephropathy and vestibular toxicity. PMID:27047285

  14. Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: Experience from Morocco

    Dina Montasser


    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE, particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving re-gular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Sta-phylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphlococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

  15. Anatomical Findings in Patients with Infective Endocarditis Diagnosed at Autopsy

    Miguel Angel Serra Valdés


    Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis continues to challenge modern medicine despite its rare occurrence in the general population. Its incidence depends on risk groups. Correlation of anatomical and pathological findings with clinical and epidemiological elements may explain the current features of this condition. Objective: to describe the anatomical features of patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy. Methods: A descriptive study including cases of infective endocarditis diagnosed at autopsy between 1986 and 2008 was conducted in the Provincial Clinical-Surgical Hospital Celia Sanchez, Granma. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, previous anatomical lesions, location of vegetations, multi-organ embolic infarcts and embolic abscesses, complications, culture of lesions and direct causes of death. Results: frequency of infective endocarditis diagnosed at necropsy ranged annually from 0.4 to 1.5%. Native valve endocarditis without previous damage was the most frequent. The anatomical findings were more common in the left side of the heart. Right-sided nosocomial endocarditis accounted for almost a third of the deceased patients and risk factors were identified. Embolic lesions affecting various organs, systemic complications and direct causes of death showed acute infectious endocarditis. The most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: knowing the anatomical findings may contribute to the understanding of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this condition. Correlation between anatomical and clinical findings was low; therefore difficulties in establishing the diagnosis during life are inferred.

  16. [Case of infective endocarditis diagnosed with renal infarction].

    Nakayama, Takayuki; Yokoyama, Minato; Saito, Kazutaka; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Kubo, Yuichi; Iimura, Yasumasa; Numao, Noboru; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Koga, Fumitaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kawakami, Satoru; Kihara, Kazunori


    A 46-year-old woman with sudden on set strong right flank pain was transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right renal infarction. Cardiac ultrasonography revealed a vegetation on the posterior cusp of the mitral valve, and the renal infarction was thought to be caused by renal artery embolism from infective endocarditis. Since the vegetation remained after antimicrobial therapy as conservative management, the patient was surgically treated by mitral annuloplasty. It has been known that infective endocarditis can cause renal infarction. Infective endocarditis requires immediate and adequate treatment because of high mortality. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis of infective endocarditis is needed for patients with renal infarction without any other disorder causing renal infarction.

  17. Echocardiographic agreement in the diagnostic evaluation for infective endocarditis

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Selton-Suty, Christine; Tong, Steven;


    Echocardiography is essential for the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis (IE). However, the reproducibility for the echocardiographic assessment of variables relevant to IE is unknown. Objectives of this study were: (1) To define the reproducibility for IE echocardiographic variab...

  18. Left ventricular to right atrial shunt resulting from infective endocarditis.

    Ellis, C J; Gray, K E; Ainscow, D A


    A unique case is described in which infective endocarditis of the aortic valve led to intractable heart failure and necropsy examination showed that the patient had developed a communication between the left ventricle and right atrium.

  19. Infective Endocarditis Analysis of Clinical Observation and Treatment%感染性心内膜炎的临床观察与治疗分析



    目的:观察与分析感染性心内膜炎的临床表现、病原菌、治疗效果等,以期早期诊断、早期治疗、促进患者康复.方法:选取60例感染性心内膜炎患者且对其临床表现、治疗方法和效果及生存质量等进行观察与相关数据记录和统计分析.结果:感染性心内膜炎临床表现多样、而以发热为首发症状最为常见,病原菌为草绿色链球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、白色念珠菌、铜绿假单胞菌且本次治疗死亡率为3.33%.结论:感染性心内膜炎的诊断应综合患者临床症状、体征、辅助检查等及早做出判断,从而早期给予合理治疗,方能降低死亡率和致残率、改善患者生存质量.%Objective:The clinical manifestations of infective endocarditis,pathogens,treatment effects were observed and analyzed in order to achieve early diagnosis,early treatment,the purpose of promoting the rehabilitation of patients.Methods:60 cases of infective endocarditis patients were selected and their clinical manifestations,treatment,effectiveness and quality of life to observe and record data and statistical analysis.Results:The various clinical manifestations of infective endocarditis,and fever as the first symptom of the most common pathogens were Streptococcus viridans,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli,Candida albicans,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the treatment mortality rate was 3.33%.Conclusion:The diagnosis of infective endocarditis should be integrated clinical symptoms,signs,laboratory examinations and other early to judge,to give proper treatment can only reduce early mortality and morbidity,improve patient quality of life.

  20. [Infective endocarditis in intensive cardiac care unit - clinical and biochemical differences of blood-culture negative infective endocarditis].

    Kaziród-Wolski, Karol; Sielski, Janusz; Ciuraszkiewicz, Katarzyna


    Diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) is still a challenge for physicians. Group of patients with the worst prognosis is treated in Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU). Etiologic agent can not be identified in a substantial number of patients.

  1. Infective endocarditis with Lactococcus garvieae in Japan: a case report

    Isonuma Hiroshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lactococcus garvieae is a well-recognized fish pathogen, and it is considered a rare pathogen with low virulence in human infection. We describe the 11th case of L. garvieae infective endocarditis reported in the literature, and the first reported case in Japan. Case presentation We report a case of a 55-year-old Japanese woman who had native valve endocarditis with L. garvieae. The case was complicated by renal infarction, cerebral infarction, and mycotic aneurysms. After anti-microbial treatment, she was discharged from the hospital and is now well while being monitored in the out-patient clinic. Conclusion We encountered a case of L. garvieae endocarditis that occurred in a native valve of a healthy woman. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was useful for the identification of this pathogen. Although infective endocarditis with L. garvieae is uncommon, it is possible to treat high virulence clinically.

  2. Intravenous thrombolysis is unsafe in stroke due to infective endocarditis.

    Brownlee, W J; Anderson, N E; Barber, P A


    Embolic stroke is the most common neurological complication of infective endocarditis and a major source of morbidity and mortality. Septic embolism is considered a contraindication to intravenous thrombolysis in patients with ischaemic stroke because of concerns over an increased risk of intracranial haemorrhage. We describe a patient with occult endocarditis who was treated with thrombolysis for acute stroke and review other cases reported in the literature.

  3. Severe infective endocarditis in a healthy adult due to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Fujita, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Itaru; Tsukimori, Ayaka; Sato, Akihiro; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya


    A case of severe endocarditis, with complications of multiple infarction, meningitis, and ruptured mitral chordae tendineae, caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a healthy man, is reported. Emergency cardiovascular surgery was performed on the day of admission. Infective endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae is very rare, particularly in a healthy adult. In addition, microbiological analysis revealed that S. agalactiae of sequence type (ST) 19, which belongs to serotype III, was present in the patient's vegetation, mitral valve, and blood culture. It was therefore concluded that the endocarditis was caused by ST19, which has been reported as a non-invasive type of S. agalactiae. This was an extremely rare case in which S. agalactiae of ST19 caused very severe endocarditis in an adult patient with no underlying disease.

  4. Candida infective endocarditis: an observational cohort study with a focus on therapy.

    Arnold, Christopher J; Johnson, Melissa; Bayer, Arnold S; Bradley, Suzanne; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Miró, José M; Tornos, Pilar; Tattevin, Pierre; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Nacinovich, Francisco; Fortes, Claudio Q; Lamas, Cristiane; Barsic, Bruno; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Muñoz, Patricia; Chu, Vivian H


    Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and use of different antifungal treatment regimens for Candida infective endocarditis. This prospective cohort study was based on 70 cases of Candida infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Prospective Cohort Study and ICE-Plus databases collected between 2000 and 2010. The majority of infections were acquired nosocomially (67%). Congestive heart failure (24%), prosthetic heart valve (46%), and previous infective endocarditis (26%) were common comorbidities. Overall mortality was high, with 36% mortality in the hospital and 59% at 1 year. On univariate analysis, older age, heart failure at baseline, persistent candidemia, nosocomial acquisition, heart failure as a complication, and intracardiac abscess were associated with higher mortality. Mortality was not affected by use of surgical therapy or choice of antifungal agent. A subgroup analysis was performed on 33 patients for whom specific antifungal therapy information was available. In this subgroup, 11 patients received amphotericin B-based therapy and 14 received echinocandin-based therapy. Despite a higher percentage of older patients and nosocomial infection in the echinocandin group, mortality rates were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, Candida infective endocarditis is associated with a high mortality rate that was not impacted by choice of antifungal therapy or by adjunctive surgical intervention. Additionally, echinocandin therapy was as effective as amphotericin B-based therapy in the small subgroup analysis.

  5. Predictors of inhospital mortality in patients with infective endocarditis

    Batool Al-Mogheer


    Full Text Available Despite advances in therapy, infective endocarditis (IE remains a serious disease with high mortality. We evaluated 155 Egyptian patients with Duke definite/possible IE to determine incidence, causes and predictors of inhospital mortality. The mean time from symptoms onset to diagnosis was 66.4 ± 97 days. The causes of mortality (38.7% included congestive heart failure (CHF, sepsis, surgery related, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, sudden cardiac death, and hyperkalemia. Predictors of mortality on univariate analysis were duration of symptoms before hospital admission (p = 0.017, health care associated endocarditis (p = 0.039, CHF (p < 0.001, fulminant sepsis (p < 0.001, embolization (p = 0.011, need for dialysis (p = 0.003, need for cardiac surgery (p = 0.027, unperformed indicated cardiac surgery (p = 0.002 and higher C-reactive protein level (p = 0.05. In multivariate analysis, only CHF remained an independent predictor of mortality (p = 0.033. IE mortality was high in this cohort probably due to delayed diagnosis. Patients having these mortality predictors especially CHF deserve more aggressive treatment.

  6. Pacemaker Related Infective Endocarditis from Staphylococcus Lugdunensis: A Case Report

    Michael Ward


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a common skin flora not typically associated with infection. There are, however, several cases reported in the literature of Staphylococcus lugdunensis as a causative bacterium of various infections. This paper reports an additional case of pacemaker associated endocarditis with Staphylococcus lugdunensis as the causative bacterium.

  7. Second Fatal Case of Infective Endocarditis caused by Gemella bergeriae

    Aijan Ukudeeva


    Full Text Available Our case illustrates a fatal course of infection with Gemella bergeriae endocarditis that was complicated by cardiogenic shock due to perforation of the mitral valve with severe mitral regurgitation, extension of infection into the myocardium adjacent to the mitral valve, and coronary sinus thrombosis.

  8. Clinico-pathological characteristics of infective endocarditis associated with congenital heart disease:an analysis of 74 cases in single center



    Objective To assess the changing profile of infective endocarditis(IE) in patients with congenital heart disease(CHD) from 1998 to 2009 in our hospital. Methods Clinical characteristics of IE patients with CHD under-went surgical treatment during 1998-2009 in our hospital

  9. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement-

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bundgaard, Henning; S�ndergaard, Lars


    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can improve the symptoms and prognosis of patients with severe aortic stenosis who, due to a high expected operative risk, would not have otherwise been treated surgically. If these patients develop prosthetic valve endocarditis, their presentations may...... be atypical causing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment. The management is also complicated by their comorbidities, and surgical treatment may not be feasible leading to a significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of an 85-year-old man with TAVI prosthetic valve endocarditis successfully...

  10. Bartonella henselae Infective Endocarditis Detected by a Prolonged Blood Culture

    Mito, Tsutomu; Hirota, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Uehara, Takanori; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi


    A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted with a 4-month history of fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Accordingly, infective endocarditis and heart failure were diagnosed. Although a blood culture was negative on day 7 after admission, a prolonged blood culture with subculture was performed according to the patient's history of contact with cats. Consequently, Bartonella henselae was isolated. Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative infective endocarditis. This case demonstrates that B. henselae may be detected by prolonged incubation of blood cultures. PMID:27746451

  11. A case of polymicrobial infective endocarditis involving Neisseria mucosa occurring in an intravenous drug abuser.

    Giles, M W; Andrew, J H; Tellus, M M


    The incidence of polymicrobial endocarditis has increased markedly in recent years, in association with the increasing level of abuse of intravenous drugs. Neisseria mucosa, an upper respiratory tract commensal, is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We report the first case of polymicrobial infective endocarditis involving Neisseria mucosa occurring in an intravenous drug abuser.

  12. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus infective endocarditis confirmed by broad-range PCR diagnosis: A case report

    Koji Hirano


    Conclusion: A rare disease, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus infective endocarditis was successfully treated with surgical repair and appropriate antibiotic therapy. To avoid misdiagnosis, br-PCR testing should be performed in patients with blood culture-negative endocarditis.

  13. Pseudoaneurysm of the left atrium following infective endocarditis

    Manuel, Devi A; Sahayo, Bino John; Thomson, Viji Samuel; Jose, Jacob


    Transthoracic echocardiogram of a 3-year-old child showed a hypoechoic cavity in the posterior wall of the left atrium communicating with the left ventricle through an orifice in the mitral annulus, suggestive of pseudoaneurysm (Ps), probably the result of infective endocarditis. Three-dimensional echocardiography was helpful to confirm the diagnosis and assess the anatomical relationship of the Ps. PMID:28163437

  14. Linezolid as rescue treatment for left-sided infective endocarditis

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Bruun, Louise E; Rasmussen, R V;


    The increasing number of resistant bacterial strains in infective endocarditis (IE) emphasizes the need for a constant development of antimicrobials. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with an effect on Gram-positive cocci. Only a few casuistic reports describe its utilization in the treatment of IE...

  15. Heart transplantation as salvage treatment of intractable infective endocarditis.

    Aymami, Marie; Revest, Matthieu; Piau, Caroline; Chabanne, Céline; Le Gall, François; Lelong, Bernard; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Michelet, Christian; Tattevin, Pierre; Flécher, Erwan


    This study reports six consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation as salvage treatment for endocarditis (Duke criteria) with extensive perivalvular lesions and end-stage heart failure. The median age was 45 years (range, 24 to 64), and the aortic valve was affected in all patients. Pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 2), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 1), or not documented (n = 1). All patients survived, with no relapse, after a median follow-up of 24.5 months. The 10 patients with heart transplantation for endocarditis previously reported also survived (median follow-up, 27.5 months). Heart transplantation may be considered as salvage treatment in selected patients with intractable infective endocarditis.

  16. Infective Endocarditis: Identification of Catalase-Negative, Gram-Positive Cocci from Blood Cultures by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and by Vitek 2 Examination

    Abdul-Redha, Rawaa Jalil; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette M;


    Streptococci, enterococci and Streptococcus-like bacteria are frequent etiologic agents of infective endocarditis and correct species identification can be a laboratory challenge. Viridans streptococci (VS) not seldomly cause contamination of blood cultures. Vitek 2 and partial sequencing of the 16......S rRNA gene were applied in order to compare the results of both methods. STRAINS ORIGINATED FROM TWO GROUPS OF PATIENTS: 149 strains from patients with infective endocarditis and 181 strains assessed as blood culture contaminants. Of the 330 strains, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing...... results, 251 (76%) were VS strains, 10 (3%) were pyogenic streptococcal strains, 54 (16%) were E. faecalis strains and 15 (5%) strains belonged to a group of miscellaneous catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci. Among VS strains, respectively, 220 (87,6%) and 31 (12,3%) obtained agreeing and non...

  17. Cardiopulmonary manifestations of isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis demonstrated with cardiac CT.

    Passen, Edward; Feng, Zekun


    Right-sided infective endocarditis involving the pulmonary valve is rare. This pictorial essay discusses the use and findings of cardiac CT combined with delayed chest CT and noncontrast chest CT of pulmonary valve endocarditis. Cardiac CT is able to show the full spectrum of right-sided endocarditis cardiopulmonary features including manifestations that cannot be demonstrated by echocardiography.

  18. Enterococcal Infective Endocarditis following Periodontal Disease in Dogs.

    Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek

    Full Text Available In humans, one of the major factors associated with infective endocarditis (IE is the concurrent presence of periodontal disease (PD. However, in veterinary medicine, the relevance of PD in the evolution of dogs' endocarditis remains poorly understood. In order to try to establish a correlation between mouth-associated Enterococcus spp. and infective endocarditis in dogs, the present study evaluated the presence and diversity of enterococci in the gum and heart of dogs with PD. Samples were collected during necropsy of 32 dogs with PD and visually diagnosed with IE, which died of natural causes or euthanasia. Enterococci were isolated, identified and further characterized by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE; susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and pathogenicity potential was also evaluated. In seven sampled animals, PFGE-patterns, resistance and virulence profiles were found to be identical between mouth and heart enterococci obtained from the same dog, allowing the establishment of an association between enterococcal periodontal disease and endocarditis in dogs. These findings represent a crucial step towards understanding the pathogenesis of PD-driven IE, and constitute a major progress in veterinary medicine.

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Jian-ling Tao; Xue-mei Li; Xue-wang Li; Jie Ma; Guang-li Ge; Li-meng Chen; Hang Li; Bao-tong Zhou; Yang Sun; Wen-ling Ye; Qi Miao


    Objective To analyze the clinical features of hemodialysis patients complicated by infective endo-carditis.Methods The clinical features of six such patients admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hos-pital during the year 1990 to 2009 were analyzed. All of them were diagnosed based on Chinese Children Diagnostic Criteria for Infective Endocarditis.Results The average age of the six patients was 52.3±19.3 years old. Four were males. Vascular ac-cesses at the onset of infective endocarditis were as follows: permanent catheters in three, temporary cathe-ters in two, and arteriovenous fistula in one. Three were found with mitral valve involvement, two with aor-tic valve involvement, and one with both. Five vegetations were found by transthoraeic echocardiography, and one by transesophageal echocardiography. Four had positive blood culture results. The catheters were all removed. Four of the patients were improved by antibiotics treatment, in which two were still on hemodialy-sis in the following 14-24 months and the other two were lost to follow-up. One patient received surgery, but died of heart failure after further hemodialysis for three months. One was well on maintenance hemodi-alysis for three months after surgery.Conclusions Infective endocarditis should be suspected when hemodialysis patients suffer from long-term fever, for which prompt blood culture and transthoracic echocardiography confirmation could be performed. Transesophageal echocardiography could be considered even when transthoracic echocardiogra-phy produces negative findings. With catheters removed, full course of appropriate sensitive antibiotics and surgery if indicated could improve the outcome of chronic hemodialysis patients complicated by infective endocarditis.

  20. A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Confused with Infective Endocarditis

    Sibel Serin


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystemic autoimmune disease resulting from immune system-mediated tissue damage. Clinical findings of SLE can involve skin, kidney, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, serosal membranes, and the hematologic and immune systems. In the differential diagnosis, other connective tissue diseases, infective endocarditis, infections such as viral hepatitis, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, sarcoidosis, and some malignant tumors should be considered. Infective endocarditis can imitate all the symptoms of SLE depending on immune complex accumulation glomerulonephritis. Hemolytic anemia, skin lesions, arthralgia, arthritis, decreased complement levels, and autoantibody positivity, including antinuclear autoantibody (ANA, positivity can be seen. Therefore, high fever, blood cultures, eye examination, and echocardiographic findings are of particular value. Here, we present a case of SLE that was confused with infective endocarditis (IE due to the presence of high fever associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA and proteinuria as well as increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, cardiac murmur, and Roth’s spots. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 212-15

  1. Cytokine profiles linked to fatal outcome in infective prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    Bustamante, Juan; Arévalo, Adolfo; Tamayo, Eduardo; Sarria, Cristina; Aguilar-Blanco, Eva M; Heredia, Maria; Almansa, Raquel; Rico, Lucia; Iglesias, Verónica; Bermejo-Martin, Jesús F


    Infective endocarditis is a disease normally of bacterial cause which affects the endocardic tissue, specifically the valves (native or prosthetic). It is a serious illness and mortality rates remain high, ranging between 20% and 40%. Previous reports have evidenced the potential role of cytokines in the diagnosis of this disease, but no information is available on their relationship with outcome. We recruited 26 consecutive patients with late prosthetic valve endocarditis requiring surgical treatment according to Duke criteria. Eight cytokines were measured in plasma in the first 24 h following diagnosis by using a Bio-Rad multiplex assay. Levels of IL-6, IL-8 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were higher in non survivors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis evidenced that IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ behaved as good diagnostic tests for identifying those patients with fatal outcome (area under the curve, CI 95%, p): IL-6: [0.81 (0.61-1.00) 0.012]; IL-8 [0.76 (0.56-0.96) 0.035]; IFN-γ [0.79 (0.59-0.99) 0.021]. Levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ correlated positively between them, indicating that they are produced as consequence of a simultaneous response to the infection. Our findings support the participation of IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ in the events linked to fatal outcome in infective prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  2. Clinical classification and prognosis of isolated right-sided infective endocarditis.

    Ortiz, Carlos; López, Javier; García, Héctor; Sevilla, Teresa; Revilla, Ana; Vilacosta, Isidre; Sarriá, Cristina; Olmos, Carmen; Ferrera, Carlos; García, Pablo Elpidio; Sáez, Carmen; Gómez, Itziar; San Román, José Alberto


    From an epidemiologic point of view, right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) affects different types of patients: intravenous drug users (IDUs), cardiac device carriers (pacemakers and implantable automatic defibrillators), and the "3 noes" endocarditis group: no left-sided, no IDUs, no cardiac devices. Our objective is to describe and compare the clinical profile and outcome of these groups of patients. Every episode of infective endocarditis (IE) consecutively diagnosed in 3 tertiary centers from 1996 to 2012 was included in an ongoing multipurpose database. We assessed 85 epidemiologic, clinical, echocardiographic, and outcome variables in patients with isolated RSIE. A bivariated comparative analysis between the 3 groups was conducted.Among 866 IE episodes, 121 were classified as isolated RSIE (14%): 36 IDUs (30%), 65 cardiac device carriers (54%), and 20 "3 noes" group (16%). IDUs were mainly young men (36 ± 7 years) without previous heart disease, few comorbidities, and frequent previous endocarditis episodes (28%). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was frequent (69%). Cardiac device carriers were older (66 ± 15 years) and had less comorbidities (34%). Removal of the infected device was performed in 91% of the patients without any death. The "3 noes" endocarditis group was composed mainly by middle-age men (56 ± 18 years), health care related infections (50%), and had many comorbidities (75%). Whereas Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequent cause in IDUs (72% vs 34% in device carriers and 34% in the "3 noes" group, P = 0.001), coagulase negative Staphylococci predominated in the device carriers (58% vs 11% in drug users and 35% in the "3 noes", P < 0.001). Significant differences in mortality were found (17% in drug users, 3% in device carriers, and 30% in the "3 noes" group; P < 0.001). These results suggest that RSIE should be separated into 3 groups (IDUs, cardiac device carriers, and the "3 noes") and considered as independent entities as

  3. Bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis associated with infective endocarditis: case report

    Arcieri Enyr Saran


    Full Text Available Bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare condition initiated by infection by microbes in the bloodstream, such as those arising from a foci of infective endocarditis. We report a case and discuss the diagnostic aspects and the clinical outcome of a patient with characteristic findings of the disease. The patient was a 49 year old white male who had a metallic aortic valve implanted 7 months previously, and who presented to the hospital with 10 days of fever, cough and dyspnea, then diarrhea and mental confusion. On the second day of hospitalization, he experienced sudden loss of vision in both eyes. A Gram-positive coccobacillus was isolated from the bloodstream, he was treated with fluoroquinolone with disappearance of fever, decreased ocular inflammation, and improvement in his vision to light perception. He later underwent valve replacement surgery but died during the procedure. We review the occurrence of ocular signs and symptoms and their importance in patients with endocarditis.

  4. Infective endocarditis caused by Listeria monocytogenes forming a pseudotumor.

    Uehara Yonekawa, Akiko; Iwasaka, Sho; Nakamura, Hisataka; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Kadowaki, Masako; Uchida, Yujiro; Odashiro, Keita; Shimoda, Shinji; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Koichi


    A 73-year-old woman with breast cancer and metastasis under chemotherapy suffered from fever, pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Despite the administration of treatment with cefozopran and prednisolone, the patient's fever relapsed. An electrocardiogram identified a new complete atrioventricular block and an echocardiogram revealed vegetation with an unusual pseudotumoral mass in the right atrium. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient was eventually diagnosed with right-sided infective endocarditis, which improved following the six-week administration of ampicillin and gentamicin. Homemade yoghurt was suspected to be the cause of infection in this case. Listeria endocarditis is rare; however, physicians should pay more attention to preventing this fatal disease in immunocompromised patients.

  5. Prosthetic valve endocarditis and bloodstream infection due to Mycobacterium chimaera.

    Achermann, Yvonne; Rössle, Matthias; Hoffmann, Matthias; Deggim, Vanessa; Kuster, Stefan; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Bloemberg, Guido; Hombach, Michael; Hasse, Barbara


    Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) due to fast-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been reported anecdotally. Reports of PVE with slowly growing NTM, however, are lacking. We present here one case of PVE and one case of bloodstream infection caused by Mycobacterium chimaera. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR indicated a relatedness of the two M. chimaera strains. Both patients had heart surgery 2 years apart from each other. A nosocomial link was not detected.

  6. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis and Bloodstream Infection Due to Mycobacterium chimaera

    Achermann, Yvonne; Rössle, Matthias; Hoffmann, Matthias; Deggim, Vanessa; Kuster, Stefan; Zimmermann, Dieter R.; Bloemberg, Guido; Hombach, Michael; Hasse, Barbara


    Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) due to fast-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been reported anecdotally. Reports of PVE with slowly growing NTM, however, are lacking. We present here one case of PVE and one case of bloodstream infection caused by Mycobacterium chimaera. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR indicated a relatedness of the two M. chimaera strains. Both patients had heart surgery 2 years apart from each other. A nosocomial link was not detected.

  7. Infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users: a review article.

    Colville, Thomas; Sharma, Vishal; Albouaini, Khaled


    Approximately 10% of infective endocarditis (IE) involves the right side of the heart with the majority of these cases occurring in intravenous drug users. Patients are less likely to present with classical IE signs of a new murmur and peripheral stigmata, are more frequently immunocompromised and often have significant social difficulties. These factors result in both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in this patient group that are not often seen in other patient populations with IE.

  8. 20例感染性心内膜炎的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 20 Cases of Infective Endocarditis



    Objective To investigate the clinical antibiotic treatment of infectious endocarditis patients. Methods Clinical data 20 cases of infectious endocarditis patients were analyzed. Results All patients who were clinically cured, average follow-up ifve months without subacute endocarditis. Conclusion The treatment of infection control, antibiotic treatment is extremely important, including early treatment of antibiotic therapy, treatment and prevention of recurrence.%目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎患者临床抗生素治疗。方法选取临床20例感染性心膜炎患者资料进行分析。结果所有患者均获临床痊愈,平均随访5个月无亚急性心内膜炎发生。结论控制感染治疗,抗生素治疗极为重要,抗生素治疗包括早期治疗、复发的治疗及预防。

  9. Repeat endocarditis: analysis of risk factors based on the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study.

    Alagna, L; Park, L P; Nicholson, B P; Keiger, A J; Strahilevitz, J; Morris, A; Wray, D; Gordon, D; Delahaye, F; Edathodu, J; Miró, J M; Fernández-Hidalgo, N; Nacinovich, F M; Shahid, R; Woods, C W; Joyce, M J; Sexton, D J; Chu, V H


    Repeat episodes of infective endocarditis (IE) can occur in patients who survive an initial episode. We analysed risk factors and 1-year mortality of patients with repeat IE. We considered 1874 patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study between January 2000 and December 2006 (ICE-PCS) who had definite native or prosthetic valve IE and 1-year follow-up. Multivariable analysis was used to determine risk factors for repeat IE and 1-year mortality. Of 1874 patients, 1783 (95.2%) had single-episode IE and 91 (4.8%) had repeat IE: 74/91 (81%) with new infection and 17/91 (19%) with presumed relapse. On bivariate analysis, repeat IE was associated with haemodialysis (p 0.002), HIV (p 0.009), injection drug use (IDU) (p < 0.001), Staphylococcus aureus IE (p 0.003), healthcare acquisition (p 0.006) and previous IE before ICE enrolment (p 0.001). On adjusted analysis, independent risk factors were haemodialysis (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3), IDU (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.4), previous IE (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.1) and living in the North American region (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4). Patients with repeat IE had higher 1-year mortality than those with single-episode IE (p 0.003). Repeat IE is associated with IDU, previous IE and haemodialysis. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors in order to recognize patients who are at risk of repeat IE.

  10. ANCA positivity in a patient with infective endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Brijesh; Katageri, Bhimarey; Bhardwaj, Minakshi


    Glomerulonephritis (GN) is an immunological phenomenon in bacterial endocarditis. These may be pauci-immune/vasculitic GN, post-infective GN, and sub-endothelial membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Each type of glomerulonephritis usually occurs in isolation. We report a case of infective endocarditis with dual existence of pauci-immune/vasculitic GN and post infective type of GN at the same time.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci from Italian patients with infective endocarditis

    Claudio Farina


    Full Text Available The epidemiological and clinical study “Studio Endocarditi Italiane” (SEI evaluated 947 cases of infective endocarditis in 2004-2008. Enterococcal aethiology was described in 11% cases.The aim of our study was to evacuate the in vitro activity of twelve antibiotics alone and in association against 20 strains (15 E. faecalis, 5 E. faecium. Results show the in vitro activity of tigecyicline, daptomicine and linezolid. Synergism is appreciated for ceftriaxone-fosfomycin (FICindex50=0.34, FICindex90=0.56 against E. faecalis and for imipenem-fosfomycin against E. faecium.The majority of the tested strains show addition using ampicillin-ceftriaxone (FICindex50=0.85, FICindex90=1.01 and moxifloxacin- tigecycline (FICindex50=0.77, FICindex90=1.96.

  12. Sudden infant death due to Lactococcal infective endocarditis.

    Taniguchi, K; Nakayama, M; Nakahira, K; Nakura, Y; Kanagawa, N; Yanagihara, I; Miyaishi, S


    Infective endocarditis (IE) of infants is rare, most of which occur associated with congenital heart disease or its cardiac surgery. We experienced a case of sudden death of a four-month-old male infant without congenital heart disease. It was elucidated by postmortem examination that the dead had suffered severe IE, which led him to death. In the microbiological genetic analysis using histological section, the pathogen causing inflammation in the present case was identified as Lactococcus lactis subspecies, although Staphylococci have been reported to be common and important one. Previously reported infectious diseases by Lactococcus lactis subspecies were all adult cases and this is the first report of an infantile death due to Lactococcal IE according to our knowledge. Any fatal disease may be included in sudden death cases targeted for forensic autopsy, even if it is rare. It is expected for forensic pathologists that they note such case and share each experience among themselves and other medical fields to develop a strategy for prevention.

  13. Variables predictoras de embolias en endocarditis infecciosa Embolism predictors of infective endocarditis

    Alberto R. Cremona


    Full Text Available El evento embólico (EE aumenta la morbi-mortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI. La prevalencia de EE oscila entre 22% y 50%, pudiendo ocasionar hasta el 25% de las muertes de los pacientes que lo presentan. El EE puede ocurrir previamente al diagnóstico, durante el tratamiento o bien posteriormente al mismo. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características demográficas, clínicas, microbiológicas, ecocardiográficas y terapeúticas, de pacientes con EI (con y sin embolias para tratar de establecer variables predictoras del EE. Se realizó en el Hospital Italiano de La Plata, desde marzo de 1996 hasta diciembre de 2004, un estudio descriptivo observacional de una cohorte de pacientes con diagnóstico de EI. Se analizaron en forma retrospectiva 53 pacientes con EI (35 sin EE y 18 con EE. La presencia de vegetación (en el ecocardiograma transtorácico (ETT y/o en el transesofágico (ETE al momento del diagnóstico, el tamaño ³ 10 mm y el compromiso de la válvula mitral nativa, fueron las variables en las que existió una asociación estadísticamente significativa con el EE para ser consideradas como predictoras. El tamaño ³ 10 mm fue la única variable asociada a EE en el análisis de regresión logística. Durante el tratamiento antibiótico electivo hubo una reducción de EE, no observándose a partir de la segunda semana.The embolic event (EE increases the morbidity and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE. Prevalence of EE ranges between 22% and 50%, death rates being up to 25% of patients. EE may occur prior to diagnosis, during treatment or afterwards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the demographic, clinical, microbiological, echocardiographic and therapeutic characteristics in patients suffering from IE (with or without emboli in order to determine predictors for EE. A descriptive study based on observations of patient population diagnosed with IE was conducted at the Hospital Italiano of La Plata during

  14. Superantigen Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis Isolates

    Chung, Jin-Won; Karau, Melissa J.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Ballard, Alessandro D.; Tilahun, Ashenafi; Khaleghi, Shahryar Rostamkolaei; David, Chella S.; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan


    The frequency of superantigen production among Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with endocarditis is not well defined. We tested 154 S. aureus isolates from definite infective endocarditis cases for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, H and TSST-1 by PCR, ELISA and using an HLA-DR3 transgenic mouse splenocyte proliferation assay. Sixty-three isolates (50.8%) tested positive for at least one superantigen gene, with 21 (16.9%) testing positive for more than two. tst (28.6%) was most common, followed by seb (27%), sea (22.2%), sed (20.6%), see (17.5%), and sec (11.1%). Of 41 methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 21 had superantigen genes, with sed being more frequently detected in this group compared to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (P<0.05). Superantigen genes were not associated with mortality (P=0.81). 75% of PCR-positive isolates induced robust splenocyte proliferation. Overall, more than half of S. aureus isolates causing endocarditis carry superantigen genes of which most are functional. PMID:24745820

  15. A Case of Infective Endocarditis and Pulmonary Septic Emboli Caused by Lactococcus lactis

    Habib, Adib; Asli, Nazih; Geffen, Yuval; Miron, Dan; Elias, Nael


    Infective endocarditis is a rare condition in children with normal hearts. We present here a case of previously healthy eleven-year-old girl with infective endocarditis and pulmonary septic emboli caused by a very rare bacterial etiology (Lactococcus lactis). Identification of this pathogen was only made by polymerase chain reaction.

  16. Infective endocarditis caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A report of two cases and review of literature.

    Subhani, Shaik; Patnaik, Amar N; Barik, Ramachandra; Nemani, Lalita


    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is known for nosocomial habitat. Infective endocarditis due to this organism is rare and challenging because of resistance to multiple broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic based on culture sensitivity reports are the key to its management. We report the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of two cases of infective endocarditis caused by S. maltophilia.

  17. 感染性心内膜炎75例临床分析%Infective endocarditis:a clinical analysis of 75 cases



    Objective To summarize the clinical features and treatment methods of infective endocarditis and to improve the treatment outcomes for infective endocarditis. Methods The clinical data of 75 patients with infective endocarditis who were admitted to our hospital from May 2003 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the clinical characteristics of this condition and discuss treatment methods. Results Fever was the major clinical symptom of infective endocarditis, accounting for 89.33% of all symptoms. Echocardiography revealed the presence of neoplasms in nearly 80% of patients. Fifty-two patients were positive for bacterial blood culture, accounting for 69.33%. A total of 41 patients developed vascular complications, including mesenteric artery embolization in 21 patients, cerebral embolism in 15 patients, splenic embolization in 3 patients, and other complications in 2 patients. Sixty-eight patients were cured and discharged from the hospital, with none experiencing late deaths. Three patients died in hospital and four gave up treatment. Conclusion Despite a lack of definite diagnostic criteria for infective endocarditis, the combination of fever monitoring, echocardiography, and blood culture can contribute to early detection of this disease, hence resulting in improved outcomes.%目的:总结感染性心内膜炎的临床特点、治疗方法,以提高感染性心内膜炎的治疗效果。方法对我院2003年5月-2012年12月收治并确诊的感染性心内膜炎患者共75例临床资料进行回顾性分析,以总结有关的临床特点,同时讨论治疗方法。结果发热为感染性心内膜炎的主要临床症状,占比为89.33%。超声心动图检查,发现有近80%的患者有赘生物。血培养细菌阳性患者有52例,占比为69.33%。本组患者共有41人发生血管并发症。其中:肠系膜动脉栓塞21例,脑栓塞15例,脾栓塞3例,其他并发症2例。治愈出院68例,出院患者

  18. Case report: Infective endocarditis caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis

    Chen Tun-Chieh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reports in the literature of invasive infection caused by Brevundimonas vesicularis in patients without immunosuppression or other predisposing factors. The choice of antimicrobial therapy for bacteremia caused by the pathogen requires more case experience to be determined. Case presentation The case of a 40-year-old previously healthy man with subacute endocarditis proposed to be contributed from an occult dental abscess is described. The infection was found to be caused by B. vesicularis on blood culture results. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with ceftriaxone followed by subsequent ciprofloxacin therapy owing to an allergic reaction to ceftriaxone and treatment failure with ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. vesicularis as a cause of infective endocarditis. According to an overview of the literature and our experience, we suggest that third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin are effective in treating invasive B. vesicularis infections, while the efficacy of ampicillin-sulbactam needs further evaluation.

  19. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review

    Mahek Shah; Soumya Patnaik; Supakanya Wongrakpanich; Yaser Alhamshari; Talal Alnabelsi


    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral...

  20. Infective Endocarditis Due To Haemophilus Aphrophilus: A Case Report

    Pereira,Ricardo M.; Bucaretchi,Fabio; Tresoldi,Antonia T.


    Objective: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. Description: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur was observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL), total leukocytes of 11,920 mm3, platelets of 250,000 mm3, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-...

  1. [Optimization of postoperative medical therapy of infective endocarditis in patients with congenital valvular heart disease].

    Chistyakov, I S; Medvedev, A P; Pichugin, V V


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined surgical and medical treatment of infective endocarditis in patients with congenital valvular heart disease when included in a regimen of the drug Reamberin. In this regard, the analysis of the effectiveness of a combination regimen of 74 patients with valvular congenital heart diseases complicated with infective endocarditis. Given the indications for surgical correction operative technique features and possible technical difficulties in carrying out such operations, due to the inflammatory changes and tissue destruction, and ways to overcome them. For the correction of metabolic disorders in the postoperative period, 47 patients (main group) was appointed Reamberin: once, intravenous drip 400 ml/day during the first 5 days after surgery. 27 patients (control group) was conducted infusion therapy depending on the severity of the condition according to the classical scheme. In addition to standard clinical and laboratory examination, to assess the effectiveness of Reamberin was investigated catalase activity of CPK in blood serum in the dynamics of observation (1, 3 and 5 days after surgery). It is revealed that surgical approach, used in complex treatment of patients with valvular congenital heart diseases, including reorganization of the cavities of the heart, increasing the frequency of joints and the use of reinforcing strips of synthetic material that prevents the cutting of sutures through the inflamed tissue has achieved good short-and long-term results. Infective endocarditis and destruction of the valvular annulus fibrosus the use of a frame of strips of polytetrafluoroethylene allows you to restore its integrity and to implant a mechanical prosthesis. The inclusion in the regimen of patients with infective endocarditis complicated by cardiac insufficiency in the early postoperative period the drug Reamberin improves the efficiency of treatment by a more rapid restoration of the normal

  2. Endocardite infecciosa valvar submetida a tratamento cirúrgico: análise de 64 casos Infective valve endocarditis treated by surgery: analysis of 64 cases

    Demóstenes G. Lima Ribeiro


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar aspectos clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, no Hospital de Messejana, Fortaleza, CE, no período de 1988 a 2003. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo, da fase hospitalar, de 64 pacientes portadores de endocardite infecciosa, submetidos à substituição valvar aórtica e/ou mitral, vegectomia e plastia da tricúspide e excisão da valva pulmonar, como parte do tratamento. Analisados o sexo, a idade, o tempo decorrido entre a internação e a cirurgia e entre a internação e a alta hospitalar, a valva acometida, o resultado da hemocultura, o procedimento cirúrgico efetuado e a mortalidade. RESULTADOS: A endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, preponderou na terceira década, 81,2% dos pacientes eram masculinos. O tempo decorrido entre a internamento e a cirurgia foi menor nos pacientes que faleceram. A valva aórtica, de modo isolado ou associado, foi acometida em 65% dos casos. Hemoculturas foram positivas em 42%; em 52,4% delas, isolou-se Estafilolococo aureus. Necessitaram de substituição valvar 93,7% dos pacientes. Houve mortalidade de 14,1%, não influenciada pela idade nem pelo resultado da hemocultura. CONCLUSÃO: Endocardite infecciosa valvar, submetida ao tratamento cirúrgico, foi mais freqüente em homens e na terceira década. Acometeu preferencialmente a valva aórtica. Estafilolococo aureus foi o patógeno mais comum. Na quase totalidade dos casos, procedeu-se substituição valvar e a mortalidade hospitalar foi de 14,1%.OBJECTIVE: To identify some aspects of the infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery, as well as antibiotic therapy, in a public hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from1988 to 2003. METHOD: A retrospective and observational study of 64 patients with Infective Valve Endocarditis who required aortic and/or mitral valve replacement, tricuspid vegectomy and repair or pulmonary valve valvulectomy

  3. Clinical Features of Right-sided Infective Endocarditis

    杨莉; 伍卫; 王景峰; 张燕; 张小玲


    Objective To discuss thepathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of right-sided infective endocarditis (RIE) . Methods To investigate retrospectively the clinical data of patients with RIE admitted in our hospital from Jan 1985 to Dec 2000.Results There were 17 cases of RIE (12 male, 5female, mean age 22 years), among which 7 with congenital heart disease, 1 with pacemaker implantation and 9 with a history of intravenous drug abuse but without underlying heart disease. Fever and multiple pulmonary emboli were the major clinical manifestations. Blood cultures were positive in 8 cases with Staphylococcus aureus as the predominant microorganism. Echocardiography detected right heart vegetations in all cases, with tricuspid valve as the structure most frequently affected. Most patients were successfully treated with antimicrobials. The outcome was favourable, with a mortality of 11.8 % . Conclusions The clinical features of RIE are different from that of left-sided infective endocarditis (LIE) . Echocardiography plays an important role in the diagnosis of RIE.

  4. 感染性心内膜炎的临床护理分析%Clinical Nursing Analysis of Infective Endocarditis



    目的:探讨感染性心肌膜炎的临床护理。方法选取2014年3月~2015年4月收治的感染性心内膜炎患者24例的临床护理方法和资料进行分析。结果24例感染性心内膜炎患者的临床治疗及护理均获临床痊愈。结论通过临床治疗及护理使患者的体温恢复至正常范围。患者自诉疼痛减轻或消失;心排血量恢复,血压正常,脉搏有力,无并发症发生或被及时发现并得到妥善处理,焦虑减轻或消失。%Objective To investigate the clinical nursing care of patients with infectious myocardial membrane. Methods The clinical nursing methods and data of 24 patients with infective endocarditis treated in our hospital from April2014 to March 2015 were analyzed. Results The clinical treatment and nursing of 24 patients with infective endocarditis were al cured. Conclusion The body temperature returned to normal range through clinical treatment and nursing care. The patient reported pain relieved or disappeared,recovery of cardiac output,blood pressure is normal,strong pulse. No complications occurred or were found to be treated in time,anxiety or loss was relieved or disappeared.

  5. Infective Endocarditis Prophylaxis in Patients Undergoing Oral Surgery

    Zoumpoulakis M.


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE, an infection of the endocardium that usually involves the valves and adjacent structures, may be caused by a wide variety of bacteria and fungi that entered the bloodstream and settled in the heart lining, a heart valve or a blood vessel. The IE is uncommon, but people with some heart conditions have a greater risk of developing it. Despite advances in medical, surgical, and critical care interventions, the IE remains a disease that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, in order to minimize the risk of adverse outcome and achieve a yet better management of complications, it is crucial to increase the awareness of all the prophylactic measures of the IE.

  6. Antibiotic prophylaxis in infective endocarditis: Use or abuse?

    Nisha Thakur


    Full Text Available Introduction: The American Heart Association (AHA recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis for infective endocarditis (IE are controversial. According to the new guidelines released by the AHA now, the only patients to receive antibiotics will be those at highest risk, i.e. those with a prosthetic heart valve, a history of endocarditis, certain forms of congenital heart disease or valvulopathy after heart transplantation, and only before certain dental procedures. Unfortunately, these guidelines are still based largely on expert opinion, with very little hard evidence to show that antibiotic therapy actually prevents IE. The Hypothesis: The reported incidence of bacteremia during dental intervention ranges from 10% to 100% and, with daily brushing and flossing, from 20% to 68%. Because bacteremia also occurs during brushing and flossing of teeth, why give prophylaxis just for dental procedures? Moreover, the risks of causing adverse or anaphylactic reactions from antibiotics as well as contributing to the nationwide antibiotic resistance problem are issues not to be taken lightly. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The hypothesis discusses the AHA recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis for IE, indicating some inherent limitations associated with it, and stresses upon the fact that these recommendation should also be updated, if not completely changed, to cope up with the advancements in the proper treatment plan.

  7. Dentists’ knowledge and practice regarding prevention of infective endocarditis

    Ryalat, Soukaina; Hassona, Yazan; Al-Shayyab, Mohammad; Abo-Ghosh, Mais; Sawair, Faleh


    Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge and practice of dentists from Jordan, regarding prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) in dental practice. Materials and Methods: A sample of Jordanian dentists was interviewed regarding their IE knowledge and practice using a validated and pretested survey instrument. Results: Most of the dentists have encountered a patient with IE who needed prophylactic antibiotic (PA) and have prescribed antibiotics to prevent IE. Jordanian dentists’ approach to patients in need for PA varied between the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommendations and the American Heart Association to a lesser degree, but still a relatively high percent (39%) did not know any guidelines to follow although 74% have encountered patients who needed endocarditis prophylaxis. Patients with prosthetic heart valve were ranked on top of medical conditions that required PA (87.4%), and most dentists (94.5%) thought that dental extractions need PA followed by periodontal surgery (88.2%). Conclusion: There is a lack of consistency in the knowledge and practice of Jordanian dentists with regard to IE. There is a need to take actions to improve dentist's knowledge regarding this topic. PMID:28042262

  8. Infective endocarditis and phlebotomies may have killed mozart.

    Lee, Simon Jong-Koo


    Thirty-five year-old Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna after an acute illness that lasted only 15 days but no consensus has been reached on the cause of his death. From many letters written by his farther it is almost certain that he experienced at least three episodes of acute rheumatic fever attack in his childhood, and a relapse of rheumatic fever was suggested to have killed Mozart, although death from acute rheumatic fever is very rare in adults. His last illness was characterized by high fever, massive edema, vomiting and skin rash. His last illness can be explained by infectious endocarditis and heart failure. During his last hours, he was given phlebotomy, possibly for the third time in two weeks, and soon after he became unconscious and died. As such, phlebotomy performed on a man dehydrated by high fever and vomiting may have caused systemic shock. In summary, Mozart probably died from chronic rheumatic heart disease complicated by infective endocarditis and heart failure, and repeated phlebotomy-induced hypovolemic shock.

  9. Infective endocarditis due to Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    Yoshino, Yusuke; Okugawa, Shu; Kimura, Satoshi; Makita, Eiko; Seo, Kazunori; Koga, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Kitazawa, Takatoshi; Ota, Yasuo


    We report the case of using a long-term combination of meropenem and amikacin to treat infective endocarditis caused by Enterobacter cloacae resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as the E. cloacae in our study, may become possible pathogens of infective endocarditis. Our experience with this case indicates that long-term use of a combination of β-lactam and aminoglycosides might represent a suitable management option for future infective endocarditis cases due to non-Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella spp. (HACEK group) Gram-negative bacilli such as ours.

  10. Bartonella species as a cause of infective endocarditis in the UK.

    Chaloner, G L; Harrison, T G; Birtles, R J


    Bartonella spp. are increasingly implicated in infectious endocarditis cases in the UK. Herein, we attempted to quantify their role in this syndrome and explored the epidemiology of Bartonella-associated endocarditis in the UK. Between November 2005 and October 2010, samples from 685 endocarditis patients were submitted to the Health Protection Agency for Bartonella serology. Serological evidence of infection was obtained for 57 (8·3%) patients. PCR-based evidence of infection was obtained from 13 out of 14 patients for whom heart valve tissue was available, with Bartonella quintana implicated in 12 cases and B. henselae in one. Six patients with B. quintana endocarditis were recent immigrants into the UK, of whom four lived in poor socioeconomic conditions. These results indicate that Bartonella is a not uncommon cause of endocarditis in the UK and should be considered particularly in patients raised in eastern Europe and/or with a history of homelessness or alcoholism.

  11. Infective endocarditis in Turkey: aetiology, clinical features, and analysis of risk factors for mortality in 325 cases

    Serap Şimşek-Yavuz


    Conclusions: In Turkey, IE occurs in relatively young patients and Brucella spp should always be taken into consideration as a cause of this infection. We should first consider streptococci as the causative agents of IE in young patients, those with CRHD or congenital heart valve disease, and cases of community-acquired IE. Staphylococci should be considered first in the case of pacemaker lead IE, when there are high levels of creatinine, and in cases of healthcare-associated IE. Enterococci could be the most probable causative agent of IE particularly in patients aged >50 years, those on dialysis, those with late prosthetic valve IE, and those with a perivalvular abscess. The early diagnosis and treatment of IE before complications develop is crucial because the mortality rate is high among cases with serious complications. The prevention of bacteraemia with the measures available among chronic haemodialysis patients should be a priority because of the higher mortality rate of subsequent IE among this group of patients.

  12. Candidial Endocarditis: A Single-Institute Pathological Analysis.

    Vaideeswar, Pradeep


    Infective endocarditis is increasingly perceived as a byproduct of aggressive medications and/or invasive medical procedures. Some of the organisms are fungi, and in this situation, Candida species account for nearly half of all fungal IE. We report a single-institute pathological experience of 14 cases of candidial endocarditis among surgically excised cardiac tissues and autopsied cases in a 14-year period. Twelve of the 14 cases were seen as healthcare-associated invasive infections, and only five had been diagnosed antemortem. Candidial endocarditis was predominantly right-sided and valvular. The risk factors included underlying heart diseases, central venous catheterization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Mortality among the autopsied patients was related to septicemia and/or embolic complications.

  13. Case report: Candida zeylanoides infective endocarditis complicating infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Whitby, S; Madu, E C; Bronze, M S


    Despite the frequent occurrence of mucosal candidiasis in patients infected with HIV, systemic candidiasis is uncommon and usually associated with intravenous catheters, parenteral nutrition, or antibiotics and neutropenia. Most of the fungal isolates are usually Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis or Candida parapsilosis. The authors report a case of infective endocarditis due to Candida zeylanoides that occurred in a patient infected with HIV in the absence of the usual risk factors for systemic candidiasis.

  14. Analysis of clinical features for 167 cases of infective endocarditis%感染性心内膜炎患者临床特点分析

    桑文凤; 桑桂梅; 赵习德


    目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎(IE)患者临床特点变化,为临床提供合理的监护经验。方法选择2009-2013年治疗的167例IE患者,将2009-2010年治疗的79例患者作为对照组、2011-2013年治疗的88例患者作为观察组,对两组患者临床表现、病原体分布、超声心电图、基础心脏病进行数据统计和分析。结果风湿性心脏瓣膜病、无器质性心脏病对照组患者分别占20.35%、13.92%,观察组分别占9.09%、39.77%,两组患者比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);观察组患者临床表现以发热最常见,占37.50,其次为贫血占12.50%,对照组发热、贫血患者分别占15.19%、16.46%;两组患者病原体分布均以链球菌属及金黄色葡萄球菌为主分别占32.91%、52.27%及18.99%、20.45%;4年超声心动图赘生物检出率明显升高( P<0.05)。结论 IE患者临床表现以发热为主,基础心脏病为非风湿性瓣膜心脏病及先天性心脏病,常见的致病菌为链球菌属,其次为金黄色葡萄球菌,治疗上对基础心脏病患者应预防应用抗菌药物,对患者采取有效的监护措施,提高患者的生存质量。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the changes of clinical features for infective endocarditis (IE) ,so as to provide reasonable care experience for the clinic .METHODS IE patients had been chosen for 167 cases who treated during 2009 to 2013 ,and 79 cases of patients treated during 2009 to 2010 were chosen as the control group ,88 cases of patients treated during 2011 to 2013 were chosen as the observation group .The clinical performance , pathogenic microorganisms distribution ,echocardiography ,underlying heart disease were taken for statistical data and analysis .RESULTS Control group patients in rheumatic valvulopathy and without organic heart disease were 20 .35% ,13 .92% respectively and observation group were 9 .09% ,39 .77

  15. Radiologic manifestations of extra-cardiac complications of infective endocarditis

    Colen, Teran W.; Gunn, Martin; Cook, Erin; Dubinsky, Theodore [University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 1959 NE Pacific Ave, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease with high morbidity and a mortality rate of 9-30%, even with appropriate diagnosis and therapy. Septic emboli, caused by IE, can affect any organ or tissue in the body with an arterial supply and occur in 12-40% of IE cases. The most common extra-cardiac organ system involved in IE is the central nervous system. Other organs frequently involved are the lungs (especially in right-sided IE), spleen, kidneys, liver, and the musculoskeletal system. In addition, the arterial system itself is susceptible to the development of potentially fatal mycotic aneurysms. As extra-cardiac complications often antedate the clinical diagnosis of IE, it is important that the diagnosis is suggested when characteristic findings are encountered during imaging. In addition, imaging is often used to monitor the extent of complications in patients with a known diagnosis of IE. (orig.)

  16. Infective endocarditis detection through SPECT/CT images digital processing

    Moreno, Albino; Valdés, Raquel; Jiménez, Luis; Vallejo, Enrique; Hernández, Salvador; Soto, Gabriel


    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a difficult-to-diagnose pathology, since its manifestation in patients is highly variable. In this work, it was proposed a semiautomatic algorithm based on SPECT images digital processing for the detection of IE using a CT images volume as a spatial reference. The heart/lung rate was calculated using the SPECT images information. There were no statistically significant differences between the heart/lung rates values of a group of patients diagnosed with IE (2.62+/-0.47) and a group of healthy or control subjects (2.84+/-0.68). However, it is necessary to increase the study sample of both the individuals diagnosed with IE and the control group subjects, as well as to improve the images quality.

  17. Prognostic criteria for the development of infective endocarditis in children with heart pathology

    Porokhnya N.G.


    Full Text Available To determine the most informative prognostic signs of infectious endocarditis development in children with heart pathology on the background of bacterial infections clinical course of 15 cases of infective endocarditis in children aged from 1 month to 17 years was performed. The comparison group consisted of 40 children aged 5 - 17 years with mitral valve prolapse. Of 19 analyzed clinical-anamnestic predictive diagnostic features for the development of infective endocarditis in children, presence of febrile fever during infusion therapy, the operated congenital heart disease, treatment in an intensive therapy unit with mechanical ventilation, intravenous infusions through a catheter lasting more than three days, a positive blood culture during the disease course, diagnostic catheterization of large vessels were of high informative value. In a positive prognosis of infective endocarditis development with a probability of 95% and more, children underwent complex of therapeutic measures with the following observation of pediatric cardio-rheumatologist.

  18. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus;


    Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population....

  19. Infective Endocarditis Presented as a Right Atrium Mass in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Ali Asghar Moeinipour


    Full Text Available Involvement of the heart is infrequently seen in irritable bowel syndrome (IBD. We present a case of severe acute infective endocarditis diagnosed as ulcerative colitis in further workup.

  20. Penicillin G Treatment in Infective Endocarditis Patients - Does Standard Dosing Result in Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations?

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Wiggers, Henrik; Bibby, Bo Martin;


    Penicillin G is frequently used to treat infective endocarditis (IE) caused by streptococci, penicillin-susceptible staphylococci and enterococci. Appropriate antibiotic exposure is essential for survival and reduces the risk of complications and drug resistance development. We determined...


    A. A. Demin


    Full Text Available Key positions of Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis issued by the Task Force of ESC in 2009 are explained in the comments. Recent opinions on these items are presented.

  2. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor in neutropenic patients with infective endocarditis

    Borgbjerg, B. M.; Hovgaard, D.; Laursen, J. B.; Aldershvile, J.


    A well known complication in the treatment of infectious endocarditis is development of neutropenia caused by treatment with antibiotics in high concentrations over long periods. Neutropenia often necessitates discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Three patients with infectious endocarditis who developed neutropenia are reported. The patients were treated with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a haematopoietic growth factor that stimulates neutrophils. G-CSF induced an immediate increase in white blood cell count, primarily neutrophils. G-CSF may be effective in ameliorating neutropenia in patients who receive antibiotics for treatment of infectious endocarditis.

 Keywords: granulocyte colony stimulating factor;  neutropenia;  endocarditis PMID:9505928

  3. Impact of Early Valve Surgery on Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Valve Infective Endocarditis: Analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study

    Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Corey, G. Ralph; Chu, Vivian H.; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M.; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M.; Muñoz, Patricia; Murdoch, David R.; Tattevin, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hoen, Bruno; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Nacinovich, Francisco; Oses, Pablo Fernandez; Ronderos, Ricardo; Sucari, Adriana; Thierer, Jorge; Casabé, José; Cortes, Claudia; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Harris, Owen; Kennedy, Karina; Tan, Ren; Gordon, David; Papanicolas, Lito; Eisen, Damon; Grigg, Leeanne; Street, Alan; Korman, Tony; Kotsanas, Despina; Dever, Robyn; Jones, Phillip; Konecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Rees, David; Ryan, Suzanne; Feneley, Michael P.; Harkness, John; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Post, Jeffrey; Reinbott, Porl; Ryan, Suzanne; Gattringer, Rainer; Wiesbauer, Franz; Andrade, Adriana Ribas; de Brito, Ana Cláudia Passos; Guimarães, Armenio Costa; Grinberg, Max; Mansur, Alfredo José; Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejao; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; de Medeiros Tranchesi, Regina Aparecida; Paiva, Marcelo Goulart; Fortes, Claudio Querido; de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna; Golebiovski, Wilma; Lamas, Cristiane; Santos, Marisa; Weksler, Clara; Karlowsky, James A.; Keynan, Yoav; Morris, Andrew M.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Jones, Sandra Braun; Garcia, Patricia; Cereceda, M; Fica, Alberto; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Barsic, Bruno; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir; Pangercic, Ana; Rudez, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Freiberger, Tomas; Pol, Jiri; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ashour, Zainab; El Kholy, Amani; Mishaal, Marwa; Rizk, Hussien; Aissa, Neijla; Alauzet, Corentine; Alla, Francois; Campagnac, Catherine; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Selton-Suty, Christine; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Delahaye, François; Delahaye, Armelle; Vandenesch, Francois; Donal, Erwan; Donnio, Pierre Yves; Michelet, Christian; Revest, Matthieu; Tattevin, Pierre; Violette, Jérémie; Chevalier, Florent; Jeu, Antoine; Sorel, Claire; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Bernard, Yvette; Chirouze, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Mazaheri, Bahram; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Athanasia, Sofia; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Mylona, Elena; Paniara, Olga; Papanicolaou, Konstantinos; Pyros, John; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Sharma, Gautam; Francis, Johnson; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Venugopal, Krishnan; Hannan, Margaret; Hurley, John; Gilon, Dan; Israel, Sarah; Korem, Maya; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Casillo, Roberta; Cuccurullo, Susanna; Dialetto, Giovanni; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Irene, Mattucci; Ragone, Enrico; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Cecchi, Enrico; De Rosa, Francesco; Forno, Davide; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Tebini, Alessandro; Grossi, Paolo; Lattanzio, Mariangela; Toniolo, Antonio; Goglio, Antonio; Raglio, Annibale; Ravasio, Veronica; Rizzi, Marco; Suter, Fredy; Carosi, Giampiero; Magri, Silvia; Signorini, Liana; Baban, Tania; Kanafani, Zeina; Kanj, Souha S.; Yasmine, Mohamad; Abidin, Imran; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Martínez, Eduardo Rivera; Soto Nieto, Gabriel Israel; van der Meer, Jan T.M.; Chambers, Stephen; Holland, David; Morris, Arthur; Raymond, Nigel; Read, Kerry; Murdoch, David R.; Dragulescu, Stefan; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Butkevich, O.M.; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vadim, Kulichenko; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Edathodu, Jameela; Halim, Magid; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Commerford, Patrick; Commerford, Anita; Deetlefs, Eduan; Hansa, Cass; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Almela, Manuel; Armero, Yolanda; Azqueta, Manuel; Castañeda, Ximena; Cervera, Carlos; del Rio, Ana; Falces, Carlos; Garcia-de-la-Maria, Cristina; Fita, Guillermina; Gatell, Jose M.; Marco, Francesc; Mestres, Carlos A.; Miró, José M.; Moreno, Asuncion; Ninot, Salvador; Paré, Carlos; Pericas, Joan; Ramirez, Jose; Rovira, Irene; Sitges, Marta; Anguera, Ignasi; Font, Bernat; Guma, Joan Raimon; Bermejo, Javier; Bouza, Emilio; Fernández, Miguel Angel Garcia; Gonzalez-Ramallo, Victor; Marín, Mercedes; Muñoz, Patricia; Pedromingo, Miguel; Roda, Jorge; Rodríguez-Créixems, Marta; Solis, Jorge; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; Tornos, Pilar; de Alarcón, Arístides; Parra, Ricardo; Alestig, Eric; Johansson, Magnus; Olaison, Lars; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Pachirat, Orathai; Pachirat, Pimchitra; Pussadhamma, Burabha; Senthong, Vichai; Casey, Anna; Elliott, Tom; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Eyton, Christina; Klein, John L.; Bradley, Suzanne; Kauffman, Carol; Bedimo, Roger; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Douglas, Pamela; Drew, Laura; Fowler, Vance G.; Holland, Thomas; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Mudrick, Daniel; Samad, Zaniab; Sexton, Daniel; Stryjewski, Martin; Wang, Andrew; Woods, Christopher W.; Lerakis, Stamatios; Cantey, Robert; Steed, Lisa; Wray, Dannah; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Bonilla, Hector; DiPersio, Joseph; Salstrom, Sara-Jane; Baddley, John; Patel, Mukesh; Peterson, Gail; Stancoven, Amy; Afonso, Luis; Kulman, Theresa; Levine, Donald; Rybak, Michael; Cabell, Christopher H.; Baloch, Khaula; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Dixon, Christy C.; Fowler, Vance G.; Harding, Tina; Jones-Richmond, Marian; Pappas, Paul; Park, Lawrence P.; Redick, Thomas; Stafford, Judy; Anstrom, Kevin; Athan, Eugene; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Karchmer, A. W.; Miró, José M.; Murdoch, David R.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Wang, Andrew; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian; Corey, G. Ralph; Durack, David T.; Eykyn, Susannah; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Miró, José M.; Moreillon, Phillipe; Olaison, Lars; Raoult, Didier; Rubinstein, Ethan; Sexton, Daniel J.


    Background. The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study. Methods. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use. Results. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non–S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, .39–1.15]; P = .15). Conclusions. In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE. PMID:25389255

  4. Clinical analysis of 120 cases of infective endocarditis%感染性心内膜炎120例临床分析

    娄秀芬; 杨德彦; 刘正印; 王焕玲; 李太生


    目的 探讨感染性心内膜炎(IE)的基础病因、致病微牛物和临床特征,提高IE的诊治水平.方法 回顾件分析北京协和医院1997年10月-2007年9月确诊的120例IE患者的临床资料.结果 120例IE患者中,108例(90.0%)为自然瓣膜心内膜炎(NVE),12例(10.0%)为人工瓣膜心内膜炎(PVE);29例(24.2%)无基础心脏病变,79例(73.1%)NVE患者存在各种基础心脏病,其中先天性心血管畸形30例(38.0%),其次为特发性二尖瓣脱垂(23例,29.1%)和风湿性心脏病(11例,13.9%).临床主要表现为发热(100.0%)、贫血(65例,54.2%)和栓塞(58例,48.3%).有83例(69.2%)细菌培养阳性,其中43例(51.8%)致病菌为链球菌.结论 IE最常见的基础心脏病前3位是先天性心血管畸形、二尖瓣脱垂和风湿性心脏病.不明原因长期发热患者应想到心内膜炎?鬃 的町能,血培养和超声心动图检查有助于IE的诊断.%Objective To improve the diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis(IE)by exploring its causes,pathogenic microorganism and clinicsI characteristics.Methods The clinical data of 120 IE patients treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 1997 to September 2007 were analyzed retrospectively.Results Of the 120 consecutive cascs diagnosed as IE according to the Duke's new criteria,79 were male and 41 female with a average age of(43.2±16.7)years old.Twelve cases were prosthetic valve endocarditis(PVE)and 108 cases native valve endocarditis(NVE)and there were no previously known heart diseases in 29 of the cases.Seventy-nine of the 108(73.1%)NVE patients had basic cardiac abnormalifies before IE diagnosis,such as congenital cardiovascular disease(30 cases),idiopathic mitral valve prolapse(23 cases)and rheumatic heart disease(11 cases).Fever(100.0%),anemia(54.2%)and embolism(48.3%)were the most common clinical manifestations in the IE development.Of the 83 patients who had a positive blood culture result,Streptococcus vividaus(51.8%)was the

  5. Long term results of mechanical prostheses for treatment of active infective endocarditis

    Guerra, J; Tornos, M; Permanyer-Miralda, G; Almirante, B; Murtra, M; Soler-Soler, J


    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the long term results of mechanical prostheses for treating active infective endocarditis.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis and operated on in the active phase of the infection for insertion of a mechanical prosthesis.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre in a metropolitan area.
RESULTS—Between 1975 and 1997, 637 cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed in the centre. Of these, 436 were left sided (with overall mortality of 20.3%). Surgical treatment in the active phase of the infection was needed in 141 patients (72% native, 28% prosthetic infective endocarditis). Mechanical prostheses were used in 131 patients. Operative mortality was 30.5% (40 patients). Ninety one survivors were followed up prospectively for (mean (SD)) 5.4 (4.5) years. Thirteen patients developed prosthetic valve dysfunction. Nine patients suffered reinfection: four of these (4%) were early and five were late. The median time from surgery for late reinfection was 1.4 years. During follow up, 12 patients died. Excluding operative mortality, actuarial survival was 86.6% at five years and 83.7% at 10 years; actuarial survival free from death, reoperation, and reinfection was 73.1% at five years and 59.8% at 10 years.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients surviving acute infective endocarditis and receiving mechanical prostheses, the rate of early reinfection compares well with reported results of homografts. In addition, prosthesis dysfunction rate is low and long term survival is good. These data should prove useful for comparison with long term studies, when available, using other types of valve surgery in active infective endocarditis.

Keywords: infective endocarditis; surgery; mechanical prosthesis PMID:11410564

  6. The diagnostic ability of echocardiography for infective endocarditis and its associated complications.

    Vilacosta, Isidre; Olmos, Carmen; de Agustín, Alberto; López, Javier; Islas, Fabián; Sarriá, Cristina; Ferrera, Carlos; Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; Sánchez-Enrique, Cristina; Vivas, David; San Román, Alberto


    Echocardiography, transthoracic and transoesophageal, plays a key role in the diagnosis and prognosis assessment of patients with infective endocarditis. It constitutes a major Duke criterion and is pivotal in treatment guiding. Seven echocardiographic findings are major criteria in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) (vegetation, abscess, pseudoaneurysm, fistulae, new dehiscence of a prosthetic valve, perforation and valve aneurysm). Echocardiography must be performed as soon as endocarditis is suspected. Transoesophageal echocardiography should be done in most cases of left-sided endocarditis to better define the anatomic lesions and to rule out local complications. Transoesophageal echocardiography is not necessary in isolated right-sided native valve IE with good quality transthoracic examination and unequivocal echocardiographic findings. Echocardiography is a very useful tool to assess the prognosis of patients with IE at any time during the course of the disease. Echocardiographic predictors of poor outcome include presence of periannular complications, prosthetic dysfunction, low left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary hypertension and very large vegetations.

  7. Are new recommendations on the prevention of infective endocarditis applicable in our environment?

    Ivanović Branislava


    Full Text Available Introduction. Over half a century ago the process of prevention of infective endocarditis in patients with predisposed cardiac diseases was started. The application of prevention has been based on the fact that infective endocarditis is preceded by bacteraemia, which can be caused by some invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and whose development can be prevented by applying antibiotics before an intervention. According to the latest guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology published this year, prevention is recommended only in high risk patients with previous infective endocarditis, prosthetic valves, cyanotic congenital heart diseases without surgical repair or with residual defects, palliative shunts or conduits, congenital heart diseases with complete repair with prosthetic material up to six months after the procedure (surgery or percutaneous intervention, and when the residual defect persists at the site of implantation of a prosthetic material. In addition, antibiotic prophylaxis is limited to dental procedures with the manipulation of gingival or periapical region of the teeth or perforation of the oral mucosa. Objective. The aim of this testing was to confirm whether these novelties in recommendations were applicable in our environment. Methods. Fifty-seven patients (44 men and 13 women with infective endocarditis were included in the testing. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed in 68% of patients based on two major criteria and in 32% based on one major and three minor criteria. Results. In 54.4% of patients the entry site of infection could be determined. Twenty-one percent of patients developed infection after a dental intervention, 17.5% of patients the infection occurred after a skin/soft tissue lesion, whereas urinary infection preceded infective endocarditis in 14% of patients and bowel diverticulosis was a possible cause in of 1.75% of patients. In all cases with infective endocarditis preceded by the dental

  8. Infective endocarditis associated with artificial iliofemoral vascular prosthesis infection in a patient with caries

    Beata P. Kraśnicka-Sokół


    Full Text Available One of the most significant causes of infective endocarditis is a lack of hygiene in the oral cavity. The diversity of the possible clinical course dependent on the primary location of the disease and the extension to other organs require personalised and multidisciplinary treatment. We present 53-year-old patient admitted to the hospital with recurrent fever and left lower extremity pain. Ultrasound of the left groin showed a structure that seemed like a haematoma. Based on positive blood culture and bacterial vegetation on the tricuspid valve shown in echocardiography, infective endocarditis was diagnosed. Antibiotics by antibiogram were enabled with no clinical effect. Additionally, computed tomography of the left groin was performed, which visualised an abscess surrounding a vascular prosthesis implanted 2 years earlier. Four-week antibiotic treatment preceded by replacing the infected prosthesis with a saphenous vein graft was commissioned. Clinical improvement and lowering of C-reactive protein were observed. The presented case is to show the route of therapy for complicated infected endocarditis.

  9. Infective endocarditis with Abiotrophia defectiva: the first Australian experience.

    Assche, Anthony F Van; Stephens, Dianne P


    A 40-year old Indigenous woman with a history of mitral valve replacement was admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital, Northern Territory, for an elective cone biopsy of the cervix. During the admission, she had recurrent fever and joint pain of the left knee. Blood was cultured, and she was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Abiotrophia defectiva was identified from the culture, and a transoesophageal echocardiogram revealed endocarditis of the mitral valve prosthesis. A review of the English-language literature suggests that this is the first reported case of Abiotrophia endocarditis in Australia, and the third reported case of prosthetic-valve endocarditis caused by this species worldwide.

  10. Platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence Staphylococcus aureus-platelet interactions or infective endocarditis.

    Daga, Shruti; Shepherd, James G; Callaghan, J Garreth S; Hung, Rachel K Y; Dawson, Dana K; Padfield, Gareth J; Hey, Shi Y; Cartwright, Robyn A; Newby, David E; Fitzgerald, J Ross


    Cardiac vegetations result from bacterium-platelet adherence, activation and aggregation, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in infective endocarditis. The GPIIb/IIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptors play a central role in platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation induced by endocarditis pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, but the influence of known polymorphisms of these receptors on the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis is unknown. We determined the GPIIIa platelet antigen Pl(A1/A2) and FcγRIIa H131R genotype of healthy volunteers (n = 160) and patients with infective endocarditis (n = 40), and investigated the influence of these polymorphisms on clinical outcome in infective endocarditis and S. aureus-platelet interactions in vitro. Platelet receptor genotype did not correlate with development of infective endocarditis, vegetation characteristics on echocardiogram or the composite clinical end-point of embolism, heart failure, need for surgery or mortality (P > 0.05 for all), even though patients with the GPIIIa Pl(A1/A1) genotype had increased in vivo platelet activation (P = 0.001). Furthermore, neither GPIIIa Pl(A1/A2) nor FcγRIIa H131R genotype influenced S. aureus-induced platelet adhesion, activation or aggregation in vitro (P > 0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that the GPIIIa and FcγRIIa platelet receptor polymorphisms do not influence S. aureus-platelet interactions in vitro or the clinical course of infective endocarditis.

  11. An approach to a patient with infective endocarditis.

    Hitzeroth, J; Beckett, N; Ntuli, P


    Although infective endocarditis (IE) is relatively uncommon, it remains an important clinical entity with a high in-hospital and 1-year mortality. It is most commonly caused by viridans streptococci. Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a malignant course of IE and often requires early surgery to eradicate. Other rarer causes are various bacilli, including the HACEK (Haemophilus, Actinobacillus,Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella spp.) group of organisms and fungi. The clinical presentation varies. Patients may present with a nonspecific illness, valve dysfunction, heart failure (HF) and symptoms due to peripheral embolisation. The diagnosis is traditionally based on the modified Duke criteria and rests mainly on clinical features and to a lesser extent on certain laboratory findings,microbiological assessment and cardiovascular imaging. Identification of the offending micro-organism is not only important from a diagnostic point of view, but also makes targeted antibiotic treatment possible and provides useful prognostic information. A significant proportion of microbiological cultures are negative, frequently owing to the administration of antibiotics prior to appropriate culture.Blood-culture-negative IE poses significant diagnostic and treatment challenges. The course of the disease is frequently complicated, and sequelae include HF, local intracardiac extension of infection (abscess, fistula, pseudoaneurysm), stroke and intracranial haemorrhage due to septic emboli or mycotic aneurysm formation as well as renal injury. Management includes prolonged intravenous antibiotics and consideration for early surgery with removal of infective tissue and valve replacement in patients who have poor prognostic features or complications. Antibiotic administration for at-risk patients to prevent bacteraemia during specific procedures (particularly dental) is recommended to prevent IE. The patient population who would benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis has become

  12. Infective endocarditis of a rare etiology: Serratia marcescens

    Đokić Milomir


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a severe disease, fatal before penicillin discovery. Atypical presentations frequently led to delayed diagnosis and poor outcome. There was little information about the natural history of the vegetations during medical treatment or the relation of morphologic changes in vegetation to late complications. Application of a new diagnostic criteria and echocardiography, increased the number of definite diagnosis. Trans-thoracic and trans-esophageal echocardiography had an established role in the management of patients with IE. The evolution of vegetation size, its mobility, and consistency, the extent of the disease, and the severity of valvular regurgutation were related to late complications. With therapeutic options including modern antibiotic treatment and early surgical intervention IE turned out to be a curable disease. Reduction in mortality also depended on prevention. Antibiotic prophylaxis of IE was important, but low mortality was also the result of early treatment, especially in the event of early recognition of symptoms and signs of the disease.

  13. Streptococcus agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart

    Nobuhiro Ariyoshi


    Full Text Available A 38-year-old Caucasian man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted with a 1-week duration of fevers, chills, and a non-productive cough. He had a left ischiorectal abscess 1 month prior to admission. Physical examination revealed caries on a left upper molar and a well-healed scar on the left buttock, but no heart murmur or evidence of micro-emboli. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus agalactiae. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass in the right ventricle that attached to chordae tendineae without valvular disease or dysfunction. A computed tomography (CT with contrast revealed the mass within the right ventricle, a left lung cavitary lesion, and a splenic infarction. He was initially treated with penicillin G for a week. Subsequently, ceftriaxone was continued for a total of 8 weeks. A follow-up CT showed no evidence of right ventricular mass 8 weeks after discharge. This is the first reported case of S. agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart.

  14. Imaging of the neurological complications of infective endocarditis

    Kim, S.J.; Lee, J.Y.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, S.C.; Choi, Y.H. [Department of Radiology, Dankook University College of Medicine, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Pai, H. [Department of Internal Medicine, Dankook University College of Medicine, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, W.S. [Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We describe the findings on CT or MRI in five patients with neurological symptoms and underlying infective endocarditis (IE). We noted the size, number, and distribution of lesions, the presence or absence of haemorrhage, and contrast enhancement patterns. The number of lesions ranged from 4 to more than 10 in each patient. Their size varied from punctate to 6 cm; they were distributed throughout the brain. The lesions could be categorized into four patterns based on imaging features. A cortical infarct pattern was seen in all patients. Patchy lesions, which did not enhance, were found in the white matter or basal ganglia in three. Isolated, tiny, nodular or ring-enhancing white matter lesions were seen in three patients, and parenchymal haemorrhages in four. In addition to the occurrence of multiple lesions with various patterns in the same patient, isolated, tiny, enhancing lesions in the white matter seemed to be valuable features which could help to differentiate the neurological complications of IE from other thromboembolic infarcts. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 11 refs.

  15. Pyogenic Ventriculitis Complicating Aggregatibacter aphrophilus Infective Endocarditis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Gordon W Jung


    Full Text Available Pyogenic ventriculitis (PV is an uncommon, but frequently fatal infection that results from inflammation of the ventricular ependymal lining associated with a purulent ventricular system. PV has been rarely reported as a secondary complication of infective endocarditis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with appropriate culture-directed antibiotics with adequate central nervous system penetration is crucial when managing patients who are suspected of having PV. The present study reports on a fatal case of a previously well 42-year-old alcoholic woman with infective endocarditis caused by Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, with secondary brain abscess and spontaneous rupture into the ventricles causing PV.

  16. The Preoperative Evaluation of Infective Endocarditis via 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    Yong, Matthew S; Saxena, Pankaj; Killu, Ammar M; Coffey, Sean; Burkhart, Harold M; Wan, Siu-Hin; Malouf, Joseph F


    Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography with 3D rendition revealed a large abscess involving the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa, together with a mycotic aneurysm that had ruptured into the left atrium, resulting in a left ventricle-to-left atrium fistula. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography enabled superior preoperative anatomic delineation and surgical planning. We conclude that 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can be a useful adjunct to traditional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  17. Clinical analysis of 15 cases of right-sided infective endocarditis%右心感染性心内膜炎15例临床分析

    郭颖; 巩路


    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of 15 patients with right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE). Methods The clinical data of 15 RSIE patients who were hospitalized in our department from January 2004 to December 2010 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results Right-sided infective endocarditis was usually associated with underlying heart diseases. Congenital cardiovascular disease was found in 7 (46. 7%) patients. Five (33. 3%) patients were drug addicts. The most common clinical manifestations were fever (100%), changes of heart murmur (n= 12, 80%) and pneumonia, lung abscess or septic pulmonary embolism (n= 13, 86. 7%). Of the 11 patients who had a positive blood culture, Staphylococcus aureus (54.5%) was the most common isolated microorganism, including 1 methicillin-resistant strain, followed by Streptococcus viridans (n = 4, 36.3%). One Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate was the pathogen of hospital infection. Eleven (73. 3%) of the 15 patients were cured or improved. Eight of these patients received antimicrobial therapy alone. Three were treated with antibiotics combined with surgery. One patient died of multiple organ failure caused by severe P. Aeruginosa infection. Conclusions Congenital cardiovascular disease and drug addict are the two most prevalent predisposing factors for RSIE. The most prominent clinical features of RSIE are high fever, pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. S. Aureus is the most common pathogen. The prognosis is favorable in most patients.%目的 回顾性分析右心感染性心内膜炎(RSIE)的临床特征,为其早期诊断和及时治疗提供临床参考.方法 对天津医科大学总医院2004年1月-2010年12月住院治疗的15例右心感染性心内膜炎患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 有基础心脏病者9例,其中先天性心脏病7例(46.7%),室间隔缺损最为常见;静脉药瘾者5例(33.3%);不洁静脉输液史2例;拔牙史1例.临床主要表现为发热(100

  18. Quadricuspid aortic valve complicated with infective endocarditis: report of a case.

    Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Sakaki, Masayuki; Inoue, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takashi; Suehiro, Yasuo; Miura, Takuya


    Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare cardiac malformation with an unknown risk of infective endocarditis. We report a case of quadricuspid aortic valve complicated with infective endocarditis. A 53-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized with leg edema and a fever of unknown origin. Corynebacterium striatum was detected in the blood culture. Echocardiography demonstrated a quadricuspid aortic valve with vegetation and severe functional regurgitation. The condition was diagnosed as a quadricuspid aortic valve with infective endocarditis, for which surgery was performed. The quadricuspid aortic valve had three equal-sized cusps and one smaller cusp (type B according to Hurwitz classification). We dissected the vegetation and infectious focus and implanted a mechanical valve. Following the case report, we review the literature.

  19. Aortic Valve Replacement for Infective Endocarditis in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    Masmoudi Sayda


    Full Text Available Renal transplant recipients are more prone to developing infections. We report a 37-year old renal transplant recipient who developed infective endocarditis of the aortic valve, heart failure and renal allograft dysfunction. He underwent aortic valve replacement which was followed by improvement in cardiac as well as allograft function.

  20. 感染性心内膜炎75例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 75 cases with infective endocarditis

    邱惠; 李虹伟


    Objective: To investigate clinical characteristics of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in order to early diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Clinical data of 75 IE patients in our hospital from Jan 1995 to May 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Their basic heart disease, etiological bacteria, clinical feature and results of echocar-diography examination were analyzed. Results: In 75 IE patients, there were 65 cases with heart diseases. In which, the incidence rate of rheumatic heart disease (41. 5%) occupied the first place, next they were congenital heart disease (24. 6%) , aged degenerative valvular disease (13. 8%) . Positive rate of blood culture was 46. 7% , and the major pathogenic bacteria were streptococcus (48.6%) and staphylococcus (28.6%). There's a high positive rate (96%) in echocardiography examination; there were healing of 62 cases (82.7%, 62/75) and death of 13 cases (17.3%). Conclusion: Correctly use echocardiography and blood culture examination helps to early diagnosis and treatment.%目的:分析感染性心内膜炎(IE)患者临床特点,以便早期诊断与治疗.方法:回顾性分析1995年1月~2012年5月我院确诊的75例IE患者的临床资料,分析其心脏基础疾病情况、病原菌、临床表现和超声心动图检查结果.结果:75例IE中65例患有各种心脏病,其中风湿性心脏病占首位(41.5%),其次为先天性心脏病(24.6%),老年退行性瓣膜病(13.8%);血培养阳性率为46.7%,病原菌以链球菌(48.6%)和葡萄球菌(28.6%)多见;超声心动图检查阳性率高(96%);35.4%患者在抗感染治疗后接受心外科手术治疗,痊愈62例(82.7%,62/75),死亡13例(17.3%).结论:正确应用超声心动图和血培养检查,有助于早期诊断和治疗.

  1. Reversible Cortical Blindness as a Prominent Manifestation of Cerebral Embolism due to Infective Endocarditis

    Georgios P. Kranidiotis


    Full Text Available Introduction. Infective endocarditis in the left heart may be complicated by stroke, due to embolisation from infectious valvular vegetations. Infarction of both occipital lobes, which are supplied by the posterior cerebral arteries, is infrequent, and is the cause of cortical blindness from lesion of the visual cortex. Cortical blindness is characterized by intact pupillary reflexes, a normal fundoscopy, and, rarely, denial of visual loss. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman, recipient of a mechanical aortic valve, who presented with fever, multiple organ dysfunction, and cortical blindness. Transesophageal echocardiography and blood cultures confirmed the diagnosis of infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Computed tomography of the brain without contrast revealed the presence of infarctions in both occipital lobes. It is noteworthy that the visual loss resolved after treatment of endocarditis. Conclusions. A stroke occurring in a patient presenting with fever and a history of valvular heart disease strongly suggests the presence of infective endocarditis. Bilateral thromboembolic infarcts of the occipital lobes cause cortical blindness, that can resolve after treatment of endocarditis.

  2. Reversible Cortical Blindness as a Prominent Manifestation of Cerebral Embolism due to Infective Endocarditis.

    Kranidiotis, Georgios P; Gougoutsi, Alexandra N; Retsas, Theodoros A; Anastasiou-Nana, Maria I


    Introduction. Infective endocarditis in the left heart may be complicated by stroke, due to embolisation from infectious valvular vegetations. Infarction of both occipital lobes, which are supplied by the posterior cerebral arteries, is infrequent, and is the cause of cortical blindness from lesion of the visual cortex. Cortical blindness is characterized by intact pupillary reflexes, a normal fundoscopy, and, rarely, denial of visual loss. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman, recipient of a mechanical aortic valve, who presented with fever, multiple organ dysfunction, and cortical blindness. Transesophageal echocardiography and blood cultures confirmed the diagnosis of infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Computed tomography of the brain without contrast revealed the presence of infarctions in both occipital lobes. It is noteworthy that the visual loss resolved after treatment of endocarditis. Conclusions. A stroke occurring in a patient presenting with fever and a history of valvular heart disease strongly suggests the presence of infective endocarditis. Bilateral thromboembolic infarcts of the occipital lobes cause cortical blindness, that can resolve after treatment of endocarditis.

  3. Medtronic Freestyle Aortic Root Bioprosthesis Implantation for the Infective Endocarditis on Aortic Root

    Zekeriya Arslan


    Full Text Available    Infective endocarditis and periannular abscess formation are serious problems in cardiac valve surgery, requiring extensive surgical debridement and reconstruction of the aortic annulus. We aimed to report two cases which were successfully treated with bioprosthetic valve implantation for infective endocarditis. Transosephageal echocardiography were performed for the diagnosis of one prosthetic and one native destructive aortic valve endocarditis in association with congestive heart failure (NYHA class-VI and abscess formation. Medtronic Freestyle stentless aortic root bioprosthesis was implanted into the left ventricular outflow tract after surgical radical aortic root debridement for each patient followed with medical treatment, which was extended to six weeks. Neither early nor late mortality was detected. One patient required prolonged ventilatory support (two days and permanent DDD-R pacing. Echocardiography showed no signs of valve dysfunction or recurrent endocarditis for both patients in 10 months follow up.Medtronic Freestyle stentless aortic root bioprosthesis may be a good alternative way of treatment to aortic valve and root endocarditis instead of homograft.

  4. Endocardite infecciosa em adolescentes. Análise dos fatores de risco de mortalidade intra-hospitalar Infective endocarditis in adolescents. analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality

    Nádia Barreto Tenório Aoun


    patients. Congenital heart disease (24% and cardiac prosthesis (12% were the other affections involved. The majority of patients (78% were in functional class III and IV, with more deaths than the 22% who were in functional class I and II (p=0.01. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated agent (42% of the positive blood cultures, followed by Staphylococcus viridans, 21%. Multivariate analysis identified total leukocyte count above 10,000/mm³ and functional class, both at admission (p=0.01 and p=0.004, respectively, and the occurrence of embolic complications (p=0.03 as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Rheumatic heart disease remains, as in adults, the main predisposing factor for infective endocarditis in adolescents, and S.aureus is, like in children, the leading agent. Mortality is high and functional class at hospital admission, embolic complications and leukocytosis are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.




    Platelets activated with thrombin release bactericidal factors. We studied the role of the susceptibility of viridans streptococci to these bactericidal factors in the development of infective endocarditis (IE). By using the experimental endocarditis rabbit model, the initial adherence and the devel

  6. Aortocavitary fistula as a complication of infective endocarditis and subsequent complete heart block in a patient with severe anemia

    Jose N. Galeas


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis has different presentations depending on the involvement of valvular and perivalvular structures, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Aortocavitary fistula is a rare complication. We introduce the case of a 48-year-old female with native valve endocarditis, complicated by aortocavitary fistula to the right atrium, and consequently presented with syncope.

  7. Systemic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection not associated with endocarditis highlighting bacteriological diagnosis difficulties Case report and literature review.

    Volard, Bertrand; Mignot, Loïc; Piednoir, Emmanuel; de Champs, Christophe; Limelette, Anne; Guillard, Thomas


    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is mostly isolated in swine causing erysipelas. Human invasive infections due to E. rhusiopathiae remain poorly described and interestingly bacteraemia associated with endocarditis are a source of ineffective empirical antibiotherapy. We report a case of sepsis without endocarditis due to E. rhusiopathiae and a review of the literature.

  8. Presence of a biomaterial implant facilitates induction of experimental infective endocarditis due to streptococci and staphylococci

    Zaat, SAJ; VanderWerff, J; Brokke, P; Feijen, J


    Infective endocarditis (IE) usually is studied using animals with catheters inserted into the heart, which causes formation of platelet-fibrin thrombi (vegetations, VGs). We used two rabbit models to study the respective roles of the catheter and the VGs in the development of IE. The influence of th

  9. Pediatric Infective Endocarditis: Has Staphylococcus aureus Overtaken Viridans Group Streptococci as the Predominant Etiological Agent?

    Aisha Alshammary


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viridans group streptococci (VGS have traditionally been the most common etiological agents of infective endocarditis (IE. Advances in cardiovascular surgery and the increasing use of long-term central venous catheters may have altered the epidemiology of pediatric IE.

  10. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: A novel and simple prognostic marker for infective endocarditis.

    Bozbay, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin


    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatining infectious disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Leukocytes play a main role in infectious diseases. Neutrophils and lymphocytes are subgroup of leukocytes, and they are routinely measured as a part of automated complete blood count test. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an independent predictor of unfavorable clinical outcomes in infectious and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Turning 18 with congenital heart disease : prediction of infective endocarditis based on a large population

    Verheugt, Carianne L.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; van der Velde, Enno T.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Pieper, Petronella G.; Veen, Gerrit; Stappers, Jan L. M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.


    Aims The risk of infective endocarditis (IE) in adults with congenital heart disease is known to be increased, yet empirical risk estimates are lacking. We sought to predict the occurrence of IE in patients with congenital heart disease at the transition from childhood into adulthood. Methods and re

  12. Major cerebral events in Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis: is anticoagulant therapy safe?

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars;


    OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of anticoagulation on major cerebral events in patients with left-sided Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: A prospective cohort study; the use of anticoagulation and the relation to major cerebral events was evaluated separately at onset...


    S. P. Filonenko


    . General analysis of the urine revealed proteinuria equal to 3.3 g/L. These data, combined with the history of the disease (fever for several months confirmed diagnosis of infective endocarditis, despite the absence of vegetations on heart valves. However, high degree of proteinuria required differential diagnosis with systemic connective tissue diseases, such as system lupus erythematosus. Additional examination revealed increased titers of antinuclear factor (1:5120 antibodies (AB to the double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA (93 IU/mL. In this regard, and due to an increase in proteinuria up to 10 g/L we re-assessed diagnosis: systemic lupus erythematosus, acute course, grade III of activity with the affection of kidneys (lupus nephritis with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function, glomerular filtration rate equal to 35 mL/min, serous membranes (hydrothorax on the right side, hydropericardium, heart (moderate insufficiency of mitral, aortic, tricuspid valve (grade II regurgitation, respiratory system (grade I pulmonary hypertension, haematological disorders (anemia, thrombocytopenia, seropositive for antibodies to double-stranded DNA, anti-nuclear factor; secondary hypertension.Conclusion. This case illustrates difficulties of differential diagnosis between system lupus erythematosus and infective endocarditis, especially in the early stages, when there are still no data of additional examinations.

  14. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review.

    Shah, Mahek; Patnaik, Soumya; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Alhamshari, Yaser; Alnabelsi, Talal


    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy) with an unusual outcome (B. cereus) on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve).

  15. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review

    Mahek Shah


    Full Text Available Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are <20 cases of B. cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy with an unusual outcome (B. cereus on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve.

  16. Necrotizing fasciitis and infective endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli in a hemodialysis patient.

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei; Hsieh, Shih-Chung


    Patients with uremia are often immunocompromised and uremia patients undergoing maintenance dialysis are often vulnerable to uncommon infections. We report a 40-year-old man who was undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and was initially diagnosed with monomicrobal necrotizing fasciitis of the lower limbs, based on blood and pus cultures that yielded Escherichia coli. His condition improved after surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. However, he eventually died of intracranial hemorrhage related to septic emboli. Concurrent infective endocarditis was diagnosed based on an echocardiogram that indicated vegetation in the left ventricular region. Escherichia coli-related necrotizing fasciitis and infective endocarditis is rarely seen in clinical practice. There should be a high index of suspicion for multiple infections when a hemodialysis patient presents with an uncommon infection.

  17. Clinical analysis of infective endocarditis treated with linezolid%利奈唑胺治疗感染性心内膜炎临床分析

    卢芬; 何朝生; 胡湘明; 张莉滟; 李晓明; 廖火生; 林蔡弟


    目的:探讨利奈唑胺治疗感染性心内膜炎(IE)的疗效及安全性。方法纳入2009年1月~2015年3月间于广东省人民医院平洲分院收治的诊断为感染性心内膜炎并使用利奈唑胺抗感染治疗的住院患者11例,分析其临床特点及使用利奈唑胺治疗IE的临床疗效及不良反应。结果入选患者男性6例,女性5例,平均年龄(47.0±19.4)岁;既往心脏病史:二尖瓣脱垂3例,风湿性心脏病瓣膜置换术后3例(其中1例安装起搏器),既往感染性心内膜炎病史2例,先天性心脏病史1例,无心脏病史2例;心脏瓣膜损害情况:左心自体瓣膜4例,右心自体瓣膜1例,左右心自体瓣膜1例,人工瓣膜5例;病原菌:粪肠球菌3例,丙酸丙酸杆菌1例,路邓葡萄球菌1例,金黄色葡萄球菌2例,表皮葡萄球菌1例,血链球菌1例,血培养阴性2例;血培养阳性细菌对糖肽类及噁唑酮类抗菌药物均敏感;心脏超声情况:单纯瓣膜赘生物形成5例,赘生物并穿孔3例,赘生物并瓣周脓肿1例,单纯瓣膜脓肿2例;治疗情况:急诊手术1例,择期手术4例,保守治疗6例,治愈10例,治愈率达90.90%;使用利奈唑胺时间5~56 d,平均(23.6±16.2)d;随访时间最短6个月,最长4年无复发;主要不良反应为血小板减少,总共有6例,占54.55%,患者停药和输注血小板或予重组人血小板生成素治疗后均恢复正常。结论利奈唑胺治疗IE临床疗效好,主要不良反应为血小板减少,是一种可逆性不良反应。%Objective To investigate the curative effect and safety of linezolid in treatment of infective endocarditis (IE).Methods The patients (n=11) diagnose with IE and treated with linezolid in the Pingzhou Branch of Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital were chosen from Jan. 2009 to Mar. 2015. The clinical characteristics of the patients, and curative effect and adverse

  18. Pasteurella multocida infective endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient complicated by rhabdomyolysis and permanent hearing loss

    Mikaberidz, Nino; Li, Eric Y.; Taub, Cynthia C.


    Pasteurella multocida is an inhabitant of the oral cavity of a variety of livestock and domestic pet species, especially cats and dogs. The case reported illustrates a 60-year-old, immunocompetent female patient who presented with P. multocida sepsis and aortic valve endocarditis. This required surgical bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement. Investigation also found infection-induced rhabdomyolysis and permanent hearing loss, both previously unassociated with P. multocida infection.

  19. NICE guideline on antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: attitudes to the guideline and implications for dental practice in Ireland.


    To investigate attitudes of Irish dental practitioners, cardiologists and patients with cardiac lesions to the new NICE guideline for antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis and to determine the implications of this guideline for dental practice in Ireland.

  20. The relationship between cerebrovascular complications and previously established use of antiplatelet therapy in left-sided infective endocarditis

    Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, Christian;


    Cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in infective endocarditis (IE) are common. The only established treatments to reduce the incidence of CVC in IE are antibiotics and in selected cases early cardiac surgery. Potential effects of previously established antiplatelet therapy are under debate....

  1. Analysis on the influential factors for prognosis of 81 patients with infective endocarditis%感染性心内膜炎81例预后影响因素分析

    虞燕波; 邢云利; 梁金锐


    Objective To analyze the influential factors for prognosi of patients with infective endocarditis. Methods The clinical data of 81 patients with infective endocarditis in Beijing Friendship Hospital during January 1992 to October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed and ana-lyzed. Results Among these 81 patients with infective endocarditis,the male gender was predominated with a sex ratio of 2. 1:1,48 patients (59. 3% )had basic heart diseases,70 patients(87. 4% )had fever and 60. 5% patients had anemia. The bacterial cultures were positive in 38. 3% of patients,and 22. 2% patients accepted surgical treatment. Conclusion The data in this study showed that the clinical manifestations of infective endocarditis are complex with high mortality rate. Rheumatic heart disease is the basic disease for this infection and renal impairment is the risk factor for the poor prognosis of these patients.%目的:分析感染性心内膜炎(IE)的预后影响因素。方法调查1992年1月至2013年10月北京友谊医院确诊的81例 IE 患者病例资料,对其临床特点进行回顾性分析,并对可能的相关因素进行单因素统计学分析。结果81例患者中单因素分析显示,风湿性心脏病对于感染性心内膜炎患者的 OR =5.387(95% CI 1.626-8.425),肾脏损伤对于感染性心内膜炎患者的 OR =4.233(95% CI 1.607~10.494),外科治疗对于感染性心内膜炎患者的 OR =1.153(95% CI 1.121~1.440),具有统计学意义。结论 IE 临床表现复杂,是一种危害大、病死率较高的心脏疾病;风湿性心脏基础疾病以及肾脏损伤是患者预后不良的危险因素。

  2. 感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性分析%Analysis of Pathogenic Bacteria and Drug Resistance in Patients with Endocarditis Infected Blood Culture



    目的:分析感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性,为临床提供参考。方法:通过对52例2003年9月-2013年9月本院收治的感染性心内膜炎患者进行血培养实验和病原菌耐药性实验,分析感染性心内膜炎患者血培养病原菌及其耐药性。结果:52例患者共筛选出32株病原菌,感染率为61.54%,其中革兰阳性菌株28株,占87.50%,主要为金黄色葡萄球菌、草绿色链球菌、粪肠球菌、牛链球菌、口腔链球菌和表皮葡萄球菌,革兰阳性菌对环丙沙星和庆大霉素耐药性较强,对万古霉素耐药性较差;革兰阴性菌4株,占12.50%,主要为铜绿假单胞、产气肠杆菌和大肠埃希菌,革兰阴性菌对庆大霉素耐药性较强,对头孢哌酮和环丙沙星耐药性较差。结论:金黄色葡萄球菌和草绿色链球菌是感染性心内膜炎的主要致病菌,而这两株菌对万古霉素的耐药性均较差,所以临床上可以用万古霉素作为预防和治疗感染性心内膜炎的主要抗生素,这对临床治疗感染性心内膜炎有重要的指导意义。%Objective:To analyze pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance in blood of patients with infective endocarditis,and to provide reference for clinical.Method:52 cases of patients with infective endocarditis were obtained from 2003 September to 2013 September in our hospital,which were used to do pathogen resistance experiment and blood culture experiment,and the endocarditis culture and drug resistance of pathogens were analyzed.Result:32 strains of pathogenic bacteria were screened from 52 patients,the infection rate was 61.54%,of which 28 strains were gram positive strains,accounting for 87.50%,mainly included Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus viridans,Enterococcus faecalis,Streptococcus bovis,oral Streptococcus and Staphylococcus epidermidis,the resistance of gram positive bacteria to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was strong,but the

  3. Infective endocarditis in the U.S., 1998-2009: a nationwide study.

    David H Bor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies based on local case series estimated the annual incidence of endocarditis in the U.S. at about 4 per 100,000 population. Small-scale studies elsewhere have reported similar incidence rates. However, no nationally-representative population-based studies have verified these estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the 1998-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which provides diagnoses from about 8 million U.S. hospitalizations annually, we examined endocarditis hospitalizations, bacteriology, co-morbidities, outcomes and costs. Hospital admissions for endocarditis rose from 25,511 in 1998 to 38, 976 in 2009 (12.7 per 100,000 population in 2009. The age-adjusted endocarditis admission rate increased 2.4% annually. The proportion of patients with intra-cardiac devices rose from 13.3% to 18.9%, while the share with drug use and/or HIV fell. Mortality remained stable at about 14.5%, as did cardiac valve replacement (9.6%. Other serious complications increased; 13.3% of patients in 2009 suffered a stroke or CNS infection, and 5.5% suffered myocardial infarction. Amongst cases with identified pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common, increasing from 37.6% in 1998 to 49.3% in 2009, 53.3% of which were MRSA. Streptococci were mentioned in 24.7% of cases, gram-negatives in 5.6% and Candida species in 1.0%. We detected no inflection in hospitalization rates after changes in prophylaxis recommendations in 2007. Mean age rose from 58.6 to 60.8 years; elderly patients suffered higher rates of myocardial infarction and death, but slightly lower rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections and neurologic complications. Our study relied on clinically diagnosed cases of endocarditis that may not meet strict criteria. Moreover, since some patients are discharged and readmitted during a single episode of endocarditis, our hospitalization figures probably slightly overstate the true incidence of this illness. CONCLUSIONS: Endocarditis

  4. Staphylococcus aureus β-Toxin Mutants Are Defective in Biofilm Ligase and Sphingomyelinase Activity, and Causation of Infective Endocarditis and Sepsis.

    Herrera, Alfa; Vu, Bao G; Stach, Christopher S; Merriman, Joseph A; Horswill, Alexander R; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Schlievert, Patrick M


    β-Toxin is an important virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, contributing to colonization and development of disease [Salgado-Pabon, W., et al. (2014) J. Infect. Dis. 210, 784-792; Huseby, M. J., et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14407-14412; Katayama, Y., et al. (2013) J. Bacteriol. 195, 1194-1203]. This cytotoxin has two distinct mechanisms of action: sphingomyelinase activity and DNA biofilm ligase activity. However, the distinct mechanism that is most important for its role in infective endocarditis is unknown. We characterized the active site of β-toxin DNA biofilm ligase activity by examining deficiencies in site-directed mutants through in vitro DNA precipitation and biofilm formation assays. Possible conformational changes in mutant structure compared to that of wild-type toxin were assessed preliminarily by trypsin digestion analysis, retention of sphingomyelinase activity, and predicted structures based on the native toxin structure. We addressed the contribution of each mechanism of action to producing infective endocarditis and sepsis in vivo in a rabbit model. The H289N β-toxin mutant, lacking sphingomyelinase activity, exhibited lower sepsis lethality and infective endocarditis vegetation formation compared to those of the wild-type toxin. β-Toxin mutants with disrupted biofilm ligase activity did not exhibit decreased sepsis lethality but were deficient in infective endocarditis vegetation formation compared to the wild-type protein. Our study begins to characterize the DNA biofilm ligase active site of β-toxin and suggests β-toxin functions importantly in infective endocarditis through both of its mechanisms of action.

  5. Changing profile of infective endocarditis: a clinicopathologic study of 220 patients in a single medical center from 1998 through 2009.

    Li, Li; Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Linlin; Pu, Jielin; Zhao, Hong


    The epidemiologic profile of infective endocarditis has changed substantially over the past few years, especially in industrialized countries. Our study evaluates the clinical and pathologic characteristics of infective endocarditis patients treated by cardiac surgery in China during a 12-year period. We retrospectively evaluated 220 surgically treated infective endocarditis patients and analyzed their changes from the beginning of 1998 through 2009. The mean age of the patients increased from 36.9 to 42.7 years during those 12 years (P=0.036). The chief predisposing disease was congenital heart disease (32.8%), rather than rheumatic heart disease (13.2%); this rate did not change significantly during the 12 years. The prevalent congenital lesion was bicuspid aortic valve, the rate of which (55.6%) increased significantly over the 3 time intervals studied (P=0.016). The frequency of infective endocarditis after non-dental surgical and nonsurgical intervention was significantly greater (23.3%) during 1998 through 2001, compared with the 2 intervals that followed (9%; P=0.019). Streptococcus viridans was the most frequent causative agent overall (25.6%). Forty-seven of the 220 patients (21.4%) carried the clinical diagnosis of some other form of heart disease before surgery, but at surgery they were found to have infective endocarditis as the fundamental disease process. Of 47 patients, 33 (70.2%) had either very small or no vegetations but had focal necrosis and inflammation of valve tissue that supported the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  6. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.


    S. A. Kovalev


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate in-hospital and long-term results of surgical treatment of patients with infective endocarditis of the tricuspid valve, to compare the effectiveness of valve repair and valve replacement techniques, and to identify risk factors of mortality and reoperations. Materials and methods. 31 surgical patients with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis were evaluated. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In Group 1 (n = 14 repairs of the tricuspid valve were performed, in Group 2 (n = 17 patients had undergone tricuspid valve replacements. Epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and echocardiographic data were studied. Methods of comparative analysis, the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox risk models were applied. Results. The most common complication of in-hospital stay was atrioventricular block (17.7% of cases in Group 2. In Group 1, this type of complication was not found. Hospital mortality was 7.14% in Group 1, and 0% in Group 2. Long-term results have shown the significant reduction of heart failure in general cohort and in both groups. In Group 1 the severity of heart failure in the long term was less than in Group 2. No significant differences in the severity of tricuspid regurgitation were found between the groups. In 7-year follow up no cases of death were registered in Group 1. Cumulative survival rate in Group 2 within 60 months was 67.3 ± 16.2%. No reoperations were performed in patients from Group 1. In Group 2, the freedom from reoperation within 60 months was 70.9 ± 15.3%. Combined intervention was found as predictor of postoperative mortality. Prosthetic valve endocarditis was identified as risk factor for reoperation. Conclusion. Valve repair and valve replacement techniques of surgical treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis can provide satisfactory hospital and long-term results. Tricuspid valve repair techniques allowed reducing the incidence of postoperative atrioventricular block. In the long-term, patients

  8. [An increase of infective endocarditis cases in England seen with concomitant reduction in antibiotic prophylaxis since the implementation of NICE guidelines in 2008: possible explanations].

    Tiberi, Simon; Pink, Frederick; Jayakumar, Angelina; Arioli, Francesco


    Dayer and colleagues recently reported in The Lancet an increased incidence of infective endocarditis in England since 2008, year of NICE guideline on the restriction of antibiotic prophylaxis. They observed a concomitant decrease in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. The temporal link between reduction of prophylaxis prescribing and increase of infective endocarditis raises the question of whether there is a causal association. In view of this observation, should we rethink antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis?

  9. Association Between Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement and Subsequent Infective Endocarditis and In-Hospital Death

    Regueiro, Ander; Linke, Axel; Latib, Azeem


    -hospital mortality rate was 36% (95% CI, 30.0%-41.9%; 90 deaths; 160 survivors), and surgery was performed in 14.8% (95% CI, 10.4%-19.2%) of patients during the infective endocarditis episode. In-hospital mortality was associated with a higher logistic EuroSCORE (23.1% vs 18.6%; odds ratio [OR], 1.03 per 1% increase...

  10. Epidemiology and prevention of valvular heart diseases and infective endocarditis in Africa


    Valvular heart diseases in Africa affect mainly children and young adults and are a result of rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is a preventable disease, but in Africa the combination of a lack of resources, lack of infrastructure, political, social and economic instability, poverty, overcrowding, malnutrition and lack of political will contributes to the persistence of a high burden of rheumatic fever, rheumatic valvular heart diseases and infective endocarditis. Combating and eradicating rhe...

  11. [Circulating immuns complexes and infections endocarditis. 64 cases (author's transl)].

    Herreman, G; Godeau, P; Cabane, J; Acar, J F; Digeon, M; Bach, J F


    An immunological study, with examination for circulating immune complexes (CIC) by precipitation by polyethylene-glycol (PEG) and by fixation of labelled C1q, was carried out in 64 patients with infectious endocarditis (IE). One or more complementary studies during the course of the illness were possible in 23. CIC were found in 84 p. 100 of cases (66 p. 100 of acute IE and 89 p. 100 of subacute IE), during the active phase of the disease. High levels of PEG precipitate were correlated with typical cutaneous signs (including Osler's nodes), with the presence of cryoglobulins. With effective antibiotic treatment, the level of PEG precipitate (17 patients) returned to normal within one month, in parallel with a fall in rheumatoid factor and in cryoglobulins. By contrast, ineffective treatment was invariably reflected (6 patients) by a rise in levels of PEG precipitate. The estimation of CIC using the PEG technique during IE would already appear to be a value aid in cases of difficult diagnosis, and a research area worthy of further exploration within the context of IE.

  12. Aspectos históricos da endocardite infecciosa Historical aspects of infective endocarditis

    Max Grinberg


    Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa era fatal até há três gerações. A evolução temporal do conhecimento da doença possibilitou avanços nas técnicas diagnósticas, especialmente na ecocardiografia, a possibilidade de se realizar a cirurgia cardíaca, mesmo com o processo infeccioso em atividade, e novas recomendações de profilaxia por antibióticos antes dos procedimentos de intervenção. Hoje a endocardite infecciosa é curável. Nesta revisão são abordados os aspectos históricos da endocardite, desde as observações de Osler, no século XIX, até a transformação de doença "clinicamente possível" em "clinicamente definida".Infective endocarditis was a fatal disease three generations ago. Temporal evolution of knowledge made possible important advances in diagnostic techniques, especially in echocardiography, the possibility of cardiac surgery during the active infectious process and new guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis before interventional procedures. Nowadays, infective endocarditis is curable. In this review, we describe historical aspects of endocarditis, from Osler´s observations in the 19th century to the change from a "clinically possible" to a "clinically defined" disease.

  13. Lead-dependent infective endocarditis and pocket infection – similarities and differences

    Anna Polewczyk


    Full Text Available Introduction : Infectious complications in patients with implanted pacemakers are divided into infections of the generator pocket (PI and lead-dependent infective endocarditis (LDIE. Aim of the research: Identification of risk factors for developing different types of infections and evaluation of the extent of infectious complications. Material and methods : We compared two groups of patients with infectious complications, who underwent transvenous lead extraction (TLE in the Reference Centre between March 2006 and July 2013. The groups consisted of 414 patients with LDIE and 205 with PI. We analysed risk factors, clinical manifestations, inflammatory markers, microbiology, and echocardiography results. Results : The coexistence of LDIE and PI was observed in 62.1% patients. There were no significant differences in the presence of host-dependent risk factors. Patients with LDIE significantly more frequently had abrasion of leads (35.1.% vs. 21.0%; p = 0.0001 connected with other procedural risk factors: a larger number of the leads (2.2 vs. 2.0; p = 0.004 lead loops (24.6% vs. 13.2%; p = 0.001, and longer time interval from the last procedure prior to TLE (28.7 vs. 22.6 months; p = 0.005. Fever and pulmonary infections, higher level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, vegetation presence, and higher pulmonary systolic pressure were also revealed in patients with LDIE. Positive blood and leads culture were observed in 34.5% and 46.4% patients with LDIE. Conclusions: The frequent coexistence of LDIE and PI confirms their common pathogenesis, but the phenomenon of abrasion suggests also another mechanism for the development of LDIE. Intensity of clinical syndromes, high inflammatory parameters, echocardiography, and microbiology findings are helpful in assessment of the extensity of the infection.

  14. Epidemiological and mortality trends in infective endocarditis, a 17-year population-based prospective study

    Chiavarelli, Mario; Scalese, Marco; Nencioni, Cesira; Valentini, Silvia; Guerrini, Francesco; D’Aiello, Incoronata; Picchi, Andrea; De Sensi, Francesco; Habib, Gilbert


    Background The population at risk, the clinical and microbiological features of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed. Aim of our study was to evaluate the contemporary epidemiological trends, over a 17-year period in a definite region of Tuscany, Italy, to analyze the clinical outcomes and associated prognostic factors. Methods From 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2014, all patients with a definite diagnosis of IE were prospectively entered in a data-base. The Health-Care system data-base was interrogated to capture patients who could have been missed. The final dataset derived by the merging of the two data-bases. Results Incidence rate of IE was 4.6/100,000/y with a significant linear incidence increase. In hospitalized patients the incidence was 1.27/1,000 admissions. Over age 65 incidence rate was 11.7/100,000/y. Male/female ratio was 1.54:1. A temporal trend towards an increase in the mean population age was found (P=0.033). There was an increase in the incidence of Health-care associated IE, P=0.016. The most common microorganisms were staphylococcus aureus (25%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (22%). In-hospital mortality was 24%. A trend towards an increase in mortality rate was found (P=0.055). Independent predictors of mortality were older age, S. aureus infection, heart failure, septic shock and persistent bacteremia. Conclusions Our study confirms an increasing mortality trend in IE, although with a borderline significance. Elderly forms are associated with poor prognosis and higher than 1-year mortality rate even in the multivariate analysis. Ageing population, increase in healthcare-associated and staphylococcal infections, may explain the rise of IE incidence and of the mortality trend. PMID:28164010

  15. Sex differences in native-valve infective endocarditis in a single tertiary-care hospital.

    Sambola, Antonia; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Almirante, Benito; Roca, Ivo; González-Alujas, Teresa; Serra, Bernard; Pahissa, Albert; García-Dorado, David; Tornos, Pilar


    The aim of this study was to assess whether the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of infective endocarditis differ in women and men through a prospective observational cohort study at a single tertiary care teaching hospital. From January 2000 to December 2008, 271 new cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed (183 in men, 88 in women) according to modified Duke criteria, and patients were followed for 1 year. Women were older than men (mean age 63 +/- 16 vs 58 +/- 18 years, p = 0.006); more women were taking immunosuppressants (14% vs 3%, p = 0.006) and had mitral valve involvement (52% vs 36%, p = 0.02). However, more men had human immunodeficiency virus infection than women. There were no gender differences in Charlson index, regurgitation severity, culprit pathogens, or major complications. When surgery was indicated, women were less likely to undergo the procedure (26% vs 47%, relative risk [RR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.7), p = 0.001). Mortality tended to be higher in women in the hospital (32% vs 23%, RR 1.58, 95% CI 1 to 2.5, p = 0.05) and at 1 year (38% vs 26%, RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9, p = 0.04). Surgical treatment was a protective factor against death in the hospital (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.77, p = 0.02) and at 1 year (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.48, p = 0.03) after adjustment for age, gender, Charlson index, infection by Staphylococcus aureus, severity at presentation, heart failure, acute renal failure, stroke, and the ejection fraction. In conclusion, women with infective endocarditis were slightly older than men but showed similar co-morbidities. Women underwent surgery less frequently and consequently had worse prognosis than men.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus NTS 31106099 Isolated from a Patient with Infective Endocarditis and Colorectal Cancer.

    Kambarev, Stanimir; Caté, Clément; Corvec, Stéphane; Pecorari, Frédéric


    Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is known for its close association with infective endocarditis and colorectal cancer in humans. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of highly erythromycin-resistant strain NTS 31106099 isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis and colorectal cancer.

  17. Detection of Identical Isolates of Enterococcus faecalis from the Blood and Oral Mucosa in a Patient with Infective Endocarditis.

    Okui, Akemi; Soga, Yoshihiko; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Nose, Motoko; Yamanaka, Reiko; Kusano, Nobuchika; Morita, Manabu


    The detection of infective endocarditis (IE) of oral origin has been previously discussed. However, there are few reports confirming this infection using molecular biological techniques. We herein describe the case of a 67-year-old man who developed IE. Blood culture samples and strains obtained from the gingival and buccal mucosa showed 100% identity to Enterococcus faecalis JCM 5803 on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed the same pattern for these samples, thus confirming the identity of E. faecalis isolates in the blood and oral mucosa. Our observations provide novel information regarding the level of identity between IE pathogens and oral bacteria.

  18. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a novel treatment option for infective endocarditis: a retrospective clinical study in 32 children.

    Levitas, Aviva; Krymko, Hanna; Richardson, Justin; Zalzstein, Eli; Ioffe, Viktoriya


    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infectious syndrome, with high morbidity and mortality. Current treatments for infective endocarditis include intravenous antibiotics, surgery, and involve a lengthy hospital stay. We hypothesised that adjunctive recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment for infective endocarditis may facilitate faster resolution of vegetations and clearance of positive blood cultures, and therefore decrease morbidity and mortality. This retrospective study included follow-up of patients, from 1997 through 2014, including clinical presentation, causative organism, length of treatment, morbidity, and mortality. We identified 32 patients, all of whom were diagnosed with endocarditis and were treated by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Among all, 27 patients (93%) had positive blood cultures, with the most frequent organisms being Staphylococcus epidermis (nine patients), Staphylococcus aureus (six patients), and Candida (nine patients). Upon treatment, in 31 patients (97%), resolution of vegetations and clearance of blood cultures occurred within hours to few days. Out of 32 patients, one patient (3%) died and three patients (9%) suffered embolic or haemorrhagic events, possibly related to the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. None of the patients required surgical intervention to assist vegetation resolution. In conclusion, it appears that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator may become an adjunctive treatment for infective endocarditis and may decrease morbidity as compared with current guidelines. Prospective multi-centre studies are required to validate our findings.

  19. Clinical Analysis on Atypical Ultrasound Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis%不典型感染性心内膜炎超声诊断的临床分析

    窦新萍; 张利


    Objective:To analyze atypical infective endocarditis by ultrasonic diagnosis.Method:From April 2012 to April 2014 50 patients admitted in our hospital with atypical infective endocarditis and 50 patients with infective endocarditis were involved in clinical research,both for echocardiography,blood culture,examination,serum immunology examination, electrocardiogram inspection diagnosis,to compare two groups of patients with infective endocarditis and relevant test results. Result:Echocardiography in atypical patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed rate (98.0%) was significantly higher, blood culture to check,the positive rate of serum immunology examination,ECG (76.0%,58.0%,34.0%) (P0.05).Two groups patients with blood culture showed positive ratio was 76.0% and 32.0% respectively (P<0.05);Two groups patients circulating immune complex (CIC) content showed the proportion of overweight was 58.0% and 80.0% respectively (P<0.05).Two groups patients T wave change was 4.0% and 60.0%,respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion:Ultrasound diagnosis for atypical clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis accuracy is higher,which is important for the differential diagnosis of these patients.%目的:对不典型感染性心内膜炎超声诊断进行临床分析。方法:对2012年4月-2014年4月在本院接受治疗的50例不典型感染性心内膜炎患者和50例非感染性心内膜炎患者进行临床研究,均分别进行超声心动图检查、血培养检查、血清免疫学检查、心电图检查诊断,研究比较不典型感染性心内膜炎患者的检出情况及两组患者的相关检查结果。结果:不典型感染性心内膜炎患者的超声心动图检查的确诊率(98.0%)明显高于血培养检查、血清免疫学检查、心电图检查的确诊率(76.0%、58.0%、34.0%),比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。不典型的感染性心内膜炎患者与非感染性心内膜炎患者存在赘生物的比例分别为98

  20. Bartonella henselae endocarditis in Laos - 'the unsought will go undetected'.

    Sayaphet Rattanavong


    Full Text Available Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos, probably because people have neglected to look.We conducted a retrospective (2006-2012, and subsequent prospective study (2012-2013, at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis.We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than "conventional" endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for

  1. Cool seasons are related to poor prognosis in patients with infective endocarditis

    Chen, Su-Jung; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Hsu, Tsui-Lieh; Yu, Wen-Chung; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Ann


    Many cardiac diseases demonstrate seasonal variations in the incidence and mortality. This study was designed to investigate whether the mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) was higher in cool seasons and to evaluate the effects of cool climate for IE. We enrolled 100 IE patients with vegetations in our hospital. The temperatures of the IE episodes were defined as the monthly average temperatures of the admission days. The average temperatures in the cool (fall/winter) and warm seasons (spring/summer) were 19.2°C and 27.6°C, respectively. In addition, patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the in-hospital mortality rates in cool and warm seasons were compared to validate the findings derived from the data of our hospital. The mortality rate for IE was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer which presents consistently in the patient population of our hospital (32.7% versus 12.5%, p = 0.017) and from NHIRD (10.4% versus 4.6%, p = 0.019). IE episodes which occurred during cool seasons presented with a higher rate of heart failure (44.2% versus 22.9%, p = 0.025) and D-dimer level (5.5 ± 3.8 versus 2.4 ± 1.8 μg/ml, p = 0.017) at admission than that of warm seasons. These results may reflect the impact of temperatures during the pre-hospitalized period on the disease process. In the multivariate analysis, Staphylococcal infection, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and temperature were the independent predictors of mortalities in IE patients.

  2. Infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism following scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old child.

    Prakash, Vellasamy; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Bethou, Adhisivam; Deepak Barathi, S


    Scorpion sting is one of the common paediatric toxicological problems encountered in southern India. This rural emergency often results in an autonomic storm causing peripheral circulatory failure and/or congestive cardiac failure, leading to pulmonary oedema. A rare case of scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old boy that led to local cellulitis, dyspnoea and congestive heart failure is presented. This was followed by a persistent high-grade fever which lasted for more than 2 weeks and was complicated by fatal Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Although infective endocarditis has been reported occasionally in adults following scorpion sting, this is the first case of infective endocarditis in a native valve in a child following scorpion sting. The literature is reviewed and the mechanisms for this association are discussed.

  3. Knowledge regarding prevention of infective endocarditis among dentists in Bushehr Province-1390

    Kamran Mirzaie


    Full Text Available Background: Infective endocarditis (IE is known as a life-threatening disease, with bacteremia inducing dental procedures considered to be one of the major factors. Thus, prevention of IE onset with antibiotics is widely recommended. AHA 2007 Guidelines for prevention and treatment are well known. The aim this study was assessment of knowledge regarding prevention of infective endocarditis among dentist in Bushehr Province. Material and Methods: In a cross sectional study, data was collected by using Self-administered Questionnaires which obtain according AHA 2007 guideline were distributed to dentists who occupied governmental or private clinic in Bushehr Province. Data was analyzed by Independent t test, Chi-Square by using SPSS software at level of significancy, 0.05. Results: From 72 questionnaires were distributed between all dentists who worked in Bushehr Province, 59 questionnaires were completed. (Response rate: 81.9%. Approximately 48% reported encountering fewer than several patients at risk for IE per year and only 60.4% of the respondents were aware of the guidelines for its prevention. Frequency of correct answer toward cardiac conditions which needed antibiotic prophylaxis weren’t higher than 43%. In all, kind, route, dosage and time of antibiotics administration were according to AHA 2007 guidelines. Generally, the level of knowledge of dentists toward antibiotic prophylaxis to prevention infective endocarditis was poor and the frequency of correct answer toward cardiac conditions that need antibiotic prophylaxis is less than 43%. Conclusion: These findings suggest that promotion of knowledge of dentists for prevention of IE is important, although the frequency of cases encountered by dentists is extremely low.

  4. Infective endocarditis and risk of death after cardiac implantable electronic device implantation

    Özcan, Cengiz; Raunsø, Jakob; Lamberts, Morten;


    AIMS: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) following implantation of a first-time, permanent, cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide administrative registers (beginning in 1996), we identified all...... de-novo permanent pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) together with the occurrence of post-implantation IE-events in the period from 2000-2012. Included were 43 048 first-time PM/ICD recipients. Total follow-up time was 168 343 person-years (PYs). The incidence rate...

  5. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars;


    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...... patients, collected at 2 tertiary university hospitals in Copenhagen (Denmark) and at 1 tertiary university hospital in Gothenburg (Sweden). Median (range) C-reactive protein at admission was higher in patients with S. aureus IE (150 mg/l (1-521) vs 94 mg/l (6-303); p

  6. Radioimmunoimaging of subacute infective endocarditis using a technetium-99m monoclonal granulocyte-specific antibody

    Munz, D.L.; Sandrock, D.; Emrich, D. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin); Morguet, A.J.; Heim, A.; Sold, G.; Figulla, H.R.; Kreuzer, H. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie und Pulmonologie)


    Immunoscintigraphy with a technetium-99m murine monoclonal IgG{sub 1} antibody directed against non-specific cross-reacting antigen (NCA-95) and carcinoembryonic antigen was performed with 20 patients with suspected subacute infective endocarditis (SIE) and 6 controls with suspected inflammatory/infectious disease elsewhere in the body. Immunoscintigraphy and echocardiography localised SIE in 11 of 15 patients in whom the disease could be confirmed. In 4 patients with validated SIE, the immunoscan was abnormal, and the echocardiogram was normal. In another 4 patients, the result was exactly the opposite. These findings suggest that the combination of immunoscintigraphy and echocardiography improves diagnostic efficacy in patients with suspected SIE. (orig.).

  7. Infective endocarditis: the specific features of its course, the criteria for diagnosis, differential diagnosis (part II

    B S Belov


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is today characterized by polyetiology due to a wide range of pathogens. The paper describes the specific features of the clinical picture of the disease in relation to the etiological agent, which have, in some cases, a crucial role in the choice of empiric antibiotic therapy. Significant clinical polymorphism, obscure symptoms, and monosyndromic onset as guises all enhance the importance of the differential diagnosis of IE, at its early stages in particular. Basic approaches to differentiating IE from the diseases in which differentially diagnostic problems arise to the utmost are outlined.

  8. Infective endocarditis caused by Scedosporium prolificans infection in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy.

    Ochi, Yotaro; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Yonetani, Noboru; Doi, Asako; Ichikawa, Chihiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Takayuki


    Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. The mortality rate is high, as the fungus is resistant to most antifungal agents. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old female with acute myeloid leukemia who developed infective endocarditis caused by S. prolificans infection during induction chemotherapy. Her 1,3-β-D-glucan levels were elevated and computed tomography revealed bilateral sinusitis and disseminated small nodular masses within the lungs and spleen; it nonetheless took 6 days to identify S. prolificans by blood culture. The patient died of multi-organ failure despite the combined use of voriconazole and terbinafine. Autopsy revealed numerous mycotic emboli within multiple organs (caused by mitral valve vegetation) and endocarditis (caused by S. prolificans). The geographic distribution of this infection is limited to Australia, the United States, and southern Europe, particularly Spain. The first Japanese case was reported in 2011, and four cases have been reported to date, including this one. Recently, the incidence of S. prolificans-disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients has increased in Japan. Therefore, clinicians should consider S. prolificans infection as a differential diagnosis when immunocompromised patients suffer disseminated infections with elevated 1,3-β-D-glucan levels.

  9. Multiple Embolism in a Female Patient with Infective Endocarditis: Low Back Pain and Hematuria as the Initial Clinical Manifestations

    Vieira Marcelo Luiz Campos


    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient with mitral valve prolapse and a previous history of lumbosacral spondyloarthrosis and lumbar disk hernia had an episode of infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans, which evolved with peripheral embolism to the left kidney, spleen, and left iliac artery, and intraventricular cerebral hemorrhage. Her clinical manifestations were low back pain and hematuria, which were initially attributed to an osteoarticular condition. Infective endocarditis is a severe polymorphic disease with multiple clinical manifestations and it should always be included in the differential diagnosis by clinicians.

  10. Active infective endocarditis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: zoonosis caused by vancomycin-resistant gram-positive rod.

    Miura, Takashi; Hashizume, Koji; Ariyoshi, Tsuneo; Miwa, Takashi; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Izumida, Mai; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Eishi, Kiyoyuki


    A 42-year-old female who was a voluntary worker in a school for handicapped children was referred to us for surgery for active infective endocarditis. Trans-esophageal echocardiography showed 2 large mobile vegetations on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Aortic valve replacement was performed to prevent septic embolism and deterioration of congestive heart failure. The empiric therapy with vancomycin, ampicillin, and gentamycin was initiated because a pathogen was not identified. But Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (gram-positive rod) was isolated on the 4th day after surgery. The target therapy with penicillin G and clindamycin was started and continued for 4 weeks after surgery. The inflammatory parameters improved steadily and the patient was discharged on the 36th day after surgery. Infective endocarditis due to gram-positive rods can be easily mistaken for streptococci or dismissed as a skin contamination. But, E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis versus bacteremia strains: Subtle genetic differences at stake.

    Bouchiat, Coralie; Moreau, Karen; Devillard, Sébastien; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Mosnier, Amandine; Geissmann, Tom; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Lina, Gérard; Laurent, Frédéric; Piroth, Lionel; Aissa, Nejla; Duval, Xavier; Le Moing, Vincent; Vandenesch, François


    Infective endocarditis (IE)((1)) is a severe condition complicating 10-25% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Although host-related IE risk factors have been identified, the involvement of bacterial features in IE complication is still unclear. We characterized strictly defined IE and bacteremia isolates and searched for discriminant features. S. aureus isolates causing community-acquired, definite native-valve IE (n=72) and bacteremia (n=54) were collected prospectively as part of a French multicenter cohort. Phenotypic traits previously reported or hypothesized to be involved in staphylococcal IE pathogenesis were tested. In parallel, the genotypic profiles of all isolates, obtained by microarray, were analyzed by discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC)((2)). No significant difference was observed between IE and bacteremia strains, regarding either phenotypic or genotypic univariate analyses. However, the multivariate statistical tool DAPC, applied on microarray data, segregated IE and bacteremia isolates: IE isolates were correctly reassigned as such in 80.6% of the cases (C-statistic 0.83, P<0.001). The performance of this model was confirmed with an independent French collection IE and bacteremia isolates (78.8% reassignment, C-statistic 0.65, P<0.01). Finally, a simple linear discriminant function based on a subset of 8 genetic markers retained valuable performance both in study collection (86.1%, P<0.001) and in the independent validation collection (81.8%, P<0.01). We here show that community-acquired IE and bacteremia S. aureus isolates are genetically distinct based on subtle combinations of genetic markers. This finding provides the proof of concept that bacterial characteristics may contribute to the occurrence of IE in patients with S. aureus bacteremia.

  12. Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Neurological Complications of Infective Endocarditis: Impact on Surgical Management and Prognosis

    Delahaye, François; Tattevin, Pierre; Federspiel, Claire; Le Moing, Vincent; Chirouze, Catherine; Nazeyrollas, Pierre; Vernet-Garnier, Véronique; Bernard, Yvette; Chocron, Sidney; Obadia, Jean-François; Alla, François; Hoen, Bruno; Duval, Xavier


    Objectives Symptomatic neurological complications (NC) are a major cause of mortality in infective endocarditis (IE) but the impact of asymptomatic complications is unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of asymptomatic NC (AsNC) on the management and prognosis of IE. Methods From the database of cases collected for a population-based study on IE, we selected 283 patients with definite left-sided IE who had undergone at least one neuroimaging procedure (cerebral CT scan and/or MRI) performed as part of initial evaluation. Results Among those 283 patients, 100 had symptomatic neurological complications (SNC) prior to the investigation, 35 had an asymptomatic neurological complications (AsNC), and 148 had a normal cerebral imaging (NoNC). The rate of valve surgery was 43% in the 100 patients with SNC, 77% in the 35 with AsNC, and 54% in the 148 with NoNC (p<0.001). In-hospital mortality was 42% in patients with SNC, 8.6% in patients with AsNC, and 16.9% in patients with NoNC (p<0.001). Among the 135 patients with NC, 95 had an indication for valve surgery (71%), which was performed in 70 of them (mortality 20%) and not performed in 25 (mortality 68%). In a multivariate adjusted analysis of the 135 patients with NC, age, renal failure, septic shock, and IE caused by S. aureus were independently associated with in-hospital and 1-year mortality. In addition SNC was an independent predictor of 1-year mortality. Conclusions The presence of NC was associated with a poorer prognosis when symptomatic. Patients with AsNC had the highest rate of valve surgery and the lowest mortality rate, which suggests a protective role of surgery guided by systematic neuroimaging results. PMID:27400273

  13. A Case of Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Spinal Cord with Infective Endocarditis

    Xiao-Jiang Huang


    Full Text Available Background. Subacute combined degeneration (SCD is a rare cause of demyelination of the dorsal and lateral columns of spinal cord and is a neurogenic complication due to cobalamin deficiency. Anemia of chronic disease (ACD occurs in patients with acute or chronic immune activation, including infective endocarditis. It remains to be elucidated whether ACD patients are more sensitive to suffer from SCD. Little cases about SCD patients accompanied with ACD have been reported till now. Here we reported a 36-year-old man with SCD with a medical history of mitral inadequacy over 20 years, who was admitted and transported from another hospital to our hospital due to an 8-month history of gait disturbance, lower limb weakness and paresthesia, and loss of proprioception. Significant laboratory results and echocardiography suggest iron deficiency anemia and infective endocarditis (IE. The SCD diagnosis was confirmed by MRI, which showed selective demyelination in the dorsal and lateral columns of spinal cord. In conclusion, the ACD patients may suffer from SCD, which can be diagnosed by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. sup 67 Ga imaging in the patients with infective endocarditis after surgery for congenital heart disease

    Kohata, Tohru; Ono, Yasuo; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Takamiya, Makoto; Yagihara, Toshikatsu (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))


    {sup 67}Ga imaging was performed in sixteen patients (age: 8 m.-18 y.) who had persistent fever and positive acute phase reactants after surgery for congenital heart disease. Abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga over the heart and the lungs was evaluated with a computer. Abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga was observed in seven patients. Of them, three showed it in the area of peripheral pulmonary artery and the other four showed it in the area of artificial vessels for pulmonary artery reconstruction. In six patients with positive blood cultures, five showed abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga and in ten patients with negative blood cultures, two showed it. Vegetation was detected with 2D-echocardiography in four patients and all of them showed abnormal uptake of {sup 67}Ga, while in 12 patients without vegetation three showed it. In conclusion, {sup 67}Ga imaging was useful to detect the foci of infective endocarditis or pulmonary embolism caused by the vegetation in infective endocarditis in the patients after surgery for congenital heart disease, especially in the peripheral pulmonary arteries and artificial vessels which could not be detected with 2D-echo. (author).

  15. Once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing for infective endocarditis

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten Toftager; Schaadt, Bente;


    to guidelines were randomized to either once (n = 37) or twice daily (n = 34) doses of gentamicin. Kidney function (glomerular filtration rate, GFR) was measured with an isotope method ( 51 Cr-EDTA) at the beginning of treatment and at discharge. Treatment efficacy was assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) time...... to half-life, mean CRP and leukocytes. Results: Baseline GFR was similar in the two groups. Both groups displayed a significant fall in GFR from admission to discharge. The mean decrease in GFR was as follows: with once daily gentamicin, 17.0% (95% confidence interval 7.5– 26.5), and with twice daily...... gentamicin, 20.4% (95% confidence interval 12.0–28.8). However, there was no significant difference in the GFR decrease between the once and twice daily regimens (p = 0.573). No difference in infection parameters was demonstrated between the two dosing regimens. Conclusions: A twice daily gentamicin dosing...

  16. Brown-Pigmented Mycobacterium mageritense as a Cause of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis and Bloodstream Infection.

    McMullen, Allison R; Mattar, Caline; Kirmani, Nigar; Burnham, Carey-Ann D


    Mycobacterium spp. are a rare cause of endocarditis. Herein, we describe a case of Mycobacterium mageritense prosthetic valve endocarditis. This organism produced an unusual brown pigment on solid media. Cultures of valve tissue for acid-fast bacilli might be considered in some cases of apparently culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  17. An analysis of the diagnostic value of ultrasonic cardiogram in infective endocarditis%感染性心内膜炎的超声心动图诊断价值分析



    目的:分析37例感染性心内膜炎赘生物的超声心动图诊断价值。方法应用超声心动图(包括食道超声)观察心脏瓣膜赘生物形态、大小、回声、颁布及其瓣膜功能。结果超声心动图发现附着的部位以主动脉瓣组最多13例,其次为二尖瓣组12例,能对形成赘生物的大小(最大1.0 cm×2.1 cm,最小0.2 cm×0.2 cm)、形态、活动方式或瓣膜穿孔的形成、腱索断裂等特征以及相应出现的血流动力学变化进行评估,并能准确测量心脏收缩舒张功能。结论超声心动图对感染性心内膜炎赘生物的诊断定位、治疗的决策及预后判断均有重要意义。%Objective To analyze the diagnostic value of ultrasonic cardiogram in vegetation of 37 cases of infective endocarditis. Methods Ultrasonic cardiogram (including transesophageal echocardiography) was applied to observe the form, size, echo, distribution and valvular functions of valvular vegetation. Results The number of attached sites was the most in aortic valve group of 13 cases by ultrasonic cardiogram, and the second most was in mitral valve of 12 cas-es. The size (the biggest 1.0 cmí2.1 cm and the smallest 0.2 cmí0.2 cm), form and the mode of activity of the vegeta-tion, or characteristics of perforation of cardiac valve and rupture of chordae tendinca as well as haemodynamic changes were evaluated, and systolic and diastolic functions were measured. Conclusion Ultrasonic cardiogram is of great signif-icance in the diagnosis and location of vegetation of infective endocarditis, treatment decision-making and prognosis judgment.

  18. Economical aspect of PET/CT-guided diagnosis of suspected infective endocarditis in a patient with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Farkowski, Michal M; Milkowski, Maciej; Dziuk, Mirosław; Pytkowski, Mariusz; Marciniak, Marta; Kraska, Alicja; Szwed, Hanna; Sterlinski, Maciej


    We present a case report of potential reduction of hospitalization costs due to utilization of PET/CT in a diagnostic work-up of a patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and suspicion of infective endocarditis. The PET/CT scan would have shorten hospital stay, prevented clinical complications and reduced the cost of hospitalization by 45%.

  19. Endocarditis due to a co-infection of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in a drug abuser.

    Fesharaki, Shirinsadat Hashemi; Haghani, Iman; Mousavi, Bita; Kargar, Melika Laal; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Abbasi, Kyomars; Meis, Jacques F; Badali, Hamid


    In recent decades the incidence of Candida endocarditis has increased dramatically. Despite the application of surgery and antifungal therapy, Candida endocarditis remains a life-threatening infection with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a 37-year-old male drug abuser presenting with high fever, chest pain, loss of appetite and cardiac failure. His echocardiography revealed mobile large tricuspid valve vegetations. Fungal endocarditis was confirmed by culturing of the resected vegetation showing mixed growth of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, although three consecutive blood cultures were negative for Candida species. Phenotypic identification was reconfirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) region. The patient was initially treated with intravenous fluconazole (6 mg kg(-1) per day), followed by 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg kg(-1) per day). Although MICs were low for both drugs, the patient's antifungal therapy combined with valve replacement failed, and he died due to respiratory failure.

  20. Advantages and Limitations of Direct PCR Amplification of Bacterial 16S-rDNA from Resected Heart Tissue or Swabs Followed by Direct Sequencing for Diagnosing Infective Endocarditis: A Retrospective Analysis in the Routine Clinical Setting

    Daniela Maneg


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a life-threatening disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Its long-term prognosis strongly depends on a timely and optimized antibiotic treatment. Therefore, identification of the causative pathogen is crucial and currently based on blood cultures followed by characterization and susceptibility testing of the isolate. However, antibiotic treatment starting prior to blood sampling or IE caused by fastidious or intracellular microorganisms may cause negative culture results. Here we investigate the additional diagnostic value of broad-range PCR in combination with direct sequencing on resected heart tissue or swabs in patients with tissue or swab culture-negative IE in a routine clinical setting. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of broad-range PCR from diagnostic material in our patients were 33.3%, 76.9%, 90.9%, and 14.3%, respectively. We identified a total of 20 patients (21.5% with tissue or culture-negative IE who profited by the additional application of broad-range PCR. We conclude that broad-range PCR on resected heart tissue or swabs is an important complementary diagnostic approach. It should be seen as an indispensable new tool for both the therapeutic and diagnostic management of culture-negative IE and we thus propose its possible inclusion in Duke’s diagnostic classification scheme.

  1. Role of the serine-rich surface glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis.

    Ho Seong Seo

    Full Text Available The binding of bacteria to fibrinogen and platelets are important events in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Srr1 is a serine-rich repeat glycoprotein of Streptococcus agalactiae that binds directly to the Aα chain of human fibrinogen. To assess the impact of Srr1 on the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, we first examined the binding of this organism to immobilized human platelets. Strains expressing Srr1 had significantly higher levels of binding to human platelets in vitro, as compared with isogenic Δsrr1 mutants. In addition, platelet binding was inhibited by pretreatment with anti-fibrinogen IgG or purified Srr1 binding region. To assess the contribution of Srr1 to pathogenicity, we compared the relative virulence of S. agalactiae NCTC 10/84 strain and its Δsrr1 mutant in a rat model of endocarditis, where animals were co-infected with the WT and the mutant strains at a 1:1 ratio. At 72 h post-infection, bacterial densities (CFU/g of the WT strain within vegetations, kidneys, and spleens were significantly higher, as compared with the Δsrr1 mutant. These results indicate that Srr1 contributes to the pathogenesis of endocarditis due to S. agalactiae, at least in part through its role in fibrinogen-mediated platelet binding.

  2. Infective Endocarditis

    ... Kawasaki Disease Long Q-T Syndrome Marfan Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse Myocardial Bridge Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden ...

  3. Perivalvular Abscess of Tricuspid Valve: A Rare Complication of Infective Endocarditis

    Khallil Zarrabie


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a serious complication of intravenous (IV drug abuse, with a reported mortality of 5 to 10%. A 21-year-old man, who was an intravenous drug abuser, presented with fever and dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a highly mobile, large vegetation on the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Despite antibiotic therapy for ten days, the patient remained febrile. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed severe aortic regurgitation and an echo-lucent space between the tricuspid and aortic valves. Color Doppler demonstrated a flow within the echo-lucent space and a connection between that and the left ventricle, suggesting a perivalvular abscess of the tricuspid valve opening in the left ventricle. The patient was transferred to the operating room, where he unfortunately expired.

  4. Echocardiographic Findings Suggestive of Infective Endocarditis in Asymptomatic Danish Injection Drug Users Attending Urban Injection Facilities

    Axelsson, Anna; Søholm, Helle; Dalsgaard, Morten


    attending a supervised injection facility. We performed transthoracic echocardiographic examinations on-site in the injection facilities. A total of 206 IDUs (mean age 43 ± 9 years, 23% women) with a median injection drug abuse of 18 years (interquartile range 10 to 26) were included. Fourteen IDUs (14......Injection drug users (IDUs) account for a considerable number of the hospitalizations for infective endocarditis (IE), but the prevalence of diagnosed and unrecognized IE in IDUs is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular abnormalities suggestive of IE in IDUs...... of 206, 7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 11%) had a previous history of IE. IDUs with a history of IE were significantly older than IDUs without a history of IE (48 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 years, respectively, p = 0.03) and had a longer duration of injection drug use (27 [18 to 36] vs 17 years [10 to 25], p...

  5. Aorto-right atrial fistula: Late complication of tricuspid valve infective endocarditis

    Pedro; A; Villablanca; Shashvat; Sukhal; Oscar; Maitas; Afiachuukwu; Onuegbu; Juan; M; Muoz-Pea; Ajay; Joseph; Carlos; Requena; Divyanshu; Mohananey


    Abnormal connections between the ascending aortaand the cardiac chambers are rare, especially in thecontext of right-sided infective endocarditis(IE). Trans-thoracic echocardiography(TTE) with color-flow Dop-pler, transesophageal echocardiography(TEE), or bothmay be required for diagnosis. We present the case ofa woman admitted with right-sided heart failure(HF)symptoms. She had a previous history of tricuspid valveIE 30 years ago. TTE and TEE revealed an aorto-rightatrium fistula located just under the non-coronary cuspinto the right atrium at the level of the previously af-fected tricuspid valve. The Patient refused surgery andwas discharged home on HF medications. She has beenstable for the last 3 years. The peculiarity of this caseis the late symptomatic presentation of the aorto-atrialfistula and the unusual association to tricuspid valve IE.

  6. Misdiagnosis analysis and literature review of left ventricle-right atrium communication complicated with infective endocarditis vegetation%左心室右心房通道并感染性心内膜炎赘生物误诊分析及文献回顾

    孙琪青; 孙力安; 徐灵敏


    Objective To investigate the misdiagnosis reason and clinical features of left ventricle-right atrium communication complicated with infective endocarditis vegetation.Methods The clinical features,the process of diagnosis and misdiagnosis of 1 child with left ventricle-right atrium communication complicated with infective endocarditis vegetation on August 9,2013 were retrospectively analyzed.The related related literature was reviewed.Results Fever was the early performance of the child;physical examination found a heart murmur;blood cultures was positive;echocardiography showed left ventricle-right atrium communication,slight hyperechoic mass in right atrium.The temperature reduced after anti-infective treatment,while stomach,face and feet edema occurred;then the surgery was performed.It was confirmed as right atrium purulent endocarditis by postoperative pathology.The child was discharged after standardized anti-infection treatment.After 1 year of follow-up,no recurrence was observed.Conclusion Left ventricle-right atrium communication complicated with infective endocarditis vegetation is rare,timely standard echocardiography and comprehensive clinical analysis are helpful to the diagnosis.%目的 分析左心室有心房通道并感染性心内膜炎赘生物的误诊原因和临床特点.方法 回顾性分析2013年8月9日郑州市儿童医院收治的1例左心室右心房通道并感染性心内膜炎患儿的临床特点、诊疗及误诊过程,并进行相关文献复习.结果 该患儿早期表现为发热,体格检查发现心脏有杂音,血培养阳性,心脏彩色超声示左心室有心房通道,右心房内略强回声团块;抗感染治疗体温好转后出现腹胀、面部及双足水肿,行手术治疗.病理证实:右心房化脓性心内膜炎,给予规范抗感染治疗后痊愈出院.随访1年,无复发.结论 左心室右心房通道合并感染性心内膜炎赘生物罕见,及时规范的心脏超声检查、综合临床分析有助于明确诊断.

  7. Endocarditis 2014: an update.

    Thanavaro, Kristin L; Nixon, J V Ian


    The epidemiology of infective endocarditis is changing due to a number of factors, including more frequent and varied antibiotic use, the emergence of resistant microorganisms, and an increase in the implantation of cardiovascular devices. This review outlines and consolidates the most recent guidelines, including the 2007 and 2010 AHA/ACC guidelines and scientific statements for the prevention and management of infective endocarditis and for the management of cardiovascular device infections. The evidence-based guidelines, including the 2009 HRS consensus document, for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular device-related infections are also reviewed. Only patients with prosthetic valves, patients with prior endocarditis, cardiac transplant patients with a valvulopathy, and certain congenital heart disease patients now require endocarditis prophylaxis. There is an increasing incidence of cardiovascular device-related infections due to the higher frequency of implanted devices and higher morbidity and mortality rates in older patients.

  8. Healthcare-Associated Infective Endocarditis: a Case Series in a Referral Hospital from 2006 to 2011

    Oslan Francischetto


    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE, a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. Objective: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. Methods: Observational prospective case series study (2006-2011 in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE were included. There were 26 (49% males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years, 27 (51% females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years. IE was acute in 37 (70% cases and subacute in 16 (30% cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36% patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%; prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43% patients and native valves in 30 (57%. Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81% cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21% patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%, Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%, and Candida sp. in 7 (13%. Fever was present in 49 (92% patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%, new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%, and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%. Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87% patients, and 34 (64% patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%. Conclusion: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high.

  9. Clinical Practice Guidelines Infective Endocarditis Treatment. Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa.

    Pablo Rodríguez Díaz


    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Infective Endocarditis Treatment. Infectious disease affecting the endocardium produces vegetations and could also affect the septum, the chordae tendinae or mural endocardium. It includes concept, risk factors, classification (and special groups and an update and review of the main clinical aspects, complications and treatment stressing the antibiotic therapy. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa. Enfermedad de origen infeccioso que afecta al endocardio, cursa con vegetaciones y también lo puede hacer a los septos, las cuerdas tendinosas o el endocardio mural. Incluye concepto, factores de riesgo, clasificación y dentro de esta grupos especiales; revisa y actualiza los aspectos clínicos fundamentales, complicaciones y tratamiento, con énfasis en la antibioticoterapia. Concluye con su guía de evaluación, enfocada en los aspectos más importantes a cumplir.

  10. Tricuspid Valve Replacement in an HIV-Infected Patient with Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation Secondary to Remote Endocarditis.

    Myerson, Merle; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Poltavskiy, Eduard; Fefer, Jose; Bang, Heejung


    Surgical intervention for severe tricuspid regurgitation secondary to remote infective endocarditis has been infrequent, especially in patients also infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We describe the case of a 62-year-old HIV-positive man, with a 24-year history of endocarditis caused by intravenous heroin use, who presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation. The patient was initially asymptomatic, was taking antiretroviral medications, and had a satisfactory CD4 count and an undetectable viral load, so we decided to manage the regurgitation conservatively. Two years later, he presented with biventricular heart failure and dyspnea. After surgical tricuspid valve replacement, his condition improved substantially. This case illustrates that HIV-infected patients with complex medical conditions can successfully undergo cardiac surgery.

  11. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for early detection of embolism and metastatic infection in patients with infective endocarditis

    Riet, Jelle van; Gheysens, Olivier; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Hill, Evelyn E.; Herregods, Marie-Christine [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Cardiology, Leuven (Belgium); Dymarkowski, Steven [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Herijgers, Paul [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Peetermans, Willy E. [University Hospital KU Leuven, Department of Internal Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)


    In the acute setting of endocarditis it is very important to assess both the vegetation itself, as well as potential life-threatening complications, in order to decide whether antibiotic therapy will be sufficient or urgent surgery is indicated. A single whole-body scan investigating inflammatory changes could be very helpful to achieve a swift and efficient assessment. In this study we assessed whether {sup 18}F-FDG can be used to detect and localize peripheral embolism or distant infection. Twenty-four patients with 25 episodes of endocarditis, enrolled between March 2006 and February 2008, underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging on a dedicated PET/CT scanner. PET/CT imaging revealed a focus of peripheral embolization and/or metastatic infection in 11 episodes (44%). One episode had a positive PET/CT scan result for both embolism and metastatic infection. PET/CT detected seven positive cases (28%) in which there was no clinical suspicion. Valve involvement of endocarditis was seen only in three patients (12%). PET/CT may be an important diagnostic tool for tracing peripheral embolism and metastatic infection in the acute setting of infective endocarditis, since a PET/CT scan detected a clinically occult focus in nearly one third of episodes. (orig.)

  12. First reported case of infective endocarditis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil

    Claudio Querido Fortes


    Full Text Available We report here the first case of endocarditis due to CA-MRSA not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil in Brazil. A previously healthy patient presented with history of endocarditis following a traumatic wound infection. Patient had multiple positive blood cultures within 72 h of admission and met modified Duke's criterion for infective endocarditis. The isolate was typed as Staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC mec type IV and was positive for presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL. Increased incidence of CA-MRSA endocarditis is a challenge for the internist to choose the best empirical therapy. Several authors have suggested an empirical therapy with both a beta-lactam and an anti-MRSA agent for serious S. aureus infections. Our patient was treated with Vancomycin and made complete recovery in 3 months.

  13. MRI visualization of Staphyloccocus aureus-induced infective endocarditis in mice.

    Janine Ring

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a severe and often fatal disease, lacking a fast and reliable diagnostic procedure. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced IE and to develop a MRI technology to characterize and diagnose IE. To establish the mouse model of hematogenous IE, aortic valve damage was induced by placing a permanent catheter into right carotid artery. 24 h after surgery, mice were injected intravenously with either iron particle-labeled or unlabeled S. aureus (strain 6850. To distinguish the effect of IE from mere tissue injury or recruited macrophages, subgroups of mice received sham surgery prior to infection (n = 17, received surgery without infection (n = 8, or obtained additionally injection of free iron particles to label macrophages (n = 17. Cardiac MRI was performed 48 h after surgery using a self-gated ultra-short echo time (UTE sequence (TR/TE, 5/0.31 ms; in-plane/slice, 0.125/1 mm; duration, 12∶08 min to obtain high-resolution, artifact-free cinematographic images of the valves. After MRI, valves were either homogenized and plated on blood agar plates for determination of bacterial titers, or sectioned and stained for histology. In the animal model, both severity of the disease and mortality increased with bacterial numbers. Infection with 105 S. aureus bacteria reliably caused endocarditis with vegetations on the valves. Cinematographic UTE MRI visualised the aortic valve over the cardiac cycle and allowed for detection of bacterial vegetations, while mere tissue trauma or labeled macrophages were not detected. Iron labeling of S. aureus was not required for detection. MRI results were consistent with histology and microbial assessment. These data showed that S. aureus-induced IE in mice can be detected by MRI. The established mouse model allows for investigation of the pathophysiology of IE, testing of novel drugs and may serve for the development of a clinical

  14. Usefulness of 16S rDNA sequencing for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Pathipati, Padmaja; Menon, Thangam; Kumar, Naveen; Francis, Thara; Sekar, Prem; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen


    We report a rare case of infective endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae in an 8-year-old boy, 2 years after a right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with a bovine Contegra valved conduit. The patient recovered well after an RV-PA conduit enblock explantation and replacement with an aortic homograft with antibiotic treatment. All bacteriological cultures of excised tissue and blood were negative. The aetiological agent was identified as C. diphtheriae subsp. gravis by 16s rDNA sequencing.

  15. 感染性心内膜炎的超声诊断%Ultrasonic Diagnosis for Infective Endocarditis

    周爱云; 蒋筑丽; 邓林云


    :探讨超声在感染性心内膜炎的诊断价值。方法:超声检查37例心内膜炎患者。结果:检出赘生物31例,阳性率84%。赘生物多见于左心系统,为26/31(二尖瓣者15/31、主动脉瓣者11/31);其它部位较少为5/31。赘生物致心衰病例仅见于左心系统(二尖瓣赘生物致心衰6例,主动脉瓣赘生物致心衰9例)。而彩色多普勒血流显像(CDFI)可进一步评估心内膜炎所并发的瓣膜关闭不全及血流动力学改变。结论:超声对诊断心内膜炎有明显指导意义,应为首选。%To assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonology in infective endocarditis. Methods: 37 patients with infective endocarditis were examined by ultrasonology. Results: 31patients were found with vegetation in total 37 cases. Most of the vegetations existed in the left heart (26/31 ,among which 15 at bicuspid valve and 11 at aortic valve). The heart failure was present only in the case with left heart vegetations (15/26, among which 6 at bicuspid vale and 9 at aortic vale). CDFI could further estimate the degree of valvular regurgitation caught by infective endocarditis. Conclusion: Ultrasonology should be chosen first in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  16. Tuberculous endocarditis.

    Liu, Alexander; Nicol, Edward; Hu, Yanmin; Coates, Anthony


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death globally. TB is capable of infecting every organ in the body, and the heart is no exception. Tuberculous endocarditis (TBE) was first reported in 1892 and subsequently many other cases have been described, highlighting the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this manifestation of TB. TBE usually presents with miliary tuberculosis and most early cases were diagnosed on autopsy. With increasing application of prosthetic valve replacements in the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE), TB infections have begun to affect these as well as native valves. With the introduction of TB culture methods and drug therapy, the prognosis has improved. HIV and drug resistance are likely to make the management of TBE more difficult in the future. Large scale studies, both prospective and retrospective, are required to ascertain the true incidence of TBE whilst development of novel anti-TB therapy is also required to combat resistance. We present the first extensive literature review on TBE in over 75 years.

  17. 感染性心内膜炎的临床护理分析%Clinical Nursing Analysis of Infectious Endocarditis



    Objective Infectious endocarditis clinical nursing and health education are to be discussed. Methods The clinical nursing data of 36 patients with infective endocarditis admitted in this hospital during October of 2012 to October of 2013 are selected for analysis. Results There are 18 cases with rheumatic heart disease,8 cases with congenital heart disease and 6 cases with idiopathic mitral valve prolapsed and insufficiency. Al 36 patients saw clinical recovery. Conclusion Through intensive care for patients with infectious endocarditis,the therapeutic effect has improved with preventing and reducing incidence of subacute endocarditis.%目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎患者临床护理与健康教育。方法选取临床2012年10月至2013年10月收治的感染性心膜炎患者36例临床护理资料进行分析。结果风湿性心脏病18例,先天性心脏病8例,特发性二尖瓣脱垂及关闭不全6例,36例患者均获临床痊愈。结论通过对感染性心内膜炎患者精心护理,提高治疗效果,预防和减少亚急性心内膜炎的发生。

  18. Multiresistant-MRSA tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with ancient osteomyelitis locus

    Gambarati Gianpaolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA with low susceptibility to glycopeptides is uncommon. Case presentation The case of a 50-year-old non-drug addict patient presenting with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (IE by MRSA resistant to vancomycin and linezolid is presented. There was response only to quinupristin/dalfopristin. He had a motorcycling accident four years before undergoing right above-the-knee amputation and orthopaedic fixation of the left limb. There were multiple episodes of left MRSA-osteomyelitis controlled after surgery and vancomycin therapy. MRSA isolated from the blood at the time of IE presented with the same profile than the isolated four years earlier. Sequential treatment with teicoplanin-cotrimoxazole and Linezolid associated to vancomycin – rifampicin – cotrimoxazole had no improvement. Infection was controlled after 28 days of therapy with quinupristin/dalfopristin. Conclusion The literature presents only a few cases of MRSA IE not susceptible to glycopeptides in not drug addicted patients. This case shows the comparison of a highly-resistant MRSA after previous S. aureus osteomyelitis treated with glycopeptides. This is the first description of successful treatment of resistant-MRSA IE of the tricuspid valve complicated by multiple pulmonary septic infarction with quinupristin/dalfopristin

  19. Cardiac Tamponade following Mitral Valve Replacement for Active Infective Endocarditis with Ring Abscess

    R. Ranjan


    Full Text Available Periannular extension and abscess formation are rare but deadly complications of infective endocarditis (IE with high mortality. Multimodality cardiac imaging, invasive and noninvasive, is needed to accurately define the extent of the disease. Debridement, reconstruction, and valve replacement, often performed in an emergent setting, remain the treatment of choice. Here we present a case of severe IE in a 29-year-old intravenous drug user who after undergoing debridement of the abscess, annular reconstruction, and mitral valve replacement (MVR presented with recurrence of shortness of breath and pedal edema. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE showed a 6.2×5.5 cm cavity, posterior to and communicating with the left ventricle through a 3 cm wide fistulous opening, in proximity of the reconstructed mitral annulus. The patient underwent a redo MVR with patch closure of the fistulous opening, with good clinical outcome. This case highlights the classic TTE findings and the necessity for close follow-up in the perioperative period in patients undergoing surgery for periannular extension of infection. A cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can be considered, preoperatively, in such cases to identify the extent of myocardial involvement and surgical planning.

  20. A systematic review of biomarkers in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

    Snipsøyr, Magnus G; Ludvigsen, Maja; Petersen, Eskild; Wiggers, Henrik; Honoré, Bent


    Timely diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) is crucial, as mortality remains high in this severe bacterial infection, currently without any distinct biological markers. Our goal was to evaluate potential diagnostic biomarkers by reviewing current literature. The MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases were searched for articles published from 1980 through June 2015 restricted to English, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish. Eighteen studies qualified, providing a review of the most promising candidates for future studies. Several studies are inconclusive, since they are characterized by using improper control groups. Patients with IE have bacteremia, and control groups should therefore be patients with bacteremia without IE. Based on current research, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) alone or in combination with Cystatin C (Cys C), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), troponins, aquaporin-9 (AQP9), S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), E-selectin (CD62E) and VCAM-1 (CD54) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are potential biomarkers for future studies.

  1. Infective endocarditis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans: a case report and review of the literature.

    Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Fukushima, Takehito; Nakazaki, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Eiji


    An 86-year-old woman who underwent placement of a prosthetic aortic valve for regurgitation 5 years previously was admitted because of spiking fever. The blood culture results were positive for gram-negative rods, which were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Approximately 4 months after being sent to the hospital, transthoracic echocardiography revealed vegetation at the prosthetic aortic valve. Ultimately, a diagnosis of A. xylosoxidans endocarditis of the prosthetic aortic valve was made. We report an extremely rare case of bacteremia associated by prosthetic valve endocarditis with A. xylosoxidans. In addition, we review 10 previously reported cases of endocarditis caused by A. xylosoxidans.


    M. Gharouni


    Full Text Available Enterococci are normal inhabitants of gastrointestinal tract, being responsible for 5 to 18% of infective endocarditis and the incidence appears to be increasing. Eleven patients with enterococcal endocarditis were studied. In a case series group, 10 men (average 57 years and one woman (37 years were studied. Two patients had rheumatic heart disease, 5 patients arteriosclerotic disease and one patient chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. Ten patients were treated with ampicillin and gentamycin. Valve replacement was performed in 3 patients with aortic valve endocarditis, one on 8th day and two at the end of the treatment. Overall clinical cure was achieved in 9 patients. Two relapses occurred and 2 patients died as a result of refractory congestive heart failure and cerebral emboli. All of the enterococcal endocarditis cases were community acquired. In conclusion, infective endocarditis in patients with preexistent valvular heart disease, community acquisition and non specific symptoms with bacteriuria should be considered as enterococcal endocarditis.

  3. Pascal's Wager, infective endocarditis and the "no-lose" philosophy in medicine.

    Shaw, D; Conway, D I


    Doctors and dentists have traditionally used antibiotic prophylaxis in certain patient groups in order to prevent infective endocarditis (IE). New guidelines, however, suggest that the risk to patients from using antibiotics is higher than the risk from IE. This paper analyses the relative risks of prescribing and not prescribing antibiotic prophylaxis against the background of Pascal's Wager, the infamous assertion that it is better to believe in God regardless of evidence, because of the prospective benefits should He exist. Many doctors seem to believe the parallel proposition that it is better to prescribe antibiotics, regardless of evidence, because of the prospective benefit conferred upon the patient. This has been called the "no lose philosophy" in medicine: better safe than sorry, even if the evidence inconveniently suggests that following this mantra is potentially more likely to result in sorry than safe. It transpires that, just as Pascal's Wager fails to convince because of a lack of evidence to support it and the costs incurred by trying to believe, so the "belts and braces" approach of prescribing antibiotic prophylaxis is unjustifiable given the actual evidence of potential risk and benefit to the patient. Ultimately, there is no no-lose if your clinical decisions, like Pascal's Wager, are based on faith rather than evidence.

  4. Infective endocarditis affecting both systemic and pulmonary circulations predisposed by a ventricular septal defect.

    Ando, M; Sakai, A; Nakamura, K; Iwata, Y; Sanae, T


    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital presenting persisting fever. An echocardiographic examination showed severe aortic and mitral valve regurgitation with moderate tricuspid regurgitation. Small left-to-right shunt through the ventricular septal defect was identified. Vegetation was also detected on the tricuspid, mitral, and aortic valves. At one month after admission, the patient showed sudden onset of headache and abdominal pain. A computed tomographic scan demonstrated cerebral and splenic infarction. A pulmonary perfusion scintigram demonstrated perfusion defects in left-S1 and right-S6 regions. At 4 months after admission, as operation was performed. The aortic valve was replaced with a #23 mm CarboMedics prosthesis and the mitral valve with a #29 mm Carbo Medics prosthesis. Tricuspid valve plasty was performed, with closure of He laceration and perforation of the anterior leaflet combined with a commissuroplasty, according to Kay's method. Ventricular septal defect was closed with a bovine pericardial patch. She was discharged at 19 days after the operation, and is leading a good life. Pervasion of the organism seemed to be initiated from the mitral valve which was conveyed by the blood stream to the aortic valve, and to the tricuspid valve through the ventricula septal defect. Left heart evaluation may be important in cases with infective endocarditis and ventricula septal defect.

  5. Infective Endocarditis Complicated by Septic Pulmonary Emboli in a Case of a Ventricular Septal Defect



    Full Text Available Introduction Infective endocarditis (IE causes serious complications in patients. Congenital heart disease (CHD is an important underlying condition in children. Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon syndrome, and pulmonary valve IE is rare. The current study presented a case of right-sided IE with pulmonary valve involvement and its complications as pulmonary septic emboli in a child with CHD. Case Presentation A 6-year-old girl with a ventricular septal defect (VSD was presented. Echocardiography revealed large vegetation in the right ventricular outflow tract near the pulmonary valve. The patient showed clinical symptoms of lung involvement, and radiologic investigation was compatible with a diagnosis of septic pulmonary emboli. She had good response to antibacterial therapy and underwent a successful surgical closure of the heart defect. Conclusions Children with CHD are at risk of severe complications with the involvement of other organs. long-term febrile illness should be taken seriously in these children. They need hospitalization and careful evaluation.

  6. Antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: ethical care in the era of revised guidelines.

    Bach, David S

    Beginning in 1955, the American Heart Association recommended antibiotic prophylaxis among patients with certain structural heart diseases to decrease the likelihood of infective endocarditis (IE) following dental procedures. Over the ensuing 52 years, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines were revised to address gastrointestinal and genitourinary procedures and to modify the assessment of relative risks and specific regimens for prophylaxis. Throughout the various revisions, prophylaxis was recommended for individuals who were at increased risk of developing IE based on best evidence and consensus opinion, albeit in the absence of randomized controlled trials. In 2007, the AHA published a revised guideline statement dramatically restricting its recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis against IE. In 2008, these views were incorporated in an ACC/AHA guideline update on the management of patients with heart valve disease. The revisions represent a dramatic shift in terms of the patients for whom antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended and the procedures for which it is recommended. What is striking about the new guidelines is that the change in recommendations was based not on new data, but on a change in philosophy despite the lack of new data. To some degree, the arguments for and against antibiotic prophylaxis become those of philosophy, ethics, and the role of evidence-based medicine. This manuscript attempts to briefly examine those arguments and discuss why the revised guidelines may fail to respect the ethical principles of beneficence and patient autonomy.

  7. Impact of routine cerebral CT angiography on treatment decisions in infective endocarditis.

    Marwa Sayed Meshaal

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is commonly complicated by cerebral embolization and hemorrhage secondary to intracranial mycotic aneurysms (ICMAs. These complications are associated with poor outcome and may require diagnostic and therapeutic plans to be modified. However, routine screening by brain CT and CT angiography (CTA is not standard practice. We aimed to study the impact of routine cerebral CTA on treatment decisions for patients with IE.From July 2007 to December 2012, we prospectively recruited 81 consecutive patients with definite left-sided IE according to modified Duke's criteria. All patients had routine brain CTA conducted within one week of admission. All patients with ICMA underwent four-vessel conventional angiography. Invasive treatment was performed for ruptured aneurysms, aneurysms ≥ 5 mm, and persistent aneurysms despite appropriate therapy. Surgical clipping was performed for leaking aneurysms if not amenable to intervention.The mean age was 30.43 ± 8.8 years and 60.5% were males. Staph aureus was the most common organism (32.3%. Among the patients, 37% had underlying rheumatic heart disease, 26% had prosthetic valves, 23.5% developed IE on top of a structurally normal heart and 8.6% had underlying congenital heart disease. Brain CT/CTA revealed that 51 patients had evidence of cerebral embolization, of them 17 were clinically silent. Twenty-six patients (32% had ICMA, of whom 15 were clinically silent. Among the patients with ICMAs, 11 underwent endovascular treatment and 2 underwent neurovascular surgery. The brain CTA findings prompted different treatment choices in 21 patients (25.6%. The choices were aneurysm treatment before cardiac surgery rather than at follow-up, valve replacement by biological valve instead of mechanical valve, and withholding anticoagulation in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis for fear of aneurysm rupture.Routine brain CT/CTA resulted in changes in the treatment plan in a significant

  8. Comparison of clinical features of left-sided infective endocarditis involving previously normal versus previously abnormal valves.

    Olmos, Carmen; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández, Cristina; Sarriá, Cristina; López, Javier; Del Trigo, María; Ferrera, Carlos; Vivas, David; Maroto, Luis; Hernández, Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; San Román, José Alberto


    Native valve infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with normal valves has increased in the last decades. Whether patients with normal valves present a similar prognosis to those with pathologic valves is unresolved. Our aim is to describe epidemiologic and clinical differences between patients with left-sided IE and normal valves and those with native pathologic valves. We analyzed 945 consecutive episodes of IE, 435 of which involved left-sided nonprosthetic IE. They were classified into 2 groups: episodes in normal valves (normal group, n=173) and episodes in pathologic valves (abnormal group, n=262). Patients in the normal group were younger, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus bovis were more frequently isolated, and vegetations were more frequently found. Heart failure, septic shock, and the need for surgery or death were more common. Multivariate analysis identified the following as factors independently associated with normal valve IE: agevalve IE, patients with IE on normal valves were younger, had a more virulent microbiological profile, developed heart failure and septic shock more frequently, needed more surgical procedures, and had worse prognosis.

  9. Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Silva-Pinto, André; Ferraz, Rita; Casanova, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Santos, Lurdes


    Candida endocarditis is a rare infection associated with high mortality and morbidity. There are still some controversies about Candida endocarditis treatment, especially about the treatment duration. We report a case of a Candida parapsilosis endocarditis that presented as a lower limb ischemia. The patient was surgically treated with a cryopreserved homograft aortic replacement. We used intravenous fluconazole 800 mg as initial treatment, followed with 12 months of 400 mg fluconazole per os. The patient outcome was good. PMID:26288749

  10. An unusual case of infective endocarditis: extension of a tricuspid valve vegetation into the left atrium through a patent foramen ovale.

    Johri, Amer M; Kovacs, Katherine A; Kafka, Henryk


    Tricuspid valve endocarditis frequently occurs in the setting of intravenous drug use. A case of tricuspid valve endocarditis in a 37-year-old woman with a history of intravenous cocaine use is described. Transthoracic echocardiography showed extension of the tricuspid valve mass through a patent foramen ovale and into the left atrium. One week after intravenous antibiotic treatment, the mass no longer traversed the patent foramen ovale, and only two smaller tricuspid valve vegetations remained. The present case demonstrates the value of performing a complete and thorough transthoracic echocardiography to visualize and evaluate both the right- and left-sided consequences of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users. It also serves as a useful reminder to physicians caring for such patients that right sided endocarditis can have important left-sided complications.

  11. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of definite infective endocarditis

    Faraji, Reza; Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Soltani, Mohammadhossien; Zandi, Hengameh; Firoozabadi, Ali Dehghani; Tavakkoli Banizi, Neda; Kahtooie, Foroozandeh Qasemi; Banaei, Mehdi; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi


    Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a microbial infection of heart valves and its endothelial lining which is considered as a life-threatening disorder. This study evaluated the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of IE at the Cardiovascular Research Center in Yazd, Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients diagnosed with definite IE on the basis of Duke’s criteria hospitalized for one year in the Cardiovascular Research Center in Yazd, Iran, from January 2015 to December 2015. Demographic information, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological findings, and also trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) of each patient were recorded and assessed. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of the patients under study was 45±16 years with most of the afflicted patients (60%) being male. Most cases (70%) of IE were observed in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The most common clinical sign (80%) was fever. TEE was positive for all (100%) patients, and vegetation was seen in all patients. The nosocomial mortality rate was zero. However, 14 (70%) patients underwent surgical treatment. The valves afflicted with IE were: the mitral valve (40%), the aortic valve (35%), and the tricuspid valve (25%), respectively. 4 patients (20%) had a positive history of IE. Blood culture test was positive only in 1 case and the isolated microorganism belonged to the viridans group streptococci. Conclusion: Despite the one-year high prevalence of IE in this study, the nosocomial mortality rate was not high and was reported to be nil under surgical and antimicrobial therapy. PMID:28149706

  12. A Rare Case of Pulmonary Artery Dissection Associated With Infective Endocarditis.

    Shi, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Kaiyu; Li, Yifei; Hua, Yimin


    Pulmonary artery dissection (PAD) is a rare condition with high mortality and has not been reported in patient with infective endocarditis (IE). Here, we report the first case of such patient who experienced PDA and survived after surgical intervention.A 10-year-old female child was diagnosed as IE with a patent ductus arteriosis (PDA) and a vegetation on the left side of pulmonary artery trunk (10 × 5 mm). Following 3-week antibacterial treatment, the body temperature of patient returned to normal, and the size of vegetation reduced (7 × 3 mm). However, the patient had a sudden attack of sustained and crushing right chest pain, orthopnea with increasing respiratory rate (> 60/min), and acute high fever. Echocardiography revealed the detachment of vegetation on the first day and dissection of pulmonary artery on the next day. The patient received immediate surgical intervention. It was found that aneurysm had a size of 28 × 20 mm and its orifice (the dissecting site) located on the opposite side of the PDA opening (right side of the pulmonary artery trunk). The dissected left wall of pulmonary artery trunk was reconstructed followed by the closure of PDA with suture. The patient recovered uneventfully.From this case, we learned that the surgical intervention should be considered at an early time for IE patients who have a vegetation in pulmonary artery and PDA. After the infection is under control, the earlier surgery may prevent severe complications.

  13. Moraxella lacunata infection associated with septicemia, endocarditis, and bilateral septic arthritis in a patient undergoing hemodialysis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Nakayama, Asami; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi


    We report the first case of both endocarditis and bilateral septic arthritis in a patient caused by Moraxella lacunata and successful management of the infection with antimicrobial therapy. The route of entry leading to bacteremia may have been the oral cavity given the poor oral hygiene of the patient as evidenced by bleeding gums. We hypothesize that the bacteremia led to septic arthritis and mitral valve infective endocarditis. In this case report, we also review the literature on M. lacunata infections and conclude that this organism should be considered in bilateral septic arthritis in a patient with underlying heart abnormalities and/or with renal failure.

  14. Pneumococcal endocarditis of subacute evolution

    Uemura Laercio


    Full Text Available With the development of penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae has become an uncommon cause of bacterial endocarditis in adults. Subacute manifestation of pneumococcal endocarditis has been reported a few times in the literature, but most reports define the disease as acute, severe, and having a high mortality rate. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with subacute bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. We stress the low frequency of this agent as a cause of endocarditis and the atypical evolution of this case. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and evolution, and the therapeutical options for this type of infection are also discussed.

  15. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis: analysis of cases between 2005 and 2014

    Renato Mello


    Full Text Available Background:Streptococcus bovisis a classical etiology of endocarditis and is associated with colonic lesions. No series of cases from Brazil has been described.Objectives:To describe aspects of S. bovisendocarditis.Methods:This is a case series of patients admitted to a cardiac surgery referral center, during the years 2005-2014. Clinical, laboratory, echochardiographic, colonoscopic, treatment, surgical and outcome variables were studied.Results:Nine patients with S. bovisendocarditis were included; all cases fulfilled the modified Duke criteria. Incidence was 8/220 (4% in years 2006-2014. There were seven male and two female patients; mean age was 56.7 years, standard deviation 13.4. All patients had native aortic valve involvement. Presentation was subacute in 7/9 (71%. Fever was present in 7/9 (77.7%, embolic lesions to solid organs occurred in three, and perivalvular abscess in two patients. All echocardiograms showed moderate to severe valvular regurgitation and vegetations. Microcytic anemia was seen in 7/7 patients. Colonoscopy showed abnormal findings in 7/9 (77.7%. Surgery was indicated for 6/9 patients due to acute aortic regurgitation and left ventricular failure. All patients were discharged home.Conclusions:S. bovismost frequently affected the aortic valve of male patients. Colon disease was frequent. Surgery was indicated frequently due to hemodynamic compromise.

  16. Avoiding transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography for patients with variable body mass indexes in infective endocarditis

    Robert Sogomonian


    Full Text Available Background: Echocardiography has been a popular modality used to aid in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE with the modified Duke criteria. We evaluated the necessity between the uses of either a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE in patients with a body mass index (BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2 and less than 25 kg/m2. Methods: A single-centered, retrospective study of 198 patients between 2005 and 2012 diagnosed with IE based on modified Duke criteria. Patients, required to be above age 18, had undergone an echocardiogram study and had blood cultures to be included in the study. Results: Among 198 patients, two echocardiographic groups were evaluated as 158 patients obtained a TTE, 143 obtained a TEE, and 103 overlapped with TEE and TTE. Out of these patients, 167 patients were included in the study as 109 (65% were discovered to have native valve vegetations on TEE and 58 (35% with TTE. TTE findings were compared with TEE results for true negatives and positives to isolate valvular vegetations. Overall sensitivity of TTE was calculated to be 67% with a specificity of 93%. Patients were further divided into two groups with the first group having a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and the subsequent group with a BMI <25 kg/m2. Patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 who underwent a TTE study had a sensitivity and specificity of 54 and 92%, respectively. On the contrary, patients with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 had a TTE sensitivity and specificity of 78 and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with a BMI <25 kg/m2 and a negative TTE should refrain from further diagnostic studies, with TEE strong clinical judgment is warranted. Patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 may proceed directly to TEE as the initial study, possibly avoiding an additional study with a TTE.

  17. Infective endocarditis in children: A 5 year experience from Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran

    Alireza Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Considering that there are no regional published data regarding the epidemiologic findings of infective endocarditis (IE in children, in this study we reviewed the epidemiologic and clinical features and treatment and outcome of children diagnosed with IE at Al-Zahra hospital over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of patients (<18 years old admitted from March 2006 to March 2011 in Al-Zahra Hospital (Pediatrics Infectious or Cardiology Departments reviewed. The medical files reviewed regarding demographic, clinical, diagnostic (laboratory, microbiological and echocardiographic details and treatment and outcome details. Obtained data were recorded in a questionnaire. The diagnosis of IE was determined based on Duke criteria. Results: In this study, 17 patients fulfill the Duke criteria for definite or the possible IE. The most common causes of IE was non-cyanotic heart disease (ventricular septal defect and AS; 64.8%. From cyanotic hearth disease,   Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF was the most frequent causes (11.8%. In this study, 41% of patients with IE aged < 2 years and 70% aged < 6 years. In this study, 76.5% of patients had a history of congenital heart disease or cardiac surgery. Blood cultures were positive in 10 patients (58.8%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (23.5% and Staphylococcus aureus (11.7% were the most common organisms that cause IE. Conclusion: It seems that in order to provide a regional comprehensive guideline for appropriate management and prevention of IE related complications further advanced studies with larger sample size and evaluation is recommended.

  18. Vancomycin treatment of infective endocarditis is linked with recently acquired obesity.

    Franck Thuny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota play a major role in digestion and energy conversion of nutrients. Antibiotics, such as avoparcin (a vancomycin analogue, and probiotics, such as Lactobacillus species, have been used to increase weight in farm animals. We tested the effect of antibiotics given for infective endocarditis (IE on weight gain (WG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-eight adults with a definite diagnosis of bacterial IE (antibiotic group were compared with forty-eight age-matched controls without IE. Their body mass index (BMI was collected at one month before the first symptoms and one year after hospital discharge. The BMI increased significantly and strongly in vancomycin-plus-gentamycin-treated patients (mean [+/-SE] kg/m(2, +2.3 [0.9], p = 0.03, but not in controls or in patients treated with other antibiotics. Seventeen patients had a BMI increase of >or=10%, and five of the antibiotic group developed obesity. The treatment by vancomycin-plus-gentamycin was an independent predictor of BMI increase of >or=10% (adjusted OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.37-33.0; p = 0.02, but not treatment with other antibiotics. Weight gain was particularly high in male patients older than 65 who did not undergo cardiac surgery. Indeed, all three vancomycin-treated patients with these characteristics developed obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A major and significant weight gain can occur after a six-week intravenous treatment by vancomycin plus gentamycin for IE with a risk of obesity, especially in males older than 65 who have not undergone surgery. We speculate on the role of the gut colonization by Lactobacillus sp, a microorganism intrinsically resistant to vancomycin, used as a growth promoter in animals, and found at a high concentration in the feces of obese patients. Thus, nutritional programs and weight follow-up should be utilized in patients under such treatment.

  19. Tricuspid valve endocarditis following central venous cannulation: The increasing problem of catheter related infection

    Suresh Babu Kale


    Full Text Available A central venous catheter (CVC is inserted for measurement of haemodynamic variables, delivery of nutritional supplements and drugs and access for haemodialysis and haemofiltration. Catheterization and maintenance are common practices and there is more to the technique than routine placement as evident when a procedure-related complication occurs. More than 15% of the patients who receive CVC placement have some complications and infectious endocarditis involving the tricuspid valve is a rare and serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. Overenthusiastic and deep insertion of the guide wire and forceful injection through the CVC may lead to injury of the tricuspid valve and predispose to bacterial deposition and endocarditis. We report a case of tricuspid valve endocarditis, probably secondary to injury of the anterior tricuspid leaflet by the guide wire or the CVC that required open heart surgery with vegetectomy and repair of the tricuspid valve.

  20. [Mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation induced by infective endocarditis complicated with ulcerative colitis; report of a case].

    Shiraishi, Shoichiro; Koike, Masato; Aoshima, Minoru; Asai, Tohru


    Infective endocarditis is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis. We report on a 22-year-old man, who had been treated of ulcerative colitis for 5 years. He presented with dyspnea on effort. In spite of medical treatment, he developed congestive heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large perforation on the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve, and prolapses of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve with rupture of the chordae. The patient underwent mitral valve repair with an autologous pericardial patch on the anterior leaflet combined with butterfly resection and suture of the posterior leaflet. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  1. Validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory in patients treated for infective endocarditis

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Konradsen, Hanne; Dixon, Jane


    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Suffering through infective endocarditis (IE) can drastically alter a person's physical appearance, and body image-related concerns have been reported by patients. The extent and severity of the phenomenon has not previously been explored, as no quantitative measure has...... been validated in this patient population. The purpose of this study was thus to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-DA) on patients treated for IE. METHODS: We evaluated the psychometric properties of the BIQLI-DA on data...

  2. [Aorto pulmonary fistula: left-sided infective endocarditis in HIV and intravenous drugs abuser patient. Review of the literature].

    Obón Azuara, B; Zalba Etayo, B; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Villanueva Anadón, B


    Infective endocarditis (IE) is the most severe complication in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs). HIV infection increases the risk of IE in IVDAs too. IE in both population are special tendency to infect the right-sided heart, but unusual infective aortic valve. We report a case of HIV and IVDA patient admitted in hospital due to fever syndrome, with X-ray test normal and the first blood cultures negatives. CD4 count cell 90 mm3. It was impossible doing a transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and transtoracic echocardiogramma (TTE) only showed a moderate aortic insufficiency with conserved systolic function. Despite using antibiotics, antifungals and highly active antiretroviral therapy, he developed ARDS, and mechanical ventilation should be performed. At that moment, TEE showed an aorto pulmonary fistula due to left-sided IE. Further cultures was undergone and only one blood culture was positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Cardiac surgery was not indicated. The patient died 3 weeks later.

  3. Significado de la fiebre persistente o recurrente durante el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa Clinical significance of persistent or recurrent fever during the treatment of infective endocarditis

    José Carena


    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 81 pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa con el objeto de establecer la significación clínica de la presencia de fiebre persistente (FP y/o fiebre recurrente (FR durante el tratamiento. Un total de 46 pacientes (56.8% (Grupo 1 tuvieron FP y/o FR durante el tratamiento: 35 FP y 16 FR, que se compararon con 35 sin FP/FR (Grupo 2. No hubo diferencias en la edad, sexo, permanencia hospitalaria, origen nosocomial, demora diagnóstica y comorbilidad asociada. El compromiso aórtico (47.8 vs 34.2% y tricuspídeo (21.7 vs 11.4% y la infección por Staphylococcus aureus (55.5 vs 28% fueron más frecuentes en el Grupo 1, aunque no significativamente. El S. aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR (22.2 vs 4%, las complicaciones (95.6 vs 65.7%, la disfunción renal (58.6 vs 31.4%, el embolismo mayor (60.8 vs 34%, los fenómenos microvasculares (43.4 vs 17.1% y la cirugía valvular (34.7 vs 11.4% ocurrieron significativamente en el Grupo 1 (pPatients with infective endocarditis (IE were studied to assess incidence, clinical features and mortality in a population with either persistent (PF or recurrent fever (RF during treatment. A sample of 81 patients was evaluated. Of these, 46 patients (56.8% had fever during treatment: 35 had PF and 16 had RF (Group 1. This group was compared with 35 patients with IE without fever (Group 2. Age, sex, in-hospital days, nosocomial acquisition, delay in diagnosis, and co-morbidities were similar among each group. The aortic and tricuspid valve compromise, and Staphylococcus aureus as etiologic agent were more frequent in Group 1 (although not significantly. However, the development of complications (95.6 vs. 65.7%, renal dysfunction (58.6 vs. 31.4%, major vessel embolization (60.8 vs. 34%, microvascular phenomena (43.4 vs. 17.1%, infections with MRSA (22.2 vs. 4% and valvular surgery (34.7 vs. 11.4% were significantly higher in Group 1(p<0.05. The most common causes of PF were microvascular phenomena (14

  4. Infective Endocarditis of the Aortic Valve with Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet Aneurysm.

    Tomsic, Anton; Li, Wilson W L; van Paridon, Marieke; Bindraban, Navin R; de Mol, Bas A J M


    Mitral valve leaflet aneurysm is a rare and potentially devastating complication of aortic valve endocarditis. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had endocarditis of the native aortic valve and a concomitant aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. Severe mitral regurgitation occurred after the aneurysm perforated. The patient showed no signs of heart failure and completed a 6-week regimen of antibiotic therapy before undergoing successful aortic and mitral valve replacement. In addition to the patient's case, we review the relevant medical literature.

  5. Comparison of contemporary risk scores for predicting outcomes after surgery for active infective endocarditis.

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Gamble, Greg; Kang, Nicholas; Pemberton, James


    Decision making regarding surgery for acute bacterial endocarditis is complex given its heterogeneity and often fatal course. Few studies have investigated the utility of operative risk scores in this setting. Endocarditis-specific scores have recently been developed. We assessed the prognostic utility of contemporary risk scores for mortality and morbidity after endocarditis surgery. Additive and logistic EuroSCORE I, EuroSCORE II, additive Society of Thoracic Surgeon's (STS) Endocarditis Score and additive De Feo-Cotrufo Score were retrospectively calculated for patients undergoing surgery for endocarditis during 2005-2011. Pre-specified primary outcomes were operative mortality, composite morbidity and mortality during follow-up. A total of 146 patients were included with an operative mortality of 6.8 % followed for 4.1 ± 2.4 years. Mean scores were additive EuroSCORE I: 8.0 ± 2.5, logistic EuroSCORE I: 13.2 ± 10.1 %, EuroSCORE II: 9.1 % ± 9.4 %, STS Score: 32.2 ± 13.5 and De Feo-Cotrufo Score: 14.6 ± 9.2. Corresponding areas under curve (AUC) for operative mortality 0.653, 0.645, 0.656, 0.699 and 0.744; for composite morbidity were 0.623, 0.625, 0.720, 0.714 and 0.774; and long-term mortality 0.588, 0.579, 0.686, 0.735 and 0.751. The best tool for post-operative stroke was EuroSCORE II: AUC 0.837; for ventilation >24 h and return to theatre the De Feo-Cotrufo Scores were: AUC 0.821 and 0.712. Pre-operative inotrope or intra-aortic balloon pump treatment, previous coronary bypass grafting and dialysis were independent predictors of operative and long-term mortality. In conclusion, risk models developed specifically from endocarditis surgeries and incorporating endocarditis variables have improved prognostic ability of outcomes, and can play an important role in the decision making towards surgery for endocarditis.

  6. Identity of streptococcal blood isolates and oral isolates from two patients with infective endocarditis

    Fiehn, N E; Gutschik, E; Larsen, Tove;


    The purpose of this study was to isolate streptococcal strains from the oral cavities of streptococcal endocarditis patients and compare these strains biochemically and genetically with the corresponding streptococcal blood isolates. Total identity was observed between the blood and oral cavity i...

  7. Contribution of the interaction of Streptococcus mutans serotype k strains with fibrinogen to the pathogenicity of infective endocarditis.

    Nomura, Ryota; Otsugu, Masatoshi; Naka, Shuhei; Teramoto, Noboru; Kojima, Ayuchi; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakano, Kazuhiko


    Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen responsible for dental caries, is occasionally isolated from the blood of patients with bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE). Our previous study demonstrated that serotype k-specific bacterial DNA is frequently detected in S. mutans-positive heart valve specimens extirpated from IE patients. However, the reason for this frequent detection remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the virulence of IE from S. mutans strains, focusing on the characterization of serotype k strains, most of which are positive for the 120-kDa cell surface collagen-binding protein Cbm and negative for the 190-kDa protein antigen (PA) known as SpaP, P1, antigen I/II, and other designations. Fibrinogen-binding assays were performed with 85 clinical strains classified by Cbm and PA expression levels. The Cbm(+)/PA(-) group strains had significantly higher fibrinogen-binding rates than the other groups. Analysis of platelet aggregation revealed that SA31, a Cbm(+)/PA(-) strain, induced an increased level of aggregation in the presence of fibrinogen, while negligible aggregation was induced by the Cbm-defective isogenic mutant SA31CBD. A rat IE model with an artificial impairment of the aortic valve created using a catheter showed that extirpated heart valves in the SA31 group displayed a prominent vegetation mass not seen in those in the SA31CBD group. These findings could explain why Cbm(+)/PA(-) strains are highly virulent and are related to the development of IE, and the findings could also explain the frequent detection of serotype k DNA in S. mutans-positive heart valve clinical specimens.

  8. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier


    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and β-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky.

  9. Update on blood culture-negative endocarditis.

    Tattevin, P; Watt, G; Revest, M; Arvieux, C; Fournier, P-E


    Blood culture-negative endocarditis is often severe, and difficult to diagnose. The rate of non-documented infective endocarditis has decreased with the advent of molecular biology - improved performance for the diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis with blood cultures sterilized by previous antibacterial treatment - and cardiac surgery - access to the main infected focus, the endocardium, for half of the patients. Blood culture-negative endocarditis are classified in 3 main categories: (i) bacterial endocarditis with blood cultures sterilized by previous antibacterial treatment (usually due to usual endocarditis-causing bacteria, i.e. streptococci, more rarely staphylococci, or enterococci); (ii) endocarditis related to fastidious microorganisms (e.g. HACEK bacteria; defective streptococci - Gemella, Granulicatella, and Abiotrophia sp. - Propionibacterium acnes, Candida sp.): in these cases, prolonged incubation will allow identifying the causative pathogen in a few days; (iii) and the "true" blood culture-negative endocarditis, due to intra-cellular bacteria that cannot be routinely cultured in blood with currently available techniques: in France, these are most frequently Bartonella sp., Coxiella burnetti (both easily diagnosed by ad hoc serological tests), and Tropheryma whipplei (usually diagnosed by PCR on excised cardiac valve tissue). Non-infective endocarditis is rare, mostly limited to marantic endocarditis, and the rare endocarditis related to systemic diseases (lupus, Behçet).

  10. Small Colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature

    Sayan Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus produces a particular morphological variant called small colony variant(SCV which is responsible for persistent subclinical infections in predisposed individuals and is usually resistant to aminoglycosides and cell wall active antibiotics. Infections by SCV of S. aureus is an upcoming problem due to difficulty in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial chemotherapy. We here report a case of infective endocarditis caused by SCV of Staphylococcus aureus in a pediatric patient.

  11. A randomised clinical trial of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients treated for infective endocarditis--the CopenHeartIE trial protocol

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum;


    Infective endocarditis (IE) is among the most serious infectious diseases in the western world. Treatment requires lengthy hospitalisation, high-dosage antibiotic therapy and possible valve replacement surgery. Despite advances in treatment, the 1-year mortality remains at 20-40%. Studies indicat...

  12. Fulminant endocarditis and disseminated infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a renal-pancreas transplant recipient

    Patel, G.; Perez, F.; Hujer, A.M.; Rudin, S.D.; Augustine, J.J.; Jacobs, G.H.; Jacobs, M.R.; Bonomo, R.A.


    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections, and is particularly problematic among patients who undergo organ transplantation. We describe a case of fulminant sepsis caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii harboring the blaOXA-23 carbapenemase gene and belonging to international clone II. This isolate led to the death of a patient 6 days after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation. Autopsy findings revealed acute mitral valve endocarditis, myocarditis, splenic and renal emboli, peritonitis, and pneumonia. This case highlights the severe nature of certain A. baumannii infections and the vulnerability of transplanted patients to the increasingly intractable ‘high-risk’ clones of multidrug-resistant organisms. PMID:25661804

  13. Treatment of neonatal fungal infective endocarditis with recombinant tissue plasminogen: activator in a low birth weight infant case report and review of the literature.

    Babayigit, Aslan; Cebeci, Burcu; Buyukkale, Gokhan; Semerci, Seda Yılmaz; Bornaun, Helen; Oztarhan, Kazim; Gokce, Muge; Cetinkaya, Merih


    With advances in medical sciences, an increase in survival rates of low birth weight; increased incidence in use of catheter and antibiotics, and total parenteral nutrition are reported, therefore, the rate of fungal infections in late and very late onset neonatal sepsis have increased. Although fungal endocarditis rarely occur in newborns, it has a high morbidity and mortality. Antifungal therapy is often insufficient in cases who develop fungal endocarditis and surgical treatment is not preferred due to its difficulty and high mortality. Herein, fungal endocarditis in a preterm newborn treated with single-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in addition to antifungal therapy is presented and relevant literature has been reviewed. The vegetation completely disappeared following treatment and no complication was observed.

  14. Awareness of Iranian’s General Dentists Regarding the Latest Prophylaxis Guideline for Prevention of Infective Endocarditis

    Ghaderi F.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental procedures leading to oral tissue injuries may provoke bacterial release to the blood stream causing infective endocarditis (IE in vulnerable patients. The guideline which was proposed by AHA has been updated 9 times having the last update published in 2007. This study was endeavored to uncover the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners in Shiraz, concerning the 2007 AHA guidelines for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with cardiac problems receiving dental treatments.Materials and Method: This cross- sectional and descriptive analytical study included 150 dentists as participants. All practitioners were given a self –report questionnaire which consisted of three sections. Questions were designed to assess their knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cardiac disease. Results: Almost all participants (93% were aware of antibiotic prophylaxis to be essential for tooth extraction. Most participants did not believe in prophylaxis for noninvasive procedures (such as shedding of primary teeth, impression, intraoral radiography. From all of the respondents, 75% considered Amoxicillin to be the anti-biotic of choice and 57% were acquainted with the correct dose of Amoxicillin for high risk patients.Conclusion: The study identified a potential for under/over prescription of antibiotic prophylaxis under the current guideline. Burden of IE necessitates more accurate knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in the undergraduate curriculum and continuing education programs of dentistry.

  15. Candida tropicalis infection in a term neonate with gall bladder masses and infective endocarditis

    Mamta Jajoo; Vishal Kumar; Vishnu K Goyal; Amit Garg


    ABSTRACT Candidaendocarditis is extremely rare in term neonates, and gall bladder involvement due to candidemia has never been reported amongst neonates and infants. A term, appropriate for gestational age neonate developedCandidatropicalis blood stream infection in second week of life. He was started on conventional amphotericin B. However, he failed to show any clinical improvement, and candidemia keep on persisting. Repeat sanctuary sites screening revealed multiple echogenic masses in heart (vegetations) and gall bladder. On changing the treatment to liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole, he recovered clinically, echogenic masses in gall bladder disappeared, and intracardiac vegetations decreased in size.

  16. [Diagnostic approach to infectious endocarditis].

    Parize, Perrine; Mainardi, Jean-Luc


    Major advances in imaging and microbiological procedures have changed the diagnostic approach of infective endocarditis. New imaging tools have improved the search of local complications, systemic embolism and diagnosis of infection of cardiac devices. Moreover, microbiological diagnosis has been transformed by molecular techniques as long as these procedures have highlighted microorganisms thus far neglected by classical techniques. Despite these advances, endocarditis remained a clinical diagnosis which still depends on a high index of clinical suspicion.

  17. Early Surgical Intervention in Infective Endocarditis:Pros over Cons%早期外科干预感染性心内膜炎:利大于弊



    Albeit the morbidity of infective endocarditis is not very high,the mortality in clinical is very high. With the use of antibiotics, the recovery rate of infective endocarditis has been a significant improvement, but when vegetations or valvular dysfunction appear,the mortality rate is still high,and simple use of drugs often fails to achieve the desired result. With the deepening of understanding of the natural outcome and pathophysiology of infective endocarditis, currently, the effect of surgical treatment of infective endocarditis has been widely recognized. However,the timing of the surgery remains controversial. Through reviewing relat ed literatures,it's considered that the short and long term results of early surgical intervention of infective endocarditis is significantly better than the conventional drug treatment.%感染性心内膜炎的发病率虽然不是很高,但在临床上其病死率却很高.随着抗生素的使用,感染性心内膜炎的治愈率虽有了明显提高,但出现赘生物形成或瓣膜功能损害时,其病死率仍然居高不下,单纯使用药物往往很难达到理想的效果.随着对感染性心内膜炎自然转归、病理生理等认识的深入,目前外科手术治疗感染性心内膜炎已经得到广泛认可,但是手术时机的选择仍然存在争议.通过回顾相关文献报告,认为早期外科干预感染性心内膜炎的近远期效果明显优于传统的药物治疗.

  18. Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis and hospital mortality in a Brazilian single-center Tratamento cirúrgico para endocardite infecciosa e mortalidade hospitalar em centro único brasileiro

    Maurício Nassau Machado


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP, Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis, evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality. RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8% underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%, greater need for dialysis (9% and higher 30-day mortality (17% compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively. In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007, acute kidney injury (P = 0.004, dialysis (P = 0.026, redo surgery (P = 0.026, re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013, tracheal reintubation (P OBJETIVO: Avaliamos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa na tentativa de identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade intrahospitalar em 30 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 837 pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à cirurgia valvar, no período de janeiro de 2003 a maio de 2010, em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil. O Grupo de Estudo compreendeu indivíduos submetidos à intervenção em vigência de endocardite infecciosa e foi comparado ao Grupo Controle, considerando complicações clínicas perioperatórias e óbito por todas as causas em 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Em nossa casuística, 64 (8% pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa, sendo 37,5% deles com indica

  19. Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis

    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho


    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva mitral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa.We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitral valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

  20. Presenting features and clinical course of 34 patients with septic pulmonary embolism caused by right-sided infective endocarditis

    Liu Shuang; Xie Jiang; Chen Yong; Yang Jinghua; Zhang Jianqun; Meng Xu; Liu Yinglong


    Backgroud Misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE),a rare disease,occurs among the patients with right heart infective endocarditis.The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of SPE and improve the early diagnosis and treatment.Methods We retrospectively studied 34 patients with septic pulmonary embolism caused by right-sided infective endocarditis who were seen from June 1,2002 to June 1,2013.We reviewed the medical records and radiological images of these cases and extracted the following information:age,gender,and symptoms,physical examination,laboratory findings,transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) results,treatment information,comorbid medical conditions,and outcomes.Microbiological samples were collected and processed according to well-established and published guidelines.Results We identified basic heart disease in 97.1% of the patients.A high proportion of the right-sided infective endocarditis patients had congenital heart defects (82.4%); predominantly,ventricular septal defects.Clinical symptoms were fever (97.1%),cardiac murmurs (94.1%) and fatigue (88.2%).Respiratory symptoms included cough (58.8%),pleuritic chest pain (47.1%) and hyoxemia (52.9%).Positive blood cultures were grown from 35.2% of patients and 50.0% were caused by staphylococcal species.Chest X-rays or CT examinations detected patchy infiltrates and/or nodules in all cases.Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated infectious foci of the right-side heart in all cases.Parenteral antibiotics were administered for all,and cardiac surgery was carried out for 76.5% of patients with an effective rate of 82.3%.Conclusions SPE lacks characteristic clinical manifestation.Congenital heart disease is a common risk of SPE.Most patients with SPE have a good prognosis as long as early diagnosis and proper treatment can be provided.

  1. Thrombus or vegetation: A mystery causing ST elevation myocardial infarction with infective endocarditis of mechanical aortic valve.

    Khan, Safi U; Lone, Ahmad N; Subramanian, Charumathi Raghu; DePersis, Michael; Sporn, Daniel


    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) in the setting of infective endocarditis (IE) of mechanical cardiac valve is a rare phenomenon. The most challenging aspect is the recognition between septic embolus versus thromboembolism from prosthesis in the setting of sub-therapeutic INR especially when the coronary vasculature is normal and etiology is not clear. We are presenting a case of 56-year-old patient who developed ST elevation MI during treatment of IE of mechanical aortic valve. Cardiac catheterization showed a very subtle blockade at most distal end of LAD therefore percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) could not be carried out. Given the lack of clear etiology between septic embolus versus prosthesis associated thromboembolism, we opted for a successful conservative approach.

  2. Clinical characteristics of infective endocarditis%感染性心内膜炎的临床特点分析

    王华; 陈婧; 赵晓辉


    目的 回顾性分析88例感染性心内膜炎(IE)患者的临床特点.方法 收集88例符合诊断标准的IE患者临床资料,对其病因、临床特征、致病微生物、药敏及治疗效果、住院死亡影响因素等进行回顾性分析.结果 二尖瓣脱垂(29.55%)和瓣膜关闭不全(28.41%)是IE最常见的基础心脏病;临床表现以发热最常见(71.59%);血培养的阳性率为72.72%,最常见的病原菌为草绿色链球菌(39.06%);39.77%患者接受手术治疗,住院死亡率为3.41%.结论 本地区导致IE的基础疾病已发生改变,临床表现也呈现多样性及非典型性,合理选择抗生素和及时的手术治疗对IE的预后具有重要意义.%Objective To retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of 88 patients with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods The clinical data of 88 patients with IE were collected. A retrospective analysis was made in their causes of disease , clinical characteristics, pathogenic microorganism , drug sensitivity, therapeutic results, and influencing factor of hospital death. Results The most common heart lesions of IE included valvular insufficiency (28. 41% ) and mitral valve prolapse (29. 55% ). Fever was the most common symptom (71.59% ). The positive rate of blood culture was 72.72%. The most common pathogenic bacterium was streptococcus viridans(39.06% ). 39. 77% of patients received surgical treatment, and the hospital mortality rate was 3. 41%. Conclusion The basic diseases resulting in IE have changed remarkably in local area . The clinical manifestation of IE was diversified and untypical. Reasonable selection of antibiotics and timely surgical treatment has great significance for the prognosis of IE .

  3. Corynebacterium endocarditis species-specific risk factors and outcomes

    Pak Janet B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium species are recognized as uncommon agents of endocarditis, but little is known regarding species-specific risk factors and outcomes in Corynebacterium endocarditis. Methods Case report and Medline search of English language journals for cases of Corynebacterium endocarditis. Inclusion criteria required that cases be identified as endocarditis, having persistent Corynebacterium bacteremia, murmurs described by the authors as identifying the affected valve, or vegetations found by echocardiography or in surgical or autopsy specimens. Cases also required patient-specific information on risk factors and outcomes (age, gender, prior prosthetic valve, other prior nosocomial risk factors (infected valve, involvement of native versus prosthetic valve, need for valve replacement, and death to be included in the analysis. Publications of Corynebacterium endocarditis which reported aggregate data were excluded. Univariate analysis was conducted with chi-square and t-tests, as appropriate, with p = 0.05 considered significant. Results 129 cases of Corynebacterium endocarditis involving nine species met inclusion criteria. Corynebacterium endocarditis typically infects the left heart of adult males and nearly one third of patients have underlying valvular disease. One quarter of patients required valve replacement and one half of patients died. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae is associated with pediatric infections (p C. amycolatum has a predilection for women (p = 0.024, while C. pseudodiphtheriticum infections are most frequent in men (p = 0.023. C. striatum, C. jeikeium and C. hemolyticum are associated with nosocomial risk factors (p C. pseudodiphtheriticum is associated with a previous prosthetic valve replacement (p = 0.004. C. jeikeium infections are more likely to require valve replacement (p = 0.026. Infections involving toxigenic C. diphtheriae and C. pseudodiphtheriticum are associated with decreased survival (p = 0

  4. [Infective endocarditis. 5-years experience in a third-level reference center in Yucatan, Mexico].

    Vega-Sánchez, Angel Emmanuel; Santaularia-Tomas, Miguel; Pérez-Román, Diana Isabel; Cortés-Telles, Arturo


    Introducción: la endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad con elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. La expresión clínica es variable en diferentes poblaciones, por lo que es imperativo conocer las características de la enfermedad en nuestra región. Métodos: estudio observacional que incluyo la totalidad de los pacientes diagnosticados con endocarditis bacteriana entre el 1 de enero de 2009 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2014. Los datos se presentan como frecuencias con porcentajes y medianas con rango intercuartílico, según sea el caso. Resultados: se incluyen 10 casos. La mediana de edad fue 34 años (RIC 26-41). Los factores de riesgo identificados fueron: enfermedad valvular previa, enfermedad renal crónica con acceso vascular y enfermedad inmunológica. La válvula mitral nativa fue la más afectada. La mediana de longitud de las vegetaciones fue de 14 mm (RIC 9.3-16). El estreptococo alfa hemolítico fue el microorganismo más común. La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue del 10 %. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de la enfermedad es similar a otras series nacionales. Identificamos factores de riesgo que pueden circunscribirse a las morbilidades en la región.

  5. Enterococcal endocarditis: A case report

    Cvjetković Dejan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Bacteria from genus Enterococcus may cause infections mostly in those who are immunocompromised and those who underwent endoscopic or surgical procedures. Endocarditis is caused by enterococci in 5-10% of cases. Its clinical presentation does not differ from endocarditis of other bacterial origin. Previous susceptibility testing is needed for appropriate choice of antibiotics against enterococci. The treatment recommendations for enterococcal endocarditis were given by American Heart Association recently. Case report. A case of enterococcal endocarditis in a young female person hospitalised at Clinic for infectious diseases was reviewed. The disease was diagnosed during an extensive diagnostic procedure. Multiply repeated echocardiographic examination helped to find out bacterial vegetations on the mitral valve. Enterococcus species was isolated from several blood cultures. Despite powerful antibiotic treatment, the additional valvular replacement had to be done. Discussion. A case of enerococcal endocarditis in a young female person was reviewed. The right diagnosis was based on a thorough clinical examination in cooperation with cardiologists using repeated transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Echocardiography, even if it is transesophageal, has limited sensitivity and specify, so it is sometimes necessary to be repeated for several times in diagnosing endocarditis. The source of endocarditis was not identified. The combined antimicrobial and surgical treatment led to the complete recovery of patient. Conclusion. Enterococcal endocarditis rarely occurrs in young females. Infective disease specialists sometimes face enterococcal endocarditis in their practice, mostly when they have to cope with fever of unknown origin. An appropriate approach to such conditions includes careful search for heart valve changes by repeated echocardiographic finding, if necessary.

  6. A case of culture-negative endocarditis due to Streptococcus tigurinus.

    Kanamori, Hajime; Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Gu, Yoshiaki; Oe, Chihiro; Inomata, Shinya; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Weber, David J; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kaku, Mitsuo


    Culture-negative endocarditis remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge despite recent medical advances. Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, was first identified in Zurich. S. tigurinus possesses virulence determinants and causes invasive infections. We report a case of culture-negative endocarditis with serious complications due to S. tigurinus, which was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis of excised valve tissue specimens. This technique is useful for identification of the causative microorganism in patients with culture-negative endocarditis and may facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial treatment.

  7. Extracardiac manifestations of bacterial endocarditis.

    Heffner, J E


    Bacterial endocarditis is an elusive disease that challenges clinicians' diagnostic capabilities. Because it can present with various combinations of extravalvular signs and symptoms, the underlying primary disease can go unnoticed.A review of the various extracardiac manifestations of bacterial endocarditis suggests three main patterns by which the valvular infection can be obscured. (1) A major clinical event may be so dramatic that subtle evidence of endocarditis is overlooked. The rupture of a mycotic aneurysm may simulate a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a congenital aneurysm. (2) The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may be constitutional complaints easily attributable to a routine, trivial illness. Symptoms of low-grade fever, myalgias, back pain and anorexia may mimic a viral syndrome. (3) Endocarditis poses a difficult diagnostic dilemma when it generates constellations of findings that are classic for other disorders. Complaints of arthritis and arthralgias accompanied by hematuria and antinuclear antibody may suggest systemic lupus erythematosus; a renal biopsy study showing diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis may support this diagnosis. The combination of fever, petechiae, altered mental status, thrombocytopenia, azotemia and anemia may promote the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. When the protean guises of bacterial endocarditis create these clinical difficulties, errors in diagnosis occur and appropriate therapy is delayed. Keen awareness of the varied disease presentations will improve success in managing endocarditis by fostering rapid diagnosis and prompt therapy.

  8. The advantages of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the assessment of tricuspid valve infective endocarditis.

    Sungur, Aylin; Hsiung, Ming C; Meggo Quiroz, Luis D; Oz, Tuğba Kemaloğlu; Haj Asaad, Ayman; Joshi, Deepak; Dönmez, Cevdet; Güvenç, Tolga S; Nanda, Navin C


    Currently, tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (TVIE) is encountered in daily clinical practice more frequently due to the increasing prevalence of illicit intravenous drug use and the implantation of intracardiac devices. In this study, we compared findings from intra-operative live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiograms (3DTEE) and two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiograms (2DTEE) of 10 patients who underwent surgery for native tricuspid valve (TV) endocarditis. Unlike 2DTEE, 3DTEE allowed en face visualization of the 3 TV leaflets from both, atrial and ventricular aspects, in 9 of the 10 cases. In the remaining patient, in whom 3DTEE could not identify all 3 leaflets en face, the TV was found essentially destroyed at surgery. Using 3DTEE, the number of vegetations was accurately reported when compared with the surgical record. Furthermore, the orientation of each vegetation was the same as noted in the surgical findings. 2DTEE missed the identification of vegetations in 5 patients. The attachment site of vegetations to the TV were also not characterized by 2DTEE in 5 patients. In all 10 cases, 3DTEE characterized the vegetations more accurately with larger dimensions, including those in the azimuthal axis, and volumes. In addition, a perivalvular abscess that lead to surgical intervention was identified by 3DTEE, however, missed by 2DTEE. In conclusion, 3DTEE allows en face visualization of the TV apparatus permitting accurate description of the number and dimensions of vegetations identified by our surgical standard, which ultimately informs patients' prognosis and dictates the timing and planning for surgical intervention. Its use should be in conjunction with 2DTEE when evaluating TVIE.

  9. Nuclear medicine imaging in endocarditis

    Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L. (Univ. Hospital Charite' , Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Clinic for Nuclear Medicine)


    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease which requires early diagnosis and adequate therapy. Echocardiography plays a key role in diagnosis and follow-up. Subacute infective endocarditis, however, is often difficult to prove echocardiographically due to its more subtle morphological changes. Also, echocardiography cannot reliably differentiate florid vegetations from residual structural changes of the affected valves in cured patients. Therefor, scintigraphy of infection and inflammation has been investigated as a complementary tool in diagnosis and follow-up of infective endocarditis. Immunoscintigraphy with the [sup 99m]Tc labelled anti granulocyte antibody in SPECT technique is complementary to echocardiography and seems to assess the floridity of the underlying inflammatory process. The combined use of both imaging modalities allows detection of virtually all cases of subacute infective endocarditis. SPECT immunoscintigraphy with the anti granulocyte antibody seems useful in doubtful cases of infective endocarditis, especially, if echocardiography is non-diagnostic and valve pathology pre-existing. the method may be used for follow-up and monitoring antibiotic therapy.

  10. Synergistic activity of ceftobiprole and vancomycin in a rat model of infective endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant and glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus.

    Fernandez, Jeffrey; Abbanat, Darren; Shang, Wenchi; He, Wenping; Amsler, Karen; Hastings, James; Queenan, Anne Marie; Melton, John L; Barron, Alfred M; Flamm, Robert K; Lynch, A Simon


    The therapeutic activity of ceftobiprole medocaril, the prodrug of ceftobiprole, was compared to that of vancomycin, daptomycin, and the combination of a subtherapeutic dose of ceftobiprole and vancomycin in a rat model of infective endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43300) or glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (GISA) (NRS4 and HIP 5836) strains. The minimum bactericidal concentrations of ceftobiprole, vancomycin, and daptomycin at bacterial cell densities similar to those encountered in the cardiac vegetation in the rat endocarditis model were 2, >64, and 8 μg/ml, respectively, for MRSA ATCC 43300 and 4, >64, and 8 μg/ml, respectively, for the GISA strain. Ceftobiprole medocaril administered in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight given intravenously (i.v.) twice a day (BID) every 8 h (q8h) (equivalent to a human therapeutic dose of ceftobiprole [500 mg given three times a day [TID]) was the most effective monotherapy, eradicating nearly 5 log(10) CFU/g MRSA or 6 log(10) CFU/g GISA organisms from the cardiac vegetation and had the highest incidence of sterile vegetation compared to the other monotherapies in the endocarditis model. In in vitro time-kill studies, synergistic effects were observed with ceftobiprole and vancomycin on MRSA and GISA strains, and in vivo synergy was noted with combinations of subtherapeutic doses of these agents for the same strains. Additionally, sterile vegetations were achieved in 33 and 60%, respectively, of the animals infected with MRSA ATCC 43300 or GISA NRS4 receiving ceftobiprole-vancomycin combination therapy. In summary, ceftobiprole was efficacious both as monotherapy and in combination with vancomycin in treating MRSA and GISA infections in a rat infective endocarditis model and warrants further evaluation.

  11. Observation on therapeatic effect of surgical treatment for infective endocarditis%外科手术治疗原发性感染性心内膜炎疗效观察

    姚青; 徐东; 刘燕晖; 李洪利


    Objective To evaluate the impact of surgical treatment for infective endocarditis in short and long term period.Analysis the risk facts of in hospital mortality .Methods From January 2002 to June 2013, consecutive 16 cases who meets Duke diagnostic criteria and treated with primary infective endocarditis were studied retrospectively .The primary end-point events with infective endocarditis -related include death, reoperation, and infective endocarditis recurrence .Results 16 patients included 12 males and 4 females, male to female ratio was 3∶1, age 25.0 -60.6 (46.7 ±13.9) years old, mitral valve replacement in 9 patients, 4 cases of aortic valve replacement , mitral combined aortic valve replacement with three ca -ses, 30 d mortality rate was 18.8% (3 /16).Follow-up of 12 cases, follow-up time 0 -137 (42.3 ±5.0) months, the 5-year survival rate was 80.0%, the main cause of late death was heart failure , infective endocarditis recurrence .Conclusion Infective endocarditis is still a high mortality disease , heart color ultrasound can improve the diagnosis rate of early surgical help to improve the long-term effects.%目的:探讨手术治疗原发性感染性心内膜炎的近远期效果。方法对2002年1月-2013年6月连续收治的符合 Duke 诊断标准的原发性感染性心内膜炎患者16例进行回顾性研究。主要终点事件为与感染性心内膜炎相关性死亡、二次手术、感染性心内膜炎复发。结果16例患者中男12例,女4例,男女比为3∶1,年龄25.0~60.6(46.7±13.9)岁,行二尖瓣置换术9例,主动脉瓣置换术4例,二尖瓣主动脉瓣联合置换术3例,30 d 内病死率为18.8%(3/16)。随访12例,随访时间0~137(42.3±5.0)月,5年生存率为80.0%,远期死亡原因主要为心功能不全、感染性心内膜炎复发。结论感染性心内膜炎仍是高病死率疾病,心脏彩色超声可以提高其诊断率,早期手术有利于提高远期效果。

  12. Índice de risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa: um modelo logístico multivariado Risk index for death by infective endocarditis: a multivariate logistic model

    Mário Augusto Cray da Costa


    endocarditis divided into two groups: discharged (137 and in-hospital death (49. Based on the odds ratios obtained by multivariate analysis, the probability of death was calculated and a mortality risk index created. RESULTS: Factors predictive of higher mortality (multivariate analysis and the risk index, with their repective weights were: age > 40 years (OR = 4.16; 95%CI [1.63-10.80] - 4 points, class IV heart failure or cardiovascular shock (OR = 4.93; 95%CI [1.86-13.05] - 5 points, uncontrolled sepsis (OR = 5.97; 95%CI [1.95-18.35] - 6 points, conduction disorder (OR = 5.07; 95%CI [1.67-15.35] - 5 points, arrhythmia (OR = 8.17; 95%CI [2.60-25.71] - 8 points, valve with extensive damage or abscess or prosthesis (OR = 4.77; 95%CI [1.44-15.76] - 5 points and large and mobile vegetation (OR = 4.36; 95%CI [1.55-12.90] - 4 points. Patients with scores between 0 and 10 had a mortality of 5.26% and scores over 20 of 78.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the score, the higher the mortality rate. The mortality risk index may be used to estimate mortality in Infective Endocarditis.

  13. Aerococcus viridans Native Valve Endocarditis

    Wenwan Zhou


    Full Text Available Aerococcus viridans is an infrequent human pathogen and few cases of infective endocarditis have been reported. A case involving a 69-year-old man with colon cancer and hemicolectomy 14 years previously, without recurrence, is reported. A diagnosis of native mitral valve endocarditis was established on the basis of clinical presentation, characteristic echocardiographic findings and pathological specimen examination after urgent valve replacement. A viridans endocarditis appears to be particularly virulent, requiring a surgical approach in four of 10 cases reported and death in one of nine. Given the aggressive nature of A viridans endocarditis and the variable time to diagnosis (a few days to seven months, prompt recognition of symptoms and echocardiography, in addition to blood cultures, should be performed when symptoms persist.

  14. 感染性心内膜炎患者临床特征与预后影响因素分析%Clinical characteristics and influencing factors of prognosis of infective endocarditis

    张苑; 任鹏涛; 杨婧; 刘婷婷; 闫庆辉; 张国建


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of infective endocarditis ,so as to provide basis for improving the prognosis of patients with endocarditis .METHODS A total of 900 patients with infective endocarditis in the hospital from Jan .2010 to Dec .2014 were selected ,and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed .Clinical characteristics of the patients and their performance were analyzed .The prognos‐tic factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses ,the results were statistically analyzed by using SPSS 20 .0 software .RESULTS Totally 869 patients had underlying heart diseases among the 900 patients with infective endocarditis ,accounting for 96 .56% .The univariate analysis showed artificial valve , fever ≥39 ℃ ,hypersensitive C‐reactive protein ≥60 mg/L ,hemoglobin <90 g/L ,serum albumin <30 g/L and surgical treatment were the related prognostic factors (P< 0 .05) .The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hemoglobin <90 g/L ,serum albumin <30g/L and surgical treatment were the independent prognos‐tic factors (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The results show that most patients with infective endocarditis have under‐lying heart diseases ,the majority of patients have normal ECG .Levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin as well as surgical treatment are prognostic risk factors in infective endocarditis .%目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎患者的临床特征及预后影响因素,为提高心内膜炎患者预后提供参考依据。方法回顾性分析2010年1月-2014年12月医院收治的900例感染性心内膜炎患者临床资料,分析患者的临床特征及表现,预后影响因素进行单因素及多因素logistic回归分析,结果采用SPSS 20.0软件进行统计分析。结果900例感染性心内膜炎患者中有基础心脏疾病患者869例占96.56%;单因素分析显示,人工瓣膜、发热≥39

  15. Cirurgia conservadora de próteses aórtica e mitral na endocardite infecciosa Conservative surgery for aortic and mitral prosthesis in infective endocarditis

    Kanim Kalil KASSAB


    Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa (EI acometendo próteses valvares é uma complicação freqüente, sendo tratada geralmente com cirurgia, devido ao seu difícil controle clínico e má resposta à antibioticoterapia. Este relato descreve o caso de uma paciente com EI, acometendo simultaneamente as biopróteses aórtica (Ao e mitral (Mi após vinte e quatro meses de cirurgia de implantes valvares, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico conservador, e com resultado favorável. Discutem-se as vantagens deste procedimento em situações específicas.Infective endocarditis is a frequent complication for valvar prosthesis currently treated with surgery, orving to its difficult control and poor response to therapy with antibiotics. Although conservative surgery for infective endocarditis of prosthesis is not a procedure of choice, this report shows a case of infective endocarditis of aortic and mitral prosthesis, after 24 months of implantation, treated by conservative surgery with favorable outcome.


    AA Ayu Dwi Adelia Yasmin


    Full Text Available Tetralogy of Fallot  (TOF  is a congenital heart disease  that consists of  four anatomical anomalies,namely ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis or obstruction of the right ventricular outflowtract, right ventricular hypertrophy, and overriding aorta. Tetralogy of Fallot is frequently associatedwith complications that could affect morbidity and mortality because of its complex cardiac lesions.Good understanding of the natural history and complications of this disease is very important to guidethe management of patients. We reported a 4-year old girl with classic TOF with complications ofinfective  endocarditis,  cerebral  abscess,  and undernutrition. Despite  optimal medical  therapy,  thepatient?s condition showed no satisfying improvement. Since the parents were refused to take moreaggressive measure by undergoing surgical therapy, so that patient care remains focused on supportiveand palliative aspects. [MEDICINA 2015;46:37-41].Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF merupakan suatu penyakit jantung kongenital yang terdiri dari empat anomalianatomis, antara lain ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis atau obstruksi pada right ventricleoutflow tract, hipertrofi ventrikel kanan, dan overriding aorta. Tetralogy of Fallot sering disertai denganberbagai  komplikasi  yang  dapat mempengaruhi morbiditas  dan mortalitas  karena  kelainan  inimerupakan kelainan kongenital kardiak yang kompleks. Pemahaman yang baik mengenai perjalananalamiah  dan komplikasi  penyakit  ini  sangat  penting untuk mengetahui  penatalaksanaan  pasien.Kami melaporkan seorang anak perempuan berusia 4 tahun dengan TOF klasik yang juga menderitakomplikasi endocarditis infektif, abses serebral, dan gizi kurang. Walaupun telah memperoleh terapimedikamentosa  yang  optimal,  kondisi  pasien  tidak menunjukkan  perbaikan  yang memuaskan.Orangtua  pasien  telah menolak  pemberian  tindakan  yang  lebih  agresif,  yaitu  dengan

  17. Bacterial endocarditis due to Kingella kingae.

    Sage, M J; Maslowski, A H; MacCulloch, D


    A case of infective bacterial endocarditis due to Kingella kingae in a 26 year old male involving a prosthetic mitral valve is described. Microbiological features of this organism are outlined, and the treatment of this endocarditis is discussed with reference to the four previously reported cases.

  18. Staphylococcus saprophyticus causing native valve endocarditis.

    Garduño, Eugenio; Márquez, Irene; Beteta, Alicia; Said, Ibrahim; Blanco, Javier; Pineda, Tomás


    Coagulase negative staphylococci are a rare cause of native valve endocarditis. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen, and most of the cases reported are urinary tract infections. We describe a case of native valve endocarditis attributed to this organism. The patient needed valve replacement due to heart failure.

  19. Iatrogenic hemolytic anemia and endocarditis in New Zealand white rabbits secondary to Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection.

    Allison, Sarah O; Artwoh, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D; Pogwizd, Steven; Jeanes, Jodi; Koske, Sarah; Pinkerton, Marie E; Haschek, Wanda M; Messick, Joanne


    During a 3-mo period, 9 of the 15 New Zealand White rabbits used in a heart failure study developed a hemolytic anemia. The heart failure model involved the creation of an aortic insufficiency (AI) followed 2 to 6 wk later by the creation of an aortic stenosis (AS). None of the 9 animals that developed hemolytic anemia responded to medical management, and 6 of the 9 were euthanized for humane concerns. Necropsies and blood cultures were performed on all anemic animals; 7 of these cultures yielded growth of Achromobacter xylosoxidans. In addition, cultures from the heart valves of 2 rabbits yielded growth of Achromobacter xylosoxidans. We presume that the endocarditis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans led to the mechanical damage of red blood cells (RBCs) and subsequent intravascular hemolysis or splenic destruction of damaged RBCs, resulting in a severe, regenerative hemolytic anemia. Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacillus. This organism is an environmentally resistant and opportunistic bacterium that typically inhabits aqueous environments. Microbial samples from the investigator's laboratory and equipment were collected to identify the source of the bacteria. A pressure transducer and bag of intravenous fluid were identified as sources of contamination.

  20. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Septic Emboli in the Left Main Trunk as a Complication of Infective Endocarditis.

    Sugi, Keiki; Nakano, Shintaro; Fukasawa, Yusuke; Maruyama, Ryugen; Tanno, Jun; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Nishimura, Shigeyuki


    Infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is frequently fatal and may require emergent interventions. However, the optimal treatment of this rare condition remains controversial as it lacks established guidelines. We successfully treated a patient with IE complicated by AMI during the acute phase using percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by surgery. A 73-year-old man was diagnosed with IE of the mitral and aortic valves caused by Streptococcus oralis. Four weeks after the initiation of antibiotics sensitive to the causative bacteria, he suddenly developed AMI manifested by chest pain and dyspnoea with cardiovascular collapse. Emergent coronary angiography revealed that the myocardial infarction was secondary to septic emboli in the left main trunk. Emergent PCI comprising aspiration and stent deployment, was successfully performed, and his vital signs were immediately stabilised. He subsequently underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement and debridement without major post-operative complications. Although the optimal treatment strategy for haemodynamically unstable AMI secondary to IE requires further discussion, the present case indicates the importance of early diagnosis and the potential effectiveness of aggressive PCI as a bridge to the following surgery.

  1. Pulmonary Valve Infective Endocarditis in an Adult Patient with Severe Congenital Pulmonary Stenosis and Ostium Secundum Atrial Septal Defect

    Juan Lacalzada


    Full Text Available A hypertensive 76-year-old man with severe pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS and recent initiation of haemodialysis was referred with fever, chills, and asthenia. One month prior, he had been admitted with similar symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE had shown a PVS and no valve vegetations were observed. Following discharge, he was readmitted with fever and blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus haemolyticus. A new TTE revealed two pulmonary valve vegetations and a previously undetected ostium secundum-type atrial septal defect (ASD, confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography. The clinical course was uneventful with intravenous antibiotic treatment and the patient was safely discharged. This is a case of pulmonary valve infective endocarditis (IE. The incidence of right-sided IE is on the rise due to the increased number of patients using central venous lines, pacing, haemodialysis and other intravascular devices. Pulmonary valve IE is extremely rare, especially in structurally normal hearts. The case reported here, presents a combination of predisposing factors, such as severe congenital PVS, the presence of a central venous catheter, and haemodialysis. The fact that it was an older patient with severe congenital PVS and associated with a previously undiagnosed ASD, is also an unusual feature of this case, making it even more interesting.

  2. Streptococcus agalactiae infective endocarditis complicated by large vegetations at aortic valve cusps along with intracoronary extension: An autopsy case report.

    Ro, Ayako


    Streptococcus agalactiae infective endocarditis is a rare condition with high mortality owing to complications of large vegetations and systemic emboli. A 49-year-old man was found dead in his house. He had a history of hepatic cirrhosis and had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 2years previously. He had presented with a high fever 10days before his death. An autopsy revealed 50mL of purulent pericardial effusion, and S. agalactiae was detected from the culture of this pericardial effusion. Two slender rope-like vegetations were present at the right aortic valve cusp and noncoronary aortic valve cusp. The vegetation at the right aortic valve cusp extended into the right coronary artery. The right coronary artery was broadly occluded by white rod-like material. The mitral valves were also affected, and the posterior papillary muscle was ruptured. Myocardial infarction was not observed. Systemic microscopic Gram-positive bacterial masses were observed in several organs. The death was attributed to acute myocardial ischemia caused by occlusive intracoronary extension of the vegetation at the proximal right coronary artery.

  3. Operative Opportunity for Active Infective Endocarditis%活动期感染性心内膜炎手术时机的分析

    王雪海; 陈凡; 舒骏; 谢家勇; 丛伟


    Objective To discuss the optimal time of cardiac operations in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods We analyzed the clinical data of 92 patients with IE diagnosed by the modified Duke criteria between September 1999 and September 2009. SPSS 12. 0 was used to analyze predictors of 6-month mortality, including age,sex, nosocomial origin of infection, comorbid conditions (diabetes, chromic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer),the causative microorganisms, the timing of cardiac operation, and the complications. Results Fifty-six patients underwent operation within the first 7 days after diagnosis of infective endocarditis, and 36 received operation at the completion of antibiotic treatment 7 days after the diagnosis. Staphylococci predominated and were significantly associated with embolism, abscess, and septic shock. The most frequent indication for operation was severe regurgitation with heart failure. The 6-month mortality was 12%. Early operation showed an increased mortality compared with late operation. Univariate analysis showed that factors associated with 6-month mortality included staphylococci infection and septic shock. Multivariate analysis revealed that septic shock was a predictor of 6-month mortality. Despite early operation for patients with septic shock, 67% of them died. No death occurred to patients with severe regurgitation but without heart failure after undergoing (early or late) operations. Conclusions The prognosis for surgically treated patients is determined by the occurrence of septic shock. The outcome in patients undergoing late operations is favorable compared with patients undergoing early operations. This difference is probably not due to the timing of the surgical intervention but to the severity of infective endocarditis. In patients with severe regurgitation without heart failure, early operation may offer benefits in shortening the length of hospitalization and preventing development of heart failure.%目的 探

  4. Endocarditis due to Kingella kingae.

    Odum, L; Jensen, K T; Slotsbjerg, T D


    Four cases of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae are described in compromised patients. All had primary heart disease, and two had systemic lupus erythematosis and congenital heart defect respectively, in addition. Confirmation of Kingella kingae was made in one case at autopsy. The literature on 11 cases of endocarditis, 2 bacteremia, 4 osteomyelitis, 5 septic arthritis and 1 intervertebral disc infection, all caused by Kingella kingae, is reviewed. Our findings confirm that the organism is of low pathogenicity. Children may be predisposed to infection with Kingella kingae.

  5. Assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in prosthetic infective endocarditis and cardiac implantable electronic device infection: comparison of different interpretation criteria

    Jimenez-Ballve, Ana; Jesus Perez-Castejon, Maria; Carreras-Delgado, Jose L. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC), Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Delgado-Bolton, Roberto C. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC), Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Madrid (Spain); San Pedro Hospital and Centre for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), University of La Rioja, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Radiology) and Nuclear Medicine, La Rioja (Spain); Sanchez-Enrique, Cristina; Vilacosta, Isidre; Vivas, David; Olmos, Carmen [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Manuel E.F. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, Research Unit, Madrid (Spain)


    The diagnosis of prosthetic valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) and infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in these patients and analyse the interpretation criteria. We included 41 patients suspected of having IE by the Duke criteria who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The criteria applied for classifying the findings as positive/negative for IE were: (a) visual analysis of only PET images with attenuation-correction (AC PET images); (b) visual analysis of both AC PET images and PET images without AC (NAC PET images); (c) qualitative analysis of NAC PET images; and (d) semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was considered positive for IE independently of the intensity and distribution of FDG uptake. The gold standard was the Duke pathological criteria (if tissue was available) or the decision of an endocarditis expert team after a minimum 4 months follow-up. We studied 62 areas with suspicion of IE, 28 areas (45 %) showing definite IE and 34 (55 %) showing possible IE. Visual analysis of only AC PET images showed poor diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 20 %, specificity 57 %). Visual analysis of both AC PET and NAC PET images showed excellent sensitivity (100 %) and intermediate specificity (73 %), focal uptake being more frequently associated with IE. The accuracy of qualitative analysis of NAC PET images depended on the threshold: the maximum sensitivity, specificity and accuracy achieved were 88 %, 80 %, 84 %, respectively. In the semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images, SUVmax was higher in areas of confirmed IE than in those without IE (∇SUVmax 2.2, p < 0.001). When FDG uptake was twice that in the liver, IE was always confirmed, and SUVmax 5.5 was the optimal threshold for IE diagnosis using ROC curve analysis (area under the curve 0.71). The value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of suspected IE of PVs

  6. Switch to oral antibiotics in the treatment of infective endocarditis is not associated with increased risk of mortality in non-severely ill patients.

    Mzabi, A; Kernéis, S; Richaud, C; Podglajen, I; Fernandez-Gerlinger, M-P; Mainardi, J-L


    Although many international guidelines exist for the management of infective endocarditis (IE), recommendations are lacking on the opportunity of switching antibiotics from the intravenous (IV) to oral route during treatment. We present a cohort study of 426 cases of IE over a period of 13 years (2000-2012), including 369 cases of definite IE according to the Duke criteria. Predictors of mortality were identified using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 64.5 (7-98) years. One hundred six patients (25%) had healthcare-associated IE. Oral streptococci (n = 99, 23%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 81, 19%) were the predominant microorganisms. Ninety-two patients (22%) died during follow-up. After an initial phase of IV antibiotherapy, 214 patients (50%) were switched to oral route a median (range) of 21 (0-70) days after diagnosis of IE. Patients in the oral group had fewer comorbidities, and criteria of severity at inclusion and were less frequently infected by S. aureus. Oral antibiotics were amoxicillin alone in 109 cases or a combination therapy of clindamycin, fluoroquinolone, rifampicin and/or amoxicillin in 46 cases, according to the susceptibility of the microorganisms. In the multivariate analysis, a switch to oral route was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. During follow-up, only two relapses and four reinfections were observed in the oral group (compared to nine and eight in the IV group, respectively). In this study, switching to oral administration was not associated with an increased risk of relapse or reinfection. These promising results need to be confirmed by prospective studies.

  7. Endocardite infecciosa por Haemophilus aphrophilus: relato de caso Infective endocarditis due to Haemophilus aphrophilus: a case report

    Ricardo M. Pereira


    adequação do tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with infective endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aphrophilus. DESCRIPTION: Boy with 20 days of fever and chills. On admission, he was febrile, pale and with no signs of hemodynamic instability; on cardiac auscultation, a mitral-related holosystolic murmur was observed. Laboratory examination identified anemia (hemoglobin = 9.14 g/dL, total leukocytes of 11,920 mm³, platelets of 250,000 mm³, elevated sedimentation velocity of red cells and elevated C-reactive protein. The echocardiogram revealed image on mitral valve, resembling vegetation. Considering endocarditis, antibiotic therapy was started with crystalline penicillin (200,000 UI/kg/day in association with gentamicin (4 mg/kg/day. On the third day of treatment, Haemophilus aphrophilus was identified in the blood cultures and the antibiotic scheme was replaced with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day. On the 20th day of evolution, the patient was pale but with no fever or other complaints. Examinations showed hemoglobin = 7.0 g/dL, leukocytes = 2,190 mm³, platelets = 98,000 mm³, international normalized ratio = 1.95 and R = 1.89. Considering the hypothesis of adverse reaction to ceftriaxone, a 6-week replacement treatment with ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg/day was started. Examination results normalized after 72 hours of the replacement therapy. During ambulatory follow-up, patient presented with severe mitral regurgitation, undergoing a valve replacement with a metallic prosthetic valve 9 months after acute event. Patient has done well throughout the 3-year ambulatory follow-up. COMMENTS: Identification of agents of the HACEK group (Haemophilus ssp, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae in children with infective endocarditis is rare. This case report, with no HACEK agent-related risk factors, reinforces the need for identification of the etiological agent of endocarditis to ensure adequate

  8. 老年患者感染性心内膜炎的临床病原学特征研究%Study on clinical pathogenic characteristics of elderly patients with infective endocarditis

    宋艳玲; 麦华德; 顾申红; 李丽娟; 昌宏


    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical pathogenic characteristics and survival status in elderly patients with infective endocarditis so as to provide clinical data for the diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis . METHODS A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 100 cases of patients older than 60 years old with infec‐tive endocarditis from Jan .2011 to Jan .2014 was conducted .The clinical features and pathogenic characteristics were analyzed by one‐way analysis of variance and logistic multiple regression analysis .The risk factors of endom‐etrial inflammation in elderly patients were summarized .RESULTS Totally 82 cases in the 100 cases of patients had left heart lesion ,accounting for 82% ,and 5 cases got right heart lesion ,accounting for 5% .A total of 7 cases ap‐peared both left and right heart lesion ,accounting for 7% .Another 6 cases had unclear heart lesion ,accounting for 6% .In 100 patients ,41 cases (41% ) with cardiac basic diseases ,47 cases (47% ) were positive in arterial blood culture .Totally 47 strains of pathogens were detected and they were mainly Streptococcus viridans with 24 strains (51 .1 % ) .The results showed that nosocomial infections ,hemoglobin < 90g /L were risk factors for the survival of patients with senile infective endocarditis and surgery treatment was a protective factor .CONCLUSION The main infectious pathogen causing endocarditis in elderly patients was S .viridans ,and the risk factors should be prevented and controlled .Operational treatments as a protective factor can be applied .%目的:探讨老年患者感染性心内膜炎的临床病原学特征与生存状况,为感染性心内膜炎的诊治提供临床资料。方法回顾性分析2011年1月-2014年1月100例感染性心内膜炎年龄>60岁患者的临床资料,统计其临床和病原学特征,并采用单因素方差分析和多因素 logistic 回归分析,分析影响感染性内膜炎老年患者

  9. 42例感染性心内膜炎的外科治疗%The surgical treatment of infective endocarditis in 42 cases

    张林; 罗昭全; 赵雄飞; 张伟


    目的 探讨感染性心内膜炎(infective endocarditis,IE)的诊断及外科治疗时机,提高近远期疗效.方法 回顾分析2001年1月~2010年1月手术治疗感染性心内膜炎患者42例,均在体外循环下行毁损瓣膜置换、畸形矫正和赘生物清除术.结果 42例患者术后早期成功39例,死亡3例,近远期效果良好.结论 外科治疗感染性心内膜炎效果良好,能明显降低病死率.而正确把握手术时机、手术方式以及围术期的正确处理是提高感染性心内膜炎治愈率的关键.%Objective To investigate the diagnosis and the surgical opportunity of infective endocarditis (infective endocarditis , IE) . Methods The data of 42 cases of IE treated by surgery were analyzed retrospectively from January 2001 to Januar-y 2010. The damaged valve replacement and deformity correction and vegetation removal were performed on cardiopulmonary bypass on these patients. Results Three cases were death soon after operation. Thirty-nine cases were achieved good results on the long term follow-up. Conclusion Satisfied effects could be obtained and the rate of mortality could be reduced significantly by surgery on IE patients. It was very important to grasp the timing of surgery correctly and to select the surgical approach as well as to treat correctly on IE patients in perioperative period.

  10. Self-administered outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (S-OPAT) for infective endocarditis: a safe and effective model.

    Pajarón, Marcos; Fernández-Miera, Manuel F; Allende, Iciar; Arnaiz, Ana M; Gutiérrez-Cuadra, Manuel; Cobo-Belaustegui, Manuel; Armiñanzas, Carlos; de Berrazueta, Jose R; Fariñas, Maria C; Sanroma, Pedro


    The safety and efficacy of treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) was evaluated within a program of hospital-in-home (HIH) based on self-administered outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (S-OPAT). IE episodes (n=48 in 45 patients; 71% middle-aged males) were recruited into the HIH program between 1998 and 2012. Following treatment stabilization at the hospital they returned home for HIH in which a physician and/or a nurse supervised the S-OPAT. Safety and efficacy were evaluated as mortality, re-occurrence, and unexpected re-admission to hospital. Of the episodes of IE, 83.3% had comorbidities with a mean score of 2.3 on the Charlson index and 1.5 on the Profund index; 60.4% had pre-existing valve disease (58.6% having had surgical intervention); 8.3% of patients had suffered a previous IE episode; 62.5% of all episodes affected a native valve; 45.8% being mitral; 70.8% of infection derived from the community. In 75% of the episodes there was micro-organism growth, of which 83.3% were Gram positive. Overall duration of antibiotic treatment was 4.8 weeks; 60.4% of this time corresponding to HIH. Re-admission occurred in 12.5% of episodes of which 33.3% returned to HIH to complete the S-OPAT. No deaths occurred during HIH. One year after discharge, 2 patients had recurrence and 5 patients died, in 2 of whom previous IE as cause-of-death could not be excluded. In conclusion, the S-OPAT schedule of hospital-in-home is safe and efficacious in selected patients with IE.

  11. Achromobacter species endocarditis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Catherine Derber


    Full Text Available Endocarditis due to Achromobacter species is a rare, yet serious, endovascular infection. Achromobacter species infective endocarditis is associated with underlying immunodeficiencies or prosthetic heart valves and devices. A case of prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis secondary to Achromobacter xylosoxidans subspecies denitrificans is described in the present report. This life-threatening infection was successfully treated with combined valve replacement and prolonged antibiotic therapy. A Medline/PubMed literature review of Achromobacter endocarditis was also performed. Achromobacter species are an uncommon, yet important, cause of nosocomial endocarditis. Given the significant associated morbidity and mortality, along with a high degree of intrinsic antibiotic resistance, Achromobacter species infective endocarditis remains a clinical treatment challenge.

  12. Endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    Asma M Al-Jasser


    Full Text Available A 35-year–old man with pre-existing rheumatic heart disease and aortic regurgitation (AR presented with intermittent fever, ankle swelling and clinical evidence of endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (TEE revealed vegetations and destruction of the aortic valve (AV. Blood cultures grew a gram positive coccobacillus which was phenotypically identified as Abiotrophia defectvia (A.defectiva. A diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE due to A.defectiva was made. Treatment, with penicillin and gentamicin, was administered for 4 weeks. Mechanical valve replacement was required few days after starting the antibiotic therapy. The patient had a favorable outcome on follow up.Although A.defectiva is an uncommon cause of endocarditis, early and correct identification of this pathogen is important to improve the outcome and the prognosis of patients with IE due to this organism.

  13. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae Endocarditis and Presumed Osteomyelitis

    Marc Romney


    Full Text Available Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is known to cause infections in humans following exposure to decaying organic matter or animals colonized with the organism, such as swine and fish. Invasive infections with this organism are unusual and are manifested primarily as infective endocarditis. The present report is believed to be the first to report a case of E rhusiopathiae endocarditis and presumptive osteomyelitis. E rhusiopathiae appears to have intrinsic resistance to vancomycin. Because vancomycin is often used empirically for the treatment of endocarditis, rapid differentiation of E rhusiopathiae> from other Gram-positive organisms is critical. In patients with endocarditis caused by a Gram-positive bacillus and epidemiological risk factors for E rhusiopathiae exposure, empirical treatment with vancomycin should be reconsidered.

  14. Characteristics and outcomes for right heart endocarditis: six-year cohort study.

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Pemberton, James


    Right heart endocarditis makes up 5-10% of all infective endocarditis involving valvular, congenital and artificial structures. Given the limited literature in this area, we reviewed the characteristics, management and outcomes of this condition in this retrospective cohort study. Thirty-five patients with right heart endocarditis admitted to Auckland City Hospital during 2005-2010 were followed-up for 3.4+/-2.5 years. In-hospital mortality was 11.4% (4), all occurring in those treated medically (20.0% (4) vs 0.0% (0), P=0.119). Surgical intervention was independently associated with reduced long-term mortality (HR 0.078, 95%CI 0.010-0.609, P=0.015) in multivariate analysis, while concurrent left heart endocarditis predicted both in-hospital mortality (HR 11.0, 95%CI 1.18-102, P=0.027) and long-term mortality (HR 3.20, 95%CI 1.03-9.92, P=0.044). Our study showed that surgical intervention and concomitant left heart endocarditis are positive and negative prognostic factors for outcomes after right heart endocarditis.

  15. Clinical impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis

    Asmar, Ali; Ozcan, Cengiz; Diederichsen, Axel C P;


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical importance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT used in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND: IE is a serious condition with a significant mortality. Besides the degree of valvular involvement, the progno...... lesions of clinical importance in one of seven IE patients and may be a substantial imaging technique for tracing peripheral infectious embolism due to IE. Thus, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may help to guide adequate therapy and thereby improve the prognosis of patients with IE.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical importance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT used in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND: IE is a serious condition with a significant mortality. Besides the degree of valvular involvement......, the prognosis relies crucially on the presence of systemic infectious embolism. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (71% males and mean age 63 ± 17 years) with IE were evaluated with (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in addition to standard work-up including patient history, physical examination, conventional imaging modalities...

  16. Are novel non-invasive imaging techniques needed in patients with suspected prosthetic heart valve endocarditis? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Habets, Jesse; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tanis, Wilco [Haga Teaching Hospital, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Reitsma, Johannes B. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brink, Renee B.A. van den [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chamuleau, Steven A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Multimodal non-invasive imaging plays a key role in establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of TTE, TEE, and MDCT in patients with (suspected) PHV endocarditis. Studies published between 1985 and 2013 were identified via search and cross-reference of PubMed/Embase databases. Studies were included if (1) they reported on the non-invasive index tests TTE, TEE, or MDCT; (2) data was provided on PHV endocarditis as the condition of interest; and (3) imaging results were verified against either surgical inspection/autopsy or clinical follow-up reference standards, thereby enabling the extraction of 2-by-2 tables. Twenty articles (including 496 patients) met the inclusion criteria for PHV endocarditis. TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE had a pooled sensitivity/specificity for vegetations of 29/100 %; 82/95 %, and 88/94 %, respectively. The pooled sensitivity/specificity of TTE, TEE, and MDCT + TEE for periannular complications was 36/93 %, 86/98 %, and 100/94 %, respectively. TEE showed good sensitivity and specificity for establishing a diagnosis of PHV endocarditis. Although MDCT data are limited, this review showed that MDCT in addition to TEE may improve sensitivity in detecting life-threatening periannular complications. (orig.)

  17. Endocarditis and stroke.

    Grecu, Nicolae; Tiu, Cristina; Terecoasa, Elena; Bajenaru, Ovidiu


    Endocarditis is an important, although less common, cause of cerebral embolism. All forms of endocarditis share an initial common pathophysiologic pathway, best illustrated by the non-bacterial thrombotic form, but also a final potential for embolization. Stroke associated with endocarditis has signifficant mortality and morbidity rates, especially due to the frequent concomitant multiple sites of brain embolization. In this article we aim to briefly review endocarditis with a focus on stroke as a complication, while also presenting case correlates from our department.


    洪萍; 张红; 李儒正


    [Objective] To investigate the features of infective endocarditis (IE) and evaluate the changes of arrhythmia and pulmonary hypertension after surgical therapy, to discuss the causes and efficacy of IE. [Methods] Data of 30 IE cases (2007.3-2010.12), hospitalized in the Cardial Surgery Department of Hainan Provincial People's Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed, 28 of which were surgical cases. 23 cases were diagnosed as IE preoperatively. 18 cases were detected vegetation positive by color doppler echocardiography before operation with 1 dextrocardia case. 5 cases of IE, diagnosed as rheumatic heart disease before, were confirmed during operation by vegetation biopsy. Of the total 28 surgical cases, 4 were emergency opera-tions, the other were selective ones. Before operation, 13 cases developed pulmonary hypertension, 7 cases had arrhythmia. [Results] 28 surgical cases were followed up 1 to 36 months after the surgery. Arrhythmia cases had decreased to 3 cases and only 1 case had mild pulmonary hypertension. 1 case was found perivalvular leakage, 1 case had recurred infection. [Condu-Sion] Patients with IE in Hainan are more likely to have the rheumatic cardiopathic basis and involve the mitral valves; Surgical therapy can significantly reduce the pulmonary hypertension. An emergency operation should be summoned once the acute heart dysfunction or (and) infections are beyond control.%[目的]分析感染性心内膜炎特点,外科手术前后心律失常和肺动脉高压的变化,探讨本地感染性心内膜 炎的病因及手术的疗效.[.方法]回顾性分析2007年3月~2010年12月海南省人民医院心外科感染性心膜炎病人30 例,手术28例,23例术前诊断为IE,18例术前彩超发现有赘生物(其中1例为右位心),5例术前诊断风湿性心脏病 术中发现有赘生物经病理检查而确诊.急诊手术4例,择期手术24例,术前肺动脉高压13例,心律失常7例.[结 果]28例手术,术后随诊1~36个

  19. Fatal Bacillus cereus endocarditis masquerading as an anthrax-like infection in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: case report.

    Cone, Lawrence A; Dreisbach, Luke; Potts, Barbara E; Comess, Barbara E; Burleigh, William A


    A 38-year-old male farm worker with relapsing acute lymphoblastic leukemia spontaneously developed an ulcerating ulcer on his anterior thigh which was surrounded by a non-tender area of erythema. Bacillus cereus was isolated from the ulcer and blood, and the patient received intravenous penicillin and vancomycin for one week. When sensitivity studies were returned he was treated with gatifloxacin orally. After two weeks of combined antimicrobial therapy and negative blood cultures, the patient received combination chemotherapy with vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. He was hospitalized a day after completing chemotherapy with neutropenic sepsis due to B. cereus. He received similar antimicrobial therapy as previously, but died three days later. At autopsy, the patient was found to have acute mitral valve endocarditis and bilateral brain abscesses. This was the first case of B. cereus endocarditis reported in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  20. Isolated Pulmonary Infective Endocarditis with Septic Pulmonary Embolism Complicating a Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: Scarce and Devious Presentation

    Abdelrahmen Abdelbar


    Full Text Available We present a case of a fifty-three-year-old male who presented with severe sepsis. He had been treated as a pneumonia patient for five months before the admission. Investigations revealed isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism in addition to undiagnosed right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for the relief of RVOT obstruction by substantial muscle resection of the RVOT, pulmonary artery embolectomy, pulmonary valve replacement, and reconstruction of RVOT and main pulmonary artery with two separate bovine pericardial patches. He was discharged from our hospital after 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. He recovered well on follow-up 16 weeks after discharge. A high-suspicion index is needed to diagnose right-side heart endocarditis. Blood cultures and transesophageal echocardiogram are the key diagnostic tools.

  1. Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis.

    Sheinman, B D; Evans, T; Sage, R


    A fatal case of endocarditis due to Listeria monocytogenes is reported. Case reports of endocarditis due to this organism are rare but indicate a higher mortality than with many other causes of bacterial endocarditis. The size of the problem may be underestimated because the organism has a "diphtheroid' appearance and may be incorrectly dismissed as a contaminant.

  2. Tricuspid valve endocarditis due to Neisseria cinerea.

    Benes, J; Dzupova, O; Krizova, P; Rozsypal, H


    Reported here is a case of infective endocarditis caused by the saprophytic species Neisseria cinerea. To the best of our knowledge, this etiology has not been documented in the medical literature previously. The patient was an intravenous drug addict who developed tricuspid endocarditis with lung embolism. The disease was cured after treatment with ampicillin/clavulanate that was changed to ceftriaxone after an embolic event.

  3. Case of indolent endocarditis due to Pseudomonas stutzeri with genetic evidence of relapse after 4 years.

    Grimaldi, David; Podglajen, Isabelle; Aubert, Agnès; Buu-Hoï, Annie; Diebold, Benoit; Mainardi, Jean-Luc


    Pseudomonas stutzeri, a gram-negative bacterium, is a common inhabitant of soil and water. We report an unusual case of a relapse of infective endocarditis due to P. stutzeri 4 years after the initial episode. The identity of the strains was proven by genomic analysis.

  4. 感染性心内膜炎赘生物及常见并发症的超声诊断分析%Ultrasound diagnosis of vegetations and common complications in patients with infective endocarditis

    郑浙悦; 朱海宏; 周余旺


    OBJECTIVE To discuss the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis of vegetations and common complications in patients with infective endocarditis so as to improve the accurate rate of ultrasound diagnosis .METHODS The clinical data were collected from 42 patients with infective endocarditis who underwent the ultrasound diagnosis and surgical procedures from Aug 2009 to Feb 2012 ,then the results of the ultrasound diagnosis and surgical treatment were analyzed ,and the statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS 18 .0 software .RESULTS Of the 42 patients with infective endocarditis , the result of the ultrasound diagnosis showed that 40 cases were with confirmed vegetations and 1 case was with suspected vegetations .The surgical procedures found 42 cases of vege-tations .Totally 30 cases of valve lesions were confirmed by the ultrasound diagnosis ;32 cases of valve lesions were confirmed by the surgical procedures .The pseudoaneurysm was confirmed in 2 cases through the ultrasound diagnosis and in 3 cases through the surgical procedures .The ultrasound diagnosis could confirm larger number of cases of vegetations ,valve lesions ,or pseudoaneurysm than the surgical procedures ,however ,the difference between the two was not statistically significant .The size of the vegetation was confirmed as (18 .1 ± 1 .5)mm by the ultrasound diagnosis ,(20 .6 ± 0 .5)mm by the surgical procedures ,the difference between the two was statisti-cally significant(P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The ultrasound diagnosis plays a certain role in diagnosis of the vegeta-tions and common complications in the patients with infective endocarditis ,which may provide evidence for the diagnosis of the disease .%目的:探讨超声诊断感染性心内膜炎赘生物及常见并发症的准确性,提高临床超声诊断的准确率。方法搜集医院2009年8月-2012年2月收治的感染性心内膜炎经超声诊断及手术治疗42例患者的临床资料,分析超声诊断与手术结果

  5. Pathogen distribution of 188 cases for positive infective endocarditis blood cultures and the drug sensitivity analysis%188例感染性心内膜炎血培养阳性的病原菌分布及药敏分析

    曾卫强; 曲云婷


    目的 考查本地区近五年来感染性心内膜炎(infective endocarditis,IE)的致病菌分布特点及药敏情况,为临床选择抗菌药物提供参考.方法 通过医院电子病历系统筛选我院自2007年1月至2011年12月确诊为IE并经血培养阳性的病例,对其致病菌及药敏结果进行回顾性分析.结果 革兰氏阳性菌占IE致病菌的82.4%,其中链球菌40.4%、葡萄球菌24.4%、肠球菌10.6%;革兰氏阴性菌占10.1%,主要是肺炎克雷伯菌3.19%、大肠埃希菌2.12%和铜绿假单胞菌2.12%;真菌占7.4%,主要是念珠菌感染3.19%;药敏结果:链球菌对青霉素敏感率为96.1%,对红霉素和四环素耐药率分别38.2%和45.7%;金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素耐药率为93.1%,耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(methicillin resistant staphylococcusanrens,MRSA)20.7%;均无发现对万古霉素、替考拉宁和利奈唑胺耐药菌株;大肠埃希菌和铜绿假单胞菌对三代头孢耐药率分别为50%和100%.结论 链球菌依然是感染IE最常见的致病菌,其次是葡萄球菌和肠球菌;青霉素仍然是链球菌感染IE的首选药物,而金黄色葡萄球菌感染则应避免使用青霉素,但对氧氟沙星、利福平、氨基苷类仍保持有较高的敏感率.链球菌对红霉素和四环素、大肠埃希菌和铜绿假单胞菌对三代头孢的耐药情况应引起重视.%Objective To get clinical references for selection of antibiotics by examining the character of pathogen distribution and drug resistances of infective endocarditis (IE) in this region nearly five years. Methods The pathogens and drug susceptibility of IE and blood culture positive cases in the electronic medical records of our hospital were analyzed retrospectively from January 2007 to December 2011. Results 82. 4% of IE pathogens were Gram-positive bacteria,of which were Streptococcus (40. 4% ) .Staphylococ-cus aureus (24. 4% ) and Enterococci (10. 6% ); 10. 1

  6. Partial oral treatment of endocarditis

    Iversen, Kasper; Høst, Nis Baun; Bruun, Niels Eske;


    Guidelines for the treatment of left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) recommend 4 to 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics in clinically stabilized patients could reduce the side effects associated with intravenous treatment and shorten the length...... of hospital stay. Evidence supporting partial oral therapy as an alternative to the routinely recommended continued parenteral therapy is scarce, although observational data suggest that this strategy may be safe and effective....

  7. Changes in the treatment of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis in Spain in the last 15 years: from ampicillin plus gentamicin to ampicillin plus ceftriaxone.

    Pericas, J M; Cervera, C; del Rio, A; Moreno, A; Garcia de la Maria, C; Almela, M; Falces, C; Ninot, S; Castañeda, X; Armero, Y; Soy, D; Gatell, J M; Marco, F; Mestres, C A; Miro, J M


    The aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic resistance, epidemiology and outcome among patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin (A+G) with that of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (A+C). The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of EFIE patients treated in our centre from 1997 to 2011. Thirty patients were initially treated with A+G (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and gentamicin 3 mg/kg/day) and 39 with A+C (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and ceftriaxone 2 g/12 h) for 4-6 weeks. Increased rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR; gentamicin MIC ≥512 mg/L, streptomycin MIC ≥1024 mg/L or both) were observed in recent years (24% in 1997-2006 and 49% in 2007-2011; p 0.03). The use of A+C increased over time: 1997-2001, 4/18 (22%); 2002-2006, 5/16 (31%); 2007-2011, 30/35 (86%) (p <0.001). Renal failure developed in 65% of the A+G group and in 34% of the A+C group (p 0.014). Thirteen patients (43%) in the A+G group had to discontinue treatment, whereas only one patient (3%) treated with A+C had to discontinue treatment (p <0.001). Only development of heart failure and previous chronic renal failure were independently associated with 1-year mortality, while the individual antibiotic regimen (A+C vs. A+G) did not affect outcome (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.2-2.2; p 0.549). Our study shows that the prevalence of HLAR EFIE has increased significantly in recent years and that alternative treatment with A+C is safer than A+G, with similar clinical outcomes, although the sample size is too small to draw firm conclusions. Randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these results.

  8. Fatal myocarditis-associated Bartonella quintana endocarditis: a case report

    Montcriol Ambroise


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bartonella spp. infection is not rare and must be considered with great care in patients with suspected infective endocarditis, particularly if regular blood cultures remain sterile. Management of these infections requires knowledge of the identification and treatment of these bacteria. Case presentation A 50-year-old Senegalese man was admitted to our Department of Cardiac Surgery with a culture-negative endocarditis. Despite valvular surgery and adequate antibiotic treatment, recurrence of the endocarditis was observed on the prosthetic mitral valve. Heart failure required circulatory support. Weaning off the circulatory support could not be attempted owing to the absence of heart recovery. Bacteriological diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis was performed by molecular methods retrospectively after the death of the patient. Conclusions This case report underlines the severity and difficulty of the diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis. The clinical picture suggested possible Bartonella quintana associated myocarditis, a feature that should be considered in new cases.

  9. [Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis in a patient with a biventricular pacemaker].

    Cuesta, José M; Fariñas, María C; Rodilla, Irene G; Salesa, Ricardo; de Berrazueta, José R


    Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis is one of the rarest and severest complications in cardiological patients. We describe a patient with an intracardial pacemaker who was diagnosed as having Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis. Postmortem examination showed a large, Aspergillus-infected thrombus encased in the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary branches.

  10. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi.

    Weinberger, I. (Ingeburg); Davidson, E.; Rotenberg, Z; Fuchs, J; Agmon, J


    Acinetobacter spp. are uncommon etiologic agents of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Two patients with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi prosthetic valve endocarditis are described. The patients were successfully treated with antibiotics (cefotaxime sodium and gentamicin sulfate); thus, we suggest medical treatment rather than early valve replacement in this particular type of infection.

  11. Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis

    Angelina Su-Min Yong


    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye.

  12. [Campylobacter fetus endocarditis: a case report].

    Désidéri-Vaillant, Catherine; Guichon, Jean-Michel; Noyer, Vincent; Nedelec, Yolande; Galinat, Hubert; Sapin-Lory, Jeanne; Di Costanzo, Laurence; Le Guen, Patrick; Nicolas, Xavier


    Campylobacter are known to be a cause of enteritidic infections but Campylobacter fetus is more often a cause of systemic infections, mainly in fragilized patients. We report a C. fetus endocarditis. The prognosis seemstobe improved by a prolonged betalactam antibiotic treatment.

  13. Technetium 99m-labeled annexin v scintigraphy of platelet activation in vegetations of experimental endocarditis

    Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; Le Guludec, D. [Nucl Med Serv, Grp Hosp Bichat Claude Bernard, AP-HP, Paris (France); Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; LeGuludec, D. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, UMR S773, Paris (France); Rouzet, F.; Sarda-Mantel, L.; Le Guludec, D. [INSERM, U773, Paris (France); Hernandez, M.D.; Louedec, L.; Michel, J.B. [Univ Paris 07, CHU Xavier Bichat, INSERM, U698, Paris (France); Hervatin, F. [CEA, DSV, DRM, SHFJ, Orsay (France); Lefort, A.; Fantin, B. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, EA 3964, Paris (France); Duval, X. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, INSERM, CIC 007, Paris (France); Duval, X. [Univ Denis Diderot Paris 7, AP-HP, Grp Hosp Bichat Claude Bernard, Ctr Invest Clin, Paris (France); Hernandez, M.D. [Univ Guadalajara, DeptPathol, Guadalajara 44430, Jalisco (Mexico)


    Background: The pathophysiology of infective endocarditis involves a pathogen/host tissue interaction, leading to formation of infected thrombotic vegetations. Annexin V is a ligand of phosphatidyl-serines exposed by activated platelets and apoptotic cells. Because vegetations are platelet-fibrin clots in which platelet pro-aggregant activity is enhanced by bacterial colonization, we investigated the ability of annexin V labeled with technetium {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-ANX) to provide functional imaging of these vegetations in experimental models of infective endocarditis. This ability was assessed in rabbits and rats because of the different interest of these 2 species in preclinical analysis. Methods and Results: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis was induced with the use of a catheter left indwelling through the aortic or tricuspid valve, and animals were injected with either a bacterial inoculum or saline. Scintigraphic investigations were performed 5 days later and showed a higher {sup 99m}Tc-ANX uptake by vegetations in infected versus non-infected animals (ratio,1.3 for in vivo acquisitions and 2 for autoradiography; P {<=} 0.0001 for all), whereas no significant uptake was present in controls. Right-sided endocarditis was associated with pulmonary uptake foci corresponding to emboli. Histological analysis of vegetations showed a specific uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ANX at the interface between circulating blood and vegetation. In parallel, underlying myocardial tissue showed myocyte apoptosis and mucoid degeneration, without extracellular matrix degradation at this stage. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc-ANX is suitable for functional imaging of platelet-fibrin vegetations in endocarditis, as well as embolic events. {sup 99m}Tc-ANX uptake reflects mainly platelet activation in the luminal layer of vegetations. This uptake is enhanced by bacterial colonization. (authors)

  14. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C;


    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consec...

  15. Endocarditis and Stroke

    GRECU, Nicolae; TIU, Cristina; TERECOASA, Elena; BAJENARU, Ovidiu


    Endocarditis is an important, although less common, cause of cerebral embolism. All forms of endocarditis share an initial common pathophysiologic pathway, best illustrated by the non-bacterial thrombotic form, but also a final potential for embolization. Stroke associated with endocarditis has signifficant mortality and morbidity rates, especially due to the frequent concomitant multiple sites of brain embolization. In this article we aim to briefly review endocarditis with a focus on stroke as a complication, while also presenting case correlates from our department. PMID:25705308

  16. Percutaneous pulmonary valve endocarditis: incidence, prevention and management.

    Patel, Mehul; Malekzadeh-Milani, Sophie; Ladouceur, Magalie; Iserin, Laurence; Boudjemline, Younes


    The epidemiology of infective endocarditis is changing rapidly due to the emergence of resistant microorganisms, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, and an increase in the implantation of cardiovascular devices including percutaneous valves. Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation has achieved standard of care for the management of certain patients with right ventricular outflow tract dysfunction. With its expanding use, several cases of early and delayed infective endocarditis with higher morbidity and mortality rates have been reported. This review summarizes the trends in percutaneous pulmonary valve infective endocarditis, postulates proposed mechanisms, and elaborates on the prevention and management of this unique and potentially fatal complication.

  17. Value of Echocardiogram Diagnosing to Infective Endocarditis Vegetation%超声心动图用于感染性心内膜炎赘生物的诊断价值



      目的:超声心动图对于感染性心内膜炎赘生物诊断的临床应用价值。方法:选取本院2011年3月-2012年3月收治的符合感染性心内膜炎诊断依据的患者共64例,入选患者进行手术治疗,在手术前需要进行超声心动图检查,并且与手术结果进行对比。结果:超声心电图能够准确诊断出感染性心内膜赘生物的赘生部位以及瓣膜损伤情况。与手术结果对比,两者结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.01)。结论:超声心动图能够较为准确地诊断出感染性心内膜炎赘生物,具有较高的诊断价值。%Objective:To observe the clinic application value of echocardiogram diagnosing infective endocarditis vegetation. Method:64 patients with infective endocarditis vegetation treated in our hospital from March 2011 to March 2012 were selected. All the patients received surgical treatment. The patients needed to be given echocardiogram examination before operation which was compared with the surgical result. Result:Echocardiogram could accurately diagnose neoplasitc part of infective endocarditis vegetation and the condition of valve damag. There was no evident difference between the two results(P>0.01). Conclusion:Echocardiogram can accurately diagnose infective endocarditis vegetation,which has high diagnostic value.

  18. Influencing factors for prognosis of congenital heart disease complicated with infective endocarditis%影响先天性心脏病合并感染性心内膜炎的预后分析

    刘海红; 赵铁英; 田甜


    OBJECTIVE To explore the influencing factors for prognosis of the shunt congenital heart disease com-plicated with infective endocarditis so as to provide guidance for clinical treatment .METHODS The shunt congenital heart disease patients complicated with infective endocarditis who were treated in the hospital from Apr 2002 to Oct 2012 were recruited in the study ,then the clinical data of the subjects were retrospectively analyzed ,the sur-vival rates of the patients were calculated by using Kaplan-Merier method ,and the influencing factors for the prog-nosis were observed .RESULTS The six-month survival rate of the patients was 84 .00% .The univariate analysis indicated that the congenital heart disease surgery ,complication of anemia ,complication of arrhythmia ,and com-plication of severe heart failure were the related influencing factors for the prognosis (P<0 .05);the multivariate analysis of the COX model showed that the congenital heart disease surgery ,severe heart failure ,and anemia were the independent influencing factors for the prognosis of the shunt congenital heart disease patients complicated with infective endocarditis .The relative risk of death of the patients with severe heart failure increased by 2 .267 times , the patients with anemia by 1 .473 times .CONCLUSION The complication of anemia and complication of severe heart failure are the important factors to increase the relative risk of death .It is an effective way to focus on the prevention of complications during the treatment process so as to raise the survival rates of the patients .%目的:探讨影响分流型先天性心脏病合并感染性心内膜炎的预后因素,为临床治疗提供参考依据。方法回顾性分析医院2002年4月-2012年10月收治的分流型先天性心脏病合并感染性心内膜炎患者临床资料,采用Kaplan-M erier法计算患者的生存率,研究影响患者预后的相关因素。结果患者治疗6个月后的生存率为84.00%

  19. Valve selection in aortic valve endocarditis

    Zubrytska, Yana


    Aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a potentially life-threatening disease. Mortality and incidence of infective endocarditis have been reduced in the past 30 years. Medical treatment of aortic PVE may be successful in patients who have a prompt response after antibiotic treatment and who do not have prosthetic dysfunction. In advanced stages, antibiotic therapy alone is insufficient to control the disease, and surgical intervention is necessary. Surgical treatment may be lifesaving, but it is still associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of surgery is to perform a radical excision of all infected and necrotic tissue, reconstruction of the left ventricle outflow tract, and replacement of the aortic valve. There is no unanimous consensus on which is the optimal prosthesis to implant in this context, and several surgical techniques have been suggested. We aim to analyze the efficacy of the surgical treatment and discuss the issue of valve selection in patients with aortic valve endocarditis.

  20. Cirurgia conservadora da valva tricúspide na endocardite infecciosa Conservative operation of tricuspide valve for the treatment of infective endocarditis

    Pablo M. A Pomerantzeff


    Full Text Available O comprometimento valvar direto do coração pela endocardite infecciosa, com indicação cirúrgica, tem sido classicamente tratada por excisão da valva e tecidos adjacentes comprometidos, associada ou não a implante de prótese. Dois casos de operação conservadora em endocardite infecciosa da valva tricúspide com 42 e 3 meses de evolução são descritos. Os autores discutem as vantagens de, quando possível, não retirar toda a valva tricúspide na endocardite bacteriana.Valve replacement and excision without using a prosthesis are the two mostfrequently used surgical techniques for the treatment of infective endocarditis of the tricuspid valve. Conservative operation with preservation of the native valve and resection of the infected tissue is a more recent approach, which is becoming the procedure of choice whenever feasible, specialy in intravenous drug abusers. Two cases of tricuspid valve reconstruction with good results are reported. One of the patients has also been aorto coronary bypassed at the same operation time.

  1. 20例感染性心内膜炎病原菌及耐药性分析%Pathogenic Bacteria Distribution in 20 Cases with Infective Endocarditis and their Drug Sensitivity Test Results

    熊祝嘉; 岳志刚; 李小瑛


    目的 通过对20例感染性心内膜炎患者的培养结果进行回顾性研究,为临床合理使用抗生素提供依据.方法 回顾性分析煤炭总医院2010年20例感染性心内膜炎病原菌的分布及其对抗生素的敏感性.结果 革兰阳性球菌19株,占到95%,其中链球菌9株(占45%),主要为化脓性链球菌;葡萄球菌7株(占35%),主要为金黄色葡萄球菌;肠球菌3株(占15%),均为屎肠球菌.此外大肠埃希菌检出1株(占5%).不同的病原菌有其自身的耐药特点,金黄色葡萄球菌的耐药较严重,所有阳性菌对万古霉素敏感.结论 感染性心内膜炎病原菌以链球菌为主.不同的病原菌有其自身的耐药特点,对感染性心内膜炎患者应及早进行细菌培养和耐药检测,以指导临床正确用药,防止耐药株的出现.%Objective To detect the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in 20 cases with infective endocarditis and their resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and to provide the reference for selecting antimicrobial drugs rationally in clinical treatment. Methods To analysis the pathogenic bacteria distribution and their sensitivity to antibiotics from 20 cases with infective endocarditis conformed by bacterial culture. Results The proportion of Gram-positive cocco bacterium was 95% (Streptococcus account for 45% ,the most was Streptococcus pyogenes; Staphylococcus account for 35% ,the most was Staphylococcus aureus; Enterococ-cus account for 15% ,all was Enterococcus faecium) ;the proportion of Gram-necgative bacillus was 5% ( Escherichia coli). Different pathogens had its own characteristics of resistance, and the drug resistance of staphylococcus aureus was serious. The Gram-positive cocco bacterium were found to be all sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion Streptococcus is still the primary pathogen among patients with Infective Endocarditis. Different pathogens had its own characteristics of resistance, and we should carry out cultivation

  2. 感染性心内膜炎患者超声心动图诊断价值分析%The Clinical Diagnosis Value of Echocardiography in Patients with Infective Endocarditis

    李洪琳; 王丽


    Objective:To investigate the clinical diagnosis value of echocardiogram in patients with in-fective endocarditis .Method: The data of 64 patients with suspected infective endocarditis treated in our hospital between January 2009 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed , the detection of infective en-docarditis -associated complications and excrescences was compared by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and the sensitivities and specificities of TTE and TEE in diagnosis of various pathological changes in patients with endocardium involved were compared .Re-sult:Excrescences were detected by TTE in 31 patients (48.44%) and by TEE in 49 patients (76.56%), and the difference in detection rate between the two detection methods was statistically significant ( P0.05); when taking TEE as the diagnostic criterion of infective endocarditis, the sensitivity and specificity of TTE detection were 63.27%and 86.67%, respectively.Con-clusion:Echocardiography has important clinical significances in diagnosis of infective endocarditis .TEE is more sensitive for the detection of infective endocarditis , but TTE can also provide positive evidence , and TTE is the first choice for diagnosis of infective endocarditis currently .%目的:探讨分析超声心动图对感染性心内膜炎患者临床诊断价值。方法:回顾性分析2009年1月至2015年1月我院收治的疑似为感染性心内膜炎患者64例,比较经胸超声心动图( TTE)以及经食管超声心动图( TEE )对感染性心内膜相关并发症以及赘生物的检出情况,比较TTE与TEE诊断患者心内膜受累各种病理变化的特异性以及敏感性。结果:TTE 检出赘生物31例(48.44%)、TEE检出赘生物49例(76.56%),两种检测方式对赘生物的检出率具有统计学差异(P<0.05);TTE检出平均赘生物的大小显著低于TEE检出赘生物的大小( P<0.05);在瓣周脓肿

  3. Native valve Escherichia coli endocarditis following urosepsis.

    Rangarajan, D; Ramakrishnan, S; Patro, K C; Devaraj, S; Krishnamurthy, V; Kothari, Y; Satyaki, N


    Gram-negative organisms are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infection and gram-negative septicemia involves endocardium rarely. In this case report, we describe infection of native mitral valve by E. coli following septicemia of urinary tract origin in a diabetic male; subsequently, he required prosthetic tissue valve replacement indicated by persistent sepsis and congestive cardiac failure.

  4. A Misinterpreted Case of Aorta Prosthesis Endocarditis

    Lerche, Christian Johann; Haugan, Ketil Jørgen; Reimers, Jesper Irving;


    A 17-year-old male with a history of newly implanted mechanical valve at the aortic position, presented with fever, rigors, and painful cutaneous abscesses on his lower extremities and was suspected for infective endocarditis. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed a vegetation-like structure...

  5. 感染性心内膜炎临床研究(附136例临床病例)%Clinical Study of 136 Cases of Infective Endocarditis

    李迎宾; 伍黎明


    目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎的临床特点,并探讨其临床治疗的方法。方法选取该院在2012年6月-2013年6月期间收治的136例感染性心内膜炎患者,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果感染性心内膜炎血培养的阳性率为57.7%,主要的致病菌为表皮葡萄球菌以及草绿色链球菌;其基础病因中先天性心脏病、风湿性心脏病以及无基础性心脏病所占的比例分别为34.9%、30.2%以及16.7%;主要的临床表现为发热,其次是贫血和脏器栓塞。患者住院期间有14例患者死亡,死亡的原因主要是脑血管意外和心力衰竭。结论感染性心内膜炎的致病菌以及基础病因都发生了较明显的变化,且早期人工瓣膜心内膜炎的致死率较高,应该尽早进行手术治疗。%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of infective endocarditis and the method of clinical treatment. Methods The clinical data of 136 cases of patients with infective endocarditis admitted in our hospital from June, 2012 to June, 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The positive rate of infective endocarditis blood culture was 57.7%, the main pathogens were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus viridans; of the primary etiologies of the disease, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease and heart disease accounted for 34.9%, 30.2% and 16.7%, respectively; the main clinical mani-festations were fever, followed by anemia and organ thrombosis. During hospitalization, 14 patients died, the causes of death were mainly cerebrovascular accidents and heart failure. Conclusion The pathogens and primary etymologies of infective endocarditis have undergone obvious changes, and the mortality of early prosthetic valve endocarditis is high, so surgical treatment should be carried out as soon as possible.

  6. Infective endocarditis with left to right intracardiac fistula due to Streptococcus anginosus - a rare complication caused by an even rarer bacterium

    Robert Forster


    Full Text Available Although infective endocarditis (IE has been described in reports dating from the Renaissance, the diagnosis still challenges and the outcome often surprises. In the course of time, diagnostic criteria have been updated and validated to reduce misdiagnosis. Some risk factors and epidemiology have shown dynamic changes since degenerative valvular disease became more predominant in developed countries, and the mean age of the affected population increased. Despite streptococci have been being well known as etiologic agents, some groups, although rare, have been increasingly reported (e.g., Streptococcus milleri. Intracardiac complications of IE are common and have a worse prognosis, frequently requiring surgical treatment. We report a case of a middle-aged diabetic man who presented with prolonged fever, weight loss, and ultimately severe dyspnea. IE was diagnosed based on a new valvular regurgitation murmur, a positive blood culture for Streptococcus anginosus, an echocardiographic finding of an aortic valve vegetation, fever, and pulmonary thromboembolism. Despite an appropriate antibiotic regimen, the patient died. Autopsy findings showed vegetation attached to a bicuspid aortic valve with an associated septal abscess and left ventricle and aortic root fistula connecting with the pulmonary artery. A large thrombus was adherent to the pulmonary artery trunk and a pulmonary septic thromboemboli were also identified.

  7. HACEK endocarditis: state-of-the-art.

    Revest, Matthieu; Egmann, Gérald; Cattoir, Vincent; Tattevin, Pierre


    The HACEK group of bacteria - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter spp. (A. actinomycetemcomitans, A. aphrophilus, A. paraphrophilus, and A. segnis), Cardiobacterium spp. (C. hominis, C. valvarum), Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella spp. (K. kingae, K. denitrificans) - are fastidious gram-negative bacteria, part of the normal microbiota of oral and upper respiratory tract in humans. Although their pathogenicity is limited, they are responsible for 1-3% of all infective endocarditis. HACEK endocarditis mostly affect patients with underlying heart disease or prosthetic valves, and are characterized by an insidious course, with a mean diagnosis delay of 1 month (Haemophilus spp.) to 3 months (Aggregatibacter and Cardiobacterium spp.). The advent of continuously monitored blood culture systems with enriched media has erased the need for extended incubation for the diagnosis of HACEK endocarditis. Medical treatment relies on third-generation cephalosporin, with a favorable outcome in 80-90% of cases, with or without cardiac surgery.

  8. Invasion of endothelial cells and arthritogenic potential of endocarditis-associated Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Peixoto, Renata Stavracakis; Pereira, Gabriela Andrade; Sanches dos Santos, Louisy; Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio Marcos; Gomes, Débora Leandro Rama; Silva Dos Santos, Cintia; Werneck, Lucia Maria Correa; Dias, Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira; Hirata, Raphael; Nagao, Prescilla Emy; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza


    Although infection by Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a model of extracellular mucosal pathogenesis, different clones have been also associated with invasive infections such as sepsis, endocarditis, septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. The mechanisms that promote C. diphtheriae infection and haematogenic dissemination need further investigation. In this study we evaluated the association and invasion mechanisms with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and experimental arthritis in mice of endocarditis-associated strains and control non-invasive strains. C. diphtheriae strains were able to adhere to and invade HUVECs at different levels. The endocarditis-associated strains displayed an aggregative adherence pattern and a higher number of internalized viable cells in HUVECs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed intracellular bacteria free in the cytoplasm and/or contained in a host-membrane-confined compartment as single micro-organisms. Data showed bacterial internalization dependent on microfilament and microtubule stability and involvement of protein phosphorylation in the HUVEC signalling pathway. A high number of affected joints and high arthritis index in addition to the histopathological features indicated a strain-dependent ability of C. diphtheriae to cause severe polyarthritis. A correlation between the arthritis index and increased systemic levels of IL-6 and TNF-α was observed for endocarditis-associated strains. In conclusion, higher incidence of potential mechanisms by which C. diphtheriae may access the bloodstream through the endothelial barrier and stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, in addition to the ability to affect the joints and induce arthritis through haematogenic spread are thought to be related to the pathogenesis of endocarditis-associated strains.

  9. The first reported case of Bartonella endocarditis in Thailand

    Orathai Pachirat


    Full Text Available Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques.

  10. Native Valve Endocarditis Due to Citrobacter Chronic Prostatitis

    Lum, Corey; Bolger, Dennis; Bello, Erlaine


    Introduction: Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillus that rarely causes infection in immunocompetent hosts and typically is associated with urinary or respiratory tract infections. Rarely will Citrobacter be a cause of infective endocarditis. Case Report: We present a case of a 77-year-old man with no known immunocompromising conditions who was hospitalized for infective aortic endocarditis due to Citrobacter koseri originating from a chronically infected prostate. Unusually, he also developed a C. koseri diskitis and phlegmon, which, along with the aortic vegetations, increased in size despite appropriate antibiotics. The patient thus met indications for aortic valve replacement and had improved appearance of lesions in follow-up imaging.

  11. Neisseria meningitidis endocarditis: A case report and review of the literature.

    Ali, Mohammed


    Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, with an overall mortality rate of up to 25%, but it is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We present herein a case of N. meningitidis meningitis complicated with infective endocarditis.

  12. Streptococcus viridans osteomyelitis and endocarditis following dental treatment: a case report

    Choudhury, Maitrayee; Patel, Brijesh R; Patel, Minal; Bashir, Tariq


    Vertebral osteomyelitis is an uncommon complication of infective endocarditis with the organism Streptococcus viridans being a rare cause of the condition. This case highlights an unusual presentation of Streptococcus viridans associated with infective endocarditis and pyogenic osteomyelitis in a patient following a dental procedure.

  13. Neisseria meningitidis endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Ali, Mohammed


    Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults, with an overall mortality rate of up to 25%, but it is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We present herein a case of N. meningitidis meningitis complicated with infective endocarditis.

  14. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis.

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Bruun, Niels E


    We present a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), fever, pericardial effusion and a mitral valve vegetation. (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) showed very high accumulation of the isotope at the mitral valve. The patient underwent cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly demonstrated the increased glucose uptake caused by infiltrating white blood cells in the ongoing inflammatory process at the mitral valve. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT cannot be used to distinguish between IE and non-infective Libman-Sacks vegetations.

  15. Streptococcus agalactiae Native Valve Endocarditis: Uncommon Presentation of Multiple Myeloma.

    Pinho Oliveira, Ana; Delgado, Anne; Martins, Cláudia; Gama, Pedro


    Adults with chronic immunosuppressive conditions are at an increased risk for Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis, which is typically characterized by acute onset, presence of large vegetations, rapid valvular destruction and frequent complications. We report a rare case of a 74 years old man presenting with fever, renal infarction, ischemic stroke and uveitis. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed and Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in blood cultures. A multiple myeloma Ig G-K was also diagnosed. The infective endocarditis was successfully treated with a course of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin. The authors highlight the severity of vascular embolic disease present in this case and the diagnostic challenge. They also intend to remind about the association between Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis and chronic diseases, despite its low reported prevalence.

  16. Association of hyponatremia with in-hospital outcomes in infective endocarditis: A 5-year review from an Indian Intensive Care Unit

    Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula


    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is commonly noted with cardiovascular disorders, but its role in infective endocarditis (IE is limited to being a marker of increased morbidity in IE patients with intravenous drug use. This was a 5-year retrospective review from an Indian Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Patients >18 years with IE and available serum sodium levels were included in the study. Pediatric and pregnant patients were excluded from the study. Hyponatremia was defined as admission sodium <135 mmol/L. Detailed data were abstracted from the medical records. Primary outcomes were need for invasive mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included development of acute kidney injury, acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF, acute respiratory distress syndrome, stroke, and severe sepsis in the ICU. Two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 96 patients with IE were admitted to the ICU with 85 (88.5% (median age 46 [34.5-55] years, 51 [60.0%] males meeting our inclusion criteria. The comorbidities, echocardiographic, and microbiological characteristics were comparable between patients with hyponatremia (56; 65.9% and eunatremia (29; 34.1%. Median sodium in the hyponatremic cohort was 131 mmol/L (127.25-133 compared to the eunatremic cohort 137 mmol/L (135-139 (P < 0.001. The primary outcomes were not different between the two groups. Hyponatremia was associated more commonly with ADHF (12 [21.4%] vs. 0; P = 0.007 during the ICU stay. Hyponatremia is commonly seen in IE patients and is not associated with worse hospital outcomes. ADHF was seen more commonly in the hyponatremic patients in comparison to those with eunatremia.

  17. Long-term outcome of infective endocarditis: A study on patients surviving over one year after the initial episode treated in a Finnish teaching hospital during 25 years

    Engblom Erik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a few previous studies have focused on the long-term prognosis of the patients with infective endocarditis (IE. Our purpose was to delineate factors potentially associated with the long-term outcome of IE, recurrences of IE and requirement for late valve surgery. Methods A total of 326 episodes of IE in 303 patients were treated during 1980–2004 in the Turku University Hospital. We evaluated the long-term outcome and requirement for late valve surgery for 243 of these episodes in 226 patients who survived longer than 1 year after the initial admission. Factors associated with recurrences were analysed both for the 1-year survivors and for all 303 patients. Results The mean (SD follow-up time for the 1-year survivors was 11.5 (7.3 years (range 25 days to 25.5 years. The overall survival was 95%, 82%, 66%, 51% and 45% at 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. In age and sex adjusted multivariate analyses, significant predictors for long-term overall mortality were heart failure within 3 months of admission (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.06; p = 0.003 and collagen disease (HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.19; p = 0.010 or alcohol abuse (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.30 to 4.40; p = 0.005 as underlying conditions, while early surgery was significantly associated with lower overall mortality rates (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.58; p Conclusion Heart failure during the index episode of IE was the complication, which significantly predicted a poor long-term outcome. Patients who underwent surgery during the initial hospitalisation for IE faired significantly better than those who did not.

  18. Lactococcus garvieae Endocarditis on a Prosthetic Biological Aortic Valve.

    Tsur, A; Slutzki, T; Flusser, D


    Lactococcus garvieae (LG) endocarditis is a rare disease in humans. There are only about 16 reported cases in the world. We report a 76-year-old male patient with LG endocarditis. In depth interview with the patient revealed that 2 weeks prior to admission, he had eaten sushi containing raw fish. Unlike many of the other infections reported, which were on a native mitral valve, our patient's vegetation was on a prosthetic aortic valve.

  19. 罹患缺血性卒中的感染性心内膜炎患者应予抗凝治疗吗?%Should the patients with ischemic stroke with infective endocarditis be treated with anticoagulants?



    在感染性心内膜炎基础上发生的缺血性卒中到底如何治疗才更为合理存在诸多争论,尤其是对是否应予抗凝治疗的意见并不一致.文章就此进行了讨论.%There are many controversies for how to treat the occurrence of ischemic stroke on the basis of infective endocarditis would be more reasonable,especially there is no consensus on whether to treat with anticoagulants.The article discusses about this.

  20. Surgical management of congenital heart disease complicated by infective endocarditis%先天性心脏病并发感染性心内膜炎的外科治疗经验

    胡星明; 陈胜喜


    @@ 先天性心脏病患者易合并感染性心内膜炎(infective endocarditis, IE),单纯内科治疗往往效果欠佳,死亡率较高,而正确把握手术时机,及时手术能获较好的治疗效果.我院自1991年1月至2000年8月共收治先心病并IE患者25例,均采取手术治疗,疗效良好.

  1. [Infectious endocarditis following artificial insemination. A clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Caprino, E; Cortesi, G; Villani, R; Caccia, M E; Lauria, F; Nava, S


    We describe a case of infective endocarditis in a 33 year old patient, with mitral valve prolapse (MVP), who underwent nine attempts of artificial insemination with semen by donor. Several blood cultures demonstrated the presence of Enterococcus faecalis; the same agent was identified in some vaginal cultures. Despite antibiotic therapy, infective endocarditis was complicated by severe mitral regurgitation, followed by the rupture of a chorda tendinea. The patient underwent cardiac surgery: valvuloplasty of posterior mitral cusp, chordae tendineae in Goretex and anulus reinforcement with autologous pericardium. MVP is the most common heart disease associated with infective endocarditis in non-drug addict patients (32-54%). The review of the literature did not show any other case of infective endocarditis after artificial insemination procedures. Because of the large spread of these procedures, we think antibiotic prophylaxis of infective endocarditis should be considered in patients with MVP.

  2. 人工瓣膜感染性心内膜炎17例临床分析%A clinical analysis of 17 cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis

    朱振华; 丁文军; 王齐兵; 朱文青; 葛均波; 颜彦


    目的 总结人工瓣膜感染性心内膜炎(prosthetic valve endocarditis,PVE)的发病情况、临床特点和治疗策略.方法 对我院近6年来诊断为感染性心内膜炎(infective endocarditis,IE)的242名患者中的17例PVE进行病例分析.结果 17例PVE患者中男性7例、女性10例,平均年龄(51.1±11.1)岁;感染共累及22个人工瓣膜,其中主动脉瓣14个、二尖瓣7个;患者主要表现有发热、贫血、心功能不全、栓塞等;分别有3例、5例经过单纯抗感染及联合手术治疗治愈,死亡9例(病死率52.9%),6名葡萄球菌感染者全部死亡.结论 PVE的病死率高;感染累及主动脉瓣较二尖瓣常见;葡萄球菌感染者预后差.

  3. Echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis: 12 cases and a review of published reports

    Donal, E.; Abgueguen, P; Coisne, D.; Gouello, J; McFadden, E; Allal, J.; Corbi, P.


    OBJECTIVE—To describe the specific echocardiographic features of Candida species endocarditis.
DESIGN—Retrospective review of the case records of patients with confirmed candida endocarditis.
SETTING—Cases referred to three French university centres over an eight year period were studied.
DESIGN—12 patients with confirmed Candida species endocarditis infection were identified. The transthoracic (n = 12) and transoesophageal (n = 12) echocardiographic appearances were compared with the surgica...

  4. A Complicated Case of Triple Valve Infective Endocarditis in an IV Drug User with a Bicuspid Aortic Valve Requiring Three Separate Salvage Operations: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Shahzad Khan


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is an infection of the endocardium that involves valves and adjacent mural endocardium or a septal defect. Local complications include severe valvular insufficiency, which may lead to intractable congestive heart failure and myocardial abscesses. If left untreated, IE is generally fatal. Diagnosing IE can be straightforward in patients with the typical oslerian manifestations such as bacteremia, evidence of active valvulitis, peripheral emboli, and immunologic vascular phenomena. In the acute course, however, the classic peripheral stigmata may be few or absent, particularly among intravenous drug abuse (IVDA patients in whom IE is often due to a S. aureus infection of right-sided heart valves. We present a complicated case of a very aggressive native aortic valve MSSA (methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus IE in a young adult male with a past medical history of bicuspid aortic valve and IV drug abuse. His clinical course was complicated by aortic valve destruction and development of third-degree AV block, as well as an aorto-left atrial fistula requiring emergent operation for AV replacement and patch repair. The patient required two reoperations for recurrent endocarditis and its complications.

  5. Haemophilus segnis endocarditis

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Tvede, M; Skinhøj, P


    Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course of treatm......Haemophilus segnis is a rarely recognised commensal in the oropharynx. We wish to report the first published case of endocarditis caused by H. segnis. The patient, a 76-year-old female did not recover until after 2 courses of ampicillin given for a total of 57 days. In the second course...

  6. 感染性心内膜炎抗生素治疗致红人综合征的案例分析%Antibiotic therapy induced red man syndrome in a patient with infective endocarditis

    王凯; 王生浩; 朱光发


    目的:提醒临床重视输注抗生素所致的不良反应。方法分析1例感染性心内膜炎患者应用万古霉素治疗,用药时面部和双上肢出现红色斑丘疹伴皮肤瘙痒,经抗过敏及更换抗生素后皮疹消退,治疗1个月后停用抗生素,停药期间再次出现面部、四肢、躯干红色斑丘疹。结果和结论患者再次抗过敏治疗后全身皮肤基本恢复正常。预防红人综合征的措施主要是控制输注速度,必要时可预防性用药。%Objective To remind the clinic to pay attention to the ad-verse drug reaction caused by the infusion of antibiotics.Methods Ret-rospective analysis of a case of one patient with infective endocarditis who was treated with vancomycin.Red rash with pruritus occurred on the face and upper limbs on the next day.The rash disappeared after anti -aller-gy and replacement of antibiotics.After one month treatment by antibiot-ics , red rash appeared again on face , limbs and chest during withdrawal.Results After anti-allergy treatment, patient was returned to normal.Measures to prevent the red man syndrome is mainly to control the infusion rate, if necessary , preventive medication given.

  7. A Rare Cause of Endocarditis: Streptococcus pyogenes

    Bahadır Gültekin


    Full Text Available Although group A β-hemolytic streptococcus is an uncommon cause of infective endocarditis, an increase in the incidence of invasive group A streptococcus infections including bacteremia has been reported in the last two decades. Herein we report Streptococcus pyogenes endocarditis in a previously healthy adult patient who was hospitalized to investigate the etiology of fever. Because of a suspicion of a new vegetation appeared in the second (aortic valve in the 14th day of high dose penicillin G treatment, the mitral and aortic valves were replaced by mechanical prosthesis on the 22nd day of treatment. He was discharged from hospital after the 6 week course of antibiotic treatment.

  8. Infective endocarditis caused by Gemella morbillorum,a case report and literature review%麻疹孪生球菌致感染性心内膜炎一例并国内外文献复习

    张闻多; 刘德平


    麻疹孪生球菌是人体口咽及肠道中共生菌丛中的条件致病菌,很少引起感染性心内膜炎.1例26岁女性无心脏基础疾病,患麻疹孪生球菌感染所致二尖瓣受累感染性心内膜炎,经抗生素和二尖瓣置换术后治愈.本例患者出现了颈内动脉栓塞,国内外报道较少见.%Gemella morbillorum ( G. morbillorum ) is an opportunistic pathogen colonizing the oropharynx and intestinal tract. On very rare occasions , it can cause infective endocarditis. A 26-year-old female patient with no history of heart disease was diagnosed as infective endocarditis caused by G, morbillorum and developed intemal carotid embolization. She was surcessfully treated with antibiotics and mitral valve replacement because of mitral valve vegetation and severe mitral regurgitation.

  9. 感染性心内膜炎患者瓣膜置换围术期护理配合分析%Perioperative Nursing Coordination for Patients With Infective Endocarditis Valve Replacement



    目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎患者瓣膜置换围术期护理配合效果。方法对照组患者采用常规护理模式予以护理,观察组患者实施围术期护理。结果观察组患者的护理效果与总满意度均要优于对照组。结论对于感染性心内膜炎患者瓣膜置换的围术期配合有效的护理措施,是有效改善病情,降低并发症发生率,保证手术成功的重要手段。%Objective To investigate the effect of perioperative nursing in patients with infective endocarditis valve replacement.Methods The control group were treated with routine care model, the observation group were treated with perioperative care.Results The overall satisfaction with care results was better in observation group than the control group. Conclusion For patients with infective endocarditis valve replacement, effective perioperative care measures is effective in improving the condition and reduce the incidence of complications, it is an important means to ensure the success of surgery.

  10. Successful treatment of MRSA native valve endocarditis with oral linezolid therapy: a case report.

    Nathani, N; Iles, P; Elliott, T S J


    Staphylococcal endocarditis is potentially fatal and is now the most common cause of infective endocarditis with a mortality rate of 25-47% [Hecht SR, Berger M. Right-sided endocarditis in intravenous drug users: prognostic features in 102 episodes. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:560-6]. Its treatment requires maintenance of bactericidal level of antibiotics for prolonged periods to attain a culture-negative state. Although intravenous vancomycin is currently the drug of choice for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endocarditis, we present a case treated successfully with oral linezolid for 4 weeks due to a lack of venous access.

  11. Role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in patients with an implanted cardiac device: a prospective study

    Graziosi, Maddalena; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Diemberger, Igor; Pasquale, Ferdinando; Ziacchi, Matteo; Biffi, Mauro; Martignani, Cristian; Boriani, Giuseppe; Rapezzi, Claudio [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Cardiology Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Nanni, Cristina; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Fanti, Stefano [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi [Alma Mater-University of Bologna, and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy)


    Infective endocarditis (IE) is widely underdiagnosed or diagnosed after a major delay. The diagnosis is currently based on the modified DUKE criteria, where the only validated imaging technique is echocardiography, and remains challenging especially in patients with an implantable cardiac device. The aim of this study was to assess the incremental diagnostic role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with an implanted cardiac device and suspected IE. We prospectively analysed 27 consecutive patients with an implantable device evaluated for suspected device-related IE between January 2011 and June 2013. The diagnostic probability of IE was defined at presentation according to the modified DUKE criteria. PET/CT was performed as soon as possible following the clinical suspicion of IE. Patients then underwent medical or surgical treatment based on the overall clinical evaluation. During follow-up, we considered: lead cultures in patients who underwent extraction, direct inspection and lead cultures in those who underwent surgery, and a clinical/instrumental reevaluation after at least 6 months in patients who received antimicrobial treatment or had an alternative diagnosis and were not treated for IE. After the follow-up period, the diagnosis was systematically reviewed by the multidisciplinary team using the modified DUKE criteria and considering the new findings. Among the ten patients with a positive PET/CT scan, seven received a final diagnosis of ''definite IE'', one of ''possible IE'' and two of ''IE rejected''. Among the 17 patients with a negative PET/CT scan, four were false-negative and received a final diagnosis of definite IE. These patients underwent PET/CT after having started antibiotic therapy (≥48 h) or had a technically suboptimal examination. In patients with a cardiac device, PET/CT increases the diagnostic accuracy of the modified Duke criteria for IE, particularly in the subset of

  12. Emphasize the diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis in patients with severe burn%重视严重烧伤患者感染性心内膜炎的诊断和治疗



    The incidence and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with severe burn remain high,which are attributed to invasive procedures,bacteremia,and wound infection after burns.Clinical clues for IE in burns are usually masked by burn-related manifestations,so the diagnosis of IE may be delayed or missed.For burned patients with persistent bacteremia of unknown source,especially Staphylococcus aureus -induced bacteremia,the diagnosis of IE should be considered according to the Duke criteria,and early echocardiography performance is particularly important.Antibiotic therapy is the mainstay initial management,and early surgical intervention is strongly recommended once IE is clearly diagnosed in patients with burns.In order to lower the incidence and mortality of IE in burns,it is very important to take prophylactic procedures along with the whole course of burn management.

  13. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David


    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  14. Immunoblotting and culture positive endocarditis.

    Clark, I; Burnie, J P


    Serum samples from patients with endocarditis due to Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus lactis and a "nutritionally" variant streptococcus were immunoblotted against antigenic extracts from all five species. In S mutans endocarditis there was an endocarditis specific pattern of IgM against bands of 220, 200, and 190 kilodaltons. In S pneumoniae IgM against antibody of a molecular weight greater than 150 kilodaltons was specific to endocardi...

  15. First case of infectious endocarditis caused by Parvimonas micra.

    Gomez, Carlos A; Gerber, Daniel A; Zambrano, Eduardo; Banaei, Niaz; Deresinski, Stan; Blackburn, Brian G


    P. micra is an anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and a known commensal organism of the human oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Although it has been classically described in association with endodontic disease and peritonsillar infection, recent reports have highlighted the role of P. micra as the primary pathogen in the setting of invasive infections. In its most recent taxonomic classification, P. micra has never been reported causing infectious endocarditis in humans. Here, we describe a 71 year-old man who developed severe native valve endocarditis complicated by aortic valvular destruction and perivalvular abscess, requiring emergent surgical intervention. Molecular sequencing enabled identification of P. micra.

  16. Late-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    El-Hazmi, Malak M


    In developed countries, Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection is rare due to efficient immunization programs. However, cases of nontoxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae infections, including endocarditis, have been reported recently. Although the incidence remains low, these infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. This report describes the first and atypical case of bacteremia and endocarditis caused by nontoxigenic C. diphtheriae var. gravis after introduction of immunization in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

  17. Endocarditis Due to Citrobacter Freundii

    Reyes, Cesar V.; Folwarkiw, Oksana


    The etiologic association of acute bacterial endocarditis with the Citrobacter species has been rare, although it is one of the opportunistic organisms that afflicts the elderly, neonates, the debilitated and immunocompromised. We report a case of endocarditis due to Citrobacter freundii.

  18. Mitral Valve Replacement via Anterolateral Right Thoracotomy without Cross-Clamping in a Patient with Fungal Infective Endocarditis and Functioning Internal Mammary Artery after Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Mitral Valve Repair.

    Taguchi, Takahiro; Dillon, Jeswant; Yakub, Mohd Azhari


    A 55-year-old man developed severe mitral regurgitation with persistent fungal infective endocarditis 8 months after coronary artery bypass grafting with a left internal mammary artery and 2 saphenous veins, as well as mitral valve repair with a prosthetic ring. Echocardiography demonstrated severe mitral regurgitation and a valvular vegetation. Computed tomography coronary arteriography indicated that all grafts were patent and located intimately close to the sternum. Median resternotomy was not attempted due to the risk of injury to the bypass grafts, and therefore, a right anterolateral thoracotomy approach was utilized. Mitral valve replacement was performed with the patient under deep hypothermia and ventricular fibrillation without aortic cross-clamping. The patient`s postoperative course was uneventful. Thus, right anterolateral thoracotomy may be a superior approach to mitral valve surgery in patients who have undergone prior coronary artery bypass grafting.

  19. Clinical effect of transthoracic ultrasonography on diagnosis of atypical infective endocarditis%不典型感染性心内膜炎超声诊断的临床研究

    胡喆; 朱文斌; 罗文华


    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical effect of transthoracic ultrasonography on diagnosis of atypical infec-tive endocarditis .METHODS From Mar 2010 to Jul 2013 ,a total of 48 patients with confirmed atypical infective endocarditis were enrolled in the study ,all the patients received surgical procedures and underwent the transtho-racic ultrasonography before the surgery ,the results of ultrasonography were compared with the results of surgical procedures ,and the accuracy of echocardiography was observed .RESULTS The transthoracic ultrasonography found vegetations in 45 of 48 patients with atypical infective endocarditis ,and the echocardiography showed the vegetations in 42 patients with the detection rate of 93 .33% ;the accuracy of the ultrasonography was 87 .50% ,as compared with the accuracy of surgical procedures in detection of the valve damage and vegetation attachment sites ,the difference was not significant .CONCLUSION The transthoracic ultrasonography can detect the vegeta-tions rapidly and accurately in the patients with atypical infective endocarditis ,the rate of accordance with the sur-gical examination is high ,the effect ideal ,indicating that the transthoracic ultrasonography has strong clinical spe-cificity ,and it can be used as the major examination method for the clinical diagnosis .%目的:探讨经胸超声检查在不典型感染性心内膜炎患者诊断中的临床效果。方法选取2010年3月-2013年7月于医院诊断为不典型感染性心内膜炎的住院患者48例,均进行外科手术治疗,术前行经胸超声心动图检查,将超声检查结果与术后手术结果进行比较,观察超声心动图检查的准确性。结果48例经胸超声心动图检查的不典型感染性心内膜炎患者术中发现45例存在赘生物,超声心动图检出42例存在赘生物,检出率93.33%,超声诊断正确率为87.50%,与手术结果在瓣膜损害和赘生物附着部位检测正确率比较,差异

  20. 感染性心内膜炎赘生物超声心动图诊断的临床研究%Clinical study on infective endocarditis vegetations transthoracic echocardiography diagnosis

    黄楠; 徐永通; 李建华; 张红


    目的:探讨超声心动图诊断感染性心内膜炎赘生物的临床价值,以期提高临床诊治水平。方法选取2005年1月-2013年4月46例感染性心内膜炎赘生物患者为研究对象,均采用超声心动图检查,所有患者均行手术治疗,手术后对病理产物进行病理诊断,比较经胸超声心动图检查诊断结果和手术病理诊断结果的符合度情况,采用SPSS13.0软件进行分析。结果超声心动图与手术诊断进行比较,总符合率为95.65%,其中1例主动脉瓣+三尖瓣瓣根处有赘生物,超声心动图诊断为右心室结节,另外1例瓣膜脱垂,超声心动图诊断为右冠瓣穿孔。结论超声心动图对感染性心内膜炎赘生物诊断准确率高,作为一种无创的诊断方法,对临床感染性心内膜炎赘生物高危人群具有较高的筛选价值,早确诊、早治疗,提高该类患者的治疗预后具有较高的价值和临床意义。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical value of infective endocarditis vegetation by transthoracic echo-cardiographic diagnosis in order to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment .METHODS From Jan 2005 to Apr 2013 ,a total of 46 cases of patients with infective endocarditis vegetation were selected as the objects of study .All were examined by transthoracic echocardiography and underwent surgery .After surgery ,they had pathological product diagnosis , so as to compare the compliance of transthoracic echocardiography diagnosis and surgical pathology results by SPSS13 .0 software .RESULTS The diagnosis and surgery were compared ;the total coinci-dence rate was 95 .65% ,including one case with vegetations at aortic root and tricuspid valve root ;transthoracic echocardiography diagnosis found right ventricular nodules ,while another case had valvular prolapse ;the tran-sthoracic echocardiography showed the right coronary leaflet perforation .CONCLUSION The transthoracic echo-cardiography has

  1. Isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis presenting as neck pain

    Aditya Goud


    Full Text Available We discuss a unique case of a 52-year-old man with no history of intravenous drug use or dental procedures who presented with neck pain, 2 weeks of fevers, chills, night sweats, cough, and dyspnea found to have isolated pulmonic valve (PV endocarditis. The patient did not have an associated murmur, which is commonly seen in right-sided infectious endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a thickened PV leaflet, with subsequent transesophageal echocardiogram showing a PV mass. Speciation of blood cultures revealed Streptococcus oralis. In right-sided infective endocarditis, usually the tricuspid valve is involved; however, in our case the tricuspid valve was free of any mass or vegetation. The patient did meet Duke criteria and was thus started on long-term intravenous antibiotics for infectious endocarditis. The patient's symptoms quickly improved with antibiotics. A careful history and evaluating the patient's risk factors are key in earlier detection of infective endocarditis (IE. Because of early detection and a high index of suspicion, the patient had no further complications and did not require any surgery. In conclusion, clinical suspicion of right-sided IE should be high in patients who present with persistent fevers and pulmonary symptoms in order to reduce the risk of complications, and to improve outcomes.

  2. Factors Associated with Surgery of Active Infective Endocarditis in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease%手术治疗先天性心脏病患者活动期心内膜炎的相关因素

    周朝元; 付庆林; 段长恩; 苏国宝; 牛珊珊; 韩培立


    目的:确定先天性心脏病活动期感染性心内膜炎(active infective endocarditis,AIE)的手术指征.方法:于2003-2011年从71个机构数据库中调查并采集247例患有感染性心内膜炎的儿童及成人先天性心脏病(congenital heart disease,CHD)患者数据,其中74例(30%)进行了AIE手术治疗.回顾性分析患者的年龄、性别、感染心内膜炎前对CHD的诊断、致病微生物和感染部位等数据.结果:与AIE手术治疗必要性显著相关的指标是感染性心内膜炎(infective endocarditis,IE)病发前对心脏异常的诊断缺乏、主动脉辩IE、瓣周脓肿、心力衰竭以及抗生素发生变化.逐步逻辑回归方程分析结果表明瓣周脓肿、心力衰竭以及抗生素改变是先天性心脏病患者进行AIE手术治疗必要性的独立决定因素.结论:对IE合并CHD的患者而言,当心力衰竭、瓣周脓肿或抗生素变化发生时,手术可作为治疗AIE的一种手段.

  3. 先天性心脏病合并感染性心内膜炎73例病原学分析%Etiology of infective endocarditis in 73 patients with congenital heart disease

    韩宏光; 李新民; 王辉山; 姜辉; 尹宗涛; 韩劲松; 张南滨; 汪曾炜


    目的 探讨先天性心脏病(CHD)合并感染性心内膜炎(IE)的病原学分布及其耐药状况,为指导临床选择抗生素提供依据.方法 选择沈阳军区总医院1997年1月-2009年12月收治的73例IE患者进行血培养,分析病原学种类及药敏试验结果.结果 术前血培养及术中赘生物细菌培养总阳性率23.3%(17/73).感染细菌以草绿色链球菌为主,其次为金葡菌、肠球菌和口腔链球菌.结论 CHD合并IE病原菌菌种呈现多样化趋势,积极加强对IE患者的血培养检查和药敏试验极为重要.传统的经验性应用大剂量青霉素治疗的观念需要改变.%Objective To analyze the distribution and resistance of pathogenic microorganisms in infective endocarditis (IE) patients with congenital heart disease in order to improve the antimicrobial therapy. Methods Seventy-three IE patients with congenital heart disease treated in our hospital from January 1997 to December 2009 were included in this analysis. The pathogenic microorganisms were isolated by blood culture, identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Results The overall positive rate of culture was 23. 3%, including preoperative blood culture and intraoperative vegetation culture. The bacterial pathogen was mainly Streptococcus viridans, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus oralis. Conclusions The pathogen in IE patients with congenital heart disease appears complex. It is vital to carry out proactive blood culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The conventional empirical high dose penicillin regimen is no longer appropriate.

  4. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis Complicated With Septic Emboli to the Lung Causing Pneumothorax, Pneumonia, and Sepsis in an Intravenous Drug Abuser

    Deephak Swaminath MD


    Full Text Available Intravenous drug users are at increased risk for developing right-sided infective endocarditis involving the tricuspid and pulmonary valves. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis in intravenous drug users is very rare, and these patients often have more complications, such as pulmonary embolism, sepsis, and pneumonia. We report a case with pulmonary valve endocarditis and extensive pulmonary complications, including sepsis, septic emboli, pneumonia, and pneumothorax. Early identification of pulmonic valve endocarditis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics with or without surgical management should provide better outcomes, and clinicians need to think about pulmonary valve endocarditis in patients with complex respiratory presentations.

  5. Technical aspects of mitral valve replacement with an allograft for acute bacterial endocarditis.

    Conklin, L D; Reardon, M J


    Mitral valve replacement with a mitral valve allograft is receiving a resurgence of interest. We discuss the technical aspects of this procedure as it applies to cases of acute bacterial endocarditis infecting the mitral valve.

  6. One case report of infective endocarditis caused by Sphingomonas paucimobilis%少动鞘氨醇单胞菌致感染性心内膜炎1例

    何爱华; 金嘉琳; 章婉琴; 张文宏; 翁心华


    Sphingomonas paucimobilis (S. paucimobilis) is Gram-negative bacillus that is widely distributed in the natural environment. It has been reported to cause opportunistic infection in immunocompromized hosts. The infection has been reported in the postoperative wound, post-traumatic leg ulcer, septicemia,meningitis, chronic cellulitis and postoperative endophthalmitis. No previous cases of infective endocarditis caused by S. paucimobilis have been reported. Here a case of infective endocarditis caused by S.paucimobilis was reported to help understand this disease. The middle-aged male patient was admitted to the hospital because of recurrent fever for more than two months. The first episode was high fever eompanied by pain in the left-upper abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) suggested an infarction in the spleen.Physical examination revealed that skin petechiae and heart murmur. Laboratory examination revealed transient anemia, microscopic hematuria, positive rheumatoid factor, and echocardiography suggesting emerging valvular regurgitation. Anti-infection treatment was effective. The same S. paucimobilis was isolated from peripheral blood culture four times and thus the diagnosis of endocarditis by S. paucimobilis was confirmed. The results of drug sensitivity testing showed that S. paucimobilis was pan-susceptible. The patient fully recovered by anti-infection treatment with mitral valve replacement. He was a healthy man without systematic diseases and the infection was community-acquired, which was different from most reports.%少动鞘氨醇单胞菌(Sphingomonas paucimobilis) 是一种少见的条件致病菌,可引起手术后感染、创伤后腿部溃疡、菌血症、脑膜炎、慢性蜂窝织炎、手术后眼内炎等,未查见累及心瓣膜的报道.本文报道1例由少动鞘氨醇单胞菌所致感染性心内膜炎的病例.该患者为中年男性,因"反复发热2月余"入院.以发热伴左上腹痛为首发症状,影像学示脾梗死,查体发

  7. Endocarditis verrucosa ventricular izquierda

    Arias, Daniel Osvaldo; Tortora, M.; Cruz, A.; Klima, L.; Rodríguez, R.; Massone, Adriana R.; Stanchi, Néstor Oscar


    La endocarditis bacteriana es una entidad poco frecuente en caninos o subdiagnosticada. Un canino Rottweiler hembra de 3 años de edad fue derivado con signos compatibles de Insuficiencia Cardíaca Congestiva. El animal presentaba intolerancia al ejercicio, disnea y tos. La evolución del cuadro fue de 5 días con antecedentes de tos paroxística principalmente nocturna. La auscultación reveló un soplo de 6/6 en ambos precordios, ruidos hipofonéticos y ritmo irregular. A la palpación el choque car...

  8. Extracorporeal support in a patient with cardiogenic shock due to Aerococcus urinae endocarditis.

    Bruegger, Dirk; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Weis, Florian; Weis, Marion; Kur, Felix


    Aerococcus urinae is a newly identified Gram-positive coccus that causes serious infections. To date, only 15 cases of A. urinae infective endocarditis have been reported, but with a very high mortality. The case is reported of a patient with A. urinae double valve endocarditis. Following aortic and mitral valve replacement, the patient suffered from refractory cardiogenic shock; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used successfully as a rescue mechanical support.

  9. Use of autologous pericardium for mitral leaflet reconstruction in a child with endocarditis

    Olcay Murat Disli


    Full Text Available We present a case of successful repair of the mitral valve for active infective endocarditis. Mitral valve repair was performed through debridement of vegetation and abscess, resection and repair of the posterior mitral leaflet and posterior repair with autologous pericardium. Postoperative period was uneventfully, with no evidence of recurrent infection, and echocardiogram showed mitral valve competence with mild mitral regurgitation. We demonstrate that valve repair is a feasible choice in cases of active endocarditis in children.

  10. Kingella kingae endocarditis and a cluster investigation among daycare attendees.

    Seña, Arlene C; Seed, Patrick; Nicholson, Brad; Joyce, Maria; Cunningham, Coleen K


    Kingella kingae can cause invasive pediatric infections and outbreaks of osteomyelitis/septic arthritis in daycare facilities have been described. This is the first reported public health investigation prompted by a case of K. kingae endocarditis in an infant attending a daycare facility. A concurrent case of osteomyelitis was identified. Screening of daycare contacts revealed a low rate of colonization before antibiotic prophylaxis.

  11. Risk Factors of Endocarditis in Patients with Enterococcus faecalis Bacteremia

    Dahl, Anders; Lauridsen, Trine K; Arpi, Magnus;


    BACKGROUND:  The NOVA score is a recently developed diagnostic tool to identify patients with increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with Enterococcus faecalis (EF) bacteremia. We aim to validate an adapted version of the NOVA score and to identify risk factors for IE...

  12. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Essig, Andreas; Herrmann, Manuel; Liebold, Andreas; Quader, Mohamed Abo


    Corynebacterium (C.) kroppenstedtii is a rarely detected agent of bacterial infections in humans. Here, we describe the first case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by C. kroppenstedtii. Application of molecular methods using surgically excised valve tissue was a cornerstone for the establishment of the microbiological diagnosis, which is crucial for targeted antimicrobial treatment.

  13. Low efficacy of tobramycin in experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    Lerche, C. J.; Christophersen, L. J.; Trøstrup, H.;


    The empiric treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) varies widely and, in some places, a regimen of penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside is administered. The increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus IE, poor tissue penetration by aminoglycosides and low frequency of penicillin...

  14. Aortic valve endocarditis complicated by ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Jenny, Benjamin E; Almanaseer, Yassar


    Infective endocarditis complicated by abscess formation and coronary artery compression is a rare clinical event with a high mortality rate, and diagnosis requires a heightened degree of suspicion. We present the clinical, angiographic, and echocardiographic features of a 73-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and was found to have right coronary artery compression that was secondary to abscess formation resulting from diffuse infectious endocarditis. We discuss the patient's case and briefly review the relevant medical literature. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of abscess formation involving a native aortic valve and the right coronary artery.


    Ebrahim Nematipour


    Full Text Available Brucella endocarditis is a Tare but serious complication ofbrucellosis and is the main cause of death reuuedto thisdisease: Itis not rare in the endemic areas and aaualiy accounts for up to 8~lO% ofendocarditis infections: We report seven adult cases of brucella endocarditis in lmam-Khorneini Hospual: Contrary to previous independent reports, female patients were not rare in this study and accountedfor three out ofseven. Four patients were cared for by combined medical and surgical treatment and were recovered Three of the patients that did not receive the combined theraPl could not he saved This report confirms the necessity of prompt combined medical and surgical treatment ofbrucella endocarditis.

  16. Bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis.

    Blanco-Carrión, Andrés


    Bacterial endocarditis (BE) is a disease resulting from the association of morphological alterations of the heart and bacteraemia originating from different sources that at times can be indiscernible (infectious endocarditis). It is classified on the basis of the morphological alteration involved, depending on the clinical manifestations and course of illness, which varies according to the causative microorganism and host conditions (for example, it is characteristic in I.V. drug users). The most common microorganisms involved are: Streptococcus viridans (55%), Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Enterococcus (6%) and HACEK bacteria (corresponding to the initials: Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella), although on occasions it can also be caused by fungi. The oral microbiological flora plays a very important role in the aetiopathogenesis of BE, given that the condition may be of oral or dental origin. This paper will deal with the prevention of said bacteraemia. Prophylaxis will be undertaken using amoxicillin or clindamycin according to action protocols, with special emphasis placed on oral hygiene in patients with structural defects of the heart.

  17. The Changing Epidemiology of Pediatric Endocarditis.

    Elder, Robert W; Baltimore, Robert S


    The epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) appears to be related to changes in the management of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and the virtual disappearance of rheumatic heart disease. To better understand these changes, we divide the history into: I. The pre-surgical era, II. The early years of CHD surgical intervention, correlated with introduction of antibiotics, III. The modern era of cardiac interventions. Microbiologic changes include an early predominance of viridans streptococci and an overtaking by staphylococci. Additionally, there have been advances in imaging that allow earlier detection of IE and a reduction in IE-related mortality.

  18. Aorto-left ventricular tunnel complicated with infective endocarditis: diagnosed by transthoracic two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography%经胸二维和三维超声心动图诊断主动脉-左心室通道合并感染性心内膜炎一例

    程蕾蕾; 赵维鹏; 潘翠珍; 丁文军; 王春生; 舒先红


    IntroductionAorto-left ventricular tunnel(ALVT)is an extrenle rare(0.001%)congenital para-valvular conmmnication between aorta and the left ventricle.It was first reported by Edwards and his colleagues in 1961[ 1].Only about 100 cases have been reported until now.We re port Out"first ease of ALVT with infective endocarditis demonstrated by two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography and confirmed by surgery.%@@ IntroductionAorto-left ventricular tunnel ( ALVT) is an extreme rare (0.001% ) congenital para-valvular communication between aorta and the left ventricle.It was first reported by Edwards and his colleagues in 1961[1].Only about 100 cases have been reported until now.We report our first case of ALVT with infective endocarditis demonstrated by two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography and confirmed by surgery.

  19. Literature analysis of Brucella endocarditis%布鲁菌病性心内膜炎文献分析

    贾斌; 张跃新


    布鲁菌病(简称布病)是一个呈世界性分布的地方性人畜共患病.近年来的发病率呈明显增高趋势,造成全身多系统、多器官受累,以骨关节的并发症最常见,心内膜炎的发生率虽然低,却是布病患者致死的主要原因.作者就近年来国内外有关布病性心内膜炎的研究进行文献综述.%Brucellosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution.There is an upward trend in the incidence of this disease in recent years,and multiple systems and organs are affected.Complication of bone and joint is the most commonly seen of Brucellosis.Although cardiovascular complication is rare,it is the major reason for Brucellosis-related mortality.The author summarized domestic and foreign studies on Brucella endocarditis.

  20. Clinical characteristics of 22 cases of fungal infective endocarditis%真菌性感染性心内膜炎22例临床特征分析

    孙筱璐; 张健; 王国干; 庄晓峰


    目的 探讨真菌性感染性心内膜炎(FE)患者的临床特点、治疗方式和预后.方法 连续入选2003-2009年阜外心血管病医院符合Duke诊断标准的真菌性心内膜炎患者,对其临床特征、微生物学特点、并发症和死亡原因等进行回顾性分析.结果 共入选FE患者22例.中位年龄45岁,男女比例2.1∶1.13例(59.1%)患者为医疗相关性感染,1例静脉吸毒相关感染.最常受累的瓣膜是主动脉瓣(40.9%),其次是二尖瓣(13.6%).16例(72.7%)患者超声心动图发现赘生物,>10 mm的赘生物占54.5%(12/22),>15 mm的赘生物占31.8% (7/22).最常见的致病微生物为念珠菌属,占68.2% (15/22),其中白念珠菌占45.5%,近平滑念珠菌占9.1%;其次为曲霉菌属,占22.7% (5/22),其中烟曲霉菌占9.1%.易患因素包括人工心脏瓣膜置换术后、免疫功能受损等.急性感染期间发生的严重并发症包括难治性心力衰竭、系统性栓塞、难以控制的感染和急性肾功能衰竭.住院病死率为40.9% (9/22),主要死亡原因为难治性心力衰竭、脓毒症并发的多器官功能衰竭和脑卒中.15例患者经抗真菌药物治疗包括氟康唑、伊曲康唑、醋酸卡泊芬净和伏立康唑.7例(31.8%)患者接受了瓣膜置换术,其中3例为再次瓣膜置换术.接受内外科联合治疗的患者住院病死率较低(1/7).结论 FE在医疗相关性感染和免疫功能低下患者多见;栓塞事件发生率高,且赘生物体积大;住院病死率高,死因包括心力衰竭、脓毒症和反复的动脉栓塞.%Objective To explore the clinical characteristics,treatment regimens and outcomes of the patients with fungal infective endocarditis.Methods An observational study was conducted at our hospital and recruited 22 consecutive patients with a definite diagnosis of fungal infective endocarditis.Their overall characteristics,treatments,complications and outcomes were analyzed.Results The mean age

  1. Sudden renal function deterioration in an elderly patient on vancomycin therapy for endocarditis.

    Tesfaye, Hundie; Lukášková, Jiřina; Hořínková, Jana


    Vancomycin is currently the drug of choice in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. It is also used prophylactically in some situations in which the patient is at risk for endocarditis. It is often used in combination with other antibacterials in the treatment of endocarditis and is a potential nephrotoxin. Various consensus guidelines differ in their interpretation of vancomycin plasma concentrations. This paper describes a case of a 72-years old Caucasian female patient, who developed significant renal impairment when prescribed vancomycin in combination with penicillin for the treatment of endocarditis, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  2. Rothia aeria endocarditis in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve: case report

    Antonio Carlos Nicodemo


    Full Text Available Rothia aeria is an uncommon pathogen mainly associated with endocarditis in case reports. In previous reports, endocarditis by R. aeria was complicated by central nervous system embolization. In the case we report herein, endocarditis by R. aeria was diagnosed after acute self-limited diarrhea. In addition to the common translocation of R. aeria from the oral cavity, we hypothesize the possibility of intestinal translocation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and genetic sequencing are important tools that can contribute to early and more accurate etiologic diagnosis of severe infections caused by Gram-positive rods.

  3. Genotypic diversity of coagulase-negative staphylococci causing endocarditis: a global perspective.

    Petti, Cathy A; Simmon, Keith E; Miro, Jose M; Hoen, Bruno; Marco, Francesc; Chu, Vivian H; Athan, Eugene; Bukovski, Suzana; Bouza, Emilio; Bradley, Suzanne; Fowler, Vance G; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Gordon, David; Reinbott, Porl; Korman, Tony; Lang, Selwyn; Garcia-de-la-Maria, Cristina; Raglio, Annibale; Morris, Arthur J; Plesiat, Patrick; Ryan, Suzanne; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Tripodi, Francesca; Utili, Riccardo; Wray, Dannah; Federspiel, J Jeffrey; Boisson, K; Reller, L Barth; Murdoch, David R; Woods, Christopher W


    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance.

  4. Daptomycin-Vancomycin–Resistant Enterococcus faecium Native Valve Endocarditis

    Khandakar Hussain MD


    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant enterococcal nosocomial invasive infections are a rising concern faced by the medical community. Not many options are available to treat these highly virulent organisms. Risk factors for developing these highly resistant organisms include prolonged hospital stay, previous antibiotic use, and immunosuppression. In this article, we report a case of daptomycin-resistant enterococcal native infective endocarditis treated with off-label use of quinupristin-dalfopristin.

  5. Genome-wide Screening Identifies Phosphotransferase System Permease BepA to Be Involved in Enterococcus faecium Endocarditis and Biofilm Formation

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Huebner, Johannes; Singh, Kavindra V; Zhang, Xinglin; van Schaik, Willem; Wobser, Dominique; Braat, Johanna C; Murray, Barbara E; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Leavis, Helen L


    Enterococcusfaeciumis a common cause of nosocomial infections, of which infective endocarditis is associated with substantial mortality. In this study, we used a microarray-based transposon mapping (M-TraM) approach to evaluate a rat endocarditis model and identified a gene, originally annotated as

  6. Surgical management of venous drug-induced infective endocarditis%静脉注射吸毒者感染性心内膜炎的外科治疗

    杜巍; 辛军; 王厚强; 周伟; 李伟阳


    Objective To summarize the experience of surgical treatment of venous drug-induced infective endocarditis(IE). Methods The 17 cases of drug-induced IE were found to have valvular vegetations,16 patients had involvement of tricuspid valve, 1 mitral valve associated with ventrieular septal defect. Preoperative blood culture was positive in 8 patients. The operations included tricuspid valve repair (6 cases),tricuspid valve replacement(8 cases), mitral valve replacement and VSD closure(1 cases). Results All patients were alive and discharges. After follow-up of 6 months to 6 years, 1 case had severd tricuspid alve regurgitation, 1 had haemoptysis because of incorrect anticoagulation. Conclusions This study indicated surgical intervention is effective treatment of venous drug-induced infective endocarditis.%目的 探讨静脉注射毒品所致感染性心内膜炎的外科治疗经验.方法 17例患者静脉注射毒品史2~10年,均有心脏瓣膜赘生物;其中三尖瓣赘生物并关闭不全16例,二尖瓣赘生物并关闭不全合并室间隔缺损1例,术前血培养阳性8例.三尖瓣置换术8例,三尖瓣成形术8例,二尖瓣置换同期室间隔缺损修补术1例.术后平均随访(44.7 ±19.1)月.结果 全部患者治愈出院,心功能明显改善,随访期间抗凝不当致大咯血1例,三尖瓣重度返流1例.结论 外科手术修复受累瓣膜或置换瓣膜是治疗静脉吸毒性感染性心内膜炎的有效手段.

  7. Mitral valve prolapse and infective endocarditis:a clinical diagnosis and treatment of and literature review%二尖瓣脱垂合并感染性心内膜炎临床诊疗及文献复习

    田新利; 李俊峡; 孙琪; 牛海燕


    目的:探讨二尖瓣脱垂合并感染性心内膜炎的临床特点,并复习相关文献资料。方法对本院2013年1月至2015年1月收治的1例二尖瓣脱垂合并感染性心内膜炎的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果患者因乏力、低热1个月收入院,经胸超声心动图提示:二尖瓣后叶脱垂、二尖瓣中量反流,未见赘生物;经食管超声心动图显示:左房前壁及二尖瓣前后叶附着赘生物。经规范抗生素治疗后,行左房内赘生物清除+二尖瓣机械瓣膜置换术。结论二尖瓣脱垂合并感染性心内膜炎罕见,经胸超声心动图未发现赘生物时并不能除外感染性心内膜炎,应该紧密结合临床,以提高二尖瓣脱垂合并感染性心内膜炎患者的预后。%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of infective endocarditis(IE) in patients with mitral valve prolapse( MVP) . Method Data of 1 patient with IE and MVP were analyzed retrospectively from January 2013 to January 2015. Result The patient was admitted to our department due to lack of power and mild fever for one month. Transthoracic echocardiography(TTE) showed posterior leaflet prolapse of mitral valve,middle-graderegurgitation,no vegetations. Transesophageal echocardiography( TEE) showed vegetations were found on the anterior wall of left atrium and anterior,posterior leaflet of mitral valve. After standard treatment of antibiotics,this patient had the surgery of veg-etations clearance plus mitral valvular replacement. Conclusion The incidence of MVP and IE was rare. We couldn’ t exclude the diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse and IE when vegetations were not found by TTE. We should integrate clinical practice to improve the outcomes of infective endocarditis in patients with mitral valve prolapse.

  8. Tricuspid valve endocarditis with Group B Streptococcus after an elective abortion: the need for new data.

    Palys, Erica E; Li, John; Gaut, Paula L; Hardy, W David


    Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS), was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  9. Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis With Group B Streptococcus After an Elective Abortion: The Need for New Data

    Erica E. Palys


    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly known as Group B streptococcus (GBS, was originally discovered as a cause of bovine mastitis. GBS colonizes the genital tract of up to 40% of women and has become a major pathogen in neonatal meningitis. GBS endocarditis is thought to be an uncommon manifestation of this infection and carries a higher mortality compared to other streptococcal pathogens. Studies have shown that endocarditis after abortion has an incidence of about one per million. However, this figure was published prior to routine use of echocardiography for diagnosis. The American Heart Association has recently declared transesophageal echocardiography the gold standard for endocarditis diagnosis. This case report illustrates that, given the potentially devastating consequences of endocarditis, there is a need for updated studies to adequately assess the true incidence of this infection. Pending the outcome of these studies, routine GBS screening and prophylactic antibiotics prior to abortion should be recommended.

  10. Native Valve Streptococcus bovis Endocarditis and Refractory Transfusion Dependent Iron Deficiency Anaemia Associated with Concomitant Carcinoma of the Colon: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Abdul Azeez Ahamed Riyaaz


    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. Infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. The association between Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. We report a case of Streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. Cooccurrence of these two conditions may cause a challenge in the management. Considering the strong association of colon cancer with Streptococcus bovis endocarditis, a detailed screening colonoscopy is mandatory following the diagnosis of the latter.

  11. Biventricular Mural Endocarditis on the Intraventricular Septum.

    Mori, Makoto; Hosoba, Soh; Yoshimura, Stephanie; Lattouf, Omar


    Mural endocarditis is an inflammation and disruption of the nonvalvular endocardial surface of the cardiac chambers. We present a rare case of mural endocarditis on the intraventricular (IV) septum on both the left and right ventricular side with intact valvular annulus. This case highlights the complexity of the operative and postoperative management in an unprecedented case of biventricular mural endocarditis.

  12. Staphylococcus saprophyticus native valve endocarditis in a diabetic patient with neurogenic bladder: A case report.

    Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Kusaba, Koji; Yamakuchi, Hiroki; Hamada, Yohei; Urakami, Toshiharu; Aoki, Yosuke


    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with 2-day history of malaise and dyspnea. He had mitral prolapse and type II diabetes mellitus with neurogenic bladder, which was cared for by catheterization on his own. On arrival the patient was in septic condition with hypoxemia, and physical examination revealed systolic murmur at the apex. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed vegetation of the mitral and the aortic valve. The presence of continuous bacteremia was confirmed by multiple sets of blood culture, whereby gram-positive cocci was retrieved and identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) both phenotypically and genetically. Because two major criteria of the Modified Duke Criteria were met, the patient was diagnosed with native valve endocarditis due to S. saprophyticus. The urine culture was also positive for gram-positive cocci, phenotypically identified as Staphylococcus warneri, which was subsequently identified as S. saprophyticus with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry), indicating strongly that the intermittent catheterization-associated urinary tract infection resulted in bacteremia that eventually lead to infective endocarditis. This patient was treated with vancomycin and clindamycin. Because of multiple cerebral infarctions, the patient underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement on hospital day 5. Blood culture turned negative at 6th hospital day. Antibiotic therapy was continued for six weeks after surgery. The patient's clinical course was uneventful thereafter, and was discharged home. This is the first case report of native valve endocarditis caused by S. saprophyticus of confirmed urinary origin.

  13. Complications of Candidemia in ICU Patients: Endophthalmitis, Osteomyelitis, Endocarditis.

    Kauffman, Carol A


    Bloodstream infection with Candida species is not uncommon in the intensive care unit setting and has the potential to distribute organisms to many different organ systems causing secondary infections, such as endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. In some patients, these types of infections become manifested shortly after the episode of candidemia. In others, especially vertebral osteomyelitis, weeks pass before the diagnosis is entertained. Endophthalmitis should be sought by a retinal examination in all patients early after an episode of candidemia. Both osteomyelitis and endocarditis are less common complications of candidemia than endophthalmitis. In patients who manifest symptoms or signs suggesting these infections, magnetic resonance imaging and transesophageal echocardiography, respectively, are extremely helpful diagnostic tests. Newer approaches to the treatment of these infections allow the use of better tolerated, safer antifungal agents. Endophthalmitis is often treated with fluconazole or voriconazole, and the echinocandins are increasingly used, instead of amphotericin B, as initial therapy for osteomyelitis and endocarditis before step-down therapy to oral azole agents.

  14. Streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colon cancer: myth or reality? A case report and literature review.

    Galdy, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giuseppe


    A relationship between infective endocarditis and colon cancer was established in 1950, and Streptococcus bovis was successfully isolated in 1970. However, this association and its pathogenesis still remain unclear. In this paper, we describe the clinical case of a patient with a history of colon cancer and infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. The role of S bovis as an aetiological agent in the development of colon cancer is intriguing but uncertain. S bovis infection should be considered a silent sign of gastrointestinal malignancy or hepatic disease. We believe that in order to demonstrate the presence of colon cancer, all patients with S bovis infection require an endoscopic investigation of the colon.

  15. Preclinical Validation of 99mTc–Annexin A5–128 in Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis and Infective Endocarditis: Comparison with 99mTc–HYNIC–Annexin A5

    Khadija Benali


    Full Text Available Hydrazinonicotinamide–annexin A5 (HYNIC-Anx, a 99m technetium (99mTc-labeled agent targeting phosphatidylserine, proved to be sensitive for the detection of apoptosis and thrombosis but is no longer available for clinical use. A mutant of human annexin designed for direct 99mTc labeling (referred to as Anx A5–128 showed improved binding affinity to phosphatidylserine and is expected to be used in humans. We compared both radiotracers with regard to pharmacokinetics and diagnostic ability in animal models. Biodistribution studies were performed in normal rats. Radiolabeled Anx A5–128 and HYNIC-Anx were compared in cardiovascular settings involving phosphatidylserine expression: experimental autoimmune myocarditis and infective endocarditis. Initial blood clearance was faster for Anx A5–128 than for HYNIC-Anx, and tissue biodistribution was similar overall for both tracers. The diagnostic sensitivity of Anx A5–128 was excellent and comparable to that of HYNIC-Anx. Anx A5–128 showed biodistribution and diagnostic ability similar to those of the HYNIC-Anx derivative, supporting its translation to clinical use.

  16. 感染性心内膜炎患者体外循环手术中ACT的监测%Measurement of activated clotting time during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with infective endocarditis patients

    蒋玲; 喻杰锋


    目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎(infective endocarditis,IE)患者外科治疗时肝素及鱼精蛋白的合理用量.方法:IE患者与风湿性心脏病(rheumatic heart disease,RHD)患者各30例,在体外循环(cardiopulmonary bypass,CPB)期间测定激活全血凝固时间(activated clotting time,ACT),CPB终止后,测ACT拮抗值.结果:转流前IE组肝素用量[(407.2±51.3)U/kg]明显高于RHD组[(350±25)U/kg(P<0.05)],鱼精蛋白用量IE组[(3.00±0.25)mg/kg]亦明显高于RHD组[(2.51±0.26)mg/kg(P<0.05)],鱼精蛋白与肝素之比IE组为0.76±0.23,RHD组为0.74±0.12,二组间无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论:IE病人转流前肝素用量大于400 U/kg,鱼精蛋白用量需增加至3 mg/kg,而鱼精蛋白与肝素之比无明显变化.

  17. The Value of Echocardiography in the Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis%超声心动图诊断感染性心内膜炎的临床价值

    李春梅; 尹立雪; 邓燕; 程力剑


    目的评价超声心动图在感染性心内膜炎(infective endocarditis,IE)诊断中的价值.方法分析总结38例IE患者的临床和超声心动图资料.结果 IE多发生于原有器质性心脏病基础上,以风心病和先心病为主.赘生物有附着位置、大小、形态及随病程变化多种超声特点.超声心动图可检出瓣膜脱垂、腱索断裂和瓣周脓肿等心脏内并发症.结论超声能为临床提供IE患者的基础心脏病因、诊断、鉴别诊断、指导治疗和判断预后等具有重要价值的信息.

  18. Conhecimento dos pais sobre profilaxia de endocardite infecciosa em crianças portadoras de cardiopatias congênitas Parents' knowledge of infective endocarditis in children with congenital heart disease

    Fabiana Haag


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As diretrizes para profilaxia de endocardite infecciosa mudaram, mas muitas cardiopatias congênitas seguem sendo consideradas de alto risco para o desenvolvimento da doença. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento dos pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças e adolescentes portadores de cardiopatias atendidos em um serviço de referência no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, sobre endocardite infecciosa e sua profilaxia. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 90 pacientes portadores de cardiopatias congênitas em acompanhamento ambulatorial regular. O conhecimento dos pais foi avaliado com o uso de questionário específico e os demais dados foram obtidos por meio da revisão de prontuários. RESULTADOS: A mediana da idade dos pacientes foi de 5,6 anos (3 meses - 14 anos e 7 meses, sendo 57,7% do sexo masculino. A mediana de tempo de acompanhamento no serviço foi de 3,49 anos (1,20-7,38 anos. Os anos de estudo formal dos pais apresentaram média de 7,67 ± 3,25 anos. De acordo com o escore previamente estabelecido, o conhecimento dos pais entrevistados foi considerado satisfatório em 37,7% dos casos, regular, em 33,3% e insatisfatório, em 28,8%. Houve correlação significativa entre o índice de conhecimento dos pais e tempo de acompanhamento das crianças no serviço (r=0,584; PINTRODUCTION: The guidelines to prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis changed, but many congenital heart diseases continue to be considered as high risk for the development of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of parents or guardians of children and adolescents with congenital heart disease seen at a referral center in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil on infective endocarditis and its prevention. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 90 patients with congenital heart defects in regular outpatient treatment. The parents' knowledge was assessed using a specific questionnaire and other data were obtained through medical records. RESULTS: The median age of

  19. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck;


    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use....... The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes...... with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial...

  20. Retrospective Examination of Q Fever Endocarditis: An Underdiagnosed Disease in the Mainland of China

    Han, Xiao; Hsu, Jeffrey; Miao, Qi; Zhou, Bao-Tong; Fan, Hong-Wei; Xiong, Xiao-Lu; Wen, Bo-Hai; Wu, Lian; Yan, Xiao-Wei; Fang, Quan; Chen, Wei


    Background: Q fever endocarditis, a chronic illness caused by Coxiella burnetii, can be fatal if misdiagnosed or left untreated. Despite a relatively high positive rate of Q fever serology in healthy individuals in the mainland of China, very few cases of Q fever endocarditis have been reported. This study summarized cases of Q fever endocarditis among blood culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) patients and discussed factors attributing to the low diagnostic rate. Methods: We identified confirmed cases of Q fever endocarditis among 637 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2006 and 2016. The clinical findings for each confirmed case were recorded. BCNE patients were also examined and each BCNE patient's Q fever risk factors were identified. The risk factors and presence of Q fever serologic testing between BCNE patients suspected and unsuspected of Q fever were compared using the Chi-squared or Chi-squared with Yates’ correction for continuity. Results: Among the IE patients examined, there were 147 BCNE patients, of whom only 11 patients (7.5%) were suspected of Q fever and undergone serological testing for C. burnetii. Six out of 11 suspected cases were diagnosed as Q fever endocarditis. For the remaining136 BCNE patients, none of them was suspected of Q fever nor underwent relevant testing. Risk factors for Q fever endocarditis were comparable between suspected and unsuspected patients, with the most common risk factors being valvulopathy in both groups. However, significantly more patients had consulted the Infectious Diseases Division and undergone comprehensive diagnostic tests in the suspected group than the unsuspected group (100% vs. 63%, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Q fever endocarditis is a serious yet treatable condition. Lacking awareness of the disease may prevent BCNE patients from being identified, despite having Q fever risk factors. Increasing awareness and guideline adherence are

  1. Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis in Spain

    García-Álvarez, Lara; Sanz, María Mercedes; Marín, Mercedes; Fariñas, MªCarmen; Montejo, Miguel; Goikoetxea, Josune; Rodríguez García, Raquel; de Alarcón, Arístides; Almela, Manuel; Fernández-Hidalgo, Núria; Alonso Socas, María del Mar; Goenaga, Miguel Ángel; Navas, Enrique; Vicioso, Luis; Oteo, José Antonio


    Abstract Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis is an uncommon condition with very few series and <90 cases reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome characteristics of 17 cases of T. whipplei endocarditis recruited in our country from a multicentric cohort from 25 Spanish hospitals from the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis—Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis infecciosa en España. From a total of 3165 cases included in the cohort, 14.2% were diagnosed of blood culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) and 3.5% of these had T. whipplei endocarditis. This condition was more frequent in men. The average age was 60.3 years. Previous cardiac condition was present in 35.3% of the cases. The main clinical manifestation was cardiac failure (76.5%) while fever was only present in the 35.3%. Ecocardiography showed vegetations in 64.7% of patients. Surgery was performed in all but 1 cases and it allowed the diagnosis when molecular assays were performed. A broad range rRNA 16S polymerase chain reaction was used for first instance in all laboratories and different specific targets for T. whipplei were employed for confirmation. A concomitant Whipple disease was diagnosed in 11.9% of patients. All patients received specific antimicrobial treatment for at least 1 year, with no relapse and complete recovery. T. whipplei endocarditis is an uncommon condition with an atypical presentation that must be considered in the diagnosis of BCNE. The prognosis is very good when an appropriate surgical management and antimicrobial-specific treatment is given. PMID:27368042


    Chakrandhar Rao


    Full Text Available Libman - Sacks endocarditis is the characteristic cardiac manifestation of autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. The condition most commonly involves the mitral and aortic valves, but all the four cardiac valves and the endocardial surfa ces can be involved 1 . Persons with Libman - Sacks endocarditis are usually asymptomatic., but become symptomatic due to cardiac failure, cerebrovascular embolism, systemic thromboembolism and secondary infective endocarditis. 2D Echocardiography should be pe rformed when it is suspected. With introduction of steroid therapy for SLE, improved longevity of patients appears to have changed the spectrum of valvular disease. Herewith, we are reporting a 35 year old female who presented at Department of General Medi cine, GGH, Guntur with seven day history of anasarca, shortness of breath, cough and fever of long duration. ECHO was suggestive of Libman - Sachs endocarditis and further investigations revealed SLE. On addition of steroids, there was good response and the patient was improving, but she had sudden cardio - respiratory arrest 5 days later.

  3. Clinical utility of (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis.

    Lauridsen, Trine K; Iversen, Kasper K; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Hasbak, Philip; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne K; Dahl, Anders; Dejanovic, Danijela; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Mortensen, Jann; Kjær, Andreas; Bundgaard, Henning; Bruun, Niels Eske


    The extra-cardiac work-up in infective endocarditis (IE) comprises a search for primary and secondary infective foci. Whether (18)FDG-PET/CT or WBC-SPECT/CT is superior in detection of clinically relevant extra-cardiac manifestations in IE is unexplored. The objectives of this study were to identify the numbers of positive findings detected by each imaging modality, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to define the reproducibility for extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. Each modality was evaluated for numbers and location of positive extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. A team of 2 × 2 cardiologists evaluated each finding to determine clinical relevance. Clinical utility was determined by 4 criteria converted into an ordinal scale. Using the manifestation with highest clinical utility rating in each patient, the clinical impact of the two imaging modalities was expressed in a clinical utility score. To evaluate reproducibility for each modality, an imaging core laboratory reviewed all findings. In 55 IE patients, 91 pathological foci were found by FDG-PET/CT and 37 foci were identified by WBC-SPECT/CT (p < 0.001). The clinical utility of FDG-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of WBC-SPECT/CT when comparing clinical utility score (2.06 vs. 1.17; p = 0.01). In assessment of extra-cardiac diagnostics in IE, inter-observer reproducibility was substantial for WBC-SPECT/CT (k 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.89) and substantial to excellent for FDG-PET/CT (k 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-0.98). FDG-PET/CT has a significantly higher clinical utility score than WBC SPECT/CT and is potentially superior to WBC-SPECT/CT in detection of extra-cardiac pathology in patients with IE.

  4. Prosthetic valve endocarditis 1976-1987. Antibiotics, anticoagulation, and stroke.

    Davenport, J; Hart, R G


    We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 61 patients with 62 episodes of prosthetic valve endocarditis, paying particular attention to neurologic complications (stroke). Atypical features of the group included a benign outcome of early postoperative infection (18% mortality) and a high stroke morbidity and mortality rate with Staphylococcus epidermidis infections. Eleven patients (18%) suffered an embolic stroke, most less than or equal to 3 days after diagnosis and before the initiation of antimicrobial therapy; the rate of embolic stroke recurrence was low (9%). The risk of embolic stroke was lower with bioprosthetic than with mechanical valves. No protective effect of anticoagulation therapy with warfarin was observed. Six patients (8%) suffered brain hemorrhage due to septic arteritis, brain infarction, or undetermined causes; no specific risk of hemorrhagic stroke was evident with anticoagulation therapy. Antibiotic treatment appears to be more important than anticoagulation to prevent neurologic complications in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  5. Achados clínico-laboratoriais de uma série de casos com endocardite infecciosa Clinical and laboratory findings in a series of cases of infective endocarditis

    Carla A.Z. Pereira


    /16-56,6%. Houve persistência da febre, apesar do tratamento, duração da febre de 2,5 a 30 dias, mediana de 18,0 dias. O valor médio de leucócitos à internação foi de 11.657±7.085mm³. O ecocardiograma transtorácico, realizado em todos os pacientes, evidenciou vegetações, principalmente nas válvulas tricúspide (25,0%, mitral (25,0% e na borda de CIV (28,6%. Treze (46,4% crianças apresentaram sepse concomitante, e três (10,7% infecção hospitalar. Houve um óbito (3,6%. CONCLUSÕES: A endocardite infecciosa em nosso meio é freqüente em crianças abaixo de dois anos de idade e com uma cardiopatia congênita. O S. aureus de origem comunitária foi o microorganismo isolado mais freqüentemente, e em crianças sem lesão cardíaca prévia. Endocardite infecciosa aguda, endocardite bacteriana, Staphylococcus aureus, ecocardiografia transtorácica.OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and laboratory data of infective endocarditis (IE in 28 children from Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 28 children aged 18 years and under admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit of Nossa Senhora da Glória Children's Hospital with a diagnosis of IE from January 1993 to December 2001. The diagnosis of IE was based on the criteria established by the Duke Endocarditis Service (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA: positive blood cultures and echocardiogram (primary criteria; and fever, history of heart disease, recent heart murmur, and vascular and immunological phenomena (secondary criteria. A specific protocol was filled out by interns and medical students and revised by physicians from the hospital medical team to obtain the following data: age, sex, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of transthoracic echocardiography. In all cases, three blood samples were collected under aseptic conditions and inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic environments. The samples were then incubated at 37º C and tested with the VITEC SYSTEM

  6. Endocarditis by Kocuria rosea in an immunocompetent child

    Jorge Salomão Moreira


    Full Text Available Kocuria roseabelongs to genus Kocuria(Micrococcaceaefamily, suborder Micrococcineae, order Actinomycetales that includes about 11 species of bacteria. Usually, Kocuria spare commensal organisms that colonize oropharynx, skin and mucous membrane; Kocuria spinfections have been described in the last decade commonly affecting immunocompromised patients, using intravenous catheter or peritoneal dialysis. These patients had mainly bacteremia/recurrent sepsis. We hereby describe the case of a 10-year-old girl, immunocompetent, who had endocarditis/sepsis by K. roseawhich was identified in five different blood cultures by Vitek2 ID-GPC card (BioMérieux, France. Negative HIV serology, blood count within normal range of leukocytes/neutrophils and lymphocytes, normal fractions of the complement, normal level of immunoglobulins for the age; lymphocyte immunophenotyping was also within the expected values. Thymus image was normal at chest MRI. No catheters were required. Identification of K. roseawas essential to this case, allowing the differentiation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and use of an effective antibiotic treatment. Careful labo- ratory analysis of Gram-positive blood-born infections may reveal more cases of Kocuria spinfections in immunocompetent patients, which may collaborate for a better understanding, prevention and early treatment of these infections in pediatrics.

  7. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient

    S. Hernández Egido


    Full Text Available Small colony variants (SCV are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient.

  8. Role of granulocytes and monocytes in experimental Escherichia coli endocarditis.

    Meddens, M J; Thompson, J.; Bauer, W C; Furth, R. van


    The role of granulocytes and monocytes during the induction and course of Escherichia coli endocarditis was investigated in rabbits by selectively depleting monocytes from the circulation with the drug VP16-213 and granulocytes and monocytes with nitrogen mustard. For induction, the number of E. coli needed to infect the vegetations in 50% of the rabbits was significantly lower in rabbits with combined granulocytopenia and monocytopenia than in those with selective monocytopenia or in control...

  9. Endocarditis caused by Haemophilus aegyptius.

    Porath, A; Wanderman, K; Simu, A; Vidne, B; Alkan, M


    Endocarditis due to Haemophilus is uncommon. This is the first reported case caused by Haemophilus aegyptius. The course of the disease was complicated by pericarditis, congestive heart failure, and myocardial abscess formation. Surgical removal of the damaged aortic valve was not beneficial. The biologic properties of the organism included urea degradation, absence of indole metabolism, and absence of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase.

  10. [Endocarditis and arthritis caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing non-Typhi Salmonella].

    García, Mara; García, Natalia; Striebeck, Pablo; Cejas, Daniela; Rodríguez, Viviana


    We present the case of a patient with endocarditis and arthritis caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase producing non-Typhi Salmonella, with incomplete response (defined as persistence of Salmonella in joint fluid) to initial instituted treatment (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and posterior recovery with ertapenem. The disease was associated with implantable central venous catheter infection. Five percent of patients with non-Typhi Salmonella gastroenteritis develop bacteremia. Infective endocarditis and joint infection has been reported in 1,4% and less than 1% of cases, respectively.

  11. Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections in Turkey.

    Aydin, Mesut; Yildiz, Abdulkadir; Kaya, Zeynettin; Kaya, Zekeriya; Basarir, Ahmet Ozgur; Cakmak, Nazmiye; Donmez, Ibrahim; Morrad, Baktash; Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Cagliyan, Emre Caglar; Yuksel, Murat; Elbey, Mehmet Ali; Kayan, Fethullah; Ozaydogdu, Necdet; Islamoglu, Yahya; Cayli, Murat; Alan, Said; Ulgen, Mehmet Siddik; Ozhan, Hakan


    Infection is one of the most devastating outcomes of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation and is related to significant morbidity and mortality. In our country, there is no evaluation about CIED infection. Therefore, our aim was to investigate clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who had infection related to CIED implantation or replacement. The study included 144 consecutive patients with CIED infection treated at 11 major hospitals in Turkey from 2005 to 2014 retrospectively. We analyzed the medical files of all patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of CIED infection. Inclusion criteria were definite infection related to CIED implantation, replacement, or revision. Generator pocket infection, with or without bacteremia, was the most common clinical presentation, followed by CIED-related endocarditis. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus were the leading causative agents of CIED infection. Multivariate analysis showed that infective endocarditis and ejection fraction were the strongest predictors of in-hospital mortality.

  12. Histologic and bacteriologic findings in valvular endocarditis of slaughter-age pigs

    Jensen, Henrik E.; Gyllensten, Johanna; Hofman, Carolina;


    Endocarditis lesions from 117 slaughter pigs were examined pathologically and etiologically in addition to 90 control hearts with cardiac valves. Lesions were located on the valves; however, the lesions had extended to the walls in 21 cases (18%). Lesions predominated on the mitral valve (59...... 10 cases of endocarditis due to S. suis and E. rhusiopathiae were disclosed. Within lesions, streptococci predominated (53%) followed by E. rhusiopathiae (30%). Distinct features of both the lesions and the shape and localization of bacterial colonies were related to streptococci and E. rhusiopathiae....... The propensity for streptococci to be localized on more than 1 valve in single hearts may be because S. suis-infected pigs tend to have been infected for a longer period compared with E. rhusiopathiae. Mineralization of endocarditis lesions was significantly associated with infection by streptococci...

  13. Tropheryma whipplei tricuspid endocarditis: a case report and review of the literature

    Greub Gilbert


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The main clinical manifestations of Whipple's disease are weight loss, arthropathy, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Cardiac involvement is frequently described. However, endocarditis is rare and is not usually the initial presentation of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with Tropheryma whipplei tricuspid endocarditis without any other valve involved and not presenting signs of arthralgia and abdominal involvement. Case presentation We report a case of a 50-year-old Caucasian man with tricuspid endocarditis caused by Tropheryma whipplei, showing signs of severe shock and an absence of other more classic clinical signs of Whipple's disease, such as arthralgia, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Tropheryma whipplei was documented by polymerase chain reaction of the blood and pleural fluid. The infection was treated with a combined treatment of doxycycline, hydroxychloroquine and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for one year. Conclusion Tropheryma whipplei infectious endocarditis should always be considered when facing a blood-culture negative endocarditis particularly in right-sided valves. Although not standardized yet, treatment of Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis should probably include a bactericidal antibiotic (such as doxycycline and should be given over a prolonged period of time (a minimum of one year.

  14. Anti-fibrin antibody binding in valvular vegetations and kidney lesions during experimental endocarditis.

    Yokota, M; Basi, D L; Herzberg, M C; Meyer, M W


    In Streptococcus sanguinis (sanguis) induced experimental endocarditis, we sought evidence that the development of aortic valvular vegetation depends on the availability of fibrin. Endocarditis was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by catheter placement into the left ventricle and inoculation of the bacteria. Fibrin was localized in the developing vegetation with 99mTechnetium (Tc)-labeled anti-fibrin antibody one or three days later. When rabbit anti-fibrin antibody was given intravenously on day 1, the mass of aortic valvular vegetation was significantly reduced at day 3; infusion of non-specific rabbit IgG showed no effect. The 99mTc-labeled anti-fibrin antibody also labeled kidneys that showed macroscopic subcapsular hemorrhage. To learn if the deposition of fibrin in the kidneys was a consequence of endocarditis required a comparison of farm-bred and specific pathogen-free rabbits before and after the induction of endocarditis. Before induction, the kidneys of farm-bred rabbits were labeled, but specific pathogen-free rabbits were free of labeling and signs of macroscopic hemorrhage. After 3 days of endocarditis, kidneys of 10 of 14 specific pathogen-free rabbits labeled with 99mTc-labeled anti-fibrin antibody and showed hemorrhage. Kidney lesions were suggested to be a frequent sequellae of S. sanguinis infective endocarditis. For the first time, fibrin was shown to be required for the continued development of aortic valvular vegetations.

  15. Clinical study on blood culture positive patients with infective endocarditis%感染性心内膜炎血培养阳性患者的临床研究

    朱素玲; 杜平; 徐穆民; 李进启; 欧志宏


    目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎血培养阳性患者的临床诊治特点,以指导临床预防及控制疾病。方法将2004年12月-2014年12月的182例感染性心内膜炎患者按血培养结果分为阳性组80例、阴性组102例,分析阳性患者临床表现、病原菌分布及耐药性;统计患者预后。结果两组患者基础病因均以先天性心脏病为主,主要临床特征均为发热,组间比较差异无统计学意义,阳性组患者心脏杂音出现较少、贫血出现较多,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);阳性组患者肾功能不全、脏器栓塞出现率较高,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者白细胞总数、血沉、C‐反应蛋白比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);阳性组患者病原菌以酿脓链球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、粪肠球菌为主,分别占50.0%、22.5%及11.3%,其对青霉素、红霉素、克林霉素均表现出较高的耐药性;阳性组患者死亡7例,病死率达8.8%;糖尿病史、致病菌类型、心脏感染部位为死亡独立危险因素(P<0.05)。结论感染性心内膜炎血培养阳性临床表现缺乏特异性,行实验室检查有助于明确病因。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical diagnostic features of blood culture positive patients with infec‐tive endocarditis so as to guide clinical prevention and control of the disease .METHODS From Dec .2004 to Dec . 2014 ,totally 182 cases of infective endocarditis patients were divided into two groups according to the results of blood culture .The positive group had 80 cases and the negative group had 102 cases .The clinical manifestations , pathogenic distribution and drug resistance of the positive group were analyzed .RESULTS The basic disease of the two groups was mainly congenital heart disease ,manifested as fever clinically .The differences were not signifi‐cant .Patients in positive

  16. Fosfomycin i.v. for Treatment of Severely Infected Patients


    Bacterial Infections; Bone Diseases, Infectious; Osteomyelitis; Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections; Meningitis, Bacterial; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Urinary Tract Infections; Respiratory Tract Infections; Pneumonia, Bacterial; Skin Diseases, Bacterial; Soft Tissue Infections; Intraabdominal Infections; Sepsis; Bacteremia; Endocarditis, Bacterial

  17. Successful treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction caused by septic embolus with the use of a thrombectomy catheter in infective endocarditis


    A 71-year-old patient suffered a transmural (ST elevation) myocardial infarction (MI) as a result of a septic embolus from an infected tissue aortic valve replacement. Following failed fibrinolysis, his MI was successfully treated with thrombectomy using an export catheter. He suffered bleeding complications following the administration of tenectaplase and required aortic valve and root replacement due to ongoing systemic embolisation.

  18. Successful treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction caused by septic embolus with the use of a thrombectomy catheter in infective endocarditis.

    Whitaker, John; Saha, Mrinal; Fulmali, Rahul; Perera, Divaka


    A 71-year-old patient suffered a transmural (ST elevation) myocardial infarction (MI) as a result of a septic embolus from an infected tissue aortic valve replacement. Following failed fibrinolysis, his MI was successfully treated with thrombectomy using an export catheter. He suffered bleeding complications following the administration of tenectaplase and required aortic valve and root replacement due to ongoing systemic embolisation.

  19. Delayed diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient

    Shailee Y. Shah


    Full Text Available Chronic Q fever caused by Coxiella burnetii is uncommon in the United States and is most often associated with infective endocarditis. We present a 52-year-old woman with a history of aortic valve replacement and rheumatoid arthritis treated with Etanercept with chronic Q fever manifesting as prosthetic valve infective endocarditis. Explanted valve tissue showed organisms confirmed to be C. burnetii by PCR (polymerase chain reaction sequencing. She subsequently reported consumption of unpasteurized cow milk which was the likely source of C. burnetii. She continues to do well 6 months after valve replacement on oral doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine.

  20. Q fever endocarditis with multi-organ complication: a case report

    ZHANG Li-juan; FU Xiu-ping; ZHANG Jing-shan


    @@ Qfever is a worldwide zoonosis and its agent is Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii).1 There are two forms of Q fever: acute and chronic. Acute Q fever is caused by primary infection with C. burnetii and its main clinical features are high fever, granulomatous hepatitis and atypical pneumonia.2,3 Acute Q fever is extremely prone to develop chronic infection if it is improperly treated. Endocarditis is the main characteristic of chronic Q fever and it accounts for 3% to 5% of all cases of endocarditis.4,5

  1. Left atrial wall dissection: a rare sequela of native-valve endocarditis.

    Saad, Marwan; Isbitan, Ahmad; Roushdy, Alaa; Shamoon, Fayez


    Left atrial wall dissection is a rare condition; most cases are iatrogenic after mitral valve surgery. A few have been reported as sequelae of blunt chest trauma, acute myocardial infarction, and invasive cardiac procedures. On occasion, infective endocarditis causes left atrial wall dissection. We report a highly unusual case in which a 41-year-old man presented with native mitral valve infective endocarditis that had caused left atrial free-wall dissection. Although our patient died within an hour of presentation, we obtained what we consider to be a definitive diagnosis of a rare sequela, documented by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography.

  2. 感染性心内膜炎患者表皮葡萄球菌感染状况及喹诺酮类药物耐药机制研究%Staphylococcus epidermidis infection status and quinolones resistance mechanism of patients with infective endocarditis

    李徽; 王春彤; 赵占秋; 郭晓红; 高春明


    OBJECTIVE To study Staphylococcus epidermidis infection status and quinolones resistance mechanism of patients with infective endocarditis ,so as to provide references for the selection of clinical antibacterial drugs of S .epidermis .METHODS A total of 132 cases patients with infective endocarditis in the hospital from Jan .2014 to Dec .2015 were selected .The blood specimens were collected ,pathogens were cultured and separated ,drug sensitive test was carried ,minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined ,drug resistance of S .epi-dermidis to quinolones were detected ,gyrA gene was amplified and sequenced by PCR ,and the results were ana-lyzed .RESULTS Totally 36 cases of patients occurred S .epidermidis infection in 123 cases of patients ,with the infection rate of 27 .27% .The drug resistant rate of S .epidermidis to norfloxacin was 100 .00% .The length of PCR amplification of gyrA gene product was 275bp .Some of the strains had multiple-point mutations at the same time .CONCLUSION S .epidermidis is a major pathogen causing infective endocarditis .For the majority of quino-lones is widespread drug resistance .Resistant S .epidermidis exists gyrA gene variation .Drug resistant S .epi-dermidis exists gyrA gene variant ,and this may be one of the mechanisms of resistance to quinolones .%目的:研究感染性心内膜炎患者表皮葡萄球菌感染状况及喹诺酮类药物耐药机制,为表皮葡萄球菌临床抗菌用药的选择提供参考。方法选取医院2014年1月—2015年12月诊治132例感染性心内膜炎患者,采集血液标本,培养分离感染病原菌,进行药敏试验及最低抑菌浓度(M IC )测定,检测表皮葡萄球菌对喹诺酮类抗菌药物的耐药性,同时采用PCR扩增gyrA基因及测序,分析结果。结果132例患者有36例分离出表皮葡萄球菌,感染率为27.27%;表皮葡萄球菌对诺氟沙星耐药率为100.00%;表皮葡萄球菌 PCR

  3. Kingella kingae septic arthritis with endocarditis in an adult.

    Elyès, Bouajina; Mehdi, Ghannouchi; Kamel, Ben Haj Slama; Hela, Zeglaoui; Imen, Ben Smida


    Kingella kingae is part of the nonpathogenic flora normally found in the oral cavity and pharynx. Recent reports have established that K. kingae can cause invasive infections in pediatric patients. Few cases have been described in adults, however. We report a case of K. kingae arthritis of the knee followed by endocarditis in a 59-year-old woman. Physicians and microbiologists should be alert to the possibility of K. kingae infection. K. kingae is easy to detect provided its specific culture requirements are taken into account. Synovial fluid inoculation into blood culture vials considerably increases the likelihood of K. kingae recovery in patients with septic arthritis.

  4. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Bartonella henselae: A Case Report of Molecular Diagnostics Informing Nonsurgical Management

    Bartley, Patricia; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A.


    Identifying the pathogen responsible for culture-negative valve endocarditis often depends on molecular studies performed on surgical specimens. A patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who had an aortic graft, a mechanical aortic valve, and a mitral anulloplasty ring presented with culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic graft infection. Research-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry on peripheral blood samples identified Bartonella henselae. Quantitative PCR targeting the16S-23S ribonucleic acid intergenic region and Western immunoblotting confirmed this result. This, in turn, permitted early initiation of pathogen-directed therapy and subsequent successful medical management of B henselae prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic graft infection. PMID:27844027

  5. 医疗机构相关性感染性心内膜炎的流行病学特点及其预后%Epidemiology and prognosis of healthcare-associated infective endocarditis

    张冰琰; 杨飞飞; 于洁; 周璞; 邵凌云; 张文宏; 翁心华; 张继明; 黄玉仙


    目的 描述医疗机构相关性感染性心内膜炎(HAIE)的特点,并分析引起感染性心内膜炎(IE)死亡的危险因素.方法 连续收集1992年至2012年复旦大学附属华山医院确诊的IE患者,分为HAIE和社区获得性IE(CAIE),比较HAIE和CAIE的流行病学及临床特点.采用Logistic回归筛选引起IE患者住院死亡的危险因素.结果 共纳入154例IE患者,其中126例为CAIE,占81.8%,28例为HAIE,占18.2%.HAIE与CAIE患者比较,发病前基础情况较差(Charlson合并症评分≥2分患者比例为35.7%比15.1%;x2=6.382,P=0.012),更多人造瓣膜置换史(35.7%比7.1%;x2=17.291,P<0.01),风湿性心脏病史(35.7%比10.3%; x2=11.631,P=0.002),免疫抑制剂或糖皮质激素治疗史(21.4%比4.0%;x2=10.530,P=0.005)和并发急性心力衰竭(17.9%比4.8%;x2=5.923,P=0.029).CAIE以草绿色链球菌感染为主(x2=5.489,P=0.019),而HAIE以葡萄球菌、肠球菌感染为主(50.1%),其他病原体感染也多见于HAIE(x2 =5.870,P=0.026).住院期间共死亡10例,住院病死率为6.5%.HAIE的病死率显著高于CAIE(17.9%比4.0%;x2 =7.278,P=0.018).多因素回归分析表明,未手术治疗(OR=0.081,95% CI:0.008~0.873,P=0.038)、低白蛋白水平(OR=0.754,95%CI:0.587~0.967,P=0.026)、脑卒中(OR=33.777,95%CI:2.751~414.743,P=0.006)和HAIE(OR=11.952,95%CI:1.045~136.709,P=0.046)是引起IE患者死亡的独立危险因素.结论 HAIE常见且流行病学特点有别于CAIE,可增加患者的病死率.%Objective To describe the characteristics of healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HAIE) and to investigate the risk factors of infective endocarditis (IE) case fatality.Methods All consecutive cases of definite IE diagnosed from 1992 to 2012 were collected and categorized into HAIE and community acquired IE (CAIE).The epidemiological and clinical features of HAIE and CAIE were compared.Risk factors for in-hospital case fatality were analyzed by Logistic regression

  6. Tropheryma whippelii as a cause of afebrile culture-negative endocarditis: the evolving spectrum of Whipple's disease.

    Richardson, David C; Burrows, Lori L; Korithoski, Bryan; Salit, Irving E; Butany, Jagdish; David, Tirone E; Conly, John M


    With the advent of molecular diagnostics culture-negative endocarditis caused by the organism Tropheryma whippelii is an increasingly described entity. We describe two patients with afebrile, culture-negative endocarditis caused by T. whippelii who had neither the gastrointestinal nor arthritic manifestations of Whipple's disease. Whipple's disease is a systemic illness caused by the organism Tropheryma whippelii and is typically characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, and arthropathy [Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2001;14:561-583; Medicine (Baltimore) 1997;76:170-184]. Whipple's endocarditis is relatively common in autopsy studies [Can. J. Cardiol. 1996;12:831-834] but has rarely been diagnosed before death. With the advent of molecular diagnostic tools such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Tropheryma whippelii as a cause of culture-negative endocarditis has become increasingly recognized [Clin. Infect. Dis. 2001;33:1309-1316; Ann. Intern. Med. 1999;131:112-116; Infection 2001;29:44-47; Ann. Intern. Med. 2000;132:595]. With this increased recognition has come the realization that Whipple's endocarditis can occur without other common manifestations of Whipple's disease [Ann. Intern. Med. 1999;131:112-116; Infection 2001;29:44-47; Ann. Intern. Med. 2000;132:595]. We report here two cases of Whipple's endocarditis without discrete febrile illness, gastrointestinal manifestations, or arthritic manifestations, diagnosed by PCR of resected valvular material.

  7. Clinical characteristics and drug sensitivity tests of 26 cases with Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis%金黄色葡萄球菌心内膜炎26例的临床特点及药敏分析

    曲云婷; 黄俊; 张黔桓; 吴书林


    Objectives To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with Staphylococcus aureus infective endoearditis (SAIE), and to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Methods Clinical data of twenty-six patients with SAIE from January 2006 to July 2011 in Guangdong General Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. All patients met the modified Duke criteria for definite infective endocarditis. Results A total of 26 patients, 21 men and 5 women, were evaluated. Main predisposing factors were predisposing heart condition (11 patients), intravenous drug abuse (5 patients). Common clinical manifestations were fever (100%, 26/26), neurological symptoms such as headache, paralysis or unconsciousness (34.6%, 9/26), congestive heart failure(23.1%, 6/26), subcutaneous hemorrhage or rash (23.1%, 6/26) and arthralgia (19.2%, 5/26). Of all staphylococcus aureus isolates, meticillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for 20.8 % (5/24) and the positive rate of β- lactamase was 100% (24/24). Overall rates of resistance were as follows; penicillin (96.1%, 25/26) > oxacillin(25.0%,6/24)> gentamicin (11.5%, 3/26) > teicoplanin (0,0/23),vancomycin (0,0/26), linezolid (0,0/23). Complications included cardiac and neurological complications (9 patients, respectively), multiple organ failure (2 patients), septic shock (1 patient) and pulmonary embolism (1 patient). Six patients (23.1%) died during hospitalization, and the causes were in turn neurological complications (3 patients), multiple organ failure (2 patients), septic shock (1 patient). Conclusions SAIE with various clinical manifestations are prone to neurological and cardiac complications and has a high mortality. Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to penicillin, however remain uniformly sensitive to glycopeptide antibiotics.%目的 分析金黄色葡萄球菌心内膜炎(Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis,SAIE)的临床及药敏特点.方法

  8. Visceral cat scratch disease with endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of the literature.

    Shasha, David; Gilon, Dan; Vernea, Fiona; Moses, Allon E; Strahilevitz, Jacob


    Infective endocarditis and hepatosplenic abscesses are rare manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), especially among immunocompetent adults. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with fever and abdominal pain was diagnosed with multiple abscesses in the spleen and the liver, as well as a mitral valve vegetation. PCR on spleen tissue was positive for Bartonella henselae. Prolonged treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin led to complete recovery. Review of the literature revealed 18 cases of hepatosplenic CSD in immunocompetent adults; the majority presented with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain. In most cases the causative organism was B. henselae and the pathological findings were necrotizing granulomas, similar to the pathological features in classic CSD. Concomitant endocarditis was diagnosed in one case. Because Bartonella is one of the leading pathogens of culture-negative endocarditis, we raise the question of whether a comprehensive evaluation for endocarditis is needed in cases of systemic CSD.

  9. Candida and cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: a case of lead and native aortic valve endocarditis and literature review.

    Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Vasher, Scott; Marmor, Meghan; Fine, Antonella B; Chan, Philip A; Tashima, Karen T; Lonks, John R; Kojic, Erna M


    Use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED), including permanent pacemakers (PPM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), has increased dramatically over the past two decades. Most CIED infections are caused by staphylococci. Fungal causes are rare and their prognosis is poor. To our knowledge, there has not been a previously reported case of multifocal Candida endocarditis involving both a native left-sided heart valve and a CIED lead. Here, we report the case of a 70-year-old patient who presented with nausea, vomiting, and generalised fatigue, and was found to have Candida glabrata endocarditis involving both a native aortic valve and right atrial ICD lead. We review the literature and summarise four additional cases of CIED-associated Candida endocarditis published from 2009 to 2014, updating a previously published review of cases prior to 2009. We additionally review treatment guidelines and discuss management of CIED-associated Candida endocarditis.

  10. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans endocarditis of a prosthetic valve and pacemaker in a 62-year-old woman.

    Sawant, Abhishek C; Srivatsa, Sanjay S; Castro, Luis J


    The bacterium Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is known to cause several nosocomial infections; however, it rarely causes endocarditis, which has a very high mortality rate. Early isolation of the infection source and prompt identification of the patient's antibiotic sensitivities are paramount if the infection is to be treated adequately. We present what is apparently only the second documented case of the successful eradication of bioprosthetic valve endocarditis that was caused by pacemaker lead infection with Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. A 62-year-old woman with multiple comorbidities presented with endocarditis of a recently placed bioprosthetic aortic valve. The infection was secondary to pacemaker lead infection. She underwent antibiotic therapy, but an unusual pattern of antibiotic resistance developed. Despite initially adequate therapy, the infection recurred because of virulence induced by antibiotic resistance. Emergent, high-risk surgical treatment involved excising the infected valve and removing the source of the infection (the pacemaker leads). The patient eventually recovered after prolonged antibiotic therapy and close vigilance for recurrent infection. In addition to the patient's case, we discuss the features of this bacteremia and the challenges in its diagnosis.

  11. [Endocarditis due to HACEK bacteria. A case report of endocarditis due to Kingella kingae].

    Lepori, M; Bochud, P Y; Owlya, R; Broccard, A; Schaller, M D


    Endocarditis is a common disease in hospital practice. Identification of the microorganism responsible for the valvular damage is essential to establish the prognosis and to determine the optimal antibiotic treatment. In some cases of endocarditis the diagnosis is laborious, especially when the responsible microorganism is difficult to detect using standard culture techniques. Here we report a case of native aortic valve endocarditis due to Kingella kingae, a Gram negative organism of the HACEK group. In addition we review 6 other cases of endocarditis caused by organism belonging to this group, treated in our hospital between 1983 and 1999. Epidemiological studies show that less than 5% of all cases of endocarditis are caused by organisms of the HACEK group. The diagnosis is often delayed because their slow growth on a standard culture medium. We describe clinical and microbiological characteristics of this group of endocarditis.

  12. Native Valve Endocarditis due to Ralstonia pickettii: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Orme, Joseph; Rivera-Bonilla, Tomas; Loli, Akil; Blattman, Negin N


    Ralstonia pickettii is a rare pathogen and even more rare in healthy individuals. Here we report a case of R. pickettii bacteremia leading to aortic valve abscess and complete heart block. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Ralstonia species causing infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess.

  13. Native Valve Endocarditis due to Ralstonia pickettii: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Joseph Orme


    Full Text Available Ralstonia pickettii is a rare pathogen and even more rare in healthy individuals. Here we report a case of R. pickettii bacteremia leading to aortic valve abscess and complete heart block. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Ralstonia species causing infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess.

  14. Interleukin 1 alpha increases the susceptibility of rabbits to experimental viridans streptococcal endocarditis

    J. Dankert; J. van der Werff; W. Joldersma; S.A.J. Zaat


    Major predisposing conditions for infective endocarditis (IE) are the presence of a cardiac platelet-fibrin vegetation and of circulating bacteria with relatively low susceptibility to microbicidal activity of blood platelets. The influence of proinflammatory conditions on development of IE is unkno

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis as a Complication of Toxocariasis-Associated Endomyocarditis With Fibrosis: A Case Report

    Kuenzli, Esther; Labhardt, Niklaus; Balestra, Gianmarco; Weisser, Maja; Zellweger, Michael J.; Blum, Johannes


    Complications associated with Toxocara canis infection are rare. We present a case of a patient with Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis as a complication of an endomyocardial fibrosis caused by T canis. The epidemiological, pathological, and clinical features of this rare complication are described here.

  16. Bilateral Acromioclavicular Septic Arthritis as an Initial Presentation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Endocarditis

    Neda Hashemi-Sadraei


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is infrequently associated with septic arthritis. Moreover, septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular (AC joint is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of Streptococcus pneumoniae IE in a patient who presented with bilateral AC joint septic arthritis and we review the literature on the topic.

  17. Platelet microbicidal activity is an important defense factor against viridans streptococcal endocarditis

    Krijgsveld, J; Joldersma, W; Zaat, SAJ; van der Werff, J.


    To study the role of platelet microbicidal activity in host defense against infective endocarditis (IE) due to viridans streptococci (VS), the susceptibility to platelet releasate of blood and oral VS isolates from patients with and without IE was compared. The influence of neutralization of platele

  18. Endocarditis tricuspid sub-aigue of post abortion: report of a case.

    Codjo, Léopold Houétondji; Savi de Tove, Kofi-Mensa; Hounkponou, Fanny Ahouingnan; Dohou, Serge Hugues Mahougnon; Houenassi, Martin Dàdonougbo


    Tricuspid infective endocarditis is rare and represents five to 10% of all cases of infective endocarditis. It occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users, and patients with central venous catheters or intracardiac probes. We report on the case of subacute tricuspid infective endocarditis in a girl of 17 years. She had no particular cardiovascular history. She was admitted for a persistent fever with cachexy, cough and thoracic pains, and right heart failure that appeared one month after a clandestine abortion. Transthoracic echocardiography found several vegetations on the tricuspid valve with massive tricuspid regurgitation. The chest X-ray showed bilateral excavated lung abscesses and condensation areas. Blood culture was not done and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was given. She was apyretic after 10 days. However, the massive tricuspid regurgitation with right heart failure persisted. She was discharged from hospital after 40 days of treatment. Although rare, infective endocarditis is one of the more serious complications of gynaecological procedures, particularly clandestine abortion. Therefore any young girl with persistent fever must be suspected of clandestine abortion.

  19. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula, an unusual complication of endocarditis

    Miao-yan CHEN; Dan-dan ZHONG; Zhi-qiang YING


    Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious disease. Aorta-to-right atrium fistula is a rare but very serious compli-cation of IE and predicts a higher mortality. This report describes a 50-year-old man with endocarditis, vegetation, perforation of noncoronary sinus, and formation of two aorta-to-right atrium fistulas with native valves detected by transthoracic echocardi-ography. This disease is lethal despite developments in cardiac imaging and antibacterial therapy. Early diagnosis, aggressive antibacterial therapy, and surgical treatment may improve the prognosis.

  20. Genotypic Diversity of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Causing Endocarditis: a Global Perspective▿

    Petti, Cathy A.; Simmon, Keith E.; Miro, Jose M.; Hoen, Bruno; Marco, Francesc; Chu, Vivian H.; Athan, Eugene; Bukovski, Suzana; Bouza, Emilio; Bradley, Suzanne; Fowler, Vance G.; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Gordon, David; Reinbott, Porl; Korman, Tony; Lang, Selwyn; Garcia-de-la-Maria, Cristina; Raglio, Annibale; Morris, Arthur J.; Plesiat, Patrick; Ryan, Suzanne; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Tripodi, Francesca; Utili, Riccardo; Wray, Dannah; Federspiel, J. Jeffrey; Boisson, K.; Reller, L. Barth; Murdoch, David R.; Woods, Christopher W.


    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were identified from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis—Microbiology, a large, multicenter, multinational consortium. A hierarchy of gene sequences demonstrated great genetic diversity within CNS from patients with definite endocarditis that represented diverse geographic regions. In particular, rpoB sequence data demonstrated unique genetic signatures with the potential to serve as an important tool for global surveillance. PMID:18367572

  1. Mitral valve endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a 14th week pregnant woman.

    Botta, Luca; Merati, Roberto; Vignati, Gabriele; Orcese, Carlo Andrea; De Chiara, Benedetta; Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale


    Infective endocarditis during pregnancy carries a high mortality risk, both for the mother and for the foetus and requires a multidisciplinary team in the management of complicated cases. We report our experience with a 39-year old patient, affected by an acute active mitral endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva at the 14th gestational week, strongly motivated to continue the pregnancy. Our patient successfully underwent mitral valve replacement with a normothermic high-flow cardiopulmonary bypass under continuous intraoperative foetal monitoring. Caesarean section occurred at the 38th gestational week. The delivery was uneventful and both the mother and child are doing well at the 16-month follow-up.

  2. Late prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis, an unusual complication

    Shivaprakasha S


    Full Text Available We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis in a patient who had undergone atrial septal defect closure and mitral valve replacement of the heart in 1978. He presented with pyrexia of unknown origin and congestive cardiac failure. Investigations revealed infective endocarditis of prosthetic valve in mitral portion. Blood culture samples grew C. hominis . The patient was empirically started on vancomycin and gentamicin intravenously and ceftriaxone was added after isolation of the organism. Though subsequent blood cultures were negative, patient remained in congestive cardiac failure and died due to complications.

  3. Multi-embolic ST-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to aortic valve endocarditis.

    Rischin, Adam P; Carrillo, Philip; Layland, Jamie


    We present the case of a 42 year-old woman admitted to hospital with ST-elevation myocardial infarction involving two separate coronary territories. Angiography revealed multi-embolic occlusions of her left anterior descending (LAD) and first obtuse marginal (OM1) coronary arteries. Transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) showed a lesion attached to the left cusp of the aortic valve and she was treated for infective endocarditis. We discuss the management issues raised from this unique patient, including reperfusion strategies in endocarditis-associated myocardial infarction.

  4. Ulcerative dermatitis and valvular endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus in a hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    Huynh, Minh; Carnaccini, Silvia; Driggers, Todd; Shivaprasad, H L


    An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners.

  5. Bartonella, a common cause of endocarditis: a report on 106 cases and review.

    Edouard, Sophie; Nabet, Cecile; Lepidi, Hubert; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier


    Bartonella spp. are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative endocarditis and have been increasingly reported. In this study, we included all patients retrospectively and prospectively diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis in our French reference center between 2005 and 2013. Our diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and microbiological findings, including serological and PCR results. To review the published literature, we searched all human Bartonella endocarditis cases published in the PubMed database between January 2005 and October 2013. We report here a large series of 106 cases, which include 59 cases that had not previously been reported or mentioned. Indirect immunofluorescence assays, Western blotting, and real-time PCR from total blood, serum, and valve tissue exhibited sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 33%, 36%, and 91%, respectively. The number of cases reported in the literature between 2005 and 2013 increased to reach a cumulative number of 196 cases. The number of cases reported in the literature by other centers is increasing more rapidly than that reported by our French reference center (P Bartonella endocarditis. We suggest that a positive PCR result from a cardiac valve or blood specimen, an IgG titer of ≥800 using an immunofluorescence assay, or a positive Western blot assay be considered major Duke criteria for Bartonella endocarditis. There is no real increase in the incidence of these infections but rather a better understanding and interest in the disease resulting from the improvement of diagnostic tools.

  6. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N


    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  7. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Tolga Türker


    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  8. Incidence and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis--a 10-year single-centre northern European experience.

    Asgeirsson, H; Thalme, A; Kristjansson, M; Weiland, O


    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Little has been published on the outcome and epidemiology of S. aureus endocarditis (SAE) in the twenty-first century. Our aim was to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcome of SAE in Stockholm, Sweden, and assess its incidence over time. Patients treated for SAE from January 2004 through December 2013 were retrospectively identified at the Karolinska University Hospital. Clinical data were obtained from medical records and the diagnosis was verified according to the modified Duke criteria. Of 245 SAE cases, 152 (62%) were left-sided and 120 (49%) occurred in intravenous drug users. The calculated incidence in Stockholm County was 1.56/100 000 person-years, increasing from 1.28 in 2004-08 to 1.82/100 000 person-years in 2009-13 (p 0.002). In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 9.0% (22/245) and 19.5% (46/236), respectively. Age (OR 1.06 per year) and female sex (OR 3.0) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality in multivariate analysis. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) was observed in 30 (12%) patients, and valvular surgery was performed during hospitalization in 37 (15%). In left-sided endocarditis the strongest predictors for surgery were severe valvular insufficiency (OR 8.9), lower age (OR 1.07 per year) and no intravenous drug use (OR 10.7), and for CNS involvement lower age (OR 1.04 per year). In conclusion we noted low mortality, low CNS complication rate, and low valvular surgery frequency associated with SAE in our setting. The incidence was high and increased over time. The study provides an update on the outcome and epidemiology of SAE in the twenty-first century.

  9. Endocarditis lenta-patient survived septic shock: a case report

    Amra Macić Džanković


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is defi ned as an infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. Its intracardiac effects include severe valvular insuffi ciency, which may lead to intractable congestive heart failure and myocardialabscesses. This disease still carries a poor prognosis and a high mortality.A severe case of infective endocarditis with its complications is presented. A man with aortic prosthetic valve due to earlier aortic stenosis and corrected aortal coarctation and implanted pacemaker presentedwith prolonged unexplained fever, malaise, sweating, weight loss (15 kg/4 months and lumbar pain. He was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics prior IE diagnosis was considered. Echocardiogram showedaortic vegetations and possible periaortal abscess formation. Nonspecifi c infl ammation parameters were high positive. Cultures were constantly negative. His condition had deteriorated suddenly, and he had presentedwith worsening of cutaneous vasculitis, subacute glomerulonephritis and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. This patient survived with residual bilateral necrosis of the feet andtoxic peroneal paresis. At the end transthoracic echocardiogram showed enlarged heart chambers, LV mild dilated and concentric hypertrophy with ejection fraction about 40%, degenerative postinfl ammatory mitralvalve changes, mild mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation, postinfl ammatory aortic root fi brosis and moderate aortic valve stenosis (AVPG max 50,9 mmHg, AVPG mean 24 mmHg with no pericardial effusion. Initial suspicion of Q fever was defi nitely excluded by serological testing showing nonspecifi c IgM positivity,probably rheumatoid factor related.

  10. RVOT mural and mitral valve endocarditis: A case report.

    Jawad, Maadh; Cardozo, Shaun


    Mural endocarditis is a very rare condition. This entity involves bacterial growth on cardiac walls. In addition, concomitant valvular endocarditis, along with mural endocarditis, is an extremely rare combination. The diagnosis of mural endocarditis is difficult and requires more advanced cardiac imaging, such as a transesophageal echocardiogram. The differential diagnoses of mural masses include vegetations, thrombi, metastasis, and benign and malignant tumors. We present a rare and unusual case of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with findings of both right ventricular outflow tract mural endocarditis and valvular endocarditis involving the mitral valve.

  11. Endocarditis infecciosa activa: 152 casos

    Lucía R. Kazelian


    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad de baja incidencia que en las últimas décadas mostró modificaciones respecto de su presentación, posibilidad diagnóstica y tratamiento. A pesar de estos avances, la mortalidad hospitalaria sigue siendo muy elevada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa activa y su relación con la mortalidad hospitalaria a lo largo de 16 años. Se realizó un registro prospectivo entre 1994 y 2010 de pacientes ingresados con endocarditis. Se analizaron características clínicas, evolución y tratamiento y se registraron los eventos intrahospitalarios. Ingresaron 152 pacientes, 64.5% varones, edad 45 ± 16 años, las causas más frecuentes de cardiopatía de base fueron: congénita 32 (21% y reumática 20 (13.2%. Los motivos de internación fueron síndrome febril 116 (76.3% e insuficiencia cardíaca 61 (40.1%. Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 106 (69.7% de los casos, el más frecuente fue Streptococcus viridans. El ecocardiograma mostró vegetaciones en 123 (80.9% de los pacientes y 88 (57.8% presentaron complicaciones durante su internación, siendo la más frecuente la insuficiencia cardíaca. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en 96 (63.1% de los casos, fundamentalmente por insuficiencia cardíaca en 66. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 46 (30.2%. El desarrollo de complicaciones en la internación, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria, mientras que la presencia de vegetaciones resultó un predictor independiente de mejor supervivencia. La identificación temprana de estos predictores descriptos podría ayudar a mejorar los resultados.

  12. Brucella Endocarditis Caused By Brucella Melitensis

    Suzan Saçar


    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease endemically seen in Turkey, which occurs with various clinical findings. It can lead to complications affecting many systems. Endocarditis is an infrequent, but serious complication of brucellosis.The aim of this case presentation is to remind that endocarditis can be a complication of brucellosis and if is undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, progresses fatal in a high rate.

  13. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  14. Analysis of diagnosis and treatment of 8 cases of maintenance hemodialysis patients with infectious endocarditis%维持性血液透析患者并发感染性心内膜炎8例诊疗分析

    储虹; 李旭东; 徐向君


    目的:总结讨论维持性血液透析患者并发感染性心内膜炎的诊治方法。方法:回顾性分析8例维持性血液透析并发感染性心内膜炎患者除加强透析外,予积极抗感染、调整干体重、营养支持等综合治疗。结果:治愈1例,显效4例,死亡3例。结论:维持性血液透析并发感染性心内膜炎是一种严重的致命性疾病,治疗困难,死亡率高。%Objective:To summary and discuss the diagnosis and treatment method of maintenance hemodialysis patients with infectious endocarditis.Methods:8 cases of maintenance hemodialysis patients with infectious endocarditis were retrospectively analyzed.In addition to strengthen the dialysis,they were given the comprehensive treatment,such as positive anti infection, adjustment of the dry weight,nutrition support and so on.Results:1 case was cured;4 cases were excellent;3 cases were death. Conclusion:The maintenance hemodialysis combined with infectious endocarditis is a serious and deadly diseases.Its treatment is difficult.Its mortality is high.

  15. Risk factors and prognosis of neurological complications in patients with infective endocarditis%感染性心内膜炎合并神经系统并发症的危险因素及预后

    王辉; 郭立琳; 方理刚; 崔丽英; 苗齐; 李太生; 朱文玲; 方全


    Objective To identify risk factors of neurological complications (NC) in left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) and to assess its impact on the outcome and cardiac surgery.Methods Clinical data,NC,treatment and outcome of patients with definite left-sided IE admitted to our hospital during 2001-2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Results A total of 308 patients with age of (45.3 ± 15.9) years were enrolled.Among them,65 (21.1%) experienced at least one NC.Independent risk factors associated with NC were large vegetation (HR =1.681,95% CI 1.013-2.788,P =0.044),non-neurologic embolism (HR=1.820,95%CI 1.068-3.100,P =0.028),mitral valve involvement (HR =1.888,95% CI 1.089-3.274,P =0.024),Staphylococcus aureus infection (HR =2.054,95% CI 1.097-3.846,P =0.044),and uncontrolled infection (HR =4.680,95% CI 2.563-8.546,P < 0.001).During a median follow-up for 17 months,70 (22.7%) patients died.NC had a negative impact on long-term outcome (HR =2.292,95% CI 1.274-4.122,P =0.006).Valve replacement surgery was performed in 156 (50.6%)patients,which was associated with a lower rate of 1-year IE-related death (HR =0.160,95% CI 0.063-0.405,P <0.001).Among patients with NC,valve replacement surgery was associated with lower rates of in-hospital mortality and 1-year IE-related mortality (14.8% vs 5.3%,18.5% vs 73.7%,respectively,P < 0.001).Conclusions Independent risk factors of NC include large vegetation,nonneurologic embolism,mitral valve involvement,Staphylococcus aureus infection,and uncontrolled infection.Neurologic complications link to the poor prognosis in patients with left-sided IE.Valve surgery is considered as a safe procedure and improves the survival.%目的 明确左心感染性心内膜炎(IE)发生神经系统并发症(NC)的危险因素及其对心脏手术和预后的影响.方法 分析2001-2012年入院并确诊左心IE患者的临床资料、NC、治疗及预后.结果 共入选308例患者,年龄(45.3 ±15.9)岁,65例(21.1

  16. Acute disseminated histoplasmosis and endocarditis



    Full Text Available Acute disseminated histoplasmosis is a frequent condition in HIV carriers. Thirty-five cases of endocarditis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum have been reported in international literature, and all these descriptions correspond to a context of subacute disseminated histoplasmosis. This paper presents the case of a HIV-positive patient with fever, dyspnea, weight loss, vomiting and polyadenopathies to whom histoplasmosis was diagnosed following blood-cultures and isolation of the agent responsible for cutaneous lesions, and in whom aortic-valve vegetations were found during an echocardiogram. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and had a good outcome; subsequent echocardiograms showed no vegetations. Literature on the subject is reviewed, with special emphasis on diagnosis and treatment of previously described cases.

  17. Endocarditis in Greenland with special reference to endocarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Madsen, Rasmus Gaarde; Ladefoged, Karin; Kjaergaard, Jens Jørgen


    with infectious endocarditis from the Patient Registry in Greenland in the 11-year period 1995-2005. RESULTS: There were 25 cases of endocarditis, giving an incidence rate of 4.0/100,000 per year. Twenty-four percent of these cases were caused by Streptoccous pneumonia, which is significantly more frequent than...

  18. A Misdiagnosed Case of Subacute Infective Endocarditis Presented with Only Fever and the Literature Review%单纯以发热为表现的亚急性感染性心内膜炎误诊分析及文献复习

    黎平祝; 王越越; 班雨; 孟庆义


    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of infectious endocarditis, and to reduce the misdiagnosis rate. Methods Clinical data of a patient with subacute infectious endocarditis in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed and related literatures were also reviewed. Results The 28-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital for prolonged low-grade fever for more than two months and with the past history of artificial abortion about one week before the onset. The patient had been diagnosed and received treatment in different local hospitals. She was examined with la-boratory and imaging testing in a local institution, but could not be definitively diagnosed. The patient received treatment of antibiotics and abatement of fever, but her symptoms had no mitigation. Upon admission to our hospital, the patient improved in all the relevant tests, and results appeared normal. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for 3 day. The patient still had a fever. Clinicians suspended antibiotic therapy for 2 days for fear of suspected drug fever, but the patient's symptoms had no remission. Echocardiography was measured again and showed valve excrescence, valvular regurgitation. The repeated blood culture was streptococcus. So definite diagnosis of subacute infective endocarditis was made. After treatment of teicoplanin for 3 days, and the patient's temperature returned to normal. The patient was discharged 13 days after treatment. Conclusion The clinical manifestations of infectious endocarditis are diversified, and apt to be misdiagnosed. Clinicians should consider the disease when patients suffer from long-term low-grade fever but laboratory and imaging testing results are normal. In order to make accurate diagnosis of the disease, clinicians should focus on the heart valves when making echocardiography.%目的:探讨感染性心内膜炎( infectious endocarditis, IE)的临床特点、诊断及治疗方法,

  19. Endocarditis

    ... CRP), or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) A routine echocardiogram or a transesophageal echocardiogram to look at the heart valves Treatment You ... on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research ...

  20. Endocarditis

    ... Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. Accessed April 11, ... Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. Accessed April 11, ...

  1. Calcific left atrium:A rare consequence of endocarditis

    Giuseppe; Dattilo; Carmelo; Anfuso; Matteo; Casale; Vincenza; Giugno; Lorenzo; Camarda; Natascia; Laganà; Gianluca; Di; Bella


    Usually, cardiac calcifications are observed in aortic and mitral valves, atrio-ventricular plane, mitral annulus, coronary arteries, pericaridium(usually causing constrictive pericarditis) and cardiac masses. Calcifications of atrial walls are unusual findings that can be identified only using imaging with high spatial resolution, such as cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography. We report a case of a 43-year-old patient with no history of heart disease that underwent cardiac evaluation for mild dyspnoea. The echocardiogram showed a calcific aortic valve and a hyper-echogenic lesion located in atrio-ventricular plane. The patient was submitted to cardiac magnetic resonance and to computed tomography imaging to better characterize the localization of mass. The clinical features and location of calcified lesion suggest an infective aetiology causing an endocarditis involving the aortic valve, atrioventricular plane and left atrium. Although we haven’t data to support a definite and clear diagnosis, the clinical features and location of the calcified lesion suggest an infective aetiology causing an endocarditis involving the aortic valve, atrio-ventricular plane and left atrium. The patient was followed for 12 mo both clinically and by electrocardiogram and echocardiography without worsening of clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are ideal methods for identifying and following over time patients with calcific degeneration in the heart.

  2. Contribution of the collagen adhesin Acm to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in experimental endocarditis.

    Nallapareddy, Sreedhar R; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E


    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant opportunist causing difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, including endocarditis, but there are no reports experimentally demonstrating E. faecium virulence determinants. Our previous studies showed that some clinical E. faecium isolates produce a cell wall-anchored collagen adhesin, Acm, and that an isogenic acm deletion mutant of the endocarditis-derived strain TX0082 lost collagen adherence. In this study, we show with a rat endocarditis model that TX0082 Deltaacm::cat is highly attenuated versus wild-type TX0082, both in established (72 h) vegetations (P Acm the first factor shown to be important for E. faecium pathogenesis. In contrast, no mortality differences were observed in a mouse peritonitis model. While 5 of 17 endocarditis isolates were Acm nonproducers and failed to adhere to collagen in vitro, all had an intact, highly conserved acm locus. Highly reduced acm mRNA levels (>or=50-fold reduction relative to an Acm producer) were found in three of these five nonadherent isolates, including the sequenced strain TX0016, by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, indicating that acm transcription is downregulated in vitro in these isolates. However, examination of TX0016 cells obtained directly from infected rat vegetations by flow cytometry showed that Acm was present on 40% of cells grown during infection. Finally, we demonstrated a significant reduction in E. faecium collagen adherence by affinity-purified anti-Acm antibodies from E. faecium endocarditis patient sera, suggesting that Acm may be a potential immunotarget for strategies to control this emerging pathogen.

  3. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus capitis: report of 4 cases

    Wada Yuko


    Full Text Available Abstract Although Staphylococcus capitis is considered to be a rare causative organism for prosthetic valve endocarditis, we report 4 such cases that were encountered at our hospital over the past 2 years. Case 1 was a 79-year-old woman who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve and presented with fever 24 days later. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed an annular abscess in the aorto-mitral continuity and mild perivalvular regurgitation. We performed emergency surgery 5 days after the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis was made. Case 2 was a 79-year-old woman presenting with fever 40 days after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Transesophageal echocardiography showed vegetation on the valve, and she underwent urgent surgery 2 days after prosthetic valve endocarditis was diagnosed. In case 3, a 76-year-old man presented with fever 53 days after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Vegetation on the prosthetic leaflet could be seen by transesophageal echocardiography. He underwent emergency surgery 2 days after the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis was made. Case 4 was a 68-year-old woman who collapsed at her home 106 days after aortic and mitral valve replacement with bioprosthetic valves. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was started immediately after massive mitral regurgitation due to prosthetic valve detachment was revealed by transesophageal echocardiography. She was transferred to our hospital by helicopter and received surgery immediately on arrival. In all cases, we re-implanted another bioprosthesis after removal of the infected valve and annular debridement. All patients recovered without severe complications after 2 months of antibiotic treatment, and none experienced re-infection during 163 to 630 days of observation. Since the time interval between diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis and valve re-replacement ranged from 0 to 5 days, early surgical removal

  4. Citrobacter freundii induced endocarditis in a yearling colt.

    Guidi, Eleonora E A; Thomas, Aurélie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Smith, Agnès Benamou


    Endocarditis is a rare pathology in horses and the clinical signs can be misleading. We describe the clinical, echocardiographic, and pathological features of Citrobacter freundii induced bacterial endocarditis in a horse. This bacterium has never been reported before as an agent of vegetative endocarditis in the horse.

  5. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))


    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  6. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of unexpected extracardiac septic embolisms in patients with suspected cardiac endocarditis

    Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Nanni, Cristina; Morigi, Joshua James; Ambrosini, Valentina; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Graziosi, Maddalena; Rapezzi, Claudio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Cardiology, Bologna (Italy); Trapani, Filippo; Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Infective Diseases, Bologna (Italy); Ferretti, Alice; Rubello, Domenico [Azienda Ospedaliera S. Maria della Misericordia, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, Neuroradiology, Medical Physics, Rovigo (Italy)


    Acute infective endocarditis is a potentially life-threatening disease. Its outcome strongly depends on systemic embolization and extracardiac infections. When present, these conditions usually lead to a more aggressive therapeutic approach. However, the diagnosis of peripheral septic embolism is very challenging. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has proven to be accurate for the detection of inflammatory diseases and occult infections. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of extracardiac embolisms in the evaluation of patients with suspected valvular endocarditis (VE). Seventy-one patients with suspected infective endocarditis, enrolled between June 2010 and December 2012, underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with the standard procedure on a dedicated PET/CT scanner. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. Of the 71 patients with suspicion of infective endocarditis, we found unexpected extracardiac findings in 17 patients (24 %) without any clinical suspicion. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. PET/CT detected unexpected extra sites of infection in 24 % of cases, leading to changes in therapeutic management in a very relevant percentage of patients. These findings may have important therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  7. Endocardite infecciosa em câmaras direitas: discrepância entre evolução clínica e ecocardiogr��fica: relato de caso Right-side infective endocarditis: discrepancy between clinical and echocardiographic evolution: case report

    Bruno Ramos Nascimento


    Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa é uma patologia relativamente rara na prática clínica, e, apesar dos avanços em seu diagnóstico e tratamento, sua morbi-mortalidade ainda é significativa. Muitas vezes é difícil a identificação de suas complicações e a conduta frente a elas, ocorrendo com freqüência a dissociação entre a evolução clínica e os achados de exames complementares - principalmente ecocardiográficos. A decisão clínica torna-se ainda mais difícil frente às manifestações atípicas da doença, como a endocardite de câmaras direitas. Este é o relato de um caso raro de endocardite de câmaras direitas em uma paciente renal crônica, cuja piora dos achados ecocardiográficos se opunha à evolução clínica favorável. Esta situação pode suscitar dificuldade quanto aos critérios para indicação cirúrgica e a segurança do tratamento conservador.Infective endocarditis is a relatively rare disease in clinical practice, with significant morbidity and mortality despite the improvements on its diagnosis and treatment. It is often difficult to identify its complications and define strategies for them. Dissociation between the clinical evolution and the findings from complementary tests (especially echocardiographic tests is common. Clinical decisions become even more difficult when there are atypical manifestations of the disease, such as right-side endocarditis. This report is about a rare case of right-side endocarditis in a patient with chronic renal disease, in which there was a contradiction between worsening of the echocardiographic findings and clinical improvement. This situation may lead to difficulties regarding the criteria for indicating surgery and the safety of conservative clinical treatment.

  8. Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Libman-Sacks Endocarditis in a Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve.

    Sladek, Eric H; Accola, Kevin D


    This report describes one the first cases of antiphospholipid syndrome and Libman-Sacks endocarditis in a bioprosthetic valve. A redo mitral valve replacement was carried out owing to early deterioration of the prior valve. Initially it was considered secondary to rheumatic heart disease; however, pathology analysis and autoimmune workup revealed antiphospholipid syndrome with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. We believe certain populations with mitral valve stenosis may have an underlying antiphospholipid syndrome. As a result, there needs to be a lower threshold for identifying this disease.

  9. Is endocarditis prophylaxis for dental procedures necessary?

    Taubert, Kathryn A; Wilson, Walter


    Objectives Our purpose is to address whether antimicrobial prophylaxis is necessary before certain dental procedures for patients at increased risk for acquiring infective endocarditis (IE). Methods We reviewed recommendations for IE prophylaxis made by the American Heart Association (AHA) from 1995 to the present time. We also compared and contrasted the current recommendations from the AHA, European Society of Cardiology (ESC), United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and a consortium of French organisations. We further reviewed recent papers that have observed the incidence of IE since these current recommendations were published. Results Beginning in the 1990s, questions were raised about the advisability of using antimicrobial prophylaxis before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. Various groups in Europe and the US were increasingly aware that there were not any clinical trials showing the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such prophylaxis. In the early to mid-2000s, the AHA, ESC and French consortium published guidelines recommending restriction of prophylaxis before dental procedures to patients with highest risk for developing IE and/or the highest risk for an adverse outcome from IE. The NICE guidelines eliminated recommendations for prophylaxis before dental procedures. Studies published after these changes were instituted have generally shown that the incidence of IE has not changed, although two recent reports have observed some increased incidence (but not necessarily related to an antecedent dental procedure). Conclusion A multi-national randomised controlled clinical trial that would include individuals from both developed and developing countries around the world is needed to ultimately define whether there is a role for antibiotic prophylaxis administered before certain dental procedures to prevent IE.

  10. Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update

    Maria Musso


    Full Text Available Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE.

  11. Fungal pericarditis and endocarditis secondary to porcupine quill migration in a dog.

    Costa, Ana; Lahmers, Sunshine; Barry, Sabrina L; Stanton, James; Stern, Joshua A


    A dog evaluated for acute onset of neurologic clinical signs was discovered to have a porcupine quill traversing the left atrium with fungal endocarditis. The dog had been quilled by a porcupine one month prior to presentation and had had several quills removed from the thoracic inlet and left dorsal shoulder areas. A new murmur was identified during the initial examination. Echocardiographic changes consistent with mitral valve endocarditis were identified, in addition to a linear, hyperechoic structure in the left atrium. A thoracic CT identified a possible mediastinal migrating foreign body tract. The foreign body was surgically removed and confirmed as a porcupine quill. Routine aerobic cultures of blood and pericardial samples resulted in growth of presumptive candidal organisms. PCR amplification and sequencing of samples from pericardial cultures identified the presence of a fungal organism, Lodderomyces elongisporus. The neurologic signs were attributed to a left-sided central vestibular lesion presumed secondary to an embolic event from infective endocarditis. After 3 months of antimicrobial and antifungal therapy the valvular changes had markedly improved and the clinical signs resolved. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of fungal endocarditis secondary to an intracardiac foreign body in a dog.

  12. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled granulocytes with single-photon emission tomography imaging in the detection and follow-up of recurrence of infective endocarditis complicating transvenous endocardial pacemaker

    Ramackers, J.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU E. Herriot, Lyon (France); Kotzki, P.O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Couret, I. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Messner-Pellenc, P. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Davy, J.M. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Rossi, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France)


    In this case report we present a patient with a recurrence of subacute bacterial infectious endocarditis (IE) complicating a transvenous endocardial pacemaker. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled granulocytes were used for diagnosis and follow-up under medical treatment only, since surgical removal of the pacemaker lead was ruled out because of the general condition of the patient. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging displayed the active lesion previously suspected on echography. At the end of antibiotic therapy, SPET indicated a favourable disease outcome whereas echocardiographic abnormalities remained nearly unchanged. The medical treatment had eradicated the IE, and the patient did well for more than 1 year thereafter. (orig.)

  13. [Optimization of microbiological diagnosis of endocarditis].

    Boukadida, Jalel


    The endocarditis stays a dangerous illness. The positive microbiological diagnosis has a precious contribution for a successful hold in charge of the patient. To optimise the microbiological diagnosis of the endocarditis, essentially it comes back to respect the maximum rules of good practice of the blood cultures and the microbiological cardiac valve exams. During the last decades, techniques of molecular biology came to remedy insufficiencies of the conventional microbiology. We arrange rich microbiological data to guide the therapist while waiting the current microbiological data of the patient.

  14. Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis severity in rabbits is reduced by IgG Fabs interfering with aggregation substance.

    Patrick M Schlievert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is a significant cause of infective endocarditis, an infection of the heart endothelium leading to vegetation formation (microbes, fibrin, platelets, and host cells attached to underlying endothelial tissue. Our previous research determined that enterococcal aggregation substance (AS is an important virulence factor in causation of endocarditis, although endocarditis may occur in the absence of AS production. Production of AS by E. faecalis causes the organism to form aggregates through AS binding to enterococcal binding substance. In this study, we assessed the ability of IgGs and IgG Fabs against AS to provide protection against AS+ E. faecalis endocarditis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When challenged with AS+ E. faecalis, 10 rabbits actively immunized against AS+ E. faecalis developed more significant vegetations than 9 animals immunized against AS⁻E. faecalis, and 9/10 succumbed compared to 2/9 (p<0.005, suggesting enhanced aggregation by IgG contributes significantly to disease. IgG antibodies against AS also enhanced enterococcal aggregation as tested in vitro. In contrast, Fab fragments of IgG from rabbits immunized against purified AS, when passively administered to rabbits (6/group immediately before challenge with AS+E. faecalis, reduced total vegetation (endocarditis lesion microbial counts (7.9 x 10⁶ versus 2.0 x 10⁵, p = 0.02 and size (40 mg versus 10, p = 0.05. In vitro, the Fabs prevented enterococcal aggregation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data confirm the role of AS in infective endocarditis formation and suggest that use of Fabs against AS will provide partial protection from AS+E. faecalis illness.

  15. Eustachian valve endocarditis: a rare localization of right side endocarditis. A case report and review of the literature

    Terranova Antonio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right-sided endocarditis occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users, in patients with pacemaker or central venous lines and in patients with congenital heart disease. The vast majority of cases involve the tricuspid valve. Eustachian valve endocarditis is an uncommon disease with similar signs and symptoms of the tricuspid valve endocarditis. A series of only 16 cases of eustachian valve endocarditis are reported in the literature. Case Presentation We present a case of a 25-year old woman with intravenous drug abuse who had a staphylococcus aureus tricuspid valve endocarditis associated to eustachian valve endocarditis. Transthoracic echocardiography, as first line examination, showed the vegetations on tricuspid and eustachian valve. Conclusion Our case describe an unusual location of right side endocarditis in a intravenous drug abuser. In our case, in accord with other cases described in the literature, transthoracic echocardiography disclosed eustachian valve endocarditis. Antimicrobial management is not altered by the recognition of eustachian valve endocarditis. Antibiotic treatment and duration of eustachian endocarditis depends on the isolated organism and is similar to antibiotic therapy used in native valve endocarditis.

  16. Contribution of the enterococcal surface protein Esp to pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium endocarditis.

    Heikens, Esther; Singh, Kavindra V; Jacques-Palaz, Karen D; van Luit-Asbroek, Miranda; Oostdijk, Evelien A N; Bonten, Marc J M; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L


    The enterococcal surface protein Esp, specifically linked to nosocomial Enterococcus faecium, is involved in biofilm formation. To assess the role of Esp in endocarditis, a biofilm-associated infection, an Esp-expressing E. faecium strain (E1162) or its Esp-deficient mutant (E1162Δesp) were inoculated through a catheter into the left ventricle of rats. After 24 h, less E1162Δesp than E1162 were recovered from heart valve vegetations. In addition, anti-Esp antibodies were detected in Esp-positive E. faecium bacteremia and endocarditis patient sera. In conclusion, Esp contributes to colonization of E. faecium at the heart valves. Furthermore, systemic infection elicits an Esp-specific antibody response in humans.

  17. Medical therapy of a left-sided native valve endocarditis with neurologic sequela.

    Ng, Choon S; Mohamad, Shawal; Maskon, Oteh


    Infective endocarditis could present with a plethora of signs and symptoms. Among the rarity of its presentation is acute confusion associated with neurological deficits, mimicking stroke especially in the young population. We report a case of a 33-year-old young man with acute right-sided hemiparesis and confusion 2 weeks after  tooth extraction. The brain CT and MRI was consistent with new infarction on the left middle and anterior cerebral arteries' territory. Echocardiography unveiled the existence of posterior mitral valve leaflet vegetation. Blood culture grew Group B beta-haemolytic Streptococcus, sensitive to penicillin. Two weeks of intravenous gentamicin with 6 weeks of intravenous benzylpenicillin were administered. In this case report, we highlight the importance of recognition of infective endocarditis in a young patient presenting with cerebrovascular accident following tooth extraction.

  18. First case of Streptococcus oligofermentans endocarditis determined based on sodA gene sequences after amplification directly from valvular samples.

    Matta, Matta; Gousseff, Marie; Monsel, Fabien; Poyart, Claire; Diebold, Benoît; Podglajen, Isabelle; Mainardi, Jean-Luc


    We report the first case of infection due to Streptococcus oligofermentans, which is a recently described oral Streptococcus species. It was responsible for the endocarditis and left forearm abscess of a 43-year-old woman. Identification was made using molecular techniques performed directly from valvular and surgical samples.

  19. Successful surgical treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis on the ventricular rerouting patch after a Rastelli operation.

    Shiokawa, Yuichi; Nakashima, Atsuhiro; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Tominaga, Ryuji


    We report a very rare case of successful surgical treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis on the Dacron patch utilized for ventricular rerouting in a Rastelli operation. Vegetations were found on the right side of the patch associated with a large laceration. The patient underwent removal of the patch followed by reventricular rerouting and replacement of the right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit. The postoperative course was uneventful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of postoperative infective endocarditis on this location.

  20. A misinterpreted case of aorta prosthesis endocarditis: remember the phenomenon of microbubbles.

    Lerche, Christian Johann; Haugan, Ketil Jørgen; Reimers, Jesper Irving; Ihlemann, Nikolaj


    A 17-year-old male with a history of newly implanted mechanical valve at the aortic position, presented with fever, rigors, and painful cutaneous abscesses on his lower extremities and was suspected for infective endocarditis. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed a vegetation-like structure following the movement of the mechanical heart valve (MHV), which eventually proved to be a product of degassing microbubbles (MB).

  1. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas


    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad...

  2. Pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis.

    Barraud, Olivier; Hidri, Nadia; Ly, Kim; Pichon, Nicolas; Manea, Petrus; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Garnier, Fabien


    We report the case of a pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. Antibiotic treatment was ineffective, and the pacemaker had to be removed. B. cereus was cultured from several blood samples and from the pacemaker electrodes. This case underlines the contribution of the rpoB gene for Bacillus species determination.

  3. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas


    -spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra...

  4. Gemella bergeriae endocarditis in a boy.

    Logan, Latania K; Zheng, Xiaotian; Shulman, Stanford T


    We describe the first pediatric case of Gemella bergeriae endocarditis in a 15-year-old boy with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia who presented with weight loss, chills, and cold intolerance. Blood cultures revealed Gram-positive cocci that failed to type with Lancefield group antiserum. The identification of the organism was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  5. 妊娠合并感染性心内膜炎伴赘生物的临床处理及母儿结局%Clinical treatment of infective endocarditis with vegetations in pregnant women and the outcomes of gestation

    褚黎; 张军; 李燕娜; 孟旭; 刘岩岩


    Objective To investigate the clinical treatment of infective endocarditis with vegetations in pregnant women and the outcomes of the gestation. Methods Nine cases of pregnant women diagnosed as infective endocarditis with vegetations in Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2001 to October 2015 were enrolled in retrospective analysis. Consultations were held by doctors from department of obstetrics, anesthesiology, cardiology, cardial surgery and extracorporeal circulation to decide the individualized treatment plan for the 9 cases of pregnant women after admissions. Clinical treatments including general treatment, anti-infection treatment, cardiac surgery, and termination of pregnancy surgery were completed through collaboration among related departments. The clinical characters, therapeutic regimens, maternal and neonatal outcomes of the 9 cases were analyzed. Results (1)Clinical characters: the ages of the 9 cases of pregnant women were from 25 to 36 years old. The onset gestational ages were from 19 to 36 weeks. Clinical symptoms: fever, cough, sputum and progressive anemia were the main symptoms. Patients had cyanosis of lips, could not lie on the back or even be orthopnea, when heart failure happened. Heart murmur was audible and splenomegaly was touched in physical examination. Blood cultures were positive. Basic heart disease types: 7 cases of congenital heart diseases included 2 cases of aortic insufficiency, 1 case of mitral insufficiency, 1 case of patent ductus arteriosus, 1 case of right ventricular outflow tract stenosis and 2 cases of ventricular septal defect.Two cases of rheumatic heart diseases included 1 case of mitral stenosis, 1 case of mitral stenosis after artificial disc changed and jammed. According to endocardial vegetations attached position there were 3 cases of mitral valve vegetations, 2 cases of pulmonary valve vegetations, 3 cases of aortic vegetations and 1 case of right ventricular outflow tract neoplasm

  6. Scintigraphic detection of acute experimental endocarditis with the technetium-99m labelled glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist DMP444

    Oyen, W.J.G.; Boerman, O.C.; Corstens, F.H.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brouwers, F.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barrett, J.A. [DuPont Pharmaceutical Company, Radiopharmaceutical Division, North Billerica, MA (United States); Verheugt, F.W.A. [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ruiter, D.J. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meer, J.W.M. van der [Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands)


    Bacterial endocarditis is an important clinical problem that may result in persistent bacteraemia and irreversible cardiac damage. Since endocarditis is characterized by aggregation of activated platelets, fibrin and bacteria, we studied DMP444, a technetium-99m labelled high-affinity antagonist of the GP IIb/IIIa receptor that is expressed on activated platelets. In seven Beagle dogs (11-15 kg), the left ventricle was catheterized via the right carotid artery. One hour later, 5 x 10{sup 7} colony forming units of Staphylococcus aureus were injected intracardially. Half an hour later, the catheter was removed. Two extra dogs underwent a complete sham procedure. One day after the intervention, five infected and the two non-infected dogs were injected with 37 MBq/kg {sup 99m}Tc-DMP444 and two infected dogs with 37 MBq/kg {sup 99m}Tc-IgG (used as a non-specific control agent) and imaged up to 4 h after injection. Samples were obtained for tissue counting, microbiology and histology. From 1 to 2 h post injection onward, there was clear focal accumulation of DMP444 in the aortic valve region when endocarditis was present, and this accumulation increased with time. The non-infected and the {sup 99m}Tc-IgG injected dogs showed only persisting blood pool activity without any focal abnormality. At 4 h post injection, the in vivo valve-to-blood pool ratios were 1.87{+-}0.18 in endocarditis, 1.01{+-}0.05 in non-infected controls and 1.09{+-}0.02 in {sup 99m}Tc-IgG injected dogs (P<0.05). It is concluded that targeting activated platelets with the {sup 99m}Tc-labelled GP IIb/IIIa antagonist DMP444 allows a final diagnosis of experimental bacterial endocarditis within 4 h owing to high, specific and fast in vivo uptake. (orig.)

  7. The clinical experience of cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatric congenital heart disease complicated by infective endocarditis%小儿先心病并感染性心内膜炎手术治疗中的体外循环技术

    汪力; 皮名安; 龚立; 王涛


    目的 总结2002年1月至2011年4月作者收治的15例先天性心脏病合并感染性心内膜炎( infective endocarditis,IE)患儿手术治疗中的体外循环经验(cardiopulmonary bypass,CPB).方法 15例患儿均采用浅低温(28℃~30℃)、较高流量[2.4~3.2 L/(min·m2)]灌注.手术方式为畸形矫治(ASD/VSD修补、右室流出道重建)、赘生物摘除、瓣膜整形或置换术.心肌保护采用4℃冷含血晶体保护液顺行灌注.结果 15例患儿CPB总时间85~ 180 min,主动脉阻断时间40~120 min,均顺利脱离CPB.均获痊愈.1例术后2年死于肺部感染及心功能衰竭.结论 CPB中HCT及胶体渗透压的良好控制、采用平衡超滤结合改良超滤、肝素化后监测ACT、CPB中加入敏感抗生素等对患儿术后恢复至关重要.%Objective To summarize retrospectively the clinical experience of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)in pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD) complicated by infective endocarditis (IE) from January 2002 to April 2011(15 cases). Methods CPB was performed with Shallow low temperature(28℃ ~30℃) and high flow rate [2. 4 ~3.21/(min·M2) ] perfusion. Operation method for Correcting the heart abnormality (ASD/VSD repaired., Right ventricular outflow reconstructed), excrescence excision, valve plastic or replacement. 4℃ cold crystalloid with blood was perfused by antegrade perfusion for myocardial protection. Result-s Among the total time CPB 85 ~ 180 min, aortic blocking time 40 ~ 120 min, 15 cases of patients were smoothly disconnected from CPB. All cases recovered completely. 1 case died in lyear due to heart failure. Conclusion The important factors in CPB are the good adjustment in colloid osmotic pressure( COP) and hem-atocrit( HCT) ,Balance ultrafiltration( BUF) and modified ultrafiltration( MUF) .monitor of activated clotting time (ACT) .sensitive antibiotics used in priming liquid.

  8. Genome-wide Screening Identifies Phosphotransferase System Permease BepA to Be Involved in Enterococcus faecium Endocarditis and Biofilm Formation.

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Huebner, Johannes; Singh, Kavindra V; Zhang, Xinglin; van Schaik, Willem; Wobser, Dominique; Braat, Johanna C; Murray, Barbara E; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Leavis, Helen L


    Enterococcus faecium is a common cause of nosocomial infections, of which infective endocarditis is associated with substantial mortality. In this study, we used a microarray-based transposon mapping (M-TraM) approach to evaluate a rat endocarditis model and identified a gene, originally annotated as "fruA" and renamed "bepA," putatively encoding a carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease (biofilm and endocarditis-associated permease A [BepA]), as important in infective endocarditis. This gene is highly enriched in E. faecium clinical isolates and absent in commensal isolates that are not associated with infection. Confirmation of the phenotype was established in a competition experiment of wild-type and a markerless bepA mutant in a rat endocarditis model. In addition, deletion of bepA impaired biofilm formation in vitro in the presence of 100% human serum and metabolism of β-methyl-D-glucoside. β-glucoside metabolism has been linked to the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans that are exposed on injured heart valves, where bacteria attach and form vegetations. Therefore, we propose that the PTS permease BepA is directly implicated in E. faecium pathogenesis.

  9. Clinical manifestations of Kingella kingae infections: case report and review.

    Morrison, V A; Wagner, K F


    A patient with antecedent coccidioidal pulmonary cavitary disease who developed an empyema due to Kingella kingae prompted our analysis of the literature regarding this unusual bacterial pathogen. Formerly classified among other genera and considered a nonpathogen, K. kingae has been increasingly recognized as a cause of human infection. While the most commonly diagnosed infections due to this organism are endocarditis and septic arthritis, there have also been isolated reports of bacteremia, diskitis, abscesses, meningitis, and oropharyngeal infections. The treatment of choice is penicillin, to which K. kingae strains are uniformly susceptible. Recognition of the potential pathogenicity of this microorganism in appropriate clinical settings will probably result in more prompt and specific therapy.

  10. Culture Negative Infective Endocarditits: a Changing Paradigm

    Daly, A


    Traditionally, the modified Duke\\'s criteria, based primarily on positive blood cultures, is used to diagnose Infective Endocarditis (IE). However, reports demonstrate that 31% of cases are diagnosed as Culture Negative Infective Endocarditis (CNIE)1. Consequently, empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed to cover unidentified organisms and, as a result, antibiotic therapy may be compromised. Molecular diagnostic techniques aid with identifying causative organisms in cases of CNIE and we question if the increasing use of such technologies will change the local epidemiology of CNIE. We present the first case of Tropheryma whipplei Infective Endocarditis (TWIE) reported in Ireland.

  11. Tratamento ambulatorial da endocardite bacteriana estreptocócica Tratamiento clínico de la endocarditis bacteriana estreptocócica Ambulatory treatment of streptococcal bacterial endocarditis

    Sirio Hassem Sobrinho


    Full Text Available A endocardite bacteriana é uma grave doença infecciosa cujo tratamento é tradicionalmente feito com o paciente internado. recebendo medicação intravenosa. A possibilidade de tratamento domiciliar ou ambulatorial. em casos estritamente selecionados. é atraente tanto do ponto de vista social quanto do econômico. Apresentamos o relato de 6 pacientes com diagnóstico de endocardite bacteriana por Streptococcus. tratados parcial ou integralmente em regime ambulatorial. Todos evoluíram sem complicações e com resolução completa do quadro infeccioso.La endocarditis bacteriana es una severa enfermedad infecciosa cuyo tratamiento se hace tradicionalmente con el paciente internado, recibiendo medicación intravenosa. La posibilidad de tratamiento domiciliar o clínico, en casos estrictamente seleccionados, es atractivo desde el punto de vista social como del económico. Presentamos el caso clínico de 6 pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis bacteriana por streptococcus, tratados parcial o integralmente en régimen ambulatorio. Todos evolucionaron sin complicaciones y con resolución completa del cuadro infeccioso.Bacterial endocarditis is a severe infectious disease. of which treatment is traditionally carried out in hospitalized patients through intravenous medication. The possibility of at-home or ambulatory treatment. for stringently selected cases. is attractive from the social as well as from the economic point of view. We report 6 patients with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis caused by Streptococcus. treated partially or completely on an outpatient basis. All of them evolved without complications and presented complete resolution of the infection.

  12. Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE due to Streptococcus gordonii

    Raffaella Battista


    Full Text Available Endocarditis is an inflammatory state of the endothelium that promotes thrombus formation and tissue damage on the surface of heart valves. Recent studies have reported endocarditis mortality rates ranging from 12% to 46% (2008. The Streptococcus gordonii is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity. It is a component of the microbial communities responsible of plaque formation, associated with dental caries and also regarded as the main causative agent in the development of subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE.

  13. Current readings: Status of surgical treatment for endocarditis.

    Neely, Robert C; Leacche, Marzia; Shah, Jinesh; Byrne, John G


    Valve endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality and requires a thorough evaluation including early surgical consultation to identify patients who may benefit from surgery. We review 5 recent articles that highlight the current debates related to best treatment strategies for valve endocarditis. Recent publications have focused on neurologic risk assessment, timing of surgery, and prognostic factors associated with native and prosthetic valve endocarditis. The initial patient assessment and management is best performed by a multidisciplinary team. Future investigations should focus on identifying surgical candidates early and the outcomes affected by replacement valve choice in both native and prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  14. Cutaneous manifestations of marantic endocarditis.

    Kimyai-Asadi, A; Usman, A; Milani, F


    A 70-year-old patient with a history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was referred for evaluation of necrotic toes. The patient had a history of several cerebrovascular accidents during the previous month. Initially, she developed sudden-onset left upper extremity weakness which, over the ensuing 4 days, progressed to complete left-sided weakness. This was followed by the development of acute dysarthria. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed moderate left ventricular hypertrophy, several vegetations on her tri-leaflet aortic valve associated with moderate aortic regurgitation, and a large right atrial thrombus with a mobile component. Bubble studies failed to reveal any septal defects. The patient's electrocardiogram was nonspecific. As serial blood cultures were negative despite fevers of up to 39.8 degrees C, the patient was treated with a 6-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone, ampicillin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin for a presumed diagnosis of culture-negative endocarditis. Fungal cultures of the blood were negative. The patient, however, progressed and developed several necrotic toes. Physical examination was significant for ischemic changes of the left first, second, third, and fifth toes, as well as the right first and second toes. Diffuse subungual splinter hemorrhages in the toenails, numerous 2-4-mm palpable purpuric papules on the lower extremities, and nontender hemorrhagic lesions of the soles were also noted. Peripheral and carotid pulses were intact and no carotid bruits were heard. Cardiopulmonary and abdominal examinations were unremarkable. Neurologic examination revealed a disoriented, dysarthric patient with left central facial nerve paralysis, as well as spasticity, hyperactive reflexes, and diminished strength and sensation in the left upper and lower extremities. A left visual field defect and left hemineglect were also present. The patient's last brain computerized tomogram revealed areas of low attenuation consistent with

  15. Surgical management of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the current era: A review.

    Yong, Matthew S; Coffey, Sean; Prendergast, Bernard D; Marasco, Silvana F; Zimmet, Adam D; McGiffin, David C; Saxena, Pankaj


    The incidence of isolated tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is increasing. Medical management is the mainstay of treatment but surgical intervention is required in a subset of patients. Surgical treatment options include valve excision and replacement or valve reconstruction. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane library to identify articles to be included in this review of surgical outcomes. References of selected articles were crosschecked for other relevant studies. Surgical management of tricuspid valve endocarditis can be achieved with satisfactory outcomes. However, the optimal indication and timing of surgery remain unclear, and the frequent association with intravenous drug use complicates management. Repair techniques are preferable though there is no clear evidence supporting one method over another.

  16. Actinomycotic endocarditis of the eustachian valve: a rare case and a review of the literature.

    Kottam, Anupama; Kaur, Ramanjit; Bhandare, Deepti; Zmily, Hammam; Bheemreddy, Suchita; Brar, Harmandeep; Herawi, Mehsati; Afonso, Luis


    Eustachian valve endocarditis caused by Actinomyces species is extremely rare. A literature review revealed only one reported case-caused by Actinomyces israelii in an intravenous drug abuser. Our patient, a 30-year-old woman who at first appeared to be in good health, presented with fever, a large mobile mass on the eustachian valve, and extensive intra-abdominal and pelvic masses that looked malignant. Histopathologic examination of tissue found in association with an intrauterine contraceptive device revealed filamentous, branching microorganisms consistent with Actinomyces turicensis. This patient was treated successfully with antibiotic agents. In addition to presenting a new case of a rare condition, we discuss cardiac actinomycotic infections in general and eustachian valve endocarditis in particular: its predisposing factors, clinical course, sequelae, and our approaches to its management.

  17. Differences between endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis and Enterococcus spp. and their association with colorectal cancer.

    Corredoira, J; García-País, M J; Coira, A; Rabuñal, R; García-Garrote, F; Pita, J; Rodríguez-Macías, A; Blanco, M; Lopez-Roses, L; López-Álvarez, M J; Alonso-García, M P


    Streptococcus bovis group and Enterococcus spp. share phenotypic characteristics and intestinal habitat. Both have been associated with endocarditis and colorectal neoplasm (CRN). We studied all cases of endocarditis diagnosed between 1988 and 2014 in our centre and caused by S. bovis (109, 48.8 % of the bacteremia) and by Enterococcus spp. (36, 3.4 % of the bacteremia). Patients were seen until death or during a long-term follow-up, in order to rule out a concomitant CRN. The 109 cases of S. bovis endocarditis (SbIE) compared with the 36 caused by enterococci showed: a higher proportion of males (91 % vs. 72 %, p=0.005), more multivalvular involvement (28 % vs. 6 %, p=0.004), embolic complications (44 vs. 22 %, p=0.02) and colorectal neoplasm (64 % vs. 25 %, p=0.001). SbIE showed fewer co-morbidities (32 vs. 58 %, p=0.005), and less frequently urinary infection source (0 vs. 25 %, p=0.001) and healthcare-related infection (2 vs. 44 %, p=0.001). A total of 123 patients were followed up for an extended period (mean: 65.9 ± 57.5 months). During the follow-up, 6 of 28 (21 %) cases with enterococcal endocarditis and 43 of 95 (45.2 %, p=0.01) cases with SbIE developed a new CRN. These neoplasiae appeared a mean of 60.4 months later (range 12-181 months). Among the 43 cases with SbIE and CRN, 12 had had a previously normal colonoscopy and 31 had had a previous CRN and developed a second neoplasm. Cases of SbIE present important differences with those caused by Enterococcus spp. Colonoscopy must be mandatory both in the initial evaluation of SbIE, as during the follow-up period.

  18. [Consensus document for the treatment of bacteremia and endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistent Staphylococcus aureus. Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica].

    Gudiol, Francisco; Aguado, José María; Pascual, Alvaro; Pujol, Miquel; Almirante, Benito; Miró, José María; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, María de Los Angeles; Soriano, Alex; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Vallés, Jordi; Palomar, Mercedes; Tornos, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio


    Bacteremia and endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are prevalent and clinically important. The rise in MRSA bacteremia and endocarditis is related with the increasing use of venous catheters and other vascular procedures. Glycopeptides have been the reference drugs for treating these infections. Unfortunately their activity is not completely satisfactory, particularly against MRSA strains with MICs > 1 microg/mL. The development of new antibiotics, such as linezolid and daptomycin, and the promise of future compounds (dalvabancin, ceftobiprole and telavancin) may change the expectatives in this field.The principal aim of this consensus document was to formulate several recommendations to improve the outcome of MRSA bacteremia and endocarditis, based on the latest reported scientific evidence. This document specifically analyzes the approach for three clinical situations: venous catheter-related bacteremia, persistent bacteremia, and infective endocarditis due to MRSA.

  19. Apyrexic Brucella melitensis aortic valve endocarditis.

    al-Mudallal, D S; Mousa, A R; Marafie, A A


    The case of a young shepherd with Brucella melitensis aortic valve endocarditis is presented. His illness ran an afebrile course and was also complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), nephritis, hepatitis and peritonitis, all of which responded well to supportive measures and a combination of tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and amikacin sulphate. The fact that even the most severe case of brucellosis can present without fever is stressed.

  20. Brucella Endocarditis Caused by Brucella Melitensis

    Akdag, Serkan; Akyol, Aytac; Simsek, Hakki; Sahin,Musa; Yaman, Mehmet


    Abstract. We present a rare case of brucella endocarditis, forming a vegetation on the mitral valve. The definitive diagnosis has been made with clinical suspicion, positive serology, the demonstration of the vegetation with the echocardiography and with the production from the multiple blood culture of Brucella melitensis and from the excised valve. Our patient has been successfully treated with specific antibiotherapy and the surgery of replacement of mitral valve. Our aim in presenting the...

  1. Commensal microbiota contributes to chronic endocarditis in TAX1BP1 deficient mice.

    Satoko Nakano

    Full Text Available Tax1-binding protein 1 (Tax1bp1 negatively regulates NF-κB by editing the ubiquitylation of target molecules by its catalytic partner A20. Genetically engineered TAX1BP1-deficient (KO mice develop age-dependent inflammatory constitutions in multiple organs manifested as valvulitis or dermatitis and succumb to premature death. Laser capture dissection and gene expression microarray analysis on the mitral valves of TAX1BP1-KO mice (8 and 16 week old revealed 588 gene transcription alterations from the wild type. SAA3 (serum amyloid A3, CHI3L1, HP, IL1B and SPP1/OPN were induced 1,180-, 361-, 187-, 122- and 101-fold respectively. WIF1 (Wnt inhibitory factor 1 exhibited 11-fold reduction. Intense Saa3 staining and significant I-κBα reduction were reconfirmed and massive infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and edema formation were seen in the area. Antibiotics-induced 'germ free' status or the additional MyD88 deficiency significantly ameliorated TAX1BP1-KO mice's inflammatory lesions. These pathological conditions, as we named 'pseudo-infective endocarditis' were boosted by the commensal microbiota who are usually harmless by their nature. This experimental outcome raises a novel mechanistic linkage between endothelial inflammation caused by the ubiquitin remodeling immune regulators and fatal cardiac dysfunction.

  2. Are valve repairs associated with better outcomes than replacements in patients with native active valve endocarditis?

    Zhao, Dong; Zhang, Benqing


    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether valve replacement was associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates than valve repair in patients with native active valve endocarditis. Altogether 662 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Traditionally, valve replacement has been the standard therapy for valve endocarditis when surgical treatment is indicated. But now valve repair is increasingly used as an alternative, which may avoid disadvantages of anticoagulation, lower the risk of prosthetic infection and improve postoperative survival. To compare outcomes of these two treatments between studies can be difficult because most of related papers contain raw data on prosthetic valve endocarditis or healed endocarditis, which were excluded from our manuscript. Studies only analysing the outcomes of either of these treatments without the comparison of valve repair and replacement were also excluded. Finally, seven papers were identified. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology 2006 valvular guidelines recommended that mitral valve repair should be performed instead of replacement when at all possible. In three of the seven studies, there were significant differences between valve repair and replacement in long-term survival. One study found that aortic valve repair offered better outcomes in freedom from reoperation at 5 years (P = 0.021) and in survival at 4 years (repair vs replacement 88 vs 65%; P = 0.047). One study reported that there was improved event-free survival at 10 years in the mitral valve repair group (P = 0.015), although there was more previous septic embolization in this group. In one study, early and late mortality

  3. Bacterial endocarditis due to eikenella corrodens: A case report

    Mahapatra A


    Full Text Available Of all the causes of bacterial endocarditis, HACEK group consisting of Haemophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella Kingae are rare causative agents. We report a case of bacterial endocarditis by E. corrodens, which is one of the members of the HACEK group.

  4. Native Pulmonic Valve Endocarditis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Aaron M. Mulhall


    Full Text Available Endocarditis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rare entity often involving prosthetic valves and rarely native valves. Pulmonic valve endocarditis secondary to any organism is rare. We report the first case of native pulmonic valve endocarditis secondary to M. fortuitum and a literature review of native valve M. fortuitum endocarditis.

  5. [News on Bartonella infections].

    Melter, Oto


    The review specifies 25 Bartonella species known so far and describes epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bartonella infections which are classified using patient symptomatology including culture-negative endocarditis. Microbiological diagnosis and significant principles of antibiotic therapy of Bartonella infections are also stated.

  6. Endocarditis-associated Brain Lesions in Slaughter Pigs

    Karstrup, C.C.; Jensen, H.E.; Aalbæk, B.;


    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs). The br......Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs......). The brains of 20 slaughter pigs with spontaneously arising LSVE and 11 controls were examined by sectioning half of a formalin-fixed brain into 4mm slices for histological examination. The aetiology of the endocarditis was determined by bacteriological and, in some cases, by fluorescence in...

  7. Marantic Endocarditis Associated with Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Series

    Gayle S. Jameson


    Full Text Available Marantic endocarditis, otherwise known as nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE, is a well-documented phenomenon due to hypercoagulability from an underlying cause. It has been associated with a variety of inflammatory states including malignancy. Surprisingly, although hypercoagulability is often seen in patients with pancreatic cancer, marantic endocarditis has rarely been reported antemortem in this population. We report three cases of marantic endocarditis in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. In two instances, the patients’ neurological symptoms preceded the diagnosis of advanced pancreatic cancer. Health care professionals should be alert to the possibility of marantic endocarditis in any patient with cancer, especially pancreatic cancer, who presents with symptoms of neurological dysfunction or an arterial thrombotic event. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with heparin, unfractionated or low molecular weight, may prevent catastrophic CNS events and decrease morbidity in patients with pancreatic cancer and other malignancies.

  8. Coronary Artery Fistula-Associated Endocarditis: Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature.

    Wang, Fang; Cranston-D'Amato, Hope; Pearson, Anthony


    Coronary artery fistulae (CAF) are rare congenital anomalies and reported to have an incidence of 0.1-0.2% of all coronary angiograms. An association between fistulae and nonatherosclerotic coronary artery aneurysms is even more rare. In childhood, patients are mostly asymptomatic; however, patients older than 20 years old may present with signs of infective endocarditis, myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, and aneurysm rupture. CAF are typically identified by coronary angiography; however, there are some limited studies showing that transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) can also be useful in identifying CAF. Here we report two cases of endocarditis secondary to congenital coronary artery fistulae draining into either a cardiac cavity or a coronary sinus, which were detected by TEE. Vegetations were found at the site of the fistulae drainage. Management for young patients is either percutaneous or surgical intervention. For elderly patients with multiple comorbidities, conservative treatment is another option. In these two cases, treating endocarditis with proper antibiotics and supportive treatment, the patients' conditions improved significantly.

  9. Prosthetic valve endocarditis with valvular obstruction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Pabilona, Christine; Gitler, Bernard; Lederman, Jeffrey A; Miller, Donald; Keltz, Theodore N


    Patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for open-heart surgery might be candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Streptococcus viridans endocarditis that caused prosthetic valve obstruction after TAVR. A 77-year-old man who had undergone TAVR 17 months earlier was admitted because of evidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a substantial increase in the transvalvular peak gradient and mean gradient in comparison with an echocardiogram of 7 months earlier. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.5-cm vegetation obstructing the valve. Blood cultures yielded penicillin-sensitive S. viridans. The patient was hemodynamically stable and was initially treated with vancomycin because of his previous penicillin allergy. Subsequent therapy with levofloxacin, oral penicillin (after a negative penicillin skin test), and intravenous penicillin eliminated the symptoms of the infection. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a relatively new procedure, and sequelae are still being discovered. We recommend that physicians consider obstructive endocarditis as one of these.

  10. Current status of taxonomic groups of oral streptococci in endocarditis. Can virulence factors discriminate between endocarditis and non-endocarditis strains?

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Gutschik, Ernö;


    streptococcal isolates from the oral cavities of periodontal patients without endocarditis. Subsequently, surface hydrophobicity was assessed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, production of extracellular dextran was determined by precipitation, and non-specific proteolytic activity was evaluated...

  11. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric;


    We present a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), fever, pericardial effusion and a mitral valve vegetation. (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) showed very high accumulation of the isotope at the mitral valve. The patient underwent...... cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult...

  12. TEMA 14-2015:Endocarditis Infecciosa

    Ramírez Cisneros, Benjamín; Sedó Mejía, Giovanni; Hütt Centeno, Ericka


    La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad con elevada morbimortalidad. Afecta principalmente a personas con cardiopatías degenerativas, adultos mayores y antecedente de cardiopatía reumática. El endotelio valvular o endocárdico es naturalmente resistente a la colonización de bacterias, por lo que debe de haber una lesión y formación de trombo que es luego colonizado por microorganismos, generando lo que se conoce como una vegetación. Los agentes causales más aislados incluyen los estreptoc...

  13. An Uncommon Presentation of Brucella Endocarditis Masquerading as Neurobrucellosis

    Agrawal, Neha; Mathew, Thomas; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Kudaravalli, Pujitha


    Brucella endocarditis is a rare but a severe complication of brucellosis, observed in less than 2% of cases. It is the main cause responsible for up to 80% of deaths in brucellosis. Herein, we present a case of brucella endocarditis that developed on a native aortic valve, but presented to us with fever for several months and acute neurological symptoms. This case report signifies the importance of considering brucella endocarditis as one of the differentials in patients presenting with Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) and Central Nervous System (CNS) manifestations.

  14. Adult patent ductus arteriosus complicated by endocarditis and hemolytic anemia.

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza


    An adult with a large patent ductus arteriosus may present with fatigue, dyspnea or palpitations or in rare presentation with endocarditis. The case illustrated unique role of vegetation of endocarditis in hemolytic anemia in adult with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Despite treatment of endocarditis with complete course of appropriate antibiotic therapy and normality of C- reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocytosis and wellness of general condition, transthoracic echocardiography revealed large vegetation in PDA lumen, surgical closure of PDA completely relieved hemolysis, and fragmented red cell disappeared from peripheral blood smear. The 3-month follow-up revealed complete occlusion of PDA and abolishment of hemolytic anemia confirmed by clinical and laboratory examination.

  15. Brucella endocarditis – A series of five case reports

    Raju, I. Tammi; Solanki, Rachana; Patnaik, A.N.; Barik, R.C.; Kumari, N.R.; Gulati, A.S.


    Endocarditis due to brucellosis is considered a rare occurrence involving native, congenital and prosthetic valves. The diagnosis needs high degree of suspicion in culture negative endocarditis especially in those with history of exposure to farm animals. A positive culture in a susceptible patient confirms the diagnosis with 91% sensitivity. An early diagnosis and prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics can restore the valve structural integrity with minimal damage. Here we present a series of five cases of culture proven Brucella endocarditis (four native valves, one prosthetic valve) and this report discusses the diagnostic and management issues involved. PMID:23438616

  16. Estudos sobre thrombose cardiaca e endocardite parietal de origem não valvular On thrombosis of heart and on mural endocarditis of non-valvular origin

    C. Magarinos Torres


    , the «myocardite subaigüe primitive», of which JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN published in 1901 the first cases, and ROQUE and LEVY, another, in 1914. The «myocardite subaigüe primitive» was, wrongly, in our opinion, included by WALZER in the syndrome of myocardia of LAUBRY and WALZER, considering that, in the refered cases of JOSSERAND and GALLAVARDIN and in that of ROQUE and LEVY, there are described rather considerable inflammatory changes in the myocardium and endocardium. The designation «myocardia» was however especially created by LAUBRY and WALZER for the cases of heart failure in which the most careful aetiologic inquiries and the most minucious clinical examination were unable to explain, and in which, yet, the post-mortem examination did not reveal any anatomical change at all, it being forcible to admit, then, a primary functional change of the cardiac muscle fibre. This special cardiac condition is thoroughly exemplified in the observation that WALZER reproduces on pages 1 to 7 of his book. 4.-The clinical picture of the subacute parietal endocarditis is that of heart failure with oedemas, effusion in the serous cavities and passive chronic congestion of the lungs, liver, kideys and spleen associated, to that of an infectious disease of subacute course. The fever is rather transient oscillating around 99.5 F., being intersected with apyretic periods of irregular duration; it is not dependent on any evident extracardiac septic infection. In other cases the fever is slight, particularly in the final stage of the disease, when the heart failure is well established. The rule is to observe then, hypothermy. The cardiac-vascular signs consist of enlargement of the cardiac dullness, smoothing of the cardiac sounds, absence of organic murmurs and accentuated and persistent tachycardia up to a certain point independent of fever. The galloprhythm is present, in most cases. The signs of the pulmonary infarct are rather expressed by the aspect of the sputum, which

  17. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro


    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.


    Feldman, Liat Feraru; Hersh, Ziv; Birk, Einat; Amir, Gabi; Wertheimer, George


    Endocarditis is an uncommon presentation of Kingella kingae infection in children. A previously healthy 17 month old child was referred to our emergency department for evaluation of fever lasting eleven days, aphthous stomatitis and a new systolic murmur. Within a few hours of admission, antibiotic therapy was initiated for a presumptive diagnosis of bacteremia and within 24 hours after admission, gram negative coccobacilli were growing in the blood culture. In addition, echocardiography demonstrated a mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta with a mobile vegetation. The presumptive diagnosis of Kingella kingae endocarditis was made. Further evaluation by MRI revealed frontal and occipital cerebral infarcts. Due to the presence of presumed septic emboli in conjunction with progressive left ventricular dysfunction, the child was urgently taken to the operating room where aggressive debridement of the infected tissue was performed and the aortic aneurysm was repaired. The patient had an uneventful post-operative course. This case emphasizes the need for a high index of suspicion when evaluating children with community acquired infection. In addition, it also demonstrates the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of K. kingae endocarditis.

  19. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    Karolina Ceglowska


    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA (LogMAR was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS. Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed elevated D-dimer concentration, increased total number of neutrophils, high C-reactive protein concentration, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Procalcitonin concentration, platelet count, and body temperature were within normal ranges. A blood culture was ordered and yielded Streptococcus mitis and intravenous antibiotics were started immediately. The patient started complaining of chest and left calf pain. The systemic examination revealed infective endocarditis accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve and paravalvular abscess formation. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with mechanical aortic valve implantation. After recovery, the patient’s visual acuities improved fully. Control ophthalmic examination, including SD-OCT, showed no abnormalities.

  20. Corynebacterium propinquum: A Rare Cause of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis

    Umair Jangda


    Full Text Available Nondiphtheria Corynebacterium species are often dismissed as culture contaminants, but they have recently become increasingly recognized as pathologic organisms. We present the case of a 48-year-old male patient on chronic prednisone therapy for rheumatoid arthritis with a history of mitral valve replacement with prosthetic valve. He presented with fever, dizziness, dyspnea on exertion, intermittent chest pain, and palpitations. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed two medium-sized densities along the inner aspect of the sewing ring and one larger density along the atrial surface of the sewing ring consistent with vegetation. Two separate blood cultures grew Corynebacterium propinquum, which were sensitive to ceftriaxone but highly resistant to vancomycin and daptomycin. The patient completed a course of ceftriaxone and repeat TEE study and after 6 weeks demonstrated near complete resolution of the vegetation. To our knowledge, this case represents the first in the literature of Corynebacterium propinquum causing prosthetic valve endocarditis. The ability of these organisms to cause deep-seated systemic infections should be recognized, especially in immune-compromised patients.