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Sample records for infection surveillance system

  1. Automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. AIM: To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA...

  2. Annual Surveillance Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016...and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical... System (CHCS) microbiology data identified P. aeruginosa infections. These infections were matched to HL7- formatted CHCS pharmacy data to assess

  3. Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016...and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical...formatted Composite Health Care System (CHCS) microbiology data identified Acinetobacter species infections. These infections were matched to HL7

  4. Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Infections in the Military Health System, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Infections in the Military Health System, 2015 NMCPHC-EDC...identified within the Military Health System (MHS). Several data sources were linked to assess a variety of descriptive and clinical factors related to...Acinetobacter species. Health Level 7 (HL7) formatted microbiology data were used to identify infections. Infections were matched to HL7-formatted

  5. Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016...incidence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report is a calendar year (CY) 2016 update to the CY...characteristics, and prescription practices for C. difficile infection (CDI) among Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries. Literature review did

  6. Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Rates in the United States, 1992-1998: The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System Basic SSI Risk Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert P. Gaynes; David H. Culver; Teresa C. Horan; Jonathan R. Edwards; Chesley Richards; James S. Tolson; The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System

    2001-01-01

    By use of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System's surgical patient surveillance component protocol, the NNIS basic risk index was examined to predict the risk of a surgical site infection (SSI...

  7. Annual Surveillance Summary: Klebsiella Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Klebsiella Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016...among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical characteristics...sources were linked to assess descriptive and clinical factors related to Klebsiella. Health Level 7 (HL7)-formatted Composite Health Care System (CHCS

  8. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical...linked to assess descriptive and clinical factors related to E. coli. Health Level 7 (HL7)-formatted Composite Health Care System (CHCS) microbiology data

  9. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  10. Annual Surveillance Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...illness in the immunocompromised. Its minimal nutritional requirements allow it to survive and thrive in both community and hospital settings. In...2015, the incidence rate of P. aeruginosa was 32.6 per 100,000 persons per year in the Military Health System (MHS). This rate reflects a 13.6

  11. Integrated human surveillance systems of West Nile virus infections in Italy: the 2012 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Bella, Antonino; Declich, Silvia; Grazzini, Giuliano; Lombardini, Letizia; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Loredana; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pupella, Simonetta; Russo, Francesca; Rizzo, Caterina

    2013-12-13

    In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June-30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008-2011), with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a "one health" perspective.

  12. Integrated Human Surveillance Systems of West Nile Virus Infections in Italy: The 2012 Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June–30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008–2011, with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a “one health” perspective.

  13. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  14. Vector borne infections in Italy: results of the integrated surveillance system for West Nile disease in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Iannetti, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Bella, Antonino; Di Sabatino, Daria; Bruno, Rossana; Sauro, Francesca; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia; Calistri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  15. Accounting for incomplete postdischarge follow-up during surveillance of surgical site infection by use of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system's risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscione, Fernando Martín; Couto, Renato Camargos; Pedrosa, Tânia M G

    2009-05-01

    We examined the usefulness of a simple method to account for incomplete postdischarge follow-up during surveillance of surgical site infection (SSI) by use of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system's risk index. Retrospective cohort study that used data prospectively collected from 1993 through 2006. Five private, nonuniversity healthcare facilities in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Consecutive patients undergoing the following NNIS operative procedures: 20,981 operations on the genitourinary system, 11,930 abdominal hysterectomies, 7,696 herniorraphies, 6,002 cholecystectomies, and 6,892 laparotomies. For each operative procedure category, 2 SSI risk models were specified. First, a model based on the NNIS system's risk index variables was specified (hereafter referred to as the NNIS-based model). Second, a modified model (hereafter referred to as the modified NNIS-based model), which was also based on the NNIS system's risk index, was specified with a postdischarge surveillance indicator, which was assigned the value of 1 if the patient could be reached during follow-up and a value of 0 if the patient could not be reached. A formal comparison of the capabilities of the 2 models to assess the risk of SSI was conducted using measures of calibration (by use of the Pearson goodness-of-fit test) and discrimination (by use of receiver operating characteristic curves). Goodman-Kruskal correlations (G) were also calculated. The rate of incomplete postdischarge follow-up varied between 29.8% for abdominal hysterectomies and 50.5% for cholecystectomies. The modified NNIS-based model for laparotomy did not show any significant benefit over the NNIS-based model in any measure. For all other operative procedures, the modified NNIS-based model showed a significantly improved discriminatory ability and higher G statistics, compared with the NNIS-based model, with no significant impairment in calibration, except if used to assess the risk of SSI after operations

  16. A Web-Based, Hospital-Wide Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infection Surveillance and Classification System: Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Wu, Jung-Hsuan; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Sun, Chun-Chuan; Shang, Rung-Ji; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lai, Feipei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-09-21

    Surveillance of health care-associated infections is an essential component of infection prevention programs, but conventional systems are labor intensive and performance dependent. To develop an automatic surveillance and classification system for health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI), and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with a conventional infection control personnel (ICP)-based surveillance system. We developed a Web-based system that was integrated into the medical information system of a 2200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. The system automatically detects and classifies HABSIs. In this study, the number of computer-detected HABSIs correlated closely with the number of HABSIs detected by ICP by department (n=20; r=.999 Psystem performed excellently with regard to sensitivity (98.16%), specificity (99.96%), positive predictive value (95.81%), and negative predictive value (99.98%). The system enabled decreasing the delay in confirmation of HABSI cases, on average, by 29 days. This system provides reliable and objective HABSI data for quality indicators, improving the delay caused by a conventional surveillance system.

  17. Reducing surgical site infection incidence through a network: results from the French ISO-RAISIN surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astagneau, P; L'Hériteau, F; Daniel, F; Parneix, P; Venier, A-G; Malavaud, S; Jarno, P; Lejeune, B; Savey, A; Metzger, M-H; Bernet, C; Fabry, J; Rabaud, C; Tronel, H; Thiolet, J-M; Coignard, B

    2009-06-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are a key target for nosocomial infection control programmes. We evaluated the impact of an eight-year national SSI surveillance system named ISO-RAISIN (infection du site opératoire - Réseau Alerte Investigation Surveillance des Infections). Consecutive patients undergoing surgery were enrolled during a three-month period each year and surveyed for 30 days following surgery. A standardised form was completed for each patient including SSI diagnosis according to standard criteria, and several risk factors such as wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation duration, elective/emergency surgery, and type of surgery. From 1999 to 2006, 14,845 SSIs were identified in 964,128 patients (overall crude incidence: 1.54%) operated on in 838 participating hospitals. The crude overall SSI incidence decreased from 2.04% to 1.26% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -38%) and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNIS)-0 adjusted SSI incidence from 1.10% to 0.74% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -33%). The most significant SSI incidence reduction was observed for hernia repair and caesarean section, and to a lesser extent, cholecystectomy, hip prosthesis arthroplasty, and mastectomy. Active surveillance striving for a benchmark throughout a network is an effective strategy to reduce SSI incidence.

  18. Characterization of epidemiological surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in the world and challenges for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Junior, Cassimiro; Mello, Débora Silva de; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Boszczowski, Icaro; Levin, Anna Sara; Lacerda, Rubia Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are essential for planning actions in prevention and control. Important models have been deployed in recent decades in different countries. This study aims to present the historical and operational characteristics of these systems and discuss the challenges for Brazil. Various models around the world have drawn on the experience of the United States, which pioneered this process. In Brazil, several initiatives have been launched, but the country still lacks a full national information system on HAI, thus indicating the need to promote action strategies, strengthen the role of States in communication between the Federal and local levels, pursue a national plan to organize surveillance teams with the necessary technological infrastructure, besides updating the relevant legislation for dealing with these challenges. Such measures are essential in the Brazilian context for the unified surveillance of HAI, aimed at healthcare safety and quality.

  19. Annual Surveillance Summary: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Health System (MHS), 2016 NMCPHC-EDC-TR-368-2017 Jessica Spencer and Uzo Chukwuma EpiData Center Department Prepared June 2017 Approved...Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report...Care System (CHCS) microbiology data identified S. aureus infections resistant to oxacillin, cefoxitin, or methicillin. These infections were

  20. The Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response System (GEIS), a U.S. government tool for improved global biosurveillance: a review of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kevin L; Rubenstein, Jennifer; Burke, Ronald L; Vest, Kelly G; Johns, Matthew C; Sanchez, Jose L; Meyer, William; Fukuda, Mark M; Blazes, David L

    2011-03-04

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has the mission of performing surveillance for emerging infectious diseases that could affect the United States (U.S.) military. This mission is accomplished by orchestrating a global portfolio of surveillance projects, capacity-building efforts, outbreak investigations and training exercises. In 2009, this portfolio involved 39 funded partners, impacting 92 countries. This article discusses the current biosurveillance landscape, programmatic details of organization and implementation, and key contributions to force health protection and global public health in 2009.

  1. Surveillance and Control of Nosocomial Infection in Neonatal ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiaozhu

    2002-01-01

    Objective To strengthen the surveillance and control of nosocomial infection in neonatal ICU. Methods To be seriously considered by leaders, to carry out rules and systems, to strengthen education and enhance consciousness of infections, to carry out targeted surveillance on basis of routine surveillance. Results The consciousness of infections has been enhanced. Passive carrying out of sterilization and isolation has turned active carrying out. The air quality in NICU has been improved. Ventilator - related infections have been decreased. Conclusion To strengthen surveillance and control of nosocomial infection in neonatal ICU and to find out and solve the weak link in infection control is the key to control nosocomial infection, to insure medical safety, and to improve medical quality.

  2. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    care unit ILI influenza-like illness IR incidence rate IV intravenous M2 Military Health System (MHS) Management Analysis and Reporting Tool MDR...Defense (DOD) and Department of the Navy (DON) active duty (AD) service members with deployment-related infections. In 2015, the annual VRE incidence rate...8 Incidence of VRE

  3. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  4. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Ho Dang Trung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. METHODS: We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. RESULTS: We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.

  5. Impact of nosocomial infections surveillance on nosocomial infection rates: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Gong, Zhenyu; Lu, Ye; Hu, Guoqing; Cai, Ran; Chen, Zhiping

    2017-06-01

    According to previously studies, nosocomial infections (NIs) surveillance could effectively reduce infection rates. As NIs surveillance systems have been implemented in some hospitals for several years, their impact on NIs need to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the tendency of NI rates during the surveillance period and the impact of surveillance on NI rates. A systematic literature search of the PubMed database to identify papers that evaluated effect of surveillance on NIs, all kinds of NIs occurred during hospitalization or discharged were included. Exclude articles investigated the surveillance combined with other infection control measures. Twenty-five articles were included. NI rates had different levels of reduction during surveillance period, the reduction were not limited by state, department, surveillance system, and NI type. Continuous surveillance had a positive impact on NI, OR/RR were ranged from 0.43 to 0.95. Participation in NI surveillance is associated with reducing infection rates, though RCTs need to further prove the effective role of surveillance. Hospitals may consider to perform NIs surveillance systems according to its own conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  7. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    ExPEC and E. coli interchangeably. ExPEC are associated with a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis , urinary tract infections (UTIs...bacteremia, nosocomial pneumonia, cellulitis, cholecystitis, osteomyelitis, infectious arthritis, cholangitis, and neonatal meningitis. 4-6 Due to...increasingly isolated in service members suffering from gastroenteritis and war wound infections. 24 Since the beginning of combat in Afghanistan and Iraq

  8. Risk factors for device-associated infection related to organisational characteristics of intensive care units: findings from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Y G; Lee, S-O; Kim, H Y; Kim, Y K; Park, E S; Jin, H Y; Choi, H J; Jeong, S Y; Kim, E S; Ki, H K; Kim, S R; Lee, J Y; Hong, H K; Kim, S; Lee, Y S; Oh, H-B; Kim, J M

    2010-07-01

    Device-associated infections (DAIs) have been the major causes of morbidity and mortality of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). This study evaluated the risk factors for DAIs in ICUs. Ninety-six medical or surgical ICUs of 56 hospitals participated in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System between July 2007 and June 2008. The occurrence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were monitored and DAI rates were calculated. Data associated with ICU characteristics were collected and Poisson regression was used for statistical analysis. Rates of CAUTI, CABSI, and VAP were 3.87 per 1000 urinary catheter days, 2.23 per 1000 central line days, and 1.89 per 1000 mechanical ventilator days, respectively. Rates of CAUTI were higher in ICUs in Seoul (P=0.032) and ICUs of major teaching hospitals (P=0.010). The ICUs of university-affiliated hospitals showed lower CAUTI rates (P=0.013). CABSI rates were higher in Seoul (P=0.001) and in medical ICUs (P=0.026). VAP rates were lower in ICUs of hospitals with more than 900 beds compared with hospitals with 400-699 beds (P=0.026). VAP rates were higher in surgical ICUs (Pinfection control professional (P=0.003). The organisational and institutional characteristics of ICUs may influence DAI rates and there is a need for improvement in the incidence of VAP, CAUTI or CABSI.

  9. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  10. DETECTION OF CASES OF PARVOVIRUS INFECTION IN THE SYSTEM FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE OF EXANTHEMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Lavrentyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The drastic decrease of the incidence of Measles and Rubella at the stage of elimination of these infections is notified on the territory of North- Western Federal Region (NWFR of Russia. At the same time the number of cases with the error clinical diagnosis of Measles and Rubella increased. The most frequent error is the infection caused by Parvovirus (PVI. The disease is of the independent particular medical and social significance for obstetrics, maternity and childhood protection, blood donation service, transplantation of organs/tissue etc. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of PVI on the territory of NWFR of Russia in different periods of 2009–2012 and 2015–2016. The data of the laboratory diagnosis of PVI for patients with exanthema were analyzed. Materials and methods. The serum specimens of patients with exanthema from bank of sera of St. Petersburg Subnational Measles/Rubella laboratory, collected in 2009–2012 (n = 495 and in 2015 (n = 336 as well as 69 sera of patients with exanthema from the “Infectious Disease Hospital N30” in St. Petersburg, collected in March-May, 2016 were studied. The specific IgM-PV B19 antibodies were determined by the «recomWELL Parvovirus B19 IgM» (MICROGEN GmbH, Germany ELISA test-system. The presen ce of the specific IgM-PV B19 antibodies in sera of patients was the evidence of the acute PVI. Results. The obtained results demonstrated the prevalence of PVI on the territory of NWFR. In 2009–2012 as well as in 2015 years PVI was revealed on the overwhelming majority (9 of 11 of administrative territories of the NWFR. The essential predominance of PVI was determined in St. Petersburg and bordering territories of NWFR (Kaliningrad Oblast’, Leningrad Oblast’, Republic of Karelia. In 2010, 2011 and 2015 years the part of sera detected as IgM-PV B19 positive on an average was equal to 14%. Meanwhile in 2012 the part of the detected IgM-PV B19 positive sera was

  11. 2008: A Year of Transition. DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum (human anaplasmosis). These results demonstrated that expo- sure to spotted fever group rickettsiae was common and that A...Prevalence of seropositivity to spotted fever group rickettsiae and Anaplasma phagocy- tophilum in a large, demographically diverse US sample. Clin Infect Dis

  12. Annual Surveillance Summary: Clostridium difficile Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    individuals aged 45 years and older (55.2%), whereas CDI occurred equally by gender (Table 3). Approximately 10.3% (n = 192) of patients experiencing an...CDI importation is the driving force for inpatient exposure compared to other hospital exposures that lead to hospital-onset infection. The...traditional risk factors for CDI (antibiotic use, ages 65 years and older, and hospitalization) continue to be important in the diagnostic evaluation of

  13. Standardized infection ratios for three general surgery procedures: a comparison between Spanish hospitals and U.S. centers participating in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodra, V Monge; Rodela, A Robustillo; Martínez, E Martín; Fresneña, N López

    2003-10-01

    To compare Spanish surgical wound infection (SWI) rates for three procedures with those published by the U.S. NNIS System, and to analyze quarterly trends. This was a 4-year prospective analysis of SWI using data from a Spanish nosocomial infection surveillance network based on CDC classification criteria. SWI rates were computed as standardized infection ratios (SIRs). Trends for both SWIs and SIRs were evaluated by linear regression. Forty-three Spanish hospitals during 1997 through 2000. Those undergoing cholecystectomy (n = 7,631), appendectomy (n = 5,780), and herniorrhaphy (n = 9,864). For cholecystectomy patients, the SWI rate was 4.38% and the SIR was 3.32. Both of these variables showed a slightly rising, although nonsignificant, linear trend during the study period. For appendectomy patients, the SWI rate was 7.94% and the SIR was 2.86. The linear trend was increasing for both, but only the SWI rate attained significance. For herniorrhaphy patients, the SWI rate was 1.77% and the SIR was 1.64. Both of these variables showed a significant descending tendency during the 4 years. Because the SIR takes into account the patient risk category, it is the best indicator of the trend shown by the SWI rate over time for a given surgical procedure. According to our comparison of SIRs with reference NNIS System values, SWI rates for cholecystectomy and appendectomy were high. Monitoring of the SIR will provide a basis for the design of infection control measures and the assessment of their effectiveness.

  14. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    System (MHS), 2016 NMCPHC-EDC-TR-370-2017 Kristen Rossi and Uzo Chukwuma EpiData Center Department Prepared June 2017 Approved for public...incidence and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical...were linked to assess descriptive and clinical factors related to VRE. Health Level 7 (HL7)-formatted Composite Health Care System (CHCS

  15. Efficient national surveillance for health-care-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bunnik, B. A. D.; Ciccolini, M.; Gibbons, C. L.; Edwards, G.; Fitzgerald, R.; McAdam, P. R.; Ward, M. J.; Laurenson, I. F.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detecting novel healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) as early as possible is an important public health priority. However, there is currently no evidence base to guide the design of efficient and reliable surveillance systems. Here we address this issue in the context of a novel patho

  16. Efficient surveillance for healthcare-associated infections spreading between hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciccolini, Mariano; Donker, Tjibbe; Grundmann, Hajo; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of new or novel variants of nosocomial pathogens is a public health priority. We show that, for healthcare-associated infections that spread between hospitals as a result of patient movements, it is possible to design an effective surveillance system based on a relatively small numbe

  17. Tandem Repeat Analysis for Surveillance of Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Sørensen, Gitte; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, as part of the national laboratory-based surveillance system of human enteric infections, all Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates are currently subtyped by using phage typing, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We evaluated th...

  18. Efficient surveillance for healthcare-associated infections spreading between hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciccolini, Mariano; Donker, Tjibbe; Grundmann, Hajo; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of new or novel variants of nosocomial pathogens is a public health priority. We show that, for healthcare-associated infections that spread between hospitals as a result of patient movements, it is possible to design an effective surveillance system based on a relatively small

  19. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  1. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... by analyzing a location-based system for airport passengers developed for a Copenhagen Airport, and the dimensions are used to explain user reactions to different services offered by the system....... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach...

  2. Fully Automated Surveillance of Healthcare-Associated Infections with MONI-ICU: A Breakthrough in Clinical Infection Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacky, A; Mandl, H; Adlassnig, K-P; Koller, W

    2011-01-01

    Expert surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) is a key parameter for good clinical practice, especially in intensive care medicine. Assessment of clinical entities such as HCAIs is a time-consuming task for highly trained experts. Such are neither available nor affordable in sufficient numbers for continuous surveillance services. Intelligent information technology (IT) tools are in urgent demand. MONI-ICU (monitoring of nosocomial infections in intensive care units (ICUs)) has been developed methodologically and practically in a stepwise manner and is a reliable surveillance IT tool for clinical experts. It uses information from the patient data management systems in the ICUs, the laboratory information system, and the administrative hospital information system of the Vienna General Hospital as well as medical expert knowledge on infection criteria applied in a multilevel approach which includes fuzzy logic rules. We describe the use of this system in clinical routine and compare the results generated automatically by MONI-ICU with those generated in parallel by trained surveillance staff using patient chart reviews and other available information ("gold standard"). A total of 99 ICU patient admissions representing 1007 patient days were analyzed. MONI-ICU identified correctly the presence of an HCAI condition in 28/31 cases (sensitivity, 90.3%) and their absence in 68/68 of the non-HCAI cases (specificity, 100%), the latter meaning that MONI-ICU produced no "false alarms". The 3 missed cases were due to correctable technical errors. The time taken for conventional surveillance at the 52 ward visits was 82.5 hours. MONI-ICU analysis of the same patient cases, including careful review of the generated results, required only 12.5 hours (15.2%). Provided structured and sufficient information on clinical findings is online available, MONI-ICU provides an almost real-time view of clinical indicators for HCAI - at the cost of almost no additional time

  3. Economics of infection control surveillance technology: cost-effective or just cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Jon P; Schweizer, Marin L; McGregor, Jessina C; Perencevich, Eli N

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that informatics tools, such as automated alert and decision support systems, may increase the efficiency and quality of infection control surveillance. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of these tools. We focus on 2 types of economic analyses that have utility in assessing infection control interventions (cost-effectiveness analysis and business-case analysis) and review the available literature on the economics of computerized infection control surveillance systems. Previous studies on the effectiveness of computerized infection control surveillance have been limited to assessments of whether these tools increase the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance over traditional methods. Furthermore, we identified only 2 studies that assessed the costs associated with computerized infection control surveillance. Thus, it remains unknown whether computerized infection control surveillance systems are cost-effective and whether use of these systems improves patient outcomes. The existing data are insufficient to allow for a summary conclusion on the cost-effectiveness of infection control surveillance technology. All future studies of computerized infection control surveillance systems should aim to collect outcomes and economic data to inform decision making and assist hospitals with completing business-cases analyses.

  4. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  5. An evaluation of the sensitivity of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for poliovirus infection in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madin Ben

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World Health Organization (WHO targets for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP surveillance, including the notification of a minimum rate of AFP among children, are used to assess the adequacy of AFP surveillance for the detection of poliovirus infection. Sensitive surveillance for poliovirus infection in both developed and developing countries is essential to support global disease eradication efforts. We applied recently developed methods for the quantitative evaluation of disease surveillance systems to evaluate the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for poliovirus infection in Australia. Methods A scenario tree model which accounted for administrative region, age, population immunity, the likelihood of AFP, and the probability of notification and stool sampling was used to assess the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for wild poliovirus infection among children aged less than 15 years in Australia. The analysis was based on historical surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2005. We used a surveillance time period of one month, and evaluated the ability of the surveillance system to detect poliovirus infection at a prevalence of 1 case per 100 000 persons and 1 case per million persons. Results There was considerable variation in the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for poliovirus infection among Australian States and Territories. The estimated median sensitivity of AFP surveillance in Australia among children aged less than 15 years was 8.2% per month at a prevalence of 1 case per 100,000 population, and 0.9% per month at a prevalence of 1 case per million population. The probability that Australia is free from poliovirus infection given negative surveillance findings following 5 years of continuous surveillance was 96.9% at a prevalence of 1 case per 100,000 persons and 56.5% at a prevalence of 1 case per million persons. Conclusion Given the ongoing risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, long term

  6. Efficient surveillance for healthcare-associated infections spreading between hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Mariano; Donker, Tjibbe; Grundmann, Hajo; Bonten, Marc J M; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-02-11

    Early detection of new or novel variants of nosocomial pathogens is a public health priority. We show that, for healthcare-associated infections that spread between hospitals as a result of patient movements, it is possible to design an effective surveillance system based on a relatively small number of sentinel hospitals. We apply recently developed mathematical models to patient admission data from the national healthcare systems of England and The Netherlands. Relatively short detection times are achieved once 10-20% hospitals are recruited as sentinels and only modest reductions are seen as more hospitals are recruited thereafter. Using a heuristic optimization approach to sentinel selection, the same expected time to detection can be achieved by recruiting approximately half as many hospitals. Our study provides a robust evidence base to underpin the design of an efficient sentinel hospital surveillance system for novel nosocomial pathogens, delivering early detection times for reduced expenditure and effort.

  7. Impact of a surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance program in orthopedics and traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, C; Marcheix, P S; Mounier, M; Dijoux, P; Pestourie, N; Bonnevialle, P; Bonnomet, F

    2012-10-01

    Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) is a priority. One of the fundamental principles for the surveillance of SSI is based on receiving effective field feedback (retro-information). The aim of this study was to report the results of a program of SSI surveillance and validate the hypothesis that there is a correlation between creating a SSI surveillance program and a reduction in SSI. The protocol was based on the weekly collection of surveillance data obtained directly from the different information systems in different departments. A delay of 3 months was established before extraction and analysis of data and information from the surgical teams. The NNIS index (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System) developed by the American surveillance system and the reduction of length of hospital stay index Journées d'hospitalisation évitées (JHE). Since the end of 2009, 7156 surgical procedures were evaluated (rate of inclusion 97.3%), and 84 SSI were registered with a significant decrease over time from 1.86% to 0.66%. A total of 418 days of hospitalization have been saved since the beginning of the surveillance system. Our surveillance system has three strong points: follow-up is continuous, specifically adapted to orthopedic traumatology and nearly exhaustive. The extraction of data directly from hospital information systems effectively improves the collection of data on surgical procedures. The implementation of a SSI surveillance protocol reduces SSI. Level III. Prospective study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel method of surgical site infection surveillance after cardiac surgery by active participation of stake holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Fatima; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Asif, Shaheen; Rahim, Noureen; Khan, Ghufranullah; Hanif, Bashir

    2012-06-01

    We describe a comprehensive surveillance system involving infection control practitioners, surgeons, administrative staff, and patients aimed at improving the postdischarge surveillance of surgical site infections. The system was able to detect 22 infections out of 538 procedures, 95% of which were detected during the postdischarge period.

  9. A surveillance model for sexually transmitted infections in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Haldar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The strategy for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India is based on syndromic case management delivered through designated STI/reproductive tract infection (RTI centers (DSRCs situated in medical colleges, district hospitals, and STI-clinics of targeted interventions programs. Laboratory tests for enhanced syndromic management are available at some sites. To ensure country-level planning and effective local implementation of STI services, reliable and consistent epidemiologic information is required on the distribution of STI cases, rate and trends of newly acquired infections, and STI prevalence in specific population groups. The present STI management information system is inadequate to meet these requirements because it is based on syndromic data and limited laboratory investigations on STIs reported passively by DSRCs and laboratories. Geographically representative information on the etiology of STI syndromes and antimicrobial susceptibility of STI pathogens although essential for optimizing available treatment options, is deficient. Surveillance must provide high quality information on: (a prevalence of STIs such as syphilis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among high-risk groups; syphilis in the general population and pregnant antenatal women; (b demographic characteristics such as age, sex, new/recurrent episode, and type of syndromically diagnosed STI cases; (c proportion of acute infections such as urethral discharge (UD in men and nonherpetic genital ulcer disease (GUD in men and women; (d etiology of STI syndromes; and (e gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility. We describe here a framework for an STI sentinel surveillance system in India, building on the existing STI reporting systems and infrastructure, an overview of the components of the proposed surveillance system, and operational challenges in its implementation.

  10. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  11. Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Ryen; Singh, Ameet; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    To 1) describe the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) in dogs undergoing surgery at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre; 2) describe and compare procedure-specific SSI rates; and 3) identify factors associated with development of SSI. Prospective, cohort study Dogs (n = 846) undergoing surgery during 45 weeks (September 2010-July 2011). Follow-up telephone conversation with dog owners was performed 30 days postoperatively, with additional 1-year follow-up performed for cases with surgical implants. A standardized questionnaire was administered to detect and characterize SSI. SSI were identified in 26 (3.0%) dogs; 11 (42%) were classified as superficial SSI, whereas 13 were deep, and 2 were organ/space. Of the confirmed SSI, only 17 (65%) were documented in the medical records. Hypotension (P = .011), class of surgery (P = .029), and use of an implant (P = .001) increased the risk of SSI. Microbial cultures were submitted for 19 cases (73%) and of those, 74% were staphylococci. SSI can result in devastating consequences in dogs and understanding risk factors is critical to target prevention practices. Whereas some risk factors such as hypotension are modifiable, others such as class of surgery are not. When possible, active surveillance should be used as part of a hospital infection control program. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Automating the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections

    OpenAIRE

    van Mourik, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are among the most common complications of medical care, affecting one in twenty-five hospitalized patients on any given day. Surveillance of HAI by systematically assessing patients for the development of an infection is a key component of successful infection prevention programs, both to measure the effects of an intervention and to assess quality of care. Traditional methods of surveillance, manual review of patients’ medical records, are time-consumi...

  13. Emergence of infection control surveillance in alternative health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, health care delivery has undergone enormous changes. The nationwide growth in managed care organizations and the changing methods of provider reimbursement are restructuring the entire health care system. Diversification and integration strategies have blurred historical separations between the activities of hospitals, nursing homes, physicians, and other providers. Services are being offered in and shifting to less costly settings, such as ambulatory clinics, work sites, and homes. Many factors have contributed to the increasing trend of health care delivery outside hospitals. This presentation will provide insight to the management and surveillance of infection prevention in these health care settings.

  14. Infection surveillance and control programs in the Department of Veterans Affairs nursing home care units: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Linda; Hojlo, Christa; Kearns, Martha A; Davis, Chester; Langberg, Robert; Claggett, Maurice; Coughlin, Nancy; Miller, Michael; Gaynes, Robert; Gibert, Cynthia; Montgomery, Ona; Richards, Chesley; Danko, Linda; Roselle, Gary

    2006-03-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the capacity and current practices of the infection surveillance and control programs at the Department of Veterans Affairs' 130 nursing home care units (VA NHCUs) covering a total of 15,006 beds in 2003. All 130 VA NHCUs responded to the survey, although not all NHCUs answered every question. The majority of the VA NHCUs provided specialized services that might pose increased risks of infection. For every 8 to 10 VA NHCU beds, there was 1 regular-pressure or negative-pressure infection control room available. Each VA NHCU had an active ongoing infection surveillance and control program managed by highly educated infection control personnel (ICP), of which 96% had a minimum of a bachelor degree. A median of 12 hours per week of these ICP efforts was devoted to the infection surveillance and control activities. The most frequently used surveillance methods were targeted surveillance for specific infections and for specific organisms. Most VA NHCUs conducted surveillance for antibiotic-resistant organisms. However, VA NHCUs did not use a uniform set of definitions for nosocomial infections for their infection surveillance and control purposes. We conclude that VA NHCUs have a considerable infrastructure and capacity for infection surveillance and control. This information can be used to develop a nationwide VA NHCU nosocomial infection surveillance system.

  15. [Computer alert and quality of care: application to the surveillance of hospital infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E; Pittet, D; Borst, F; Thurler, G; Schulthess, P; Rebouillat, L; Lagana, M; Berney, J P; Berthoud, M; Copin, P

    1994-11-01

    The Centre Informatique of Geneva University Hospital is developing, in the environment of its hospital information system, DIOGENE, a computerized alert system for surveillance of hospital infections. This hospital information system is based on an open distributed architecture and a relational database system, and covers many medical applications. This environment allows the development of alerts useful for detecting patients at risk. The alerts offer to clinicians a mean to control their efficacy in patient care. They are a new application of telematics for surveillance in clinical epidemiology, and are a tool for quality assurance. Two examples of alerts established for hospital infection control activities are presented. The first alert systematically detects all cases of patients colonized by or infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The second alert helps to organize prospective surveillance of bloodstream infections in order to identify some risk factors for infection and propose preventive measures.

  16. Integrated Multilevel Surveillance of the World's Infecting Microbes and Their Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas F.; Stelling, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Microbial surveillance systems have varied in their source of support; type of laboratory reporting (patient care or reference); inclusiveness of reports filed; extent of microbial typing; whether single hospital, multihospital, or multicountry; proportion of total medical centers participating; and types, levels, integration across levels, and automation of analyses performed. These surveillance systems variably support the diagnosis and treatment of patients, local or regional infection control, local or national policies and guidelines, laboratory capacity building, sentinel surveillance, and patient safety. Overall, however, only a small fraction of available data are under any surveillance, and very few data are fully integrated and analyzed. Advancing informatics and genomics can make microbial surveillance far more efficient and effective at preventing infections and improving their outcomes. The world's microbiology laboratories should upload their reports each day to programs that detect events, trends, and epidemics in communities, hospitals, countries, and the world. PMID:21482726

  17. Surveillance for surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery: influence of the US or Brest (France) National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk index on SSI rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietard, Claire; Thébaud, Véronique; Besson, Gérard; Lejeune, Benoist

    2008-11-01

    A total of 5,628 neurosurgical patients were observed in France to assess the occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI). Their risk of SSI was defined by calculating both the US National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance and the Brest National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk indexes. This study compares SSI rates stratified according to either the US or Brest (France) National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk index. The SSI rates were correlated with National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance data involving only local operation durations.

  18. Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper.

  19. Periprosthetic Infection following Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: The Impact of Limiting the Postoperative Surveillance Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Virginia R; Mitchell, Robyn; Vachon, Julie; Alexandre, Stéphanie; Amaratunga, Kanchana; Smith, Stephanie; Vearncombe, Mary; Davis, Ian; Mertz, Dominik; Henderson, Elizabeth; John, Michael; Johnston, Lynn; Lemieux, Camille; Pelude, Linda; Gravel, Denise

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND Hip and knee arthroplasty infections are associated with considerable healthcare costs. The merits of reducing the postoperative surveillance period from 1 year to 90 days have been debated. OBJECTIVES To report the first pan-Canadian hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates and to describe the implications of a shorter (90-day) postoperative surveillance period. METHODS Prospective surveillance for infection following hip and knee arthroplasty was conducted by hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) using standard surveillance definitions. RESULTS Overall hip and knee PJI rates were 1.64 and 1.52 per 100 procedures, respectively. Deep incisional and organ-space hip and knee PJI rates were 0.96 and 0.71, respectively. In total, 93% of hip PJIs and 92% of knee PJIs were identified within 90 days, with a median time to detection of 21 days. However, 11%-16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections were not detected within 90 days. This rate was reduced to 3%-4% at 180 days post procedure. Anaerobic and polymicrobial infections had the shortest median time from procedure to detection (17 and 18 days, respectively) compared with infections due to other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS PJI rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, although differences in national surveillance systems limit direct comparisons. Our results suggest that a postoperative surveillance period of 90 days will detect the majority of PJIs; however, up to 16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections may be missed. Extending the surveillance period to 180 days could allow for a better estimate of disease burden. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:147-153.

  20. Nosocomial infections: Epidemiology, prevention, control and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ahmed Khan; Fatima Kanwal Baig; Riffat Mehboob

    2017-01-01

    Nosocomial infections or healthcare associated infections occur in patients under medical care. These infections occur worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Nosocomial infections accounts for 7% in developed and 10% in developing countries. As these infections occur during hospital stay, they cause prolonged stay, disability, and economic burden. Frequently prevalent infections include central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections...

  1. Annual Surveillance Summary: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    microbiology record and infections were classified according to the patient’s gender , age, sponsor service (Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, or Navy), duty...are not provided when the prevalence count is less than or equal to 5. Data Source: NMCPHC HL7-formatted CHCS microbiology database. Prepared by...and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe and the Western Pacific Region for the

  2. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... are: A: to detect an emerging disease or infection, if it becomes introduced into a population; or B: to substantiate freedom from a condition in a population; or C: to detect cases and estimate the prevalence of an endemic condition in a population. In risk-based surveillance these aims should be met...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...

  3. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  4. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila`s Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila`s AssetLAN{trademark} asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN{trademark} technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed.

  5. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  6. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  7. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...... the estimates for confounding from other risk factors. We describe some potential unintentional effects when using adjusted risk estimates in evaluating the efficacy and sensitivity of risk-based surveillance systems (SSe). In two examples, we quantify and compare the efficacy and SSe using adjusted and crude...

  8. Comparison of two nosocomial infection surveillance in a neonatal ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Abedini

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It seems that a large part of this considerable differences between the results of this study compared to NNIS based study, is this fact that, for nosocomial infection surveillance in the neonatal field, the presence of a specialist as a performer and leader of the team, is necessary.

  9. Evaluating Surveillance Strategies for the Early Detection of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Arianna; Stegeman, Arjan; Marangon, Stefano; Klinkenberg, Don

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in poultry has become increasingly important, given their potential to mutate into highly pathogenic viruses. However, evaluations of LPAI surveillance have mainly focused on prevalence and not on the ability to act as an early warning system. We used a simulation model based on data from Italian LPAI epidemics in turkeys to evaluate different surveillance strategies in terms of their performance as early warning systems. The strategies differed in terms of sample size, sampling frequency, diagnostic tests, and whether or not active surveillance (i.e., routine laboratory testing of farms) was performed, and were also tested under different epidemiological scenarios. We compared surveillance strategies by simulating within-farm outbreaks. The output measures were the proportion of infected farms that are detected and the farm reproduction number (Rh). The first one provides an indication of the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect within-farm infections, whereas Rh reflects the effectiveness of outbreak detection (i.e., if detection occurs soon enough to bring an epidemic under control). Increasing the sampling frequency was the most effective means of improving the timeliness of detection (i.e., it occurs earlier), whereas increasing the sample size increased the likelihood of detection. Surveillance was only effective in preventing an epidemic if actions were taken within two days of sampling. The strategies were not affected by the quality of the diagnostic test, although performing both serological and virological assays increased the sensitivity of active surveillance. Early detection of LPAI outbreaks in turkeys can be achieved by increasing the sampling frequency for active surveillance, though very frequent sampling may not be sustainable in the long term. We suggest that, when no LPAI virus is circulating yet and there is a low risk of virus introduction, a

  10. Advances In Infection Surveillance and Clinical Decision Support With Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Walter; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    By the use of extended intelligent information technology tools for fully automated healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance, clinicians can be informed and alerted about the emergence of infection-related conditions in their patients. Moni--a system for monitoring nosocomial infections in intensive care units for adult and neonatal patients--employs knowledge bases that were written with extensive use of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, allowing the inherent un-sharpness of clinical terms and the inherent uncertainty of clinical conclusions to be a part of Moni's output. Thus, linguistic as well as propositional uncertainty became a part of Moni, which can now report retrospectively on HAIs according to traditional crisp HAI surveillance definitions, as well as support clinical bedside work by more complex crisp and fuzzy alerts and reminders. This improved approach can bridge the gap between classical retrospective surveillance of HAIs and ongoing prospective clinical-decision-oriented HAI support.

  11. Epidemiology, surveillance and control of Nipah virus infections in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K B

    2010-12-01

    The outbreak of Nipah virus, affecting pigs and pig-farm workers, was first noted in September 1998 in the north-western part of peninsular Malaysia. By March 1999, the outbreak had spread to other pig-farming areas of the country, inclusive of the neighbouring country, Singapore. A total of 283 human cases of viral encephalitis with 109 deaths were recorded in Malaysia from 29 September 1998 to December 1999. During the outbreak period, a number of surveillances under three broad groups; Surveillance in Human Health Sector, Surveillance in Animal Health Sector, and Surveillance for the Reservoir Hosts, were carried out to determine the prevalence, risk of virus infections and transmission in human and swine populations as well as the source and reservoir hosts of Nipah virus. Surveillance data showed that the virus spread rapidly among pigs within infected farms and transmission was attributed to direct contact with infective excretions and secretions. The spread of the virus among pig farms within and between states of peninsular Malaysia was due to movement of pigs. The transmission of the virus to humans was through close contact with infected pigs. Human to human transmission was considered a rare event though the Nipah virus could be isolated from saliva, urine, nasal and pharyngeal secretions of patients. Field investigations identified fruitbats of the Pteropid species as the natural reservoir hosts of the viruses. The outbreak was effectively brought under control following the discovery of the virus and institution of correct control measures through a combined effort of multi-ministerial and multidisciplinary teams working in close co-operation and collaboration with other international agencies.

  12. Surveillance Systems from Public Health Institutions and Scientific Societies for Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections in Europe (SUSPIRE): protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Núñez, María; Navarro, María Dolores; Gkolia, Panagiota; Babu Rajendran, Nithya; del Toro, María Dolores; Voss, Andreas; Sharland, Mike; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Tacconelli, Evelina; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The worldwide spread of antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a global public health threat. Owing to the geographical heterogeneity, complexity and continuously evolving dynamics of resistant organisms and genes, surveillance is a key tool for understanding, measuring and informing actions in the fight against this problem. To date there is no harmonisation of key indicators or of methodologies used to obtain them. Methods and analysis The main objective of this project is to systematically review and analyse the current publicly available surveillance activities on antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections in Europe. Eligible activities are those endorsed by regional, national or transnational health organisations and scientific societies providing data on a periodic basis. Grey and peer-reviewed literature will be searched with no language restrictions. Three independent reviewers will perform a two-step selection process using a previously piloted, tailored electronic data extraction form. Descriptive summaries and tables of all relevant findings will be performed and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Ethics and dissemination We did not seek ethical approval for this study because the data to be collected are not linked to individuals. Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number CRD42016033867. PMID:28348192

  13. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  14. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  15. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  16. A comprehensive review on intelligent surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Warsono Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance system (ISS has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. ISS is able to automatically analyze image, video, audio or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. The recent developments in sensor devices, computer vision, and machine learning have an important role in enabling such intelligent system. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent surveillance system and discuss some possible sensor modalities and their fusion scenarios such as visible camera (CCTV, infrared camera, thermal camera and radar. This paper also discusses main processing steps in ISS: background-foreground segmentation, object detection and classification, tracking, and behavioral analysis.

  17. RAISIN - a national programme for early warning, investigation and surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2009-11-19

    Surveillance is a key component of the French plan for prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and has progressively evolved in the past decades. We describe the development and current organisation of surveillance of HAI in France and summarise key achievements and results. Surveillance of HAI is under the auspice of the national institute for public health surveillance through a central coordinating structure, the Reseau d alerte, d investigation et de surveillance des infections nosocomiales (RAISIN), which consists of five regional coordinating structures, two national advisory committees of the Ministry of Health and public health agencies. Surveillance includes the performance of national prevalence surveys every five years (latest in 2006), specific surveillance networks to follow trends and characterise HAI that are national priority, and mandatory reporting of HAI that meet specific criteria for alert purposes. RAISIN prioritises activities, defines technical specifications of surveillance systems, coordinates their implementation, and supports response to alerts, emergences or outbreaks of HAI. We demonstrate that the French surveillance program of HAI has become comprehensive and contributes to evaluating the impact of control and prevention of HAI. Data from RAISIN indicate a general decrease in the risk of HAI in acute care in France. They show a decrease in HAI during recent years, particularly of those related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for which a drop of 38% was documented between 2001 and 2006. RAISIN is also integrated into European surveillance of HAI coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Control.

  18. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  19. Crisis Management Using Multiple Camera Surveillance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rothkrantz , L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    During recent disasters such as tsunami, flooding, hurricanes, nuclear disaster, earthquake people have to leave their living areas for their own safety. But it proves that some people are not informed about the evacuation, or are not willing or able to leave or don’t know how to leave the hazardous areas. The topic of the paper is how to adapt current video surveillance systems along highway and streets to semi-automatic surveillance systems. When a suspicious event is detected a human opera...

  20. Statistical analyses in disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Andres G; Larasati, Ria Purwita; Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Bounlu, Khanthong; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V; Munayco-Escate, Cesar V; Soto, Giselle; Mundaca, C Cecilia; Blazes, David L

    2008-11-14

    The performance of disease surveillance systems is evaluated and monitored using a diverse set of statistical analyses throughout each stage of surveillance implementation. An overview of their main elements is presented, with a specific emphasis on syndromic surveillance directed to outbreak detection in resource-limited settings. Statistical analyses are proposed for three implementation stages: planning, early implementation, and consolidation. Data sources and collection procedures are described for each analysis.During the planning and pilot stages, we propose to estimate the average data collection, data entry and data distribution time. This information can be collected by surveillance systems themselves or through specially designed surveys. During the initial implementation stage, epidemiologists should study the completeness and timeliness of the reporting, and describe thoroughly the population surveyed and the epidemiology of the health events recorded. Additional data collection processes or external data streams are often necessary to assess reporting completeness and other indicators. Once data collection processes are operating in a timely and stable manner, analyses of surveillance data should expand to establish baseline rates and detect aberrations. External investigations can be used to evaluate whether abnormally increased case frequency corresponds to a true outbreak, and thereby establish the sensitivity and specificity of aberration detection algorithms.Statistical methods for disease surveillance have focused mainly on the performance of outbreak detection algorithms without sufficient attention to the data quality and representativeness, two factors that are especially important in developing countries. It is important to assess data quality at each state of implementation using a diverse mix of data sources and analytical methods. Careful, close monitoring of selected indicators is needed to evaluate whether systems are reaching their

  1. Prescription Surveillance and Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing to Identify Pathogens during Outbreaks of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance, including prescription surveillance, offers a rapid method for the early detection of agents of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases. However, it has the disadvantage of not considering definitive diagnoses. Here, we attempted to definitively diagnose pathogens using polymerase chain reaction (PCR immediately after the prescription surveillance system detected an outbreak. Specimens were collected from 50 patients with respiratory infections. PCR was used to identify the pathogens, which included 14 types of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Infectious agents including M. pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, rhinovirus, enterovirus, and parainfluenza virus were detected in 54% of patients. For the rapid RSV diagnosis kit, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 85%. For the rapid adenovirus diagnosis kit, no positive results were obtained; therefore, sensitivity could not be calculated and specificity was 100%. Many patients were found to be treated for upper respiratory tract infections without the diagnosis of a specific pathogen. In Japan, an outbreak of M. pneumoniae infection began in 2011, and our results suggested that this outbreak may have included false-positive cases. By combining syndromic surveillance and PCR, we were able to rapidly and accurately identify causative pathogens during a recent respiratory infection outbreak.

  2. Introduction of software tools for epidemiological surveillance in infection control in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoa, Gabriel; Vallejo, Marta; Blanco, Víctor M; Correa, Adriana; de la Cadena, Elsa; Villegas, María Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) are a challenge for patient safety in the hospitals. Infection control committees (ICC) should follow CDC definitions when monitoring HAI. The handmade method of epidemiological surveillance (ES) may affect the sensitivity and specificity of the monitoring system, while electronic surveillance can improve the performance, quality and traceability of recorded information. Objective: To assess the implementation of a strategy for electronic surveillance of HAI, Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Consumption by the ICC of 23 high-complexity clinics and hospitals in Colombia, during the period 2012-2013. Methods: An observational study evaluating the introduction of electronic tools in the ICC was performed; we evaluated the structure and operation of the ICC, the degree of incorporation of the software HAI Solutions and the adherence to record the required information. Results: Thirty-eight percent of hospitals (8/23) had active surveillance strategies with standard criteria of the CDC, and 87% of institutions adhered to the module of identification of cases using the HAI Solutions software. In contrast, compliance with the diligence of the risk factors for device-associated HAIs was 33%. Conclusions: The introduction of ES could achieve greater adherence to a model of active surveillance, standardized and prospective, helping to improve the validity and quality of the recorded information. PMID:26309340

  3. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Health Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the ...

  4. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR, Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED. Methods: A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results: Two of 11 (18% surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45% surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91% rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7% considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27% surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6% surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion: In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  5. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  6. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are particularly problematic, accounting for a substantial number of hospitalizations in these patients. Hospitalizations for BSI and other vascular access infections appear to have increased dramatically in hemodialysis patients since 1993. These infections frequently are related to central venous catheter (CVC) use for dialysis access. Regional initiatives that have shown successful decreases in catheter-related BSIs in hospitalized patients have generated interest in replicating this success in outpatient hemodialysis populations. Several interventions have been effective in preventing BSIs in the hemodialysis setting. Avoiding the use of CVCs in favor of access types with lower associated BSI risk is among the most important. When CVCs are used, adherence to evidence-based catheter insertion and maintenance practices can positively influence BSI rates. In addition, facility-level surveillance to detect BSIs and stimulate examination of vascular access use and care practices is essential to a comprehensive approach to prevention. This article describes the current epidemiology of BSIs in hemodialysis patients and effective prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these devastating infections.

  7. Enhancing Surveillance for Arboviral Infections in the Arizona Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Orion; Vanskike, Frank; Ernst, Kacey; Komatsu, Ken; Margolis, Harold; Waterman, Stephen; Tippit, Laura; Tomashek, Kay; Wertheimer, Anne; Montiel, Sonia; Golenko, Catherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance arboviral surveillance and laboratory capacity to establish a surveillance baseline for the emerging threat of Dengue fever in the Arizona-Mexico border region. Introduction West Nile Virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are both arboviruses which are transmitted to humans by an infected mosquito bite during blood-meal feeding. The clinical presentations of non-neuroinvasive WNV and dengue fever are similar, and symptoms may include acute onset of high fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting, and often a maculopapular rash. More serious manifestations of these viruses include fatal encephalitis and meningitis in WNV patients and fatal hemorrhagic disease in dengue patients. Over the last decade, WNV has spread rapidly across North America, reaching Arizona in 2004, and has become a significant cause of human illness since that time. Even though dengue has been described as primarily a disease of the tropics and sub-tropical areas, there is a small but significant risk for dengue outbreaks in the continental United States as evidenced by surveillance efforts in Texas that identified local dengue transmission in 2005. In recent years, outbreaks of dengue have occurred in Mexico border states, most notably Sonora in 2010. That same year, Arizona had the highest incidence of WNV cases in the U.S. including number of neuroinvasive disease cases, total cases, and number of deaths per state. The emergence of DENV and WNV as important public health problems maybe have been due to non-effective mosquito control, global demographic changes (urbanization and population growth), increased air travel, and inadequate surveillance. Methods Vector mapping: Mapping techniques will be utilized to visually depict Aedes aegypti populations captured from previous seasonal public health environmental vector trapping programs. Laboratory capacity: Multi-state laboratory training by CDC Dengue Branch was held in October 2012. Surveillance: The WNV cases

  8. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e.......g. periodontal pocket depth or loss of attachment). All tools reviewed in this paper were developed based on the state of the science of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease at the time of their design and the need to provide valid and reliable measurements of the presence and severity of periodontal...... diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index...

  9. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  10. Impact of postdischarge surveillance on surgical site infection rates for several surgical procedures: results from the nosocomial surveillance network in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, Judith; Wille, Jan C; Snoeren, Ruud L M M; Hof, Susan van den

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the number of surgical site infections (SSIs) registered after hospital discharge with respect to various surgical procedures and to identify the procedures for which postdischarge surveillance (PDS) is most important. DESIGN: Prospective SSI surveillance with voluntary PDS.

  11. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  12. Health care-associated infections surveillance in an intensive care unit of a university hospital in China, 2010-2014: Findings of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Tao, Xiu-Bin; Li, Yan; Hu, Qiang; Qian, Li-Hua; Wu, Qun; Ruan, Jing-Jing; Cai, Dong-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Using a standardized methodology by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System, a continuous health care-associated infections (HAIs) surveillance was conducted in our mixed intensive care unit at a Chinese teaching hospital. During the study period (2010-2014), 4,013 patients were hospitalized for 32,924 bed days and acquired 427 HAIs (482 HAI events), with an overall rate of 10.64% and 14.640 HAIs per 1,000 bed days. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was the most common device-associated health care-acquired infection, with an incidence rate of 19.561 per 1,000 mechanical ventilator days.

  13. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to respiratory infections.

  14. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  15. GPRS Video Streaming Surveillance System GVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Pushpavathi, T P; Kumar, N R Shashi

    2010-01-01

    Future security measures will create comfortable living environments that are embedded with a wide range of intelligent functionalities including home computing, entertainment, health care and security. These place stringent requirements on the home networking architecture which integrates various existing technologies for monitoring and control for future high security needs. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a gvss gprs Video Streaming Surveillance System system, which integrates various existing technologies for providing security for smart home environments. This system provides security for office, home and other buildings where high security is required.This allows the mobile user to track the activities from a particular location. The system will send snapshots of the video and stores them in different formats. It is also possible to display the time with the image when it was captured in the gprs enabled mobiles. This system is implemented using J2me Technology

  16. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, David M. (1917 Hood, Richland, WA 99352); Collins, H. Dale (1751 Duluth, Richland, WA 99352); Hall, Thomas E. (8301 W. Entiat Pl., Kennewick, WA 99336); McMakin, Douglas L. (2173 Shasta Ave., Richland, WA 99352); Gribble, R. Parks (1215 Cottonwood Dr., Richland, WA 99352); Severtsen, Ronald H. (1803 Birch Ave., Richland, WA 99352); Prince, James M. (3029 W. 2nd Ave., Apt. F95, Kennewick, WA 99336); Reid, Larry D. (Rt. 1, Box 1291B, Benton City, WA 99320)

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  17. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  18. Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infection in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit by the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (JANIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama,Hideki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the infection risks in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU using data of NICU infection surveillance data. The subjects were 871 NICU babies, consisting of 465 boys and 406 girls, who were cared for between June 2002 and January 2003 in 7 medical institutions that employed NICU infection surveillance. Infections were defined according to the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS System. Of the 58 babies with nosocomial infections, 15 had methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio for nosocomial infections was significantly related to gender, birth weight and the insertion of a central venous catheter (CVC. When the birth weight group of more than 1, 500g was regarded as the reference, the odds ratio was 2.35 in the birth weight group of 1,000-1,499g and 8.82 in the birth weight group of less than 1,000g. The odds ratio of the CVC ( for nosocomial infection was 2.27. However, other devices including artificial ventilation, umbilical artery catheter, umbilical venous catheter, and urinary catheter were not significant risk factors. The incidence of MRSA infection rapidly increased from 0.3% in the birth weight group of more than 1,500g to 2.1% in the birth weight group of 1,000-1,499g, and to 11.1% in the birth weight group of less than 1,000g. When the birth weight group of more than 1,500g was regarded as the reference, multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio was 7.25 in the birth weight group of 1,000-1,499g and 42.88 in the birth weight group of less than 1,000g. These odds ratios were significantly higher than that in the reference group. However, the application of devices did not cause any significant differences in the odds ratio for MRSA infection.

  19. Risk factors for nosocomial infection in the neonatal intensive care unit by the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (JANIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazono, Akira; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Nishimaki, Shigeru; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Shiga, Seigo; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tahei; Sato, Kazuo; Nakayama, Hideki; Ibara, Satoshi; Une, Hiroshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the infection risks in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using data of NICU infection surveillance data. The subjects were 871 NICU babies, consisting of 465 boys and 406 girls, who were cared for between June 2002 and January 2003 in 7 medical institutions that employed NICU infection surveillance. Infections were defined according to the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) System. Of the 58 babies with nosocomial infections, 15 had methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio for nosocomial infections was significantly related to gender, birth weight and the insertion of a central venous catheter (CVC). When the birth weight group of more than 1, 500 g was regarded as the reference, the odds ratio was 2.35 in the birth weight group of 1,000-1,499 g and 8.82 in the birth weight group of less than 1,000g. The odds ratio of the CVC (+) for nosocomial infection was 2.27. However, other devices including artificial ventilation, umbilical artery catheter, umbilical venous catheter, and urinary catheter were not significant risk factors. The incidence of MRSA infection rapidly increased from 0.3% in the birth weight group of more than 1,500 g to 2.1% in the birth weight group of 1,000-1,499 g, and to 11.1% in the birth weight group of less than 1,000g. When the birth weight group of more than 1,500 g was regarded as the reference, multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio was 7.25 in the birth weight group of 1,000-1,499 g and 42.88 in the birth weight group of less than 1,000g. These odds ratios were significantly higher than that in the reference group. However, the application of devices did not cause any significant differences in the odds ratio for MRSA infection.

  20. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  1. Routine surveillance data on AIDS and HIV infections in the UK: a description of the data available and their use for short-term planning

    OpenAIRE

    Tillett, H; Galbraith, N S; Overton, S. E.; Porter, K

    1988-01-01

    In the UK surveillance of AIDS and HIV infection is based on routine reporting systems. Whilst attempts are made to ensure that AIDS data are as complete as possible, numbers of reports fluctuate from month to month for reasons which are described. In 1986 there was an increase in death certificates naming AIDS as a cause of death in patients who were not identifiable in the surveillance data. More active surveillance is now undertaken in order to minimize this and other possible discrepancie...

  2. Routine surveillance data on AIDS and HIV infections in the UK: a description of the data available and their use for short-term planning.

    OpenAIRE

    Tillett, H. E.; Galbraith, N S; Overton, S. E.; Porter, K

    1988-01-01

    In the UK surveillance of AIDS and HIV infection is based on routine reporting systems. Whilst attempts are made to ensure that AIDS data are as complete as possible, numbers of reports fluctuate from month to month for reasons which are described. In 1986 there was an increase in death certificates naming AIDS as a cause of death in patients who were not identifiable in the surveillance data. More active surveillance is now undertaken in order to minimize this and other possible discrepancie...

  3. Post-Caesarean Section Surgical Site Infection Surveillance Using an Online Database and Mobile Phone Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Eliana; McIsaac, Corrine; MacDougall, Bhreagh; Wilson, Douglas; Kohr, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    Obstetric surgical site infections (SSIs) are common and expensive to the health care system but remain under reported given shorter postoperative hospital stays and suboptimal post-discharge surveillance systems. SSIs, for the purpose of this paper, are defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (1999) as infection incurring within 30 days of the operative procedure (in this case, Caesarean section [CS]). Demonstrate the feasibility of real-life use of a patient driven SSIs post-discharge surveillance system consisting of an online database and mobile phone technology (surgical mobile app - how2trak) among women undergoing CS in a Canadian urban centre. Estimate the rate of SSIs and associated predisposing factors. Prospective cohort of consecutive women delivering by CS at one urban Canadian hospital. Using surgical mobile app-how2trak-predetermined demographics, comorbidities, procedure characteristics, and self-reported symptoms and signs of infection were collected and linked to patients' incision self-portraits (photos) on postpartum days 3, 7, 10, and 30. A total of 105 patients were enrolled over a 5-month period. Mean age was 31 years, 13% were diabetic, and most were at low risk of surgical complications. Forty-six percent of surgeries were emergency CSs, and 104/105 received antibiotic prophylaxis. Forty-five percent of patients (47/105) submitted at least one photo, and among those, one surgical site infection was detected by photo appearance and self-reported symptoms by postpartum day 10. The majority of patients whom uploaded photos did so multiple times and 43% of them submitted photos up to day 30. Patients with either a diagnosis of diabetes or self-reported Asian ethnicity were less likely to submit photos. Post-discharge surveillance for CS-related SSIs using surgical mobile app how2trak is feasible and deserves further study in the post-discharge setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Park, C. S.; Cha, H. R.; Hong, J. S.; Yang, M. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC Surveillance System is developed to process image data and radiation data together to diagnose intelligently the transportation status of the nuclear material, which makes it possible that usual DUPIC process be carried out without interruption under the surveillance. We developed the neutron monitor for surveillance and the system which takes and processes radiation data and image data, where the system is under the test operation after installed at DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility)

  5. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  6. Market-Based Approach to Mobile Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elmogy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The active surveillance of public and private sites is increasingly becoming a very important and critical issue. It is, therefore, imperative to develop mobile surveillance systems to protect these sites. Modern surveillance systems encompass spatially distributed mobile and static sensors in order to provide effective monitoring of persistent and transient objects and events in a given area of interest (AOI. The realization of the potential of mobile surveillance requires the solution of different challenging problems such as task allocation, mobile sensor deployment, multisensor management, cooperative object detection and tracking, decentralized data fusion, and interoperability and accessibility of system nodes. This paper proposes a market-based approach that can be used to handle different problems of mobile surveillance systems. Task allocation and cooperative target tracking are studied using the proposed approach as two challenging problems of mobile surveillance systems. These challenges are addressed individually and collectively.

  7. Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS) is a repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee accident data. Many types of...

  8. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  9. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  10. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-09-28

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes).

  11. Sentinel Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance, Acute Infection and Recent Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M.; Kellogg, Timothy A.; McFarland, Willi; Louie, Brian; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Philip, Susan S.; Grant, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection. Methodology/Principal Findings A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868) were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA). HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36). Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%). Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001), unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001), sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02), and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03). Conclusions New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first

  12. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  13. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Among Patients With Cirrhosis in a Population-based Integrated Health Care Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Amit G; Tiro, Jasmin; Li, Xilong; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Chubak, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Fewer than 1 in 5 patients with cirrhosis receive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance; however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. Further, few reported guideline-concordant consistent surveillance rates. Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis. We retrospectively characterized HCC surveillance among cirrhosis patients followed between January 2010 and December 2012 at an integrated health care delivery system in Washington state. Consistent surveillance was defined as an ultrasound every 6 months, and inconsistent surveillance was defined as ≥1 ultrasound during the 2-year follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify correlates of HCC surveillance receipt. Of 1137 patients with cirrhosis, 22 (2%) underwent consistent surveillance, 371 (33%) had inconsistent surveillance, and 744 (65%) received no surveillance during follow-up. Correlates of HCC surveillance receipt in multivariate analysis included Gastroenterology/Hepatology subspecialty care [odds ratio (OR), 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.46], Child Pugh B/C cirrhosis (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.43), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.35), and etiology of liver disease. Compared with hepatitis C-infected patients, patients with hepatitis B infection were more likely to undergo surveillance (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.28-5.81), whereas patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.93) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.56) were less likely to undergo surveillance. Although one third of patients undergo inconsistent HCC surveillance, surveillance.

  14. Trends in sexually transmitted infections in the Netherlands, combining surveillance data from general practices and sexually transmitted infection centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, I.V.F. van den; Verheij, R.A.; Dijk, C. van; Koedijk, F.D.H.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Bergen, J.E.A.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) care in the Netherlands is primarily provided by general practitioners (GPs) and specialized STI centers. STI surveillance is based on data from STI centers, which show increasing numbers of clients. Data from a GP morbidity surveillance network were

  15. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie E; Christiansen, Claus Bohn;

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission......The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus...

  16. EARSS: European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System; data from the Netherlands .Incidence and resistance rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goettsch WG; Neeling AJ de; CIE; LIO

    2001-01-01

    In a porspective prevalence and incidence survey in The Netherlands in 1999 antimicrobial susceptibility data on invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus infections were collected sithin the framework of European Antomicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). The EARSS proj

  17. Surveillance of acute community acquired urinary tract bacterial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibanarayan Rath; Rabindra N. Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To record the antibiotic resistance of community acquired uropathogens over a period of 24 months (May 2011-April 2012). Methods: Urine samples from patients of outpatient department (OPD) were used for isolating urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing bacteria that were cultured on suitable selective media and identified by biochemical tests. Their antibiograms were ascertained by Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method, using 17 antibiotics of 5 different classes. Results: From 2137 urine samples 1332 strains of pathogenic bacteria belonging to 11 species were isolated. Two Gram-positives, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and nine Gram-negatives, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Both S. aureus and E. faecalis were vancomycin resistant, and resistant-strains of all pathogens increased in each 6-month period of study. Particularly, all Gram-negatives were resistant to nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole, the most preferred antibiotics of empiric therapy for UTI, but were moderately resistant to gentamicin, ampicillin, amoxyclav, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Most Gram-negatives produced extended spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusions: It was concluded that periodic surveillance of pathogens is an essential corollary in effective health management in any country, as empiric therapy is a common/essential practice in effective clinical management.

  18. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  19. EVALUATION & TRENDS OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM NETWORK IN UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kr Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of ubiquitous computing, whole scenario of computing has been changed. It affected many inter disciplinary fields. This paper visions the impact of ubiquitous computing on video surveillance system. With increase in population and highly specific security areas, intelligent monitoring is the major requirement of modern world .The paper describes the evolution of surveillance system from analog to multi sensor ubiquitous system. It mentions the demand of context based architectures. It draws the benefit of merging of cloud computing to boost the surveillance system and at the same time reducing cost and maintenance. It analyzes some surveillance system architectures which are made for ubiquitous deployment. It provides major challenges and opportunities for the researchers to make surveillance system highly efficient and make them seamlessly embed in our environments.

  20. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  1. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  2. The effect of surveillance and appreciative inquiry on puerperal infections: a longitudinal cohort study in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hussein

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an intervention comprising surveillance and an organisational change called Appreciative Inquiry on puerperal infections in hospitals in Gujarat state, India. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study with a control group was conducted over 16 months between 2010 and 2012. Women who delivered in six hospitals were followed-up. After a five month pre-intervention period, the intervention was introduced in three hospitals. Monthly incidence of puerperal infection was recorded throughout the study in all six hospitals. A chi-square test and logistic regression were used to examine for associations, trends and interactions between the intervention and control groups. FINDINGS: Of the 8,124 women followed up, puerperal infections were reported in 319 women (3.9% over the course of the study. Puerperal sepsis/genital tract infections and urinary tract infections were the two most common puerperal infections. At the end of the study, infection incidence in the control group halved from 7.4% to 3.5%. Levels in the intervention group reduced proportionately even more, from 4.3% to 1.7%. A chi-square test for trend confirmed the reduction of infection in the intervention and control groups (p<0.0001 but the trends were not statistically different from one another. There was an overall reduction of infection by month (OR = 0.94 95% CI 0.91-0.97. Risk factors like delivery type, complications or delivery attendant showed no association with infection. CONCLUSION: Interruption of resource flows in the health system occurred during the intervention phase, which may have affected the findings. The incidence of infection fell in both control and intervention groups during the course of the study. It is not clear if appreciative inquiry contributed to the reductions observed. A number of practical and methodological limitations were faced. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN03513186.

  3. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  4. Advanced Mobile Surveillance System for Multiple People Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Bandaru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops an efficient people surveillance system capable of tracking multiple people on different terrains. Recorded video on rough terrains is affected by jitters resulting into significant error between the desired and captured video flow. Video stabilization is achieved by calculating the motion and compensational parameters using the LSE analytical solution to minimize the error between present and desired output video captured from an autonomous robot’s camera moving on a rough terrain used for surveillance of unidentified people. This is the first paper to the best of our knowledge which makes use of this method to design mobile wireless robot for human surveillance applications. As the method used is fast then conventional methods, making the proposed system a highly efficient surveillance system as compared to previous systems. The superiority of the method used is demonstrated using different evaluation parameters like RMCD, variability and reliability. The system can be used for surveillance of people under different environmental conditions.

  5. Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Eoghan

    2009-08-01

    Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

  6. Internal and External Validation of a Computer-Assisted Surveillance System for Hospital-Acquired Infections in a 754-Bed General Hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, H Roel A; Lede, Ivar O; Eriksson, John L V; Meijling, Marije G; van der Hoeven, Conrad P; Wille, Jan C; Hopmans, Titia E M; Friedrich, Alex W; Verbrugh, Henri A; Naiemi, Nashwan Al

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate a computer-assisted point-prevalence survey (CAPPS) for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). DESIGN Validation cohort. SETTING A 754-bed teaching hospital in the Netherlands. METHODS For the internal validation of a CAPPS for HAIs, 2,526 patients were included. All patient reco

  7. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Verani

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4% cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7% among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6% of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0% had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9% case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000, followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000. These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and

  8. Surveillance of nosocomial infections in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Widodo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection are one of the main problem in hospital which are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and increased economic cost. Surveillance should be attempted regularly to obtain local data of incidence of nosocomial infections, types of infection, pathogen and resistance pattern. We reported the results of nosocomial surveillance in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, Jakarta, in year 1999 to 2002. The data were obtained from surveillance, conducted by Nosocomial Infection Control Committee. Surveillance were performed to patient in risk of nosocomial infections such as underwent surgical procedure, urinary catheter, peripheral or central venous catheter, ventilator and other invasive procedure. Criteria for nosocomial infection which were used, based on technical guidelines of nosocomial infection in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital, year 1999; which referred to CDC definition of nosocomial infections. Incidence rate of nosocomial infections in year 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 were 1.1, 0.9, 0.6 and 0.4 % respectively. Type of nosocomial infection include catheter related, surgical wound, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections, ranged between 0 to 5.6 %. Gram negative bacteria consist of Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis were the most common nosocomial pathogen. Gram positive bacteria consist of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus anhemolyticus. Trend of increasing incidence of Gram positive nosocomial infection also showed in our surveillance. Mostly Gram negative bacteria had been resistant to penicillin, co amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 3rd generation cephalosporin, but still sensitive to 4th generation cephalosporin and aminoglycoside. The Gram positive bacteria were still sensitive to penicillin, co amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 4th generation cephalosporin and aminoglycoside. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 107

  9. Integrated food chain surveillance system for Salmonella spp. in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; Calva, Juan Jose; Estrada-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Leon, Veronica; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Tollefson, Linda

    2008-03-01

    Few developing countries have foodborne pathogen surveillance systems, and none of these integrates data from humans, food, and animals. We describe the implementation of a 4-state, integrated food chain surveillance system (IFCS) for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Significant findings were 1) high rates of meat contamination (21.3%-36.4%), 2) high rates of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhimurium in chicken, ill humans, and swine (77.3%, 66.3%, and 40.4% of S. Typhimurium T isolates, respectively), and 3) the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Heidelberg (10.4%) and S. Typhimurium (1.7%) from swine. A strong association between Salmonella spp. contamination in beef and asymptomatic Salmonella spp. infection was only observed in the state with the lowest poverty level (Pearson r = 0.91, pclusters with 102 human, retail meat, and food-animal isolates with indistinguishable patterns. An IFCS is technically and economically feasible in developing countries and can effectively identify major public health priorities.

  10. Systematic Review and Classification on Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Falah Chamasemani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various conferences and journals have published articles related to Video Surveillance Systems, indicating researchers’ attention. The goal of this review is to examine the latest works were published in journals, propose a new classification framework of video surveillance systems and investigate each aspect of this classification framework. This paper provides a comprehensive and systematic literature review of video surveillance systems from 2010-2011, extracted from six online digital libraries using article’s title and keyword. The proposed classification framework is expanded on the basis of architecture of video surveillance systems, which is composed of six layers: Concept and Foundation Layer, Network Infrastructure Layer, Processing Layer, Communication Layer, Application Layer, and User Interaction Layer. This review shows, although many publication and research focus on real-time aspect of the challenge, only few researches have investigated the deployment of extracted and retrieved information for forensic video surveillance.

  11. Prediction of equine risk of West Nile virus infection based on dead bird surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rhonda Sue; Foppa, Ivo M

    2006-01-01

    Since the introduction of West Nile Virus (WNV) to the United States in 1999, the efficacy of dead bird surveillance for the prediction of human and veterinary WNV infection has been an issue of debate. We utilized South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control surveillance data from 2003 to determine whether dead bird surveillance accurately predicts equine WNV infection on a county level. We adjusted for human population density as a potential confounder of an association between WNV-positive dead bird counts and mammalian WNV risk. We found a strong positive association between avian risk of WNV death and subsequent equine mortality due to WNV in South Carolina even after adjusting for human population density. Sensitivity of dead bird surveillance as a predictor of future equine WNV risk was far superior to mosquito surveillance (95% vs. 9.5%, respectively). A Poisson regression model of the equine WNV rate as a function of WNV-positive dead bird rate, adjusting for population density and taking into account effect modification by population density shows a good fit with the data. Unlike most previous studies, we control for potential confounding of the dead, WNVpositive bird-equine WNV infection association by human population density. Yet, the positive association between dead bird surveillance and equine WNV risk remains strong and statistically significant, indicating that dead bird surveillance remains a valuable tool of WNV surveillance.

  12. Mobile remote surveillance system for the CERN LHC cryogenic system

    CERN Document Server

    Torbjørn, Houge

    2006-01-01

    This thesis documents the research, planning and partial implementation of a remote surveillance system for use in the CERN LHC machine tunnel. The system is planned to provide surveillance of the cryogenic system in the LHC, eliminating the need for the personnel to go personally to look at a piece of possible faulty equipment. For this project, the complete system is planned. The system will be controlled via an Ethernet connection. This is fed into a 400V power line as a powerline communication signal, and picked up by the surveillance system. Then it is decoded into an Ethernet signal again, and sent to a camera with an on board web server. The power is transported by the same powered rail as used for communication, so that the system can take power and communication along the whole tunnel. The thesis describes the goals of the system and explains the requirements it needs to meet. Several solutions, especially technologies for communication, are considered, and details about them are described. A solutio...

  13. Salmonella infections in food workers identified through routine Public Health Surveillance in Minnesota: impact on outbreak recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medus, Carlota; Smith, Kirk E; Bender, Jeffrey B; Leano, Fe; Hedberg, Craig W

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of Salmonella-infected food workers identified through routine surveillance from 1997 to 2004 in Minnesota was determined in order to evaluate the impact of surveillance on the detection...

  14. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  15. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Flexible surveillance system architecture for prototyping video content analysis algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, R. G. J.; Jaspers, E. G. T.; de With, P. H. N.

    2006-01-01

    Many proposed video content analysis algorithms for surveillance applications are very computationally intensive, which limits the integration in a total system, running on one processing unit (e.g. PC). To build flexible prototyping systems of low cost, a distributed system with scalable processing power is therefore required. This paper discusses requirements for surveillance systems, considering two example applications. From these requirements, specifications for a prototyping architecture are derived. An implementation of the proposed architecture is presented, enabling mapping of multiple software modules onto a number of processing units (PCs). The architecture enables fast prototyping of new algorithms for complex surveillance applications without considering resource constraints.

  17. Intelligent nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) is the facility to fabricate CANDU-type fuel from spent PWR fuel material without any separation of fissile elements and fission products. Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks. This surveillance system is operating for safeguards of the DFDF in KAERI.

  18. Nuclear material surveillance system for DUPIC fuel development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Lee, S. Y.; Ha, J. H.; Go, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Unattended continuous surveillance systems for safeguards of nuclear facility result in large amounts of image and radiation data, which require much time and effort to inspect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop system that automatically pinpoints and diagnoses the anomalies from data. In this regards, this paper presents a novel concept of the continuous surveillance system that integrates visual image and radiation data by the use of neural networks based on self-organized feature mapping. This surveillance system is stably operating for safeguards of the DUPIC (DFDF) in KAERI.

  19. Intelligent network video understanding modern video surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Offering ready access to the security industry's cutting-edge digital future, Intelligent Network Video provides the first complete reference for all those involved with developing, implementing, and maintaining the latest surveillance systems. Pioneering expert Fredrik Nilsson explains how IP-based video surveillance systems provide better image quality, and a more scalable and flexible system at lower cost. A complete and practical reference for all those in the field, this volume:Describes all components relevant to modern IP video surveillance systemsProvides in-depth information about ima

  20. MOVING PERSON IDENTIFICATION IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Solomatin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach for a moving person identifying in video surveillance systems. The proposed solution consists of two successive stages. Selecting of a moving human from all other moving objects in a video stream takes place at the first stage. Human identification based on facial image takes place at the second stage. Detection of a human’s movement is performed via representation of the original video stream in a form of time series. Mathematical apparatus of a singular spectrum is applied for that purpose. The presence of motion is determined by analyzing the periodic components of time series constructed from color and brightness data of the original components of initial video stream. Identification of a person based on his facial image is done through representation of a facial image via two-dimensional matrix with the subsequent application of immune computing mathematical apparatus. Then the binding energy is calculated which shows similarity between the input facial image and faces stored in the training set. The proposed solution for a problem of a moving person’s identifying gives the opportunity to work with low quality video stream having a high level of noise or compression artifacts after encoding. The advantage of the method is implementation simplicity. Unlike traditional methods of computer vision, the proposed method does not require significant computational burden due to simple numerical operations. This method does not require pre-filtering of video images, therefore its performance speed is significantly increased.

  1. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  2. A preliminary study for the development of indices and the current state of surgical site infections (SSIs) in Korea: the Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jae Gil; Choi, Hee Jung; Chun, Hee Kyung; Kang, Jung Gu

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to develop an effective system for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance and examine the current domestic state of SSIs for common abdominal surgeries in Korea. The Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program was developed as an SSI surveillance system. A prospective multicenter study in nine university-affiliated or general hospitals was conducted for patients who underwent gastrectomy, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, or proctectomy between August 16 and September 30 in 2012. Patients were monitored for up to 30 days by combining direct observation and a postdischarge surgeon survey. Data on SSIs were prospectively collected with KOSSIS secretarial support according to a common protocol. Operation-specific SSI rates were stratified according to risk factors and compared with data from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS) and National Healthcare Safety Network. A focus group interview was conducted with participating hospitals for feedback. A total of 1,088 operations were monitored: 207 gastrectomies, 318 cholecystectomies, 270 appendectomies, 197 colectomies, and 96 proctectomies. Operation-specific SSI rates determined by the KOSSIS program were substantially higher than those found in KONIS (7.73% [95% confidence interval, 4.5%-12.3%] vs. 3.4% for gastrectomies, 10.15% [95% confidence interval, 6.1%-15.2%] vs. 4.0% for colectomy, and 13.5% [95% confidence interval, 7.4%-22.0%] vs. 4.2% for proctectomy). Despite a short surveillance period and heterogenous group of hospitals, our results suggest that KOSSIS could be a useful program to enhance SSI surveillance in Korea.

  3. How many foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella infection occurred in France in 1995? Application of the capture-recapture method to three surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, A; Vaillant, V; Bouvet, P; Grimont, P; Desenclos, J C

    2000-07-15

    Despite control measures, foodborne outbreaks of non-typhi Salmonella infection continue to occur in developed countries. The authors aimed to assess the number of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks that occurred in France in 1995 using a capture-recapture approach. Data from three sources--the National Public Health Network (NPHN), the Ministry of Agriculture (MA), which receives mandatory notification, and the National Salmonella and Shigella Reference Center (NRC)-were collected. Matching algorithms permitted identification of matched outbreaks. The total number of outbreaks was estimated by log-linear modeling taking into account source dependencies and the variable catchability. The final estimate was adjusted for the positive predictive value (66%) of the NRC case definition. The dependence between the NPHN and the MA was also evaluated by means of a qualitative survey. A total of 716 foodborne Salmonella outbreaks were reported to the three sources, and 108 matches were identified. The best-fitting model, taking into account a positive dependence between the NPHN and MA sources, gave an estimate of 757 outbreaks. The sensitivity was 15% for the NPHN, 10% for the MA, and 50% for the NRC. In France, routine mandatory reporting of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks is very incomplete, and it is not representative of the serotype and the type of outbreak.

  4. A Framework For An Event Driven Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Kieran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an event driven surveillance system that uses multiple cameras. The purpose of this system is to enable thorough exploration of surveillance events. The system uses a client-server web architecture as this provides scalability for further development of the system infrastructure. The system is designed to be accessed by surveillance operators who can review and comment on events generated by our event detection processing modules. We do not just focus on event detection, but are working towards the optimization of event detection. A multiple camera network system that tracks a moving object (or person and decides if this is an event of interest is also examined. Dynamic switching of the cameras is implemented to aid in human monitoring of the network. The camera displayed in the main view should be the camera with the most interesting activity occurring. Unusual activity is defined as activity occurring that is not of the norm. Normal activity is considered to be everyday repeated activity. Further thought will be given to the extension of this system into a distributed system that would effectively create an event web system. Our contributions are to the development of automated real-time switching of camera views to aid camera operators in the effort of effective video surveillance, and also the detection of events of interest within a surveillance environment, with appropriate alerts and storage of these events. To the best of our knowledge this system provides a novel approach to the technological surveillance paradigm.

  5. Effect of dependency in systems for multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Systems for multivariate on-line surveillance (e.g. outbreak detection), are investigated. Optimal systems for statistical surveillance are based on likelihood ratios. Three systems are compared; based on each marginal density, based on the joint density and based on the Hotelling?s T2. The effect of dependency between the monitored processes is investigated, and the effect of correlation between the change times. When the first change occurs immediately, the three methods...

  6. Effect of dependency in systems for multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Systems for multivariate on-line surveillance (e.g. outbreak detection), are investigated. Optimal systems for statistical surveillance are based on likelihood ratios. Three systems are compared; based on each marginal density, based on the joint density and based on the Hotelling?s T2. The effect of dependency between the monitored processes is investigated, and the effect of correlation between the change times. When the first change occurs immediately, the three methods...

  7. Nosocomial infections in a Dutch neonatal intensive care unit: surveillance study with definitions for infection specifically adapted for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwet, W C; Kaiser, A M; van Elburg, R M; Berkhof, J; Fetter, W P F; Parlevliet, G A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    2005-12-01

    The incidence of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is high compared with other wards. However, no definitions for hospital-acquired infection are available for NICUs. The aim of this study was to measure the incidence of such infections and to identify risk factors in the NICU of the VU University Medical Center, which serves as a level III regional NICU. For this purpose, a prospective surveillance was performed in 1998-2000. We designed definitions by adjusting the current definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for children risk factors were dichotomized. Analysis of risk factors was performed by Cox regression with time-dependent variables. The relationship between the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) and nosocomial infection was investigated. Furthermore, for a random sample of cases, we determined whether bloodstream infection and pneumonia would also have been identified with the CDC definitions. Seven hundred and forty-two neonates were included in the study. One hundred and ninety-one neonates developed 264 infections. Bloodstream infection (N=138, 14.9/1000 patient-days) and pneumonia (N=69, 7.5/1000 patient-days) were the most common infections. Of bloodstream infections, 59% were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci; in 21% of neonates, blood cultures remained negative. In 25% of pneumonias, Enterobacteriaceae were the causative micro-organisms; 26% of cultures remained negative. Compared with the Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) of the CDC, our device utilization ratios and device-associated nosocomial infection rates were high. The main risk factors for bloodstream infection were birth weight [hazard ratio (HR) 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.17] and parenteral feeding with hospital-pharmacy-produced, all-in-one mixture 'Minimix' (HR 3.69, 95%CI 2.03-6.69); administration of intravenous antibiotics (HR 0.39, 95%CI 0.26-0.56) was a protective risk factor. The

  8. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  9. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  10. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

  11. Validación de un programa de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales Validation of a nosocomial infections surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigfrido Rangel-Frausto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Validar el programa de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales y conocer la morbilidad y la mortalidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Un médico especialmente capacitado, realizó vigilancia intensiva de todos los pacientes admitidos en el hospital. Los casos de infección fueron discutidos con otros dos médicos y el resultado se comparó con la vigilancia rutinaria. Se incluyó a todos los pacientes hospitalizados del 11 de julio al 12 de agosto de 1995, que no tenían un proceso infeccioso activo o que no manifestaban un periodo de incubación a su ingreso. Se siguieron diariamente y se registraron datos de: edad, sexo y padecimiento de ingreso. Se recabó información sobre tratamiento antimicrobiano, microrganismo aislado y susceptibilidad. Se evaluó el estado clínico final y se estimó el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria. RESULTADOS. De 429 pacientes, 45 desarrollaron infección nosocomial (casos y 384 no lo hicieron (controles. La incidencia de infecciones nosocomiales fue de 10.48/100. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del programa fueron de 93.3 y 98.7%, respectivamente. La mortalidad en los infectados fue de 11.11%, y en el grupo de los no infectados, de 2.4%. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 20 y 11 días, para infectados y no infectados, respectivamente (pOBJECTIVES. To validate the nosocomial infections surveillance system, establish its impact in morbi-mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Surveillance of every single patient admited during a one month period was done by one of us (DMG. Each posibile case was discussed with two other hospital epidemiologists (SPLR, MSRF. This intensive surveillance was compared against the routinely surveillance performed by the nurses. We included all hospitalized patients between 11th July and 12th of August according to CDC (Atlanta, GA nosocomial infections definitions. Patients were followed everyday and information about age, gender, underlying diagnosis, microorganisms responsible

  12. [Importance of epidemiologic surveillance in contact dermatitis: Spanish surveillance system on contact allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gavín, J; Armario-Hita, J C; Fernández-Redondo, V; Fernández-Vozmediano, J M; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Silvestre, J F; Uter, W; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of contact dermatitis means that this common medical problem has considerable personal, societal, and economic impact. Clinical and epidemiologic research is needed if we are to shed light on the real situation of contact dermatitis in Spain. In this article we will look at epidemiologic research from a practical point of view and analyze the role of the dermatologist in planning and designing studies. The advantages of multicenter studies are discussed, along with the roles of national and international surveillance networks. We present the Spanish Surveillance System on Contact Allergies, which serves as a bridge between Spanish dermatologists and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies. The present and future aims of the Spanish network are described.

  13. Evaluation of the surveillance of surgical site infections within the Dutch PREZIES network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are the most-common healthcare-associated infections among surgical patients and have severe adverse consequences. Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and feedback of data, and has been accepted worldwide as a primary step

  14. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  15. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  16. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Historical Questions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1984-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). BRFSS Survey Data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information...

  17. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  18. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  19. CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals in the U.S. and its territories. Patient information is...

  20. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  1. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  2. Integrated design of intelligent surveillance systems and their user interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2005-01-01

    Modern complex surveillance systems consisting of multiple and heterogeneous sensors, automatic information registration and data analysis techniques, and decision support tools should provide the human operator an integrated, transparent and easily comprehensible view of the surveyed scene. Display

  3. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Historical Questions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1984-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). BRFSS Survey Data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information...

  4. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  5. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's...

  6. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  7. Regional distribution of nosocomial infections due to ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Germany: data from the German National Reference Center for the Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections (KISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistner, R; Schröder, C; Geffers, C; Breier, A-C; Gastmeier, P; Behnke, M

    2015-03-01

    Surveillance systems for hospital infections are reporting increasing rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. We aimed to perform a national survey on this trend and on the regional distribution of nosocomial infections due to ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in German hospitals. Data from 2007 to 2012 from two components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were used for this analysis. The data derive from intensive care units and surgical departments. Independent factors determining the proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae among nosocomial infections due to Enterobacteriaceae and changes in its regional distribution (broken down into German federal states) were calculated by regression analysis. From 2007 to 2012, the data showed a significantly increasing proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in surgical site infections (from 11.46 to 15.38, 134%, p 0.003), urinary tract infections (9.36 to 16.56, 177%, p infections (11.91 to 14.70, 123%, p nosocomial infections has significantly increased in Germany over the last 6 years. Hospitals in Central Germany and surgical departments in all of Germany are especially affected by this development.

  8. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

    2013-03-01

    Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire

  9. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben;

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  10. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis for Salmonella Infection Surveillance, Texas, USA, 2007

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-14

    This podcast describes monitoring of the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella surveillance in Houston, Texas. CDC microbiologist Peter Gerner-Smidt discusses the importance of the PulseNet national database in surveillance of food-borne infections.  Created: 6/14/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/14/2010.

  11. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  12. Automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, Meander E; Bonten, Marc J M; van Mourik, Maaike S M

    2017-08-01

    This review describes recent advances in the field of automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), with a focus on data sources and the development of semiautomated or fully automated algorithms. The availability of high-quality data in electronic health records and a well-designed information technology (IT) infrastructure to access these data are indispensable for successful implementation of automated HAI surveillance. Previous studies have demonstrated that reliance on stand-alone administrative data is generally unsuited as sole case-finding strategy. Recent attempts to combine multiple administrative and clinical data sources in algorithms yielded more reliable results. Current surveillance practices are mostly limited to single healthcare facilities, but future linkage of multiple databases in a network may allow interfacility surveillance. Although prior surveillance algorithms were often straightforward decision trees based on structured data, recent studies have used a wide variety of techniques for case-finding, including logistic regression and various machine learning methods. In the future, natural language processing may enable the use of unstructured narrative data. Developments in healthcare IT are rapidly changing the landscape of HAI surveillance. The electronic availability and incorporation of routine care data in surveillance algorithms enhances the reliability, efficiency and standardization of surveillance practices.

  13. The role of surveillance systems in confronting the global crisis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on Gram-negative bacteria. Recent Findings The World Health Organization and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control CRE, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Summary Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a “One Health” approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping. PMID:26098505

  14. [The limits and possibilities of the Schistosomiasis Information System (SISPCE) for surveillance and control activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Leila Maria Mattos de; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa; Magalhães, Rosely de Oliveira; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the limits and possibilities of the Information System in the Schistosomiasis Control Program (SISPCE) for characterization and surveillance of the disease at the local level. The data were aggregated to calculate epidemiological indicators such as the program's coverage and intensity of mansoni schistosomiasis infection in the endemic municipalities (counties) in Bahia State, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. The results indicate that few municipalities have the program activities properly in place, with insufficient records in the system and lack of reporting for characterizing the endemic or providing feedback for proper surveillance and control. However, the SISPCE is still a step forward in schistosomiasis surveillance, requiring systematic action by the municipalities and maintaining a continuous data flow to orient health system managers. It is necessary to incorporate local communities as units of analysis, given their unique characteristics in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis.

  15. Surveillance definitions of infections in long-term care facilities: revisiting the McGeer criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nimalie D; Ashraf, Muhammad S; Calder, Jennifer; Crnich, Christopher J; Crossley, Kent; Drinka, Paul J; Gould, Carolyn V; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Loeb, Mark; Maccannell, Taranisia; Malani, Preeti N; Mody, Lona; Mylotte, Joseph M; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Roghmann, Mary-Claire; Schweon, Steven J; Simor, Andrew E; Smith, Philip W; Stevenson, Kurt B; Bradley, Suzanne F

    2012-10-01

    (See the commentary by Moro, on pages 978-980 .) Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.

  16. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13%) of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile) in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75%) and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X) were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y) based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P dengue cases (X) with a 1–2 month lead time (t) was in parallel with that of the domestic dengue cases (Y) based on a consecutive 4-year surveillance (i.e., n = 48, R2X(t-1):Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2):Y = 0.31, P dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family) from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in

  17. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  18. Postdischarge surveillance for infection following cesarean section: A prospective cohort study comparing methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Muhammad A; Turnbull, Alison E; Harris, Meredith; Witter, Frank; Perl, Trish M

    2016-04-01

    To assess how enhanced postdischarge telephone follow-up calls would improve case finding for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance after cesarean section. We conducted a prospective cohort study of all patients who delivered by cesarean section between April 22 and August 22, 2010. In addition to our routine surveillance, using clinical databases and electronic patient records, we also made follow-up calls to the patients at 7, 14, and 30 days postoperation. A standard questionnaire with questions about symptoms of SSI, health-seeking behaviors, and treatment received was administered. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were performed to assess the effect of the enhanced surveillance. One hundred ninety-three patients underwent cesarean section during this study period. Standard surveillance identified 14 infections with telephone follow-ups identifying an additional 5 infections. Using the call as a gold standard, the sensitivity of the standard methodology to capture SSI was 73.3%. The duration of the calls ranged from 1 to 5 minutes and were well received by the patients. Results suggest that follow-up telephone calls to patients following cesarean section identifies 26.3% of the total SSIs. Enhanced surveillance can provide more informed data to enhance performance and avoid underestimation of rates. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Bourgeois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective: To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design: Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national; all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results: Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic, United States (Alaska] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7 and commercial software (n=6. Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion: This review successfully establishes

  20. Plasmodium malariae Infection Associated with a High Burden of Anemia: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Langford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium malariae is a slow-growing parasite with a wide geographic distribution. Although generally regarded as a benign cause of malaria, it has been associated with nephrotic syndrome, particularly in young children, and can persist in the host for years. Morbidity associated with P. malariae infection has received relatively little attention, and the risk of P. malariae-associated nephrotic syndrome is unknown.We used data from a very large hospital-based surveillance system incorporating information on clinical diagnoses, blood cell parameters and treatment to describe the demographic distribution, morbidity and mortality associated with P. malariae infection in southern Papua, Indonesia. Between April 2004 and December 2013 there were 1,054,674 patient presentations to Mitra Masyarakat Hospital of which 196,380 (18.6% were associated with malaria and 5,097 were with P. malariae infection (constituting 2.6% of all malaria cases. The proportion of malaria cases attributable to P. malariae increased with age from 0.9% for patients under one year old to 3.1% for patients older than 15 years. Overall, 8.5% of patients with P. malariae infection required admission to hospital and the median length of stay for these patients was 2.5 days (Interquartile Range: 2.0-4.0 days. Patients with P. malariae infection had a lower mean hemoglobin concentration (9.0 g/dL than patients with P. falciparum (9.5 g/dL, P. vivax (9.6g/dL and mixed species infections (9.3g/dL. There were four cases of nephrotic syndrome recorded in patients with P. malariae infection, three of which were in children younger than 5 years old, giving a risk in this age group of 0.47% (95% Confidence Interval; 0.10% to 1.4%. Overall, 2.4% (n = 16 of patients hospitalized with P. malariae infection subsequently died in hospital, similar to the proportions for the other endemic Plasmodium species (range: 0% for P. ovale to 1.6% for P. falciparum.Plasmodium malariae infection is

  1. Automatic Intruder Combat System: A way to Smart Border Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushyant Kumar Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Security and safeguard of international borders have always been a dominant issue for every nation. A large part of a nation’s budget is provided to its defense system. Besides wars, illegal intrusion in terms of terrorism is a critical matter that causes severe harm to nation’s property. In India’s perspective, border patrolling by Border Security Forces (BSF has already been practiced from a long time for surveillance. The patrolling parties are equipped with high-end surveillance equipments but yet an alternative to the ply of huge manpower and that too in harsh environmental conditions hasn’t been in existence. An automatic mechanism for smart surveillance and combat is proposed in this paper as a solution to the above-discussed problems. Smart surveillance requires automatic intrusion detection in the surveillance video, which is achieved by using optical flow information as motion features for intruder/human in the scene. The use of optical flow in the proposed smart surveillance makes it robust and more accurate. Use of a simple horizontal feature for fence detection makes system simple and faster to work in real-time. System is also designed to respond against the activities of intruders, of which auto combat is one kind of response.

  2. Epidemiologic Surveillance for Staphylococcus epidermidis infections related to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, G D; Brockett, R M; Blouse, L E

    1978-07-01

    Epidemiologic investigation of 20 Staphylococcus infections among valvular and aortocoronary bypass graft patients indicated a broad spectrum of clinical illness in these two groups. The highest infection rate (9.3%) and case specific mortality rate (54.5%) were noted among those patients undergoing cardiovalvular replacement surgery with protheses. The median onset of infection was 6 days suggesting infection during the intraoperative period. Using the epidemiologic data from this investigation, a transmission pattern was formulated and a series of control measures designed to interdict the routes of transmission were instituted wigh marked success. These measures significantly reduced the incidence of S. epidermidis infections among these high risk patients.

  3. Emerging Infections Program as Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridkin, Scott K; Cleveland, Angela A; See, Isaac; Lynfield, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    Across the United States, antimicrobial drug-resistant infections affect a diverse population, and effective interventions require concerted efforts across various public health and clinical programs. Since its onset in 1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program has provided robust and timely data on antimicrobial drug-resistant infections that have been used to inform public health action across a spectrum of partners with regard to many highly visible antimicrobial drug-resistance threats. These data span several activities within the Program, including respiratory bacterial infections, health care-associated infections, and some aspects of foodborne diseases. These data have contributed to estimates of national burden, identified populations at risk, and determined microbiological causes of infection and their outcomes, all of which have been used to inform national policy and guidelines to prevent antimicrobial drug-resistant infections.

  4. Surgical site infection after caesarean section: space for post-discharge surveillance improvements and reliable comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Federica; Piselli, Pierluca; Pittalis, Silvia; Ruscitti, Luca E; Cimaglia, Claudia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Puro, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) after caesarean section (CS) represent a substantial health system concern. Surveying SSI has been associated with a reduction in SSI incidence. We report the findings of three (2008, 2011 and 2013) regional active SSI surveillances after CS in community hospital of the Latium region determining the incidence of SSI. Each CS was surveyed for SSI occurrence by trained staff up to 30 post-operative days, and association of SSI with relevant characteristics was assessed using binomial logistic regression. A total of 3,685 CS were included in the study. A complete 30 day post-operation follow-up was achieved in over 94% of procedures. Overall 145 SSI were observed (3.9% cumulative incidence) of which 131 (90.3%) were superficial and 14 (9.7%) complex (deep or organ/space) SSI; overall 129 SSI (of which 89.9% superficial) were diagnosed post-discharge. Only higher NNIS score was significantly associated with SSI occurrence in the regression analysis. Our work provides the first regional data on CS-associated SSI incidence, highlighting the need for a post-discharge surveillance which should assure 30 days post-operation to not miss data on complex SSI, as well as being less labour intensive.

  5. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Use of outcomes to evaluate surveillance systems for bioterrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrams Allyson M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syndromic surveillance systems can potentially be used to detect a bioterrorist attack earlier than traditional surveillance, by virtue of their near real-time analysis of relevant data. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis using the area under the curve (AUC as a comparison metric has been recommended as a practical evaluation tool for syndromic surveillance systems, yet traditional ROC curves do not account for timeliness of detection or subsequent time-dependent health outcomes. Methods Using a decision-analytic approach, we predicted outcomes, measured in lives, quality adjusted life years (QALYs, and costs, for a series of simulated bioterrorist attacks. We then evaluated seven detection algorithms applied to syndromic surveillance data using outcomes-weighted ROC curves compared to simple ROC curves and timeliness-weighted ROC curves. We performed sensitivity analyses by varying the model inputs between best and worst case scenarios and by applying different methods of AUC calculation. Results The decision analytic model results indicate that if a surveillance system was successful in detecting an attack, and measures were immediately taken to deliver treatment to the population, the lives, QALYs and dollars lost could be reduced considerably. The ROC curve analysis shows that the incorporation of outcomes into the evaluation metric has an important effect on the apparent performance of the surveillance systems. The relative order of performance is also heavily dependent on the choice of AUC calculation method. Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for mortality, morbidity and costs in the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems. Incorporating these outcomes into the ROC curve analysis allows for more accurate identification of the optimal method for signaling a possible bioterrorist attack. In addition, the parameters used to construct an ROC curve should be given careful

  7. The potential impact of excluding funguria from the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Kristen V; Baker, Arthur W; Durkin, Michael J; Lewis, Sarah S; Moehring, Rebekah W; Anderson, Deverick J; Sexton, Daniel J; Chen, Luke F

    2015-04-01

    Funguria rarely represents true infection in the urinary tract. Excluding yeast from the catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) surveillance definition reduced CAUTI rates by nearly 25% in community hospitals and at an academic, tertiary-care medical center.

  8. 76 FR 62321 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... certain Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system...) traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) units with part numbers identified in ACSS...

  9. Verification of Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Shafique Sani; Danawi, Hadi; Cain, Loretta; Sharma, Monoj

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. The goal of the study was to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina State, Nigeria. The study is a retrospective record review using extracted data from NNT records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The prevalence of NNT and mortality rate were 336 cases and 3.4 deaths per 100 000 population, respectively, whereas the prevalence of NNT and mortality rate reported through the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system were 111 cases and 1.0 death per 100 000 population, respectively. The study shows underreporting of NNT in the existing IDSR system. Active surveillance is a good strategy for verifying underreporting of NNT in the surveillance system. The IDSR system should be strengthened with the capacity to detect events associated with a disease toward global elimination.

  10. National Bloodstream Infection Surveillance in Switzerland 2008-2014: Different Patterns and Trends for University and Community Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetti, Niccolò; Marschall, Jonas; Atkinson, Andrew; Kronenberg, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiology of bloodstream infections in Switzerland, comparing selected pathogens in community and university hospitals. DESIGN Observational, retrospective, multicenter laboratory surveillance study. METHODS Data on bloodstream infections from 2008 through 2014 were obtained from the Swiss infection surveillance system, which is part of the Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS). We compared pathogen prevalences across 26 acute care hospitals. A subanalysis for community-acquired and hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in community and university hospitals was performed. RESULTS A total of 42,802 bloodstream infection episodes were analyzed. The most common etiologies were Escherichia coli (28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.4%), and polymicrobial bloodstream infections (11.4%). The proportion of E. coli increased from 27.5% in 2008 to 29.6% in 2014 (P = .04). E. coli and S. aureus were more commonly reported in community than university hospitals (34.3% vs 22.7%, P<.001 and 13.9% vs 11.1%, P<.001, respectively). Fifty percent of episodes were community-acquired, with E. coli again being more common in community hospitals (41.0% vs 32.4%, P<.001). The proportion of E. coli in community-acquired bloodstream infections increased in community hospitals only. Community-acquired polymicrobial infections (9.9% vs 5.6%, P<.001) and community-acquired coagulase-negative staphylococci (6.7% vs 3.4%, P<0.001) were more prevalent in university hospitals. CONCLUSIONS The role of E. coli as predominant pathogen in bloodstream infections has become more pronounced. There are distinct patterns in community and university hospitals, potentially influencing empirical antibiotic treatment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1060-1067.

  11. A System for Surveillance Directly from the EMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Richard F.; Morin, Jason; Bhatia, Ramanjot S.; de Bruijn, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infections directly from multiple EMR data streams in a large multi-location Canadian health care facility. The system developed automatically triggers bed-day-level-location-aware reports and detects and tracks the incidents of nosocomial infections in hospital by ward. Introduction Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and increased resource utilization. CDC estimates that in the US alone, over 2 million patients are affected by nosocomial infections costing approximately $34.7 billion to $45 billion annually (1). The existing process of detection and reporting relies on time consuming manual processing of records and generation of alerts based on disparate definitions that are not comparable across institutions or even physicians. Methods A multi-stakeholder team consisting of experts from medicine, infection control, epidemiology, privacy, computing, artificial intelligence, data fusion and public health conducted a proof of concept from four complete years of admission records of all patients at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. Figure 1 lists the data elements investigated. Our system uses an open source enterprise bus ‘Mirth Connect’ to receive and store data in HL7 format. The processing of information is handled by individual components and alerts are pushed back to respective locations. The free text components were classified using natural language processing. Negation detection was performed using NegEx (2). Data-fusion algorithms were used to merge information to make it meaningful and allow complex syndrome definitions to be mapped onto the data. Results The system monitors: Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP), Central Line Infections (CLI), Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) and Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE). 21452 hospital admissions occurred in 17670 unique patients over four years. There

  12. Characteristics of national and statewide health care-associated infection surveillance programs: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Havers, Sally M; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    There are many well-established national health care-associated infection surveillance programs (HAISPs). Although validation studies have described data quality, there is little research describing important characteristics of large HAISPs. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large HAISPs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected leaders from national and state-based HAISPs. Interview data were analyzed following an interpretive description process. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted over a 6-month period during 2014-2015. Analysis of the data generated 5 distinct characteristics of large HAISPs: (1) triggers: surveillance was initiated by government or a cooperative of like-minded people, (2) purpose: a clear purpose is needed and determines other surveillance mechanisms, (3) data measures: consistency is more important than accuracy, (4) processes: a balance exists between the volume of data collected and resources, and (5) implementation and maintenance: a central coordinating body is crucial for uniformity and support. National HAISPs are complex and affect a broad range of stakeholders. Although the overall goal of health care-associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care-associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this goal. The findings from this study will assist the development of new HAISPs and could be used as an adjunct to evaluate existing programs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Routine Surveillance for Bloodstream Infections in a Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Cohort: Do Patients Benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rigby

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients are at a high risk for late bloodstream infection (BSI. Controversy exists regarding the benefit of surveillance blood cultures in this immunosuppressed population. Despite the common use of this practice, the practical value is not well established in non-neutropenic children following HSCT.

  14. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  15. Coping with parvovirus infections in mice: health surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Lydia M; Bleich, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses of mice, minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV), are challenging pathogens to eradicate from laboratory animal facilities. Due to the impediment on rodent-based research, recent studies have focused on the assessment of re-derivation techniques and parvoviral potential to induce persistent infections. Summarizing recent data, this review gives an overview on studies associated with parvoviral impact on research, diagnostic methods, parvoviral persistence and re-derivation techniques, demonstrating the complex nature of parvovirus infection in mice and unfolding the challenge of controlling parvovirus infections in laboratory animal facilities.

  16. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination.

  17. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Mei-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13% of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75% and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P 2X(t-1:Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2:Y = 0.31, P  Conclusions A moderate sensitivity of detecting dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in dengue-endemic or dengue-competent hotspots during an epidemic season is essential and highly recommended.

  18. Improving Surveillance and Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Melissa; Hersey, Diane; Harrison, Sheilah; Joy, Brian; Naguib, Aymen; Galantowicz, Mark; Simsic, Janet

    2016-03-01

    Postoperative cardiovascular surgical site infections are preventable events that may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. To improve surgical wound surveillance and reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. An institutional review of surgical site infections led to implementation of 8 surveillance and process measures: appropriate preparation the night before surgery and the day of surgery, use of appropriate preparation solution in the operating room, appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotic administration, placement of a photograph of the surgical site in the patient's chart at discharge, sending a photograph of the surgical site to the patient's primary care physician, 30-day follow-up of the surgical site by an advanced nurse practitioner, and placing a photograph of the surgical site obtained on postoperative day 30 in the patient's chart. Mean overall compliance with the 8 measures from March 2013 through February 2014 was 88%. Infections occurred in 10 of 417 total operative cases (2%) in 2012, in 8 of 437 total operative cases (2%) in 2013, and in 7 of 452 total operative cases (1.5%) in 2014. Institution of the surveillance process has resulted in improved identification of suspected surgical site infections via direct rather than indirect measures, accurate identification of all surgical site infections based on definitions of the National Healthcare Safety Network, collaboration with all persons involved, and enhanced communication with patients' family members and referring physicians. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. Surveillance of healthcare acquired infections in hospital and community: a retrospective study in Local Healthcare Organization of Rovigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ronzani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are associated with higher incidences of mortality, morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and increase of costs. Surveillance of alert organism/conditions and bacterial resistance to antimicrobials is a systematic and dynamic system of data collection that analyses and monitors trends of bacterial resistance. This study was conducted to detect antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in order to inform treatment choices and generate hospital-wide baseline data.Methods: the Local Healtcare Oganization of Rovigo has started a program of surveillance on antimicrobial resistance in hospital and community. In this work some results of the surveillance of microorganism isolated and related antimicrobial resistance are reported, collected in the period 2009-2010 in Rovigo and Trecenta Hospitals, Territorial Nursing Homes (TNH and community from patients’ blood, urine and respiratory samples.Results: data show a significant difference in the level of antibiotic resistance between the two Hospitals. High rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing organisms are detected and carbapenems are the only reliable agents for the treatment of many infections in the Hospital of Trecenta and TNH.Conclusions: because ESBL producing bacteria are emerging pathogens in the community, the rational use of available antibiotics or the appropriate antimicrobial prescribing are imperative. Local surveillance is a powerful tool to detect and monitor hospital and community infections and provides information useful as a guide to medical practice, including therapeutics and disease-control activities.

  20. Will smart surveillance systems listen, understand and speak Slovene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dobrišek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the spoken language technologies that could enable the so-called smart (intelligent surveillance systems to listen, understand and speak Slovenian in the near future. Advanced computational methods of artificial perception and pattern recognition enable such systems to be at least to some extent aware of the environment, the presence of people and other phenomena that could be subject to surveillance. Speech is one such phenomenon that has the potential to be a key source of information in certain security situations. Technologies that enable automatic speech and speaker recognition as well as their psychophysical state by computer analysis of acoustic speech signals provide an entirely new dimension to the development of smart surveillance systems. Automatic recognition of spoken threats, screaming and crying for help, as well as a suspicious psycho-physical state of a speaker provide such systems to some extent with intelligent behaviour. The paper investigates the current state of development of these technologies and the requirements and possibilities of these systems to be used for the Slovenian spoken language, as well as different possible security application scenarios. It also addresses the broader legal and ethical issues raised by the development and use of such technologies, especially as audio surveillance is one of the most sensitive issues of privacy protection.

  1. Surveillance of device-associated infections at a teaching hospital in rural Gujarat - India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Surveillance of hospital-acquired infection (HAI, particularly device-associated infection (DAI, helps in determining the infection rates, risk factors, and in planning the preventive strategies to ensure a quality healthcare in any hospital. The present study was carried out to know the prevalence of DAI in a tertiary care teaching hospital of rural Gujarat. Materials and Methods: A prospective, site-specific surveillance of three common DAIs that is catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI, IV-catheter-related bloodstream infection (IV-CRBSI, and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP was carried out between July 2007 and April 2008, in different wards/ICUs. A surveillance plan, with guidelines and responsibilities of nurses, clinicians and microbiologist was prepared. Infection surveillance form for each patient suspected to have DAI was filled. The most representative clinical sample, depending on the type of suspected DAI, was collected using standard aseptic techniques and processed for aerobes and facultative anaerobes. All the isolates were identified and antimicrobial sensitivity testing performed as per CLSI guidelines. An accurate record of total device days for each of the indwelling devices under surveillance was also maintained. Data, collected in the prescribed formats, were analysed on monthly basis; and then, compiled at the end of the study. Descriptive analysis of the data was done and DAI rate was expressed as number of DAI per 1000 device days. Results: The overall infection rate for CA-UTI, IV-CRBSI, and VAP were found to be 0.6, 0.48, and 21.92 per 1000 device days, respectively. The organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, CONS, Enterococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Duration of indwelling devices was found to be the major risk-factor for acquiring DAIs. Low DAI rate might have been due to use of antibiotics, often prophylactic. Active

  2. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  3. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  4. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  5. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite

  6. Automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yuan; Yongduan Song; Xueye Wei

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents an automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera. Our system achieves wide-area automatic surveillance without a dead angle using only one camera. We propose a new human detection method to select the most adaptive classifier based on the locations of the human candidates.Human regions are detected from the fish-eye image effectively and are corrected for perspective versions.An experiment is performed on indoor video sequences with different illumination and crowded conditions,with results demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.%@@ This letter presents an automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera. Our system achieves wide-area automatic surveillance without a dead angle using only one camera. We propose a new human detection method to select the most adaptive classifier based on the locations of the human candidates. Human regions are detected from the fish-eye image effectively and are corrected for perspective versions. An experiment is performed on indoor video sequences with different illumination and crowded conditions, with results demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.

  7. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite cons

  8. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Celestine A; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 - 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 - 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 - 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 - 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 1.0 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: (3)2) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 0.6 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: (3)2) in 2012. Case definitions are simple and understood by

  9. Epidemiological surveillance of lymphocryptovirus infection in wild bonobos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Yoshida

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocryptovirus (LCV is one of the major gena in the herpesvirus family and is widely disseminated among primates. LCVs of human and rhesus macaques are shown to be causative agents of a number of malignant diseases including lymphoma and carcinoma. Bonobos (Pan paniscus are highly endangered and the least studied species of the great apes. Considering the potential pathogenicity of the LCV that might threaten the fate of wild bonobos, population-based epidemiological information in terms of LCV prevalence in different location of Bonobo’s habitats will help propose improved conservation strategies for the bonobos. However, such data are not available yet because it is very difficult to collect blood samples in the wild and thus virtually impossible to conduct sero-epidemiological study on the wild ape. In order to overcome this issue, we focused on evaluating anti-LCV IgA in the feces of bonobos, which are available in a noninvasive manner. Preliminary study showed that anti-LCV IgA but not IgG was efficiently and reproducibly detected in the feces of captive chimpanzees. It is noteworthy that the fecal IgA-positive individuals were seropositive for both anti-LCV IgG and IgA and that the IgA antibodies in both sera and feces were also detectable by Western blotting assay. These results indicate that the detection of fecal anti-LCV IgA is likely a reliable and feasible for epidemiological surveillance of LCV prevalence in the great apes. We then applied this method and found that 31% of wild bonobos tested were positive for anti-LCV IgA antibody in the feces. Notably, the positivity rates varied extensively among their sampled populations. In conclusion, our results in this study demonstrate that LCV is highly disseminated among wild bonobos while the prevalence is remarkably diverse in their population-dependent manner.

  10. Sustained live poultry market surveillance contributes to early warnings for human infection with avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shisong; Bai, Tian; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Zhu, Wenfei; Wang, Dayan; Cheng, Jinquan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-08-03

    Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016. Similar viruses were identified in environmental samples collected in the LPMs and the patients. In contrast to previously reported H5N6 viruses, viruses with six internal genes derived from the H9N2 or H7N9 viruses were detected in the present study. The increased H5N6 virus-positive rate in the LPMs and the subsequent human infections demonstrated that sustained LPM surveillance for avian influenza viruses provides an early warning for human infections. Interventions, such as LPM closures, should be immediately implemented to reduce the risk of human infection with the H5N6 virus when the virus is widely detected during LPM surveillance.

  11. Event communication in a regional disease surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschen, Wayne; Coberly, Jacqueline; Sniegoski, Carol; Holtry, Rekha; Sikes, Marvin; Happel Lewis, Sheryl

    2007-10-11

    When real-time disease surveillance is practiced in neighboring states within a region, public health users may benefit from easily sharing their concerns and findings regarding potential health threats. To better understand the need for this capability, an event communications component (ECC) was added to the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance System, an operational biosurveillance system employed in the District of Columbia and in surrounding Maryland and Virginia counties. Through usage analysis and user survey methods, we assessed the value of the enhanced system in daily operational use and during two simulated exercises. Results suggest that the system has utility for regular users of the system as well as suggesting several refinements for future implementations.

  12. Surveillance of infection severity: a registry study of laboratory diagnosed Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Schlackow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changing clinical impact, as virulent clones replace less virulent ones, is a feature of many pathogenic bacterial species and can be difficult to detect. Consequently, innovative techniques monitoring infection severity are of potential clinical value. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 5,551 toxin-positive and 20,098 persistently toxin-negative patients tested for Clostridium difficile infection between February 1998 and July 2009 in a group of hospitals based in Oxford, UK, and investigated 28-day mortality and biomarkers of inflammation (blood neutrophil count, urea, and creatinine concentrations collected at diagnosis using iterative sequential regression (ISR, a novel joinpoint-based regression technique suitable for serial monitoring of continuous or dichotomous outcomes. Among C. difficile toxin-positive patients in the Oxford hospitals, mean neutrophil counts on diagnosis increased from 2003, peaked in 2006-2007, and then declined; 28-day mortality increased from early 2006, peaked in late 2006-2007, and then declined. Molecular typing confirmed these changes were likely due to the ingress of the globally distributed severe C. difficile strain, ST1. We assessed the generalizability of ISR-based severity monitoring in three ways. First, we assessed and found strong (p<0.0001 associations between isolation of the ST1 severe strain and higher neutrophil counts at diagnosis in two unrelated large multi-centre studies, suggesting the technique described might be useful elsewhere. Second, we assessed and found similar trends in a second group of hospitals in Birmingham, UK, from which 5,399 cases were analysed. Third, we used simulation to assess the performance of this surveillance system given the ingress of future severe strains under a variety of assumptions. ISR-based severity monitoring allowed the detection of the severity change years earlier than mortality monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Automated electronic systems providing

  13. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie; Christiansen, Claus Bohn;

    2016-01-01

    -transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical......The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus......-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were available after a median of 1.4 days, typing results after 17 days, detailed clinical information after 33 days. The large number of samples typed demonstrated continued monitoring of EV...

  14. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in a teaching hospital in Tehran and use of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afhami, Sh; Hadadi, A; Khorami, E; Seifi, A; Bazaz, N Esmailpour

    2013-10-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common health-care-associated infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and computer-assisted diagnosis and surveillance is called for. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was assessed prospectively during a 6-month period in the ICUs of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. To determine the accuracy of the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (INIS) system, patient data were input to the software and compared with physicians' judgement. The frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 21.6%, or 9.96 episodes per 1000 ventilator days. The duration of admission to the ICU, duration of mechanical ventilator and number of re-intubations were significantly higher in patients who developed pneumonia. The INIS system identified 100% of cases, with no false-positive or false-negative results. Compared with developed countries, the frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia was high in our ICUs, and INIS software was accurate in diagnosing nosocomial infection.

  15. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  16. An active vision system for multitarget surveillance in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtari, Ardevan; Benhabib, Beno

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a novel agent-based method for the dynamic coordinated selection and positioning of active-vision cameras for the simultaneous surveillance of multiple objects-of-interest as they travel through a cluttered environment with a-priori unknown trajectories. The proposed system dynamically adjusts not only the orientation but also the position of the cameras in order to maximize the system's performance by avoiding occlusions and acquiring images with preferred viewing angles. Sensor selection and positioning are accomplished through an agent-based approach. The proposed sensing-system reconfiguration strategy has been verified via simulations and implemented on an experimental prototype setup for automated facial recognition. Both simulations and experimental analyses have shown that the use of dynamic sensors along with an effective online dispatching strategy may tangibly improve the surveillance performance of a sensing system.

  17. Twenty-year summary of surveillance for human hantavirus infections, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Rollin, Pierre E

    2013-12-01

    In the past 20 years of surveillance for hantavirus in humans in the United States, 624 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported, 96% of which occurred in states west of the Mississippi River. Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred. Rarely, hantavirus infections result in mild illness that does not progress to HPS. Continued testing and surveillance of clinical cases in humans will improve our understanding of the etiologic agents involved and the spectrum of diseases.

  18. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes an expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  19. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the ?Water Security initiative (WSi).? The Cincinnati pilot has been f...

  20. Recommendations for the Empirical Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Using Surveillance Data on Antimicrobial Resistance in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningstein, Maike; van der Bij, Akke K.; de Kraker, Marlieke E. A.; Monen, Jos C.; Muilwijk, Jan; de Greeff, Sabine C.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; van Hall, Maurine A. Leverstein-

    2014-01-01

    Background Complicated urinary tract infections (c-UTIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections and a substantial part of the antimicrobial agents used in hospitals is for the treatment of c-UTIs. Data from surveillance can be used to guide the empirical treatment choices of clinicians when treating c-UTIs. We therefore used nation-wide surveillance data to evaluate antimicrobial coverage of agents for the treatment of c-UTI in the Netherlands. Methods We included the first isolate per patient of urine samples of hospitalised patients collected by the Infectious Disease Surveillance Information System for Antibiotic Resistance (ISIS-AR) in 2012, and determined the probability of inadequate coverage for antimicrobial agents based on species distribution and susceptibility. Analyses were repeated for various patient groups and hospital settings. Results The most prevalent bacteria in 27,922 isolates of 23,357 patients were Escherichia coli (47%), Enterococcus spp. (14%), Proteus mirabilis (8%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7%). For all species combined, the probability of inadequate coverage was <5% for amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combined with gentamicin and the carbapenems. When including gram-negative bacteria only, the probability of inadequate coverage was 4.0%, 2.7%, 2.3% and 1.7%, respectively, for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, a second or a third generation cephalosporin in combination with gentamicin, and the carbapenems (0.4%). There were only small variations in results among different patient groups and hospital settings. Conclusions When excluding Enterococcus spp., considered as less virulent, and the carbapenems, considered as last-resort drugs, empirical treatment for c-UTI with the best chance of adequate coverage are one of the studied beta-lactam-gentamicin combinations. This study demonstrates the applicability of routine surveillance data for up-to-date clinical practice guidelines on empirical antimicrobial

  1. Prospective surveillance of healthcare associated infections in a Cambodian pediatric hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco Hearn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare associated infections (HAI are the most common preventable adverse events following admission to healthcare facilities. Data from low-income countries are scarce. We sought to prospectively define HAI incidence at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC, a Cambodian pediatric referral hospital. Methods Prospective HAI surveillance was introduced for medical admissions to AHC. Cases were identified on daily ward rounds and confirmed using locally adapted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC definitions. During the surveillance period, established infection prevention and control (IPC activities continued, including hand hygiene surveillance. In addition, antimicrobial stewardship practices such as the creation of an antimicrobial guideline smartphone app were introduced. Results Between 1st January and 31st December 2015 there were 3,263 medical admissions and 102 HAI cases. The incidence of HAI was 4.6/1,000 patient-days (95% confidence interval 3.8–5.6 and rates were highest amongst neonates. Median length of stay was significantly longer in HAI cases: 25 days versus 5 days for non-HAI cases (p < 0.0001. All-cause in-hospital mortality increased from 2.0 to 16.1% with HAI (p < 0.0001. Respiratory infections were the most common HAI (54/102; 52.9%. Amongst culture positive infections, Gram-negative organisms predominated (13/16; 81.3%. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was common, supporting the use of more expensive carbapenem drugs empirically in HAI cases. The total cost of treatment for all 102 HCAI cases combined, based on additional inpatient days, was estimated to be $299,608. Conclusions Prospective HAI surveillance can form part of routine practice in low-income healthcare settings. HAI incidence at AHC was relatively low, but human and financial costs remained high due to increased carbapenem use, prolonged admissions and higher mortality rates.

  2. TENTACLE: Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    standard format by which blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video is disseminated via the web . SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar SBIR Small Business...Thru. TIGR Tactical Ground Reporting System, a web -based information sharing system available to the United States Army TIPL Tentacle IPL TM...Earth for development due to our past experience developing with it, and the maturity of the Tentacle user interface mockup we created (located at

  3. Respiratory Watch: Development of a Provincial System for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Surveillance in Nova Scotia, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaad Al-Assam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in young children and is increasingly recognized as a cause of influenza-like illness in those older than 65 years of age. A surveillance system to provide timely local information about RSV activity in Nova Scotia (NS is described.

  4. AUTOMATIC THEFT SECURITY SYSTEM (SMART SURVEILLANCE CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena G.S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aims to create a smart application camera, with the intention of eliminating the need for a human presence to detect any unwanted sinister activities, such as theft in this case. Spread among the campus, are certain valuable biometric identification systems at arbitrary locations. The application monitosr these systems (hereafter referred to as “object” using our smart camera system based on an OpenCV platform. By using OpenCV Haar Training, employing the Viola-Jones algorithm implementation in OpenCV, we teach the machine to identify the object in environmental conditions. An added feature of face recognition is based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA to generate Eigen Faces and the test images are verified by using distance based algorithm against the eigenfaces, like Euclidean distance algorithm or Mahalanobis Algorithm. If the object is misplaced, or an unauthorized user is in the extreme vicinity of the object, an alarm signal is raised.

  5. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  6. Is the HIV sentinel surveillance system adequate in China? Findings from an evaluation of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Chen, Sanny; Seguy, Nicole; Chen, Zhongdan; Sabin, Keith; Calleja, Jesus García

    2012-01-01

    Background An external evaluation was conducted to assess the performance of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system (HSS), identify operational challenges at national and local levels and provide recommendations for improvement. Methods The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems were followed to assess the key attributes of HSS. Comprehensive assessment activities were conducted, including: using a detailed checklist to review surveillance guidelines, protocols and relevant documents; conducting self-administered, anonymous surveys with 286 local China CDC staff; and carrying out field observations in 32 sentinel sites in four provinces. Results China has built an extensive HSS with 1888 sentinel sites to monitor HIV epidemic trends by population groups over time. The strengths of HSS lie in its flexibility, simplicity, usefulness and increase in coverage in locations and populations. With its rapid expansion in 2010, HSS faces challenges in maintaining acceptability, timeliness, data quality, representativeness and sustainability. Recommendations Implementation of the national guidelines should be standardized by strengthening training, monitoring and supervision of all staff involved, including community-based organizations. National surveillance guidelines need to be revised to strengthen data quality and representativeness, particularly to include specific instructions on HIV testing result provision, collection of identifying information, sample size and sampling methods particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM), collection of refusal information, and data interpretation. Sustainability of China’s HSS could be strengthened by applying locally tailored surveillance strategies, strengthening coordination and cooperation among government agencies and ensuring financial and human resources. PMID:23908946

  7. HIV/tuberculosis co-infection: a request for a better surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Mônica M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing endemicity of tuberculosis resulting from causes such as immigration, poverty, a declining public health infrastructure and co-infection by HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is leading to a change in tuberculosis control programmes. One of the main reasons for the resurgence of tuberculosis is HIV infection - the risk of tuberculosis is greater in HIV patients than in the majority of the population as can be seen from numerous research projects. The need for systematic testing for HIV infection in all tuberculosis patients by undertaking confidential HIV tests on admission to a tuberculosis programme is brought out. This measure would increase the number of cases diagnosed and provide data for better surveillance of the co-infection.

  8. Modify AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Motorway Surveillance System Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Layth Abdulkareem Hassnawi; R. Badlishah Ahmad; Abid Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to modify the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in order to improve the routing performance in motorway surveillance systems. The proposed protocol has all the characteristics of the original AODV routing protocol since it follows all the steps of the route discovery and route maintenance mechanism of the original AODV routing protocol. The Modified AODV (MAODV) is different from the original AODV protocol in that it modifies the origina...

  9. An Optimization Framework for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    in overall treatment time. We have developed, implemented, and tested on clinical cases a metaheuristic (that is, a method that provides a framework ...Optimization Framework For Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-04-1-0179 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...methodology, the Nested Partitions (NP) framework has its ability to incorporate feasibility heuristics (in which a number of good quality feasible

  10. Shedding light on avian influenza H4N6 infection in mallards: modes of transmission and implications for surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wild mallards (Anas platyrhychos are considered one of the primary reservoir species for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, mallards were experimentally infected with an H4N6 subtype of AIV by oral inoculation or contact with an H4N6 contaminated water source. Cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, fecal samples, and water samples were collected daily and tested by real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR for estimation of viral shedding. Fecal samples had significantly higher virus concentrations than oropharyngeal or cloacal swabs and 6 month old ducks shed significantly more viral RNA than 3 month old ducks regardless of sample type. Use of a water source contaminated by AIV infected mallards, was sufficient to transmit virus to naïve mallards, which shed AIV at higher or similar levels as orally-inoculated ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Bodies of water could serve as a transmission pathway for AIV in waterfowl. For AIV surveillance purposes, water samples and fecal samples appear to be excellent alternatives or additions to cloacal and oropharyngeal swabbing. Furthermore, duck age (even within hatch-year birds may be important when interpreting viral shedding results from experimental infections or surveillance. Differential shedding among hatch-year mallards could affect prevalence estimates, modeling of AIV spread, and subsequent risk assessments.

  11. Expanding veterinary biosurveillance in Washington, DC: The creation and utilization of an electronic-based online veterinary surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennenfent, Andrew; DelVento, Vito; Davies-Cole, John; Johnson-Clarke, Fern

    2017-03-01

    To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends. Nine of the 10 facilities that responded expressed interest conducting surveillance. In September 2015, 17 canine parvovirus cases were reported. In response, a campaign encouraging regular veterinary preventative care was launched and featured on local media platforms. Additionally, during the system's first year of operation it detected 5 canine leptospirosis cases and 2 antibiotic resistant infections. No canine influenza cases were reported and syndromic surveillance compliance varied, peaking during National Special Security Events. Small animal veterinarians and the general public are interested in companion animal disease surveillance. The system described can serve as a model for establishing similar systems to monitor disease trends of public health importance in pet populations and enhance biosurveillance capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A conditional probability approach to surveillance system sensitivity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdzadeh, R; Pourmalek, F

    2008-01-01

    To determine the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) surveillance system sensitivity with a conditional probability approach at district level in Darregaz, a frontier town in the north of Iran. A cross-sectional survey. We used a sample survey of sexually active inhabitants for proxy measurement of the medical service utilization pattern for STD, and interviews with all practitioners to determine their knowledge of STD diagnosis and attitude towards STD reporting as proxy measures of actual STD diagnosis and reporting, respectively. Point estimates of the STD surveillance system sensitivity for each of the health service sectors were derived from multiplying the three proxy measures of sensitivity determinants, i.e., utilization, diagnosis, and reporting, as conditional probabilities. Estimates of sensitivity for all health service sectors were summed to obtain the overall sensitivity. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was 21.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.5-25.3%) for detecting symptomatic STD. Of the sexually active inhabitants, 8.9% (95% CI 5.5-14.2%) did not use health services if they contracted STDs. The public health sector's contribution to overall sensitivity (59.6%) was greater than its proportion of service utilization for STD (45.3%). The strengths of the conditional probability approach are feasibility of conducting necessary surveys, decomposing sensitivity into its determinants, and providing evidence for intervention at different points for planning purposes. This approach tends to overestimate the overall sensitivity.

  13. Are surveillance response systems enough to effectively combat and contain the Ebola outbreak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Ngogang, Jeane Yonkeu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic of the Ebola virus infection in West Africa in 2014 has become a worldwide concern. Due to the nature of the disease, which has an extremely high mortality potential, this outbreak has received much attention from researchers and public health workers. An article entitled "Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries," published in the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty in August 2014, concluded that a good surveillance system to monitor disease transmission dynamics is essential and needs to be implemented to combat the outbreak. Issues regarding the limitation of the passive surveillance system have been raised by Professor Viroj Wiwanitkit, who emphasizes the need for an active disease detection system such as mass screening in this letter to editor. The different function between passive and active surveillance system in combating the disease outbreak has been agreed upon by Ernest Tambo et al. There have also been discussions between Wiwanitkit and Tambo et al. on the following issues: (i) the extreme resource limitations in outbreak areas, (ii) new technology to improve the available systems. Further recommendations echoed in this letter to editor by Wiwanitkit, who outlined the research priorities on the development of appropriate combined disease monitoring systems and good policy to allocate available tools and technology in resource-limited settings for epidemic scenarios. The journal's editor, Professor Xiao-Nong Zhou, has therefore collated all parts of these discussions between authors in this letter to editor paper, in order to further promote research on a combined active and passive system to combat the present extending Ebola outbreak.

  14. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  15. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  16. Collecting data for sexually transmitted infections (STI surveillance: what do patients prefer in Flanders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peremans Lieve

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background STI surveillance systems are subject to qualitative and quantitative underreporting. General practitioners (GPs, who are key subjects in case reporting, explain their underreporting partly by their observation that taking a sexual history is embarrassing for patients, and that patients are reluctant to disclose information on their sexual practices. In this study we examine patients' willingness to provide data for STI surveillance. Methods A questionnaire-based survey in a stratified population sample of 300 patients aged 18–60 years. Results The large majority of respondents stated to be willing to give information on their sexual practices for the purpose of STI surveillance. They preferred to answer sexual history questions to their GP; filling in a form on the internet was the second best option. Conclusion Based on these results, it is unlikely that the cooperation of patients would be a weak link in STI surveillance strategies. This observation, together with the fact that the majority of patients at risk for STIs have regular access to general practice services, justify renewed efforts to enliven primary care-based STI surveillance strategies.

  17. Dependent surveillance through an experimental satellite data link system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, G. A.

    The development and testing of an experimental dependent aircraft-surveillance system using a satellite data link is reported. In this system, the aircraft position is determined onboard using GPS or inertial navigation, enclosed in a message block using a data-link system, and transmitted to an Inmarsat GEO communication satellites; the ground station receives and analyzes the data to keep constant track of the aircraft position. The hardware implementation and the results of demonstrations performed on flights from Iowa to Wisconsin and the North Atlantic are discussed, and diagrams and maps are provided.

  18. A Driving Behavior Retrieval Application for Vehicle Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xianping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle surveillance system provides a large range of informational services for the driver and administrator such as multiview road and driver surveillance videos from multiple cameras mounted on the vehicle, video shots monitoring driving behavior and highlighting the traffic conditions on the roads. How to retrieval driver’s specific behavior, such as ignoring pedestrian, operating infotainment, near collision or running the red light, is difficult in large scale driving data. Annotation and retrieving of these video streams has an important role on visual aids for safety and driving behavior assessment. In a vehicle surveillance system, video as a primary data source requires effective ways of retrieving the desired clip data from a database. And data from naturalistic studies allow for an unparalleled breadth and depth of driver behavior analysis that goes beyond the quantification and description of driver distraction into a deeper understanding of how drivers interact with their vehicles. To do so, a model that classifies vehicle video data on the basis of traffic information and its semantic properties which were described by driver’s eye gaze orientation was developed in this paper. The vehicle data from OBD and sensors is also used to annotate the video. Then the annotated video data based on the model is organized and streamed by retrieval platform and adaptive streaming method. The experimental results show that this model is a good example for evidence-based traffic instruction programs and driving behavior assessment.

  19. Design and Implementation of Integrated Surveillance and Modeling Systems for Climate-Sensitive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Davis, J. K.; Liu, Y.; Henebry, G. M.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Climatic variations have a multitude of effects on human health, ranging from the direct impacts of extreme heat events to indirect effects on the vectors and hosts that transmit infectious diseases. Disease surveillance has traditionally focused on monitoring human cases, and in some instances tracking populations sizes and infection rates of arthropod vectors and zoonotic hosts. For climate-sensitive diseases, there is a potential to strengthen surveillance and obtain early indicators of future outbreaks by monitoring environmental risk factors using broad-scale sensor networks that include earth-observing satellites as well as ground stations. We highlight the opportunities and challenges of this integration by presenting modeling results and discussing lessons learned from two projects focused on surveillance and forecasting of mosquito-borne diseases. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessement (EPIDEMIA) project integrates malaria case surveillance with remotely-sensed environmental data for early detection of malaria epidemics in the Amhara region of Ethiopia and has been producing weekly forecast reports since 2015. The South Dakota Mosquito Information System (SDMIS) project similarly combines entomological surveillance with environmental monitoring to generate weekly maps for West Nile virus (WNV) in the north-central United States. We are currently implementing a new disease forecasting and risk reporting framework for the state of South Dakota during the 2016 WNV transmission season. Despite important differences in disease ecology and geographic setting, our experiences with these projects highlight several important lessons learned that can inform future efforts at disease early warning based on climatic predictors. These include the need to engage end users in system design from the outset, the critical role of automated workflows to facilitate the timely integration of multiple data streams

  20. Trends in HIV infection surveillance data among men who have sex with men in Norway, 1995-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakopanec Irena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports on the growing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM in the EU/EEA area were accompanied by an increase of reported HIV among MSM in Oslo, Norway in 2003. Our study with data from 1995 to 2011 has described the recent trends of HIV among MSM in Norway and their socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics. Methods The data were collected from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases. Cases were described by age, place of infection, clinical presentation of HIV infection, STI co-infection and source partner. We used simple linear regression to estimate trends over time. Results During the study period, 991 MSM, aged from 16 to 80 years, were newly diagnosed with HIV. No significant trends over time in overall median age (36 years were observed. Most of the MSM (505, 51% were infected in Oslo. In the years 1995-2002, 30 to 45 MSM were diagnosed with HIV each year, while in the years 2003-2011 this increased to between 56 and 97 cases. The proportion of MSM, presenting with either AIDS or HIV illness, decreased over time, while asymptomatic and acute HIV illness increased (p for trend=0.034 or less. STI co-infection was reported in 133 (13% cases. An overall increase of syphilis co-infected cases was observed (p for trend Conclusions Though the increases described could be attributed to earlier testing and diagnosis, no change in the median age of cases was observed. This indicates that it is likely that there has been an increase in HIV infections among MSM in Norway since 2003. The simultaneous increase in STI co-infections indicates risky sexual behaviour and a potential to spread both HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  1. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  2. Development of Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System `COSMOS`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    The Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System (COSMOS) was developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a safeguards surveillance system under the JASPAS (Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards) with the collaboration of the Sony Corporation. It was intended as a direct replacement to the Twin Minolta film camera system. The COSMOS system can operate with a self-contained battery, record 30,000 scenes with an 8 mm video cassette tape and operate continuously for three months without human intervention. It can also operate by AC power supply for more than three months, and record 45,000 scenes in an 8 mm video cassette tape. The COSMOS system consists of two units, one is the Recording Unit and the other is the Setup/Review Unit. The Recording Unit consists of a main frame, four modules and a tamperproof housing. The four modules are a small CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera with an auto-iris lens and a specific VTR (Video Tape Recorder), a video frame memory module, a system control module, and a DC or an AC power module. Currently, the COSMOS is the only safeguards video surveillance system without the need of external power supply for three months. In 1992 thirteen COSMOS units were successfully tested for the reliability by both the IAEA and the JAERI. None of mechanical failure was observed. On the one hand, the battery operation tests using four units were successfully carried out with 5 minutes time interval for three months. Three units were also tested in the field and no failure was observed. The COSMOS was accepted as the routine-use device for international safeguards by the IAEA in August 1993. The total of 90 units were purchased by the IAEA from the manufacturer, SONY, and also several units were purchased by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan for the STA/IAEA joint-use in Japan. (author)

  3. Evaluating a surveillance system: live-bird market surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ike; Kabir, Junaidu; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Tseggai, Tesfai; Joannis, Tony; Okewole, Phillip; Kumbish, Peterside; Ahmed, Mohammed; Lombin, Lami; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was first reported in poultry in Nigeria in February 2006. The only human case that occurred was linked to contact with poultry in a live bird market (LBM). LBM surveillance was instituted to assess the degree of threat of human exposure to H5N1. The key indicator was detection of H5N1 in LBMs. We evaluated the surveillance system to assess its operations and attributes. We used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. We reviewed and analyzed passive surveillance data for HPAI (January 2006-March 2009) from the Avian Influenza National Reference Laboratory, and live bird market surveillance data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigeria. We interviewed key stakeholders and reviewed reports of live bird market surveillance to obtain additional information on the operations of the system. We assessed the key system attributes. A total of 299 cases occurred in 25 (72%) states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The system detected HPAI H5N1 virus in 7 (9.5%) LBMs; 2 (29%) of which were from 2 (18.2%) states with no previous case. A total of 17,852 (91.5%) of samples arrived at the laboratory within 24 hours but laboratory analysis took over 7 days. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. The system is useful, flexible, complex and not timely, but appears to be meeting its objectives. The isolation of HPAI H5N1 virus in some of these markets is an indication that the markets are possible reservoirs of the virus in Nigeria. We recommend that the Federal Government of Nigeria should dedicate more funds for surveillance for HPAI as this will aid early warning and reduce the risk of a pandemic.

  4. Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Hu; Wang, Hen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Bergquist, Robert; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-10-04

    Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled "Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China" (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.

  5. Early warning epidemic surveillance in the Pacific island nations: an evaluation of the Pacific syndromic surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Adam T; Kama, Mike; Samo, Marcus; Vaai, Saine; Matanaicake, Jane; Joshua, Cynthia; Kolbe, Anthony; Durrheim, David N; Paterson, Beverley J; Biaukula, Viema; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in 21 Pacific island countries and areas perform routine indicator- and event-based surveillance for the early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. This evaluation aims to assess whether the PSSS is meeting its objectives, what progress has been made since a formative evaluation of the system was conducted in 2011, and provides recommendations to enhance the PSSS's performance in the future. Twenty-one informant interviews were conducted with national operators of the system and regional public health agencies that use information generated by it. Historic PSSS data were analysed to assess timeliness and completeness of reporting. The system is simple, acceptable and useful for public health decision-makers. The PSSS has greatly enhanced Pacific island countries' ability to undertake early warning surveillance and has contributed to efforts to meet national surveillance-related International Health Regulation (2005) capacity development obligations. Despite this, issues with timeliness and completeness of reporting, data quality and system stability persist. A balance between maintaining the system's simplicity and technical advances will need to be found to ensure its long-term sustainability, given the low-resource context for which it is designed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Wide area surveillance real-time motion detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book describes a system for visual surveillance using intelligent cameras. The camera uses robust techniques for detecting and tracking moving objects. The real time capture of the objects is then stored int he database. The tracking data stored in the database is analysed to study the camera view, detect and track objects, and study object behavior. These set of models provide a robust framework for coordinating the tracking of objects between overlapping and non-overlapping cameras, and recording the activity of objects detected by the system.

  7. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  8. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Edyniesky; Calistri, Paolo; Fonseca, Osvaldo; Ippoliti, Carla; Alfonso, Pastor; Iannetti, Simona; Abeledo, María A; Fernández, Octavio; Percedo, María I; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Although avian influenza (AI) virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI). Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30%) were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  9. Video coding for next-generation surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    Video is used as recording media in surveillance system and also more frequently by the Swedish Police Force. Methods for analyzing video using an image processing system have recently been introduced at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, and new methods are in focus in a research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group. The accuracy of the result of those forensic investigations often depends on the quality of the video recordings, and one of the major problems when analyzing videos from crime scenes is the poor quality of the recordings. Enhancing poor image quality might add manipulative or subjective effects and does not seem to be the right way of getting reliable analysis results. The surveillance system in use today is mainly based on video techniques, VHS or S-VHS, and the weakest link is the video cassette recorder, (VCR). Multiplexers for selecting one of many camera outputs for recording is another problem as it often filters the video signal, and recording is limited to only one of the available cameras connected to the VCR. A way to get around the problem of poor recording is to simultaneously record all camera outputs digitally. It is also very important to build such a system bearing in mind that image processing analysis methods becomes more important as a complement to the human eye. Using one or more cameras gives a large amount of data, and the need for data compression is more than obvious. Crime scenes often involve persons or moving objects, and the available coding techniques are more or less useful. Our goal is to propose a possible system, being the best compromise with respect to what needs to be recorded, movements in the recorded scene, loss of information and resolution etc., to secure the efficient recording of the crime and enable forensic analysis. The preventative effective of having a well functioning surveillance system and well established image analysis methods is not to be neglected. Aspects of

  10. Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system: coordinating national data on antimicrobial use and resistance for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnidge, John D; Meleady, Kathy T

    2017-06-22

    inform policy development and clinical decision making and improve consumer awareness of antimicrobial use and resistance. The system will continue to develop as a comprehensive system, with additional data over time, and appropriate clinical and epidemiological review.What is known about this topic? Surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance is critical to inform effective policy development and public health responses to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. Until now, surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance in Australia has been fragmented, with state and territory and professional group differences in data collection, analysis and reporting.What does this paper add? This paper profiles the development of the AURA surveillance system, the first nationally coordinated surveillance system for antimicrobial use and resistance, and its use of a partnership approach with contributing programs in order to promote participation and to obtain data to inform strategies to prevent and contain antimicrobial resistance. This paper highlights the establishment phase, noting that the system continues to be improved with growing participation from all sectors.What are the implications for practitioners? National surveillance data from the AURA surveillance system provides evidence for action to guide improvements in infection control, antimicrobial prescribing and the prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance across all healthcare sectors. It will also enable trends to be identified and reported on, and have the capability of determining the effect of interventions to improve and rationalise antimicrobial prescribing.

  11. Using automated medical records for rapid identification of illness syndromes (syndromic surveillance: the example of lower respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashevsky Inna

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps in disease surveillance capacity, particularly for emerging infections and bioterrorist attack, highlight a need for efficient, real time identification of diseases. Methods We studied automated records from 1996 through 1999 of approximately 250,000 health plan members in greater Boston. Results We identified 152,435 lower respiratory infection illness visits, comprising 106,670 episodes during 1,143,208 person-years. Three diagnoses, cough (ICD9CM 786.2, pneumonia not otherwise specified (ICD9CM 486 and acute bronchitis (ICD9CM 466.0 accounted for 91% of these visits, with expected age and sex distributions. Variation of weekly occurrences corresponded closely to national pneumonia and influenza mortality data. There was substantial variation in geographic location of the cases. Conclusion This information complements existing surveillance programs by assessing the large majority of episodes of illness for which no etiologic agents are identified. Additional advantages include: a sensitivity, uniformity and efficiency, since detection of events does not depend on clinicians' to actively report diagnoses, b timeliness, the data are available within a day of the clinical event; and c ease of integration into automated surveillance systems. These features facilitate early detection of conditions of public health importance, including regularly occurring events like seasonal respiratory illness, as well as unusual occurrences, such as a bioterrorist attack that first manifests as respiratory symptoms. These methods should also be applicable to other infectious and non-infectious conditions. Knowledge of disease patterns in real time may also help clinicians to manage patients, and assist health plan administrators in allocating resources efficiently.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Surveillance for Bloodstream Infections for Sepsis Management in Low-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penno, Erin C; Baird, Sarah J; Crump, John A

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial sepsis is a leading cause of mortality among febrile patients in low- and middle-income countries, but blood culture services are not widely available. Consequently, empiric antimicrobial management of suspected bloodstream infection is based on generic guidelines that are rarely informed by local data on etiology and patterns of antimicrobial resistance. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections to inform empiric management of suspected sepsis in low-resource areas, we compared costs and outcomes of generic antimicrobial management with management informed by local data on etiology and patterns of antimicrobial resistance. We applied a decision tree model to a hypothetical population of febrile patients presenting at the district hospital level in Africa. We found that the evidence-based regimen saved 534 more lives per 100,000 patients at an additional cost of $25.35 per patient, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $4,739. This ratio compares favorably to standard cost-effectiveness thresholds, but should ultimately be compared with other policy-relevant alternatives to determine whether routine surveillance for bloodstream infections is a cost-effective strategy in the African context.

  13. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanmoy, Arif Mohammad; Ahmed, Asm Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Hossain, Belal; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n=297) of eligible cases (n=375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance.

  14. Burden of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in London acute hospitals: retrospective on a voluntary surveillance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, S; Bishop, L A; Wright, A L; Kanfoudi, L; Duckworth, G; Fraser, G G

    2011-12-01

    Although meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as an important cause of hospital and community healthcare-associated morbidity, and colonization as a precursor to infection, few studies have attempted to assess the burden of both colonization and infection across acute healthcare providers within a defined health economy. This study describes the prevalence and incidence of MRSA colonization and infection in acute London hospital Trusts participating in a voluntary surveillance programme in 2000-2001. Hospital infection control staff completed a weekly return including details on incident and prevalent colonizations, bacteraemias and other significant infections due to MRSA. Incidence and prevalence rates were calculated for hospitals with sufficient participation across both years. Colonizations accounted for 79% of incident MRSA cases reported; 4% were bacteraemias, and 17% other significant infections. There was no change in incidence of colonization of hospital patients between 2000 and 2001. By contrast, there was an unexplained 49% increase in prevalence of colonizations over this period. For any given month, prevalent colonizations outnumbered incident colonizations at least twofold. This MRSA surveillance programme was unusual for prospective ascertainment of incident and prevalent cases of both colonization and infection within an English regional health economy. Consistent with other studies, the incidence and prevalence of colonization substantially exceeded infection. Given the small contribution of bacteraemias to the overall MRSA burden, and the surveillance, screening and control interventions of recent years, it may be appropriate to review the present reliance on bacteraemia surveillance.

  15. Customizing Multiprocessor Implementation of an Automated Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Biglari-Abhari

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the development of an automated embedded video surveillance system using two customized embedded RISC processors. The application is partitioned into object tracking and video stream encoding subsystems. The real-time object tracker is able to detect and track moving objects by video images of scenes taken by stationary cameras. It is based on the block-matching algorithm. The video stream encoding involves the optimization of an international telecommunications union (ITU-T H.263 baseline video encoder for quarter common intermediate format (QCIF and common intermediate format (CIF resolution images. The two subsystems running on two processor cores were integrated and a simple protocol was added to realize the automated video surveillance system. The experimental results show that the system is capable of detecting, tracking, and encoding QCIF and CIF resolution images with object movements in them in real-time. With low cycle-count, low-transistor count, and low-power consumption requirements, the system is ideal for deployment in remote locations.

  16. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  17. Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.

  18. Frequent Trajectory Patterns Mining for Intelligent Visual Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Lin; CHEN Yao-wu

    2009-01-01

    A frequent trajectory patterns mining algorithm is proposed to learn the object activities and classify the trajectories in intelligent visual surveillance system. The distribution patterns of the trajectories were generated by an Apriori based frequent patterns mining algorithm and the trajectories were classified by the frequent trajectory patterns generated. In addition, a fuzzy c-mcans (FCM) based learning algorithm and a mean shift based clustering procedure were used to construct the representation of trajectories. The algorithm can be further used to describe activities and identify anomalies. The experiments on two real scenes show that the algorithm is effective.

  19. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaine, Manon; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M

    2017-01-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). Mi......Ba-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity...... of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications....

  20. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  2. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  3. Epidemiology of domestically acquired hepatitis E virus infection in Japan: assessment of the nationally reported surveillance data, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Atsuhiro; Arima, Yuzo; Yamagishi, Takuya; Kinoshita, Hitomi; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Yahata, Yuichiro; Matsui, Tamano; Ishii, Koji; Wakita, Takaji; Oishi, Kazunori

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections from developed countries. To describe recent trends in notification and potential risk groups and risk factors in Japan, HEV infection cases and demographic, food consumption, clinical and laboratory data reported during 2007-2013 were analysed. In total, 530 HEV infections were reported during 2007-2013. Amongst 462 domestic cases, the mean age was 56.5 years (sd 13.9) and 80.1 % were male. Forty-three cases (9.3 %) were asymptomatic, amongst which 11 were detected from blood donations. Whilst ∼50 cases were reported annually during 2007-2011, the number of reported cases increased to 121 in 2012 and 126 in 2013. The increase was characterized by a rise in the number of domestic, symptomatic cases (P = 0.05) and cases confirmed by anti-HEV IgA detection (P National Health Insurance system in Japan in October 2011 and its acceptance for surveillance purposes. However, the increase was not associated with detection of asymptomatic cases. Moreover, males aged 50-69 years remained as the high-risk group, and pork and other meats continued to be the most suspected items. Our findings indicated that HEV infection is an emerging and important public health concern in Japan.

  4. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  5. Hospital-based surveillance for HTLV-1/2 infections in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Carlos; Aguilera, Antonio; Caballero, Estrella; Tuset, Concepción; Alvarez, Patricia; García-Campello, Marta; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; de Lejarazu, Raúl Ortiz; Eiros, José; Rodriguez, Carmen; del Romero, Jorge; Benito, Rafael; Calderón, Enrique; Santana, Otilia; Amor, Aránzazu; Gómez-Hernando, César; García, Juan; Soriano, Vincent

    2007-09-01

    In Western countries, HTLV-1 infection is recognized mainly among foreigners coming from endemic areas. In contrast, HTLV-2 is found predominantly in native intravenous drug users (IDUs). Spain has experienced a large wave of immigration, which could have influenced the current prevalence and distribution of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection. A 1-day cross-sectional survey was carried out in May 2005 in 13 hospitals distributed across Spain. A total of 2873 outpatient subjects were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies. Although the majority of the study population consisted of native Spaniards, 206 (7.2%) were immigrants. Two cases of HTLV-1 and one of HTLV-2 infection were found (overall prevalence, 0.1%). The two individuals with HTLV-1 were immigrants from endemic areas and the single case of HTLV-2 infection was a former Spaniard IDU coinfected with HIV-1. In summary, the current prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection in Spain is low, with no evidence of spread beyond the classical risk groups. However, a rapidly growing population of immigrants from HTLV-1-endemic areas in Spain could modify this pattern and periodic surveillance studies including both natives and immigrants are warranted.

  6. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

    2013-06-01

    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

  7. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D. O. D.; Sediono, W.; Shah, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process.

  8. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C. [and others

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  9. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the “Water Security initiative (WSi).” The Cincinnati pilot has been fully operational since January 2008, and an additional four pilot utilities will have their own, custom CWSs by the end of 2012. A workshop amongst the pilot cities was conducted in May 2012 to discuss lessons learned from the design, implementation, operation, maintenance, and evaluation of each city’s PHS component. Methods When evaluating potential surveillance tools to integrate into a drinking water contamination warning system, it is important to consider design decisions, dual use applications/considerations, and the unique capabilities of each tool. The pilot cities integrated unique surveillance tools, which included a combination of automated event detection tools and communication and coordination procedures into their respective PHS components. The five pilots performed a thorough, technical evaluation of each component of their CWS, including PHS. Results Four key lessons learned were identified from implementation of the PHS component in the five pilot cities. First, improved communication and coordination between public health and water utilities was emphasized as an essential goal even if it were not feasible to implement automated surveillance systems. The WSi pilot project has helped to strengthen this communication pathway through the process of collaborating to develop the component, and through the need to investigate PHS alerts. Second, the approximate location of specific cases associated with PHS alerts was found to be an essential feature that

  10. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  11. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2014: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In 2014, 69 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 275,581 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, an increase of 22% on the number of notifications in 2013. In 2014, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (105,719 notifications, 38% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (101,400 notifications, 37% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (40,367 notifications, 15% of total notifications). There were 17,411 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 8,125 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,942 notifications of other bacterial infections; 615 notifications of zoonoses and 2 notifications of quarantinable diseases.

  12. Smart Platforms Surveillance System to Enhance Communication in Disaster Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satea Hikmat Alnajjar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The modern communications technology is a positive case for disaster risk reduction, since they to it provides critical information to realize risk assessment. In this study, we present an innovativetechnique is characterized by an aerial platform as a robust method to monitor disaster area. Traffic Surveillance System (TSS, based on Detection and Early Warning (DEW units, is used to monitor theroads in preventing accidents at the same time finding what causes the accidents. This is done by implementing some image vision protocols as that of Gaussian. This paper will discuss about the cameravideo- surveillance capabilities of tracking across different and varied road environments including detection of moving vehicles. The programming method used will be the functional programming ofOpenCV which could be operated under Linux OS. The bit error rate (BER also was evaluated among multiple platform links in mobile environments. We adopted multi-level deployment besides low aggregate throughput delivered to all remote-sensing terminals in order to accommodate the reliability of data transmission from the last mile.

  13. Use of administrative data for surgical site infection surveillance after congenital cardiac surgery results in inaccurate reporting of surgical site infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Krista D; Pappas, Janine M; Kennedy, Andrea T; Coffin, Susan E; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Fuller, Stephanie M; Spray, Thomas L; McCardle, Kenneth; Gaynor, J William

    2014-02-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) is a safety surveillance system managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that monitors procedure specific rates of surgical site infections (SSIs). At our institution, SSI data is collected and reported by three different methods: (1) the NHSN database with reporting to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; (2) the hospital billing database with reporting to payers; and (3) The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. A quality improvement initiative was undertaken to better understand issues with SSI reporting and to evaluate the effect of different data sources on annual SSI rates. Annual cardiac surgery procedure volumes for all three data sources were compared. All episodes of SSI identified in any data source were reviewed and adjudicated using NHSN SSI criteria, and the effect on SSI rates was evaluated. From January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2011, 2,474 cardiac procedures were performed and reported to The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Billing data identified 1,865 cardiac surgery procedures using the 63 CARD International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes from the NHSN inclusion criteria. Only 1,425 procedures were targeted for NHSN surveillance using the NHSN's CARD operative procedure group in the same period. Procedures identified for NHSN surveillance annually underestimated the number of cardiac operations performed by 17% to 71%. As a result, annual SSI rates potentially differed by 12% to 270%. The NHSN CARD surveillance guidelines for SSI fail to identify all pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. Failure to target all at-risk procedures leads to inaccurate reporting of SSI rates largely based on identifying the denominator. Inaccurate recording of SSI data has implications for public reporting, benchmarking of outcomes, and denial of payment. Use of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery

  14. Systems approaches to animal disease surveillance and resource allocation: methodological frameworks for behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karl M; Denwood, Matthew J; Stott, Alistair W; Mellor, Dominic J; Reid, Stuart W J; Gunn, George J

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions.

  15. Data Mining in HIV-AIDS Surveillance System : Application to Portuguese Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alexandra; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Gaio, A Rita; Reis, Luís Paulo

    2017-04-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an infectious agent that attacks the immune system cells. Without a strong immune system, the body becomes very susceptible to serious life threatening opportunistic diseases. In spite of the great progresses on medication and prevention over the last years, HIV infection continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 36 million lives over the last 35 years since the recognition of the disease. Monitoring, through registries, of HIV-AIDS cases is vital to assess general health care needs and to support long-term health-policy control planning. Surveillance systems are therefore established in almost all developed countries. Typically, this is a complex system depending on several stakeholders, such as health care providers, the general population and laboratories, which challenges an efficient and effective reporting of diagnosed cases. One issue that often arises is the administrative delay in reports of diagnosed cases. This paper aims to identify the main factors influencing reporting delays of HIV-AIDS cases within the portuguese surveillance system. The used methodologies included multilayer artificial neural networks (MLP), naive bayesian classifiers (NB), support vector machines (SVM) and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN). The highest classification accuracy, precision and recall were obtained for MLP and the results suggested homogeneous administrative and clinical practices within the reporting process. Guidelines for reductions of the delays should therefore be developed nationwise and transversally to all stakeholders.

  16. 75 FR 81512 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... TCAS units from dropping tracks, which could compromise separation of air traffic and lead to... received reports of anomalies with the Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert...

  17. Sports Injury Surveillance Systems: A Review of Methods and Data Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Data from sports injury surveillance systems are a prerequisite to the development and evaluation of injury prevention strategies. This review aimed to identify ongoing sports injury surveillance systems and determine whether there are gaps in our understanding of injuries in certain sport settings. A secondary aim was to determine which of the included surveillance systems have evaluated the quality of their data, a key factor in determining their usefulness. A systematic search was carried out to identify (1) publications presenting methodological details of sports injury surveillance systems within clubs and organisations; and (2) publications describing quality evaluations and the quality of data from these systems. Data extracted included methodological details of the surveillance systems, methods used to evaluate data quality, and results of these evaluations. Following literature search and review, a total of 15 sports injury surveillance systems were identified. Data relevant to each aim were summarised descriptively. Most systems were found to exist within professional and elite sports. Publications concerning data quality were identified for seven (47%) systems. Validation of system data through comparison with alternate sources has been undertaken for only four systems (27%). This review identified a shortage of ongoing injury surveillance data from amateur and community sport settings and limited information about the quality of data in professional and elite settings. More surveillance systems are needed across a range of sport settings, as are standards for data quality reporting. These efforts will enable better monitoring of sports injury trends and the development of sports safety strategies.

  18. Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Sue Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design: All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion: Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9 virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control.

  19. The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology Study: A Long-Term, Worldwide Surveillance Study on Urological Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wagenlehner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology (GPIU study is a worldwide-performed point prevalence study intended to create surveillance data on antibiotic resistance, type of urogenital infections, risk factors and data on antibiotic consumption, specifically in patients at urological departments with healthcare-associated urogenital infections (HAUTI. Investigators registered data through a web-based application (http://gpiu.esiu.org/. Data collection includes the practice and characteristics of the hospital and urology ward. On a certain day in November, each year, all urological patients present in the urological department at 8:00 a.m. are screened for HAUTI encompassing their full hospital course from admission to discharge. Apart from the GPIU main study, several side studies are taking place, dealing with transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, as well as urosepsis. The GPIU study has been annually performed since 2003. Eight-hundred fifty-six urology units from 70 countries have participated so far, including 27,542 patients. A proxy for antibiotic consumption is reflected by the application rates used for antibiotic prophylaxis for urological interventions. Resistance rates of most uropathogens against antibiotics were high, especially with a note of multidrug resistance. The severity of HAUTI is also increasing, 25% being urosepsis in recent years.

  20. The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology Study: A Long-Term, Worldwide Surveillance Study on Urological Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, Florian; Tandogdu, Zafer; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Cai, Tommaso; Cek, Mete; Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Köves, Béla; Naber, Kurt; Perepanova, Tamara; Tenke, Peter; Wullt, Björn; Bogenhard, Florian; Johansen, Truls Erik Bjerklund

    2016-01-01

    The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology (GPIU) study is a worldwide-performed point prevalence study intended to create surveillance data on antibiotic resistance, type of urogenital infections, risk factors and data on antibiotic consumption, specifically in patients at urological departments with healthcare-associated urogenital infections (HAUTI). Investigators registered data through a web-based application (http://gpiu.esiu.org/). Data collection includes the practice and characteristics of the hospital and urology ward. On a certain day in November, each year, all urological patients present in the urological department at 8:00 a.m. are screened for HAUTI encompassing their full hospital course from admission to discharge. Apart from the GPIU main study, several side studies are taking place, dealing with transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, as well as urosepsis. The GPIU study has been annually performed since 2003. Eight-hundred fifty-six urology units from 70 countries have participated so far, including 27,542 patients. A proxy for antibiotic consumption is reflected by the application rates used for antibiotic prophylaxis for urological interventions. Resistance rates of most uropathogens against antibiotics were high, especially with a note of multidrug resistance. The severity of HAUTI is also increasing, 25% being urosepsis in recent years. PMID:26797640

  1. Surveillance of dengue and chikungunya infection in Dong Thap, Vietnam:A 13-month study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pham Thi Kim Lien; Phan Thi Nga; Laurence Briant; Truong Ba Tang; Bui Minh Trang; Laurent Gavotte; Emmanuel Cornillot; Vu Trong Duoc; Tran Nhu Duong; Roger Frutos

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish a surveillance in Dong Thap, at the border with Cambodia by assessing the presence of DENV serotypes and CHIKV among patients hospitalized at Dong Thap general hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive analysis was conducted on a cohort of 131 patients hospitalized with acute fever and symptoms compatible with dengue or chikungunya. The study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2013. The full clinical picture was established as well as serological and molecular detection. Serological analysis was sequentially performed on blood samples collected on admission and an average of seven days after admission. The detection of IgM antibody to DENV was performed by IgM capture ELISA and the detection of DENV and CHIKV RNA was done by reverse-transcription multiplex PCR. Results: 101 patients out of 131 (77%) were confirmed with dengue. All four dengue serotypes were detected with a predominance of DENV2 and DENV4. No chikungunya infection was detected although reported in neighboring Cambodia. A differential efficiency of serological dengue detection was observed. Efficiency was 29% upon admission and 53% after seven days on the same patients. 30 patients out of 131 (23%) were negative with both DENV and CHIKV. Conclusions: Dengue is at risk of being underestimated and chikungunya is not systematically detected. Changes in detection and surveillance procedures are therefore discussed to increase efficiency of dengue detection and continue the monitoring the emergence of CHIKV in Dong Thap province and in Vietnam.

  2. Laboratory-based surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella infection and the importance of denominator data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiec, J; Evans, M R; Thomas, D R; Davies, G H; Lewis, H

    2012-11-01

    Laboratory data are the cornerstone in surveillance of infectious disease. We investigated whether changes in reported incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infection might be explained by changes in stool sampling rates. Data were extracted from a national database on 585 843 patient stool samples tested by microbiology laboratories in Wales between 1998 and 2008. Salmonella incidence fell from 43 to 19 episodes/100 000 population but Campylobacter incidence after declining from 111/100 000 in 1998 to 84/100 000 in 2003 rose to 119/100 000 in 2008. The proportion of the population sampled rose from 2·0% in 1998 to 2·8% in 2008, mostly due to increases in samples from hospital patients and older adults. The proportion of positive samples declined for both Salmonella and Campylobacter from 3·1% to 1·1% and from 8·9% to 7·5%, respectively. The decline in Salmonella incidence is so substantial that it is not masked even by increased stool sampling, but the recent rise in Campylobacter incidence may be a surveillance artefact largely due to the increase in stool sampling in older people.

  3. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  4. Strengthening public health surveillance and response using the health systems strengthening agenda in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukanga David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task. Specifically, several nations are faced with an immense challenge of revamping an entire system. To accomplish this, it is essential to first identify the components of the system that require modification. The World Health Organization (WHO has proposed health system building blocks, which are now widely recognized as essential components of health systems strengthening. With increased travel and urbanization, the threat of emerging diseases of pandemic potential is increasing alongside endemic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, tuberculosis (TB, malaria, and hepatitis virus infections. At the same time, the epidemiologic patterns are shifting, giving rise to a concurrent increase in disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. These diseases can be addressed by public health surveillance and response systems that are operated by competent public health workers in core public health positions at national and sub-national levels with a focus on disease prevention. We describe two ways that health ministries in developing countries could leverage President Obama’s Global Health Initiative (GHI to build public health surveillance and response systems using proven models for public health systems strengthening and to create the public health workforce to operate those systems. We also offer suggestions for how health ministries could strengthen public health systems within the broad health systems strengthening agenda. Existing programs (e.g., the Global Vaccine Alliance [GAVI] and the Global Fund Against Tuberculosis, AIDS, and Malaria [GFTAM] can also adapt their current health systems strengthening programs to build sustainable public health systems.

  5. RF Based Fishing Vessel Surveillance System: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Pranit Jeba Samuel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is a key factor to ensure safety in various fields, here motivity of fishing boats in ocean/sea are monitored for illegal intrusion in other nations boundary. Hence an effective scheme isdesigned to overcome this threat with Global positioning system (GPS which provides dynamic location of fishing vessel in water and microcontroller which competes on GPS and predefined boundary locations to determine whether the boat have crossed the border or not. If so the fisherman is alerted and the message is transmitted to nearby coast guard ships through RF signals at VHF (30-300MHz range which covers wide area. On adumbrated the patrolling units can alert the fisherman from their position or if necessary the entire movement of the fishing vessel could be controlled remotely for trespassing. This measures fixes the cross boundary fishing problems between nations as the fisherman’s are unaware about their position in water.

  6. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    CERN Document Server

    Priyatikanto, R; Rachman, A; Dani, T

    2015-01-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO \\& GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast-moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar sche...

  7. Early detection of influenza outbreaks using the DC Department of Health's syndromic surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Samuel C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2001, the District of Columbia Department of Health has been using an emergency room syndromic surveillance system to identify possible disease outbreaks. Data are received from a number of local hospital emergency rooms and analyzed daily using a variety of statistical detection algorithms. The aims of this paper are to characterize the performance of these statistical detection algorithms in rigorous yet practical terms in order to identify the optimal parameters for each and to compare the ability of two syndrome definition criteria and data from a children's hospital versus vs. other hospitals to determine the onset of seasonal influenza. Methods We first used a fine-tuning approach to improve the sensitivity of each algorithm to detecting simulated outbreaks and to identifying previously known outbreaks. Subsequently, using the fine-tuned algorithms, we examined (i the ability of unspecified infection and respiratory syndrome categories to detect the start of the flu season and (ii how well data from Children's National Medical Center (CNMC did versus all the other hospitals when using unspecified infection, respiratory, and both categories together. Results Simulation studies using the data showed that over a range of situations, the multivariate CUSUM algorithm performed more effectively than the other algorithms tested. In addition, the parameters that yielded optimal performance varied for each algorithm, especially with the number of cases in the data stream. In terms of detecting the onset of seasonal influenza, only "unspecified infection," especially the counts from CNMC, clearly delineated influenza outbreaks out of the eight available syndromic classifications. In three of five years, CNMC consistently flags earlier (from 2 days up to 2 weeks earlier than a multivariate analysis of all other DC hospitals. Conclusions When practitioners apply statistical detection algorithms to their own data, fine tuning

  8. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  9. Smart Telerobotic Surveillance System via Internet with Reduced Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh Vasalya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an imperial solution to the problems faced by man while enduring hazardous tasks like handling and disposal of nuclear wastes, monitoring nuclear power plants, mining operations etc .which have to be aborted if expertise group running it is unavailable or on a run. This paper presents a distributed platform that allows the special group of user to control a gadget (possibly a robot through internet as a medium. An advanced version of this technology is capable of transmitting graphic images and other surrounding information as required, via internet back to the user to facilitate the effective monitoring of the existent situation using appropriate software tools. The project uses the SRV-1 Mobile Surveillance Robot which is a fully integrated system standard designed and other related technology for surveillance purposes. It is driven via web browser using JAVA based control applications with live video feeds. Specialised user group will be given separate account from where they can control and monitor the system even when they are not present at the site. End user will be connected to the gadget (robot through a central server which acts as a single channel for both sending and receiving information. But the subject of remote control over the internet has some possible anomalies namely network freezing, delay between host and recipient, congested network and many others. This system enables asynchronous object passing so that network bandwidth is used effectively and such parameters as the network condition and server states have less effect on the system. To resolve this issue, a fuzzy logic controller is used to control the robot’s motion along a predefined path with the necessary manipulation of the normal course. The robot was first modelled in Matlab Simulink and the fuzzy logic rules were optimized for the best results possible. In accordance with the fuzzy rules developed the fuzzy interference system generates the

  10. Parallel Computational Intelligence-Based Multi-Camera Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orts-Escolano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a multi-camera surveillance system based on the use of self-organizing neural networks to represent events on video. The system processes several tasks in parallel using GPUs (graphic processor units. It addresses multiple vision tasks at various levels, such as segmentation, representation or characterization, analysis and monitoring of the movement. These features allow the construction of a robust representation of the environment and interpret the behavior of mobile agents in the scene. It is also necessary to integrate the vision module into a global system that operates in a complex environment by receiving images from multiple acquisition devices at video frequency. Offering relevant information to higher level systems, monitoring and making decisions in real time, it must accomplish a set of requirements, such as: time constraints, high availability, robustness, high processing speed and re-configurability. We have built a system able to represent and analyze the motion in video acquired by a multi-camera network and to process multi-source data in parallel on a multi-GPU architecture.

  11. Lens Systems for Sky Surveys and Space Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    2013-09-01

    Since the early days of astrophotography, lens systems have played a key role in capturing images of the night sky. The first images were attempted with visual-refractors. These were soon followed with color-corrected refractors and finally specially designed photo-refractors. Being telescopes, these instruments were of long-focus and imaged narrow fields of view. Simple photographic lenses were soon put into service to capture wide-field images. These lenses also had the advantage of requiring shorter exposure times than possible using large refractors. Eventually, lenses were specifically designed for astrophotography. With the introduction of the Schmidt-camera and related catadioptric systems, the popularity of astrograph lenses declined, but surprisingly, a few remained in use. Over the last 30 years, as small CCDs have displaced large photographic plates, lens systems have again found favor for their ability to image great swaths of sky in a relatively small and simple package. In this paper, we follow the development of lens-based astrograph systems from their beginnings through the current use of both commercial and custom lens systems for sky surveys and space surveillance. Some of the optical milestones discussed include the early Petzval-type portrait lenses, the Ross astrographic lens and the current generation of optics such as the commercial 200mm camera lens by Canon, and the Russian VT-53e in service with ISON.

  12. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ziemann

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors.We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events.We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness.We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  13. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A S M; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-04-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010-2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005.

  14. Surveillance of acute respiratory infections in general practices - The Netherlands, winters 1998/1999 and 1999/2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandhof WE van den; Bartelds AIM; Wilbrink B; Verweij C; Bijlsma K; Nat H van der; Boswijk H; Pronk JDD; Dorigo-Zetsma JW; Heijnen MLA; NIVEL; CIE; LIS

    2001-01-01

    To provide insight into the virological aetiology of influenza-like illnesses and other acute respiratory infections, nose/throat swabs were taken by 30-35 general practitioners of the sentinel surveillance network of The Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research from a random selection of p

  15. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

  16. HIV incidence estimate combining HIV/AIDS surveillance, testing history information and HIV test to identify recent infections in Lazio, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammone Alessia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461; stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229 new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years. In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during

  17. First Use of Multiple Imputation with the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vinnard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this study was to compare methods for handling missing data in analysis of the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Because of the high rate of missing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection status in this dataset, we used multiple imputation methods to minimize the bias that may result from less sophisticated methods. Methods. We compared analysis based on multiple imputation methods with analysis based on deleting subjects with missing covariate data from regression analysis (case exclusion, and determined whether the use of increasing numbers of imputed datasets would lead to changes in the estimated association between isoniazid resistance and death. Results. Following multiple imputation, the odds ratio for initial isoniazid resistance and death was 2.07 (95% CI 1.30, 3.29; with case exclusion, this odds ratio decreased to 1.53 (95% CI 0.83, 2.83. The use of more than 5 imputed datasets did not substantively change the results. Conclusions. Our experience with the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System dataset supports the use of multiple imputation methods in epidemiologic analysis, but also demonstrates that close attention should be paid to the potential impact of missing covariates at each step of the analysis.

  18. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system--United States, 1979-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I; Hungerford, D W; Yip, R; Kuester, S A; Zyrkowski, C; Trowbridge, F L

    1992-11-27

    Since 1979, the CDC Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) has monitored behavior and nutritional risk factors among low-income pregnant women participating in public health programs. Although the states contributing to the system have varied over the period, the PNSS is able to characterize the behavior and health outcomes of pregnant women from diverse low-income populations. In 1990, 66.2% of the women in the system initiated prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy; 26.4% smoked during pregnancy. Since 1979, the prevalence of smoking remained relatively stable for white women, but declined for blacks and Hispanics. Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI, defined as kg/m2) showed marked changes from 1979 through 1990; the prevalence of underweight (BMI 26) increased steadily. In 1990, 39.3% of the women had gestational weight gains below levels recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. Both prepregnancy underweight and inadequate gestational weight gain were associated with greater risk for low birth weight in the PNSS. The prevalence of anemia at each trimester has remained stable since 1979. In 1990, 9.8%, 13.8%, and 33% of the women reported by the PNSS were anemic in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Anemia in the first trimester appeared to be strongly associated with a high risk of low birth weight; this association was attenuated in later trimesters. These findings indicate the need to improve iron nutrition among low-income women.

  19. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  20. Design and Research of Distributed Real TimeSurveillance Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Distributed real time surveillance control system is used especially in distributed computer measure and control system, mostly inwidely dispersed measure points without human surveillance. This paper describes theory、construction、control strategy, stabilityanalysis of distributed real time supervisory control and data acquisition system, implements distributed measure signals collectionand design of supervisory control system. The realization of virtual instrument based on VC++ can accomplish measurementsignals acquisition, storage, display and analysis, also the result of surveillance control system is provided, and shows thefunctional powerful agility of virtual instrument based on VC++.

  1. Nosocomial infections in a pediatric intensive care unit of a developing country: NHSN surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pena Porto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the three most common nosocomial infections (NI, namely, sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection (UTI, in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU in a developing country and to define the risk factors associated with NI. METHODS: We performed a prospective study on the incidence of NI in a single PICU, between August 2009 and August 2010. Active surveillance by National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN was conducted in the unit and children with NI (cases were compared with a group (matched controls in a case-control fashion. RESULTS: We analyzed 172 patients; 22.1% had NI, 71.1% of whom acquired it in the unit. The incidence densities of sepsis, pneumonia, and UTI per 1,000 patients/day were 17.9, 11.4, and 4.3, respectively. The most common agents in sepsis were Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli (18% each; Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated in 13% of cases. In pneumonias Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause (3.2%, and in UTI the most frequent agents were yeasts (33.3%. The presence of NI was associated with a long period of hospitalization, use of invasive devices (central venous catheter, nasogastric tube, and use of antibiotics. The last two were independent factors for NI. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of NI acquired in this unit was high and was associated with extrinsic factors.

  2. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  3. Designing a Low-Resolution Face Recognition System for Long-Range Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Most face recognition systems deal well with high-resolution facial images, but perform much worse on low-resolution facial images. In low-resolution face recognition, there is a specific but realistic surveillance scenario: a surveillance camera monitoring a large area. In this scenario, usually

  4. Image enhancement on the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.; Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system, in particular for the image enhancement techniques implemented. The INVIS is an all-day-andnight all-weather navigation and surveillance tool, combining three-band cameras. W

  5. Image enhancement on the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.; Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system, in particular for the image enhancement techniques implemented. The INVIS is an all-day-andnight all-weather navigation and surveillance tool, combining three-band cameras.

  6. Innovation of high-risk infants follow-up surveillance system in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Jodeiry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan.

  7. Kalman Filter Based Tracking in an Video Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    SULIMAN, C.; CRUCERU, C.; Moldoveanu, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have developed a Matlab/Simulink based model for monitoring a contact in a video surveillance sequence. For the segmentation process and corect identification of a contact in a surveillance video, we have used the Horn-Schunk optical flow algorithm. The position and the behavior of the correctly detected contact were monitored with the help of the traditional Kalman filter. After that we have compared the results obtained from the optical flow method with the ones obtaine...

  8. Incidence of surgical site infections in children: active surveillance in an Italian academic children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Serino, L; Piga, S; Tozzi, A E; Raponi, M

    2017-01-01

    Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) account for 16-34% of all health-care associated infections. This study aimed to assess the incidence rate of SSIs in children who underwent surgical procedures in an academic children's hospital in Italy. Prospective cohort study. We actively followed-up 0-17 year old children at 30 days of surgical procedures without implants conducted during one index week per quarter, from the second quarter of 2014, to the first quarter of 2016 (8 index weeks in total). Follow up data were collected by telephone interview, or derived by clinical records if patients were still hospitalized. SSIs were defined according to case definitions of Centers for Diseases Control, Atlanta, USA. We calculated cumulative incidence of SSIs per 100 surgical procedures, by patient characteristics, procedure characteristics, and quarter. To investigate variables associated with SSIs, we compared characteristics of procedures with SSIs with those of procedures without SSIs. Over the study period, SSI incidence was 1.0% (19 cases/1,830 surgical procedures). SSI incidence was significantly lower after ear, nose and throat procedures compared to all other procedures, and significantly decreased over time. Duration of surgery was a risk factor for SSIs; patients with SSIs had a significantly longer total length of stay (LOS), due to a prolonged post-operative LOS. As reported in adults, this study confirms that SSIs are associated with longer hospitalizations in children. Active surveillance of SSIs is an important component of the overall strategy to reduce the incidence of these infections in children.

  9. Application of MPEG/ITV surveillance system to plant surveillance and control field; MPEG 2 ITV kanshi system no plant kanshi seigyo bun`ya eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, W.; Mitera, T. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-23

    Meidensha, Inc. has realized ITV surveillance function by employing the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) system as one of the utilization modes of wide area network and by transmitting surveillance and control data, as well as image and voice data. The system has the following features: because this ITV surveillance system has adopted MPEG2 for compression and expansion of image information, high definition image surveillance is possible; because image information is digitized and compressed, both of the data system and voice system can be accommodated in the same network; and because of adoption of environment resistant and high reliability industrial personal computer for the platform of this device, continuous operation is possible for an extended period of time. The ITV surveillance device transmits commands selected on the operation panel to an ITV control server, monitors responses from the ITV control server, and at the same time, decodes the MPEG2 image information from the ITV control server to display the images on the monitor. (NEDO)

  10. Incidence and surveillance of infections from Clostridium difficile: the experience at the Galliera of Genoa in the three-year period 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Usiglio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive bacillus, anaerobic, sporogenous ,with oro-faecal transmission.The formation of the spores can persist in a long time, encouraging the transmission. Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, age, alteration of intestinal flora are the most common risk factors that expose the subject to any subsequent colonization and infection. The hospital staff is the main vehicle of transmission and the probability of contracting an infection is proportional to the duration of hospitalization in patients infected with cohabitation. Objectives The infections surveillance of C. difficile is a instrument to monitor procedures for the control of hospital infections, and may be useful to highlight and point out shortcomings in the system. Materials and Methods The data are the results of tests for the detection of toxins on stools during the period 2004-2006, distributed quarterly to study the seasonal, divided by individual UO the hospital and later for area hospital. Results and conclusions The incidence of infection from C. difficile in the last three years has been in constant increase (from 7 to 12.5 case/1000 admissions. Much of increase is attributable to community infections 3 case/1000 admissions (2004 up to about 6 case/1000 admissions (2006. Substantially increasing content of hospital infections (5-6 case/1000 admissions.

  11. Contribution of the BacT/Alert MB Mycobacterium bottle to bloodstream infection surveillance in Thailand: added yield for Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorakate, Possawat; Higdon, Melissa; Kaewpan, Anek; Makprasert, Sirirat; Yuenprakhon, Somkhit; Tawisaid, Kittisak; Dejsirilert, Surang; Whistler, Toni; Baggett, Henry C

    2015-03-01

    Community-acquired bloodstream infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, but microbiology capacity and surveillance limitations have challenged good descriptions of pathogen distribution in many regions, including Southeast Asia. Active surveillance for bloodstream infections has been conducted in two rural Thailand provinces for >7 years. Blood specimens were divided into two culture bottles, one optimized for aerobic growth (F bottle) and a second for enhanced growth of mycobacteria (MB bottle), and processed with the BactT/Alert 3D system. Because the routine use of MB culture bottles is resource intensive (expensive and requires prolonged incubation), we assessed the added yield of MB bottles by comparing the proportion of pathogens detected by MB versus that by F bottles from 2005 to 2012. Of 63,066 blood cultures, 7,296 (12%) were positive for at least one pathogen; the most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (28%), Burkholderia pseudomallei (11%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (6%). Two bottles improved the yield overall, but the added yield attributable to the MB bottles was limited to a few pathogens. In addition to the detection of mycobacteria and some fungi, MB bottles improved the detection of B. pseudomallei (27% [MB] versus 8% [F]; P MB bottles is warranted for patients at risk for mycobacterial and fungal infections and for infection with B. pseudomallei, a common cause of septicemia in Thailand. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. CXCL10 is the key ligand for CXCR3 on CD8+ effector T cells involved in immune surveillance of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; de Lemos, Carina; Moos, Torben;

    2006-01-01

    /ligand pair is thought to play a central role in regulating T cell-mediated inflammation in this organ site. In this report, we investigated the role of CXCL10 in regulating CD8(+) T cell-mediated inflammation in the virus-infected brain. This was done through analysis of CXCL10-deficient mice infected....... Furthermore, despite marked up-regulation of the two remaining CXCR3 ligands: CXCL9 and 11, we found a reduced accumulation of CD8(+) T cells in the brain parenchyma around the time point when wild-type mice succumb as a result of CD8(+) T cell-mediated inflammation. Thus, taken together these results...... indicate a central role for CXCL10 in regulating the accumulation of effector T cells at sites of CNS inflammation, with no apparent compensatory effect of other CXCR3 ligands....

  13. Nasal Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Military Personnel in a Developing Country - Development of a Skin and Soft Tissue Infection Surveillance System in the Peruvian Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health 30:610-4 12. Carmona E, Sandoval S, Garcia C. 2012. [The frequency...and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal swabs in an suburban marginal population in Lima, Peru]. Revista peruana de...hospitals: findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of

  14. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system.

  15. Surveillance for an outbreak of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits housed at a zoo and biosecurity countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Furuya, Koji; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Nakaoka, Yuji; Kosuge, Masao; Murata, Koichi

    2013-01-31

    An outbreak of encephalitozoonosis occurred in a rabbit colony at a zoo in Japan. Throughout the two years after the onset, all 42 rabbits were investigated clinically, pathologically and serologically for prevention and control of the disease. Eleven rabbits (11/42, 26.2%) showed clinical symptoms. Of 38 rabbits examined to detect specific antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 71.1% (n=27) were found seropositive; 20 out of 30 clinically healthy rabbits (except for 8 clinical cases) were seropositive. The infection rate was 76.2% (32/42), including 5 pathologically diagnosed cases. The results of serological survey revealed that asymptomatic infection was widespread, even among clinically healthy rabbits. However, encephalitozoonosis was not found by pathological examination in any other species of animals kept in the same area within the zoo. Isolation and elimination of the rabbits with suspected infection based on the results of serological examination were carried out immediately; however, encephalitozoonosis continued to occur sporadically. Therefore, all the remaining rabbits were finally slaughtered. Then, the facility was closed, and all the equipment was disinfected. After a two-month interval, founder rabbits were introduced from encephalitozoonosis-free rabbitries for new colony formation. Since then, encephalitozoonosis has not been seen in any animals at the zoo. In this study, biosecurity countermeasures including staff education, epidemiological surveillance and application of an "all-out and all-in" system for rabbit colony establishment based on serological examination were successfully accomplished with regard to animal hygiene and public health for the eradication of E. cuniculi.

  16. Validity of a surveillance system for childhood injuries in a rural block of Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood injuries are increasingly getting the attention of public health experts following WHO′s report on global burden of diseases. Surveillance is an important component of control of any disease and effectiveness of the surveillance system depends upon completeness of the information about occurrence of the health related events to the public health authorities. Aims: This study aimed to set up a surveillance system for childhood injuries and validate it by a survey and thereafter estimate the incidence of childhood injuries using capture recapture method. Settings and Design: Observational study design. Materials and Methods: Passive surveillance system for childhood injuries was created for 26,811 children of less than fourteen years of Kaniyambadi block and it was validated by cross sectional study at the end of surveillance period. Using these two independent information systems, capture recapture method was applied to find out the possible incidence of injuries in the given population at a given period of time. Statistics: Chi square, Lincoln Peterson formula for capture re-capture method. Results: Surveillance and survey for childhood injuries identified 13.59/1000 child-years (CI: 11.86 -15.32 and 341.89/1000 child-years (CI: 254.46-429.33 of injury rates, respectively. Conclusion: Passive surveillance system underreports childhood injuries markedly but it does identify childhood injuries of serious nature.

  17. Surveillance of bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer centers – what have we learned and how do we move on?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Arne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric patients receiving conventional chemotherapy for malignant disease face an increased risk of bloodstream infection (BSI. Since BSI may represent an acute life-threatening event in patients with profound immunosuppression, and show further negative impact on quality of life and anticancer treatment, the prevention of BSI is of paramount importance to improve and guarantee patients’ safety during intensive treatment. The great majority of all pediatric cancer patients (about 85% have a long-term central venous access catheter in use (type Broviac or Port; CVAD. Referring to the current surveillance definitions a significant proportion of all BSI in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is categorized as CVAD- BSI. This state of the art review summarizes the epidemiology and the distinct pathogen profile of BSI in pediatric cancer patients from the perspective of infection surveillance. Problems in executing the current surveillance definition in this patient population are discussed and a new concept for the surveillance of BSI in pediatric cancer patients is outlined.

  18. Battlespace surveillance using netted wireless random noise radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender, Shrawan C.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2005-05-01

    Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) technology is currently being investigated to enhance the military"s effectiveness in the battlespace by providing the warfighter the necessary information to take proper decisions and win wars. One of the main battlespace requirements is surveillance, especially in today"s guerilla warfare theaters, such as the littoral and urban zones. NCW requires warfighters to be networked, self-organizing, spectrally undetectable, and having precise information about hostile targets in their vicinity. Towards this end, we are developing the concept of Netted Wireless Random Noise Radars, which is presented in this paper. The low probability-of-detection (LPD) and low probability-of-intercept (LPI) properties of random noise radars are well-known. Such radar sensors form a self-organizing network-centric architecture, using a deterministically fragmented spectrum to avoid spectral fratricide. The central concept is to use notch filtering to fragment parts of the band-limited non-coherent random noise waveform spectrum, and use these intermediate bandwidths for network communication (target tracking and track fusion) among the wireless sensors. For target detection and ranging, these sensors transmit random noise waveforms combined with continuous signals carrying digital data. As seen by the hostile target, the transmitted waveform appears random and noise-like. However, for the friendly sensors of this system, the noise-like signal contains camouflaged information. The advantages being envisioned with such a system are lower probability of detection due to noise-like transmissions, mobility to sensors due to the self-organizing capability, spectral efficiency due to fragmentation of spectrum, and better immunity to coherent interference due to the use of non-coherent signal waveforms.

  19. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  20. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  1. Odontogenic infections. Complications. Systemic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Yolanda; Bagán, José Vicente; Murillo, Judith; Poveda, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    The term, odontogenic infection refers to an infection that originates in the tooth proper or in the tissues that closely surround it; said infection then progresses along the periodontia down to the apex, involving periapical bone and from this area, it then spreads through the bone and periosteum towards near-by or more distant structures. The relevance of this type of infection lies in that it can cause infections that compromise more distant structures (via direct spread and distant spread), for example, intracraneal, retropharyngeal and pulmonary pleural infections. Dissemination by means of the bloodstream can lead to rheumatic problems and deposits on the valves of the heart (endocarditis), etc. The conditions or factors that influence the spread of infection are dependent on the balance between patient-related conditions and microorganism-related conditions. The virulence of the affecting germs is dependent upon their quality and quantity and is one of the microbiological conditions that influences the infection. It is this virulence that promotes infectious invasion and the deleterious effects the microbe will have on the host. Patient-related conditions include certain systemic factors that determine host resistance, which may be impaired in situations such as immunodeficiency syndrome or in brittle diabetes, as well as local factors that will also exert their impact on the spread of the infection.

  2. CRISPR typing and subtyping for improved laboratory surveillance of Salmonella infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Fabre

    Full Text Available Laboratory surveillance systems for salmonellosis should ideally be based on the rapid serotyping and subtyping of isolates. However, current typing methods are limited in both speed and precision. Using 783 strains and isolates belonging to 130 serotypes, we show here that a new family of DNA repeats named CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats is highly polymorphic in Salmonella. We found that CRISPR polymorphism was strongly correlated with both serotype and multilocus sequence type. Furthermore, spacer microevolution discriminated between subtypes within prevalent serotypes, making it possible to carry out typing and subtyping in a single step. We developed a high-throughput subtyping assay for the most prevalent serotype, Typhimurium. An open web-accessible database was set up, providing a serotype/spacer dictionary and an international tool for strain tracking based on this innovative, powerful typing and subtyping tool.

  3. 医院感染目标性监测报告分析%Target surveillance report of nosocomial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫平; 闫志刚; 苏日娜; 邢慧敏; 杨旭

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop the surveillance of high risk population and infection sites as well as the risk factors so as to control the prevalence of nosocomial infections. METHODS According to the standards for nosocomial infection surveillance, the surveillance of nosocomial infections was performed by reviewing the medical records in combination with clinical ward rounds. RESULTS The nosocomial infection rate was 10. 70% in ICU, the utilization rate of the catheter was 53. 56%, the daily incidence rate of the urinary tract catheter-related infections was 2. 73‰; the utilization rate of central venous catheterization was 99. 09% , the daily infection rate of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections was 1. ll‰;the utilization rate of ventilator was 46. 25%, the daily incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 13. 44‰; the total equipment utilization rate was 198. 90% ; the incidence of nosocomial infections was 0. 86% in the neonates with the daily infection rate of 1. 76‰ ; the incidence of the class Ⅰ surgical incision infections was 1. 02% , class Ⅱ surgical incision infections 2. 35% , class Ⅲ surgical incision infections 20. 00%. CONCLUSION The target surveillance. as a scientific surveillance of nosocomial infections, is flexible and can predict the sources of infections in early stage as well as control the outbreak and prevalence of nosocomial infections.%目的 针对高危人群、高发感染部位等开展医院感染及其危险因素的监测,及时控制医院感染暴发流行.方法 2011年1-6月根据《医院感染监测规范》,采用查看病历与临床查房相结合进行感染监测.结果 ICU医院感染率10.70%,导尿管使用率53.56%,导尿管相关泌尿道感染日感染率2.73‰;中心静脉插管使用率99.09%,中心静脉插管相关血流日感染率1.11‰;呼吸机使用率46.25%,呼吸机相关肺炎日感染率13.44%;总器械使用率198.90%;新生儿医院感染发生率为0

  4. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  5. Low-cost active optical system for fire surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, A. B.; Lavrov, A. V.; Vilar, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Detection of smoke plumes using active optical sensors provides many advantages with respect to passive methods of fire surveillance. However, the price of these sensors is often too high as compared to passive fire detection instruments, such as infrared and video cameras. This article describes robust and cost effective diode-laser optical sensor for automatic fire surveillance in industrial environment. Physical aspects of the sensing process allowing to simplify the hardware and software design, eventually leading to significant reduction of manufacturing and maintenance costs, are discussed.

  6. Awareness, perceived relevance, and acceptance of large animal hospital surveillance and infection control practices by referring veterinarians and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiri, Abel B; House, Amanda M; Krueger, Traci M; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2014-04-01

    To assess awareness, perceived relevance, and acceptance of surveillance and infection control practices at a large animal referral hospital among referring veterinarians and clients who sent horses to the facility for veterinary care. Survey. 57 referring veterinarians and 594 clients. A 15-question survey targeting Salmonella enterica as an important pathogen of interest in horses was sent to clients who sent ≥ 1 horse to the University of Florida Large Animal Hospital for veterinary care during July 1, 2007, through July 1, 2011, and to veterinarians who had referred horses to the same hospital prior to July 1, 2011. Responses were summarized with descriptive statistics. The χ(2) test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine associations among variables of interest. Survey response rates were low (57/467 [12%] for veterinarians and 594/3,095 [19%] for clients). Significantly more (35/56 [63%]) veterinarians than clients (227/585 [39%]) were aware that the hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program. Most veterinarians (56/57 [98%]) and clients (554/574 [97%]) indicated that sampling and testing of horses to detect Salmonella shedding in feces at admission and during hospitalization was justified. In addition, on a scale of 1 (not important) to 10 (very important), veterinarians and clients indicated it was very important (median score, 10 [interquartile range, 8 to 10] for both groups) that a referral hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program. Survey results indicated that awareness of hospital surveillance and infection control practices was higher among veterinarians than clients, and these practices were considered relevant and well-accepted among participant veterinarians and clients.

  7. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2010. BRFSS land line only prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for...

  8. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance System (eWoRLD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A surveillance system that provides morbidity, mortality, and workplace exposures data on work-related respiratory diseases by geographic region, industry and...

  9. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2010. BRFSS land line only prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for...

  10. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  11. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about...

  12. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  13. Infections and antimicrobial use among institutionalized residents in Hungary: increasing need of microbiological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Rita; Böröcz, Karolina

    2015-03-01

    As a result of the age-related changes, more elders live in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to their susceptibility, infections and excess use of antimicrobials are common. The aim was to estimate the burden of infections and antimicrobial use in Hungarian LTCFs in order to increase the attention given to the prevention. European-wide point prevalence survey was conducted between April and May 2013. For each resident who had a signs and symptoms of an infection and/or treated with an antibacterial for systemic use a resident questionnaire was completed. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data. In total, 91 LTCFs with 11,823 residents were selected in this survey. The 252 residents had a sign/symptom of an infection (2.1%) and 156 received antimicrobial (1.3%). Skin and soft tissues (36.5%) was the most frequent infection. However, antimicrobials were mostly prescribed for respiratory tract infections (40.4%). The most common therapeutic antimicrobial agent (97.5%) belonged to the quinolone antibacterials (34.2%). Our results emphasise the need for targeted improvement of antimicrobial use including: reducing the use of quinolone antibacterials in order to prevent the spread of Clostridium difficile and other antimicrobial resistant microorganisms among institutionalized residents.

  14. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb Fadaei; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases’ reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until arrive to data saturation. Results: Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Conclusion: Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing

  15. Towards an integrated food safety surveillance system: a simulation study to explore the potential of combining genomic and epidemiological metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, M.; Wall, B.; Good, L.; O'Brien, S. J.; Guitian, J.

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne infection is a result of exposure to complex, dynamic food systems. The efficiency of foodborne infection is driven by ongoing shifts in genetic machinery. Next-generation sequencing technologies can provide high-fidelity data about the genetics of a pathogen. However, food safety surveillance systems do not currently provide similar high-fidelity epidemiological metadata to associate with genetic data. As a consequence, it is rarely possible to transform genetic data into actionable knowledge that can be used to genuinely inform risk assessment or prevent outbreaks. Big data approaches are touted as a revolution in decision support, and pose a potentially attractive method for closing the gap between the fidelity of genetic and epidemiological metadata for food safety surveillance. We therefore developed a simple food chain model to investigate the potential benefits of combining ‘big’ data sources, including both genetic and high-fidelity epidemiological metadata. Our results suggest that, as for any surveillance system, the collected data must be relevant and characterize the important dynamics of a system if we are to properly understand risk: this suggests the need to carefully consider data curation, rather than the more ambitious claims of big data proponents that unstructured and unrelated data sources can be combined to generate consistent insight. Of interest is that the biggest influencers of foodborne infection risk were contamination load and processing temperature, not genotype. This suggests that understanding food chain dynamics would probably more effectively generate insight into foodborne risk than prescribing the hazard in ever more detail in terms of genotype.

  16. Local epidemiological surveillance of Norovirus infections in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of the Norovirus (NoVs infections, from October 2007 to April 2008, in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis. Materials and methods. From October 2007 to April 2008 faecal specimens were obtained from 220 infants and children (130 males, 90 males of whom 58 under 1, 60 between 1 and 2, 28 between 2 and 3, 74 between 3 and 12 years old, admitted for gastroenteritis to the Department of Paediatrics at the Campo di Marte’s Hospital in Lucca, Italy. All the specimens were examined both for the presence of bacteria (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Yersinia spp, Aeromonas spp and enteropathogenic E. coli and for the presence of rotaviruses (HRVs and adenoviruses (AdVs. Sixty-eight frozen stool samples negative for bacteria and viruses were examined for NoVs. HRVs and AdVs were detected by the immunochromatographic test RIDAQUICK Rotavirus/Adenovirus Combi test (R-Biopharm, Germany. NoVs detection was carried out by the enzyme immunoassay RIDASCREEN Norovirus 3rd Generation EIA (R-Biopharm, Germany. In the RIDASCREEN Norovirus test, specific monoclonal antibodies against antigens of several different genotypes are used in a sandwich type method. In a validation study of the RIDASCREEN Norovirus ELISA 3rd Generation at the Institute of Virology of the University of Dresden, the test correlation with the RT PCR showed the following performance, sensitivity (83.0%, specificity (100.0%, PPV (100.0%, NPV (83.0%. Results. HRVs were detected in 41.8% (89/220, AdVs in 4.1% (9/220 and Enteropathogenic bacteria were detected only in 7 (3.2% patient. NoVs were detected in 18 of 68 studied cases (26.5%. Eighty-three of the NoVs and 49% of the HRVs infections occurred in children up two years old. Conclusions. The present results point out the importance of NoVs infections in childhood hospitalization, mainly in the first two years of life.The study shows the need

  17. A Surveillance Model for Human Avian Influenza with a Comprehensive Surveillance System for Local-Priority Communicable Diseases in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008–2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases. PMID:23532690

  18. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  19. Nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Yoshio; Watanabe, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Kusachi, Shinya; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Sato, Junko; Oguri, Toyoko; Nakanishi, Kunio; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go; Koyama, Isamu; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Konishi, Toshiro; Fukushima, Ryoji; Seki, Shiko; Imai, Shun; Shintani, Tsunehiro; Tsukada, Hiroki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Omura, Kenji; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Kusunoki, Masato; Kubo, Shoji; Shimizu, Junzo; Hirai, Toshihiro; Ohge, Hiroki; Kadowaki, Akio; Okamoto, Kohji; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC₉₀ of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient's physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.

  20. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masami; Minemura; Kazuto; Tajiri; Yukihiro; Shimizu

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections,resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results.In particular,hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis,and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed.In this review,we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic.In most patients with systemic infections,treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests.However,some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure,requiring intensive treatment of the liver.

  1. Kalman Filter Based Tracking in an Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIMAN, C.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have developed a Matlab/Simulink based model for monitoring a contact in a video surveillance sequence. For the segmentation process and corect identification of a contact in a surveillance video, we have used the Horn-Schunk optical flow algorithm. The position and the behavior of the correctly detected contact were monitored with the help of the traditional Kalman filter. After that we have compared the results obtained from the optical flow method with the ones obtained from the Kalman filter, and we show the correct functionality of the Kalman filter based tracking. The tests were performed using video data taken with the help of a fix camera. The tested algorithm has shown promising results.

  2. Environmental Surveillance System To Track Wild Poliovirus Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Shetty, Sushmitha J.; Siddiqui, Zaeem A.

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of poliomyelitis from large metropolis cities in India has been difficult due to high population density and the presence of large urban slums. Three paralytic poliomyelitis cases were reported in Mumbai, India, in 1999 and 2000 in spite of high immunization coverage and good-quality supplementary immunization activities. We therefore established a systematic environmental surveillance study by weekly screening of sewage samples from three high-risk slum areas to detect the silent...

  3. Video Data Hiding for Managing Privacy Information in Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hail MichaelW

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From copyright protection to error concealment, video data hiding has found usage in a great number of applications. In this work, we introduce the detailed framework of using data hiding for privacy information preservation in a video surveillance environment. To protect the privacy of individuals in a surveillance video, the images of selected individuals need to be erased, blurred, or re-rendered. Such video modifications, however, destroy the authenticity of the surveillance video. We propose a new rate-distortion-based compression-domain video data hiding algorithm for the purpose of storing that privacy information. Using this algorithm, we can safeguard the original video as we can reverse the modification process if proper authorization can be established. The proposed data hiding algorithm embeds the privacy information in optimal locations that minimize the perceptual distortion and bandwidth expansion due to the embedding of privacy data in the compressed domain. Both reversible and irreversible embedding techniques are considered within the proposed framework and extensive experiments are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

  4. Infectious disease surveillance in the 21st century: an integrated web-based surveillance and case management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppy, Scott; Haney, Gillian; Cocoros, Noelle; Cranston, Kevin; DeMaria, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Virtual Epidemiologic Network (MAVEN) was deployed in 2006 by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Infectious Disease to serve as an integrated, Web-based disease surveillance and case management system. MAVEN replaced program-specific, siloed databases, which were inaccessible to local public health and unable to integrate electronic reporting. Disease events are automatically created without human intervention when a case or laboratory report is received and triaged in real time to state and local public health personnel. Events move through workflows for initial notification, case investigation, and case management. Initial development was completed within 12 months and recent state regulations mandate the use of MAVEN by all 351 jurisdictions. More than 300 local boards of health are using MAVEN, there are approximately one million events, and 70 laboratories report electronically. MAVEN has demonstrated responsiveness and flexibility to emerging diseases while also streamlining routine surveillance processes and improving timeliness of notifications and data completeness, although the long-term resource requirements are significant.

  5. Antibiotic consumption to detect epidemics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a burn centre: A paradigm shift in the epidemiological surveillance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Anne; Voirol, Pierre; Krähenbühl, Marie; Bonnemain, Claire-Lise; Fournier, Camille; Pantet, Olivier; Pagani, Jean-Luc; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Sadeghipour, Farshid; Pannatier, André; Eggimann, Philippe; Que, Yok-Ai

    2016-05-01

    The control of antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infections are major challenges for specialized burn centres. Early detection of those epidemic outbreaks is crucial to limit the human and financial burden. We hypothesize that data collected by antibiotic consumption medico-economic surveys could be used as warning signal to detect early nosocomial outbreaks. A retrospective analysis was conducted that included all burn patients staying >48h on the Lausanne BICU (Burn Intensive Care Unit) between January 2001 and October 2012 who received systemic therapeutic antibiotics. Infection episodes were characterized according to predefined criteria. Antibiotic consumption data, obtained from the quarterly surveillance of drug consumption surveys, were translated into defined daily doses (DDDs). In total, 297 out of 414 burn patients stayed >48h, giving a total of 7458 'burn-days'. We identified 610 infection episodes (burn wound [32.0%], respiratory [31.1%], and catheter [21.8%]), from 774 microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%), and Candida albicans (7.0%) were the main pathogens. We observed three distinct outbreaks of P. aeruginosa infections in 2002-2003, 2006, and 2009-2011. These outbreaks correlated with an increase in the DDDs of anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics. Our data support a paradigm shift in the epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial P. aeruginosa epidemics in burn centres, using the rise in antibiotic consumption as an early trigger to initiate the molecular typing of P. aeruginosa strains and the reinforcement of standard infection control procedures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Systems in 6 US State and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mathew J; Yoon, Paula W; Collins, James M; Davidson, Arthur J; Mac Kenzie, William R

    2017-09-28

    Evaluating public health surveillance systems is critical to ensuring that conditions of public health importance are appropriately monitored. Our objectives were to qualitatively evaluate 6 state and local health departments that were early adopters of syndromic surveillance in order to (1) understand the characteristics and current uses, (2) identify the most and least useful syndromes to monitor, (3) gauge the utility for early warning and outbreak detection, and (4) assess how syndromic surveillance impacted their daily decision making. We adapted evaluation guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and gathered input from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subject matter experts in public health surveillance to develop a questionnaire. We interviewed staff members from a convenience sample of 6 local and state health departments with syndromic surveillance programs that had been in operation for more than 10 years. Three of the 6 interviewees provided an example of using syndromic surveillance to identify an outbreak (ie, cluster of foodborne illness in 1 jurisdiction) or detect a surge in cases for seasonal conditions (eg, influenza in 2 jurisdictions) prior to traditional, disease-specific systems. Although all interviewees noted that syndromic surveillance has not been routinely useful or efficient for early outbreak detection or case finding in their jurisdictions, all agreed that the information can be used to improve their understanding of dynamic disease control environments and conditions (eg, situational awareness) in their communities. In the jurisdictions studied, syndromic surveillance may be useful for monitoring the spread and intensity of large outbreaks of disease, especially influenza; enhancing public health awareness of mass gatherings and natural disasters; and assessing new, otherwise unmonitored conditions when real-time alternatives are unavailable. Future studies should explore opportunities to

  7. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  8. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weirong; Palm, Lars; Lu, Xin; Nie, Shaofa; Xu, Biao; Zhao, Qi; Tao, Tao; Cheng, Liwei; Tan, Li; Dong, Hengjin; Diwan, Vinod K

    2013-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS) for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP), combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1) work group and communication group; 2) data source and collection; 3) data visualization; and 4) outbreak detection and alerting. As of Jan. 31(st) 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  9. Surveillance length and validity of benchmarks for central line-associated bloodstream infection incidence rates in intensive care units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S Fontela

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several national and regional central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI surveillance programs do not require continuous hospital participation. We evaluated the effect of different hospital participation requirements on the validity of annual CLABSI incidence rate benchmarks for intensive care units (ICUs. METHODS: We estimated the annual pooled CLABSI incidence rates for both a real regional (<100 ICUs and a simulated national (600 ICUs surveillance program, which were used as a reference for the simulations. We simulated scenarios where the annual surveillance participation was randomly or non-randomly reduced. Each scenario's annual pooled CLABSI incidence rate was estimated and compared to the reference rates in terms of validity, bias, and proportion of simulation iterations that presented valid estimates (ideal if ≥ 90%. RESULTS: All random scenarios generated valid CLABSI incidence rates estimates (bias -0.37 to 0.07 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days, while non-random scenarios presented a wide range of valid estimates (0 to 100% and higher bias (-2.18 to 1.27 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days. In random scenarios, the higher the number of participating ICUs, the shorter the participation required to generate ≥ 90% valid replicates. While participation requirements in a countrywide program ranged from 3 to 13 surveillance blocks (1 block = 28 days, requirements for a regional program ranged from 9 to 13 blocks. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of our model of national CLABSI reporting, the shortening of participation requirements may be suitable for nationwide ICU CLABSI surveillance programs if participation months are randomly chosen. However, our regional models showed that regional programs should opt for continuous participation to avoid biased benchmarks.

  10. Development of integrated surveillance systems for the management of tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, DP; Ramsey, DSL; de Lisle, GW; Bosson, M; Cross, ML; Nugent, G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disease surveillance for the management of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand has focussed, to a large extent, on the development of tools specific for monitoring Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife. Diagnostic techniques have been modified progressively over 30 years of surveillance of TB in wildlife, from initial characterisation of gross TB lesions in a variety of wildlife, through development of sensitive culture techniques to identify viable mycobacteria, to molecular identification of individual M. bovis strains. Of key importance in disease surveillance has been the elucidation of the roles that different wildlife species play in the transmission of infection, specifically defining brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) as true maintenance hosts compared to those that are predominantly spillover hosts, but which may serve as useful sentinel species to indicate TB persistence. Epidemiological modelling has played a major role in TB surveillance, initially providing the theoretical support for large-scale possum population control and setting targets at which control effort should be deployed to ensure disease eradication. As TB prevalence in livestock and wildlife declined throughout the 2000s, more varied field tools were developed to gather surveillance data from the diminishing possum populations, and to provide information on changing TB prevalence. Accordingly, ever more precise (but disparate) surveillance information began to be integrated into multi-faceted decision-assist models to support TB management decisions, particularly to provide informed parameters at which control effort could be halted, culminating in the Proof of Freedom modelling framework that now allows an area to be declared TB-free within chosen confidence limits. As New Zealand moves from large-scale TB control to regional eradication of disease in the coming years, further integrative models will need to be developed to support management decisions, based on

  11. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. DESIGN: All device removals due to CIED...... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...... and 39 pocket infections) were recorded during the study period. Median follow-up time was 26 (IQR 9-41) months, 30 day and 12 month mortality were 4% and 14%, respectively. There was no long-term difference in mortality between patients with pocket vs. systemic infection (p = 0.48). During follow...

  12. Nosocomial infections in patients with acute central nervous system infections

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Due to current increase in the rate of nosocomial infections, our objective was to examine the frequency, risk factors, clinical presentation and etiology of nosocomial infections in patients with central nervous system infections. 2246 patients with central nervous system infections, treated in the intensive care units of the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade and at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Hospital Center Kraguj...

  13. Field Medical Surveillance System User’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-14

    physician. (a) I’or slum notice deploy niems in ehloroquine-roistarst ureas, moil feline inav be administered in a loading dose as: 25(1 mg on days 1...infection 65. Leishmaniasis - cutaneous 91. Enteritis necroticans 66. Cyclospora infection 92. Enterobiasis A-2 93. Enterovirus infection 94...abscess - bacterial 179.Mononucleosis - infectious 154.Lobomycosis 180. Leishmaniasis - mucocutaneous 155.Loiasis 181.Mumps 156.Louping ill 182

  14. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  15. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  16. The effectiveness of U.S. public health surveillance systems for situational awareness during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Stoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 H1N1 outbreak provides an opportunity to learn about the strengths and weaknesses of current U.S. public health surveillance systems and to identify implications for measuring public health emergency preparedness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adopted a "triangulation" approach in which multiple contemporary data sources, each with different expected biases, are compared to identify time patterns that are likely to reflect biases versus those that are more likely to be indicative of actual infection rates. This approach is grounded in the understanding that surveillance data are the result of a series of decisions made by patients, health care providers, and public health professionals about seeking and providing health care and about reporting cases to health authorities. Although limited by the lack of a gold standard, this analysis suggests that children and young adults are over-represented in many pH1N1 surveillance systems, especially in the spring wave. In addition, the nearly two-month delay between the Northeast and the South in the Fall peak in some surveillance data seems to at least partially reflect regional differences in concerns about pH1N1 rather than real differences in pH1N1 infection rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the extent of the biases suggested by this analysis cannot be known precisely, the analysis identifies underlying problems with surveillance systems--in particular their dependence on patient and provider behavior, which is influenced by a changing information environment--that could limit situational awareness in future public health emergencies. To improve situational awareness in future health emergencies, population-based surveillance systems such as telephone surveys of representative population samples and seroprevalence surveys in well-defined population cohorts are needed.

  17. The effectiveness of U.S. public health surveillance systems for situational awareness during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoto, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 outbreak provides an opportunity to learn about the strengths and weaknesses of current U.S. public health surveillance systems and to identify implications for measuring public health emergency preparedness. We adopted a "triangulation" approach in which multiple contemporary data sources, each with different expected biases, are compared to identify time patterns that are likely to reflect biases versus those that are more likely to be indicative of actual infection rates. This approach is grounded in the understanding that surveillance data are the result of a series of decisions made by patients, health care providers, and public health professionals about seeking and providing health care and about reporting cases to health authorities. Although limited by the lack of a gold standard, this analysis suggests that children and young adults are over-represented in many pH1N1 surveillance systems, especially in the spring wave. In addition, the nearly two-month delay between the Northeast and the South in the Fall peak in some surveillance data seems to at least partially reflect regional differences in concerns about pH1N1 rather than real differences in pH1N1 infection rates. Although the extent of the biases suggested by this analysis cannot be known precisely, the analysis identifies underlying problems with surveillance systems--in particular their dependence on patient and provider behavior, which is influenced by a changing information environment--that could limit situational awareness in future public health emergencies. To improve situational awareness in future health emergencies, population-based surveillance systems such as telephone surveys of representative population samples and seroprevalence surveys in well-defined population cohorts are needed.

  18. Surveillance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection among children in Beijing from 2007 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hanqing; Li Shaoli; Cao Ling; Yuan Yi; Xue Guanhua; Feng Yanling; Yan Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumonia (M.pneumoniae) is one of the key pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia.A global pandemic of M.pneumoniae has occurred since 2010.The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of M.pneumoniae in children in Beijing from 2007-2012.Methods A total of 3 073 clinical specimens were obtained from pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections from January 2007 to December 2012,and examined by nested polymerase chain reaction.PCR products were visualized by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis,positive products sequenced,and compared with reference sequences in GenBank.Macrolide resistance-associated mutations were also detected for some positive samples.Results Of the 3 073 specimens,588 (19.13%) were positive for M.pneumoniae,12.4% of which were accompanied by viral infections.Positive rates for M.pneumoniae were highest in 2007 and 2012,showing a significant difference when compared with other years.Infections tended to occur in autumn and winter and positive rates were significantly higher for children aged 3-16.The rate of macrolide resistance-associated mutations was 90.7%,and the predominant mutation was an A→G transition (89.92%) at position 2063 in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene.Conclusions M.pneumoniae outbreaks occurred in 2007 and 2012 in pediatric patients in Beijing,which is consistent with the global prevalence of M.pneumoniae.M.pneumoniae can cause multi-system infections in children,and may be accompanied with viral infections.We determined that school-age children are more susceptible to this disease,particularly in autumn and winter.Gene mutations associated with macrolide resistance were very common in M.pneumoniae-positive specimens during this period in Beijing.

  19. Analysis of malaria surveillance data in Ethiopia: what can be learned from the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jima Daddi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine malaria surveillance data is useful for assessing incidence and trends over time, and in stratification for targeting of malaria control. The reporting completeness and potential bias of such data needs assessment. Methods Data on 17 malaria indicators were extracted from the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System database for July 2004 to June 2009 (Ethiopian calendar reporting years 1997 to 2001. Reporting units were standardized over time with 2007 census populations. The data were analysed to show reporting completeness, variation in risk by reporting unit, and incidence trends for malaria indicators. Results Reporting completeness, estimated as product of unit-month and health facility reporting, was over 80% until 2009, when it fell to 56% during a period of reorganization in the Ministry of Health. Nationally the average estimated annual incidence of reported total malaria for the calendar years 2005 to 2008 was 23.4 per 1000 persons, and of confirmed malaria was 7.6 per 1,000, with no clear decline in out-patient cases over the time period. Reported malaria in-patient admissions and deaths (averaging 6.4 per 10,000 and 2.3 per 100,000 per year respectively declined threefold between 2005 and 2009, as did admissions and deaths reported as malaria with severe anaemia. Only 8 of 86 reporting units had average annual estimated incidence of confirmed malaria above 20 per 1,000 persons, while 26 units were consistently below five reported cases per 1,000 persons per year. Conclusion The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System functioned well over the time period mid 2004 to the end of 2008. The data suggest that the scale up of interventions has had considerable impact on malaria in-patient cases and mortality, as reported from health centres and hospitals. These trends must be regarded as relative (over space and time rather than absolute. The data can be used to stratify areas for improved

  20. The installation and performance test of the surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Ho Dong; Cha, Hong Ryul

    2000-07-01

    We have developed the real time surveillance system, named by DSSS, for DUPIC test facility. The system acquires data from He-3 neutron monitors(DSNM) and CCD cameras to automatically diagnose the transportation status of nuclear material. This technical report shortly illustrates important features of hardware and software of the system.

  1. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain geographical...

  2. The incidence of nosocomial infection in the Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia: ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaidi, S W; Sukro, J; Dan, A

    2001-06-01

    CU-acquired nosocomial infection (NI) remains one of the major causes of ICU mortality. This study presents the incidence of ICU-acquired nosocomial infection in ICU HUKM for the years 1998 and 1999, as part of the ongoing ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program. The overall incidence was 23%. The main types of NI was lower respiratory tract infection (15.3%), primary bacteraemia (8.1%), ventilator associated pneumonia (5.4%), urinary tract infection (2.0%), skin infection (1.6%) central venous catheter sepsis (1.2%) and surgical skin infection (0.8%). The overall culture positive nosocomial infection rate was only 12.1%, majority from the lungs (12.6%), blood (7.3%), skin swabs (2.0%), and urine (1.6%). The main gram-negative organism cultured was Acinetobacter sp. (19%) and Staph. aureus (8.5%) was the gram-positive organism. The overall ICU mortality rate was 27.5% of which 60.9% of patients who died were attributed directly to sepsis.

  3. Low-cost inflatable lighter-than-air surveillance system for civilian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Chen, Peter C.; Niemczuk, John B.

    2002-08-01

    Today's society places an extremely high price on the value of human life and injury. Whenever possible, police and paramilitary actions are always directed towards saving as many lives as possible, whether it is the officer, perpetrator, or innocent civilians. Recently, the advent of robotic systems has enable law enforcement agencies to perform many of the most dangerous aspects of their jobs from relative safety. This is especially true to bomb disposal units but it is also gaining acceptance in other areas. An area where small, remotely operated machines may prove effective is in local aerial surveillance. Currently, the only aerial surveillance assets generally available to law enforcement agencies are costly helicopters. Unfortunately, most of the recently developed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are directed towards military applications and have limited civilian use. Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has conceived and performed a preliminary analysis of a low-cost, inflatable, lighter- than-air surveillance system that may be used in a number of military and law enforcement surveillance situations. The preliminary analysis includes the concept definition, a detailed trade study to determine the optimal configuration of the surveillance system, high-pressure inflation tests, and a control analysis. This paper will provide the details in these areas of the design and provide an insight into the feasibility of such a system.

  4. FPGA-Based Real-Time Motion Detection for Automated Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of automated video surveillance systems is one of the exigent missions in computer vision community because of their ability to automatically select frames of interest in incoming video streams based on motion detection. This research paper focuses on the real-time hardware implementation of a motion detection algorithm for such vision based automated surveillance systems. A dedicated VLSI architecture has been proposed and designed for clustering-based motion detection scheme. The working prototype of a complete standalone automated video surveillance system, including input camera interface, designed motion detection VLSI architecture, and output display interface, with real-time relevant motion detection capabilities, has been implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA platform. The prototyped system robustly detects the relevant motion in real-time in live PAL (720 × 576 resolution video streams directly coming from the camera.

  5. Incorporating prior knowledge of urban scene spatial structure in aperture code designs for surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, John R.; Thelen, Brian J.; Subotic, Nikola

    2010-08-01

    Two major missions of Surveillance systems are imaging and ground moving target indication (GMTI). Recent advances in coded aperture electro optical systems have enabled persistent surveillance systems with extremely large fields of regard. The areas of interest for these surveillance systems are typically urban, with spatial topologies having a very definite structure. We incorporate aspects of a priori information on this structure in our aperture code designs to enable optimized dealiasing operations for undersampled focal plane arrays. Our framework enables us to design aperture codes to minimize mean square error for image reconstruction or to maximize signal to clutter ratio for GMTI detection. In this paper we present a technical overview of our code design methodology and show the results of our designed codes on simulated DIRSIG mega-scene data.

  6. Nosocomial infection characteristics in a burn intensive care unit: analysis of an eleven-year active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncül, Oral; Öksüz, Sinan; Acar, Ali; Ülkür, Ersin; Turhan, Vedat; Uygur, Fatih; Ulçay, Asım; Erdem, Hakan; Özyurt, Mustafa; Görenek, Levent

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe nosocomial infection (NI) rates, risk factors, etiologic agents, antibiotic susceptibility, invasive device utilization and invasive device associated infection rates in a burn intensive care unit (ICU) in Turkey. Prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections was performed according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria between 2001 and 2012. The data was analyzed retrospectively. During the study period 658 burn patients were admitted to our burn ICU. 469 cases acquired 602 NI for an overall NI rate of 23.1 per 1000 patient days. 109 of all the cases (16.5%) died. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (241), Acinetobacter baumannii (186) and Staphylococcus aureus (69) were the most common identified bacteria in 547 strains. Total burn surface area, full thickness burn, older age, presence of inhalation injury were determined to be the significant risk factors for acquisition of NI. Determining the NI profile at a certain burn ICU can lead the medical staff apply the appropriate treatment regimen and limit the drug resistance. Eleven years surveillance report presented here provides a recent data about the risk factors of NI in a Turkish burn ICU. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. The Spanish national health care-associated infection surveillance network (INCLIMECC): data summary January 1997 through December 2006 adapted to the new National Healthcare Safety Network Procedure-associated module codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristina Díaz-Agero; Rodela, Ana Robustillo; Monge Jodrá, Vincente

    2009-12-01

    In 1997, a national standardized surveillance system (designated INCLIMECC [Indicadores Clínicos de Mejora Continua de la Calidad]) was established in Spain for health care-associated infection (HAI) in surgery patients, based on the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) system. In 2005, in its procedure-associated module, the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) inherited the NNIS program for surveillance of HAI in surgery patients and reorganized all surgical procedures. INCLIMECC actively monitors all patients referred to the surgical ward of each participating hospital. We present a summary of the data collected from January 1997 to December 2006 adapted to the new NHSN procedures. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are provided by operative procedure and NNIS risk index category. Further quality indicators reported are surgical complications, length of stay, antimicrobial prophylaxis, mortality, readmission because of infection or other complication, and revision surgery. Because the ICD-9-CM surgery procedure code is included in each patient's record, we were able to reorganize our database avoiding the loss of extensive information, as has occurred with other systems.

  8. Integrated biological-behavioural surveillance in pandemic-threat warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Maureen; Hagan, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Economically and politically disruptive disease outbreaks are a hallmark of the 21st century. Although pandemics are driven by human behaviours, current surveillance systems for identifying pandemic threats are largely reliant on the monitoring of disease outcomes in clinical settings. Standardized integrated biological-behavioural surveillance could, and should, be used in community settings to complement such clinical monitoring. The usefulness of such an approach has already been demonstrated in studies on human immunodeficiency virus, where integrated surveillance contributed to a biologically based and quantifiable understanding of the behavioural risk factors associated with the transmission dynamics of the virus. When designed according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology criteria, integrated surveillance requires that both behavioural risk factors - i.e. exposure variables - and disease-indicator outcome variables be measured in behavioural surveys. In the field of pandemic threats, biological outcome data could address the weaknesses of self-reported data collected in behavioural surveys. Data from serosurveys of viruses with pandemic potential, collected under non-outbreak conditions, indicate that serosurveillance could be used to predict future outbreaks. When conducted together, behavioural surveys and serosurveys could warn of future pandemics, potentially before the disease appears in clinical settings. Traditional disease-outcome surveillance must be frequent and ongoing to remain useful but behavioural surveillance remains informative even if conducted much less often, since behaviour change occurs slowly over time. Only through knowledge of specific behavioural risk factors can interventions and policies that can prevent the next pandemic be developed.

  9. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K; Asokan, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A 'one-health' concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses.

  10. Integration of a mobile autonomous robot in a surveillance multi-agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Bruno Miguel Morais

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to guarantee the integration of a mobile autonomous robot equipped with many sensors in a multi-agent distributed and georeferenced surveillance system. The integration of a mobile autonomous robot in this system leads to new features that will be available to clients of surveillance system may use. These features may be of two types: using the robot as an agent that will act in the environment or by using the robot as a mobile set of sensors. As an agent in the syst...

  11. WGS-based surveillance of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli from bloodstream infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roer, Louise; Hansen, Frank; Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate a genome-based surveillance of all Danish third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (3GC-R Ec ) from bloodstream infections between 2014 and 2015, focusing on horizontally transferable resistance mechanisms. A collection of 552 3GC-R Ec isolates were whole....... The majority of the 552 isolates were ESBL producers (89%), with bla CTX-M-15 being the most prevalent (50%) gene, followed by bla CTX-M-14 (14%), bla CTX-M-27 (11%) and bla CTX-M-101 (5%). ST131 was detected in 50% of the E. coli isolates, with the remaining isolates belonging to 73 other STs, including...

  12. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Canada: results from the Canadian nosocomial infection surveillance program, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Johnston, B Lynn; Simor, Andrew E; Embil, John; Matlow, Anne; Mulvey, Michael; Ormiston, Debbie; Conly, John

    2008-03-01

    Surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in sentinel Canadian hospitals has been conducted since 1999. From 1999 to 2005, the rate of VRE detection increased from 0.37 to 1.32 cases per 1,000 patients admitted, and the rate of VRE infection increased from 0.02 to 0.05 cases per 1,000 patients admitted. Thirty-three percent of all patients with VRE detected that were reported during 1999-2005 were identified in 2005, with increases seen in all regions of Canada. Although the incidence rate of VRE carriage in Canada is increasing, it remains very low.

  13. OASIS: an assessment tool of epidemiological surveillance systems in animal health and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, P; Gay, E; Chazel, M; Moutou, F; Danan, C; Richomme, C; Boue, F; Souillard, R; Gauchard, F; Dufour, B

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized tool for the assessment of surveillance systems on zoonoses and animal diseases. We reviewed three existing methods and combined them to develop a semi-quantitative assessment tool associating their strengths and providing a standardized way to display multilevel results. We developed a set of 78 assessment criteria divided into ten sections, representing the functional parts of a surveillance system. Each criterion was given a score according to the prescription of a scoring guide. Three graphical assessment outputs were generated using a specific combination of the scores. Output 1 is a general overview through a series of pie charts synthesizing the scores of each section. Output 2 is a histogram representing the quality of eight critical control points. Output 3 is a radar chart representing the level reached by ten system attributes. This tool was applied on five surveillance networks.

  14. Surveillance of Legionella species in hospital water systems: the significance of detection method for environmental surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Farzaneh Baghal; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring of hospital water systems to prevent and control nosocomial legionellosis is important from a public health perspective. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of Legionella contamination of hospital waters. A total of 44 water samples from the hot-water system of 11 hospitals were tested for Legionella by a culture method and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with Legionella-specific primers to identify the more sensitive method. Some physicochemical parameters and heterotrophic plate counts of water samples for possible association with Legionella contamination were also determined. The contamination rate of hospitals in our study varied between 64% (eight of 11)-100% based on culture method and nested PCR, respectively. Of the 44 water samples examined, 23% were positive for Legionella spp. by the culture method, while the nested PCR assay using the primers LEG448-JRP revealed 66% of the water samples being positive. Given the importance of monitoring hospital water systems for the presence of Legionella spp., the present PCR assay proved highly applicable for practical and sensitive surveillance of Legionella in such water systems. In addition, rapid monitoring of Legionella contamination could eliminate the potential exposure of high-risk patients through effective control measures.

  15. Web GIS-Based Public Health Surveillance Systems: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Luan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Web Geographic Information System (Web GIS has been extensively and successfully exploited in various arenas. However, to date, the application of this technology in public health surveillance has yet to be systematically explored in the Web 2.0 era. We reviewed existing Web GIS-based Public Health Surveillance Systems (WGPHSSs and assessed them based on 20 indicators adapted from previous studies. The indicators comprehensively cover various aspects of WGPHSS development, including metadata, data, cartography, data analysis, and technical aspects. Our literature search identified 58 relevant journal articles and 27 eligible WGPHSSs. Analyses of results revealed that WGPHSSs were frequently used for infectious-disease surveillance, and that geographical and performance inequalities existed in their development. The latest Web and Web GIS technologies have been used in developing WGPHSSs; however, significant deficiencies in data analysis, system compatibility, maintenance, and accessibility exist. A balance between public health surveillance and privacy concerns has yet to be struck. Use of news and social media as well as Web-user searching records as data sources, participatory public health surveillance, collaborations among health sectors at different spatial levels and among various disciplines, adaption or reuse of existing WGPHSSs, and adoption of geomashup and open-source development models were identified as the directions for advancing WGPHSSs.

  16. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan M Mor

    Full Text Available We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR. Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  17. Integrated Food Chain Surveillance System for Salmonella spp. in Mexico1

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, Mussaret B.; Calva, Juan Jose; Estrada-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Leon, Veronica; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Tollefson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Few developing countries have foodborne pathogen surveillance systems, and none of these integrates data from humans, food, and animals. We describe the implementation of a 4-state, integrated food chain surveillance system (IFCS) for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Significant findings were 1) high rates of meat contamination (21.3%–36.4%), 2) high rates of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhimurium in chicken, ill humans, and swine (77.3%, 66.3%, and 40.4% of S. Typhimurium T isolates, respectively), ...

  18. Paediatric surveillance of invasive infections by Haemophilus influenzae serotype b in 1994 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geubbels ELPE; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Suijkerbuijk AWM; CIE

    1995-01-01

    Ter voorkoming van sterfte, morbiditeit en blijvende schade als gevolg van invasieve Hib-infecties heeft de Gezondheidsraad geadviseerd vaccinatie tegen Hib in het Rijksvaccinatieprogramma op te nemen, hetgeen in 1993 is gerealiseerd. Om het effect van vaccinatie te beoordelen is surveillance geind

  19. Conceptual Model for Automatic Early Warning Information System of Infectious Diseases Based on Internet Reporting Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA-QI MA; LI-PING WANG; XUAO-PENG QI; XIAO-MING SHI; GONG-HUAN YANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish a conceptual model of automatic early warning of infectious diseases based on internet reporting surveillance system,with a view to realizing an automated warning system on a daily basis and timely identifying potential outbreaks of infectious diseases. Methods The statistic conceptual model was established using historic surveillance data with movable percentile method.Results Based on the infectious disease surveillance information platform,the conceptualmodelfor early warning was established.The parameter,threshold,and revised sensitivity and specificity of early warning value were changed to realize dynamic alert of infectious diseases on a daily basis.Conclusion The instructive conceptual model of dynamic alert can be used as a validating tool in institutions of infectious disease surveillance in different districts.

  20. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The temporal sensitivity of the surveillance system (TemSSe) for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Danish dairy herds was evaluated. Currently, the Danish antibody blocking ELISA is used to test quarterly bulk tank milk (BTM). To optimize the surveillance system as an early warning system, we...

  1. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  2. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  3. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myjak, Mitchell J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  4. Prospective multicenter surveillance identifies Staphylococcus aureus infections caused by livestock-associated strains in an agricultural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajeshwari; Wu, James; Carrel, Margaret; O'Brien, Ashley; Quick, Megan; Farina, Sarah; Wardyn, Shylo; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Grenier, Dylan; Smith, Tara C

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a surveillance study to investigate the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in Iowa, using a convenience sample. Diagnostic laboratories submitted 20 S. aureus isolates per month for a 20-month period between 2011 and 2013. Of the 2226 isolates analyzed, 73.6% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 26.4% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). S. aureus infections in 25 patients (1%) were caused by ST398- and ST9-associated strain types, and appeared to be a common occurrence in areas of the state with the highest numbers of hogs and hog farms. Twenty nine (5.1%) of MSSA isolates and 10 (40.0%) livestock-associated strains were multi-drug resistant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reporting surgical site infections following total hip and knee arthroplasty: impact of limiting surveillance to the operative hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoe, Deborah S; Avery, Taliser R; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2013-11-01

    Public reporting of surgical site infections (SSIs) by hospitals is largely limited to infections detected during surgical hospitalizations or readmissions to the same facility. SSI rates may be underestimated if patients with SSIs are readmitted to other hospitals. We assessed the impact of readmissions to other facilities on hospitals' SSI rates following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent primary THA or TKA at California hospitals between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009. SSIs were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes predictive of SSI assigned at any California hospital within 365 days of surgery using a statewide repository of hospital data that allowed tracking of patients between facilities. We used statewide data to estimate the fraction of each hospital's THA and TKA SSIs identified at the operative hospital versus other hospitals. A total of 91 121 THA and 121 640 TKA procedures were identified. Based on diagnosis codes, SSIs developed following 2214 (2.3%) THAs and 2465 (2.0%) TKAs. Seventeen percent of SSIs would have been missed by operative hospital surveillance alone. The proportion of hospitals' SSIs detected at nonoperative hospitals ranged from 0% to 100%. Including SSIs detected at nonoperative hospitals resulted in better relative ranking for 61% of THA hospitals and 61% of TKA hospitals. Limiting SSI surveillance to the operative hospital caused varying degrees of SSI underestimation and substantially impacted hospitals' relative rankings, suggesting that alternative methods for comprehensive postdischarge surveillance are needed for accurate benchmarking.

  6. FluMob: Enabling Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections in Health-care Workers via Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May Oo; Yung, Chee Fu; Yap, Peiling; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Subasinghe, Kosala; Foo, Schubert; Jayasinghe, Udeepa Gayantha; Xu, Huarong; Chai, Siaw Ching; Kurlye, Ashwin; Chen, Jie; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng

    2017-01-01

    Singapore is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases and faces a constant risk of pandemic outbreaks as a major travel and health hub for Southeast Asia. With an increasing penetration of smart phone usage in this region, Singapore’s pandemic preparedness framework can be strengthened by applying a mobile-based approach to health surveillance and control, and improving upon existing ideas by addressing gaps, such as a lack of health communication. FluMob is a digitally integrated syndromic surveillance system designed to assist health authorities in obtaining real-time epidemiological and surveillance data from health-care workers (HCWs) within Singapore, by allowing them to report influenza incidence using smartphones. The system, integrating a fully responsive web-based interface and a mobile interface, is made available to HCW using various types of mobile devices and web browsers. Real-time data generated from FluMob will be complementary to current health-care- and laboratory-based systems. This paper describes the development of FluMob, as well as challenges faced in the creation of the system. PMID:28367433

  7. FluMob: Enabling Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections in Health-care Workers via Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May Oo; Yung, Chee Fu; Yap, Peiling; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Subasinghe, Kosala; Foo, Schubert; Jayasinghe, Udeepa Gayantha; Xu, Huarong; Chai, Siaw Ching; Kurlye, Ashwin; Chen, Jie; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng

    2017-01-01

    Singapore is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases and faces a constant risk of pandemic outbreaks as a major travel and health hub for Southeast Asia. With an increasing penetration of smart phone usage in this region, Singapore's pandemic preparedness framework can be strengthened by applying a mobile-based approach to health surveillance and control, and improving upon existing ideas by addressing gaps, such as a lack of health communication. FluMob is a digitally integrated syndromic surveillance system designed to assist health authorities in obtaining real-time epidemiological and surveillance data from health-care workers (HCWs) within Singapore, by allowing them to report influenza incidence using smartphones. The system, integrating a fully responsive web-based interface and a mobile interface, is made available to HCW using various types of mobile devices and web browsers. Real-time data generated from FluMob will be complementary to current health-care- and laboratory-based systems. This paper describes the development of FluMob, as well as challenges faced in the creation of the system.

  8. The state of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in the military health system: a review of improvements made in the last 10 years and remaining surveillance gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekera, Ruvani M; Lesho, Emil P; Chukwuma, Uzo; Cummings, James F; Waterman, Paige E

    2015-02-01

    During a military public health laboratory symposium held in 1999, concerns were raised that the military health system lacked a standardized antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance system that allowed comparison of data across sites, investigation of trends, and understanding of resistance mechanisms. The purpose of this review was to assess if current AMR activities in the military health system have addressed the aforementioned gaps. It was determined that much progress has already been made within the Department of Defense with respect to monitoring and understanding AMR through initiatives such as the Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program-a strong Department of Defense-wide surveillance program. These surveillance efforts can be made more robust through harmonization of testing and reporting structures across military treatment facilities, and by encouraging military treatment facility participation. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. DXBC: a long distance wireless broadband communication system for coastal maritime surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastianos, George E.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Xilouris, Chris K.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    The field of Homeland Security focuses on the air, land, and sea borders surveillance in order to prevent illegal activities while facilitating lawful travel and trade. The achievement of this goal requires collaboration of complex decentralized systems and services, and transfer of huge amount of information between the remote surveillance areas and the command & control centers. It becomes obvious that the effectiveness of the provided security depends highly on the available communication capabilities between the interconnected areas. Although nowadays the broadband communication between remote places is presumed easy because of the extensive infrastructure inside residential areas, it becomes a real challenge when the required information should be acquired from locations where no infrastructure is available such as mountain or sea areas. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos within the PERSEUS FP7- SEC-2011-261748 project has developed a wireless broadband telecommunication system that combines different communication channels from subGHz to microwave frequencies and provides secure IP connectivity between sea surveillance vessels and the Command and Control Centers (C3). The system was deployed in Fast Patrol Boats of the Hellenic Coast Guard that are used for maritime surveillance in sea boarders and tested successfully in two demonstration exercises for irregular migration and smuggling scenarios in the Aegean Archipelagos. This paper describes in detail the system architecture in terms of hardware and software and the evaluation measurements of the system communication capabilities.

  10. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  11. Application of the Population Health Approach to Drinking Water System Surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Hu; Deborah Kelly Barnard; Esther Parker; Ann Thomas

    2007-01-01

    @@ A drinking water supply is a complicated system in its construction,operation,maintenance and need for public health surveillance.The role of public health in a drinking water supply is to ensure public health protection in all public and community water systems from intake to tap by controlling and preventing outbreaks of infectious diseases,inspecting and monitoring water systems,licensing operating permits,and regulating the construction,alternation or extension of all public and community water systems[1].

  12. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    MR Duffy, MJ Shim, S Guerra , F Guerra , G Mills, J Verani, B Alsip, S Lindstrom, B Shu, S Emery, AL Cohen, M Menon, AM Fry, F Dawood, VP Fonseca...eid1604.091658. 57. Morgan OW, S Parks, T Shim, PA Blevins, PM Lucas, R Sanchez, N Walea, F Loustalot, MR Duffy, MJ Shim, S Guerra , F Guerra , G Mills, J...captured at a U.S. military training site (Dagmar North), Republic of Korea, 2001-2004,” Mil Med, 174 (10), 1061-7. 69. Paz -Soldan VA, ST Stoddard, G

  13. Surveillance Programme for Healthcare Associated Infections in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Implementation and the first three years' results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoveze, M C; Assis, D B; Freire, M P; Madalosso, G; Ferreira, S A; Valente, M G; Fortaleza, C M C B

    2010-12-01

    Governmental programmes should be developed to collect and analyse data on healthcare associated infections (HAIs). This study describes the healthcare setting and both the implementation and preliminary results of the Programme for Surveillance of Healthcare Associated Infections in the State of São Paulo (PSHAISP), Brazil, from 2004 to 2006. Characterisation of the healthcare settings was carried out using a national database. The PSHAISP was implemented using components for acute care hospitals (ACH) or long term care facilities (LTCF). The components for surveillance in ACHs were surgical unit, intensive care unit and high risk nursery. The infections included in the surveillance were surgical site infection in clean surgery, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and device-associated bloodstream infections. Regarding the LTCF component, pneumonia, scabies and gastroenteritis in all inpatients were reported. In the first year of the programme there were 457 participating healthcare settings, representing 51.1% of the hospitals registered in the national database. Data obtained in this study are the initial results and have already been used for education in both surveillance and the prevention of HAI. The results of the PSHAISP show that it is feasible to collect data from a large number of hospitals. This will assist the State of São Paulo in assessing the impact of interventions and in resource allocation.

  14. Real-time PCR as a surveillance tool for the detection of Trichinella infection in muscle samples from wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, Leigh; Corley, Sean W; Gray, Christian P; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2012-09-10

    Trichinella nematodes are the causative agent of trichinellosis, a meat-borne zoonosis acquired by consuming undercooked, infected meat. Although most human infections are sourced from the domestic environment, the majority of Trichinella parasites circulate in the natural environment in carnivorous and scavenging wildlife. Surveillance using reliable and accurate diagnostic tools to detect Trichinella parasites in wildlife hosts is necessary to evaluate the prevalence and risk of transmission from wildlife to humans. Real-time PCR assays have previously been developed for the detection of European Trichinella species in commercial pork and wild fox muscle samples. We have expanded on the use of real-time PCR in Trichinella detection by developing an improved extraction method and SYBR green assay that detects all known Trichinella species in muscle samples from a greater variety of wildlife. We simulated low-level Trichinella infections in wild pig, fox, saltwater crocodile, wild cat and a native Australian marsupial using Trichinella pseudospiralis or Trichinella papuae ethanol-fixed larvae. Trichinella-specific primers targeted a conserved region of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA and were tested for specificity against host and other parasite genomic DNAs. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was at least 100 fg using pure genomic T. pseudospiralis DNA serially diluted in water. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking 10 g of each host muscle with T. pseudospiralis or T. papuae larvae at representative infections of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1 larvae per gram, and shown to detect larvae at the lowest infection rate. A field sample evaluation on naturally infected muscle samples of wild pigs and Tasmanian devils showed complete agreement with the EU reference artificial digestion method (k-value=1.00). Positive amplification of mouse tissue experimentally infected with T. spiralis indicated the assay could also be used on encapsulated

  15. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance Sistemas de vigilancia de riesgos ambientales para la salud. Sistemas de toxicovigilancia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Olivia Castillo Soria; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Ana Ferrer Dufol; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.Se presenta ...

  16. Detecting borderline infection in an automated monitoring system for healthcare-associated infection using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Jeroen S; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Blacky, Alexander; Koller, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Many electronic infection detection systems employ dichotomous classification methods, classifying patient data as pathological or normal with respect to one or several types of infection. An electronic monitoring and surveillance system for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) known as Moni-ICU is being operated at the intensive care units (ICUs) of the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) in Austria. Instead of classifying patient data as pathological or normal, Moni-ICU introduces a third borderline class. Patient data classified as borderline with respect to an infection-related clinical concept or HAI surveillance definition signify that the data nearly or partly fulfill the definition for the respective concept or HAI, and are therefore neither fully pathological nor fully normal. Using fuzzy sets and propositional fuzzy rules, we calculated how frequently patient data are classified as normal, borderline, or pathological with respect to infection-related clinical concepts and HAI definitions. In dichotomous classification methods, borderline classification results would be confounded by normal. Therefore, we also assessed whether the constructed fuzzy sets and rules employed by Moni-ICU classified patient data too often or too infrequently as borderline instead of normal. Electronic surveillance data were collected from adult patients (aged 18 years or older) at ten ICUs of the VGH. All adult patients admitted to these ICUs over a two-year period were reviewed. In all 5099 patient stays (4120 patients) comprising 49,394 patient days were evaluated. For classification, a part of Moni-ICU's knowledge base comprising fuzzy sets and rules for ten infection-related clinical concepts and four top-level HAI definitions was employed. Fuzzy sets were used for the classification of concepts directly related to patient data; fuzzy rules were employed for the classification of more abstract clinical concepts, and for top-level HAI surveillance definitions. Data for each

  17. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  18. A Comparison of Administrative Data Versus Surveillance Data for Hospital-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Canadian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Mendoza, Jessica Y; Daneman, Nick; Elias, Mary N; Amuah, Joseph E; Bush, Kathryn; Couris, Chantal M; Leeb, Kira

    2016-12-20

    BACKGROUND In Canadian hospitals, clinical information is coded according to national coding standards and is routinely collected as administrative data. Administrative data may complement active surveillance programs by providing in-hospital MRSA infection data in a standardized and efficient manner, but only if infections are accurately captured. OBJECTIVE To assess the accuracy of administrative data regarding in-hospital bloodstream infections (BSIs) and all-body-site infections due to MRSA. METHODS A retrospective study of all (adult and pediatric) in-hospital MRSA infections was conducted by comparing administrative data against surveillance data from 217 acute Canadian hospitals (124 in Ontario, 93 in Alberta) over a 12-month period. Hospital-associated MRSA BSI cases in Ontario, and for all-body-site MRSA infections in Alberta were identified. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the number of hospital-level MRSA cases within administrative versus surveillance datasets. The correlation of all-body-site MRSA infections versus MRSA BSIs was also assessed using the Ontario administrative data. RESULTS Strong correlations between hospital-level MRSA cases in administrative and surveillance datasets were identified for Ontario (r=0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.85) and Alberta (r=0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.94). A strong correlation between all-body-site and bloodstream-only MRSA infection rates was identified across Ontario hospitals (r=0.95; Phospital MRSA infections. With standard definitions, administrative data can provide estimates of in-hospital infections for monitoring and/or comparisons across hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-8.

  19. Automatic Docking System with Recharging and Battery Replacement for Surveillance Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the applications like industrial automation, home automation, hospitals, space exploration, military, etc, the surveillance robot are widely used. For that, continuous functioning of surveillance robot is necessary. In this paper, the development of automatic docking system with recharging and battery replacement process for surveillance robot is proposed. The robot can return to the docking station for recharging operations when the battery is low. The charging duration of the battery mounted in the robot is an important issue. To overcome this problem, battery replacement is a perfect solution. The battery is automatically exchanged within 30 seconds. So the robot needs not to be turned off for long duration of time while replacing the battery.

  20. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  2. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  3. Current trends from the USDA influenza a virus in swine surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    A U.S. national surveillance system for influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine was initiated in 2009 with increasing participation to the present day. The objectives are to monitor genetic evolution of IAV in swine, make isolates available for research, diagnostic reagents, and vaccine development throu...

  4. Dynvect's overview of the Culicoides surveillance systems in the EU and distribution maps of key species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balenghien, T.; Bødker, Rene; Kiel, E.

    One of the aims of the DynVect project was to set up a network of European entomologists working on Culicoides, the vectors of bluetongue virus, to create a platform for discussion, data sharing and data analysis. The first task consisted in describing the surveillance systems in place in each...

  5. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  6. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  7. 77 FR 52742 - Public Meeting-Strengthening the National Medical Device Postmarket Surveillance System; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... each presenter and the approximate time each oral presentation is to begin and will notify participants by September 4, 2012. All requests to make oral presentations must be received by August 31, 2012... Postmarket Surveillance System.'' The purpose of the meeting is to solicit public feedback regarding...

  8. Health care-associated Clostridium difficile infection in adults admitted to acute care hospitals in Canada: a Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Denise; Miller, Mark; Simor, Andrew; Taylor, Geoffrey; Gardam, Michael; McGeer, Allison; Hutchinson, James; Moore, Dorothy; Kelly, Sharon; Boyd, David; Mulvey, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea in industrialized countries. The only previous report describing the incidence of health care-associated CDI (HA CDI) in Canada was conducted in 1997 by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. We re-examined the incidence of HA CDI with an emphasis on patient outcomes. A prospective surveillance was conducted from 1 November 2004 through 30 April 2005. Basic demographic data were collected, including age, sex, type of patient ward where the patient was hospitalized on the day HA CDI was identified, and patient comorbidities. Data regarding severe outcome were collected 30 days after the diagnosis of HA CDI; severe outcome was defined as an admission to the intensive care unit because of complications of CDI, colectomy due to CDI, and/or death attributable to CDI. A total of 1430 adults with HA CDI were identified in 29 hospitals during the 6-month surveillance period. The overall incidence rate of HA CDI for adult patients admitted to these hospitals was 4.6 cases per 1000 patient admissions and 65 per 100,000 patient-days. At 30 days after onset of HA CDI, 233 patients (16.3%) had died from all causes; 31 deaths (2.2%) were a direct result of CDI, and 51 deaths (3.6%) were indirectly related to CDI, for a total attributable mortality rate of 5.7%. The rates are remarkably similar to those found in our previous study; although we found wide variations in HA CDI among the participating hospitals. However, the attributable mortality increased almost 4-fold (5.7% vs. 1.5%; P<.001).

  9. Continuously rethinking the definition of influenza for surveillance systems: a Dependent Bayesian Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Farrokh; Atherton, Martin J; Pattie, David C; Torii, Manabu

    2013-08-01

    In the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE), influenza was originally defined by a list of 29 and later by a list of 12 diagnosis codes. This article describes a dependent Bayesian procedure designed to improve the ESSENCE system and exploit multiple sources of information without being biased by redundancy. We obtained 13,096 cases within the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technological Application electronic medical records that included an influenza laboratory test. A Dependent Bayesian Expert System (D-BESt) was used to predict influenza from diagnoses, symptoms, reason for visit, temperature, month of visit, category of enrollment, and demographics. For each case, D-BESt sequentially selects the most discriminating piece of information, calculates its likelihood ratio conditioned on previously selected information, and updates the case's probability of influenza. When the analysis was limited to definitions based on diagnoses and was applied to a sample of patients for whom laboratory tests had been ordered, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for the previous (29-diagnosis) and current (12-diagnosis) ESSENCE lists and the D-BESt algorithm were, respectively, 0.47, 0.36, and 0.77. Including other sources of information further improved the AUC for D-BESt to 0.79. At the best cutoff point for D-BESt, where the receiver operating characteristic curve for D-BESt is farthest from the diagonal line, the D-BESt algorithm correctly classified 84% of cases (specificity = 88%, sensitivity = 62%). In comparison, the current ESSENCE approach of using a list of 12 diagnoses correctly classified only 31% of this sample of cases (specificity = 29%, sensitivity = 42%). False alarms in ESSENCE surveillance systems can be reduced if a probabilistic dynamic learning system is used.

  10. Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance in a Tertiary Hospital Emergency Department: Comparison of Influenza and Dengue Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Olga D.; Gregory, Christopher J.; Santiago, Luis Manuel; Acosta, Héctor; Galarza, Ivonne E.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz, Jorge; Bui, Duy M.; Oberste, M. Steven; Peñaranda, Silvia; García-Gubern, Carlos; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, an increased proportion of suspected dengue cases reported to the surveillance system in Puerto Rico were laboratory negative. As a result, enhanced acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance was initiated in a tertiary care hospital. Patients with fever of unknown origin for 2–7 days duration were tested for Leptospira, enteroviruses, influenza, and dengue virus. Among the 284 enrolled patients, 31 dengue, 136 influenza, and 3 enterovirus cases were confirmed. Nearly half (48%) of the confirmed dengue cases met clinical criteria for influenza. Dengue patients were more likely than influenza patients to have hemorrhage (81% versus 26%), rash (39% versus 9%), and a positive tourniquet test (52% versus 18%). Mean platelet and white blood cell count were lower among dengue patients. Clinical diagnosis can be particularly difficult when outbreaks of other AFI occur during dengue season. A complete blood count and tourniquet test may be useful to differentiate dengue from other AFIs. PMID:23382160

  11. Vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales en un hospital de cardiología Nosocomial infections surveillance in a cardiology and thoracic diseases hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio D. Molina-Gamboa

    1999-01-01

    vigilancia eficaz que elimine al mínimo las fluctuaciones en la captación de los casos durante el periodo vacacional del personal del equipo de control de infecciones, ya que el subregistro de los casos puede traer como consecuencia la pérdida de control sobre las infecciones hospitalarias y la aparición de brotes epidémicos.OBJECTIVES. To describe a nosocomial infection surveillance in a cardiology and thoracic diseases hospital in Northern Mexico during its initial months of activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Restrospective report of nosocomial infection surveillance performed by the infection control team with patient visits, clinical records, microbiology reports, and direct information obtained by health personnel. General and specific infection rates were analized by the chi² test and the Student t test. RESULTS. General infection rate was 4.99 during the 17 month period. Monthly infection rates changed significantly during infection control team vacations. By site of infection, surgical wound infection were the most common (1.14, followed by urinary tract infections (1.08, and bacteremia (0.72. However, when we grouped bacteremias and other cateter related infections, this intravascular access related infections were the most frequent (1.73. Gram positive organisms were most commonly isolated in nosocomial infections, except in pneumonias (gram negative organism and urinary tract infections (Candida spp.. Mortality related to nosocomial infection was high (21.7%, and at least one third of those deaths was directly related to the infection. In hospital stay and cost were also increase with nosocomial infections. CONCLUSIONS. Nosocomial infection is common in interventional cardiology hospitals, producing high mortality and rising costs and length of stay. We need a more efective nosocomial infections surveillance system to eliminate changes in monthly case detection produced by the infection control team vacations, since this underregistry could result in lost of

  12. Innovation of High-risk Infants Follow-up Surveillance System in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodeiry, Behzad; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Heidarabadi, Seifoallah; Ebadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood development is one of the most social determinants of health that must be notified in order to reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow-up surveillance system to identify high-risk infants (HRI) and their health problems for timely intervention after discharge. This study was carried out to design and pilot high-risk infant follow-ups (HRIFs) surveillance system, in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS), in 2012-2013. In this qualitative research after studying international documents, consensus about criteria of HRIs accomplished by focus group discussion. Then, Delphi agreement technique was used to finalizing assessment timetable. In the second phase, we piloted the designed surveillance system in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of TUOMS. Pilot study was implemented by follow-up team organized in designed model at the first phase of the study. Then, the findings of the pilot study were being assessed by an expert panel. If the members agreed on made decisions, they were being placed on the agenda of the national committee of development care of newborns for final approval. High-risk infants follow-up surveillance system was designed in following steps: Defining of evidence-based criteria of HRIs, organizing the follow-up team, regulating the organs and neurodevelopment assessment timetable, publishing a health certificate notebook for HRIs, and designing Access database software for data collection, report and evaluation. We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan.

  13. [The current prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among teenagers and young asymptomatic Chilean women justifies the periodic surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Milena; Ralph, Constanza; García, Patricia; Cuello, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection constitutes the most common sexual transmitted disease (STD) among young women. International studies demonstrate that prevalence changes over time and also according to places. To estimate the prevalence of this infection among asymptomatic Chilean women (15 to 24 years old) and correlating with risk factor occurrence. Transversal cohort study to identify C. trachomatis infection through a diagnostic kit designed to detect and amplify cryptic plasmid DNA by quantitative PCR from endocervical sample. 181 women were screened during the period of study. The overall prevalence estimate was 5.5% and founding significant estimate variations (0% to 14.6%) between recruiting centers. There was difference in number of sexual partners (4.1 vs 2.5; p<0.05) between positive and negative women. No difference was observed in age of first coitus, STD history, the use of barrier method or socioeconomic level. However, the probability of being carrier increases as greater is the number of sexual partners, especially when the use of barrier method is low. The latest is not related to the socioeconomic level. One of 12 to 18 women at this age range will have asymptomatic infection. The current prevalence and its variability substantiates the C. trachomatis screening and periodic surveillance.

  14. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of hepatitis C virus infections in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Thompson, Nicola D; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States; the prevalence in maintenance hemodialysis patients substantially exceeds that in the general population. In hemodialysis patients, HCV infection has been associated with increased occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. Injection drug use and receipt of blood transfusions before 1992 has accounted for most prevalent HCV infections in the United States. However, HCV transmission among patients undergoing hemodialysis has been documented frequently. Outbreak investigations have implicated lapses in infection control practices as the cause of HCV infections. Preventing these infections is an emerging priority for renal care providers, public health agencies, and regulators. Adherence to recommended infection control practices is effective in preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis facilities. In addition, adoption of routine screening to facilitate the detection of incident HCV infections and hemodialysis-related transmission is an essential component of patient safety and infection prevention efforts. This article describes the current epidemiology of HCV infection in US maintenance hemodialysis patients and prevention practices to decrease its incidence and transmission.

  15. Developing Agent-Oriented Video Surveillance System through Agent-Oriented Methodology (AOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Wai Shiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented methodology (AOM is a comprehensive and unified agent methodology for agent-oriented software development. Although AOM is claimed to be able to cope with a complex system development, it is still not yet determined up to what extent this may be true. Therefore, it is vital to conduct an investigation to validate this methodology. This paper presents the adoption of AOM in developing an agent-oriented video surveillance system (VSS. An intruder handling scenario is designed and implemented through AOM. AOM provides an alternative method to engineer a distributed security system in a systematic manner. It presents the security system at a holistic view; provides a better conceptualization of agent-oriented security system and supports rapid prototyping as well as simulation of video surveillance system.

  16. Lessons From the Implementation of Mo-Buzz, a Mobile Pandemic Surveillance System for Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May Oo; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Ernst, Kacey C; Foo, Schubert

    2017-10-02

    Approximately 128 countries and 3.9 billion people are at risk of dengue infection. Incidence of dengue has increased over the past decades, becoming a growing public health concern for countries with populations that are increasingly susceptible to this vector-borne disease, such as Sri Lanka. Almost 55,150 dengue cases were reported in Sri Lanka in 2016, with more than 30.40% of cases (n=16,767) originating from Colombo, which struggles with an outdated manual paper-based dengue outbreak management system. Community education and outreach about dengue are also executed using paper-based media channels such as pamphlets and brochures. Yet, Sri Lanka is one of the countries with the most affordable rates of mobile services in the world, with penetration rates higher than most developing countries. To combat the issues of an exhausted dengue management system and to make use of new technology, in 2015, a mobile participatory system for dengue surveillance called Mo-Buzz was developed and launched in Colombo, Sri Lanka. This paper describes the system's components and uptake, along with other similar disease surveillance systems. We developed Mo-Buzz and tested its feasibility for dengue. Two versions of the app were developed. The first was for use by public health inspectors (PHIs) to digitize form filling and recording of site visit information, and track dengue outbreaks on a real-time dengue hotspot map using the global positioning system technology. The system also provides updated dengue infographics and educational materials for the PHIs to educate the general public. The second version of Mo-Buzz was created for use by the general public. This system uses dynamic mapping to help educate and inform the general public about potential outbreak regions and allow them to report dengue symptoms and post pictures of potential dengue mosquito-breeding sites, which are automatically sent to the health authorities. Targeted alerts can be sent to users depending on

  17. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  18. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Shukla, Sharvari; Shardul, Savita; Ashtekar, Nutan; Valsa, Sapna; Awate, Pradip; Marx, Michael

    2013-06-13

    Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded "project" to a state owned surveillance "program". Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training, supervision, human and other resources) are particularly weak at the district level. Structural integration and establishing permanent state and district surveillance officer positions will ensure leadership; improve performance; support continuity; and offer sustainability to the program. Institutionalizing the integrated disease surveillance strategy through skills based personnel development and infrastructure strengthening at district levels is the only way to avoid it from ending up isolated! Improving surveillance

  19. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  20. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  1. Hepatitis E virus infection in Brazil: results of laboratory-based surveillance from 1998 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Passos-Castilho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Data on hepatitis E virus (HEV in Brazil are limited. We analyzed 15 years of HEV surveillance data in a major clinical laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The seroprevalence of HEV of 2,271 patients subjected to anti-HEV tests from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed. RESULTS: HEV seroprevalence was 2.1%, and the anti-HEV IgM positivity rate was 4.9%. Six hepatitis E patients were identified. CONCLUSIONS: HEV seroprevalence and detection rates appear to have increased in recent years. Hepatitis E should be investigated further and included in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis in Brazil.

  2. Hepatitis E virus infection in Brazil: results of laboratory-based surveillance from 1998 to 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Passos-Castilho; Anne de Sena; Mônica Renata Reinaldo; Celso Francisco Hernandes Granato

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Brazil are limited. We analyzed 15 years of HEV surveillance data in a major clinical laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The seroprevalence of HEV of 2,271 patients subjected to anti-HEV tests from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed. RESULTS: HEV seroprevalence was 2.1%, and the anti-HEV IgM positivity rate was 4.9%. Six hepatitis E patients were identified. CONCLUSIONS: HEV seroprevalence and detection rates appear to have increased in recent y...

  3. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System: Two Decades of Advancing Public Health Through Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Beth E; Tate, Heather; Plumblee, Jodie R; Dessai, Uday; Whichard, Jean M; Thacker, Eileen L; Robertson Hale, Kis; Wilson, Wanda; Friedman, Cindy R; Griffin, Patricia M; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-08-09

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections pose a serious and growing public health threat globally. In this review, we describe the role of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in providing data that help address the resistance problem and show how such a program can have broad positive impacts on public health. NARMS was formed two decades ago to help assess the consequences to human health arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal production in the United States. A collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the United States Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, NARMS uses an integrated "One Health" approach to monitor antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meat, and food animals. NARMS has adapted to changing needs and threats by expanding surveillance catchment areas, examining new isolate sources, adding bacteria, adjusting sampling schemes, and modifying antimicrobial agents tested. NARMS data are not only essential for ensuring that antimicrobial drugs approved for food animals are used in ways that are safe for human health but they also help address broader food safety priorities. NARMS surveillance, applied research studies, and outbreak isolate testing provide data on the emergence of drug-resistant enteric bacteria; genetic mechanisms underlying resistance; movement of bacterial populations among humans, food, and food animals; and sources and outcomes of resistant and susceptible infections. These data can be used to guide and evaluate the impact of science-based policies, regulatory actions, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives, and other public health efforts aimed at preserving drug effectiveness, improving patient outcomes, and preventing infections. Many improvements have been made to NARMS over time and the program will continue to adapt to address emerging resistance threats, changes in

  4. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System State-Added Questions: Leveraging an Existing Surveillance System to Improve Knowledge of Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Adamski, Alys; Smith, Ruben A; Burley, Kim; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2016-06-01

    As the prevalence of chronic conditions among women of reproductive age continues to rise, studies assessing the intersection of chronic disease and women's reproductive health status are increasingly needed. However, many data systems collect only limited information on women's reproductive health, thereby hampering the appraisal of risk and protective factors across the life span. One way to expand the study of women's health with minimal investment in time and resources is to integrate questions on reproductive health into existing surveillance systems. In 2013, previously validated questions on women's self-reported reproductive history, use of contraception, and infertility were added to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) by seven states (Connecticut, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Ohio, Texas, and Utah); all female respondents aged 18-50 years were included in the pool of respondents for these state-added questions. Of 8691 women who completed the questions, 13.2% reported ever experiencing infertility and 59.8% of those at risk for unintended pregnancy reported using contraception at last intercourse. The information garnered from the state-added reproductive health questions can be augmented with the BRFSS core questions on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services. Expanding existing data collection systems with supplemental questions on women's reproductive health can provide important information on risk factors and outcomes that may not be available from other sources.

  5. Peristomal infection after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a 7-year surveillance of 297 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Duarte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Healthcare-associated infection represents the most frequent adverse event during care delivery. Medical advances like percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy have brought improvement on quality of life to patients but an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection. Predictive risk factors for peristomal wound infection are largely unknown but evidence suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis and preventive strategies related to infection control may reduce infection rates. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to evaluate the global prevalence rate of peristomal infection. Secondary objectives were to characterise the positive culture results, to evaluate the prophylactic antibiotic protocol and to identify potential risk factors for peristomal infection. METHODS: Retrospective study of 297 patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy performed at a general hospital between January 2004 and September 2010. Patients received prophylactic cefazolin before the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, underling disease conditions to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and patient potential intrinsic risk factors. Statistical analysis was made with the statistical program SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: A total of 297 percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes were inserted. Wound infection occurred in 36 patients (12.1%. Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistant was the most frequently isolated microorganism (33.3% followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.6%. The incidence rate had been rising each year and differ from 4.65% in 2004/2007 to 17.9% in 2008/2010. This finding was consistent with the increasing of prevalence global infection rates of the hospital. Most of the infections (55.6% were detected in the first 10 days post procedure. There was no significant difference in age, body mass index values, mean survival time and duration of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding between patients with and

  6. GISEpi: a simple geographical information system to support public health surveillance and epidemiological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, F F; Braga, A L; Pinheiro, R S; Lopes, J A

    1997-05-01

    One important question for the implementation of a surveillance system concern the type of instrument that can provide timely information on the course of diseases and other health events. This may facilitate prompt implementation of prevention and intervention efforts, such as strengthening control action in one specific area or initiation of epidemiological investigation. Since health related variables of interest are often spatially distributed they require special tools for representation and analysis. Owing to their inherent ability to manage spatial information, geographical information systems (GIS) provide an excellent framework for the design of surveillance systems. This paper presents a simple information system, based on the concepts of GIS, designed for representation and elementary analysis of epidemiological data. An example of its potential use to support malaria control activities in Brazil is discussed.

  7. Nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit: when should Pseudomonas aeruginosa be suspected? Experience of the French national surveillance of nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit, Rea-Raisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A-G; Lavigne, T; Jarno, P; L'heriteau, F; Coignard, B; Savey, A; Rogues, A-M

    2012-01-01

    Individual and ward risk factors for P. aeruginosa-induced urinary tract infection in the case of nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit were determined with hierarchical (multilevel) logistic regression. The 2004-2006 prospective French national intensive care unit nosocomial infection surveillance dataset was used and 3252 patients with urinary tract infection were included; 16% were infected by P. aeruginosa. Individual risk factors were male sex, duration of stay, antibiotics at admission and transfer from another intensive care unit. Ward risk factors were patient turnover and incidence of P. aeruginosa-infected patients.

  8. Strengthening health security at the Hajj mass gatherings: characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems operational during the 2015 Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L

    2017-05-01

    Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security.

  9. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  10. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP) for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health...

  11. Combining Surveillance Systems: Effective Merging of U.S. Veteran and Military Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    analyses demonstrate two complementary surveillance systems with evident benefits for the national health picture. Relative timeliness of reporting could...incorporating a national perspective to provide a broad picture across regions or jurisdictions. In 2011, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) system had 8.6...National Biosurveillance Strategy. Here we describe the geographic coverage and outpatient visit characteristics of the two populations, the relative

  12. Matching bacteriological and medico-administrative databases is efficient for a computer-enhanced surveillance of surgical site infections: retrospective analysis of 4,400 surgical procedures in a French university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Brice; Lasserre, Camille; Bourigault, Céline; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Chaillet, Marie-Pierre; Mauduit, Nicolas; Caillon, Jocelyne; Hanf, Matthieu; Lepelletier, Didier

    2014-11-01

    Our goal was to estimate the performance statistics of an electronic surveillance system for surgical site infections (SSIs), generally applicable in French hospitals. Three detection algorithms using 2 different data sources were tested retrospectively on 9 types of surgical procedures performed between January 2010 and December 2011 in the University Hospital of Nantes. The first algorithm was based on administrative codes, the second was based on bacteriological data, and the third used both data sources. For each algorithm, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated. The reference method was the hospital's routine surveillance: a comprehensive review of the computerized medical charts of the patients who underwent one of the targeted procedures during the study period. A 3,000-bed teaching hospital in western France. We analyzed 4,400 targeted surgical procedures. Sensitivity results varied significantly between the three algorithms, from 25% (95% confidence interval, 17-33) when using only administrative codes to 87% (80%-93%) with the bacteriological data and 90% (85%-96%) with the combined algorithm. Fewer variations were observed for specificity (91%-98%), PPV (21%-25%), and NPV (98% to nearly 100%). Overall, performance statistics were higher for deep SSIs than for superficial infections. A reliable computer-enhanced SSI surveillance can easily be implemented in French hospitals using common data sources. This should allow infection control professionals to spend more time on prevention and education duties. However, a multicenter study should be conducted to assess the generalizability of this method.

  13. Medical Surveillance System & Medical Effect Modeling Thrust Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Equations ( PFE ) developed for this project model physiological systems in biological organisms as 1D liquid or gas flows. Special attention is given...in the model to capturing 2D viscous effects and branching effects. Multiple PFE representations of physiological systems (e.g. the respiratory and

  14. Molecular methods for the detection of human papillomavirus infection: new insights into their role in diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs comprise more than 180 genotypes. HPV infection is mainly diagnosed by molecular methods. The aim of our study was to review the main molecular methods used to diagnose HPV infection, underscoring their characteristics. Several methods have been developed for molecular diagnosis of Papilloma infection, such as those based on PCR technique. Another commercial non-PCR based diagnostic method is Hybrid Capture test; it is the only commercially available HPV DNA detection test approved by the FDA. Several Authors have suggested that viral load and E6/E7 transcripts could be used as surrogate markers of persistent HPV infection, being more specific predictors of progressive disease than the simple presence of HPV DNA. Validating clinical sensitivity and specificity of each technique and improving the interpretation of the results are essential; consequently, there is a clear need for well characterized international quality control panels to compare the various diagnostic methods. HPV DNA testing could be useful both as a primary screening test, alone or in combination with a Pap smear, for the early detection of cervical cancer precursors, and as triage test to select women with minor cytological abnormalities who will need further follow-up and to predict possible treatment failure in women with diagnosed high-grade intraepithelial lesions who have undergone excisional therapy. In the next future surveillance for HPV infections, based on these molecular methods, could represent an important step for the development of primary and secondary prophylactic interventions, such as new vaccines targeted to genotypes who might replace those previously prevalent.

  15. National capacity for surveillance, prevention, and control of West Nile virus and other arbovirus infections--United States, 2004 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Bradley, Kristy; Hughes, James M; Blackmore, Carina; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Getchell, Jane; Blumenstock, James; Engel, Jeffrey

    2014-04-04

    In the first 5 years after its introduction in the United States in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the 48 contiguous states, resulting in 667 reported deaths. To establish detection and response capacity, WNV surveillance and prevention was supported through CDC Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity (ELC) cooperative agreements with all 50 states and six large cities/counties. In 2005, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted an assessment of ELC recipients and determined that, since 1999, all had developed WNV surveillance and control programs, resulting in a national arboviral surveillance infrastructure. From 2004 to 2012, ELC funding for WNV surveillance decreased by 61%. In 2012, the United States had its most severe WNV season since 2003, prompting a follow-up assessment of the capacity of ELC-supported WNV programs. Since the first assessment, 22% of jurisdictions had stopped conducting active human surveillance, 13% had stopped mosquito surveillance, 70% had reduced mosquito trapping and testing, and 64% had eliminated avian mortality surveillance. Reduction in early detection capacity compromises local and national ability to rapidly detect changes in WNV and other arboviral activity and to initiate prevention measures. Each jurisdiction is encouraged to review its current surveillance systems in light of the local threat of WNV and emerging arboviruses (e.g., dengue and chikungunya) and ensure it is able to rapidly detect and respond to critical changes in arbovirus activity.

  16. Experiences From Developing and Upgrading a Web-Based Surveillance System for Malaria Elimination in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Clementine; Lopes, Sérgio; Mellor, Steve; Aryal, Siddhi; Sovannaroth, Siv; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa

    2017-06-14

    Strengthening the surveillance component is key toward achieving country-wide malaria elimination in Cambodia. A Web-based upgraded malaria information system (MIS) was deemed to essentially act as the central component for surveillance strengthening. New functionality (eg, data visualization) and operational (eg, data quality) attributes of the system received particular attention. However, building from the lessons learned in previous systems' developments, other aspects unique to Cambodia were considered to be equally important; for instance, feasibility issues, particularly at the field level (eg, user acceptability at various health levels), and sustainability needs (eg, long-term system flexibility). The Cambodian process of identifying the essential changes and critical attributes for this new information system can provide a model for other countries at various stages of the disease control and elimination continuum. Sharing these experiences not only facilitates the establishment of "best practices" but also accelerates global and regional malaria elimination efforts. In this article, Cambodia's experience in developing and upgrading its MIS to remain responsive to country-specific needs demonstrates the necessity for considering functionality, operationalization, feasibility, and sustainability of an information system in the context of malaria elimination. ©Clementine Fu, Sérgio Lopes, Steve Mellor, Siddhi Aryal, Siv Sovannaroth, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.06.2017.

  17. APPLICATION OF BINARY DESCRIPTORS TO MULTIPLE FACE TRACKING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of multiple face tracking in a video stream. The primary application of the implemented tracking system is the automatic video surveillance. The particular operating conditions of surveillance cameras are taken into account in order to increase the efficiency of the system in comparison to existing general-purpose analogs. Method. The developed system is comprised of two subsystems: detector and tracker. The tracking subsystem does not depend on the detector, and thus various face detection methods can be used. Furthermore, only a small portion of frames is processed by the detector in this structure, substantially improving the operation rate. The tracking algorithm is based on BRIEF binary descriptors that are computed very efficiently on modern processor architectures. Main Results. The system is implemented in C++ and the experiments on the processing rate and quality evaluation are carried out. MOTA and MOTP metrics are used for tracking quality measurement. The experiments demonstrated the four-fold processing rate gain in comparison to the baseline implementation that processes every video frame with the detector. The tracking quality is on the adequate level when compared to the baseline. Practical Relevance. The developed system can be used with various face detectors (including slow ones to create a fully functional high-speed multiple face tracking solution. The algorithm is easy to implement and optimize, so it may be applied not only in full-scale video surveillance systems, but also in embedded solutions integrated directly into cameras.

  18. Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, M.; Komar, N.; Sorhage, F.; Nelson, R.; Talbot, T.; Mostashari, F.; McLean, R.; ,

    2001-01-01

    In addition to human encephalitis and meningitis cases, the West Nile (WN) virus outbreak in the summer and fall of 1999 in New York State resulted in bird deaths in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. From August to December 1999, 295 dead birds were laboratory-confirmed with WN virus infection; 262 (89%) were American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). The New York State Department of Health received reports of 17,339 dead birds, including 5,697 (33%) crows; in Connecticut 1,040 dead crows were reported. Bird deaths were critical in identifying WN virus as the cause of the human outbreak and defining its geographic and temporal limits. If established before a WN virus outbreak, a surveillance system based on bird deaths may provide a sensitive method of detecting WN virus.

  19. Random effect modelling of patient-related risk factors in orthopaedic procedures: results from the Dutch nosocomial infection surveillance network 'PREZIES'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, J.; Walenkamp, G.H.; Voss, A.; Wille, J.C.; Hof, S. van den

    2006-01-01

    In the Dutch surveillance for surgical site infections (SSIs), data from 70277 orthopaedic procedures with 1895 SSIs were collected between 1996 and 2003. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyse the trends in SSIs associated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; (2) to estimate patient-

  20. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  1. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  2. From Cues to Nudge: A Knowledge-Based Framework for Surveillance of Healthcare-Associated Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Mamiya, Hiroshi; Riazanov, Alexandre; Forster, Alan J; Baker, Christopher J O; Tamblyn, Robyn; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated semantic web framework consisting of formal ontologies, web services, a reasoner and a rule engine that together recommend appropriate level of patient-care based on the defined semantic rules and guidelines. The classification of healthcare-associated infections within the HAIKU (Hospital Acquired Infections - Knowledge in Use) framework enables hospitals to consistently follow the standards along with their routine clinical practice and diagnosis coding to improve quality of care and patient safety. The HAI ontology (HAIO) groups over thousands of codes into a consistent hierarchy of concepts, along with relationships and axioms to capture knowledge on hospital-associated infections and complications with focus on the big four types, surgical site infections (SSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI); hospital-acquired pneumonia, and blood stream infection. By employing statistical inferencing in our study we use a set of heuristics to define the rule axioms to improve the SSI case detection. We also demonstrate how the occurrence of an SSI is identified using semantic e-triggers. The e-triggers will be used to improve our risk assessment of post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs) for patients undergoing certain type of surgeries (e.g., coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)).

  3. Understanding plant immunity as a surveillance system to detect invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David E; Mesarich, Carl H; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2015-01-01

    Various conceptual models to describe the plant immune system have been presented. The most recent paradigm to gain wide acceptance in the field is often referred to as the zigzag model, which reconciles the previously formulated gene-for-gene hypothesis with the recognition of general elicitors in a single model. This review focuses on the limitations of the current paradigm of molecular plant-microbe interactions and how it too narrowly defines the plant immune system. As such, we discuss an alternative view of plant innate immunity as a system that evolves to detect invasion. This view accommodates the range from mutualistic to parasitic symbioses that plants form with diverse organisms, as well as the spectrum of ligands that the plant immune system perceives. Finally, how this view can contribute to the current practice of resistance breeding is discussed.

  4. National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 to 2013. NVSS is a secure, web-based data management system that collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics. Data for this dataset has...

  5. Strengthening systems for communicable disease surveillance: creating a laboratory network in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndihokubwayo Jean B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent emergence of a novel strain of influenza virus with pandemic potential underscores the need for quality surveillance and laboratory services to contribute to the timely detection and confirmation of public health threats. To provide a framework for strengthening disease surveillance and response capacities in African countries, the World Health Organization Regional Headquarters for Africa (AFRO developed Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR aimed at improving national surveillance and laboratory systems. IDSR emphasizes the linkage of information provided by public health laboratories to the selection of relevant, appropriate and effective public health responses to disease outbreaks. Methods We reviewed the development of Rwanda's National Reference Laboratory (NRL to understand essential structures involved in creating a national public health laboratory network. We reviewed documents describing the NRL's organization and record of test results, conducted site visits, and interviewed health staff in the Ministry of Health and in partner agencies. Findings were developed by organizing thematic categories and grouping examples within them. We purposefully sought to identify success factors as well as challenges inherent in developing a national public health laboratory system. Results Among the identified success factors were: a structured governing framework for public health surveillance; political commitment to promote leadership for stronger laboratory capacities in Rwanda; defined roles and responsibilities for each level; coordinated approaches between technical and funding partners; collaboration with external laboratories; and use of performance results in advocacy with national stakeholders. Major challenges involved general infrastructure, human resources, and budgetary constraints. Conclusions Rwanda's experience with collaborative partnerships contributed to creation of a functional

  6. [Localized bacterial skin infections and dermatologic manifestations of systemic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, W; Itin, P

    1992-04-01

    Localized bacterial skin infections are frequent. In furunculosis, a local treatment is usually sufficient. In case of frequent recurrence a possible staphylococcus aureus colonization should be looked for and eliminated. Erysipela is treated by systemic antibiotics in order to avoid complications such as streptococcal gangrena or parainfectious glomerulonephritis. Anaerobic cellulitis and gas gangrena are postoperative or posttraumatic infections of the soft tissues which require a combined surgical and antibiotic treatment. Systemic infections may be recognized by characteristic skin lesions. These skin lesions are the consequence of bacterial emboli, vasculitis, intravascular coagulation or toxins, respectively. Examples for such manifestations are lesions in endocarditis, purpura fulminans, ekthyma gangrenosum, disseminated candidemia and toxic shock syndrome.

  7. The Effect of Participating in a Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Surveillance Network on the Time Trend of SSI Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohamed; Tartari, Ermira; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Pittet, Didier; Harbarth, Stephan

    2017-08-24

    This systematic literature review reveals that participating in a surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance network is associated with short-term reductions in SSI rates: relative risk [RR] for year 2, 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.82); year 3 RR, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94); year 4 RR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.

  8. State and Local Chronic Disease Surveillance Using Electronic Health Record Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompas, Michael; Cocoros, Noelle M; Menchaca, John T; Erani, Diana; Hafer, Ellen; Herrick, Brian; Josephson, Mark; Lee, Michael; Payne Weiss, Michelle D; Zambarano, Bob; Eberhardt, Karen R; Malenfant, Jessica; Nasuti, Laura; Land, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of chronic disease surveillance using distributed analysis of electronic health records and to compare results with Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) state and small-area estimates. We queried the electronic health records of 3 independent Massachusetts-based practice groups using a distributed analysis tool called MDPHnet to measure the prevalence of diabetes, asthma, smoking, hypertension, and obesity in adults for the state and 13 cities. We adjusted observed rates for age, gender, and race/ethnicity relative to census data and compared them with BRFSS state and small-area estimates. The MDPHnet population under surveillance included 1 073 545 adults (21.8% of the state adult population). MDPHnet and BRFSS state-level estimates were similar: 9.4% versus 9.7% for diabetes, 10.0% versus 12.0% for asthma, 13.5% versus 14.7% for smoking, 26.3% versus 29.6% for hypertension, and 22.8% versus 23.8% for obesity. Correlation coefficients for MDPHnet versus BRFSS small-area estimates ranged from 0.890 for diabetes to 0.646 for obesity. Chronic disease surveillance using electronic health record data is feasible and generates estimates comparable with BRFSS state and small-area estimates.

  9. Surveillance, response systems, and evidence updates on emerging zoonoses: the role of one health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Asokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, emerging zoonotic diseases are increasing. Existing surveillance systems for zoonoses have substantial gaps, especially in developing countries, and the systems in place in the developed world require improvements. Resources and updates on evidence-based practice (EBP for zoonoses are sparser in the veterinary literature as compared to the medical literature. Evidence updates for emerging zoonoses are either absent or rudimentary in both human and veterinary medicine. A ‘one-health’ concept, including a global signaling surveillance system for emerging zoonoses, will be essential for correct diagnoses, interventions, and public health strategies. An open access EBP platform supported by builders of EBP resources is urgently needed to counter emerging zoonoses.

  10. An automated system for public health surveillance of school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Atar; Rodriguez, Carla V; Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Public Health-Seattle & King County established an automated system for monitoring school absenteeism data from 18 of 19 public school districts in King County, Washington. The system receives a daily aggregate count of the number of students enrolled and absent, stratified by school district, school name, and grade. A name and unique identifier are provided for each school and district, as well as the level (eg, elementary, middle, high, alternative, other) and zip code of each school. Files are transmitted to the health department daily and include data from the previous school day. Public Health-Seattle & King County developed a series of visualizations that summarize the data by day, week, and month for each level of stratification. The automated system for collecting and monitoring school absenteeism data was more acceptable, simple, timely, complete, and useful relative to traditional manual data collection methods.

  11. Monitoring of PON System Using Compound Surveillance Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun-Chien Ko; Hsiu-Jung Chuang; Si-Chong Chen; Chih-Yih Wang; Sheng-Fwu Lin

    2015-01-01

    A passive optical network (PON) monitoring system combined light pulse and frequency sweep techniques is proposed and verified in a field test. The light pulse surveys over the all whole network and the frequency sweep are used to investigate any fault in the link. The field test is performed with 4 PONs. Each PON is monitored at 4 ports, one is the splitter port and the other three are arbitrary chosen multiple optical units(ONUs). All the tested PONs are monitored in turns once per hour. Faults at the feeder and branch fiber have been observed in this field test and have been analyzed with the monitoring system.

  12. Hepatitis E virus infection in Brazil: results of laboratory-based surveillance from 1998 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Passos-Castilho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:Data on hepatitis E virus (HEV in Brazil are limited. We analyzed 15 years of HEV surveillance data in a major clinical laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil.METHODS:The seroprevalence of HEV of 2,271 patients subjected to anti-HEV tests from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed.RESULTS:HEV seroprevalence was 2.1%, and the anti-HEV IgM positivity rate was 4.9%. Six hepatitis E patients were identified.CONCLUSIONS:HEV seroprevalence and detection rates appear to have increased in recent years. Hepatitis E should be investigated further and included in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis in Brazil.

  13. Understanding plant immunity as a surveillance system to detect invasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook III, D.E.; Mesarich, C.H.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Various conceptual models to describe the plant immune system have been presented. The most recent paradigm to gain wide acceptance in the field is often referred to as the zigzag model, which reconciles the previously formulated gene-for-gene hypothesis with the recognition of general elicitors in

  14. A semantic based video indexing and retrieval system for maritime surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Ramu, Prakash; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Content-based video retrieval from archived image/video is a very attractive capability of modern intelligent video surveillance systems. This paper presents an innovative Semantic-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval (SBVIR) software toolkit to help users of intelligent video surveillance to easily and rapidly search the content of large video archives to conduct video-based forensic and image intelligence. Tailored for maritime environment, SBVIR is suited for surveillance applications in harbor, sea shores, or around ships. The system comprises two major modules: a video analytic module that performs automatic target detection, tracking, classification, activities recognition, and a retrieval module that performs data indexing, and information retrieval. SBVIR is capable of detecting and tracking objects from multiple cameras robustly in condition of dynamic water background and illumination changes. The system provides hierarchical target classification among a large ontology of watercraft classes, and is capable of recognizing a variety of boat activities. Video retrieval is achieved with both query-by-keyword and query-by-example. Users can query video content using semantic concepts selected from a large dictionary of objects and activities, display the history linked to a given target/activity, and search for anomalies. The user can interact with the system and provide feedbacks to tune the system for improved accuracy and relevance of retrieved data. SBVIR has been tested for real maritime surveillance scenarios and shown to be able to generate highly-semantic metadata tags that can be used during the retrieval to provide user with relevant and accurate data in real-time.

  15. Injuries in community-level Australian football: Results from a club-based injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-11-01

    Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of syphilis infection in different tiers of female sex workers in China: implications for surveillance and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis has made a dramatic resurgence in China during the past two decades and become the third most prevalent notifiable infectious disease in China. Female sex workers (FSWs have become one of key populations for the epidemic. In order to investigate syphilis infection among different tiers of FSWs, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 sites in China. Methods Serum specimens (n = 7,118 were collected to test for syphilis and questionnaire interviews were conducted to obtain socio-demographic and behavioral information among FSWs recruited from different types of venues. FSWs were categorized into three tiers (high-, middle- and low-tier FSWs based on the venues where they solicited clients. Serum specimens were screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for treponemal antibody followed by confirmation with non-treponemal toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST for positive ELISA specimens to determine syphilis infection. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with syphilis infection. Results Overall syphilis prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI, 4.5-5.5%. Low-tier FSWs had the highest prevalence (9.7%; 95%CI, 8.3-11.1%, followed by middle-tier (4.3%; 95%CI, 3.6-5.0%, P P Conclusions This multi-site survey showed a high prevalence of syphilis infection among FSWs and substantial disparities in syphilis prevalence by the tier of FSWs. The difference in syphilis prevalence is substantial between different tiers of FSWs, with the highest rate among low-tier FSWs. Thus, current surveillance and intervention activities, which have low coverage in low-tier FSWs in China, should be further examined.

  17. Acoustic Emission Based Surveillance System for Prediction of Stress Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    material were changed to polished Delrin and the sample was secured at support blocks with orthodontic elastics the compounding noise coming from contacts...rapid and concluded in failure (Phase III in Fig. 2B). Fig. 1- Three-point bending setup: Samples were held on the bottom supports with orthodontic ...extensometer was used to measure the displacement (Epsilon Tech. Corp.). Data secured from the mechanical testing system was processed to extract

  18. Applications of a sugar-based surveillance system to track arboviruses in wild mosquito populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Townsend, Michael; Kurucz, Nina; Edwards, Jim; Ehlers, Gerhard; Rodwell, Chris; Moore, Frederick A; McMahon, Jamie L; Northill, Judith A; Simmons, Russell J; Cortis, Giles; Melville, Lorna; Whelan, Peter I; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Effective arbovirus surveillance is essential to ensure the implementation of control strategies, such as mosquito suppression, vaccination, or dissemination of public warnings. Traditional strategies employed for arbovirus surveillance, such as detection of virus or virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animals, or detection of virus in hematophagous arthropods, have limitations as an early-warning system. A system was recently developed that involves collecting mosquitoes in CO2-baited traps, where the insects expectorate virus on sugar-baited nucleic acid preservation cards. The cards are then submitted for virus detection using molecular assays. We report the application of this system for detecting flaviviruses and alphaviruses in wild mosquito populations in northern Australia. This study was the first to employ nonpowered passive box traps (PBTs) that were designed to house cards baited with honey as the sugar source. Overall, 20/144 (13.9%) of PBTs from different weeks contained at least one virus-positive card. West Nile virus Kunjin subtype (WNVKUN), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) were detected, being identified in 13/20, 5/20, and 2/20 of positive PBTs, respectively. Importantly, sentinel chickens deployed to detect flavivirus activity did not seroconvert at two Northern Territory sites where four PBTs yielded WNVKUN. Sufficient WNVKUN and RRV RNA was expectorated onto some of the honey-soaked cards to provide a template for gene sequencing, enhancing the utility of the sugar-bait surveillance system for investigating the ecology, emergence, and movement of arboviruses.

  19. Information extraction approaches to unconventional data sources for "Injury Surveillance System": the case of newspapers clippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchialla, Paola; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Snidero, Silvia; Rahim, Yousif; Gregori, Dario

    2012-04-01

    Injury Surveillance Systems based on traditional hospital records or clinical data have the advantage of being a well established, highly reliable source of information for making an active surveillance on specific injuries, like choking in children. However, they suffer the drawback of delays in making data available to the analysis, due to inefficiencies in data collection procedures. In this sense, the integration of clinical based registries with unconventional data sources like newspaper articles has the advantage of making the system more useful for early alerting. Usage of such sources is difficult since information is only available in the form of free natural-language documents rather than structured databases as required by traditional data mining techniques. Information Extraction (IE) addresses the problem of transforming a corpus of textual documents into a more structured database. In this paper, on a corpora of Italian newspapers articles related to choking in children due to ingestion/inhalation of foreign body we compared the performance of three IE algorithms- (a) a classical rule based system which requires a manual annotation of the rules; (ii) a rule based system which allows for the automatic building of rules; (b) a machine learning method based on Support Vector Machine. Although some useful indications are extracted from the newspaper clippings, this approach is at the time far from being routinely implemented for injury surveillance purposes.

  20. [Antibiotic consumption surveillance - state of implementation in Munich hospitals : Latest survey by the Munich public health department on the implementation of § 23 Infection protection act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Cornelia; Hirl, Bertrand; Schweitzer, Stefan; Gleich, Sabine

    2016-12-01

    On 4 August 2011 a modification of the infection protection act became law, meaning that antibiotic consumption surveillance and evaluation of data on the local resistance situation became obligatory for hospitals. Four years after the modification of the infection protection act became law, the Munich public health department aimed to evaluate the state of implementation of antibiotic consumption surveillance in Munich hospitals and to ascertain which antibiotic stewardship (ABS) structures have already been established. A questionnaire was sent to Munich hospitals about their antibiotic management structural data and state of implementation of legal requirements. Only 32 % of the hospitals have qualified ABS-experts available. In 76 % of the hospitals persons responsible for antibiotic consumption surveillance are appointed, while in 12 % persons responsible for antibiotic consumption surveillance are at least partly released from their normal work for this activity. Twenty-one hospitals (21 %) conduct antibiotic consumption surveillance taking into account all antiinfective agents mentioned in the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) guidelines. Of these, 19 (76 %) did this on basis of World Health Organizations ATC/DDD-system (anatomical therapeutic chemical [ATC] classification system which uses defined daily doses [DDD]). The data on antibiotic consumption is evaluated in 72 % of the hospitals, 68 % take account of the local resistance situation. In 96 %, in-house lists of antiinfectives are available; in 80 %, in-house guidelines for antibiotic treatment are available. Fourty-four percent of the hospitals take part in a national surveillance. For the first time data were collected on implementation of antibiotic consumption surveillance in hospitals, which has been required by law since 2011. An incomplete implementation of legal requirements was demonstrated. It was found that structural and personnel prerequisites are often missing, that

  1. Moving object detection method using H.263 video coded data for remote surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Atsushi; Hata, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Minoru

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a moving object detection method using H.263 coded data. For video surveillance systems, it is necessary to detect unusual states because there are a lot of cameras in the system and video surveillance is tedious in normal states. We examine the information extracted from H.263 coded data and propose a method of detecting alarm events from that information. Our method consists of two steps. In the first step, using motion vector information, a moving object can be detected based on the vector's size and the similarities between the vectors in one frame and the two adjoining frames. In the second step, using DCT coefficients, the detection errors caused by the change of the luminous intensity can be eliminated based on the characteristics of the H.263's DCT coefficients. Thus moving objects are detected by analyzing the motion vectors and DCT coefficients, and we present some experimental results that show the effectiveness of our method.

  2. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Snidaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment.

  3. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. Design and Methods We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25–64 years, and from the Global School‐Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US‐affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Results Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13–15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9–12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Discussion and Conclusions Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol‐related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412–423] PMID:26358376

  4. The development of a surveillance system to monitor emergency food relief in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C C; Weber, J; Pelletier, D; Dodds, J M

    1987-10-01

    A representative sample of emergency food relief (EFR) programs was selected on the basis of a census of 1,488 EFR programs in New York State. The census was a two-stage telephone survey. EFR was provided in every county although there was considerable variation in the amount of EFR per county. The soup kitchen and food pantry components of EFR had to be differentiated. The surveillance system was operational one year after the census began.

  5. Using a data fusion-based activity recognition framework to determine surveillance system requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available activity recognition framework for maritime applications (Adapted from [20]) III. APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK A. Use Cases Use cases [12] are valuable means of capturing transactions between users and systems. In the maritime surveillance environment, a.... D. Vessel Capabilities In terms of capabilities, the design, deployment and devel- opment sub-elements have to be estimated from information and data sources. To establish that a vessel is engaged in illegal fishing activities, basic criteria...

  6. Big Brother: A Road Map for Building Ubiquitous Surveillance System in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Enoch Yusuf

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to improve the security challenges in Nigeria by embedding literally hundreds of invisible computers into the environment with each computer performing its tasks without requiring human awareness or a large amount of human intervention to monitor human behaviour, natural disasters and search for stolen or lost items. Ubiquitous Dynamic Surveillance cameras embedded with Radio frequency identification (RFID is proposed for this security system.

  7. Congenital anomaly surveillance in England—ascertainment deficiencies in the national system

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, PA; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; Botting, B; Pattenden, S.; Abramsky, L.; Rankin, J.; Vrijheid, M; Wellesley, D

    2005-01-01

    Objective Firstly, to assess the completeness of ascertainment in die National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS), the basis for congenital anomaly surveillance in England and Wales, and its variation by defect geographical area, and socioeconomic deprivation. Secondly, to assess die impact of the lack of data on pregnancies terminated because of fetal anomaly. Design Comparison of the NCAS with four local congenital anomaly registers in England. Setting Four regions in England covering some 10...

  8. Global Ocean Surveillance With Electronic Intelligence Based Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramanan, Haritha

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this proposal is to design our own ELINT based satellite system to detect and locate the target by using satellite Trilateration Principle. The target position can be found by measuring the radio signals arrived at three satellites using Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) technique. To locate a target it is necessary to determine the satellite position. The satellite motion and its position is obtained by using Simplified General Perturbation Model(SGP4) in MATLAB. This SGP4 accepts satellite Two Line Element(TLE) data and returns the position in the form of state vectors. These state vectors are then converted into observable parameters and then propagated in space. This calculations can be done for satellite constellation and non - visibility periods can be calculated. Satellite Trilateration consists of three satellites flying in formation with each other. The satellite constellation design consists of three satellites with an inclination of 61.3° maintained at equal distances between each other. The design is performed using MATLAB and simulated to obtain the necessary results. The target's position can be obtained using the three satellites ECEF Coordinate system and its position and velocity can be calculated in terms of Latitude and Longitude. The target's motion is simulated to obtain the Speed and Direction of Travel.

  9. Developing a Formal Specification for the Mission Systems of a Maritime Surveillance Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Laure; Billington, Jonathan; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2003-01-01

    The mission system of an aircraft is a complex real-time distributed system consisting of a mission control computer, different kinds of devices interconnected by a number of serial data buses. The complexity and real-time requirements of mission systems have motivated research into the application...... system with Coloured Petri Nets and analysed the model using state spaces. Here, we describe how this model was refined and modified to obtain a Coloured Petri Net model for the AP-3C Orion maritime surveillance aircraft....

  10. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture(†); if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  11. Infection control systems in transition: the challenges for post-Soviet Bloc countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ider, B-E; Adams, J; Morton, A; Whitby, M; Clements, A

    2012-04-01

    Just two decades ago, 30 of today's countries in Europe and Asia had socialist governments under Soviet dominance or direct administration. Intensive health system reforms have altered infection control in many of these countries. However, much of the literature from these countries is difficult to access by international scientists. To summarize existing infection control policies and practices in post-Soviet Bloc countries. In addition to PubMed and Google search engines, we explored local websites and grey literature. In total, 192 references published in several languages were reviewed. Infection control in these countries is in the midst of transition. Three groups of countries were identified. First, Eastern European and Baltic countries building surveillance systems for specific pathogens and antibiotic use; second, European post-Soviet Bloc countries focusing on the harmonization of recently established infection control infrastructure with European surveillance programmes; third, countries such as those formerly in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Mongolia and post-conflict Eastern European countries that are in the first stages of reform. Poor commitment, resource scarcity and shortages of expertise were identified. Underreporting of official infection control statistics is widespread. Guidance from international organizations has been crucial in initiating and developing contemporary infection control programmes. More support from the international community will be needed for the third group of countries, where infection control has remained a neglected issue. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of males infected with common Neisseria gonorrhoeae sequence types in the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, San Francisco, California, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Kyle T; Marcus, Julia L; Barry, Pennan M; Pandori, Mark W; Buono, Sean; Hess, David; Philip, Susan S

    2013-10-15

    We analyzed 265 urethral Neisseria gonorrhoeae specimens collected from symptomatic males at San Francisco's municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic, a participant in the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, during 2009. We used N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing to describe characteristics of patients infected with common sequence type families. Specimens were classified into 6 homology-based families and 1 additional family of all other identified strains. Strain family results were combined with results of culture-based antibiotic sensitivity minimum inhibitory concentration, sociodemographic and behavioral risk data collected at the clinic, and presence or absence of the mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (penA) allele. Characteristics of patients were compared across strain families through the use of χ(2) statistics. Among men who have sex with men, strain distribution differed by those reporting receptive oral sex as their only urethral exposure (P = 0.04), by number of sex partners (P = 0.03), and by race/ethnicity (P gonorrhoeae infection could help develop a more complete epidemiology of gonorrhea in the United States.

  13. Prevalence of Physical Activity in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. Ainsworth, PhD, MPH

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The health benefits of regular cardiovascular exercise are well-known. Such exercise, however, has traditionally been defined as vigorous physical activity, such as jogging, swimming, or aerobic dance. Exercise of moderate intensity also promotes health, and many U.S. adults may be experiencing the health benefits of exercise through lifestyle activities of moderate intensity, such as yard work, housework, or walking for transportation. Until recently, public health surveillance systems have not included assessments of this type of physical activity, focusing on exercise of vigorous intensity. We used an enhanced surveillance tool to describe the prevalence and amount of both moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity among U.S. adults. Methods We analyzed data from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based, random-digit–dialed telephone survey administered to U.S. adults aged 18 years and older (n = 82,834 men and 120,286 women. Physical activity behavior was assessed using questions designed to quantify the frequency of participation in moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activities performed during leisure time or for household chores and transportation. Results Overall, 45% of adults (48% of men and 43% of women were active at recommended levels during nonworking hours (at least 30 minutes five or more days per week in moderate-intensity activities, equivalent to brisk walking, or at least 20 minutes three or more days per week in vigorous activities, equivalent to running, heavy yard work, or aerobic dance. Less than 16% of adults (15% of men and 17% of women reported no moderate or vigorous activity in a usual week. Conclusion Integrating surveillance of lifestyle activities into national systems is possible, and doing so may provide a more accurate representation of the prevalence of recommended levels of physical activity. These results, however, suggest that the majority of U

  14. Initial test and evaluation of the millimeter-wave holographic surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Schur, Anne; Harris, Wyllona M.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    1997-01-01

    A test and evaluation pilot study was conducted in January 1996 at Sea-Tac International Airport in Seattle, Washington to determine the initial effectiveness of the Millimeter- wave Holographic Weapons Surveillance System. This is a new personnel surveillance systems for the detection of concealed metal, plastic, and ceramic weapons and other threatening materials. Two different frequency bands were used in the study: Ku band and Ka band. Over 7000 Millimeter-wave (MM-wave) holographic images were obtained on 21 different models. The 7000 images were used to produce simulated real-time surveillance system videos. The videos were constructed by obtaining 36 images of the models at 10 degree increments for 360 degree coverage. A library of two hundred videos were produced for this pilot study: 100 at Ku band and 100 at Ka band. The videos contained either a threat or no threat. The threats were concealed at different locations on the models. Various innocuous items and different clothing combinations were also used n the construction of these videos. Twenty-nine certified Sea-Tac screeners were used in the initial test and evaluation of this new surveillance technology. Each screener viewed 160 MM-wave videos: 80 Ku band and 80 Ka band. The ratio of non- threat to threat videos per band was three to one. Test and evaluation software was developed to collect data from the screeners on-line for the type and location of threat detected. The primary measures of screener performance used to evaluate this new technology included, the probability of detection, the probability of a false alarm, measures of screener sensitivity and bias, and threat detection time.

  15. Core state preconception health indicators - pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Farr, Sherry L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Morrow, Brian; Ahluwalia, Indu; D'Angelo, Denise V; Barradas, Danielle; Cox, Shanna; Goodman, David; Williams, Letitia; Grigorescu, Violanda; Barfield, Wanda D

    2014-04-25

    Promoting preconception health can potentially improve women's health and pregnancy outcomes. Evidence-based interventions exist to reduce many maternal behaviors and chronic conditions that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate folic acid intake, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The 2006 national recommendations to improve preconception health included monitoring improvements in preconception health by maximizing public health surveillance (CDC. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-6]). 2009 for 38 indicators; 2008 for one indicator. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors, conditions, and experiences that occur shortly before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the United States that collects state-level data on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and preventive health services. This surveillance summary includes PRAMS data from 29 reporting areas (n = 40,388 respondents) and BRFSS data from 51 reporting areas (n = 62,875 respondents) for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (aged 18-44 years). To establish a comprehensive, nationally recognized set of indicators to be used for monitoring, evaluation, and response, a volunteer group of policy and program leaders and epidemiologists identified 45 core state preconception health indicators, of which 41 rely on PRAMS or BRFSS as data sources. This report includes 39 of the 41 core state preconception health indicators for which

  16. Impact of surveillance rounds on adherence to infection control policies and procedures at a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Archana; Heybrock, Brenda; Plummer, Sharon; Eischen, Kay

    2004-09-01

    Adherence to written infection control policies and procedures was studied and on-site education was provided for 1 year at a children's hospital. There was significant improvement in sharp objects disposal, hazardous waste handling, availability of personal protective equipment, isolation precautions, and staff knowledge regarding location of the exposure control plan.

  17. [Genotyping and molecular marking of bacteria and viruses in epidemiological surveillance of actual infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhebrun, A B; Mukomolov, S L; Narvskaia, O V

    2011-01-01

    Determination of genetic and molecular features of pathogens circulating in Russia, in the northwest of the country and in St. Petersburg to resolve the problems of spread of diseases caused by these pathogens. Complete and limited gene sequencing, DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, spoligotyping, VNTR-typing, resistotyping and other methods were used. Data on population structure and dominant genotypes of tuberculosis mycobacteria, corynebacteria, helicobacteria, hepatitis A, B, C, human papilloma viruses circulating in Russia, in the northwest of the country and in St. Petersburg were obtained. Genetic divergence of rubella virus and poliovirus vaccine strains under mass vaccination conditions was detected. Evidence of higher effectiveness of pathogen genotyping methods in epidemiologic diagnostics compared with traditional epidemiological investigation was obtained. Microorganism genotyping methods were helpful in resolving strategic problems of contemporary epidemiology. Perspectives of further development of these methods are related to obtaining data on circulating genotypes in all regions of the world, establishment of complete databases on circulating genotypes and integration of this methodology into daily diagnostics and epidemiological surveillance.

  18. Evaluation of the national Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for dengue fever in Taiwan, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe McKerr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved.We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system's structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables.Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010-2012, 4,740 (93% were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14% recorded as travel-related, 111 (15% had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%.The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to

  19. Evaluation of the national Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for dengue fever in Taiwan, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerr, Caoimhe; Lo, Yi-Chun; Edeghere, Obaghe; Bracebridge, Sam

    2015-03-01

    In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS) has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved. We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system's structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables. Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010-2012, 4,740 (93%) were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14%) recorded as travel-related, 111 (15%) had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%. The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to timely and

  20. A simulation of wide area surveillance (WAS) systems and algorithm for digital elevation model (DEM) extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Beato T.

    2010-04-01

    With the advances in focal plane, electronics and memory storage technologies, wide area and persistence surveillance capabilities have become a reality in airborne ISR. A WAS system offers many benefits in comparison with the traditional airborne image capturing systems that provide little data overlap, both in terms of space and time. Unlike a fix-mount surveillance camera, a persistence WAS system can be deployed anywhere as desired, although the platform typically has to be in motion, say circling above an area of interest. Therefore, WAS is a perfect choice for surveillance that can provide near real time capabilities such as change detection and target tracking. However, the performance of a WAS system is still limited by the available technologies: the optics that control the field-of-view, the electronics and mechanical subsystems that control the scanning, the focal plane data throughput, and the dynamics of the platform all play key roles in the success of the system. It is therefore beneficial to develop a simulated version that can capture the essence of the system, in order to help provide insights into the design of an optimized system. We describe an approach to the simulation of a generic WAS system that allows focal plane layouts, scanning patterns, flight paths and platform dynamics to be defined by a user. The system generates simulated image data of the area ground coverage from reference databases (e.g. aerial imagery, and elevation data), based on the sensor model. The simulated data provides a basis for further algorithm development, such as image stitching/mosaic, registration, and geolocation. We also discuss an algorithm to extract the terrain elevation from the simulated data, and to compare that with the original DEM data.

  1. The results of virological surveillance for intrauterine infections in Saint-Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Murina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of researchis the determiningthe etiological structure ofintrauterine infections in Saint-Petersburg pediatric patients, pregnant women andinfants born to them using a variety of virological methods.Methods: serum from 164 children aged from 1 month to 14 years with diagnosis of «intrauterine infection». Serum from 80 pregnant women, collected in each trimester (total – 240 samples, their 42 children (at the age of 1–2 and 4–6  months of life, total – 82 samples. Immunoglobulin Mand G (IgM and IgGto herpes virus type 1, cytomegalovirus (CMV, Toxoplasma gondii, mycoplasma and chlamydia, rubella, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and parvovirus B19, as well as IgG avidity,were determined by ELISA in all these samples. Theimmunoblot (Western blot, using the «Immunoblot2000» with test kits from «Euroimmun AG» (Germany, was applied to confirm cases. Statistical analysis wasperformed with theprograms Microsoft Excel, Statistica6.Results: cytomegalovirus, herpes virus 1st type and Epstein-Barr virus infections are dominate in the structure of intrauterine ones (45%, 23% and 14%, respectively. Laboratory evidence ofreactivationof cytomegalovirus (35% ofpregnant womenin the 2nd and/or 3rd trimesters and acuteparvovirus infection (15% of cases were found. Specific IgM to cytomegalovirus were detected in 6,2% ofchildren in the firstsix months of life.Conclusions: with the aim of early detection of cytomegalovirus reactivation and acute parvovirus infection it isnecessary to monitor pregnant women with the definition of specific IgM, IgG and avidity IgG. The procedure to using immunoblotting in the diagnosis of intrauterine infectionsneeds to be further study.

  2. EARSS: European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System; data from the Netherlands .Incidence and resistance rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goettsch WG; de Neeling AJ; CIE; LIO

    2001-01-01

    Gevoeligheid voor antimicrobiele middelen in Streptococcus pneumoniae en Staphylococcus aureus werd bepaald in 1999 in Nederland binnen het raamwerk van het European antomicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). Het EARSS project had in Nederland een dekkingsgraad van 40% van de Nederlandse

  3. A WiMAX Networked UAV Telemetry System for Net-Centric Remote Sensing and Range Surveillance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A WiMAX networked UAV Telemetry System (WNUTS) is designed for net-centric remote sensing and launch range surveillance applications. WNUTS integrates a MIMO powered...

  4. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  5. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological surveillance of infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Joan; Andresen, Lars Ole; Barfod, Kristen;

    2002-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for serological surveillance of infection of pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 5 was developed. The antigen used was prepared from Ap serotype 5b strain L20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis...... showed that the antigen contained high molecular weight lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and presumably also capsular polysaccharide (CP). The Ap serotype 5 ELISA was tested using sera from pigs experimentally infected with the 12 different Ap serotypes of biotype 1 and with sera from herds naturally infected...

  6. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  7. Evaluation of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for Dengue Fever in Taiwan, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerr, Caoimhe; Lo, Yi-Chun; Edeghere, Obaghe; Bracebridge, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Background In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS) has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved. Methodology We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system’s structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables. Principal Findings Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010–2012, 4,740 (93%) were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14%) recorded as travel-related, 111 (15%) had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%. Conclusions/Significance The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The

  8. Prevalence of cutipositivity in a sample of homeless shelter population in Rome in the course of Latent Tuberculosis Infection surveillance plan. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Laurenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in Europe homelessness is a known risk factor both for active and latent tuberculosis (TB. In Rome 409 cases of TB were notified in 2004, but the real occurrence among homeless people is unknown. Tuberculosis surveillance has been organized with the aim to develop an integrated model for the risk evaluation and management of both Latent Tuberculosis infections (LTBI and TB in Rome homeless people.

    Methods: the eligible individuals have been recruited in the homeless’ refuges. The Tuberculin Mantoux test has been used to evaluate the infection prevalence; in case of a positive result, the individual’s expectorate has been collected and the chest X-ray has been performed. A collecting data form has been filled in for evaluating some risk factors. Multiple logistic regression models have been carried out to find statistically significant determinants of infection.

    Results: out of 120 subjects recruited, 108 came back for the evaluation of the skin test; the prevalence of LTBI was 43.5% (47/108 subjects; no active TB cases were found. According to the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated to LTBI are gender (for males OR = 4.94; 95% CI: 1.46 – 16.67, 1st model; OR 5.84; 95% CI: 1.26 – 21.10, 2nd model, birth place (for Europe: OR 3.05; 95% CI: 1.02 – 9.13, 1st model; OR 3.12; 95% CI: 1.10 – 8.88, 2nd model; for East Mediterranean native Region OR = 4.34; 95%CI: 1.15-16.39; Body Mass Index class (for obesity OR = 3.34; 95% CI:1.31-8.51.

    Conclusions: these preliminary results have demonstrated a high prevalence of LTBI among homeless people. Male gender, birth place (Europe and East Mediterranean native Region and obesity were found to be significant risk factors. The surveillance system allowed positive patients for LTBI to be rapidly directed to a specialized centre for the clinical evaluation and the appropriate therapy

  9. Establishing a nationwide emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system for better public health responses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Chan-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With international concern over emerging infectious diseases (EID and bioterrorist attacks, public health is being required to have early outbreak detection systems. A disease surveillance team was organized to establish a hospital emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system (ED-SSS capable of automatically transmitting patient data electronically from the hospitals responsible for emergency care throughout the country to the Centers for Disease Control in Taiwan (Taiwan-CDC starting March, 2004. This report describes the challenges and steps involved in developing ED-SSS and the timely information it provides to improve in public health decision-making. Methods Between June 2003 and March 2004, after comparing various surveillance systems used around the world and consulting with ED physicians, pediatricians and internal medicine physicians involved in infectious disease control, the Syndromic Surveillance Research Team in Taiwan worked with the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh to create Taiwan's ED-SSS. The system was evaluated by analyzing daily electronic ED data received in real-time from the 189 hospitals participating in this system between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005. Results Taiwan's ED-SSS identified winter and summer spikes in two syndrome groups: influenza-like illnesses and respiratory syndrome illnesses, while total numbers of ED visits were significantly higher on weekends, national holidays and the days of Chinese lunar new year than weekdays (p Conclusion Taiwan's ED-SSS represents the first nationwide real-time syndromic surveillance system ever established in Asia. The experiences reported herein can encourage other countries to develop their own surveillance systems. The system can be adapted to other cultural and language environments for better global surveillance of infectious diseases and international collaboration.

  10. Combining Healthcare-Based and Participatory Approaches to Surveillance: Trends in Diarrheal and Respiratory Conditions Collected by a Mobile Phone System by Community Health Workers in Rural Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Meyers

    Full Text Available Surveillance systems are increasingly relying upon community-based or crowd-sourced data to complement traditional facilities-based data sources. Data collected by community health workers during the routine course of care could combine the early warning power of community-based data collection with the predictability and diagnostic regularity of facility data. These data could inform public health responses to epidemics and spatially-clustered endemic diseases. Here, we analyze data collected on a daily basis by community health workers during the routine course of clinical care in rural Nepal. We evaluate if such community-based surveillance systems can capture temporal trends in diarrheal diseases and acute respiratory infections.During the course of their clinical activities from January to December 2013, community health workers recorded healthcare encounters using mobile phones. In parallel, we accessed condition-specific admissions from 2011-2013 in the hospital from which the community health program was based. We compared diarrhea and acute respiratory