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Sample records for infants toxicite cardiaque

  1. Sortir de l'impasse de la toxicité

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CENTRE DE RECHERCHES POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT INTERNATIONAL. Sortir de l'impasse de la toxicité. Une recherche financée par le CRDI fait diminuer l'utilisation de pesticides très toxiques qui ont permis d'augmenter le rendement des cultures de pommes de terre au détriment de la santé de la population des ...

  2. Effets de la toxicité des pesticides Maneb et Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    alors à craindre que les eaux de ruissellement des bassins versants en provenance des zones d'exploitations agricoles soient une source de contamination des plans d'eaux, avec pour conséquence la destruction des ressources aquatiques, dont les poissons (Bouba, 2002). Le présent travail révèle les effets de toxicité.

  3. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infant Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... differences in rates among population groups. About Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death of an infant ...

  4. Various possible ways to express the toxicity of radioactive substances in relation with the involved practical problems; Diverses expressions possibles de la toxicite des substances radioactives en fonction des problemes pratiques poses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Vacca, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    proprietes radioactives. On peut donc etablir deux classifications toxicologiques, en fonction l'une du poids du radioelement, l'autre de son activite. Le plus frequemment les quantites maxima admissibles (QMA) dans l'organisme et les concentrations maxima admissibles (CMA) dans l'air et dans l'eau sont exprimees en microcuries par millilitre ({mu}c/ml), plus rarement en microgrammes par millilitre ({mu}g/ml). L'examen comparatif de ces tableaux de QMA et CMA fait apparaitre des differences importantes dans le classement des radioelements par ordre decroissant de toxicite. C'est ainsi que le plutonium et le radium qui se trouvent parmi les produits les plus toxiques lorsque l'activite est envisagee sont loin d'etre en tete des radioelements dangereux lorsque le poids est considere. Par contre, l'iode-131 et le manganese-56, par exemple, apparaissent parmi les corps les plus dangereux dans cette derniere eventualite. Cette double constatation correspond a deux aspects des problemes poses par la toxicite des radioelements. Si la classification par activite est presque exclusivement utilisee, cela tient a ce que les mesures toxicologiques sont basees sur les proprietes radioactives des radioelements. Elles seules permettent, en general, de detecter des traces aussi faibles de substances. Par contre, la toxicite liee a la contamination interne depend en premier lieu du metabolisme des radioelements, lequel est exclusivement fonction de leurs proprietes physico-chimiques. C'est donc la classification ponderale qui est la plus representative des dangers courus du fait d'inhalation ou d'ingestion de substances radioactives. Il en resulte que la toxicite relative des radioelements ne peut etre seulement basee sur la classification en fonction de l'activite et que la repartition des substances radioactives dans les differentes categories habituelles (tres dangereuses, moyennement dangereuses, faiblement dangereuses) devrait etre remaniee. (auteur)

  5. Contribution to the study of radio toxicity of aromatic and medicinal plants using solid state nuclear track detectors; Contribution a l etude de la radio toxicite des plantes aromatiques et medicinales au moyen des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortassim, A; Misdaq, M A; Naaman, A

    2009-07-01

    The concentrations of uranium (238 U), thorium (232 Th), radon (222 Rn) and thoron (220 Rn) were measured in twenty aromatic and medicinal plants in {sup f}ind a new method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors type Cr-39 and Rs-115. He emerges from this study that the verbena and salvia have higher levels of uranium (radon) higher than that of other plants while the leaves of olive and saturja have concentrations of thorium (thoron) higher than other plants therefore radio toxicity of these plants is higher than that of others and may pose a radiological hazard if the masses are incorporated by consumers high. [French] Les concentrations en uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), et thoron (220Rn) ont ete mesurees dans vingt plantes aromatiques et medicinales en utilsant une nouvelle methode basee sur l utilisation des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires de types CR-39 et LR-115. Il en sort de cette etude que la verveine et la salvia presentent des teneurs en uranium (radon) superieurs a celle des autres plantes alors que les feuilles d olivier et la saturja presentent des concentrations en thorium (thoron) plus elevee que celles des autres plantes par consequent la radio toxicite de ces plantes est superieure a celles des autres et peuvent presenter un risque radiologique si les masses incorporees par les consommateurs sont elevees.

  6. Hyperglycemia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007228.htm Hyperglycemia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term ...

  7. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...

  8. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  9. Infant botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your infant has symptoms of botulism. Prevention In theory, the disease might be avoided by preventing exposure ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  11. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  12. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  13. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  14. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  15. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  16. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  17. Infants in cocktail parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  18. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  19. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  20. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  1. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Reflux and GERD : Reflux and GERD in Infants Reflux and GERD in Infants It’s not uncommon for a baby ... happy, healthy childhood. Quick Facts about Reflux and GERD in Infants The majority of infants do not ...

  2. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  3. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  4. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  5. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007240.htm Mechanical ventilator - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. ...

  6. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  7. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  8. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rare diseases such as cystic fibrosis . Diarrhea Causes Dehydration Infants and young children under age 3 can ... as: Apple juice Milk Fried foods Full-strength fruit juice Preventing Diaper Rash Your baby might get ...

  9. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  10. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  11. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  12. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  13. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  14. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  15. Pareidolia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  16. Pareidolia in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kato

    Full Text Available Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  17. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  18. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  19. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  20. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf [PDF | 994KB] Infant deaths and mortality rates for the top 4 leading cause of death ...

  1. Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Miller, Linda G.

    This book provides teachers of infants and toddlers with an in-depth guide to infant and toddler development, theories of growth and development, and best practices in early childhood education. The chapters are: (1) "Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development," looking at the underlying principles of developmental and interactional…

  2. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  3. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is on the changing table. Consider the following important safety tips: Be aware of poisons (household cleaners, cosmetics, ... middle of the back seat. It is very important for the driver to pay attention to driving, not playing with the infant. If you need ...

  4. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  5. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  6. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a

  7. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  8. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  9. Eosinophilic colitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words "colitis or proctocolitis and eosinophilic" or "colitis or proctocolitis and allergic" between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263) of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 per high-power field) in 89.3% (236/264) of patients. Most patients showed improvement with the removal of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients). Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow's milk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  11. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  12. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  13. Bone densitometry in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using 153 Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references

  14. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  15. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  16. Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol J.

    A total of 20 infants 8 months of age were videotaped in dyads with each parent during 10 minutes of free play in a laboratory setting, to investigate reciprocal behavior among parents and their infants. Questionnaire data on parents' caretaking involvement were also collected. Findings indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ on the…

  17. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  18. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  20. Binaural Perception in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Robert S.

    This paper describes three experiments which demonstrated the presence of binaural perception abilities (the ability to use both ears) in 4-month-old but not in 2-month-old infants. All of the experiments employed a visual fixation habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which infants were given a series of visual fixation trials while binaural…

  1. Infants' Recognition Memory for Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1976-01-01

    Fifty 4-month-old infants were habituated to one wavelength of light and then tested for recognition with the original and two new spectral lights. After short- and long-term delays with different types of retroactive interference, the results indicated that the infants' recognition memory for hue was quite resilient to interference or delay. (JMB)

  2. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  3. Infant Mortality: An American Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Christiane B.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the complex problem of infant deaths in America and reviews the policy options before the nation. High infant mortality rates have been attributed to population heterogeneity, poverty, or differences in the way health services are organized. Links health policy issues to the larger issue of social and economic equity. (AF)

  4. Infant colic: mechanisms and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevenhooven, Judith; Browne, Pamela D.; Hoir, L' Monique; Weerth, de Carolina; Benninga, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Infant colic is a commonly reported phenomenon of excessive crying in infancy with an enigmatic and distressing character. Despite its frequent occurrence, little agreement has been reached on the definition, pathogenesis or the optimal management strategy for infant colic. This Review aims to

  5. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  6. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  7. Apport de l'echodoppler cardiaque au diagnostic des endocardites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a la clinique cardiologique du Chu campus de Lome : A propos de 32 cas. ... hospital of Lome, during 5 years (1st January 2000 to December, 31, 2004). These patients had profited from a clinical examination, 6 hémocultures at least and a ...

  8. Insuffisance cardiaque de l'adulte dans les centres hospitaliers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) were the main symptoms found. The rate of laboratory explorations achievement is very low due to the financial straits. Cardiomyopathies (85.7%), valvular heart disease (68%) and arterial hypertension (59.6) were the most frequent causes.

  9. Insuffisance cardiaque de l'adulte dans les centres hospitaliers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a male predominance with malefemale ratio of 1.48. Exertional dyspnea (75%), pulmonary rales (62.5%), edema (60.6%) were the main symptoms found. The rate of laboratory explorations achievement is very low due to the financial straits. Cardiomyopathies (85.7%), valvular heart disease (68%) and arterial ...

  10. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Christoph P; Graham, Eric M; Hill, Kevin; Li, Jennifer S; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Clark, Reese H; Smith, P Brian

    2016-10-01

    Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. We hypothesized that infant demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and levels of cardiopulmonary support at the time of CPR requirement would be associated with survival to hospital discharge following CPR. Retrospective cohort study. All infants receiving CPR on day of life 2 to 120 admitted to 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We collected data on demographics, interventions, center volume, and death prior to NICU discharge. We evaluated predictors of death after CPR using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of the data by center. Our cohort consisted of 2231 infants receiving CPR. Of these, 1127 (51%) survived to hospital discharge. Lower gestational age, postnatal age, 5-min APGAR, congenital anomaly, and markers of severity of illness were associated with higher mortality. Mortality after CPR did not change significantly over time (Cochran-Armitage test for trend p=0.35). Mortality following CPR in infants is high, particularly for less mature, younger infants with congenital anomalies and those requiring cardiopulmonary support prior to CPR. Continued focus on at risk infants may identify targets for CPR prevention and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Lanting, C.I.; Crone, M.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  12. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Lanting, Caren; Crone, MR; Van Wouwe, JP

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  13. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  14. Infant Coping with Everyday Stressful Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Mothers of 6 cohorts of infants at ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months were interviewed to determine their children's responses to potentially stressful daily events. Found older infants and temperamentally more difficult infants experienced more events and reacted with distress to a greater proportion of the events than did younger infants and…

  15. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  16. Dating fractures in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  17. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  18. Infant Reflux: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and children, endoscopy is usually done under general anesthesia. Treatment Infant reflux usually clears up by itself. ... Has evidence of an inflamed esophagus Has chronic asthma and reflux Surgery Rarely, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  19. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  20. Home apnea monitor use - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000755.htm Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...

  1. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  2. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  3. INFANT MORTALITY MAR URAL POPULATION OF MEERUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Prakash

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in eight selected villages of Meerut District [UJP.} to find out infant mortality rate alongwith other various health care delivery practices associated with this. An infant mortality rate of 106.7/1000 LB was found in the study population. Infant mortality was higher in female infants, infants of mothers not availed antenatal care, not received tetanus toxoid, delivered by untrained personnel and where cow-dung was applied to cord stump. Among the causes of infant deaths prematurity or low birth weight was the commonest cause followed by respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases and tetanus neonatorum

  4. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  5. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  6. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  7. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  8. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  9. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments

  10. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Do Not Use Infant Sleep Positioners Due to the Risk of Suffocation Share ... to top Safety Advice for Putting Babies to Sleep NEVER use infant sleep positioners. Using this type ...

  11. Cardiovascular malformations in infants of diabetic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Wren, C; Birrell, G; Hawthorne, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prevalence at live birth and the spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in infants born to diabetic mothers with pre-existing diabetes with that in infants of non-diabetic mothers.

  12. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research suggests that infant massage can have various health benefits. For example, infant massage might: Encourage interaction between ... massage in a warm, quiet place — indoors or outdoors. Remove your jewelry. Sit comfortably on the floor ...

  13. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  14. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that your tone of voice communicates ideas and emotions as well. Change positions. Hold your baby facing ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-development/art-20048012 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  15. Infant Development in Father-Absent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Father role in infancy was examined through a comparison of the stimulus responses of 27 infants reared by their mothers in single-parent families with the stimulus responses of 28 infants in father-present families. (CM)

  16. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...

  17. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking....... The goals for research include testing the benefit and harms of cerebral oximetry in large-scale randomized trials, improved definition of the hypoxic threshold, better understanding the effects of intensive care on cerebral oxygenation, as well as improved precision of oximeters and calibration among...

  18. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  19. Acoustic parameters of infant-directed singing in mothers of infants with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon; Behura, Samarth; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2017-11-01

    This study compared the acoustic parameters and degree of perceived warmth in two types of infant-directed (ID) songs - the lullaby and the playsong - between mothers of infants with Down syndrome (DS) and mothers of typically-developing (TD) infants. Participants included mothers of 15 DS infants and 15 TD infants between 3 and 9 months of age. Each mother's singing voice was digitally recorded while singing to her infant and subjected to feature extraction and data mining. Mothers of DS infants and TD infants sang both lullabies and playsongs with similar frequency. In comparison with mothers of TD infants, mothers of DS infants used a higher maximum pitch and more key changes during playsong. Mothers of DS infants also took more time to establish a rhythmic structure in their singing. These differences suggest mothers are sensitive to the attentional and arousal needs of their DS infants. Mothers of TD infants sang with a higher degree of perceived warmth which does not agree with previous observations of "forceful warmth" in mothers of DS infants. In comparison with lullaby, all mothers sang playsong with higher overall pitch and slower tempo. Playsongs were also distinguished by higher levels of spectral centroid properties related to emotional expressivity, as well as higher degrees of perceived warmth. These similarities help to define specific song types, and suggest that all mothers sing in an expressive manner that can modulate infant arousal, including mothers of DS infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Version 5\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis v...

  1. Radiological rickets in extremely low birthweight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes. (orig.)

  2. Radiological rickets in extremely low birthweight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes.

  3. Challenges Facing Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV among Infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo. *For correspondence: .... are infected with HIV have a better prognosis ... Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is recommended for infants .... addition, NGOs should scale up EID trainings to allow ..... Journal of Acquired Immune.

  4. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  5. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  6. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.

  7. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  8. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  9. Self-Regulation and Infant-Directed Singing in Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn how to regulate internal states and subsequent behavior through dyadic interactions with caregivers. During infant-directed (ID) singing, mothers help infants practice attentional control and arousal modulation, thus providing critical experience in self-regulation. Infants with Down syndrome are known to have attention deficits and delayed information processing as well as difficulty managing arousability, factors that may disrupt their efforts at self-regulation. The researcher explored responses to ID singing in infants with Down syndrome (DS) and compared them with those of typically developing (TD) infants. Behaviors measured included infant gaze and affect as indicators of self-regulation. Participants included 3- to 9-month-old infants with and without DS who were videotaped throughout a 2-minute face-to-face interaction during which their mothers sang to them any song(s) of their choosing. Infant behavior was then coded for percentage of time spent demonstrating a specific gaze or affect type. All infants displayed sustained gaze more than any other gaze type. TD infants demonstrated intermittent gaze significantly more often than infants with DS. Infant status had no effect on affect type, and all infants showed predominantly neutral affect. Findings suggest that ID singing effectively maintains infant attention for both TD infants and infants with DS. However, infants with DS may have difficulty shifting attention during ID singing as needed to adjust arousal levels and self-regulate. High levels of neutral affect for all infants imply that ID singing is likely to promote a calm, curious state, regardless of infant status. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

  11. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  12. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  13. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  14. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  15. The history of infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antônio Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    To retrace the history of infant nutrition with the objective of better understanding breastfeeding. Bibliographic searches were run on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and the Internet. Encyclopedias, scientific textbooks and books for the general public, in addition to literature, art and history, were also used. Texts on child care from several different periods were consulted, in addition to the history of medicine and recent scientific articles on infant nutrition. During the preindustrial period, customs varied little and the likelihood of survival was linked to breastfeeding or its substitution by a wetnurse's milk. Where this was not possible, infants were given animal milk, pre-chewed foods or paps that were poor in nutrients and contaminated, which caused high mortality rates. There was nothing that could successfully substitute breastfeeding and the survival of the species was dependent on breastfeeding. Once the industrial revolution had started, women who had been accustomed to breastfeeding went to work in factories, stimulating the search for alternative infant nutrition. Consumption of animal milk and formulae (diluted, flour-based, powdered milk) and premature introduction of complementary foods compromised children's health. The feminist movement and the contraceptive pill caused a fall in birth rates. Manufacturers in search of profits developed modified formulae and invested in advertising. Society reacted with breastfeeding support movements. Nowadays, the advantages of breastmilk are recognized and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months, to be supplemented with other foods from this age on and continued until at least 2 years of age. Infant nutrition, whether natural or artificial, has always been determined and conditioned by the social value attributed to breastfeeding.

  16. Dysphagia in infants after open heart procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Sang-Jun; Huh, June; Jun, Tae-Gook; Cheon, Hee Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical predictors of dysphagia and to determine the characteristics of videofluoroscopic swallowing study findings in infants after open heart procedures. This study is a retrospective review of 146 infants who underwent open heart surgery. The infants with dysphagia were compared with those without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study findings of the infants with dysphagia were also evaluated. Of the 146 infants who underwent open heart surgery, 35 (24.0%) had dysphagia symptoms. The infants with dysphagia had lower body weight at operation, more malformation syndromes, longer operation times, and more complex operations than did the infants without dysphagia. In addition, the infants with dysphagia required more time to achieve full oral feeding and had longer hospital stays. Thirty-three infants underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study: 32 (97.0%) exhibited at least one abnormal finding among the videofluoroscopic swallowing study parameters and 21 (63.6%) exhibited tracheal aspiration. Given the high rate of aspiration in the infants who underwent open heart procedures, monitoring and prompt recognition of the signs and the risk factors of dysphagia may substantially improve infant care with oral feeding and reduce the duration of hospital stays.

  17. Infant pain-related negative affect at 12 months of age: early infant and caregiver predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din Osmun, Laila; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B

    2014-01-01

    To examine the predictive relationships of early infant and caregiver variables on expressed pain-related negative affect duration at the 12-month immunization. Infants and their caregivers (N = 255) were followed during immunization appointments over the first year of life. Latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling context was used. Higher levels of initial infant pain reactivity at 2 months and caregiver emotional availability averaged across 2, 4, and 6 months of age were related to larger decreases in the duration of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life. Longer duration of infant negative affect at 2 months and poorer regulation of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life predicted longer durations of infant negative affect by 12 months. Infant negative affect at 12 months was a function of both infant factors and the quality of caregiver interactive behaviors (emotional availability) in early infancy.

  18. Infants in Drug Withdrawal: A National Description of Nurse Workload, Infant Acuity, and Parental Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Schoenauer, Kathryn M; Lake, Eileen T

    Infants in drug withdrawal have complex physiological and behavioral states, requiring intensive nursing care. The study objectives were to describe acuity, parental needs, and nurse workload of infants in drug withdrawal compared with other infants. The design was cross-sectional and involved secondary nurse survey data from 6045 staff nurses from a national sample of 104 neonatal intensive care units. Nurses reported the care of 15 233 infants, 361 (2.4%) of whom were in drug withdrawal. Three-fourths of hospitals had at least 1 infant in drug withdrawal. In these hospitals, the mean number of infants in drug withdrawal was 4.7. Infant acuity was significantly higher among infants in drug withdrawal. Parents of infants in drug withdrawal required significantly more care to address complex social situations (51% vs 12%). The number of infants assigned to nurses with at least 1 infant in withdrawal (mean = 2.69) was significantly higher than typical (mean = 2.51). Given infant acuity and parental needs, policies legislating patient-to-nurse ratios should permit professional discretion on the number of patients to assign nurses caring for infants in drug withdrawal. Managers and charge nurses should consider the demands of caring for infants in drug withdrawal in assignment decisions and provide support and education.

  19. Infants with atopic dermatitis: maternal hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, U; Darui, A; Beckmann, D

    1999-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease of childhood. It frequently starts in the first year of life. There is agreement on the existence of psychological influences on this disease. Although some studies in this field examine aspects of the parent-child relationship, studies concerning early infancy are very rare. The present study was conducted in order to find out whether maternal characteristics relevant to the mother-infant relationship, i.e. depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant behaviour, associated with infant AD. Two cohorts (3- to 4-month- and 10- to 12-month-old infants), each with 20 infants suffering from AD, and 20 healthy infants were recruited. AD infants were further divided into subgroups according to the diagnostic criteria: atopic family history, itching and characteristic locations of eczema. After a paediatric examination of the infant, mothers completed standardized questionnaires concerning depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perception of infant behaviour. Varying with different diagnostic features of the infants' AD, mothers of AD infants described themselves as more depressive/hopeless, as more anxious/overprotective and characterized their infant as less frequently positive and more frequently negative in its emotional behaviour compared to the control group. The results underline the importance of psychological support for mothers of infants with AD.

  20. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watari, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1974-12-01

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned.

  1. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  2. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews of RCTs were...... also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants probiotics and measured at least one clinical outcome (e.g. NEC, all-cause mortality, sepsis or long-term development scores). Two authors...

  3. Infant with MRSA necrotizing fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panglao Rajan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panglao Rajan,1 Pinkal Patel,1 Lori Cash,1 Anjali Parish,2 Scott Darby,1 Jack Yu,3 Jatinder Bhatia11Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 2Medical Center of Central Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USAAbstract: This is an unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in this premature infant, which highlights severity, rapid progression of this disease and shows outcome if intervention is initiated at an early stage. This case also highlights one of the possible serious complications of percutaneous inserted central catheter (PICC line, which can be life threatening.Keywords: necrotizing fasciitis, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, PICC, premature infant

  4. Population growth and infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and economic outcomes is an issue of great policy significance. In the era of the Millennium Development Goals, poverty and its correlates have become the compelling issues. Economic growth may not automatically translate into reductions in poverty and its correlates (may not trickle down) if income distribution is at the same time worsening. We therefore investigate the direct effect of population growth on infant mortality for various income catego...

  5. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  6. Neurosonography of hydrocephalus in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackelford, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Transfontanel cranial ultrasonography reliably delineates ventricular size and anatomy in small infants. In these children, it is an excellent primary imaging technique for evaluation of the many clinical problems related to ventricular dilatation. Sonography can be useful for: detecting ventriculomegaly, differentiating nonobstructive ventricular dilatation from obstructive enlargement (hydrocephalus), determining the cause of hydrocephalus; aiding in the temporary management of patients with hydrocephalus; and aiding in the management of patients with permanent ventricular shunts. (orig.)

  7. FOOD NEGLECT AND INFANT DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J; Cross, Theodore P; Vaughn, Michael G; Gochez-Kerr, Tatiana

    2018-03-01

    The impact of food insecurity on child development in the general U.S. population is well-established, yet little is known about the harm of food neglect relative to other types of maltreatment. Due to the harmful physiological impact of inadequate nutrients and the social impact of food-related stress, it was hypothesized that food neglect would be more likely to impair infant cognitive and language development than physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of neglect. Families of infants (N = 1,951) investigated by Child Protective Services were studied using the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II; NSCAW Research Group, 2002). Results from multivariable logistic regression models that controlled for likely confounding variables showed that the odds of impairment in cognition and language were significantly greater when food neglect was the most serious form of maltreatment. Considering that both food insecurity and child neglect are associated with poverty and parental mental health problems, it will be important for child welfare and mental health professionals to work collaboratively to better the health of these vulnerable children. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  9. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Infant sleep and paternal involvement in infant caregiving during the first 6 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Glickman-Gavrieli, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess: (a) the involvement of fathers and mothers in overall and nighttime infant caregiving; (b) the links between paternal involvement in infant care and infant sleep patterns during the first 6 months. Fifty-six couples recruited during their first pregnancy, participated in the study. After delivery (1 and 6 months), both parents completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. Infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Mothers were significantly more involved than fathers in daytime and nighttime caregiving. A higher involvement of fathers in overall infant care predicted and was associated with fewer infant night-wakings and with shorter total sleep time after controlling for breastfeeding. The findings highlight the importance of including fathers in developmental sleep research. Future studies should explore mechanisms underlying the relations between paternal involvement and infant sleep.

  11. Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

  12. HIV, malaria, and infant anemia as risk factors for postneonatal infant mortality among HIV-seropositive women in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kager, Piet A.; Lal, Renu B.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with poor pregnancy outcome and infant survival. We studied the association of placental malaria, infant malaria and anemia, and infant HIV status with postneonatal infant mortality (PNIM) among infants of HIV-seropositive women.

  13. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...

  14. Young infants have biological expectations about animals

    OpenAIRE

    Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

    2013-01-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration that young infants possess abstract biological expectations about animals. Our findings represent a major breakthrough in the study of the foundations of human knowledge. In four experiments, 8-mo-old infants expected novel objects they categorized as animals to have filled insides. Thus, infants detected a violation when objects that were self-propelled and agentive were revealed to be hollow, or when an object that was self-propelled and furry rattle...

  15. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  16. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  17. Chronic Malnutrition Among Infants of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of infants in Varanasi? Objectives: To find out the magnitude of PEM among infants of Varanasi district. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Urban slum and rural areas. Participants: 360 infants. Study variables: Age, height (length, weight. Outcome variables: Protein Energy Malnutrition. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions; Chi- square test. Results: As per the height for age criteria; only 10.56% of infants were stunted (<90% of reference standard and according to Seoane Latham classification; 44.96%, 6.05% and 4.03% were suffering from acute malnutrition and nutritional dwarfing respectively (90% of reference standard as entry point

  18. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Binns

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  19. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studies...... are based on 2D images, but few are based on 3D information. In this paper, we present a model-based approach for tracking infants in 3D. The study extends a novel study on graph-based motion tracking of infants and we show that the extension improves the tracking results. A 3D model is constructed...

  20. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article...... argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  1. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  2. A Study of Auditory Preferences in Nonhandicapped Infants and Infants with Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Sheila M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Eleven infants with Down's syndrome and 10 of 11 nonhandicapped infants operated an automatic device which enabled them to choose to listen to nursery rhymes sung or played on musical instruments. Both groups preferred the singing, and the Down's Syndrome infants had much longer response durations for the more complex auditory stimuli. (Author/DB)

  3. Effects of Mother-Infant Social Interactions on Infants' Subsequent Contingency Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Philip; Dunham, Frances

    1990-01-01

    Infants participated in a nonsocial contingency task immediately after a social interaction with their mothers. The amount of time mothers and infants spent in a state of vocal turn-taking predicted individual differences in infants' subsequent performance on the contingency task. (PCB)

  4. Antenatal mother–infant bonding scores are related to maternal reports of infant crying behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Truijens, S.E.M.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between antenatal mother–infant bonding scores and maternal reports of infant crying behaviour. Background: Crying is normal behaviour and it is important for parent–infant bonding. Even though bonding starts antenatally, the relation between antenatal bonding

  5. Building Relationships: Integrating Infant Mental Health Services in a Newborn and Infant Critical Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Patricia P.; Matic, Tamara; Carson, Melissa C.; Williams, Marian E.

    2017-01-01

    Infants are born primed to develop attachment relationships. However, when infants are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit at birth, the stress and trauma associated with the highly specialized medical environment can threaten the development of a nurturing and secure caregiving relationship. Infant mental health is an evidence-based…

  6. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  7. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates consists of estimates of infant mortality rates for the year 2000. The infant mortality rate for a region or country is...

  8. Cineoesophagogastroscintigraphy and positioning therapy of infant gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyraud, J.; Guillet, J.; Bouix, G.; Brendel, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    During this prospective study, using cineoesophagogastroscintigraphy carried out in 27 infants under seven months of age, the positioning of the infants in the infant seat for the treatment of the gastroesophageal reflux was not detrimental in comparison to prone positioning.

  9. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts.

  10. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores

  11. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  12. The versatility of the transumbilical approach for laparotomy in infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonates and infants with gastrointestinal surgical ... surgical procedures in neonates and infants. .... trauma to the rectus abdominis muscle, which can cause .... pancreatectomy for persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy.

  13. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  14. Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeding, Rosario; Gepanayao, Connie P; Calimon, Nerrisa; Lebumfacil, Jowena; Davis, Anne M; Stouffer, Nicole; Harris, Bruce J

    2010-05-21

    Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold) or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold+Lutein). Two hundred thirty-two (232) infantslutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.

  15. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  16. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  17. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  18. Recurrent gastric lactobezoar in an infant

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Leonor; Berenguer, Alberto; Pilar, Carla; Gon?alves, Rute; Nunes, Jos? L.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobezoars are a type of bezoar composed of undigested milk and mucus. The aetiology is likely multifactorial, being classically described in association with pre-term, low-birth weight infants fed with hyperconcentrated formula. The authors present a case of lactobezoar recurrence in a pre-term infant with oesophageal atresia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of recurrence of lactobezoar.

  19. Immune Vulnerability of Infants to Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Vanden Driessche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges faced by the infant immune system is learning to distinguish the myriad of foreign but nonthreatening antigens encountered from those expressed by true pathogens. This balance is reflected in the diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines by both innate and adaptive immune cells in the infant. A downside of this bias is that several factors critical for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are significantly restricted in infants, including TNF, IL-1, and IL-12. Furthermore, infant T cells are inherently less capable of differentiating into IFN-γ-producing T cells. As a result, infected infants are 5–10 times more likely than adults to develop active tuberculosis (TB and have higher rates of severe disseminated disease, including miliary TB and meningitis. Infant TB is a fundamentally different disease than TB in immune competent adults. Immunotherapeutics, therefore, should be specifically evaluated in infants before they are routinely employed to treat TB in this age group. Modalities aimed at reducing inflammation, which may be beneficial for adjunctive therapy of some forms of TB in older children and adults, may be of no benefit or even harmful in infants who manifest much less inflammatory disease.

  20. An unexpected groin mass: infant ovarian herniation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Point-of-care ultrasound provides a safe, rapid, effective, and accurate tool for evaluating congenital groin masses in infants. We present a 4-week-old infant who presented to the emergency department with bilateral inguinal masses. Point-of-care ultrasonography discovered bilateral hernias with an ovary herniated ...

  1. Modern and traditional diets for Noongar infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Sandra J; Read, Anne W; McAullay, Daniel; McNamara, Bridgette; O'Dea, Kerin; Stanley, Fiona J

    2010-07-01

    Describe breast- and bottle-feeding patterns and the introduction of solid feeds and sugar containing drinks to the dietary intake of a cohort of urban Aboriginal infants in the first year of life. Two hundred and seventy-four infants were recruited to a cohort study and information about infant nutrition was collected from their mothers during face to face interviews when the infants were aged 6-12 weeks, 7-8 months and 12 months old. 88.3% of mothers initiated breast-feeding, but only 43.8% of infants were exclusively breast-fed at 6-12 weeks. By 12 months of age 69.8% of babies had received fruit juice in their bottles, 59.8% received cordial. 64.5% of infants were given water in their bottles. The majority of infants had received 'fast foods' by 12 months of age with 56.2% had been given coca cola, 68% lemonade and 78% fried chips. This study highlights areas in which nutrition health promotion can be targeted to prevent common childhood health problems including promoting and supporting mothers to sustain breast-feeding and opportunities to reduce the sugar and fat intake among infants.

  2. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  3. Do Infants Have a Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The central question debated in current research on infant social cognition is "do infants have a theory of mind?" It is argued here that this question is understood and treated in radically different ways by different participants of the debate arguing either for (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or against early competence in theory of mind…

  4. Effect of situation on mother infant interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.J.B.M.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; van Bakel, H.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that the early parent–infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother–infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables

  5. Nap-Dependent Learning in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…

  6. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  7. Infant Care--Does Anybody Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Belen C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses infant care in the United States by comparing U.S. practices of infant care to that in other industrialized nations. Suggests that in comparison to several other industrialized nations, the U.S. falls behind in providing support for mothers either to stay at home or to have quality alternative child care. (RJC)

  8. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)

  9. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-01-01

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  10. Body-Part Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    Motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure adult human movement. However, these methods cannot be transferred directly to motion tracking of infants due to the big differences in the underlying human model. However, motion tracking of infants can be used for automatic...

  11. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

  12. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  13. Infant and Maternal Sensitivity to Interpersonal Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Anne; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    A perturbation paradigm was employed to assess 3- and 6-month-old infants' and their mothers' sensitivity to a 3-s temporal delay implemented in an ongoing televised interaction. At both ages, the temporal delay affected infant but not maternal behavior and only when implementing the temporal delay in maternal (Experiment 1, N = 64) but not infant…

  14. Ultrasonically detectable cerebellar haemorrhage in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa Kenyon

    2011-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ≤32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).

  15. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  16. Influence of Infant Feeding Type on Gut Microbiome Development in Hospitalized Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Judge, Michelle; Xu, Wanli; Diallo, Ana; Janton, Susan; Brownell, Elizabeth A.; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Background Premature infants have a high risk for dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Mother’s own breastmilk (MOM) has been found to favorably alter gut microbiome composition in infants born at term. Evidence about the influence of feeding type on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants is limited. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of feeding types on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Thirty-three stable preterm infants were recruited at birth and followed-up for the first 30 days of life. Daily feeding information was used to classify infants into six groups (mother’s own milk [MOM], human donated milk [HDM], formula, MOM+HDM, MOM+Formula, and HDM+forumla) during postnatal days 0–10, 11–20, and 21–30 after birth. Stool samples were collected daily. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene. Exploratory data analysis was conducted with a focus on temporal changes of microbial patterns and diversities among infants from different feeding cohorts. Prediction of gut microbial diversity from feeding type was estimated using linear mixed models. Results Preterm infants fed MOM (at least 70% of the total diet) had highest abundance of Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Bacillales compared to infants in other feeding groups, whereas infants fed primarily human donor milk or formula had a high abundance of Enterobacteriales compared to infants fed MOM. After controlling for gender, postnatal age, weight and birth gestational age, the diversity of gut microbiome increased over time and was constantly higher in infants fed MOM relative to infants with other feeding types (p breast milk benefits gut microbiome development of preterm infants, including balanced microbial community pattern and increased microbial diversity in early life. PMID:28252573

  17. Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, T J; MacDorman, Marian F; Thoma, Marie E

    2015-08-06

    This report presents 2013 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 5.96 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013, similar to the rate of 5.98 in 2012. The number of infant deaths was 23,446 in 2013, a decline of 208 infant deaths from 2012. From 2012 to 2013, infant mortality rates were stable for most race and Hispanic origin groups; declines were reported for two Hispanic subgroups: Cuban and Puerto Rican. Since 2005, the most recent high, the U.S. infant mortality rate has declined 13% (from 6.86), with declines in both neonatal and postneonatal mortality overall and for most groups. In 2013, infants born at 37–38 weeks of gestation (early term) had mortality rates that were 63% higher than for full-term (39–40 week) infants. For multiple births, the infant mortality rate was 25.84, 5 times the rate of 5.25 for singleton births. In 2013, 36% of infant deaths were due to preterm-related causes of death, and an additional 15% were due to causes grouped into the sudden unexpected infant death category. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. Heart size in new born infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Won; Yu, Yun Jeong; Chung, Hye Kyung [Eul-ji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Cardiac size of 291 new-bone infants was measured using the method illustrated on Fig 1. Among the 291 infants, 53 were asphyxiated, and asphyxia was only regarded from Apgar score below 6 on 1 min. and 5 min. Remaining 238 infants were normal, and classified to group with lung abnormalities and without lung abnormalities on chest A-P film. The results are as follows; 1. The average CTR. of normal group was 52.37. (C/T1; 54.89, C/T2; 49.43, C/T3; 49.15, C/T4;55.97) 2. The average CTR. of asphyxiated group was 54.91 (C/T1; 57.13, C/T2; 51.69, C/T3; 51.94, C/T4;58.25) 3. Consequently, asphyxiated infants revealed larger cardiac size than normal infant group.

  19. Automated respiratory support in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claure, Nelson; Bancalari, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    A considerable proportion of premature infants requires mechanical ventilatory support and supplemental oxygen. Due to their immaturity, exposure to these forms of respiratory support contributes to the development of lung injury, oxidative stress and abnormal retinal development. These conditions are associated with poor long-term respiratory and neurological outcome. Mechanically ventilated preterm infants present with frequent fluctuations in ventilation and gas exchange. Currently available ventilatory modes and manual adjustment to the ventilator or supplemental oxygen cannot effectively adapt to these recurrent fluctuations. Moreover, the respiratory support often exceeds the infant's real needs. Techniques that adapt the mechanical ventilatory support and supplemental oxygen to the changing needs of preterm infants are being developed in order to improve stability of gas exchange, to minimise respiratory support and to reduce personnel workload. This article describes the preliminary evidence on the application of these new techniques in preterm infants and animal models.

  20. Brief report: sound output of infant humidifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Allison K; Wilson, Paul F; Royer, Mark C; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2015-06-01

    The sound pressure levels (SPLs) of common infant humidifiers were determined to identify the likely sound exposure to infants and young children. This primary investigative research study was completed at a tertiary-level academic medical center otolaryngology and audiology laboratory. Five commercially available humidifiers were obtained from brick-and-mortar infant supply stores. Sound levels were measured at 20-, 100-, and 150-cm distances at all available humidifier settings. Two of 5 (40%) humidifiers tested had SPL readings greater than the recommended hospital infant nursery levels (50 dB) at distances up to 100 cm. In this preliminary study, it was demonstrated that humidifiers marketed for infant nurseries may produce appreciably high decibel levels. Further characterization of the effect of humidifier design on SPLs and further elucidation of ambient sound levels associated with hearing risk are necessary before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. Human milk composition and infant growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kamilla Gehrt; Christensen, Sophie Hilario; Lind, Mads Vendelbo

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights relevant studies published between 2015 and 2017 on human milk composition and the association with infant growth. RECENT FINDINGS: High-quality studies investigating how human milk composition is related to infant growth are sparse. Recent observational...... studies show that human milk concentrations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate likely have important influence on infant growth and body composition. Furthermore, some observational studies examining human milk oligosaccharides and hormone concentrations suggest functional relevance to infant growth....... For human milk micronutrient concentrations and microbiota content, and other bioactive components in human milk, the association with infant growth is still speculative and needs further investigation. The included studies in this review are all limited in their methodological design and methods but have...

  2. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  3. No Camphor Toxicity in Cambodian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey R. Johnson MS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine deficiency and beriberi are prevalent in Cambodia, although most infants with nonspecific clinical symptoms of beriberi, including tachypnea, lack echocardiographic evidence diagnostic of the disease. Camphor activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3, a nonselective ion channel expressed in the medial preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus and thought to be important for thermo-sensitivity. Because camphorated ointments are used commonly among Cambodian infants, we hypothesized that topical camphor modulates thermoregulatory behaviors, causing beriberi-simulating tachypnea, separate from any influence of thiamine deficiency. We assessed 9 tachypneic and 10 healthy infants for Tiger Balm use and for presence of camphor in whole blood. However, no camphor was found in blood from any infants, indicating that camphor is unrelated to tachypneic illness in Cambodian infants.

  4. Nap-dependent learning in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L; Bootzin, Richard R; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-11-01

    Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006). In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, long-term effects of sleep on memory for an artificial language. Fifteen-month-old infants who had napped within 4 hours of language exposure remembered the general grammatical pattern of the language 24 hours later. In contrast, infants who had not napped shortly after being familiarized with the language showed no evidence of remembering anything about the language. Our findings support the view that infants' frequent napping plays an essential role in establishing long-term memory.

  5. Disparities in Infant Mortality by Race Among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Whitney S; Goldfarb, Samantha S; Brisendine, Anne E; Burrows, Stevie; Wingate, Martha S

    2017-07-01

    U.S.-born Hispanic infants have a well-documented health advantage relative to other minority groups. However, little published research has examined racial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, in relation to health outcomes. The current study aims to explore possible implications of racial identification for the health of U.S. born Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic infants. Methods Data were drawn from 2007 to 2008 NCHS Cohort Linked Live Birth-Infant Death Files, restricted to deliveries of Hispanic black, Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white mothers (NHW) (n = 7,901,858). Adjusted odds ratios for first week mortality, neonatal, postneonatal, and overall infant mortality were calculated for each group, using NHW as the reference group. A distinct health gradient was observed in which NHB infants (n = 1,250,222) had the highest risk of first week (aOR 2.29, CI 2.21-2.37), neonatal (aOR 2.23, CI 2.17-2.30), postneonatal (aOR 1.74, CI 1.68-1.81), and infant mortality (aOR 2.05, CI 2.00-2.10) compared to NHW infants (n = 4,578,150). Hispanic black infants (n = 84,377) also experienced higher risk of first-week (aOR 1.28 (1.12-1.47), neonatal (aOR .27, CI 1.13-1.44), postneonatal (aOR 1.34, CI 1.15-1.56), and infant mortality (aOR 1.30, CI 1.18-1.43) compared to both NHW and Hispanic white infants (n = 1,989,109). Conclusions for Practice: Risk of infant mortality varies among Hispanic infants by race, with poorer outcomes experienced by Hispanic black infants. Compared to non-Hispanic infants of the same race, Hispanic black infants experience a smaller health disadvantage and Hispanic white infants have better or similar infant health outcomes. Our findings suggest implications of racial heterogeneity on infant health outcomes, and provide insight into the role of race as a social construct.

  6. Effects of low income on infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Louise; Xu, Qian; Potvin, Louise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2003-06-10

    Few population-based studies have analyzed the link between poverty and infant morbidity. In this study, we wanted to determine whether inadequate income itself has an impact on infant health. We interviewed 2223 mothers of 5-month-old children participating in the 1998 phase of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development to determine their infant's health and the sociodemographic characteristics of the household (including household income, breast-feeding and the smoking habits of the mother). Data on the health of the infants at birth were taken from medical records. We examined the effects of household income using Statistics Canada definitions of sufficient (above the low-income threshold), moderately inadequate (between 60% and 99% of the low-income threshold) and inadequate (below 60% of the low-income threshold) income on the mother's assessment of her child's overall health, her report of her infant's chronic health problems and her report of the number of times, if any, her child had been admitted to hospital since birth. In the analysis, we controlled for factors known to affect infant health: infant characteristics and neonatal health problems, the mother's level of education, the presence or absence of a partner, the duration of breast-feeding and the mother's smoking status. Compared with infants in households with sufficient incomes, those in households with lower incomes were more likely to be judged by their mothers to be in less than excellent health (moderately inadequate incomes: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1; very inadequate incomes: adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Infants in households with moderately inadequate incomes were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) than those in households with sufficient incomes, but the same was not true of infants in households with very inadequate incomes (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). Household income did not

  7. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  8. Infants' social withdrawal symptoms assessed with a direct infant observation method in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puura, Kaija; Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Luoma, Ilona; Kaukonen, Pälvi; Guedeney, Antoine; Salmelin, Raili; Tamminen, Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Distressed infants may withdraw from social interaction, but recognising infants' social withdrawal is difficult. The aims of the study were to see whether an infant observation method can be reliably used by front line workers, and to examine the prevalence of infants' social withdrawal symptoms. A random sample of 363 families with four, eight or 18-month-old infants participated in the study. The infants were examined by general practitioners (GPs) in well-baby clinics with the Alarm Distress BaBy Scale (ADBB), an observation method developed for clinical settings. A score of five or more on the ADBB Scale in two subsequent assessments at a two-week interval was regarded as a sign of clinically significant infant social withdrawal. Kappas were calculated for the GPs' correct rating of withdrawn/not withdrawn against a set of videotapes rated by developer of the method, Professor Guedeney and his research group. The kappas for their ratings ranged from 0.5 to 1. The frequency of infants scoring above the cut off in two subsequent assessments was 3%. The ADBB Scale is a promising method for detecting infant social withdrawal in front line services. Three percents of infants were showing sustained social withdrawal as a sign of distress in this normal population sample. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual performance in preterm infants with brain injuries compared with low-risk preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Merçè; Forns, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Reinoso, Marta; Gargallo, Estrella

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal brain injuries are the main cause of visual deficit produced by damage to posterior visual pathways. While there are several studies of visual function in low-risk preterm infants or older children with brain injuries, research in children of early age is lacking. To assess several aspects of visual function in preterm infants with brain injuries and to compare them with another group of low-risk preterm infants of the same age. Forty-eight preterm infants with brain injuries and 56 low-risk preterm infants. The ML Leonhardt Battery of Optotypes was used to assess visual functions. This test was previously validated at a post-menstrual age of 40 weeks in newborns and at 30-plus weeks in preterm infants. The group of preterm infants with brain lesions showed a delayed pattern of visual functions in alertness, fixation, visual attention and tracking behavior compared to infants in the healthy preterm group. The differences between both groups, in the visual behaviors analyzed were around 30%. These visual functions could be identified from the first weeks of life. Our results confirm the importance of using a straightforward screening test with preterm infants in order to assess altered visual function, especially in infants with brain injuries. The findings also highlight the need to provide visual stimulation very early on in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; O'Connor, Deborah L; Wang, Danhua; Rigo, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Early nutritional support of preterm infants is critical to life-long health and well being. Numerous studies have demonstrated that preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity, including disturbances in brain development. To date, much attention has focused on enhancing the nutritional support of very low and extremely low birth weight infants to improve survival and quality of life. In most countries, preterm infants are sent home before their expected date of term birth for economic or other reasons. It is debatable whether these newborns require special nutritional regimens or discharge formulas. Furthermore, guidelines that specify how to feed very preterm infants after hospital discharge are scarce and conflicting. On the other hand, the late-preterm infant presents a challenge to health care providers immediately after birth when decisions must be made about how and where to care for these newborns. Considering these infants as well babies may place them at a disadvantage. Late-preterm infants have unique and often-unrecognized medical vulnerabilities and nutritional needs that predispose them to greater rates of morbidity and hospital readmissions. Poor or inadequate feeding during hospitalization may be one of the main reasons why late-preterm infants have difficulty gaining weight right after birth. Providing optimal nutritional support to late premature infants may improve survival and quality of life as it does for very preterm infants. In this work, we present a review of the literature and provide separate recommendations for the care and feeding of late-preterm infants and very preterm infants after discharge. We identify gaps in current knowledge as well as priorities for future research. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feeding outcomes in infants after supraglottoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Marcia; Lee, Erika Nevin; Digoy, G Paul

    2011-11-01

    Review the impact of bilateral supraglottoplasty on feeding and compare the risk of postoperative feeding difficulties between infants with and without additional comorbidities. Case series with chart review. Children's hospital. The medical records of all patients between birth and 12 months of age treated for laryngomalacia with bilateral supraglottoplasty by a single surgeon (GPD) between December 2005 and September 2009 and followed for a minimum of 1 month were reviewed. Infants with significant comorbidities were evaluated separately. Nutritional intake before and after surgery, as well as speech and language pathology reports, was reviewed to qualify any feeding difficulties. Age at the time of surgery, additional surgical interventions, medical comorbidities, and length of follow-up were also noted during chart review. Of 81 infants who underwent bilateral supraglottoplasty, 75 were eligible for this review. In the cohort of infants without comorbidities, 46 of 48 (96%) had no change or an improvement in their oral intake after surgery. Of the 2 patients with initial worsening of feeding, all resumed oral intake within 2 months. In the group of patients with additional medical comorbidities, 22% required further interventions such as nasogastric tube, dietary modification, or gastrostomy tube placement. Supraglottoplasty in infants has a low incidence of persistent postoperative dysphagia. Infants with additional comorbidities are at a higher risk of feeding difficulty than otherwise healthy infants.

  12. Abnormal infant neurodevelopment predicts schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Barbara; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to detect infants who carry a schizophrenic genotype and study the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZSD) from birth. In the 1940s, Bender described uneven maturation in childhood schizophrenics and in 1952 found this in the infant histories of 6 schizophrenic children. We tested a possible index for defective neural integration in infants termed "pandysmaturation" (PDM). This required retarded cranial growth plus retarded and erratic gross motor development on a single exam. Twelve offspring of hospitalized schizophrenic mothers and 12 infants in a "Well Baby Clinic," were examined 10 times between birth and 2 years of age. Psychiatric interviews and psychological testing were done at 10, 15, and 22 years of age, plus follow-up at 27-35 years of age. Six infants had PDM at 2, 6, or 13 months of age. Five individuals have been blindly diagnosed (by KSK) as having lifetime SZSD; all 5 had PDM before 8 months. Chi-square one-tailed tests confirmed the predictions: (1) PDM was related to subsequent SZSD (chi(2) = 11.43; p < 0.0005); (2) schizophrenic mothers had more infants with PDM than nonschizophrenic mothers (chi(2) = 3.28; p < 0.05); and (3) schizophrenic mothers had more SZSD offspring than nonschizophrenic mothers (chi(2) = 6.39; p < 0.0125). These first behavioral observations of aberrant neurodevelopment in pre- SZSD infants support the evidence of early neurodevelopmental disorder seen in studies of brain pathology in SZSD adults.

  13. Analysis of sensory processing in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thais Invenção; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Martinez, Cláudia Maria Simões; Tudella, Eloisa

    2016-12-01

    Premature birth suggests condition of biological vulnerability, predisposing to neurological injuries, requiring hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, which, while contributing to increase the survival rates, expose infants to sensory stimuli harmful to the immature organism. To evaluate the sensory processing at 4 and 6months' corrected age. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 30 infants divided into an experimental group composed of preterm infants (n=15), and a control group composed of full-term infants (n=15). The infants were assessed using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants. The preterm infants showed poor performance in the total score of the test in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and reactivity to vestibular stimulation. When groups were compared, significant differences in the total score (p=0.0113) and in the reactivity to tactile deep pressure (psensory processing. These changes were most evident in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and vestibular stimulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Infant mortality in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, S J; Booth, H

    1988-12-01

    Levy and Booth present previously unpublished infant mortality rates for the Marshall Islands. They use an indirect method to estimate infant mortality from the 1973 and 1980 censuses, then apply indirect and direct methods of estimation to data from the Marshall Islands Women's Health Survey of 1985. Comparing the results with estimates of infant mortality obtained from vital registration data enables them to estimate the extent of underregistration of infant deaths. The authors conclude that 1973 census appears to be the most valid information source. Direct estimates from the Women's Health Survey data suggest that infant mortality has increased since 1970-1974, whereas the indirect estimates indicate a decreasing trend in infant mortality rates, converging with the direct estimates in more recent years. In view of increased efforts to improve maternal and child health in the mid-1970s, the decreasing trend is plausible. It is impossible to estimate accurately infant mortality in the Marshall Islands during 1980-1984 from the available data. Estimates based on registration data for 1975-1979 are at least 40% too low. The authors speculate that the estimate of 33 deaths per 1000 live births obtained from registration data for 1984 is 40-50% too low. In round figures, a value of 60 deaths per 1000 may be taken as the final estimate for 1980-1984.

  15. Infant formula and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudamini Girish More

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC is increasing worldwide. Impaired oral health could have a negative impact on the overall health of infants. ECC can continue to deteriorate the growth and development of the child in preschool stage. Feeding practices largely influence the occurrence of ECC. Infant formula is commonly used as supplements or substitutes for breast milk up to the first 2 years of age. The dietary sugars such as lactose and sucrose, present in the infant formula, could act as a favorable substrate and change the oral microflora. Infant formula constitutes of various minerals which are known to affect tooth mineralization including iron, fluoride, and calcium. A number of in vitro, animal, and human studies have been conducted to understand their effect on oral environment and microbiota. Exploring the scientific literature for different types of infant formula and their role in the etiopathogenesis of dental caries could give us an insight into the cariogenic potential of infant formula. Furthermore, this could be source of information for health practitioners as they are the ones who are first sought by parents for advice related to infant feeding.

  16. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  17. The Influence of Adult Intervention on Infants' Level of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Roseanne M.; Ruff, Holly A.

    1988-01-01

    Studied the effects of adult intervention on 10-month-old infants' level of attention to objects. The overall duration of infant attention increased during medium intervention when the duration was compared to that of the control group. Low attending infants attended more in medium and high intervention, while high attending infants were…

  18. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

    2013-12-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant-mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant-father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant-mother and infant-father attachment relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Infant Negative Emotionality and Attachment: Implications for Preschool Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which dimensions of infant negative temperament in the first year predicted IQ at age 3, and whether these associations depended on the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship. In a sample of 63 infant-mother dyads, mothers completed Rothbart's (1981) IBQ when infants were 4 and 12…

  20. Infant-Mother Attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Mary McMahan; Pisani, Lelia; Oumar, Fadimata

    2001-01-01

    Examined infant-mother attachment in Mali's Dogon ethnic group. Found that distribution of Strange Situation classifications was 67 percent secure, 0 percent avoidant, 8 percent resistant, and 25 percent disorganized. Infant attachment security related to quality of mother-infant communication. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly…

  1. Gender Differentials and Disease-Specific Cause of Infant Mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    causes of infant mortality in an urban hospital in Ghana and gender differences in the burden of infant mortality. Births and deaths data at the hospital .... intended to assess the picture of infant mortality in Ghana as presented in the WHO and ..... Central Intelligence Agency: World Fact Book-Ghana. (2008): Rank order-Infant ...

  2. Prematurity Stereotype: Effects of Labeling on Adults' Perceptions of Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Hildebrandt, Katherine A.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in which college students and mothers were asked to rate unfamiliar infants shown on videotapes. Infants were described as either full-term or premature and as either male or female. Infants labeled premature were rated more negatively than those labeled full-term, but infants labeled male and female were rated…

  3. Pathomorphological findings in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, G.

    2000-01-01

    Pathomorphology in the preterm infant represents an interaction of morphological organ immaturity and neonatal management with their respective sequelae. Pathomorphological examples include the modification in the morphology of hyaline membrane disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a consequence of modern neonatal therapy. Hemorrhagic and ischemic/hypoxic lesions of the central nervous system may occur in age- and agent-related distributional patterns, with subependymal hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia representing the most important examples. The most common intestinal finding, namely, necrotizing enterocolitis, typically shows segmental alterations, the morphology of which largely depends on the dominating causative agent. Hepatic cholestasis and fatty change are mostly consequences of parenteral nutrition or hypoxic/ischemic stress. Hepatic necrosis can be associated with the latter, but may also indicate disseminated intravascular coagulation. Vascular pathomorphology is represented by thromembolic lesions, in most instances corresponding to sequelae of neonatal management. (orig.) [de

  4. Neonatal osteomyelitis in Nigerian infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omene, J.A.; Okolo, A.A.; Odita, J.C.

    1984-07-01

    Twenty-seven Nigerian infants with osteomyelitis are presented during the first 28 days of life to highlight the severity of the clinical manifestations and the radiological features of this infection. The clinical signs include limitation of movement of the extremities involved and localised swelling. Severe constitutional changes such as fever (>39/sup 0/C) and abdominal distension were common. This contrasts with results from North America and Europe which emphasize the paucity of clinical signs despite involvement of multiple sites. Multiple site involvement was encountered in only eight cases. Staphylococcus aureus, proteus mirabilis and candida albicans were the main pathogens isolated. The long bones were more frequently affected. Aggressive bone destruction was a constant radiological finding peculiar to Staphylococcal osteomyelitis while the formation of Sequestrum, are rare occurrence in the newborn, was present in six patients. The mortality rate was 7.4% and the morbidity rate was equally low.

  5. Neonatal osteomyelitis in Nigerian infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omene, J.A.; Okolo, A.A.; Odita, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-seven Nigerian infants with osteomyelitis are presented during the first 28 days of life to highlight the severity of the clinical manifestations and the radiological features of this infection. The clinical signs inlcude limitation of movement of the extremities involved and localised swelling. Severe constitutional changes such as fever (>39 0 C) and abdominal distension were common. This contrasts with results from North America and Europe which emphasize the paucity of clinical signs despite involvement of multiple sites. Multiple site involvement was encountered in only eight cases. Staphylococcus aureus, proteus mirabilis and candida albicans were the main pathogens isolated. The long bones were more frequently affected. Aggressive bone destruction was a constant radiological finding peculiar to Staphylococcal osteomyelitis while the formation of Sequestrum, are rare occurrence in the newborn, was present in six patients. The mortality rate was 7.4% and the morbidity rate was equally low. (orig.)

  6. Apnea in the term infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Mary Elaine; Martin, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    Whereas apnea of prematurity has been well defined and its pathophysiology extensively studied, apnea in the term infant remains a greater challenge. Unfortunately, clear diagnostic criteria are lacking and pathogenesis and management vary widely. In this review we have arbitrarily organized the discussion chronologically into earlier and later postnatal periods. In the first days of life, presumed apnea may reflect physiologic events such as positional or feeding etiologies, or may be a manifestation of serious pathophysiology, such as a seizure disorder. Beyond the neonatal period, presumed apnea may be characterized as a BRUE event (brief resolved unexplained event; formerly referred to as ALTE: apparent life-threatening event) and most frequently a precipitating event cannot be identified. Medical providers are left with somewhat of a dilemma regarding the need to hospitalize and/or work up such patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  8. Health status evaluation in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Arkhipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status was analyzed in extremely preterm infants at a postconceptual age of 38–40 weeks and in the first year of life. All the infants in the analyzed group were shown to have respiratory disorders, severe perinatal CNS lesions, and the high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the first year of life, these children belonged to a group of the frequently ill. Dysfunction of the digestive system and intestinal microflora and residual signs of rickets were detected in the majority of the patients; the manifestations of bronchopulmonary dysplasia persisted in 50%. 40% of the infants had disabling complications.

  9. Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among Periviable Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Noelle; Goldstein, Ricki F; Bann, Carla M; Hintz, Susan R; Patel, Ravi M; Smith, P Brian; Bell, Edward F; Rysavy, Matthew A; Duncan, Andrea F; Vohr, Betty R; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N; Higgins, Rosemary D; Cotten, C Michael

    2017-02-16

    Data reported during the past 5 years indicate that rates of survival have increased among infants born at the borderline of viability, but less is known about how increased rates of survival among these infants relate to early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. We compared survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born at 22 to 24 weeks of gestation, as assessed at 18 to 22 months of corrected age, across three consecutive birth-year epochs (2000-2003 [epoch 1], 2004-2007 [epoch 2], and 2008-2011 [epoch 3]). The infants were born at 11 centers that participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. The primary outcome measure was a three-level outcome - survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, survival with neurodevelopmental impairment, or death. After accounting for differences in infant characteristics, including birth center, we used multinomial generalized logit models to compare the relative risk of survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, survival with neurodevelopmental impairment, and death. Data on the primary outcome were available for 4274 of 4458 infants (96%) born at the 11 centers. The percentage of infants who survived increased from 30% (424 of 1391 infants) in epoch 1 to 36% (487 of 1348 infants) in epoch 3 (Pneurodevelopmental impairment increased from 16% (217 of 1391) in epoch 1 to 20% (276 of 1348) in epoch 3 (P=0.001), whereas the percentage of infants who survived with neurodevelopmental impairment did not change significantly (15% [207 of 1391] in epoch 1 and 16% [211 of 1348] in epoch 3, P=0.29). After adjustment for changes in the baseline characteristics of the infants over time, both the rate of survival with neurodevelopmental impairment (as compared with death) and the rate of survival without neurodevelopmental impairment (as compared with death) increased over time (adjusted relative risks, 1.27 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01 to 1.59] and 1

  10. Management of ovarian cysts in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Qiang, Yan; Nan-Nan, Zheng; Lei, Yu; Wei, Lu; Hong-Qiang, Bian; Jun, Yang; Xu-Fei, Duan; Xin-Ke, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  11. Maternal smoking effects on infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.; Vio, F.

    2000-01-01

    Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of

  12. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays To Identify and Quantify Fecal Bifidobacterium Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A healthy intestinal microbiota is considered to be important for priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Breast-fed infants typically have an intestinal microbiota dominated by different Bifidobacterium species. It has been described that allergic infants have different levels of specific Bifidobacterium species than healthy infants. For the accurate quantification of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium angulatum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifid...

  13. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Alex Kojo

    2009-01-01

    Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n = 27] and mixed feeding [MF; n = 13]) in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3?kg vers...

  14. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kojo Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n=27] and mixed feeding [MF; n=13] in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3 kg versus 59.9 kg; P=.034. Infant birth weight was slightly higher among the MF group than their EBF counterparts (3.5 kg versus 3.4 kg, although the differences were not statistically significant. At 3 months postpartum, mean infant FMI (4.1 kg/m2 versus 3.8 kg/m2 and percent body fat (24.4% versus 23.1% were slightly higher among EBF infants than MF infants. In terms of growth velocity, EBF infants gained weight faster than their MF counterparts, although the differences were not statistically significant. The findings from this study suggest that EBF may promote faster weight gain and increase in both fat mass index (FMI and percent body fat in the early postpartum period in addition to the numerous health benefits enjoyed by the infant and the mother who exclusively breastfeeds her newborn.

  15. Birthweight, HIV exposure and infant feeding as predictors of malnutrition in Botswanan infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalashika, P; Essex, C; Mellor, D; Swift, J A; Langley-Evans, S

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of the nutritional status of infants who are HIV-Exposed-Uninfected (HEU) and HIV-Unexposed-Uninfected (HUU) during their first 1000 days is key to improving population health, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study compared the nutritional status, feeding practices and determinants of nutritional status of HEU and HUU infants residing in representative selected districts in Botswana during their first 1000 days of life. Four hundred and thirteen infants (37.3% HIV-exposed), aged 6-24 months, attending routine child health clinics, were recruited. Anthropometric, 24-h dietary intake and socio-demographic data was collected. Anthropometric Z-scores were calculated using 2006 World Health Organization growth standards. Modelling of the determinants of malnutrition was undertaken using logistic regression. Overall, the prevalences of stunting, wasting and being underweight were 10.4%, 11.9% and 10.2%, respectively. HEU infants were more likely to be underweight (15.6% versus 6.9%), (P economic status. HEU infants aged 6-24 months had worse nutritional status compared to HUU infants. Low birthweight was the main predictor of undernutrition in this population. Optimisation of infant nutritional status should focus on improving birthweight. In addition, specific interventions should target HEU infants aiming to eliminate growth disparity between HEU and HUU infants. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. The missing link: mothers' neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2012-12-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation (SS) procedure to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant's cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant's cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. RECOGNIZING INFANTS' EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONS: ARE ADOLESCENTS LESS SENSITIVE TO INFANTS' CUES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Anke; Konrad, Kerstin; Dahmen, Brigitte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that adolescent mothers interact less sensitively with their infants than do adult mothers. This difference might be due to developmental difficulties in the recognition of infants' emotional states in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore differences in the recognition of infant signals between nonparous adolescent girls and boys as compared to female and male adults. To this end, we examined 54 childless adolescents and 54 childless adults (50% female). Participants were shown a series of 20 short videos of infants aged 3 to 6 months presenting different emotional states ranging from very distressed to very happy. In addition, participants were asked to report their own parental experiences using the German version, Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (J. Schumacher, M. Eisemann, & E. Brähler, ), of the Egna Minnen Befräffande Uppfostran (Own Memories of Parental Rearing Experiences in Childhood; C. Perris, L. Jacobsson, H. Lindstrom, L. von Knorring, & H. Perris, ). Adolescents rated distressed infants as more distressed than did the adults. Furthermore, female participants rated the very distressed infants as more distressed than did male participants. These data suggest that adolescents, in general, are not impaired in recognizing infant emotional states, as compared to adults. Thus, we suggest that more extreme ratings of infant signals of discomfort together with immature sociocognitive regulation processes during adolescence might contribute to reduced sensitivity observed in adolescent mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Prognostic accuracy of electroencephalograms in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Emilie Pi; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Greisen, Gorm

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Brain injury is common in preterm infants, and predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic test accuracy of the background activity of the EEG recorded as amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) or conventional EEG early in life in preterm infants...... for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. STUDY SELECTION: We included observational studies that had obtained an aEEG or EEG within 7 days of life in preterm infants and reported...... neurodevelopmental outcomes 1 to 10 years later. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently performed data extraction with regard to participants, prognostic testing, and outcomes. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies with a total of 1181 infants were included. A metaanalysis was performed based on 3 studies...

  19. Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  20. Topiramate and Metabolic Acidosis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The acid-base metabolism was investigated in 9 infants and toddlers, aged 5 months to 2.3 years (median, 6 months, treated with topiramate (TPM for seizures at Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

  1. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  2. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  3. immunisation fever amongst infants receiving Diphtheria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-08-06

    Aug 6, 2013 ... fects of human milk in decreasing infant mortality and morbidity from acute and chronic ..... 3 Furthermore, the practice of prophylactic administra- tion of analgesics ... and a haemophilus influenza type. B conjugate vaccine.

  4. Illness Human - MDC_InfantMortality2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the rate of infant mortality per 1000 births in Miami-Dade County, 2006. Rate does not include out of...

  5. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegan eating patterns are healthy for infants and toddlers. Time and attention are necessary to help young children, vegetarian or not, get all the nutrients they need for normal growth and development. For the first six months, all babies do ...

  6. Thickened infant formula: What to know

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvatore, Silvia; Savino, Francesco; Singendonk, Maartje; Tabbers, Merit; Benninga, Marc A.; Staiano, Annamaria; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics of thickened formulas to aid health care providers manage infants with regurgitations. The indications, properties, and efficacy of different thickening agents and thickened formulas on regurgitation and gastroesophageal reflux in

  7. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabovski Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  8. Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in the Strange Situation Procedure (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978) at 12 and 13 months of age, respectively. Observed and reported supportive ...

  9. Lipid needs of preterm infants: updated recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Gonzalez, Carlos H Lozano; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are crucial for normal development of the central nervous system and have potential long-lasting effects that extend beyond the period of dietary insufficiency. Here we review the recent literature and current recommendations regarding LCPUFAs as they pertain to preterm infant nutrition. In particular, findings that relate to fetal accretion, LCPUFA absorption and metabolism, effects on development, and current practices and recommendations have been used to update recommendations for health care providers. The amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) used in early studies were chosen to produce the same concentrations as in term breast milk. This might not be a wise approach for preterm infants, however, particularly for very and extremely preterm infants, whose requirements for LCPUFAs and other nutrients exceed what is normally provided in the small volumes that they are able to tolerate. Recent studies have reported outcome data in preterm infants fed milk with a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content 2-3 times higher than the current concentration in infant formulas. Overall, these studies show that providing larger amounts of DHA supplements, especially to the smallest infants, is associated with better neurologic outcomes in early life. We emphasize that current nutritional management might not provide sufficient amounts of preformed DHA during the parenteral and enteral nutrition periods and in very preterm/very low birth weight infants until their due date, and that greater amounts than used routinely likely will be needed to compensate for intestinal malabsorption, DHA oxidation, and early deficit. Research should continue to address the gaps in knowledge and further refine adequate intake for each group of preterm infants. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trial of Immune Globulin in Infant Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV in 122 infants in California with confirmed infant botulism (75 caused by type A Clostridium botulinum toxin, and 47 by type B toxin was conducted at the California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA; National Botulism Surveillance and Reference Laboratory, CDC and P, Atlanta; and Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley.

  11. Speech versus singing: Infants choose happier sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieve eCorbeil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants’ attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech versus hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children’s song spoken versus sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children’s song versus a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.

  12. Perinatal Factors Associated with Infant Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara M.D., Ph.D., MPH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The association between birth outcomes and child maltreatment remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to test whether infants without congenital or chronic disease who are low birth weight (LBW, preterm, or small for gestational age (SGA are at an increased risk of being maltreated. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of infants without congenital or chronic diseases who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2005 was conducted. Cases (N = 35 and controls (N = 29 were compared on mean birth weight, gestational age, and z-score of birth weight. Results SGA was significantly associated with infant maltreatment after adjusting for other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio: 4.45, 95% CI: 1.29–15.3. LBW and preterm births were not associated with infant maltreatment. Conclusion Infants born as SGA are 4.5 times more at risk of maltreatment, even if they do not have a congenital or chronic disease. This may be because SGA infants tend to have poorer neurological development which leads them to be hard-to-soothe and places them at risk for maltreatment. Abbreviations SCAN, Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect; LBW, low birth weight; ZBW, z-score of birth weight adjusted for gestational age, sex, and parity; SGA, small for gestational age; SD, standard deviation; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; IPV, intimate partner violence.

  13. Learning to walk changes infants' social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Melissa W

    2011-02-01

    The onset of crawling marks a motor, cognitive and social milestone. The present study investigated whether independent walking marks a second milestone for social behaviors. In Experiment 1, the social and exploratory behaviors of crawling infants were observed while crawling and in a baby-walker, resulting in no differences based on posture. In Experiment 2, the social behaviors of independently walking infants were compared to age-matched crawling infants in a baby-walker. Independently walking infants spent significantly more time interacting with the toys and with their mothers, and also made more vocalizations and more directed gestures compared to infants in the walker. Experiment 3 tracked infants' social behaviors longitudinally across the transition from crawling and walking. Even when controlled for age, the transition to independent walking marked increased interaction time with mothers, as well as more sophisticated interactions, including directing mothers' attention to particular objects. The results suggest a developmental progression linking social interactions with milestones in locomotor development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  15. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  16. Improving the treatment of infant pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moultrie, Fiona; Slater, Rebeccah; Hartley, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Pain management presents a major challenge in neonatal care. Newborn infants who require medical treatment can undergo frequent invasive procedures during a critical period of neurodevelopment. However, adequate analgesic provision is infrequently and inconsistently provided for acute noxious procedures because of limited and conflicting evidence regarding analgesic efficacy and safety of most commonly used pharmacological agents. Here, we review recent advances in the measurement of infant pain and discuss clinical trials that assess the efficacy of pharmacological analgesia in infants. Recent findings Recently developed measures of noxious-evoked brain activity are sensitive to analgesic modulation, providing an objective quantitative outcome measure that can be used in clinical trials of analgesics. Summary Noxious stimulation evokes changes in activity across all levels of the infant nervous system, including reflex activity, altered brain activity and behaviour, and long-lasting changes in infant physiological stability. A multimodal approach is needed if we are to identify efficacious and well tolerated analgesic treatments. Well designed clinical trials are urgently required to improve analgesic provision in the infant population. PMID:28375883

  17. Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Anne M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Objectives Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. Subjects/Methods This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold + Lutein. Two hundred thirty-two (232 infants ≤ 14 days postnatal age were randomized and 220 (94.8% completed the study. Weight (g, head circumference (cm, and length (cm were measured at Weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. The primary endpoint was weight gain (g/day from baseline to Week 16. Safety was assessed through monitoring of study events (SEs throughout the study and evaluation of selected blood chemistry tests performed at Week 16. Results Infants in both treatment groups demonstrated appropriate growth. No differences between treatment groups were found in any of the measures of growth at any of the measurement time points. Both study formulas were well tolerated. The mean values of all measured blood chemistry parameters fell within the modified normal ranges for infants, and the values for both groups for any measured parameter were similar. Conclusions Infants fed lutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.

  18. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Cervical neuroblastoma in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvai, Krisztina; Tóth, Judit; Németh, Tamás; Kiss, Csongor; Molnár, Péter; Oláh, Eva

    2004-01-01

    The case of a one-month-old patient admitted to the Department of Pediatrics (Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen University) because of respiratory distress caused by a cervical mass compressing the upper respiratory pathways is presented. The mass could only be partially removed, the histological diagnosis proved to be neuroblastoma (SBCT: "small blue cell tumor"). Despite the fact that the DNA index of tumor cells (ploidy measurements) and the age of the patient suggested a favourable prognosis, the tumor continued to grow and metastases appeared. Because of symptoms of compression exerted on the respiratory system by the tumor, chemotherapy had to be applied. Since a standard OPEC/OJEC chemotherapeutic protocol proved to be not entirely effective and a residual tumor was still present, retinoic acid and interferon treatment was introduced. Presently, 4 years after the diagnosis, the patient is in complete remission and can be considered to be cured. The case presented here demonstrates that despite the favorable prognosis of the majority of infant neuroblastomas, in some cases the anatomic location of the tumor, leading to disturbance of vital functions, may serve as indication of chemotherapy. Our experience also proved the efficacy of retinoic acid and interferon treatment in relapsed neuroblastoma.

  20. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  1. Roken in aanwezigheid van zuigelingen: een enquête onder consultatiebureau ouders [Smoking in presence of infants; an enquiry among parents of infants attending an infant welfare clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirasing, R.A.; Gena, S.A.D.; Simon, J.G.; Kossen-Boot, H.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Oudenrijn, C. van den

    1994-01-01

    Objective. To determine the exposure to cigarette smoke of infants aged 0-14 months. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. The area of Westfriesland, the Netherlands. Method. All parents of infants 8 days, 3, 5, 9, and 14 months old who visited the infant welfare centre in 1992 were asked to fill in a

  2. Bone mineral content (BMC) and serum vitamin D concentrations of infants fed partially hydrolyzed infant formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to compare the bone status of healthy, term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey formulas during the first 3 mo of life. Between 0 and 8 d of age, 89 infants were randomized to Good Start Supreme (GSS) or an experimental whey-based formula (EF) to 84 d of age. BMC was a...

  3. Functioning within a relationship : Mother-infant synchrony and infant sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graag, Jolien A.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Hasselman, Fred; Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina

    The aim of this study was to investigate the coupling of the biological system of infant sleep and the social system of mother-infant synchrony. Before birth and shortly after birth the systems appear to be connected, but it is unclear whether this remains the case over time. This study therefore

  4. Prenatal Maternal Reactivity to Infant Cries Predicts Postnatal Perceptions of Infant Temperament and Marriage Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined cardiac response and ratings of subjective aversiveness to recordings of unfamiliar infant cries in 60 primiparous women at 32 weeks' gestation. Mothers who prenatally rated the crying recordings as more aversive postnatally described their infants as more fussy and unpredictable. Women who showed greater cardiac acceleration to the cries…

  5. Umbilical cord Separation time among infantS Seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-01

    Jan 1, 2011 ... infants were documented for age, parity, place of delivery of infant, mode of delivery, ... attachment ranged from two to 28 days with a mean of 6.34 ± 3.67 days. there was a ..... co-operation. the doctors and medical students in.

  6. Associations between infant temperament, maternal stress, and infants' sleep across the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorondo, Barbara M; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C

    2015-05-01

    Effects of temperament and maternal stress on infant sleep behaviors were explored longitudinally. Negative temperament was associated with sleep problems, and with longer sleep latency and night wakefulness, whereas maternal stress was associated with day sleep duration, suggesting infant and maternal characteristics affect sleep differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How Does Microanalysis of Mother-Infant Communication Inform Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication operates like a “social microscope” and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues (2010) that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity. PMID:24299136

  8. How does microanalysis of mother-infant communication inform maternal sensitivity and infant attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis research on 4-month infant-mother face-to-face communication operates like a "social microscope" and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described. We summarize aspects of one microanalytic study by Beebe and colleagues published in 2010 that documents new communication patterns between mothers and infants at 4 months that predict future disorganized (vs. secure) attachment. The microanalysis approach opens up a new window on the details of the micro-processes of face-to-face communication. It provides a new, rich set of behaviors with which to extend our understanding of the origins of infant attachment and of maternal sensitivity.

  9. Breastfeeding progression in preterm infants is influenced by factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1-7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones...... in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants...

  10. Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Pulmonary function in infants with swallowing dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Tutor

    Full Text Available Swallowing dysfunction can lead to recurring aspiration and is frequently associated with chronic symptoms such as cough and wheezing in infants. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of infants with swallowing dysfunction, determine if pulmonary function abnormalities are detectable, and if they improve after therapy.We studied 38 infants with a history of coughing and wheezing who had pulmonary function tests performed within two weeks of their diagnosis of swallowing dysfunction. The raised lung volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique was used. After 6 months of therapy, 17 of the infants repeated the tests.Initially, 25 had abnormal spirometry, 18 had abnormal plethysmography, and 15 demonstrated bronchodilator responsiveness. Six months later test were repeated for seventeen patients. Ten patients had continued abnormal spirometry, two patients remained normal, three patients' abnormal spirometry had normalized, and two patients' previously normal studies became abnormal. Eight of the 17 patients had continued abnormal plethysmography, six had continued normal plethysmography, and three patients' normal plethysmography became abnormal. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients demonstrated bronchodilator responsiveness, of which five continued to demonstrate bronchodilator responsiveness and three developed responsiveness. The remainder either continued to be non- bronchodilator responsive (two or lost responsiveness (three. The findings of the abnormal tests in most infants tested is complicated by frequent occurrence of other co-morbidities in this population, including gastroesophageal reflux in 23 and passive smoke exposure in 13 of the infants.The interpretation of lung function changes is complicated by the frequent association of swallowing dysfunction with gastroesophageal reflux and passive smoke exposure in this population. Six months of medical therapy for swallowing dysfunction/gastroesophageal reflux

  12. The effects of preterm birth on mother-infant interaction and attachment during the infant's first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Riikka; Latva, Reija; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2012-02-01

    Early mother-infant relationships in preterm populations were evaluated in the context of a systematic review of the literature. A systematic search of three electronic databases (PsychINFO, PubMed and Cochrane Library) was undertaken. Three studies of maternal attachment, 18 studies of mother-preterm infant interaction and eight studies of infant attachment were included. Studies of preterm infant attachment were also evaluated using a meta-analysis. Studies of mother-preterm infant interactions showed that the differences in maternal interaction behavior between mothers of preterm infants and mothers of full-term infants seem to be most evident during the first six months of life. Differences in the preterm infant's interaction behavior seem also to continue for six months after birth. However, five of 18 studies showed an equal or even higher quality of mother-infant interaction in groups of preterm compared to groups of full-term infants. Studies of maternal and infant attachment indicated that preterm infants and their mothers are not at higher risk of insecure attachment than full-term infants and their mothers. The mother-preterm infant relationship is complex, and some relational patterns forecast greater psychological risk than others. It is important to decrease maternal stress and early separation in every possible way during hospitalization as well as after discharge. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G

    1993-06-01

    Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first

  14. Object permanence in young infants: further evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, R; DeVos, J

    1991-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 4.5- and even 3.5-month-old infants realize that objects continue to exist when hidden. The goal of the present experiments was to obtain converging evidence of object permanence in young infants. Experiments were conducted using paradigms previously used to demonstrate object permanence in 5.5-month-old infants and 6.5-month-old infants. In one experiment, 3.5-month-old infants watched a short or a tall carrot slide along a track. The track's center was hidden by a screen with a large window in its upper half. The short carrot was shorter than the window's lower edge and so did not appear in the window when passing behind the screen; the tall carrot was taller than the window's lower edge and hence should have appeared in the window but did not. The infants looked reliably longer at the tall than at the short carrot event, suggesting that they (a) represented the existence, height, and trajectory of each carrot behind the screen and (b) expected the tall carrot to appear in the screen window and were surprised that it did not. Control trials supported this interpretation. In another experiment, 4.0-month-old infants saw a toy car roll along a track that was partly hidden by a screen. A large toy mouse was placed behind the screen, either on top or in back of the track. The female infants looked reliably longer when the mouse stood on top as opposed to in back of the track, suggesting that they (a) represented the existence and trajectory of the car behind the screen, (b) represented the existence and location of the mouse behind the screen, and (c) were surprised to see the car reappear from behind the screen when the mouse stood in its path. A second experiment supported this interpretation. The results of these experiments provide further evidence that infants aged 3.5 months and older are able to represent and to reason about hidden objects.

  15. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David A; Jeffery, Heather E; Cole, Michael J

    2010-10-06

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to opiate withdrawal may result in disruption of the mother-infant relationship, sleep-wake abnormalities, feeding difficulties, weight loss and seizures. Treatments used to ameliorate symptoms and reduce morbidity include opiates, sedatives and non-pharmacological treatments. To assess the effectiveness and safety of using a sedative compared to a non-opiate control for NAS due to withdrawal from opiates, and to determine which type of sedative is most effective and safe. This update included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2010), MEDLINE 1966 to April 2010 and abstracts of conference proceedings. Trials enrolling infants with NAS born to mothers with an opiate dependence with > 80% follow-up and using random or quasi-random allocation to sedative or control. Control could include another sedative or non-pharmacological treatment. Each author assessed study quality and extracted data independently. Seven studies enrolling 385 patients were included. There were substantial methodological concerns for most studies including the use of quasi-random allocation methods and sizeable, largely unexplained differences in reported numbers allocated to each group.One study reported phenobarbitone compared to supportive care alone did not reduce treatment failure or time to regain birthweight, but resulted in a significant reduction in duration of supportive care (MD -162.1 min/day, 95% CI -249.2, -75.1). Comparing phenobarbitone to diazepam, meta-analysis of two studies found phenobarbitone resulted in a significant reduction in treatment failure (typical RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24, 0.62). Comparing phenobarbitone with chlorpromazine, one study reported no significant difference in treatment failure.In infants treated with an opiate, one study reported addition of clonidine resulted in no significant difference in treatment failure, seizures or mortality. In infants treated with an opiate, one study

  16. Volvulus in term and preterm infants - clinical presentation and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Sandra; Albayrak, Bilge; Tröbs, Ralf-Bodo; Roll, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to assess if term and preterm infants with volvulus showed different patterns with regard to pathogenesis, clinical presentation and outcome. We reviewed the medical records and imaging data of infants aged less than six months with volvulus treated in a single surgical referral centre from 2006-2013. Volvulus was diagnosed in 19 infants, with no anatomical anomaly in three of the 12 preterm infants and one of the seven term infants. Most cases (74%) presented during the first eight days of life. Later presentations occurred exclusively in preterm infants, with only one of the five having no anatomic anomalies. Bilious vomiting was the leading symptom in six of the seven term infants, while the symptoms in preterm infants were rather nonspecific. Intestinal necrosis, with the need for bowel resection, occurred in one term (14%) infant and nine (75%) preterm infants. The clinical presentation and outcome of volvulus differed between preterm and term infants, but the rate and distribution of underlying anomalies did not differ. Symptoms in preterm infants were often nonspecific and led to a delay in diagnosis. This might have contributed to the higher rate of intestinal necrosis in preterm infants. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. COMMERCIAL BABY PORRIDGES IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of the most important product among additional food for infants — baby porridges. It includes historical data on usage of various cereal crops in human nutrition. A special significance of porridges in culture of food and traditions of Russian population is highlighted. The authors give information about nutritional value and chemical composition of different cereals — buckwheat, rice, pearl-barley, millet, oats etc. A special attention is given to differences in concentrations of nutrients and micronutrients manufactured by different ways from the same kind of cereal. The necessity to feed infants with commercial baby porridges is based in the article. There are also represented characteristics of various commercial porridges for nutrition of infants: hypoallergenic, glutenfree and containing gluten, enriched with pre- and probiotics. The article also contains data on nutritional value of milk and milk-free porridges. The authors raised a discussion on possibility and standards of usage of different additional components, such as sugar, maltodextrin, honey, vanillin, vegetable oils in production of infant porridges. The selection of certain type of porridges as additional food for healthy and infants with different diseases and digestive disorders is based.

  18. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  20. Intravenous Lipids for Preterm Infants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan S. A. Salama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW are born at a time when the fetus is undergoing rapid intrauterine brain and body growth. Continuation of this growth in the first several weeks postnatally during the time these infants are on ventilator support and receiving critical care is often a challenge. These infants are usually highly stressed and at risk for catabolism. Parenteral nutrition is needed in these infants because most cannot meet the majority of their nutritional needs using the enteral route. Despite adoption of a more aggressive approach with amino acid infusions, there still appears to be a reluctance to use early intravenous lipids. This is based on several dogmas that suggest that lipid infusions may be associated with the development or exacerbation of lung disease, displace bilirubin from albumin, exacerbate sepsis, and cause CNS injury and thrombocytopena. Several recent reviews have focused on intravenous nutrition for premature neonate, but very little exists that provides a comprehensive review of intravenous lipid for very low birth and other critically ill neonates. Here, we would like to provide a brief basic overview, of lipid biochemistry and metabolism of lipids, especially as they pertain to the preterm infant, discuss the origin of some of the current clinical practices, and provide a review of the literature, that can be used as a basis for revising clinical care, and provide some clarity in this controversial area, where clinical care is often based more on tradition and dogma than science.

  1. Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrttiaho, Santeri; Niehaus, Dana; Thomas, Eileen; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2017-02-06

    Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs. strong). Pupil dilation was highly sensitive to the valence of facial expressions, being larger for negative vs. positive facial expressions. A separate control experiment with luminance-matched non-face stimuli indicated that the valence effect was specific to facial expressions and cannot be explained by luminance confounds. Pupil response was not sensitive to the arousal level of facial expressions. The results show the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a marker of mothers' affective responses to ecologically valid infant stimuli and point to a particularly prompt maternal response to infant distress cues.

  2. The missing link: Mothers’ neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation Procedure (SS) to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant’s cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula. consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. PMID:22982277

  3. The Power of an Infant's Smile: Maternal Physiological Responses to Infant Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Mizugaki

    Full Text Available Infant emotional expressions, such as distress cries, evoke maternal physiological reactions. Most of which involve accelerated sympathetic nervous activity. Comparatively little is known about effects of positive infant expressions, such as happy smiles, on maternal physiological responses. This study investigated how physiological and psychological maternal states change in response to infants' emotional expressions. Thirty first-time mothers viewed films of their own 6- to 7-month-old infants' affective behavior. Each observed a video of a distress cry followed by a video showing one of two expressions (randomly assigned: a happy smiling face (smile condition or a calm neutral face (neutral condition. Both before and after the session, participants completed a self-report inventory assessing their emotional states. The results of the self-report inventory revealed no effects of exposure to the infant videos. However, the mothers in the smile condition, but not in the neutral condition, showed deceleration of skin conductance. These findings demonstrate that the mothers who observed their infants smiling showed decreased sympathetic activity. We propose that an infant's positive emotional expression may affect the branch of the maternal stress-response system that modulates the homeostatic balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

  4. Maternal pre- and postnatal mental health and infant development in war conditions: The Gaza Infant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Kuittinen, Saija; Qouta, Samir R

    2018-03-01

    Women and their infants need special protection in war context, as traumatic events can risk maternal mental and obstetric health and compromise infant development. This prospective study examined, first, how exposure to war trauma is associated with maternal mental health in pregnancy and postpartum, obstetric and newborn health, and infant development. Second, it tested the role of maternal mental health and obstetric risks in mediating between war trauma and infant development. Palestinian women (N = 511) from the Gaza strip participated during pregnancy (T1) and at 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months postpartum. They reported PTSD, depressive, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms, as well as pregnancy complications, newborn health risks such as prematurity, and infant sensorimotor and language development. First, exposure to war trauma was associated with high levels of maternal mental health and complications at pregnancy, and with increased postpartum mental health symptoms, but exposure was not directly associated with newborn health risks or problems in infant development. Second, maternal mental health both in pregnancy and postpartum, but not pregnancy complications or newborn health, mediated the negative impact of war trauma on infant sensorimotor and language development at 12 months. Interventions to protect early child development in war conditions should be tailored to support maternal mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Attentional prioritization of infant faces is limited to own-race infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hodsoll

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that infant faces capture attention automatically, presumably to elicit caregiving behavior from adults and leading to greater probability of progeny survival. Elsewhere, evidence demonstrates that people show deficiencies in the processing of other-race relative to own-race faces. We ask whether this other-race effect impacts on attentional attraction to infant faces. Using a dot-probe task to reveal the spatial allocation of attention, we investigate whether other-race infants capture attention.South Asian and White participants (young adults aged 18-23 years responded to a probe shape appearing in a location previously occupied by either an infant face or an adult face; across trials, the race (South Asian/White of the faces was manipulated. Results indicated that participants were faster to respond to probes that appeared in the same location as infant faces than adult faces, but only on own-race trials.Own-race infant faces attract attention, but other-race infant faces do not. Sensitivity to face-specific care-seeking cues in other-race kindenschema may be constrained by interracial contact and experience.

  6. Concurrent validity and reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea Martins; Dutra, Maria Virginia Peixoto; Mello, Rosane Reis de; Reis, Ana Beatriz Rodrigues; Martins, Priscila Silveira

    2008-01-01

    To verify the concurrent validity and interobserver reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) in premature infants followed-up at the outpatient clinic of Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/Fiocruz), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 88 premature infants were enrolled at the follow-up clinic at IFF/Fiocruz, between February and December of 2006. For the concurrent validity study, 46 infants were assessed at either 6 (n = 26) or 12 (n = 20) months' corrected age using the AIMS and the second edition of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, by two different observers, and applying Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyze the results. For the reliability study, 42 infants between 0 and 18 months were assessed using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale, by two different observers and the results analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The concurrent validity study found a high level of correlation between the two scales (r = 0.95) and one that was statistically significant (p system.

  7. Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) Performance of Greek Preterm Infants: Comparisons With Full-Term Infants of the Same Nationality and Impact of Prematurity-Related Morbidity Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrengelas, Dimitrios; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Kleisiouni, Paraskevi; Manta, Vassiliki; Mellos, Stavros; Pons, Roser; Chrousos, George P; Siahanidou, Tania

    2016-07-01

    Only a few studies have been conducted with the objective of creating norms of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) for the assessment of gross motor development of preterm infants. The AIMS performance of preterm infants has been compared with that of the Canadian norms of full-term infants, but not with that of full-term infants of the same nationality. Moreover, the possible impact of prematurity-related morbidity factors on AIMS performance is unknown. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate AIMS trajectory in a large population of Greek preterm infants and create norms, (2) to compare it with the AIMS trajectory of Greek full-term infants, and (3) to examine the possible influence of neonatal morbidity on AIMS scores in the preterm sample. This was a cross-sectional study. Mean AIMS scores were compared, per month (1-19), between 403 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of age, corrected for prematurity) and 1,038 full-term infants. In preterm infants, the association of AIMS scores with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade ≤III, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and sepsis was assessed by hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores were significantly lower in preterm infants than in full-term infants. Mean AIMS scores in preterm infants were significantly associated with RDS (b=-1.93; 95% CI=-2.70, -1.16), IVH (b=-0.97; 95% CI=-1.69, -0.25), and ROP (b=-1.12; 95% CI=-1.99, -0.24) but not with BPD or sepsis in hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale norms were created for Greek preterm infants. This study confirms that AIMS trajectories of preterm infants are below those of full-term infants of the same nationality. The influence of morbidity factors, including RDS, IVH, and ROP, should be taken into account when administering the AIMS in preterm infants. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Early social communication in infants with fragile X syndrome and infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J; Brady, Nancy C; McCary, Lindsay; Rague, Lisa; Roberts, Jane E

    2017-12-01

    Little research in fragile X syndrome (FXS) has prospectively examined early social communication. To compare early social communication in infants with FXS, infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASIBs), and typically developing (TD) infants. Participants were 18 infants with FXS, 21 ASIBs, and 22 TD infants between 7.5-14.5 months. Social communication was coded using the Communication Complexity Scale during the administration of Autism Observation Scale for Infants. Descriptively different patterns were seen across the three groups. Overall infants with FXS had lower social communication than ASIBs or TD infants when controlling for nonverbal cognitive abilities. However, infants with FXS had similar levels of social communication as ASIBs or TD infants during peek-a-boo. No differences were observed between ASIBs and TD infants. For all infants, higher social communication was related to lower ASD risk. Findings provide insight into the developmental course of social communication in FXS. The dynamic nature of social games may help to stimulate communication in infants with FXS. Language interventions with a strong social component may be particularly effective for promoting language development in FXS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa: Adaptive responses to ... on different services currently offered in the South African parent–infant/child psychotherapy field. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Household Density and Infant Care in an East African Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Ruth H.; Munroe, Robert L.

    1971-01-01

    A cross-cultural relationship between household density and infant indulgence was investigated among Logoli infants in East Africa. Findings were taken as supportive of the view that socialization practices are influenced by ecological variables. (Author/JB)

  11. WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out.

  12. Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Deborah L; Graff, Kristina M

    2008-07-01

    Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant's life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants' nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (approximately 85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (approximately 25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City.

  13. Effect of Determinants of Infant and Child Mortality In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Osuagwwu

    Nigeria: Hazard And Odds Ratio Models ... Infant and child mortality is a major public health problem; however, quantifying its burden ... Also, there is an increased risk of infant and child mortality ... health risks into traditional hazards related.

  14. Alanine administration does not stimulate gluconeogenesis in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, Anne A. M. W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Ruiter, An F. C.; Endert, Erik; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Kok, Johanna H.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2003-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis partially depends on sufficient precursor supply, and plasma alanine concentrations are generally low in preterm infants. Stimulation of gluconeogenesis may contribute to the prevention of hypoglycemia, an important clinical problem in these infants. In this study we evaluated the

  15. Infant Development: Milestones from 4 to 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safe, secure and loved. When you hold or rock your baby, talk quietly or sing soothing songs. ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-development/art-20048178 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  16. Decisions and advice about infant feeding: findings from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decisions and advice about infant feeding: findings from sociological work in ... element were used to probe women's decision-making concerning infant feeding. ... Scant attention has been paid to the results of studies undertaken in other ...

  17. Infant and young child feeding practices on Unguja Island in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akwilina

    This study aimed at assessing the existing IYCF practices and socio-cultural factors ... with respect to exclusive breastfeeding and infant and young child feeding. ... significant benefit for both infants and mothers and these include reduced ...

  18. Probiotics in premature infants: focus on necrotising enterocolitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is predominantly seen in premature infants and is the leading .... Because neonates are often intolerant to large enteral volumes, the ... of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infant. Pediatrics. 2005 ...

  19. Imaging of constipation in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotter, R.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this review article are to present epidemiology, important definitions, clinical considerations, and etiologic and pathogenetic aspects of constipation in infants and children. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the the anorectum are described. Special attention is given to the indications for diagnostic imaging, imaging techniques, and imaging findings with different causes of constipation. Other diagnostic modalities, such as anorectal manometry, electromyography, and biopsy techniques are briefly discussed. The central question as to whether diagnostic imaging is needed for the diagnostic workup of infants and children suffering from constipation can be answered affirmatively. Especially the combination of barium enema or defecography and anorectal manometry allows definition of those infants and children who do not need biopsy and surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. The special role of defecography in this context is underlined. (orig.)

  20. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2015-10-13

    Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth, duration of hospital stay, and parental satisfaction. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 9, 2015), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to September 2015), and CINAHL (1982 to September 2015), conference proceedings, previous reviews, and trial registries. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and undertook data extraction independently. We analysed the treatment effects in the individual trials and reported the risk ratio and risk difference for dichotomous data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and explored the potential causes of heterogeneity in sensitivity analyses. We found nine eligible RCTs including 593 infants in total. These trials compared responsive with scheduled interval regimens in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and contained various methodological weaknesses including lack of blinding and incomplete assessment of all randomised participants. Meta-analyses, although limited by data quality and availability, suggest that responsive feeding

  1. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

  2. Endocardial Pacemaker Implantation in Neonates and Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Ayabakan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Transvenous pacemaker lead implantation is the preferred method of pacing in adult patients. Lead performance and longevity are superior and the implantation approach can be performed under local anaesthetic with a very low morbidity. In children, and especially in neonates and infants, the epicardial route was traditionally chosen until the advent of smaller generators and lead implantation techniques that allowed growth of the child without lead displacement. Endocardial implantation is not universally accepted, however, as there is an incidence of venous occlusion of the smaller veins of neonates and infants with concerns for loss of venous access in the future. Growing experience with lower profile leads, however, reveals that endocardial pacing too can be performed with low morbidity and good long-term results in neonates and infants.

  3. The neurobiology of infant maternal odor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Infant rats must learn to identify their mother’s diet-dependent odor. Once learned, maternal odor controls pups’ approach to the mother, their social behavior and nipple attachment. Here we present a review of the research from four different laboratories, which suggests that neural and behavioral responses to the natural maternal odor and neonatal learned odors are similar. Together, these data indicate that pups have a unique learning circuit relying on the olfactory bulb for neural plasticity and on the hyperfunctioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus flooding the olfactory bulb with norepinephrine to support the neural changes. Another important factor making this system unique is the inability of the amygdala to become incorporated into the infant learning circuit. Thus, infant rats appear to be primed in early life to learn odors that will evoke approach responses supporting attachment to the caregiver.

  4. [Regulatory peptides and psychomotor development in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, O Iu; Kost, N V; Kurasova, O B; Dmitriev, A D; Gabaeva, M V; Zolotarev, Iu A; Mikheeva, I G; Zozulia, A A

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory peptides (RP) are an important homeostatic factor. The maternal organism and placenta are substantial sources of RP for fetus during the prenatal period. Not only endogenous, but also exogenous RP play an important role during early postnatal period. In this study, the concentration of exogenous RP (casomorphins-7) and the activity of peptidases (enkephalinases) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants were estimated. Possible interrelation between these two parameters and the psychomotor development (PMD) of infants were evaluated. Using specially developed RIA, the investigators estimated the presence of human and bovine casomorphins immunoreactivity (CMir) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants. A distinct correlation of CMir with PMD was demonstrated. The activity of RP-degrading serum enzymes also correlated with PMD level. The role of endo- and exogenous peptides in normal PMD process and in the pathogenesis of early child autism is discussed in the article.

  5. The nasogastric tube syndrome in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jeffrey; Balakrishnan, Karthik; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Hart, Catherine K

    2014-05-01

    This series of three patients is the first description of the presentation, clinical course, and endoscopic findings of nasogastric tube-related airway distress, or nasogastric tube syndrome, in infants. We identify key differences in disease features from those described in adults, based on our literature review. Specifically, infant nasogastric tube syndrome presented as significant respiratory distress and postcricoid inflammation without vocal fold immobility. Symptoms resolved more quickly (mean±SD, 2±1 days) than reported in adults. We suggest that nasogastric tube syndrome should be considered in infants with otherwise unexplained respiratory distress, even in the absence of impaired vocal fold mobility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusion: Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  7. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  8. Quantitative linking hypotheses for infant eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yurovsky

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.

  9. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQwere analysed bymultiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant......Background: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. Aims......: To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity,mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association...

  10. Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Normal Hearing Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L.; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T.; Werner, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in post-lingually deaf adults as well as pre-lingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). In order to apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in NH children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners’ sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise. Both resolution of peak to peak location (frequency resolution) and peak to trough intensity (across-channel intensity resolution) are required for SRD. Design SRD was measured as the highest ripple density (in ripples per octave) for which a listener could discriminate a 90 degree shift in phase of the sinusoidally-modulated amplitude spectrum. A 2X3 between subjects design was used to assess the effects of age (7-month-old infants versus adults) and ripple peak/trough “depth” (10, 13, and 20 dB) on SRD in normal hearing listeners (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, SRD thresholds in the same age groups were compared using a task in which ripple starting phases were randomized across trials to obscure within-channel intensity cues. In Experiment 3, the randomized starting phase method was used to measure SRD as a function of age (3-month-old infants, 7-month-old infants, and young adults) and ripple depth (10 and 20 dB in repeated measures design). Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between age and ripple depth. The Infant SRDs were significantly poorer than the adult SRDs at 10 and 13 dB ripple depths but adult-like at 20 dB depth. This result is consistent with immature across-channel intensity resolution. In contrast, the trajectory of SRD as a function of depth was steeper for infants than adults suggesting that frequency resolution was better in infants than adults. However, in Experiment 2 infant performance was

  11. Very preterm/very low birthweight infants' attachment: infant and maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Gutbrod, Tina

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether there are differences in attachment security and disorganisation between very preterm or very low birthweight (VP/VLBW) (infants (37-42 weeks gestation) and whether the pathways to disorganised attachment differ between VP/VLBW and full-term infants. The sample with complete longitudinal data consisted of 71 VP/VLBW and 105 full-term children and their mothers matched for twin status, maternal age, income and maternal education. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Assessment at 18 months of age. Maternal sensitivity in the VP/VLBW and full-term samples was rated by neonatal nurses and community midwives in the neonatal period, respectively, and mother-infant interaction was observed at 3 months. Infant difficultness was assessed by maternal report at 3 months and infant's developmental status was assessed with the Bayley Scales (BSID-II). Most VP/VLBW (61%) and full-term (72%) children were found to be securely attached. However, more VP/VLBW (32%) than full-term children (17%) had disorganised attachment. Longitudinal path analysis found that maternal sensitivity was predictive of attachment disorganisation in full-term children. In contrast, infant's distressing cry and infant's developmental delay, but not maternal sensitivity, were predictive of disorganised attachment in VP/VLBW children. A third of VP/VLBW children showed disorganised attachment. Underlying neurodevelopmental problems associated with VP/VLBW birth appear to be a common pathway to a range of social relationship problems in this group. Clinicians should be aware that disorganised attachment and relationship problems in VP/VLBW infants are frequent despite sensitive parenting.

  12. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12. Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9-30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3-119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1-15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

  13. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  14. Infant wheeze, comorbidities and school age asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Asa; Bergström, Anna; Gustafsson, Per; Thunqvist, Per; Andersson, Niklas; Nordvall, Lennart; Kull, Inger; Wickman, Magnus

    2014-06-01

    Factors associated with early onset of wheeze have been described, but there is limited knowledge on which of these infant wheezers who will have developed asthma in school age. The aim was to identify clinical risk factors for asthma in the 8-yr-old children that wheezed during infancy in a population-based setting. Three thousand two hundred and fifty-one children from a population-based birth cohort followed prospectively from infancy until age 8 yr were included in the study. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Parents reported any wheeze episode before age 2 yr in 823 subjects (25%). Infant wheezers had an almost fourfold risk of asthma at age 8 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.68, 95% CI 2.74-4.96], equivalent to an asthma prevalence of 14% compared with 4% among non-wheezers (p < 0.001). After adjustments for sex, exposure to tobacco smoke and indoor dampness/mould, allergic heredity (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.02-2.30), increased frequency of wheeze (aOR 3.41, 95% CI 2.09-5.56 for children with ≥3 episodes compared with ≤2 episodes during the first 2 yr of life), infant eczema (aOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.52-3.49), and recurrent abdominal pain (aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.30-4.16) remained risk factors for school age asthma in the infant wheezing group. Among infant wheezers, allergic heredity, increased severity of wheeze, infant eczema, and recurrent abdominal pain were independent risk factors for asthma at age 8 yr. Among children with three or four of these risk factors, 38% had asthma at school age. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-02-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants' graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan's stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life.

  16. The Sleeping Infant Brain Anticipates Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-08-07

    From the age of 3 months, infants learn relations between objects and co-occurring words [1]. These very first representations of object-word pairings in infant memory are considered as non-symbolic proto-words comprising specific visual-auditory associations that can already be formed in the first months of life [2-5]. Genuine words that refer to semantic long-term memory have not been evidenced prior to 9 months of age [6-9]. Sleep is known to facilitate the reorganization of memories [9-14], but its impact on the perceptual-to-semantic trend in early development is unknown. Here we explored the formation of word meanings in 6- to 8-month-old infants and its reorganization during the course of sleep. Infants were exposed to new words as labels for new object categories. In the memory test about an hour later, generalization to novel category exemplars was tested. In infants who took a short nap during the retention period, a brain response of 3-month-olds [1] was observed, indicating generalizations based on early developing perceptual-associative memory. In those infants who napped longer, a semantic priming effect [15, 16] usually found later in development [17-19] revealed the formation of genuine words. The perceptual-to-semantic shift in memory was related to the duration of sleep stage 2 and to locally increased sleep spindle activity. The finding that, after the massed presentation of several labeled category exemplars, sleep enabled even 6-month-olds to create semantic long-term memory clearly challenges the notion that immature brain structures are responsible for the typically slower lexical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding women's interpretations of infant formula advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Kathleen; Taylor, Emily; Hall-Dardess, Pam; Walker, Marsha; Labbok, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 1 year is recommended by all major health organizations. Whereas 74.6 percent of mothers initiate breastfeeding at birth, exclusivity and duration remain significantly lower than national goals. Empirical evidence suggests that exposure to infant formula marketing contributes to supplementation and premature cessation. The objective of this study was to explore how women interpret infant formula advertising to aid in an understanding of this association. Four focus groups were structured to include women with similar childbearing experience divided according to reproductive status: preconceptional, pregnant, exclusive breastfeeders, and formula feeders. Facilitators used a prepared protocol to guide discussion of infant formula advertisements. Authors conducted a thematic content analysis with special attention to women's statements about what they believed the advertisements said about how the products related to human milk (superior, inferior, similar) and how they reported reacting to these interpretations. Participants reported that the advertisements conveyed an expectation of failure with breastfeeding, and that formula is a solution to fussiness, spitting up, and other normal infant behaviors. Participants reported that the advertisements were confusing in terms of how formula-feeding is superior, inferior or the same as breastfeeding. This confusion was exacerbated by an awareness of distribution by health care practitioners and institutions, suggesting provider endorsement of infant formula. Formula marketing appears to decrease mothers' confidence in their ability to breastfeed, especially when provided by health care practitioners and institutions. Therefore, to be supportive of breastfeeding, perinatal educators and practitioners could be more effective if they did not offer infant formula advertising to mothers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors, Journal compilation © 2013

  18. Concomitant Bacterial Meningitis in Infants With Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Joanna; Cruz, Andrea T; Nigrovic, Lise E; Freedman, Stephen B; Garro, Aris C; Ishimine, Paul T; Kulik, Dina M; Uspal, Neil G; Grether-Jones, Kendra L; Miller, Aaron S; Schnadower, David; Shah, Samir S; Aronson, Paul L; Balamuth, Fran

    2017-09-01

    To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤60 days with a urinary tract infection, we performed a 23-center, retrospective study of 1737 infants with urinary tract infection. Concomitant bacterial meningitis was rare, but more common in infants 0-28 days of age [0.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4%-1.9%) compared with infants 29-60 days of age (0.2%; 95% CI: 0%-0.8%).

  19. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Angeles Cerezo; Purificación Sierra-García; Gemma Pons-Salvador; Rosa M. Trenado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each gro...

  20. Asymmetry in infants' selective attention to facial features during visual processing of infant-directed speech

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Gibilisco, Colleen R.; Meisinger, Rachel E.; Hankey, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker’s right eye for infant-directed speech stimuli. Observers continued to look more at the talker’s apparent right eye when the video stimuli were mirror flipped, suggesting that the asymmetry reflects a per...

  1. Body Maps in the Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined representations of the body in the adult brain, but relatively little attention has been paid to ontogenetic aspects of neural body maps in human infants. Novel applications of methods for recording brain activity in infants are delineating cortical body maps in the first months of life. Body maps may facilitate infants’ registration of similarities between self and other—an ability that is foundational to developing social cognition. Alterations in interpersonal aspects of body representations might also contribute to social deficits in certain neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26231760

  2. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents.

  3. Severe calcinosis cutis in an infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puvabanditsin, Surasak; Patel, Jigneshkumar B.; Garrow, Eugene; Titapiwatanakun, Ruetima; Getachew, Rahel

    2005-01-01

    We report on an infant with severe asphyxia and persistent pulmonary hypertension as a newborn. The baby received prolonged intravenous calcium gluconate therapy for hypocalcemia. At 5 weeks of age, multiple firm, indurated areas (armor-like lesions) were palpable in the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk, arms, legs, and face, particularly in skin folds. Roentgenographic study showed generalized soft-tissue calcifications throughout the body, extremities, and face. Calcinosis cutis occurs through a variety of pathogenetic mechanisms. Case reports on calcinosis cutis in infants are uncommon, and the calcifications are mostly localized. In our patient, they are generalized. (orig.)

  4. The eye of the begetter: predicting infant attachment disorganization from women's prenatal interpretations of infant facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rosemary E; Tenedios, Catherine M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Measelle, Jeffery R; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2014-01-01

    Infant-caregiver attachment disorganization has been linked to many long-term negative psychosocial outcomes. While various prevention programs appear to be effective in preventing disorganized attachment, methods currently used to identify those at risk are unfortunately either overly general or impractical. The current investigation tested whether women's prenatal biases in identifying infant expressions of emotion--tendencies previously shown to relate to some of the maternal variables associated with infant attachment, including maternal traumatization, trauma symptoms, and maternal sensitivity--could predict infant attachment classification at 18 months postpartum. Logistic regression analyses revealed that together with women's adult history of high betrayal traumatization, response concordance with a normative reference sample in labeling infant expressions as negatively valenced, and the number of infant facial expressions that participants classified as "sad" and "angry" predicted subsequent infant attachment security versus disorganization. Implications for screening and prevention are discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Associated malformations among infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2012-03-01

    Infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia frequently have other associated congenital anomalies. The reported frequency and types of associated malformations vary among different studies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the frequency and types of associated malformations among infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia in a geographically well defined population from 1979 to 2004 of 346,831 consecutive births. Of the 87 infants with anophthalmia and microphthalmia born during this period (prevalence at birth, 2.5 per 10,000), 90% had associated malformations. Infants with associated malformation were divided into recognizable conditions (22 infants [25%] with chromosomal and 15 infants [17%] with nonchromosomal conditions), and nonrecognizable conditions (41 infants [47%] with multiple malformations). Trisomies 13 and 18 were the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities. Amniotic bands sequence, CHARGE syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, and VACTERL association were most often present in recognizable nonchromosomal conditions. Malformations in the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies in infants with multiple malformations and nonrecognizable conditions. The frequency of associated malformations in infants with anophthalmia or microphthalmia emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of these infants. Routine screening for other malformations-especially musculoskeletal, cardiac, and central nervous system anomalies-may need to be considered in infants with anophthalmia or microphthalmia, and referral of these infants for genetics evaluation and counseling seems warranted. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Shared Musical Knowledge in 11-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2018-01-01

    Five-month-old infants selectively attend to novel people who sing melodies originally learned from a parent, but not melodies learned from a musical toy or from an unfamiliar singing adult, suggesting that music conveys social information to infant listeners. Here, we test this interpretation further in older infants with a more direct measure of…

  7. Cineoesophagogastroscintigraphy and positioning therapy of infant gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyraud, J.; Guillet, J.; Bouix, G.; Brendel, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    During this prospective study, using cineoesophagogastroscintigraphy carried out in 27 infants under seven months of age, the positioning of the infants in the infant seat for the treatment of the gastroesophageal reflux was not detrimental in comparison to prone positioning [fr

  8. Caregivers' Playfulness and Infants' Emotional Stress during Transitional Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeesun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the playfulness of the teachers of infants and its relations to infants' emotional distress during the transitional time at a child care centre. The study used a qualitative case study. Two infant caregivers in a university-based child care centre participated in this study. For the three-month research…

  9. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  10. Prevalence of bacterial contamination of powdered infant feeds in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The study arose as part of a nutrition model regarding the introduction of ready-to-use (RTU) infant feeds in place of powdered infant feeds (PIFs) as a standard formula for infants under the age of 1 year who are unable to be breastfed. Internationally and locally there is grave concern regarding the safety and ...

  11. Beyond Baby Doe: Does Infant Transplantation Justify Euthanasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper examines ethical issues in the transplantation of organs from infants with anencephaly into infants with severe heart and kidney disease. It argues that active euthanasia of infants with anencephaly should be prohibited to safeguard the rights of all persons with severe neurological disabilities. (Author/DB)

  12. Babies at Double Jeopardy: Medically Fragile Infants and Child Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullar, Suzanne A.

    2008-01-01

    Medically fragile infants, those born prematurely or with other complex medical or genetic problems, are at risk of long-term health and developmental problems. When a medically fragile infant comes home to a family with significant social problems such as domestic violence, mental illness, or substance abuse, the infant is at double jeopardy--at…

  13. Gluconeogenesis continues in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the contribution of total gluconeogenesis, to glucose production in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing glucose exceeding normal infant glucose turnover rate, eight infants (0.955 +/- 0.066 kg, 26.5 - 0.5 wks, 4-1 d) were studied while receiving routine ...

  14. Facial Expressions in Context: Contributions to Infant Emotion Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.

    To make the point that infant emotions are more dynamic than suggested by Differential Emotions Theory, which maintains that infants show the same prototypical facial expressions for emotions as adults do, this paper explores two questions: (1) when infants experience an emotion, do they always show the corresponding prototypical facial…

  15. Influence of Labeling on Ratings of Infants: A Prematurity Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.; Ottinger, Donald R.

    Two full term and two preterm infants were videotaped while being administered six items from the Brazelton Scale. Infants were assigned alternately the labels "preterm" and "fullterm" and shown to a group of 256 undergraduate students. It was hypothesized that: (1) subjects who view infants labeled as preterm would rate them lower on objective…

  16. Father-Infant Interactions Are Enhanced by Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christy; Field, Tiffany; Escalona, Angelica; Hartshorn, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Examined the impact of fathers giving massages to their infants, ages 3 to 14 months, for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for 1 month. Found that fathers who had massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor-play interactions with their infants than did fathers in the wait-list control…

  17. Infants' Forgetting of Correlated Attributes and Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Three studies, involving 72 3-month-old infants, demonstrated that infants remembered some of the original feature combinations of a mobile they had been trained to activate for up to 3 days but forgot all of them after 4 days. Even after 4 days, however, infants remembered the individual features that had entered into the original combinations.…

  18. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)--standardised investigations and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajanowski, Thomas; Vege, Ashild; Byard, Roger W

    2007-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) still accounts for considerable numbers of unexpected infant deaths in many countries. While numerous theories have been advanced to explain these events, it is increasingly clear that this group of infant deaths results from the complex interaction of a variet...

  19. Early postnatal calcium and phosphorus metabolism in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christmann, Viola; de Grauw, Anne M.; Visser, Reina; Matthijsse, René P.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Heijst, Arno F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone mineralisation in preterm infants is related to the supply of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). We increased the amount of minerals in parenteral nutrition (PN) for preterm infants and evaluated postnatal Ca and P metabolism in relation to mineral and vitamin D (vitD) intake. Preterm infants,

  20. Mother-Father-Infant Interaction: A Naturalistic Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Investigates infant preferences for interaction with mother v father, similarities and differences in maternal and paternal behavior, and the influence of a second parent's presence on parent-infant interaction. Families with infants 15 months of age were observed in their own homes. (Author/SS)

  1. Mother, Father, and Infant as an Interactive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    This study investigates three types of reciprocal interactions among members of the family unit (father, mother and infant): father-infant interaction affecting child's development, father-infant interaction affecting mother's behavior, and husband-wife interaction affecting mother's behavior. Data from a sample of 39 healthy first-born infants…

  2. Congenital Malformations in Singleton Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Singleton Infants by Natural Conception in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mozafari Kermani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancies occur more frequently in assisted reproductive technology (ART compared to normal conception (NC. It is known that the risk of congenital malformations in a multiple pregnancy are higher than single pregnancy. The aim of this study is to compare congenital malformations in singleton infants conceived by ART to singleton infants conceived naturally. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, we performed a historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCM in 820 singleton births from January 2012 to December 2014. The data for this analysis were derived from Tehran’s ART linked data file. The risk of congenital malformations was compared in 164 ART infants and 656 NC infants. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses for the independent association of ART on each outcome. Results: We found 40 infants with MCM 29 (4.4% NC infants and 14 (8.3% ART infants. In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant 2-fold increased risk of MCM (P=0.046. After adjusting individually for maternal age, infant gender, prior stillbirth, mother’s history of spontaneous abortion, and type of delivery, we did not find any difference in risk. In this study the majority (95.1% of all infants were normal but 4.9% of infants had at least one MCM. We found a difference in risk of MCMs between in vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. We excluded the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformations in ART infants. Conclusion: This study reported a higher risk of MCMs in ART singleton infants than in NC singleton infants. Congenital heart disease, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH, and urogenital malformations were the most reported major malformations in singleton ART infants according to organ and system classification.

  3. Maternal and infant characteristics associated with human milk feeding in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Paula M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Dillard, Robert G; Gruber, Kenneth J; O'Shea, T Michael

    2009-11-01

    This study identified maternal and infant characteristics predicting human milk (HM) feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants whose mothers (n = 184) participated in a study of lactation counseling and initiated milk expression. Data were collected prospectively, by maternal interview and medical record review. During hospitalization, 159 (86%) infants received at least 50% HM proportion of feedings in the first 2 weeks of life, and 114 (62%) received some HM until the day of hospital discharge. Analysis showed plan to breastfeed was the strongest predictor of initiation and duration of HM feeding. Greater than 12 years of education, respiratory distress syndrome, Apgar score >6, and female gender were significant predictors, and no perinatal hypertensive disorder, white race, and mechanical ventilation were marginal predictors of HM feeding. Women with a high-risk pregnancy should be provided education about the benefits of breastfeeding for infants who are likely to be born prematurely.

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome: The risk of infants in Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Latorre-Castro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The results reflect the risk to which infants are exposed because of wrong practices associated with poor knowledge, and recommendations given, in many cases, by health professionals. Likewise, risk is higher among the poorest population.

  5. Broadening the Study of Infant Security of Attachment: Maternal Autonomy-Support in the Context of Infant Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Natasha; Bernier, Annie; Mageau, Genevieve A.

    2011-01-01

    Although security of attachment is conceptualised as a balance between infants' attachment and exploratory behaviours, parental behaviours pertaining to infant exploration have received relatively little empirical attention. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study seeks to improve the prediction of infant attachment by assessing…

  6. Infants' Background Television Exposure during Play: Negative Relations to the Quantity and Quality of Mothers' Speech and Infants' Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Olson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Research on immediate effects of background television during mother-infant toy play shows that an operating television in the room disrupts maternal communicative behaviors crucial for infants' vocabulary acquisition. This study is the first to examine associations between frequent background TV/video exposure during mother-infant toy play at…

  7. Modeling Dyadic Processes Using Hidden Markov Models: A Time Series Approach to Mother-Infant Interactions during Infant Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Rovine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at 2 and 6?months of age, used hidden Markov modelling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a…

  8. A Privileged Status for Male Infant-Directed Speech in Infants of Depressed Mothers? Role of Father Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter S.; Danko, Christina M.; Diaz, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Prior research showed that 5- to 13-month-old infants of chronically depressed mothers did not learn to associate a segment of infant-directed speech produced by their own mothers or an unfamiliar nondepressed mother with a smiling female face, but showed better-than-normal learning when a segment of infant-directed speech produced by an…

  9. Infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants improves independency in mobility at preschool age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Houtzager, Bregje; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program(©) (IBAIP) in very low birth weight infants on sensory processing and daily activities at preschool age. Follow-up of children included in a randomized controlled trial. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  10. The Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Attachment in a South African Peri-Urban Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mark; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 147 mother-infant dyads was recruited from a peri-urban settlement outside Cape Town and seen at 2- and 18-months postpartum. At 18 months, 61.9% of the infants were rated as securely attached (B); 4.1% as avoidant (A); 8.2% as resistant (C); and 25.8% disorganized (D). Postpartum depression at 2 months, and indices of poor parenting…

  11. Influence of father-infant relationship on infant development: A father-involvement intervention in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Rempel, John K; Khuc, Toan Nang; Vui, Le Thi

    2017-10-01

    We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect involvement with their infants and work together with the mother as part of a parenting team. Fathers and mothers from 13 communes in a rural and semiurban district were recruited to the intervention group. Intervention fathers received group and individual counseling before and after birth, an interactive print resource, community messages about fathering, and the opportunity to participate in a Fathers Club. Couples from 12 comparable communes in a noncontiguous district were recruited to the control group. Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires at the prebirth recruitment and at 1-, 4-, and 9-months postbirth. Intervention fathers demonstrated greater increase in knowledge and attitudes regarding father-infant relationships. Both fathers and mothers reported that fathers engaged in more affection, care-taking, and play in the early months of their infants' lives and fathers felt more attached to their infants right from birth. A developmental assessment at 9 months showed that intervention infants demonstrated higher levels of motor, language, and personal/social development. This study demonstrated that fathers can be taught to interact more sensitively, responsively, and effectively with their newborn infants. Their increased interaction and emotional attachment appears to lay the foundation for enhanced infant development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Infants? Temperament and Mothers?, and Fathers? Depression Predict Infants? Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J.; de Vente, Wieke; Majdand?i?, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; B?gels, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others’ emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants’ attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations ...

  13. Infants learn better from left to right: a directional bias in infants? sequence learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bulf, Hermann; de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Gariboldi, Valeria; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of studies show that human adults map ordered information onto a directional spatial continuum. We asked whether mapping ordinal information into a directional space constitutes an early predisposition, already functional prior to the acquisition of symbolic knowledge and language. While it is known that preverbal infants represent numerical order along a left-to-right spatial continuum, no studies have investigated yet whether infants, like adults, organize any kind of ordinal infor...

  14. Hepatitis B maternal screening, infant vaccination, and infant prophylaxis practices in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R L; Smith, S; Rowe-West, B; Sterritt, B

    1999-06-01

    To determine if the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices hepatitis B screening, vaccination, and prophylaxis recommendations were being followed in North Carolina, and to establish a baseline hepatitis B seroprevalence rate. A survey of mother and infant birthing facility medical records. Four birthing facilities selected from each of the 7 districts in North Carolina (a total of 28 facilities). A probability proportional to size survey design was used to select 4763 mother-infant record pairs. All records came from the 1996 birth cohort. Maternal hepatitis B screening status, infant vaccination status, infants prophylaxis status, hepatitis B seroprevalence rate, demographic and clinical predictors for maternal infection, failure to receive prenatal care or for whom status was unknown, failure to screen, and failure to vaccinate. Ninety-two percent of pregnant women were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen. Eighty-six percent of infants received dose 1 of the hepatitis B vaccine. Four of the 9 infants with mothers who were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive did not receive both vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin. The hepatitis B seroprevalence rate was 0.2%. Mothers who were not screened for infection were 3.4 times more likely to have infants who were not vaccinated. White mothers were twice as likely not to have their child vaccinated as mothers of other races. Not all infants with hepatitis B-infected mothers were receiving vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin as recommended. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B infection may be lower in North Carolina than in other states. Hepatitis B laboratory test results should be included in every mother's medical record.

  15. Trends in infant bedding use: National Infant Sleep Position study, 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Colson, Eve R; Willinger, Marian; Rybin, Denis V; Camperlengo, Lena; Corwin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Use of potentially hazardous bedding, as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (eg, pillows, quilts, comforters, loose bedding), is a modifiable risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome and unintentional sleep-related suffocation. The proportion of US infants sleeping with these types of bedding is unknown. To investigate the US prevalence of and trends in bedding use, we analyzed 1993-2010 data from the National Infant Sleep Position study. Infants reported as being usually placed to sleep with blankets, quilts, pillows, and other similar materials under or covering them in the last 2 weeks were classified as bedding users. Logistic regression was used to describe characteristics associated with bedding use. From 1993 to 2010, bedding use declined but remained a widespread practice (moving average of 85.9% in 1993-1995 to 54.7% in 2008-2010). Prevalence was highest for infants of teen-aged mothers (83.5%) and lowest for infants born at term (55.6%). Bedding use was also frequently reported among infants sleeping in adult beds, on their sides, and on a shared surface. The rate of decline in bedding use was markedly less from 2001-2010 compared with 1993-2000. For 2007 to 2010, the strongest predictors (adjusted odds ratio: ≥1.5) of bedding use were young maternal age, non-white race and ethnicity, and not being college educated. Bedding use for infant sleep remains common despite recommendations against this practice. Understanding trends in bedding use is important for tailoring safe sleep interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Trends in Infant Bedding Use: National Infant Sleep Position Study, 1993–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Eve R.; Willinger, Marian; Rybin, Denis V.; Camperlengo, Lena; Corwin, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of potentially hazardous bedding, as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (eg, pillows, quilts, comforters, loose bedding), is a modifiable risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome and unintentional sleep-related suffocation. The proportion of US infants sleeping with these types of bedding is unknown. METHODS: To investigate the US prevalence of and trends in bedding use, we analyzed 1993–2010 data from the National Infant Sleep Position study. Infants reported as being usually placed to sleep with blankets, quilts, pillows, and other similar materials under or covering them in the last 2 weeks were classified as bedding users. Logistic regression was used to describe characteristics associated with bedding use. RESULTS: From 1993 to 2010, bedding use declined but remained a widespread practice (moving average of 85.9% in 1993–1995 to 54.7% in 2008–2010). Prevalence was highest for infants of teen-aged mothers (83.5%) and lowest for infants born at term (55.6%). Bedding use was also frequently reported among infants sleeping in adult beds, on their sides, and on a shared surface. The rate of decline in bedding use was markedly less from 2001–2010 compared with 1993–2000. For 2007 to 2010, the strongest predictors (adjusted odds ratio: ≥1.5) of bedding use were young maternal age, non-white race and ethnicity, and not being college educated. CONCLUSIONS: Bedding use for infant sleep remains common despite recommendations against this practice. Understanding trends in bedding use is important for tailoring safe sleep interventions. PMID:25452654

  17. Diaphragmatic electromyography monitoring in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, J.V.S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis starts in Chapter 1 with general aspects of prematurity and its consequences on the respiratory system. Thereby, common types of respiratory failure in preterm infants, the physiology of respiratory muscles and different cardiorespiratory monitoring techniques used in the neonatal

  18. Elimination Problems in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inability to digest wheat (CELIAC DISEASE) or milk (LACTOSE INTOLERANCE) can cause these symptoms. Self CareEliminate foods that ... be an appropriate substitute for infants who have lactose intolerance. Start OverDiagnosisPain from HEMORRHOIDS or an ANAL FISSURE ...

  19. Food Texture Preferences in Infants Versus Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Brenda; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared food texture preferences during infancy and toddlerhood. Found that infants displayed more negative expressions and head and body movements in response to complex textures than to simple textures. Toddlers displayed more positive head and body movements and more eagerness in response to complex than to simple textures. Experience with…

  20. Estimation of gluconeogenesis in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalhan, SC; Parimi, P; Van Beek, R; Gilfillan, C; Saker, F; Gruca, L; Sauer, P.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The rate of glucose turnover (R-a) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) via pyruvate were quantified in seven full-term healthy babies between 24 and 48 h after birth and in twelve low-birth-weight infants on days 3 and 4 by use of [C-13(6)]glucose and (H2O)-H-2. The preterm babies were receiving parenteral

  1. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  2. Greater Caregiving Risk, Better Infant Memory Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Quan, Jeffry; Richmond, Jenny; Goh, Shaun Kok Yew; Sim, Lit Wee; Chong, Yap Seng; Francois-Bureau, Jean; Chen, Helen; Qiu, Anqi

    2018-04-16

    Poor early life care often relates to cognitive difficulties. However, newer work suggests that in early-life, adversity may associate with enhanced or accelerated neurodevelopment. We examine associations between postnatal caregiving risks (i.e., higher self-reported postnatal-anxiety and lower observed maternal sensitivity) and infant relational memory (i.e. via deferred imitation and relational binding). Using subsamples of 67-181 infants (aged 433-477 post-conceptual days, or roughly five to seven months since birth) taking part in the GUSTO study, we found such postnatal caregiving risk significantly predictive of "better" performance on a relational binding task following a brief delay, after Bonferroni adjustments. Subsequent analyses suggest that the association between memory and these risks may specifically be apparent amongst infants spending at least 50% of their waking hours in the presence of their mothers. Our findings echo neuroimaging research concerning similar risk exposure and larger infant hippocampal volume, and likewise underscore the importance of considering developmental context in understanding early life experience. With this in mind, these findings caution against the use of cognitive outcomes as indices of experienced risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Infant and Newborn Development - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List of All Topics All Infant and Newborn Development - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) ( ...

  4. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  5. Immunophenotypic investigation of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – immunophenotype description of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. 64 patients (29 boys and 35 girls with acute leukemia (AL aged from 0 to 11 months were included in the current study. ALL was found less frequently in infants than in older children (67.19 % and 87.69 %, respectively. BI-ALL was the most common immunological ALL type (60.46 % in infant ALL, while BII-ALL was notably less frequent compared with other age groups (30.23 %. Significant immunophenotypic differences were observed in patients with and without MLL gene rearrangements. Number of cases in those tumor cells expressed CD10, CD20, CD45, CD133, CD15, NG2 varied between MLL-positive and MLL-negative groups. CD10- and CD20-negativity, high CD45, CD15, CD65 and NG2 expression were immunophenotypic signatures of MLL-rearranged infant ALL, although NG2 had the highest diagnostic efficacy. High CD34 and CD65 expression was frequently associated with presence of MLL-AF4 fusion gene. Thus infants’ B-cell precursor ALL immunophenotype differs significantly due to the presence of MLL gene rearrangements. Diagnostic immunophenotyping of infants’ ALL allows predicting presence of MLL rearrangements and NG2 is the most applicable single marker.

  6. Immunophenotypic investigation of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – immunophenotype description of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. 64 patients (29 boys and 35 girls with acute leukemia (AL aged from 0 to 11 months were included in the current study. ALL was found less frequently in infants than in older children (67.19 % and 87.69 %, respectively. BI-ALL was the most common immunological ALL type (60.46 % in infant ALL, while BII-ALL was notably less frequent compared with other age groups (30.23 %. Significant immunophenotypic differences were observed in patients with and without MLL gene rearrangements. Number of cases in those tumor cells expressed CD10, CD20, CD45, CD133, CD15, NG2 varied between MLL-positive and MLL-negative groups. CD10- and CD20-negativity, high CD45, CD15, CD65 and NG2 expression were immunophenotypic signatures of MLL-rearranged infant ALL, although NG2 had the highest diagnostic efficacy. High CD34 and CD65 expression was frequently associated with presence of MLL-AF4 fusion gene. Thus infants’ B-cell precursor ALL immunophenotype differs significantly due to the presence of MLL gene rearrangements. Diagnostic immunophenotyping of infants’ ALL allows predicting presence of MLL rearrangements and NG2 is the most applicable single marker.

  7. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosura, Tisha; Bradshaw, Wanda T

    2010-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a ventricular preexcitation that presents as supraventricular tachycardia. Health care professionals can attain optimal results in caring for infants with WPW syndrome by understanding both its pathophysiology and proper management to prevent and treat complications associated with it. This article reviews the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic modalities, assessment, and management of WPW syndrome.

  8. Congenital Hyperterophic Pyloric Stenosis of Infants | Mbanaso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 7-week-old male infant with congenital hyperterophic pyloric stenosis. The essence of this case report is to show that this condition could be mistaken for failure to thrive, protein caloric malnutrition, or ignorance on the part of the mother on how to feed the first born child. All these were suggested in our patient, ...

  9. The excessively crying infant : etiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhnikh, S.; Engelberts, A.C.; Sleuwen, B.E. van; Hoir, M.P. L’; Benninga, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and selflimiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, and underlying organic cause

  10. Indicators of fetal and infant health outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitendijk, Simone; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Cuttini, Marina; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Bottu, Jean

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of the member states of the European Union to produce the indicators recommended by the PERISTAT project on perinatal health indicators and to provide an overview of fetal and infant health outcomes for these countries according to the information now available.

  11. Pyogenic Tenosynovitis in Infants: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lironi, Céline; Steiger, Christina; Juchler, Céline; Spyropoulou, Vasiliki; Samara, Eleftheria; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2017-11-01

    Pyogenic tenosynovitis is an uncommon condition in children, and there are few published case reports. We present a series of 11 cases who were treated in the Geneva Children Hospital in the last 10 years. Kingella kingae was the main pathogen, and the characteristics of infection (inflammatory indices, clinical findings and severity) are similar to other osteoarticular K. kingae infections in infants.

  12. Neuroregression in an infant: A rare cause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adults can tolerate a vitamin ... The average body store of vitamin B12 in healthy adults is ~3 mg, compared with ... system (CNS) and those tissues with rapid mitotic activity, such as .... nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in infants. J Pediatr 1992 ...

  13. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiac channelopathies and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...

  15. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  16. Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Matthew P.; Machado, Mychal A.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Morley, Allison J.

    2011-01-01

    We taught manual signs to typically developing infants using a reversal design and caregiver-nominated stimuli. We delivered the stimuli on a time-based schedule during baseline. During the intervention, we used progressive prompting and reinforcement, described by Thompson et al. (2004, 2007), to establish mands. Following sign training, we…

  17. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...

  18. Maternal vaccination to prevent pertussis in infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-09

    Sep 9, 2016 ... that maternal immunisation with the Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis) vaccine is safe. Indeed, maternal vaccination is now recommended to prevent pertussis infection in vulnerable young infants. In the USA and UK, the immunisation of pregnant women with a Tdap or dTaP/IPV (diphtheria, ...

  19. Infants' Delayed Recognition Memory and Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joseph F., III

    1973-01-01

    Infants 21- to 25-weeks-old devoted more visual fixation to novel than familiar stimuli on immediate and delayed recognition tests. The experiments confirm the existence of long-term recognition memory for pictorial stimuli in the early months of life. (DP)

  20. Nutritional support for the infant's immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niers, L.; Stasse-Wolthuis, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Rijkers, G.T.

    2007-01-01

    Newborn babies possess a functional but immature immune system as a defense against a world teeming with microorganisms. Breast milk contains a number of biological, active compounds that support the infant's immune system. These include secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA), which confers specific

  1. Optimal Furosemide Therapy in Critically Ill infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. van der Vorst

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFurosemide as continuous infusion is used in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery and during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The currently used regimens which start with low dose (0.05 - 0.1 mg/kg.hr) may not be optimal in this group of patients with

  2. Excessive infant crying: Definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  3. Postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.

    2013-01-01

    A postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in very low birth weight infants with an estimated prevalence of 6–59%. Breast milk from CMV seropositive mothers is the main source of postnatal CMV infection. Ninety-six percent of these mothers shed CMV in their breast milk after delivery due

  4. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); G.L. Kearns (Greg); D.J. Murry (Darryl); G. Koren (Gideon); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In preterm infants, the biotransformation of midazolam (M) to 1-OH-midazolam (OHM) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is developmentally immature, but it is currently unknown whether the glucuronidation of OHM to 1-OH-midazolam glucuronide (OHMG) is also decreased. The aim of our

  5. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  6. Retinal haemorrhage in infants with pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Naz; Pereira, Susana; Dai, Shuan; Neutze, Jocelyn; Grant, Cameron Charles; Kelly, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    It has been hypothesised that paroxysmal coughing in infantile pertussis (whooping cough) could produce retinal haemorrhages identical to those seen in abusive head trauma. We aimed to test this hypothesis. This is a prospective study of infants hospitalised with pertussis in Auckland, New Zealand, from 2009 to 2014. The clinical severity of pertussis was categorised. All infants recruited had retinal examination through dilated pupils by the paediatric ophthalmology service using an indirect ophthalmoscope. Forty-eight infants with pertussis, aged 3 weeks to 7 months, were examined after a mean of 18 days of coughing. Thirty-nine had severe pertussis and nine had mild pertussis. All had paroxysmal cough, and all were still coughing at the time of examination. No retinal haemorrhages were seen. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that pertussis may cause the pattern of retinal haemorrhages seen in abusive head trauma in infants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Infant media exposure and toddler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha; Fierman, Arthur H; Brockmeyer, Carolyn; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether duration and content of media exposure in 6-month-old infants are associated with development at age 14 months. Longitudinal analysis of 259 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development, from November 23, 2005, through January 14, 2008. An urban public hospital. Mothers with low socioeconomic status and their infants. Duration and content of media exposure at age 6 months. Cognitive and language development at age 14 months. Of 259 infants, 249 (96.1%) were exposed to media at age 6 months, with mean (SD) total exposure of 152.7 (124.5) min/d. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, duration of media exposure at age 6 months was associated with lower cognitive development at age 14 months (unadjusted: r = -0.17, P development (r = -0.16, P cognitive and language development at age 14 months. No significant associations were seen with exposure to young child-oriented educational or noneducational content. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to have longitudinally assessed associations between media exposure in infancy and subsequent developmental outcomes in children from families with low socioeconomic status in the United States. Findings provide strong evidence in support of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations of no media exposure prior to age 2 years, although further research is needed.

  8. Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionIn general breast-fed infants suffer less from infection, which could be partly explained by the specificcompostionand metabolic activity of their intestinalmicroflora. During the last two decades, many

  9. Regional surveillance program for the detection of fatal infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.; Blackbourne, B.D.; Marks, S.C.; Adams, V.I.; Karellas, A.

    1987-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, a regional surveillance program for the detection of infant abuse was carried out. Infants dying of uncertain cause were studied with a protocol designed to identify possible cases of infant abuse. At autopsy, resection of selected osseous material was performed, followed by meticulous specimen radiography and histopathologic analysis. Characteristic injuries involving the metaphyses, posterior rib arcs and spine, as well as less specific fractures of the long bone shafts and clavicles, were identified in eight abused infants. The authors believe that this multidisciplinary approach to unexplained infant death enhances detection of abuse and provides valuable documentary evidence for criminal prosecution

  10. Unattractive infant faces elicit negative affect from adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Stevie S; Langlois, Judith H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and adult affect by investigating whether differing levels of infant facial attractiveness elicit facial muscle movement correlated with positive and negative affect from adults (N=87) using electromyography. Unattractive infant faces evoked significantly more corrugator supercilii and levator labii superioris movement (physiological correlates of negative affect) than attractive infant faces. These results suggest that unattractive infants may be at risk for negative affective responses from adults, though the relationship between those responses and caregiving behavior remains elusive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

  12. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal drug exposure: infant and toddler outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Emmalee S; Morrow, Connie E; Mansoor, Elana; Accornero, Veronica H

    2010-04-01

    This manuscript provides an overview of the current scientific literature on the impact of maternal drug use, specifically opioids and cocaine, during pregnancy on the acute and long-term outcomes of infants and toddlers from birth through age 3 years. Emphasis with regard to opioids is placed on heroin and opioid substitutes used to treat opioid addiction, including methadone, which has long been regarded as the standard of care in pregnancy, and buprenorphine, which is increasingly being investigated and prescribed as an alternative to methadone. Controlled studies comparing methadone at high and low doses, as well as those comparing methadone with buprenorphine, are highlighted and the diagnosis and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome is discussed. Over the past two decades, attention of the scientific and lay communities has also been focused on the potential adverse effects of cocaine and crack cocaine, especially during the height of the cocaine epidemic in the United States. Herein, the findings are summarized from prospective studies comparing cocaine-exposed with non-cocaine-exposed infants and toddlers with respect to anthropometric growth, infant neurobehavior, visual and auditory function, and cognitive, motor, and language development. The potentially stigmatizing label of the so-called "crack baby" preceded the evidence now accumulating from well-designed prospective investigations that have revealed less severe sequelae in the majority of prenatally exposed infants than originally anticipated. In contrast to opioids, which may produce neonatal abstinence syndrome and infant neurobehavioral deficits, prenatal cocaine exposure appears to be associated with what has been described as statistically significant but subtle decrements in neurobehavioral, cognitive, and language function, especially when viewed in the context of other exposures and the caregiving environment which may mediate or moderate the effects. Whether these early findings may

  14. Infant Skin Care Products: What Are the Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Joanne McManus

    2016-10-01

    Infant skin is susceptible to dryness and irritation from external factors, including topical skin care products not formulated for the infant's skin. This may increase the risk of contact dermatitis. Parents frequently express concern regarding potential harm from ingredients in skin care products and seek information. This is complicated by several skin care myths. The purpose of this literature review was to provide evidence-based information to educate parents on the use of products for preterm and term infants. Multiple searches using PubMed were conducted including the search terms "infant skin care," "infant products," "infant bath," "emollients," "diaper skin care," and "diaper wipes." Reference lists of comprehensive reviews were also scanned. Google searches were used to assess consumer information, product information, and regulatory guidelines. There is little scientific evidence to support safety of natural/organic products on infant skin. Raw materials originate from different sources, complicating testing and comparisons of ingredients. Research shows that cleansers formulated for infant skin do not weaken the skin barrier the way harsher soaps and detergents can. Oils with the lowest oleic acid content provide a lower risk of irritant contact dermatitis. Nurses must be informed about natural and organic products, preservatives, and fragrances and know the definition of commonly used marketing terms. Decisions regarding the use of infant products in preterm and term infants should be evidence based. More research is needed to support claims regarding the safety of products used on infant skin.

  15. Ten steps for promoting and protecting breastfeeding for vulnerable infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Diane L

    2004-01-01

    Human milk is the preferred food for infants, including ill and preterm infants. Ensuring skilled and comprehensive breastfeeding support for these vulnerable infants requires a specialized approach. The author outlines 10 steps for promoting and protecting breastfeeding in vulnerable infants. The steps include providing the parents with information necessary to make an informed decision to breastfeed; assisting the mother with the establishment and maintenance of a milk supply; ensuring correct breast milk management (storage and handling) techniques; developing procedures and approaches to feeding the infant breast milk; providing skin-to-skin care (kangaroo care) and opportunities for non-nutritive sucking at the breast; managing the transition to the breast; measuring milk transfer; preparing the infant and the family for infant hospital discharge; and providing appropriate follow-up care. Material and examples are drawn from the author's research and clinical work at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Current research is utilized, and the role of the nurse is emphasized throughout.

  16. Infant mortality in a rural population of Meerut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Prakash

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in eight selected villages of Meerut District [UJP.} to find out infant mortality rate alongwith other various health care delivery practices associated with this. An infant mortality rate of 106.7/1000 LB was found in the study population. Infant mortality was higher in female infants, infants of mothers not availed antenatal care, not received tetanus toxoid, delivered by untrained personnel and where cow-dung was applied to cord stump. Among the causes of infant deaths prematurity or low birth weight was the commonest cause followed by respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases and tetanus neonatorum Infant mortality in a rural population of meerut

  17. Stock Photographs Do Not Comply With Infant Safe Sleep Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Michael H; Lagon, Elena; Bell, Theodore; Joyner, Brandi L; Moon, Rachel Y

    2018-04-01

    We evaluated images in popular stock photography websites for adherence with American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for safe infant sleep practices. Three top stock photo websites were used to collect photographs generated from key phrases. All images depicting an infant sleep environment were analyzed for consistency with AAP guidelines. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and z test of proportions, were conducted. A total of 1233 of 1947 stock photographs showed sleeping infants on a flat surface. In all, 627 (50.8%) photographs showed the infant in the supine position and 79 (5%) of all infant sleep environments were adherent with AAP recommendations. Bedding inconsistent with safe sleep recommendations was identified in 1133 images (71.3%), with blankets noted in 49.5%. Images depicting sleeping infants on stock photography sites do not routinely adhere to AAP recommendations. Media messages inconsistent with health care messages create confusion and misinformation about infant sleep safety and may lead inadvertently to unsafe practices.

  18. [Research on brain white matter network in cerebral palsy infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yuanjun; Nie, Shengdong

    2017-10-01

    Present study used diffusion tensor image and tractography to construct brain white matter networks of 15 cerebral palsy infants and 30 healthy infants that matched for age and gender. After white matter network analysis, we found that both cerebral palsy and healthy infants had a small-world topology in white matter network, but cerebral palsy infants exhibited abnormal topological organization: increased shortest path length but decreased normalize clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency. Furthermore, we also found that white matter network hub regions were located in the left cuneus, precuneus, and left posterior cingulate gyrus. However, some abnormal nodes existed in the frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes of cerebral palsy infants. These results indicated that the white matter networks for cerebral palsy infants were disrupted, which was consistent with previous studies about the abnormal brain white matter areas. This work could help us further study the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy infants.

  19. Caregiving and early infant crying in a danish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Marissa

    2004-04-01

    Maternal caregiving and fussing/crying in Danish infants at 3, 6, and 12 weeks were examined using self-report scales and 24-hour behavior diaries. Mothers reported practices commonly associated with responsive caregiving: frequent feeding, prompt response to infant cries, and considerable time holding the infant. Fuss/cry durations peaked in the first 2 months, were highest in evenings, and decreased approximately 50% by 12 weeks. Fussing was the majority behavior, and 9.2% of the infants fussed and cried more than 3 hours per day. In contrast with other Western studies, 24-hour fuss/cry durations were lower, and fussing accounted for up to 80% of total distress. Danish caregiving practices may partially explain the lower durations of infant distress and the lower ratio of cry to fuss. However, some infants fuss/cry a great deal despite sensitive care, which may reflect individual differences in infant maturation of behavior regulation.

  20. Necrotizing Enterocolitis is associated with Ureaplasma Colonization in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogbule-Wonodi, Adora C.; Gross, George W.; Sun, Chen-Chih J.; Agthe, Alexander G.; Xiao, Li; Waites, Ken B.; Viscardi, Rose Marie

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to determine whether Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization of preterm infants Ureaplasma culture and PCR were obtained during the first week of life from 368 infants Ureaplasma-positive (12.3%) than Ureaplasma-negative infants (5.5%) Ureaplasma-positive (14.6%) than Ureaplasma-negative (4.4%) infants ≤28 wks (OR 3.67, 95%CI 1.36-9.93, P=0.01). Age of onset, hematologic parameters at onset, and NEC severity were similar between Ureaplasma-positive and negative infants. Cord serum IL-6 and IL-1β concentrations were significantly higher in Ureaplasma-positive than in Ureaplasma-negative NEC-affected infants. Ureaplasma may be a factor in NEC pathogenesis in preterm infants by contributing to intestinal mucosal injury and/or altering systemic or local immune responses. PMID:21258263

  1. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  2. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011 on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475, 10 probiotics studies (N = 933 and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563 were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal

  3. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-10-04

    Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was

  4. Feeding infants and toddlers study: Improvements needed in meeting infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Reidy, Kathleen; Karwe, Vatsala; Devaney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    To assess adherence to infant feeding recommendations among a sample of infants and toddlers four to 24 months of age in the United States. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls collected with the Nutrition Data System for Research of the University of Minnesota. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age four to 24 months, including 2,024 infants age four to 11 months. Breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and adherence to infant feeding recommendations. Means and standard errors, percentile distributions, and percentages by age group (four to six months, seven to eight months, and nine to 11 months). About 76% of infants and toddlers were fully or partly breastfed at birth. This percentage declined to 30% at six months and 16% at 12 months-short of Healthy People 2010 goals of 50% and 25%, respectively. The average duration of breastfeeding was 5.5 months for all who initiated breastfeeding. About two-thirds of infants had been introduced to complementary foods between four and six months-the period recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); 17% consumed juice before the AAP recommended age of six months or later. Twenty-two percent of infants nine to 11 months consumed cow's milk on a daily basis before the recommended age of 12 months or later, and one in 10 consumed french fries and/or sweetened beverages on any given day. More parents and caregivers can benefit from guidance about the introduction of developmentally appropriate, micronutrient-rich first solid foods such as iron-rich infant cereals, iron-fortified grain products, meats, soft fruits, and cooked vegetables and the importance of breastfeeding through the first year of life. A smaller proportion of parents and caregivers require guidance on delaying the introduction of juices until six months of age and cow's milk other than formula

  5. Face Preferences for Infant- and Adult-Directed Speakers in Infants of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers: Association with Infant Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter S; Asherin, Ryan M; Vogeli, Jo M; Fekri, Shiva M; Scheyer, Kathryn E; Everhart, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Face preferences for speakers of infant-directed and adult-directed speech (IDS and ADS) were investigated in 4- to 13.5-month-old infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers. Following 1-min of exposure to an ID or AD speaker (order counterbalanced), infants had an immediate paired-comparison test with a still, silent image of the familiarized versus a novel face. In the test phase, ID face preference ratios were significantly lower in infants of depressed than non-depressed mothers. Infants' ID face preference ratios, but not AD face preference ratios, correlated with their percentile scores on the cognitive ( Cog ) scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development (3 rd Edition; BSID III), assessed concurrently. Regression analyses revealed that infant ID face preferences significantly predicted infant Cog percentiles even after demographic risk factors and maternal depression had been controlled. Infants may use IDS to select social partners who are likely to support and facilitate cognitive development.

  6. Relations between maternal attachment representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Riikka; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Savonlahti, Elina; Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Piha, Jorma; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between maternal representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction in a group of preterm and full-term infants. The study groups consisted of 38 mothers and their preterm infants (quality of mother-infant interaction was studied using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) method at 6 and 12 months of the infant's corrected age. The results showed that maternal representations are related to the quality of mother-infant interaction in a parallel manner in preterm and full-term infants and their mothers. Furthermore, distorted representations were more strongly related to a higher number of areas of concern in mother-infant interaction than other representation classifications. Our results underline the importance of combined assessment of the subjective experiences of the mother and the quality of mother-infant interaction in clinical follow-up. This is the first study to describe the relation between maternal attachment representations and the quality of mother-infant interaction involving preterm infants. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants' Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajafari, Fariba; Field, Catherine J; Weinberg, Amy R; Letourneau, Nicole

    2018-03-29

    We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants' vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants' dietary data were obtained from APrON's dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU)/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants' median 25(OH)D was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR) 77.6-116.2), and 25% had 25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants' 25(OH)D increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OH)D, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.002, 0.13). These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding.

  8. Parenting of 7-month-old infants at familial risk for ADHD during infant's free play, with restrictions on interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Rivka; Amiel-Laviad, Riki; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of interaction of 34 mothers and fathers with their 7-month-old boys at familial risk for ADHD and 25 comparison families were studied during infant play with blocks. The parents were instructed to refrain from intervening as much as possible. Infants in the risk group did not differ from those in the comparison group in frequency of needing help or involving parents in play. Nonetheless, they received adequate responsivity from their mothers less often than infants in the comparison group. Mothers in the risk group were also more likely not to respond to these needs at all. Mothers in the comparison group were more physically intrusive. No group difference was found for maternal rebuilding of the infant's play. No group differences were found for any of father's behaviors. However, fathers in both groups rebuilt their infant's play more frequently than mothers, infants looked at them more often, and a larger number of infants involved the father in their play.

  9. Maternal executive function, infant feeding responsiveness and infant growth during the first 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, A J; Demerath, E W; Finsaas, M C; Moore, C J; Georgieff, M K; Carlson, S M

    2017-08-01

    There is limited research in young infants, particularly function (cognitive control over one's own behaviour), maternal feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. We used a checklist to assess cues mothers use to decide when to initiate and terminate infant feedings at 2 weeks and 3 months of age (N = 69). Maternal executive function was assessed using the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery subtests for executive function and infant body composition using air displacement plethysmography. Mothers with higher executive function reported relying on fewer non-satiety cues at 2 weeks of age (β = -0.29, p = 0.037) and on more infant hunger cues at 3 months of age (β = 0.31, p = 0.018) in their decisions on initiating and terminating feedings. Responsive feeding decisions, specifically the use of infant-based hunger cues at 3 months, in turn were associated with lower gains in weight-for-length (β = -0.30, p = 0.028) and percent body fat (β = -0.2, p = 0.091; non-covariate adjusted β = -0.27, p = 0.029). These findings show both an association between maternal executive function and responsive feeding decisions and an association between responsive feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. The causal nature and direction of these associations require further investigation. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Infants Prefer Female Body Phenotypes; Infant Girls Prefer They Have an Hourglass Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Hawkins, Laura B; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3-18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls' greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls' later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success (e

  11. Feeding infants and toddlers study: What foods are infants and toddlers eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Kay; Pac, Susan; Devaney, Barbara; Jankowski, Linda

    2004-01-01

    To describe the food consumption patterns of US infants and toddlers, 4 to 24 months of age. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers study based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4 to 24 months. The percentage of infants and toddlers consuming foods from specific food groups was estimated for six age groups, using a single 24-hour recall. Infants as young as 7 months of age showed food patterns that have been observed in older children and adults. From 18% to 33% of infants and toddlers between ages 7 and 24 months consumed no discrete servings of vegetables, and 23% to 33% consumed no fruits. French fries were one of the three most common vegetables consumed by infants 9 to 11 months of age. By 15 to 18 months, french fries were the most common vegetable. Almost half (46%) of 7- to 8-month-olds consumed some type of dessert, sweet, or sweetened beverage, and this percentage increased as age increased. By 19 to 24 months, 62% of toddlers consumed a baked dessert, 20% consumed candy, and 44% consumed a sweetened beverage. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, with emphasis on dark green, leafy, and deep yellow vegetables and colorful fruits. They should offer desserts, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks only occasionally, offering nutrient-dense, age-appropriate foods as alternatives (eg, fruit, cheese, yogurt, and cereals). Water, milk, and 100% fruit juices should be offered as alternative beverages. Because family food choices influence what foods are offered to children, family-based approaches to developing healthy eating habits may be helpful.

  12. Infant intersubjectivity: research, theory, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, C; Aitken, K J

    2001-01-01

    We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal state and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others. Mutual self-other-consciousness is found to play the lead role in developing a child's cooperative intelligence for cultural learning and language. A variety of preconceptions have animated rival research traditions investigating infant communication and cognition. We distinguish the concept of "intersubjectivity", and outline the history of its use in developmental research. The transforming body and brain of a human individual grows in active engagement with an environment of human factors--organic at first, then psychological or inter-mental. Adaptive, human-responsive processes are generated first by interneuronal activity within the developing brain as formation of the human embryo is regulated in a support-system of maternal tissues. Neural structures are further elaborated with the benefit of intra-uterine stimuli in the foetus, then supported in the rapidly growing forebrain and cerebellum of the young child by experience of the intuitive responses of parents and other human companions. We focus particularly on intrinsic patterns and processes in pre-natal and post-natal brain maturation that anticipate psychosocial support in infancy. The operation of an intrinsic motive formation (IMF) that developed in the core of the brain before birth is evident in the tightly integrated intermodal sensory-motor coordination of a newborn infant's orienting to stimuli and preferential learning of human signals, by the temporal coherence and intrinsic

  13. Measles Antibodies in Mother-Infant Dyads in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L; Wang, Xiexiu; Wagner, Abram L; Zhang, Ying; Carlson, Bradley F; Gillespie, Brenda W; Ding, Yaxing

    2017-11-27

    Many measles cases in Tianjin, China, occur in infants whose mothers were born after widespread vaccination programs. We assessed age-specific decreases in maternal measles antibodies in infants and examined maternal and infant characteristics in relation to infant antibody titers. Infant and mother dyads were enrolled from a sample of immunization clinics in all Tianjin districts. Participants' antibody titers were measured from dried blood spots. A multivariable log-linear model regressed infant antibody titers onto infant and mother characteristics. Among 551 infants aged ≤8 months, protective levels of measles antibodies were observed in infants whose mothers had measles titers ≥800 IU/mL (mean antibody titer, 542.5 IU/mL) or 400 to measles and an accordingly low efficiency of transplacental transmission to a fetus. Current vaccination programs, which target children aged 8 months through adolescence may be ineffective in controlling transmission of measles to infants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant–mother and infant–father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant–mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant–father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant–mother and infant–father attachment relationship. PMID:24103401

  15. Congenital anomalies in infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari Kermani, Ramin; Nedaeifard, Leila; Nateghi, Mohammad Reza; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Osia, Mohammad Ali; Jafarzadehpour, Ebrahim; Nouri, Soudabeh

    2012-04-01

    Many studies show that congenital defects in infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are more than infants of normal conception (NC). The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of congenital anomalies in ART infants from Royan Institute and to compare congenital anomalies between two ART techniques.  In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 400 ART infants from Royan Institute who resided in Tehran were selected by non-random, consecutive sampling. Infants were examined twice (until 9 months of age) by a pediatrician. Infants' congenital anomalies were described by each body system or organ and type of ART. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 and Fisher's exact test. The frequency of different organ involvement in the two examinations were: 40 (10%) skin, 25 (6.2%) urogenital system, 21 (5.2%) gastrointestinal tract, 13 (3.2%) visual, and 8 (2%) cardiovascular system. Major congenital defects in infants conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were hypospadiasis, inguinal hernia, patent ductus arteriosus plus ventricular septal defect (PDA + VSD), developmental dysplasia of the hip, lacrimal duct stenosis during the first year of life, hydronephrosis and urinary reflux over grade III, undescending testis, ureteropelvic junction stenosis, and torticoli. Two-thirds of ART infants had no defects. A total of 7% of IVF and ICSI infants had one of the major abovementioned congenital anomalies. This rate was higher than NC infants (2%-3%). There was no difference between the ICSI and IVF group.

  16. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestures predict vocabulary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2015-11-01

    Twenty-nine infants aged 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while interacting with toys for 18 minutes. Six experimental stimuli were presented to elicit infant communicative bids in two communicative intent contexts - proto-declarative and proto-imperative. Mothers' verbal responses to infants' gestural and non-gestural communicative bids were coded for object and action labels. Relations between maternal labeling responses and infants' vocabularies at 1;1 and 1;5 were examined. Mothers' labeling responses to infants' gestural communicative bids were concurrently and predictively related to infants' vocabularies, whereas responses to non-gestural communicative bids were not. Mothers' object labeling following gestures in the proto-declarative context mediated the association from infants' gesturing in the proto-declarative context to concurrent noun lexicons and was the strongest predictor of subsequent noun lexicons. Mothers' action labeling after infants' gestural bids in the proto-imperative context predicted infants' acquisition of action words at 1;5. Findings show that mothers' responsive labeling explain specific relations between infants' gestures and their vocabulary development.

  17. Infant Sleep After Immunization: Randomized Controlled Trial of Prophylactic Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Caryl L.; Lynch, Mary; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of acetaminophen and axillary temperature responses on infant sleep duration after immunization. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial to compare the sleep of 70 infants monitored by using ankle actigraphy for 24 hours before and after their first immunization series at ∼2 months of age. Mothers of infants in the control group received standard care instructions from their infants' health care provider, and mothers of infants in the intervention group were provided with predosed acetaminophen and instructed to administer a dose 30 minutes before the scheduled immunization and every 4 hours thereafter, for a total of 5 doses. Infant age and birth weight and immunization factors, such as acetaminophen use and timing of administration, were evaluated for changes in infant sleep times after immunization. RESULTS: Sleep duration in the first 24 hours after immunization was increased, particularly for infants who received their immunizations after 1:30 pm and for those who experienced elevated temperatures in response to the vaccines. Infants who received acetaminophen at or after immunization had smaller increases in sleep duration than did infants who did not. However, acetaminophen use was not a significant predictor of sleep duration when other factors were controlled. CONCLUSIONS: If further research confirms the relationship between time of day of vaccine administration, increased sleep duration after immunization, and antibody responses, then our findings suggest that afternoon immunizations should be recommended to facilitate increased sleep in the 24 hours after immunization, regardless of acetaminophen administration. PMID:22123869

  18. Parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Wen; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tung, Yi-Ching; Thomas, Karen A; Tsai, Shao-Yu

    2017-12-01

    To explore the perceptions and experiences of parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep and sleep-related concerns. Infant sleep is a frequent concern for parents. However, very little is known about the reasons parents seek, do not seek or delay seeking professional attention about their concerns related to infant sleep. A qualitative study design was used. Twenty audio-taped interviews with parents of healthy 12-month-old infants were conducted at a university-affiliated hospital or parents' homes depending on where parents felt more comfortable discussing their personal views and medical help-seeking experiences. Thematic content analysis was performed to determine specific patterns and similarities within and between interview data. Three main themes developed from the interviews were as follows: (i) uncertainty about infant sleep; (ii) I can handle infant sleep; and (iii) I am not satisfied with the professional services provided for infant sleep. Overall, parents knew little about or misunderstood infant sleep behaviours. Lack of proper information and knowledge about infant sleep influenced parents' motivation for professional help-seeking and help-receiving. Parents who have consulted a healthcare professional but received unsatisfactory responses, such as an ambivalent attitude or insufficient assessment, reported being less motivated or unwilling to seek medical help again. Our study demonstrates the complexity of parental professional help-seeking and receiving for infant sleep. Findings suggest that parents perceive a wide range of barriers that influence the likelihood that they will seek professional advice for infant sleep. Reducing knowledge barriers and providing adequate attention at all well-infant visits would facilitate parental use of healthcare services to manage problematic infant sleep behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differences in the stratum corneum of Indonesian infants and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Fujimura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Although understanding the stratum corneum (SC of infant skin is important to avoid skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, there has been no such investigation in Indonesian infants to date. Objective  To obtain a basic knowledge of SC characteristics in Indonesian infants in order to develop methods for infant-specific skin care and to prevent dermatitis and infection. Methods Seventy-two healthy, full term infants aged 1 to 24 months who were native Indonesians residing in Jakarta were enrolled in this study. Some of the mothers were also enrolled in the study as adults (n=30. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration of the SC (capacitance on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured after sufficient acclimation in an air-conditioned room, in both infants and mothers. Results The SC hydration was significantly higher in infants than adults at all sites measured, including the buttocks, which is a diaper area. Infant TEWL values were also significantly higher than in adults at all sites. Hydration of the SC and TEWL values showed no significant correlation with age of infant for any site. The SC hydration and TEWL values of Indonesian infants did not decrease to adult values within 24 months, which indicates that the SC characteristics in infants continue to develop after 24 months of age. Conclusion  Indonesian infants aged 0-24 months have significantly higher SC hydration and TEWL values than Indonesian mothers. However, infant age has no correlation to SC hydration or to TEWL values.

  20. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent-Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Sierra-García, Purificación; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant's gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent's gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more "active" than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving 'in-out' of 'Child Social Approach neutral - Sensitive Approach neutral' state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state 'Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral' distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers) based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26) of the father-infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26) of the mother-infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and quantifies the actual moment-to-moment flow

  1. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pyomyositis in an Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, ZA; Shehab, M

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world. It may have variable clinical presentations, especially in the pediatric age group. Presented here is the case of a 9-month old infant who was referred for infectious disease opinion when his thigh induration failed to improve after surgical drainage and a course of oral antibiotic therapy. Mycobacterial PCR on the operative sample fluid was found to be positive; and mycobacterial culture grew M. tuberculosis. He received 9 months of treatment with anti-TB medications, with excellent results and complete recovery. This is the first report of TB pyomyositis in an infant; and highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion for unusual organisms when conventional therapy fails to demonstrate expected results. PMID:23919207

  2. Perspectives on neonatal and infant tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMauro, Sara B; Wei, Julie L; Lin, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Neonates and infants may need a tracheostomy for many different reasons, ranging from airway obstruction to a requirement for long term mechanical ventilator support. Here, we present the pathophysiology of the many congenital and acquired conditions that might be managed with a tracheostomy. Decisions about tracheostomy demand consideration of not only the benefits, but also the potential side-effects, which may differ in the short and long term and may be attributable to underlying conditions as well as the tracheostomy. Evaluation of potential advantages of tracheostomy will influence decisions about optimal timing. In many cases, an infant may 'graduate' from dependence on a tracheostomy and resume a natural airway, although some will require reconstructive airway surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Role of rhythmicity in infant development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, A

    2015-09-01

    This article deals with rhythm in the experiences of infants, focusing in particular on the function of rhythmicity in the baby's sense of being and its continuity. Infants are inevitably subjected to experiences of discontinuity. These experiences are necessary to development, but they expose the child to chaotic experiences when a basic rhythmicity is not ensured. The rhythmicity of childcare experiences gives the illusion of permanence and enables anticipation. This nourishes the basic feeling of security and supports the development of thought. Interactive and intersubjective exchanges must be rhythmic and must be in keeping with the rhythm of the baby, who needs to withdraw regularly from the interaction to internalize the experience of the exchange. Without this retreat, the interaction is over-stimulating and prevents internalization. Object presence/ absence must also be rhythmic, to enable the infant to keep the object alive inside him/ herself. Observation of babies has demonstrated their ability to manage experiences of discontinuity: they are able to sustain a continuous link via their gaze, look for clues indicating the presence of a lost object, search for support in sensations, and fabricate rhythmicity to remain open to the self and the world. The author gives some examples of infant observations that provide evidence of these capacities. One observation shows how a baby defends itself against a discontinuity by actively maintaining a link via his/her gaze. Another example shows an infant holding on to "hard sensations" in order to stay away from "soft" ones, which represent the fragility of the separation experience. This example pertains to a seven-month-old's prelanguage and "prosodic tonicity". The author takes this opportunity to propose the notion of "psychic bisensuality" to describe these two sensation poles, which must be harmoniously articulated to guarantee an inner sense of security. Such repairs of discontinuity are only possible if the

  4. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights.

  5. Urinary tract infections in the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mehreen; Seed, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in an infant may be the first indication of an underlying renal disorder. Early recognition and initiation of adequate therapy for UTI is important to reduce the risk of long-term renal scarring. Ampicillin and gentamicin are traditionally the empiric treatment of choice; however, local antibiotic resistance patterns should be considered. Maternal antibiotics during pregnancy also increase the risk of resistant pathogens during neonatal UTI. Long-term management after the first UTI in infants remains controversial because of lack of specific studies in this age group and the risk-benefit issues for antibiotic prophylaxis between reduced recurrent disease and emergent antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Barlas, Nauman B; Al-Boukai, Amer A

    2010-01-01

    About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  7. Intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants: coagulation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Amir A; Kenet, Gili; Papadakis, Emmanuel; Brenner, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    It has long been considered that a severe coagulation deficiency in premature newborns could be a major contributing factor in the occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). High-grade IVH has also been shown to coincide with severe derangement of coagulation in extremely low birth weight infants. This review focuses on the relevance of the physiologically developing immature hemostatic system to IVH, and the potential benefit of agents affecting hemostasis for IVH therapy or prevention in preterm infants. The findings of small, open-label interventional studies on the effect of ethamsylate, vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, recombinant activated factor VII, and prothrombin complex concentrate on the premature coagulation system will be reviewed. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alorainy Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  9. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  10. Iron requirements of infants and toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group since their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's milk.......There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of iron deficiency. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy, European infants and toddlers of normal birth...... intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status and immigrant status.The aim of this position paper is to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight...

  11. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research......The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge...... and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding...

  12. Gastrointestinal ultrasound in neonates, infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Maria Luisa; Roque, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Today US plays an important and increasing role in the assessment of many, partially age-specific conditions in the GI tract in neonates, infants and children. Knowledge of the potential capabilities of US and its restrictions together with a skillful performance of GI US examination can provide essential anatomic and functional diagnostic information in many pediatric GI disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential of ultrasound (US) in the evaluation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in neonates, infants and children. Basic and potential applications of modern US tools in pediatric GI tract are addressed, the GI US examination technique is discussed – including some common and/or typical clinical applications of and indications for US

  13. Maternal prenatal cortisol and infant cognitive development: moderation by infant-mother attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2010-06-01

    Experimental animal studies suggest that early glucocorticoid exposure may have lasting effects on the neurodevelopment of the offspring; animal studies also suggest that this effect may be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. The relevance of these findings to humans is not known. We prospectively followed 125 mothers and their normally developing children from pregnancy through 17 months postnatal. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infants were assessed at an average age of 17 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and ratings of infant-mother attachment classification were made from the standard Ainsworth Strange Situation assessment. Prenatal cortisol exposure, indexed by amniotic fluid levels, negatively predicted cognitive ability in the infant, independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors. This association was moderated by child-mother attachment: in children with an insecure attachment, the correlation was [r(54) = -.47, p < .001]; in contrast, the association was nonexistent in children who had a secure attachment [r(70) = -.05, ns]. These findings mimic experimental animal findings and provide the first direct human evidence that increased cortisol in utero is associated with impaired cognitive development, and that its impact is dependent on the quality of the mother-infant relationship. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Bennett, Cathy; Midgley, Nick; Larkin, Soili K; Wei, Yinghui

    2015-01-08

    Parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP) is a dyadic intervention that works with parent and infant together, with the aim of improving the parent-infant relationship and promoting infant attachment and optimal infant development. PIP aims to achieve this by targeting the mother's view of her infant, which may be affected by her own experiences, and linking them to her current relationship to her child, in order to improve the parent-infant relationship directly. 1. To assess the effectiveness of PIP in improving parental and infant mental health and the parent-infant relationship.2. To identify the programme components that appear to be associated with more effective outcomes and factors that modify intervention effectiveness (e.g. programme duration, programme focus). We searched the following electronic databases on 13 January 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BIOSIS Citation Index, Science Citation Index, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, checked reference lists, and contacted study authors and other experts. Two review authors assessed study eligibility independently. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (quasi-RCT) that compared a PIP programme directed at parents with infants aged 24 months or less at study entry, with a control condition (i.e. waiting-list, no treatment or treatment-as-usual), and used at least one standardised measure of parental or infant functioning. We also included studies that only used a second treatment group. We adhered to the standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference (MD) in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. We presented standardised mean differences (SMDs) and

  15. Neurotoxic response of infant monkeys to methylmercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willes, R.F.; Truelove, J.F.; Nera, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Four infant monkeys were dosed orally with 500 ..mu..g Hg/kg body wt./day (as methylmercury (MeHg) chloride dissolved sodium carbonate) beginning at 1 day of age. Neurological and behavioral signs of MeHg toxicity and blood Hg levels were monitored weekly. At first sign of MeHg intoxication, dosing with MeHg was terminated and the infants were monitored to assess reversal of the signs of MeHg toxicity. The first signs of MeHg toxicity, exhibited as a loss in dexterity and locomotor ability, were observed after 28 to 29 days of treatment; the blood Hg levels were 8.0 to 9.4 ..mu..g Hg/g blood. Dosing was terminated at 28 to 29 days of treatment but the signs of MeHg toxicity continued to develop. The infants became ataxic, blind, comatose and were necropsied at 35 to 43 days after initiating treatment with MgHg. The mercury concentrations in tissues analyzed after necropsy were highest in liver followed by occipital cortex and renal cortex. The mean blood/brain ratio was 0.21 +- 0.4. Histopathologic lesions were marked in the cerebrum with less severe lesions in the cerebellar nuclei. The Purkinje and granular cells of the cerebellar vermis appeared histologically normal. Lesions were not observed in the peripheral nervous system. The signs of MeHg intoxication, the tissue distribution of MeHg and histopathologic lesions observed in the infant monkeys were similar to those reported for adult monkeys.

  16. Neurotoxic response of infant monkeys to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willes, R F; Truelove, J F; Nera, E A

    1978-02-01

    Four infant monkeys were dosed orally with 500 microgram Hg/kg body wt./day /as methylmercury (MeHg) chloride dissolved sodium carbonate) beginning at 1 day of age. Neurological and behavioral signs of MeHg toxicity and blood Hg levels were monitored weekly. At first sign of MeHg intoxication, dosing with MeHg was terminated and the infants were monitored to assess reversal of the signs of MeHg toxicity. The first signs of MeHg toxicity, exhibited as a loss in dexterity and locomotor ability, were observed after 28--29 days of treatment; the blood Hg levels were 8.0--9.4 microgram Hg/g blood. Dosing was terminated at 28--29 days of treatment but the signs of MeHg toxicity continued to develop. The infants became ataxic, blind, comatose and were necropsied at 35--43 days after initiating treatment with MgHg. The mercury concentrations in tissues analyzed after necropsy were highest in liver (55.8 +/- 3.2 microgram Hg/g) followed by occipital cortex (35.6 +/- 4.8 microgram Hg/g) renal cortex (32.8 +/- 1.6 microgram Hg/g). The frontal and temporal cortices had 27.0 +/- 3.4 and 29.6 +/- 4.9 microgram Hg/g respectively while the cerebellar Hg concentration averaged 13.0 +/- 1.5 microgram Hg/g. The mean blood/brain ratio was 0.21 +/- 0.4. Histopathologic lesions were marked in the cerebrum with less severe lesions in the cerebellar nuclei. The Purkinje and granular cells of the cerebellar vermis appeared histologically normal. Lesions were not observed in the peripheral nervous system. The signs of MeHg intoxication, the tissue distribution of MeHg and histopathologic lesions observed in the infant monkeys were similar to those reported for adult monkeys.

  17. Ectopic ureterocele in the male infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Loehr, G.; Ringertz, H.; Thomasson, B.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of a series of ectopic ureterocele present in 14 male infants. The malformation is found to be more complex than in the female. The ipsilateral renal function is severely impaired or abolished and obstruction to the bladder outflow common. Associated dilatation and elongation of the posterior urethra during micturition may result in a valvelike appearance. Eversion of the male ureterocele is common and possible mechanisms to account for this event are discussed. (Auth.)

  18. An umbilical polyp in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Pakzad, Betty

    2005-10-01

    The persistence at birth of the omphalomesenteric (vitelline) duct may result in life-threatening consequences. Early identification of this congenital anomaly is essential for prompt surgical treatment to eliminate the risk of prolapse and herniation. A neonatal umbilical polyp may indicate the presence of an omphalomesenteric duct remnant. We describe the diagnosis and surgical treatment of an infant with an umbilical polyp. We also present an overview of the diagnosis and treatment of vitelline duct remnants and their associated anomalies.

  19. Introduction of Solid Food to Young Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Alice A.; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M.; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants? initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4?35?months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-...

  20. [Aortopexy for tracheomalacia in infants and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinograd, I; Klin, B; Silbiger, A; Eshel, G

    2000-06-15

    During the past 12 years (1985-1998), 28 infants and children were operated on here for tracheomalacia. The diagnosis was made in all using rigid bronchoscopy. During the examination the infants breathed spontaneously, but the trachea collapsed on forced expiration. Indications for surgery were repeated cyanotic spells ("dying spells") in 22, recurrent pneumonia, and inability to extubate (in 8). In 11 there were more than 1 indications. Age at surgery was from 7 days to 3 years (average 11.7 months). All 28 children underwent bronchoscopy and guided aortopexy via a left-third intercostal approach. The ascending aorta and aortic arch (and in 6 the proximal innominate artery as well) were lifted anteriorly, using 3-5 non-absorbable sutures (5.0). The sutures were placed through the adventitia of the great vessels and then passed through the sternum. Respiratory distress was significantly improved in 21. Another 2 required external tracheal stenting with autologous rib grafts, and in 1 other an internal Palmaz stent was introduced for tracheal stability. In 4 aortopexy failed, 1 of whom had tracheobronchomalacia throughout, and another 3 had laryngomalacia which required tracheostomy to relieve the respiratory symptoms. Postoperative complications were minor: pericardial effusion in 1 and relaxation of the left diaphragm in another. 1 infant subsequently died, of unknown cause 10 days after operation, after having been extubated on the 1st postoperative day. On long-term follow-up (6 months to 12 years) 25 were found free of residual respiratory symptoms and 3 remained with a tracheostomy. Thus, infants and children with severe tracheomalacia associated with severe respiratory symptoms, can be relieved by bronchoscopic guided suspension of the aortic arch to the sternum.

  1. Origins of food reinforcement in infants12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Feda, Denise M; Eiden, Rina D; Epstein, Leonard H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapid weight gain in infancy is associated with a higher risk of obesity in children and adults. A high relative reinforcing value of food is cross-sectionally related to obesity; lean children find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese children. However, to our knowledge, there is no research on how and when food reinforcement develops. Objective: This study was designed to assess whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives could be tested in 9- to 18-mo-old infants and whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives is differentially related to infant weight status. Design: Reinforcing values were assessed by using absolute progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, with presentation of food and nonfood alternatives counterbalanced in 2 separate studies. Two nonfood reinforcers [Baby Einstein–Baby MacDonald shows (study 1, n = 27) or bubbles (study 2, n = 30)] were tested against the baby’s favorite food. Food reinforcing ratio (FRR) was quantified by measuring the reinforcing value of food (Food Pmax) in proportion to the total reinforcing value of food and a nonfood alternative (DVD Pmax or BUB Pmax). Results: Greater weight-for-length z score was associated with a greater FRR of a favorite food in study 1 (FRR-DVD) (r = 0.60, P positively associated with FRR-DVD (r = 0.57, P = 0.009) and FRR-BUB (r = 0.37, P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our newly developed paradigm, which tested 2 different nonfood alternatives, demonstrated that lean infants find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese infants. This observation suggests that strengthening the alternative reinforcers may have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This research was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02229552. PMID:25733636

  2. Screening for secondary hyperparathyroidism in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowa, Yuri; Kawai, Masahiko; Kanazawa, Hoshinori; Iwanaga, Kougoro; Matsukura, Takashi; Heike, Toshio

    2016-10-01

    The major cause of osteopathy of prematurity is dietary phosphate deficiency, but secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by calcium deficiency or vitamin D deficiency is also important. Because parathyroid hormone (PTH) mobilizes calcium and phosphate from the bone, hyperparathyroidism worsens osteopathy of prematurity. In order to identify useful markers to screen for and diagnose hyperparathyroidism in preterm infants, we measured serum and urinary biochemical markers. Several biomarkers, including serum intact PTH (iPTH), were measured in urine and serum samples obtained from 95 preterm infants, and the relationship between serum iPTH and the other parameters was analyzed. Mean gestation was 33.2 ± 2.9 weeks, and mean birthweight was 1705 ± 402 g. Samples were collected around postnatal day 17.3 ± 7.4. Fourteen infants (14.7%) had iPTH >65 pg/mL. Cut-offs for serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and percent tubular reabsorption rate of phosphate (%TRP) were fixed at 1300 IU/L and 93%, respectively using receiver operating characteristic curves with iPTH cut-off of 65 pg/mL. Serum ALP was proven to be a good marker: ALP had a sensitivity of 78.6% and a specificity of 86.4%, while %TRP itself was not: %TRP had a sensitivity of 64.3% and a specificity of 58.0%. Combined measurement of serum ALP (>1300 IU/L) and %TRP (≤93%), however, had a specificity of 93.8% for detecting elevated iPTH. Measurement of serum ALP (>1300 IU/L) is considered as an effective screening method to detect hyperparathyroidism. In addition, combined assessment of ALP(>1300 IU/L) and %TRP(≤93%) is a good indicator of elevated iPTH in preterm infants. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Maternal Responses and Development of Communication Skills in Extremely Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana Marie; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined maternal responses to infants' spontaneous communicative behaviors in a sample of 20 extremely-low-gestational-age (ELGA) infants and 20 full-term (FT) infants during 30 minutes of play interaction when infants were 12 months of age. Relations between maternal responses and infants' communication skills at 12 and 24…

  4. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  5. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  6. Immunophenotypic investigation of infant acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – characterization of immunophenotype in infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML. 90 patients (40 boys and 50 girls with acute leukemia (AL aged up to 365 days were included in the current study. AML was found more frequently in infants than in older children (26.67 % and 10.83 % respectively; p = 0.0002. Significant immunophenotypic differences were observed in patients with and without MLL gene rearrangements. Number of cases in those tumor cells expressed CD99, CD61, CD133, CD15, NG2 varied between MLL-positive and MLL-negative groups. CD61-negativity, high CD99, CD15, CD133 and NG2 expression were immunophenotypic signatures of MLLrearranged infant AML, although CD99 and NG2 had the highest diagnostic efficacy. Thus infants’ AML immunophenotype differs significantly due to the presence of MLL gene rearrangements. Diagnostic immunophenotyping of infants’ AML allows predicting presence of MLL rearrangements by either CD99 or NG2 expression.

  7. Immunophenotypic investigation of infant acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study – characterization of immunophenotype in infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML. 90 patients (40 boys and 50 girls with acute leukemia (AL aged up to 365 days were included in the current study. AML was found more frequently in infants than in older children (26.67 % and 10.83 % respectively; p = 0.0002. Significant immunophenotypic differences were observed in patients with and without MLL gene rearrangements. Number of cases in those tumor cells expressed CD99, CD61, CD133, CD15, NG2 varied between MLL-positive and MLL-negative groups. CD61-negativity, high CD99, CD15, CD133 and NG2 expression were immunophenotypic signatures of MLLrearranged infant AML, although CD99 and NG2 had the highest diagnostic efficacy. Thus infants’ AML immunophenotype differs significantly due to the presence of MLL gene rearrangements. Diagnostic immunophenotyping of infants’ AML allows predicting presence of MLL rearrangements by either CD99 or NG2 expression.

  8. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  9. Otolaryngological aspects of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Cinamon, Udi; Castellanos, Paul F; Cohen, Marta C

    2012-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of an apparently otherwise healthy infant, typically during sleep, and with no obvious case after a thorough post-mortem and scene death examination. To address the problem from the otolaryngologist's perspective, describe relevant pathologies, discuss controversies and suggest preventive measures in high-risk populations. A MEDLINE search and hand search were conducted to identify reports published between 1969 and 2011 in the English language on the pathophysiology of SIDS related to the head and neck organs. Search terms included SIDS (MeSH term), SIDS and pathophysiology (text words), and SIDS and autopsy (text words). A growing number of reports suggested head and neck organs involvement in SIDS autopsies. Laryngeal, oropharyngeal, maxillofacial, otologic, cervical vascular abnormalities and infectious etiologies, were recognized and discussed. Otolaryngologists should be aware of relevant pathologies, as some are treatable, if identified early enough in infancy. A proactive risk-management approach is warranted in infants presenting with certain abnormalities reviewed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulmonary function testing in children and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, B; Weiler, N; Frerichs, I; Falkenberg, C

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing is performed in children and infants with the aim of documenting lung development with age and making diagnoses of lung diseases. In children and infants with an established lung disease, pulmonary function is tested to assess the disease progression and the efficacy of therapy. It is difficult to carry out the measurements in this age group without disturbances, so obtaining results of good quality and reproducibility is challenging. Young children are often uncooperative during the examinations. This is partly related to their young age but also due to the long testing duration and the unpopular equipment. We address a variety of examination techniques for lung function assessment in children and infants in this review. We describe the measuring principles, examination procedures, clinical findings and their interpretation, as well as advantages and limitations of these methods. The comparability between devices and centres as well as the availability of reference values are still considered a challenge in many of these techniques. In recent years, new technologies have emerged allowing the assessment of lung function not only on the global level but also on the regional level. This opens new possibilities for detecting regional lung function heterogeneity that might lead to a better understanding of respiratory pathophysiology in children. (topical review)

  11. Multi-modal pain measurements in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, A; Fabrizi, L; Boyd, S; Slater, R

    2012-04-15

    A non-invasive integrated method was developed to measure neural and behavioural responses to peripheral sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants. The introduction of a novel event-detection interface allows synchronous recording of: (i) muscle and central nervous system activity with surface electromyography (EMG), scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); (ii) behavioural responses with video-recording and (iii) autonomic responses (heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and cardiovascular activity) with electrocardiography (ECG) and pulse oximetry. The system can detect noxious heel lance and touch stimuli with precision (33 μs and 624 μs respectively) and accuracy (523 μs and 256 μs) and has 100% sensitivity and specificity for both types of stimulation. Its ability to detect response latencies accurately was demonstrated by a shift in latency of the vertex potential of 20.7 ± 15.7 ms (n=6 infants), following touch of the heel and of the shoulder, reflecting the distance between the two sites. This integrated system has provided reliable and reproducible measurements of responses to sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants on more than 100 test occasions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  13. Immobility reaction at birth in newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Pierre Victor; Francotte, Jacques; Fabbricatore, Maria; Frischen, Caroline; Duchateau, Delphine; Perin, Marie; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Lahaye, Willy

    2014-08-01

    To describe an immobility reaction (IR) that was not previously reported at or immediately after birth in human newborns. We analyzed 31 videos of normal term vaginal deliveries recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant. We searched for perinatal factors associated with newborn's IR. IR at birth was observed in 8 of the 31 newborns. The main features of their behavior were immobilization, frozen face, shallow breathing and bradycardia. One of the 8 newborns had sudden collapse 2h after birth. We found significant relationships between maternal prenatal stress (PS) and IR (p=.037), and a close to significant one between infants' lividness at Time 0 and IR (p=.053). The first breath of the 31 newborns occurred before and was not associated with the first cry (psyndrome. This first report of an IR reaction at birth in human infants could open up new paths for improving early neonatal care. Further research is needed for maternal PS, stress hormones, umbilical cord blood pH measurements in IR newborns. The challenge of education and support for parents of IR newborns is outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nebraska family practitioners' infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, K G; Walburn, J

    1987-01-01

    The authors conducted an anonymous survey of 220 Nebraska family and general practitioners' attitudes and practice recommendations for infant feeding. Most practitioners' attitudes reflect published American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines regarding using commercial formula for bottle-feeding babies rather than evaporated milk-based formulations. Ninety-two per cent agreed with recommendations relating to the need for fluoride supplementation when fluoride was unavailable in the water supply and 93% agreed that whole cow's milk was inappropriate in the infant's first year. Another 68% felt similarly about evaporated milk formulas. However, 32% of board certified and 53% of nonboard certified physicians continue to believe that early solid foods will reduce night waking. In 80% of the cases, practice recommendations disagreed with AAP guidelines by prescribing vitamin supplements for bottle-feeding babies receiving proprietary infant formulas. Additionally, two-thirds of the practitioners recommended unnecessary water complements and 62% suggested formula supplementation for breastfeeding babies. Solid foods and whole cow's milk for both breastfeeding and bottle-feeding babies often were recommended earlier than the second half of the first year.

  15. Infants generalize representations of statistically segmented words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eGraf Estes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across-word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation.

  16. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  17. Effects of Maternal Anxiety Disorders on Infant Self-Comforting Behaviors: The Role of Maternal Bonding, Infant Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mitho; Tronick, Ed; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Verschoor, Stephan; Träuble, Birgit

    We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. Maternal bonding was assessed by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Conditional process analyses revealed that lower maternal bonding partially mediated between maternal anxiety disorders and increased self-comforting behaviors but only in older female infants (over 5.5 months of age). However, considering maternal anxiety disorders without the influence of bonding, older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) showed decreased rates of self-comforting behaviors, while younger male infants (under 3 months of age) showed increased rates in the case of maternal anxiety disorder. The results suggest that older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) are more sensitive to lower maternal bonding in the context of maternal anxiety disorders. Furthermore, results suggest a different use of self-directed regulation strategies for male and female infants of mothers with anxiety disorders and low bonding, depending on infant age. The results are discussed in the light of gender-specific developmental trajectories. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, C; Pretorius, K; Mohamed, A; Laughton, B; Madhi, S; Cotton, M F; Steyn, B; Seedat, S

    2010-05-01

    Maternal postpartum depression poses significant risks for mother-child interaction and long-term infant outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status has also been implicated in the development of postpartum depression, but the association between maternal depression and infant social behavior in the context of HIV infection has not been fully investigated. First, we examined the relationship between maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal at 10-12 months of age in HIV-infected mothers and infants. Second, we ascertained whether infant social withdrawal could be significantly predicted by maternal postpartum depression. The sample consisted of 83 HIV-infected mother-infant dyads. Mothers were assessed for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and infant social withdrawal behavior was rated using the Modified Alarm Distress Baby Scale (m-ADBB). 42.2% of the mothers scored above the cut-off point for depression on the EPDS, and a third of infants (31%) were socially withdrawn. Notably, maternal depression did not predict infant social withdrawal as measured by the m-ADBB. Infant social withdrawal was also not significantly associated with failure to thrive or gender. These preliminary findings need further investigation with respect to the impact on long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.

  20. Comparison of Growth of Healthy Term Infants Fed Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein- and Amino Acid-Based Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene W. Borschel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this narrative review was to assess published growth data for healthy, term, infants consuming extensively hydrolyzed protein-based (EHF, or amino acid-based formulas (AAF. These data may be of use to clinicians managing infants with medical conditions consuming these products. A search was conducted using key terms: amino acid-based, hydrolysate, hydrolyzed, hydrolysed, infant formula, infant formulae or formulas, baby formula, or formulae or formulas, infant, infants, infantile, and growth. Seven controlled, randomized, prospective growth trials of healthy term infants fed EHFs or AAFs at similar time points during the first four months of age met these and other criteria, including that the trial was published in a peer-reviewed journal, subjects were enrolled by ≤14 days of age and were exclusively formula-fed at entry and throughout the duration of the trial, and infants were assessed at regular intervals with weight measures available ideally at 14 days, one, two, three, and four months of age. Results suggested that healthy infants receiving commonly available EHFs and AAFs do not appear to experience accelerated growth as reported for infants fed many standard formulas. Differences in growth patterns were observed with some formulas supporting normative growth patterns during the first four months but others appearing to support markedly lower growth patterns. These observations should be confirmed in well-designed prospective randomized trials. Until that time, it is recommended that EHFs and AAFs be chosen carefully with individual patient needs considered.

  1. Parenting Stress in Parents of Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Parents of Healthy Infants: The First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfenshtein, Nadya; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Deatrick, Janet A; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While we know that the parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies, experience increased parenting stress, the stress levels throughout infancy have yet to be studied. Stress experienced by parents beyond the normative stress of parenting can interfere with parenting processes, and bear adverse family outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted to describe and compare parenting stress levels during infancy between parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants. The Parenting Stress Index-Long Form was distributed to parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants (N = 129). T-tests were used to compare stress between groups at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Parents of infants with complex CHD had higher parenting stress than parents of healthy infants on multiple subscales on the Child and Parent Domains, at 3 months of age. The stress remained higher on the demandingness subscale throughout infancy. Parents of CHD infants also demonstrated significantly higher stress scores on the life stress subscale at 12 months of age. Findings highlight stressful periods related to parenting infants with CHD, which may increase existing psycho-social risk for parents of infants with CHD. Early family intervention may promote parental adaptation to the illness, and help establishing healthy parenting practices.

  2. How do parents' depression and anxiety, and infants' negative temperament relate to parent-infant face-to-face interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Colonnesi, Cristina; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the associations of mothers' and fathers' lifetime depression and anxiety symptoms, and of infants' negative temperament with parents' and infants' gaze, facial expressions of emotion, and synchrony. We observed infants' (age between 3.5 and 5.5 months, N = 101) and parents' gaze and facial expressions during 4-min naturalistic face-to-face interactions. Parents' lifetime symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed with clinical interviews, and infants' negative temperament was measured with standardized observations. Parents with more depressive symptoms and their infants expressed less positive and more neutral affect. Parents' lifetime anxiety symptoms were not significantly related to parents' expressions of affect, while they were linked to longer durations of gaze to parent, and to more positive and negative affect in infants. Parents' lifetime depression or anxiety was not related to synchrony. Infants' temperament did not predict infants' or parents' interactive behavior. The study reveals that more depression symptoms in parents are linked to more neutral affect from parents and from infants during face-to-face interactions, while parents' anxiety symptoms are related to more attention to parent and less neutral affect from infants (but not from parents).

  3. Infants use temporal regularities to chunk objects in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Melissa M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants, like adults, can maintain only a few items in working memory, but can overcome this limit by creating more efficient representations, or "chunks." Previous research shows that infants can form chunks using shared features or spatial proximity between objects. Here we asked whether infants also can create chunked representations using regularities that unfold over time. Thirteen-month old infants first were familiarized with four objects of different shapes and colors, presented in successive pairs. For some infants, the identities of objects in each pair varied randomly across familiarization (Experiment 1). For others, the objects within a pair always co-occurred, either in consistent relative spatial positions (Experiment 2a) or varying spatial positions (Experiment 2b). Following familiarization, infants saw all four objects hidden behind a screen and then saw the screen lifted to reveal either four objects or only three. Infants in Experiment 1, who had been familiarized with random object pairings, failed to look longer at the unexpected 3-object outcome; they showed the same inability to concurrently represent four objects as in other studies of infant working memory. In contrast, infants in Experiments 2a and 2b, who had been familiarized with regularly co-occurring pairs, looked longer at the unexpected outcome. These infants apparently used the co-occurrence between individual objects during familiarization to form chunked representations that were later deployed to track the objects as they were hidden at test. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the familiarization affected infants' ability to remember the occluded objects rather than merely establishing longer-term memory for object pairs. Following familiarization to consistent pairs, infants who were not shown a hiding event (but merely saw the same test outcomes as in Experiments 2a and b) showed no preference for arrays of three versus four objects. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, we asked

  4. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  5. Toxicite mortelle directe ou indirecte au methanol: a propos de deux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    autopsies médico-légales et des investigations toxicologiques. Résultats: Chez ces individus, le diagnostic retenu au terme des autopsies et des examens complémentaires est celui d'une d'intoxication mortelle au méthanol par ingestion de méthanol ...

  6. effet de la toxicite du fer sur l'activite photosynthetique du riz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    est utilisée dans les réactions photochimiques de la photosynthèse, une deuxième dissipée .... 4,7 ; C organique, 1,87 % ; P total, 226 mg kg-1 ; K, 325 mg kg-1 ; Ca, 68 mg kg-1 ; Fe, 3 mg kg-1) et à Korhogo (pHH2O, 5,9 ; pHKCl, 4,1. ; C organique, 1,02 % ; P total, 192 mg kg-1 ;. K, 310 mg kg-1 ; Ca, 64 mg kg-1 ; Fe, 7 mg ...

  7. Sortir de « l'impasse » de la toxicité | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 janv. 2011 ... Une recherche financée par le CRDI fait diminuer l'utilisation de pesticides très toxiques qui ont permis d'augmenter le rendement des cultures de pommes de ... L'utilisation d'un colorant phosphorescent a permis de montrer aux agriculteurs que des résidus de pesticides pouvaient s'accumuler dans les ...

  8. Valeurs nutritives et toxicité du foenicululm vulgare miller | Lazouni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sterols and steroïdes, tanins, coumarins, alcaloïdes, anthracenosides, anthocyanosides and emodols with little or no presence, have only little influence on the digestibility qualities of the plant. The output of 2,7 % in essential oil from the flowering plant is interesting and is in conformity with those obtained by the literature.

  9. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity; Biocinetique et toxicite de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A

    2000-07-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation.

  10. Online recruitment and testing of infants with Mechanical Turk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Michelle; Cabral, Laura; Patel, Ronak; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-04-01

    Testing infants in the laboratory is expensive in time and money; consequently, many studies are underpowered, reducing their reproducibility. We investigated whether the online platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), could be used as a resource to more easily recruit and measure the behavior of infant populations. Using a looking time paradigm, with users' webcams we recorded how long infants aged 5 to 8months attended while viewing children's television programs. We found that infants (N=57) were more reliably engaged by some movies than by others and that the most engaging movies could maintain attention for approximately 70% of a 10- to 13-min period. We then identified the cinematic features within the movies. Faces, singing-and-rhyming, and camera zooms were found to increase infant attention. Together, we established that MTurk can be used as a rapid tool for effectively recruiting and testing infants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Infants' symptoms of illness assessed by parents: Impact and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Siersma, Volkert; Reventlow, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Some parents with a sick infant contact a doctor, while others do not. The reasons underlying such parental decisions have not been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to explore how the actual symptoms in the infant were associated with parent-rated illness......, illness severity, and the probability of the parents contacting a doctor. Design. A retrospective questionnaire and a prospective diary study covering 14 months of the participating infants' lives. Setting and subjects. The 194 participating infants were followed for three months prospectively from...... with at least one symptom; 38% of the infants were reported to have had five or more symptoms for more than five days. Fever, earache, and vomiting were the symptoms most likely to cause parents to rate their infant as ill. Earache was the symptom that triggered doctor contact most immediately. The parent...

  12. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment at one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard

    Findings on effects of Postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been contradictory. This may be due to not considering maternal interpersonal difficulties, for example co-morbid personality disorder (PD). We examined the role of PD in the association between postpartum...... depression and infant-mother attachment. Mothers were recruited either during pregnancy (non-clinical group, n=56) or eight weeks postpartum (PPD-group, n=29). Infants of mothers with PPD only or in combination with PD were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were...... assessed with questionnaires and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with PPD were more likely to have co-morbid PD compared with non-clinical mothers. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only...

  13. Marital Conflict Predicts Mother-to-Infant Adrenocortical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn

    2017-12-21

    Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge. Mothers' positive affect during the discussion buffered, and intrusion during the free-play potentiated, mother-to-infant adrenocortical transmission. These findings advance our understanding of the social and contextual regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Tolerance of geometric distortions in infant's face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study is to reveal the effect of global linear transformations (shearing, horizontal stretching, and vertical stretching) on the recognition of familiar faces (e.g., a mother's face) in 6- to 7-month-old infants. In this experiment, we applied the global linear transformations to both the infants' own mother's face and to a stranger's face, and we tested infants' preference between these faces. We found that only 7-month-old infants maintained preference for their own mother's face during the presentation of vertical stretching, while the preference for the mother's face disappeared during the presentation of shearing or horizontal stretching. These findings suggest that 7-month-old infants might not recognize faces based on calculating the absolute distance between facial features, and that the vertical dimension of facial features might be more related to infants' face recognition rather than the horizontal dimension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Responsive versus scheduled feeding in preterm infants (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2015-01-01

    Scheduled feeding of prescribed enteral volumes remains standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their feeding and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance parent experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud Objectives: To assess the effect of feeding pr...

  16. Lutein and preterm infants with decreased concentrations of brain carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Kuchan, Matthew J; Sen, Sarbattama; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2014-11-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that may influence visual and cognitive development. The objective of this study was to provide the first data on distribution of carotenoids in the infant brain and compare concentrations in preterm and term infants. Voluntarily donated brain tissues from 30 infants who died during the first 1.5 years of life were obtained from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Brain and Tissue Bank. Tissues (hippocampus and prefrontal, frontal, auditory, and occipital cortices) were extracted using standard lipid extraction procedures and analyzed using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were the major carotenoids found in the infant brain tissues. Lutein was the predominant carotenoid accounting for 59% of total carotenoids. Preterm infants (n = 8) had significantly lower concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin in their brain compared with term infants (n = 22) despite similarity in postmenstrual age. Among formula-fed infants, preterm infants (n = 3) had lower concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin compared with term infants (n = 5). Brain lutein concentrations were not different between breast milk-fed (n = 3) and formula-fed (n = 5) term decedents. In contrast, term decedents with measurable brain cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid that is inherently low in formula, had higher brain lutein, suggesting that the type of feeding is an important determinant of brain lutein concentrations. These data reveal preferential accumulation and maintenance of lutein in the infant brain despite underrepresentation in the typical infant diet. Further investigation on the impact of lutein on neural development in preterm infants is warranted.

  17. Neonatal lupus erythematosus in a Nigerian infant | Ezeudu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of neonatal lupus erythematosus in a six-week-old Nigerian infant seen at NAUTH, Nnewi. The objective of this report is to highlight the existence of this very rare condition in infants. A 6-week-old female infant presented at the paediatric unit of our facility with a history of a pre-auricular skin eruptions of five ...

  18. Household food security and infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Asg; Das, Sumon K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months' follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions. Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh. Mother-child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months' follow-up. Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5-6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers' diet was more diverse than infants'. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet. HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.

  19. The development of perceptual grouping in infants with Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E. K.; Brown, J. H.; Cole, V. L.; Houston-Price, C.; Karmiloff-Smith, A.

    2007-01-01

    Perceptual grouping by luminance similarity and by proximity was investigated in infants with Williams syndrome (WS) aged between 6 and 36 months (visit 1, N=29). WS infants who were still under 36 months old, 8 months later, repeated the testing procedure (visit 2, N=15). Performance was compared to typically developing (TD) infants aged from 2 to 20 months (N=63). Consistent with the literature, TD participants showed grouping by luminance at the youngest testing age, 2 months. Grouping by ...

  20. The role of older siblings in infant motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Hayley; Hill, EL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings, but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling, or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings, along with parent reports and standardised assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings’ motor skills and the sibling rela...

  1. Timely sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Seehagen, Sabine; Konrad, Carolin; Herbert, Jane S.; Schneider, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The potential benefits of infant sleep for memory processing are largely unexplored. Here we show evidence that having an extended nap (≥30 min) within 4 h of learning helps 6- and 12-month-old infants to retain their memories for new behaviors across a 4- and 24-h delay. These results suggest that infants rely on frequent naps for the formation of long-term memories.

  2. Soy-based Infant Formula: A Safe Choice for Babies?

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Tien-l Karleen

    2002-01-01

    Making up about 25% of the current infant-formula market in the U.S., soy-based infant formulas are lifesaving alternatives for infants who cannot rely on traditional sources of milk for complete nutrition. While many studies have supported the effectiveness of soy-formula consumption for normal growth and development, the controversy over the potentially harmful effects of early exposure to isoflavones (phytoestrogens found in soy formulas) remains to be resolved. The plasma concentration of...

  3. Current insights in brain protection for the sick newborn infant

    OpenAIRE

    KOOI E.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modern antenatal and postnatal strategies in brain protection for both preterm and term born infants. It is known, that the two most common causes of neonatal brain injury are prematurity and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the term born infant. Approximately one in nine babies is born before term. Nowadays these preterm born infants more often survive the neonatal period due to developments in treatment options in the last decades. They are how...

  4. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal pa...

  5. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles Cerezo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent’s gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more “active” than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving ‘in–out’ of ‘Child Social Approach neutral – Sensitive Approach neutral’ state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state ‘Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral’ distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26 of the father–infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26 of the mother–infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and

  6. Oral microflora in infants delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron

    2011-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Background. Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. Aim....... To investigate and compare the oral microbial profile between infants delivered vaginally and by C-section. Design. This is a cross-sectional case-control study. Eighty-four infants delivered either vaginally (n = 42) or by C-section (n = 42) were randomly selected from the 2009 birth cohort at the County...

  7. Neutropenia in infants with hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Esther; Johnston, Donna L

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the incidence, outcome and risk factors of neutropenia in infants with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). A retrospective chart review was performed on infants with HDN. Of 69 evaluable infants, 45% developed neutropenia. Only one infectious complication was recorded. In most instances the neutropenia resolved spontaneously, but in seven infants it persisted for a median of 397 days. Males were at higher risk for developing neutropenia, but severity of HDN, antibody specificity, or therapy were not significant risk factors. Neutropenia is a common feature of HDN, regardless of severity of disease, treatment received, or antibody specificity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Risk profiles of infants ≥32 weeks' gestational age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference with the nutritional requirements of infants may cause negative ... central nervous system impairments, neurodevelopmental delay and syndromes affecting craniofacial ..... Dysphagia: Clinical Management in Adults and. Children.

  9. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2016-04-01

    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Computed tomography of the head of new born premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tsutomu; Mizobe, Naoki; Takehiro, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation of the extracerebral space on CT resulted as follows: The existence of the etracerebral space in the parieto-occipital region (PO-ECS) was physiological findings characteristic to premature infants. Its incidence was higher and the width of the space was greater, in those of premature infants. Generally PO-ECS disappeared around 40 weeks of gestation, while it tended to remaine beyond 40 weeks in premature infants born after less than 30 weeks of pregnancy. The appearance and disappearance of the PO-ECS may present some approach to learning the development of the brain in premature infants. (Ueda, J.)

  11. Convergence and Accommodation Development Is Preprogrammed in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether vergence and accommodation development in preterm infants is preprogrammed or is driven by experience. Thirty-two healthy infants, born at mean 34 weeks gestation (range, 31.2-36 weeks), were compared with 45 healthy full-term infants (mean 40.0 weeks) over a 6-month period, starting at 4 to 6 weeks postnatally. Simultaneous accommodation and convergence to a detailed target were measured using a Plusoptix PowerRefII infrared photorefractor as a target moved between 0.33 and 2 m. Stimulus/response gains and responses at 0.33 and 2 m were compared by both corrected (gestational) age and chronological (postnatal) age. When compared by their corrected age, preterm and full-term infants showed few significant differences in vergence and accommodation responses after 6 to 7 weeks of age. However, when compared by chronological age, preterm infants' responses were more variable, with significantly reduced vergence gains, reduced vergence response at 0.33 m, reduced accommodation gain, and increased accommodation at 2 m compared to full-term infants between 8 and 13 weeks after birth. When matched by corrected age, vergence and accommodation in preterm infants show few differences from full-term infants' responses. Maturation appears preprogrammed and is not advanced by visual experience. Longer periods of immature visual responses might leave preterm infants more at risk of development of oculomotor deficits such as strabismus.

  12. Assisting doctors on assessing movements in infants using motion tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we consider the possibilities of having an automatic computer-based system for tracking the movements of infants. An existing motion tracking system is used to process recorded video sequences containing both color and spatial information of the infant's body pose and movements....... The system uses these sequences of data to estimate the underlying skeleton of the infant and parametrize the movements. Post-processing of these parameters can yield objective measurements of an infant's movement patterns. This could e.g. be quantification of (a)symmetry and recognition of certain gestures/actions...

  13. Refining Stimulus Parameters in Assessing Infant Speech Perception Using Visual Reinforcement Infant Speech Discrimination: Sensation Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhler, Kristin M; Baca, Rosalinda; Dudas, Emily; Fredrickson, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception measures have long been considered an integral piece of the audiological assessment battery. Currently, a prelinguistic, standardized measure of speech perception is missing in the clinical assessment battery for infants and young toddlers. Such a measure would allow systematic assessment of speech perception abilities of infants as well as the potential to investigate the impact early identification of hearing loss and early fitting of amplification have on the auditory pathways. To investigate the impact of sensation level (SL) on the ability of infants with normal hearing (NH) to discriminate /a-i/ and /ba-da/ and to determine if performance on the two contrasts are significantly different in predicting the discrimination criterion. The design was based on a survival analysis model for event occurrence and a repeated measures logistic model for binary outcomes. The outcome for survival analysis was the minimum SL for criterion and the outcome for the logistic regression model was the presence/absence of achieving the criterion. Criterion achievement was designated when an infant's proportion correct score was >0.75 on the discrimination performance task. Twenty-two infants with NH sensitivity participated in this study. There were 9 males and 13 females, aged 6-14 mo. Testing took place over two to three sessions. The first session consisted of a hearing test, threshold assessment of the two speech sounds (/a/ and /i/), and if time and attention allowed, visual reinforcement infant speech discrimination (VRISD). The second session consisted of VRISD assessment for the two test contrasts (/a-i/ and /ba-da/). The presentation level started at 50 dBA. If the infant was unable to successfully achieve criterion (>0.75) at 50 dBA, the presentation level was increased to 70 dBA followed by 60 dBA. Data examination included an event analysis, which provided the probability of criterion distribution across SL. The second stage of the analysis was a

  14. Response to pediatric physical therapy in infants with positional preference and skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Pelsma, M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; IJzerman, M.J.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy

  15. Effects of Birth Order and Spacing on Mother-Infant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Kreitzberg, Valerie S.

    1979-01-01

    Examines early differences in mother-infant interaction as a function of infant birth order and birth spacing. Mother and infant behaviors were observed and recorded in the home for a two-hour period. (SS)

  16. Using grounded theory methodology to conceptualize the mother-infant communication dynamic: potential application to compliance with infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jennifer; Bower, Katherine M; Spence, Marsha; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2015-10-01

    Excessive, rapid weight gain in early infancy has been linked to risk of later overweight and obesity. Inappropriate infant feeding practices associated with this rapid weight gain are currently of great interest. Understanding the origin of these practices may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Low-income populations in the Southeastern United States are at increased risk for development of inappropriate infant feeding practices, secondary to the relatively low rates of breastfeeding reported from this region. The objective was to use grounded theory methodology (GTM) to explore interactions between mothers and infants that may influence development of feeding practices, and to do so among low-income, primiparous, Southeastern United States mothers. Analysis of 15 in-depth phone interviews resulted in development of a theoretical model in which Mother-Infant Communication Dynamic emerged as the central concept. The central concept suggests a communication pattern developed over the first year of life, based on a positive feedback loop, which is harmonious and results in the maternal perception of mother and infant now speaking the same language. Importantly, though harmonious, this dynamic may result from inaccurate maternal interpretation of infant cues and behaviours, subsequently leading to inappropriate infant feeding practices. Future research should test this theoretical model using direct observation of mother-infant communication, to increase the understanding of maternal interpretation of infant cues. Subsequently, interventions targeting accurate maternal interpretation of and response to infant cues, and impact on rate of infant weight gain could be tested. If effective, health care providers could potentially use these concepts to attenuate excess rapid infant weight gain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Neurodevelopmental outcome of HIV-exposed but uninfected infants in the Mother and Infants Health Study, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Priscilla E; Slogrove, Amy L; Laughton, Barbara; Bettinger, Julie A; Saunders, Henriëtte H; Molteno, Christopher D; Kruger, Mariana

    2018-01-01

    To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants in a peri-urban South African population. HEU infants living in Africa face unique biological and environmental risks, but uncertainty remains regarding their neurodevelopmental outcome. This is partly due to lack of well-matched HUU comparison groups needed to adjust for confounding factors. This was a prospective cohort study of infants enrolled at birth from a low-risk midwife obstetric facility. At 12 months of age, HEU and HUU infant growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes were compared. Growth was evaluated as WHO weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length and head-circumference-for-age Z-scores. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated using the Bayley scales of Infant Development III (BSID) and Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB). Fifty-eight HEU and 38 HUU infants were evaluated at 11-14 months of age. Performance on the BSID did not differ in any of the domains between HEU and HUU infants. The cognitive, language and motor scores were within the average range (US standardised norms). Seven (12%) HEU and 1 (2.6%) HUU infant showed social withdrawal on the ADBB (P = 0.10), while 15 (26%) HEU and 4 (11%) HUU infants showed decreased vocalisation (P = 0.06). There were no growth differences. Three HEU and one HUU infant had minor neurological signs, while eight HEU and two HUU infants had macrocephaly. Although findings on the early neurodevelopmental outcome of HEU infants are reassuring, minor differences in vocalisation and on neurological examination indicate a need for reassessment at a later age. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The relationship between planned and reported home infant sleep locations among mothers of late preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra

    2015-07-01

    To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a US hospital following birth and by phone at 1 month postpartum during 2010-2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women's preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep.

  19. Radiotherapy for breast cancer and pacemaker; Radiotherapie pour un cancer du sein et stimulateur cardiaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, J.; Campana, F.; Bollet, M.A.; Dendale, R.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Marchand, V.; Mazal, A.; Fourquet, A.; Kirova, Y.M. [Oncologie-radiotherapie, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Kirov, K.M.; Esteve, M. [Departement d' anesthesie-reanimation-douleur, institut Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    Purpose. - Patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers occasionally require radiotherapy. Therapeutic Irradiation may cause pacemakers to malfunction due to the effects of ionizing radiation or electromagnetic interference. We studied the breast cancer patients who needed breast and/or chest wall and lymph node irradiation to assess the feasibility and tolerance in this population of patients. Patients and methods. - From November 2008 to December 2009, more than 900 patients received radiotherapy for their breast cancer in our department using megavoltage linear accelerator (X 4-6 MV and electrons). Among them, seven patients were with permanent pacemaker. All patients have been treated to the breast and chest wall and/or lymph nodes. Total dose to breast and/or chest wall was 50 Gy/25 fractions and 46 Gy/23 fractions to lymph nodes. Patients who underwent conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation were boosted when indicated to tumour bed with 16 Gy/8 fractions. All patients were monitored everyday in presence of radiation oncologist to follow the function of their pacemaker. All pacemakers were controlled before and after radiotherapy by the patients' cardiologist. Results. - Seven patients were referred in our department for postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy. Among them, only one patient was declined for radiotherapy and underwent mastectomy without radiotherapy. In four cases the pacemaker was repositioned before the beginning of radiotherapy. Six patients, aged between 48 and 84 years underwent irradiation for their breast cancer. Four patients were treated with conserving surgery followed by breast radiotherapy and two with mastectomy followed by chest wall and internal mammary chain, supra- and infra-clavicular lymph node irradiation. The dose to the pacemaker generator was kept below 2 Gy. There was no pacemaker dysfunction observed during the radiotherapy. Conclusion. - The multidisciplinary work with position change of the pacemaker before radiotherapy and everyday monitoring permitted the safe treatment of our patients. Updated guidelines are definitely needed with more details about acceptable doses at the different parts of the pacemaker. (authors)

  20. Evaluation des complications cardiaques chez les hémodialysés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: L'évaluation cardiovasculaire est essentielle en hémodialyse périodique car les affections cardiovasculaires sont la première cause de mortalité chez les hémodialysés chroniques. Nous avons conduit cette étude afin de déterminer la prévalence et le type des différentes complications cardiovasculaires et ...

  1. Traitement medicamenteux de l'insuffisance cardiaque de l'adulte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiomyopathies (85.7%), valvular heart disease (68%) and arterial hypertension (59.6) were the most frequent causes. ACE inhibitors, diuretics, antialdosterone and cardiac glycoside were respectively prescribed in 61.5%, 97.4%, 9.6% and 51.9%. Beta-blockers were not introduced in the management of in-patients.

  2. Le syndrome de sevrage nicotinique après chirurgie cardiaque: à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'agitation post-opératoire constitue une pathologie extrêmement fréquente. Les étiologies à évoquer en réanimation sont nombreuses. Le syndrome de sevrage à la nicotine est une cause possible mais rarement évoquée. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient tabagique qui a été admis en unité de soins intensifs pour un ...

  3. Cardiac angioscintigraphy in patients with arrhytmias. l'angioscintigraphie cardiaque en rythmologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itti, R.; Bontemps, L. (Hopital Louis Pradel, 69 - Lyon (FR)); Philippe, L.; Casset-Senon, D.; Cosnay, P.; Fauchier, J.P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Trousseau, 37 - Tours (FR))

    1990-01-01

    The time course of ventricular activation can be characterized by the Fourier analysis of a dynamic series of cardiac images. Bi-ventricular activation mapping and quantitative phase histogram analysis may be useful for evaluation of patients with arrhythmias. Three clinical problems can benefit from the method: localization of the site of pre-excitation in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrom, assessment of an ectopic activation focus responsible for premature contraction in patients with ventricular tachycardia and diagnosis of an underlying organic disease when arrhytmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is suspected.

  4. Infant temperament and parental stress in 3-month-old infants after surgery for complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torowicz, Deborah; Irving, Sharon Y; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Sumpter, Danica F; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and compare differences in temperament and maternal stress between infants with complex congenital heart disease and healthy controls at 3 months of age. Study sample was drawn from an existing longitudinal study examining growth in infants with congenital heart disease when compared with healthy controls. Infant temperament and parental stress were measured in 129 mother-infant dyads. Inclusion criteria for infants with congenital heart disease were > or = 36-week postmenstrual age, > or = 2500 g at birth, surgery in first 6 weeks of life, and no major congenital anomalies or genetic syndromes. The Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire and Parent Stress Index were the assessment tools used. Infants with single ventricular (SV) physiology were more negative in mood (F = 7.14, p parenting an irritable infant with SV physiology put these mothers at risk for high levels of stress. Results suggest the need for predischarge anticipatory guidance for parents to better understand and respond to the behavioral style of their infants, in particular, infants with SV physiology.

  5. Comparison of Congenital Abnormalities of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques versus Infants with Natural Conception in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangniya, Mansoureh; Dortaj Rabori, Eshagh; Mozafari Kermani, Ramin; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Bahrampour, Abbas; Bagheri, Pezhman; A L Lancaster, Paul; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad; Gourabi, Hamid; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan

    2013-10-01

    In many countries, 1 to 3% of newborn infants are conceived by assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Despite the success of ART, there is concern about the risk of congenital malformations among these infants. We report our experience to determine whether use of ART is associated with an increase in major congenital malformations or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCM) was performed in 978 births from January 2008 to December 2010. The data for this analysis were derived from a Tehran's ART linked data file by simple sampling method. In our study, the risk of congenital malformations was compared in 326 ART infants and 652 naturally conceived (NC) infants. We also performed multiple logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the independent association of ART on each outcome. We found 56 infants with major congenital malformations, these included 29 NC infants (4.4%) and 27 ART infants (8.3%). In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant 1.94-fold increased risk of MCM.After adjustment for maternal age, infant's sex stillbirth, abortion and type of delivery, we found a relatively small difference in risk (OR=2.04). In this study the majority (94.3%) of all infants were normal but 5.7% of infants had at least one MCM. The prevalence rate for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was 6.5% for the In vitro fertilisation (IVF) group was 15.9% or 2.73-fold higher than ICSI group (P=0.018). Also we ignore the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformations in ART infants. Other studies have shown a slightly increased risk of major congenital malformations in pregnancies resulting from ART. Likewise, this study reports a greater risk of MCMs in ART infants than in naturally conceived infants. We also found evidence of a difference in risk of MCMs between IVF and ICSI. Musculoskeletal and urogenital

  6. Associations of Maternal and Infant Testosterone and Cortisol Levels With Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Infant Socioemotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations of testosterone and cortisol levels with maternal depressive symptoms and infant socioemotional (SE) problems that are influenced by infant gender. A total of 62 mothers and their very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary medical center in the southeast United States. Data were collected at three time points (before 40 weeks’ postmenstrual age [PMA] and at 3 months and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity). Measures included infant medical record review, maternal interview, biochemical assays of salivary hormone levels in mother-VLBWinfant pairs, and standard questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations with separate analyses for boys and girls showed that maternal testosterone level was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of boys, whereas infant testosterone level was negatively associated with maternal report of infant SE problems in girls after controlling for characteristics of mothers and infants and number of days post birth of saliva collection. Not surprisingly, the SE problems were positively associated with a number of medical complications. Mothers with more depressive symptoms reported that their infants had more SE problems. Mothers with higher testosterone levels reported that girls, but not boys, had fewer SE problems. In summary, high levels of testosterone could have a protective role for maternal depressive symptoms and infant SE problems. Future research need to be directed toward clinical application of these preliminary results. PMID:25954021

  7. Linking infant-directed speech and face preferences to language outcomes in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership. Thirty-six infants were tested at ages 6, 8, 12, and 18 months. Infants heard 2 ID and 2 adult-directed (AD) speech passages paired with either a checkerboard or a face. The authors assessed expressive language at 12 and 18 months and general functioning at 12 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (Mullen, 1995). Both infant groups preferred ID to AD speech and preferred faces to checkerboards. SIBS-TD demonstrated higher expressive language at 18 months than did SIBS-A, a finding that correlated with preferences for ID speech at 12 months. Although both groups looked longer to face stimuli than to the checkerboard, the magnitude of the preference was smaller in SIBS-A and predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months in this group. Infants' preference for faces contributed to risk-group membership in a logistic regression analysis. Infants at heightened risk of ASD differ from typically developing infants in their preferences for ID speech and faces, which may underlie deficits in later language development and social communication.

  8. Infant Physical Attractiveness, Affect, Temperament, and Gender in Relation to Tester Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Andrea D.

    1996-01-01

    Easily observable infant characteristics have been shown to influence others; perceptions of infant competence. This study examined the relation between infant characteristics and a tester's willingness to repeat opportunities for the infant to pass items during administration of a cognitive test. Results showed that infant physical attractiveness was related to lower elicited infant performance (the ratio of items initially failed). Positive affect was related to higher test scores. Because ...

  9. Promoting mother-infant interaction and infant mental health in low-income Korean families: attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Breitmayer, Bonnie; Kim, Mi Ja; Yang, Soo

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach (ACBA) to enhance mother-infant interaction and infant mental health. This quasi-experimental study used a pre-posttest control group design. Participants were 40 low-income, mother-infant (infant ages 12-36 months) dyads, 20 dyads per group. The ACBA group received 10 weekly 90-min sessions. Dependent variables were changes in mother-infant interaction and infant mental health. Additionally, we explored changes in mothers' attachment security. The groups differed significantly in changes in mother-infant interaction, infant mental health problems, and mothers' attachment security. ACBA may enhance mother-infant interaction and infants' mental health. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Single and multiple food allergies in infants with proctocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, B T; Barıs, Z; Ozcay, F; Yilmaz Ozbek, O

    Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis is a frequent cause of rectal bleeding in infants. Characteristics of infants with multiple food allergies have not been defined. This study aimed to identify characteristics of infants with proctocolitis and compare infants with single and multiple food allergies. A total of 132 infants with proctocolitis were evaluated retrospectively. All of the infants were diagnosed by a paediatric allergist and/or a paediatric gastroenterologist according to guidelines. Clinical features of the infants, as well as results of a complete blood count, skin prick test, specific immunoglobulin E, and stool examinations or colonoscopy were recorded. Cow's milk (97.7%) was the most common allergen, followed by egg (22%). Forty-five (34.1%) infants had allergies to more than one food. Infants with multiple food allergies had a higher eosinophil count (613±631.2 vs. 375±291.9) and a higher frequency of positive specific IgE and/or positive skin prick test results than that of patients with a single food allergy. Most of the patients whose symptoms persisted after two years of age had multiple food allergies. There is no difference in clinical presentations between infants with single and multiple food allergies. However, infants with multiple food allergies have a high blood total eosinophil count and are more likely to have a positive skin prick test and/or positive specific IgE results. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  12. Household chaos and family sleep during infants' first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Corey J; Crosby, Brian; Anders, Thomas F; Teti, Douglas M

    2018-05-21

    Household chaos has been linked with dysregulated family and individual processes. The present study investigated linkages between household chaos and infant and parent sleep, a self-regulated process impacted by individual, social, and environmental factors. Studies of relations between household chaos and child sleep have focused on older children and teenagers, with little attention given to infants or parent sleep. This study examines these relationships using objective measures of household chaos and sleep while controlling for, respectively, maternal emotional availability at bedtime and martial adjustment, in infant and parent sleep. Multilevel modeling examined mean and variability of sleep duration and fragmentation for infants, mothers, and fathers when infants were 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (N = 167). Results indicated infants in higher chaos homes experienced delays in sleep consolidation patterns, with longer and more variable sleep duration, and greater fragmentation. Parent sleep was also associated with household chaos such that in higher chaos homes, mothers and fathers experienced greater variability in sleep duration, which paralleled infant findings. In lower chaos homes, parents' sleep fragmentation mirrored infants' decreasingly fragmented sleep across the first year and remained lower at all timepoints compared to parents and infants in high chaos homes. Collectively, these findings indicate that after controlling for maternal emotional availability and marital adjustment (respectively) household chaos has a dysregulatory impact on infant and parent sleep. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for chaos-induced poor sleep to dysregulate daytime functioning and, in turn, place parent-infant relationships at risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Postdischarge growth assessment in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Sik; Han, Jungho; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Soon Min; Eun, Ho Seon; Park, Min-Soo; Park, Kook-In; Namgung, Ran

    2017-03-01

    The goal of nutritional support for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from birth to term is to match the in utero growth rates; however, this is rarely achieved. We evaluated postdischarge growth patterns and growth failure in 81 Korean VLBW infants through a retrospective study. Weight and height were measured and calculated based on age percentile distribution every 3 months until age 24 months. Growth failure was defined as weight and height below the 10th percentile at 24 months. For the subgroup analysis, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants were evaluated. The growth patterns based on the Korean, World Health Organization (WHO), or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standard were serially compared over time. At postconception age (PCA) 40 weeks, 47 (58%) and 45 infants (55%) showed growth failure in terms of weight and height, respectively. At PCA 24 months, 20 infants (24%) showed growth failure for weight and 14 (18%) for height. Growth failure rates were higher for the SGA infants than for the appropriate-weight-for-gestational age infants at PCA 24 months ( P =0.045 for weight and P =0.038 for height). Growth failure rates were higher for the ELBW infants than for the non-ELBW infants at PCA 24 months ( P <0.001 for weight and P =0.003 for height). Significant differences were found among the WHO, CDC, and Korean standards ( P <0.001). Advancements in neonatal care have improved the catch-up growth of VLBW infants, but this is insufficient. Careful observation and aggressive interventions, especially in SGA and ELBW infants, are needed.

  14. Speaker gaze increases information coupling between infant and adult brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Victoria; Byrne, Elizabeth; Clackson, Kaili; Georgieva, Stanimira; Lam, Sarah; Wass, Sam

    2017-12-12

    When infants and adults communicate, they exchange social signals of availability and communicative intention such as eye gaze. Previous research indicates that when communication is successful, close temporal dependencies arise between adult speakers' and listeners' neural activity. However, it is not known whether similar neural contingencies exist within adult-infant dyads. Here, we used dual-electroencephalography to assess whether direct gaze increases neural coupling between adults and infants during screen-based and live interactions. In experiment 1 ( n = 17), infants viewed videos of an adult who was singing nursery rhymes with ( i ) direct gaze (looking forward), ( ii ) indirect gaze (head and eyes averted by 20°), or ( iii ) direct-oblique gaze (head averted but eyes orientated forward). In experiment 2 ( n = 19), infants viewed the same adult in a live context, singing with direct or indirect gaze. Gaze-related changes in adult-infant neural network connectivity were measured using partial directed coherence. Across both experiments, the adult had a significant (Granger) causal influence on infants' neural activity, which was stronger during direct and direct-oblique gaze relative to indirect gaze. During live interactions, infants also influenced the adult more during direct than indirect gaze. Further, infants vocalized more frequently during live direct gaze, and individual infants who vocalized longer also elicited stronger synchronization from the adult. These results demonstrate that direct gaze strengthens bidirectional adult-infant neural connectivity during communication. Thus, ostensive social signals could act to bring brains into mutual temporal alignment, creating a joint-networked state that is structured to facilitate information transfer during early communication and learning. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Corticosteroids for treating hypotension in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hafis; Sinha, Ian P; Subhedar, Nimish V

    2011-12-07

    Systemic hypotension is a relatively common complication of preterm birth and is associated with periventricular haemorrhage, periventricular white matter injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Corticosteroid treatment has been used as an alternative or an adjunct to conventional treatment with volume expansion and vasopressor/inotropic therapy. To determine the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroids used either as primary treatment of hypotension or for the treatment of refractory hypotension in preterm infants. Randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2011), MEDLINE (1996 to Jan 2011), EMBASE (1974 to Jan 2011), CINAHL (1981 to 2011), reference lists of published papers and abstracts from the Pediatric Academic Societies and the European Society for Pediatric Research meetings published in Pediatric Research (1995 to 2011). We included all randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of corticosteroid therapy in the treatment of hypotension in preterm infants (babies with hypotension resistant to inotropes/pressors and volume therapy. We included studies comparing oral/intravenous corticosteroids with placebo, other drugs used for providing cardiovascular support or no therapy in this review. Methodological quality of eligible studies was assessed according to the methods used for minimising selection bias, performance bias, attrition bias and detection bias. Studies that evaluated corticosteroids (1) as primary treatment for hypotension or (2) for refractory hypotension unresponsive to prior use of inotropes/pressors and volume therapy, were analysed using separate comparisons. Data were analysed using the standard methods of the Neonatal Review Group using Rev Man 5.1.2. Treatment effect was analysed using relative risk, risk reduction, number needed to treat for categorical outcomes and

  16. Early infant diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV- exposed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence suggests that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among infants exposed perinatally to HIV has beneficial effects on their health and survival, and may even induce remission. This has led to the roll-out of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and early treatment. Also, there is talk of using ART as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission. EID involves carrying out diagnostic tests before initiating ART. In India, current programme design of centralised diagnosis has been resulting in poor access to diagnosis and treatment. To save the lives of HIV-infected infants, it is important to prevent delay. Another issue to be kept in mind is that the results of HIV tests may turn negative after the initiation of ART. This could be due to viral remission induced by ART or false positive initial results. Differentiating between the two is difficult. To deal with such cases, we need to develop a clinical algorithm and tools for capacity-building in counselling. The use of ART as PEP is expected to encounter further challenges. Between ART as PEP and EID, the later has advantages from an ethical perspective. There is a need to address the ethical issues within the EID programme by strengthening the current mechanisms for protecting the rights of HIV-exposed infants.

  17. The determination of infant feeding attitudes among Turkish mothers using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Sumeyra; Yuvaci, Hilal Uslu; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Cinar, Nursan; Altinkaynak, Sevin

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale is a valid and reliable scale for Turkish mothers, and to assess maternal attitudes toward various aspects of infant feeding. This methodological, analytical study was conducted at the obstetrics and gynaecology department of Sakarya Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya, Turkey, from June to August 2015, and comprised mothers of newborn babies. Data was collected using the Turkish version of Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. There were 391 participants in the study. Five items of the original Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale were excluded due to the low correlation with the scale integrity (Cronbach's alpha=0.67). The total mean score of the mothers was 48.11±6.57. A statistically significant difference was found between the educational status, having social security, what the mothers having other children fed these children in the first 6 months and family types (p=0.05 each). Significant difference was also found between the mothers only breastfeeding and the mothers feeding with mother's milk and formula (p=0.008). The scale was found to be culturally acceptable, reliable and valid scale for Turkish mothers.

  18. Influence of Father-Infant Relationship on Infant Development: A Father-Involvement Intervention in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A.; Rempel, John K.; Khuc, Toan Nang; Vui, Le Thi

    2017-01-01

    We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect…

  19. Baby beautiful: adult attributions of infant competence as a function of infant attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, C W; Langlois, J H

    1984-04-01

    To determine at what age children first elicit differential expectations from adults as a function of their appearance, a sample of black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American adults rated photographs of a sample of black, Caucasian, and Mexican-American infants at 3 time periods in the first year of life. These adults first rated the infants on physical attractiveness and then rated the infants on 12 bipolar adjectives. The adjectives were reduced to 4 dimensions of infant behavior by factor analysis. A strong beauty-is-good stereotype was associated with 3 of the dimensions. On the measures of smart - likable baby, good baby, and causes parents problems, there was a beauty-is-good bias that prevailed across ethnic groups. In contrast, no such bias was found on the measure of active baby. The activity index was expected to reflect positive characteristics, but it appears to have implied overactivity and irritability. Strong and consistent expectations for behavior of attractive and unattractive individuals thus appear to be elicited soon after birth in Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations.

  20. Sixteen-Month-Old Infants' Segment Words from Infant- and Adult-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Pätzold, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    One of the first challenges facing the young language learner is the task of segmenting words from a natural language speech stream, without prior knowledge of how these words sound. Studies with younger children find that children find it easier to segment words from fluent speech when the words are presented in infant-directed speech, i.e., the…