WorldWideScience

Sample records for infants toxicite cardiaque

  1. Comment j'explore... une insuffisance cardiaque chronique

    OpenAIRE

    Ancion, Arnaud; Nellessen, Eric; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Pierard, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Une insuffisance cardiaque est définie par des critères précis associant signes cliniques et anomalies cardiaques. La recherche de signes et de symptômes doit être associée à la réalisation systématique d’un électrocardiogramme, d’une radiographie thoracique et d’un échocardiogramme afin de ne pas retarder le diagnostic et d’orienter le patient vers une mise au point adaptée. De nombreux tests complémentaires existent (cathétérisme, imagerie isotopique,…). Le but est de pouvoir asseoir précis...

  2. Toxicite des Elements Metalliques Dissous pour les Larves d'Organismes Marins: Donnees Bibliographiques.

    OpenAIRE

    Deslous-paoli, Jean-marc

    1981-01-01

    Une synthèse bibliographique sur la toxicité des éléments métalliques dissous pour des larves d'organismes marins, et plus particulièrement pour des larves de bivalves d'intérêt commercial, a été réalisée pour dix métaux. Par ordre de toxicité, ce sont les sels organiques d'étain, le mercure, l'argent, le cuivre, le zinc, le nickel, le plomb, le cadmium, le chrome et le manganèse. D'autre part, des problèmes de synergie entre métaux, température et salinité ont été abordés, ainsi que l'action...

  3. Anesthésie d’un greffé cardiaque en chirurgie non cardiaque: à propos d’un cas clinique et revue de la littérature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassirou, Oumarou Mahamane Mamane; Jaafari, Abdelhamid; Chlouchi, Abdellatif; Bensghir, Mustapha; Haimeur, Charki

    2016-01-01

    Le nombre et la durée de survie des patients transplantés cardiaque sont en augmentation. Une partie de ces patients se présentent régulièrement pour une chirurgie générale en dehors de la transplantation cardiaque. L’anesthésie chez ces patients peut être difficile en raison des particularités physiologiques du cœur dénervé et de la gestion du traitement immunosuppresseur avec le risque de rejet et d’infection. Nous discutons la prise en charge anesthésique à travers un cas d’un patient âgé de 60 ans transplanté cardiaque devant subir une chirurgie de cure d’éventration abdominale et une revue de la littérature. PMID:28154639

  4. Pseudotumeur cardiaque révélant une maladie de Behçet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nya, Fouad; Abdou, Abdessamad; Bamous, Mehdi; Moutakiallah, Younes; Atmani, Noureddine; Seghrouchni, Aniss; Houssa, Mahdi Ait; Boulahya, Abdellatif

    2017-01-01

    La thrombose intracardiaque est une complication rare de la maladie de Behçet (MB), qui peut se présenter comme une tumeur intracardiaque. Sa découverte précède, dans la moitié des cas, le diagnostic de MB. La mortalité élevée peut être en rapport avec des complications post-chirurgicales et/ou une atteinte associée des artères pulmonaires. Nous rapportons l’observation d’un jeune patient de 29 ans, aux antécédents d’aphtose bipolaire, qui a bénéficie d’une intervention chirurgicale après la découverte d’une tumeur de l’atrium et du ventricule droits. Il s’agissait d’un thrombus à l’examen anatomopathologique et dans les suites opératoires nous avons diagnostiqué une MB. L’évolution a été favorable sous traitement médical associant une corticothérapie, de la colchicine et des antivitamines K (AVK). La découverte d’une masse intracardiaque chez un sujet jeune doit faire évoquer le diagnostic de thrombus cardiaque et de maladie de Behçet, même en l’absence de facteur ethnique ou géographique prédisposant. PMID:28533874

  5. Développement d'un système magnétique d'assistance à la coaptation valvulaire cardiaque: étude de faisabilité

    OpenAIRE

    Laali, Mojgan

    2011-01-01

    Les valvulopathies cardiaques sont des maladies cardiaques fréquentes. Certaines se traduisent par un manque de coaptation des valves, on désigne ce type de pathologie sous le terme d’insuffisance. Le traitement standard de ces valvulopathies consiste à remplacer les valves malades par des valves prothétiques. L'absence de substitut valvulaire idéal et les inconvénients inhérents au matériel prothétique et à la nécessité d’un traitement anticoagulant, incitent à favoriser, chaque fois que cel...

  6. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  7. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  8. Relations entre les teneurs en nickel, manganèses et cobalt de quelques espèces des maquis miniers et les risques de toxicité en ces éléments du sol

    OpenAIRE

    Rigault, Frédéric; Jaffré, Tanguy; DAGOSTINI, G

    1995-01-01

    L'étude porte sur l'analyse des variations de teneurs en nickel, manganèse et cobalt dans les tissus foliaires de 12 espèces croissant naturellement sur 5 catégories de sols issus de roches ultramafiques. La variation des teneurs en ces 3 éléments au sein d'une même espèce sur différents substrats traduit la différence de concentrations de ces éléments sous forme assimilable dans le sol. Elle rend compte par là même des risques de toxicité plus ou moins importants pour les plantes. Ces risque...

  9. Embryo toxicitic effects of Ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrallah Zadeh B

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we tried to know something more about the embryotoxicity effects of the doses of 50, 200, 400 mg/kg/day of ranitidine of (H2 antihistaminic agent by intraperitoneal administration on mice. The studies were performed on albino mice kept under specific conditions and a constant dark-light cycle at 24+1C and 55+5% relative humidity. Generally, the animals were acclimatized for four weeks before mating. Two female mice at 12-14 weeks of age were placed overnight with a male of proven fertility. The day on which a vaginal plug was found, was taken as day one of pregnancy. Also the vaginal smear was prepared for further proof. Treatment of pregnant females was started from day 7 and continued up to the 15th day of gestation and then on day 18 they were necropsied for routine teratological observations. The live fetuses were weighed and inspected for gross external abnormalities under a dissecting microscope. Resorption plus dead fetuses less than 6mm of length were designated early death and dead fetuses of more than 6mm of length were consequently called late death. The statistical study was done by student t-test. One-third of the fetuses were fixed in bouin's fluid to detect visceral malformations by the rasor- section technique. There was no significant difference in the frequency of late death between the control groups and the groups given ranitidine. Differences were observed in the number of implantation sites except for 400 mg/kg/day. Data pooled from all experimental groups clearly show that pig tail, deformed cranium, low body weight and skeleton, unshaped external ear and jaw and polydactyly are the most common external abnormalities. Results of this study show the hazards o the ranitidine used during early pregnancy.

  10. [Infant botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  11. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  12. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  13. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  14. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  15. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only ... Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  16. Infant Curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication is one in a series that reviews tips parents can use to improve the relationships with their children and the learning that happens within the family. This publication deals in particular with infant development.

  17. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  18. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  19. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  20. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  1. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  2. Recherche de la toxicité des alcools gras supérieurs sur la truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo irideus. Étude particulière des effets de l'hexadécanol et de l'octadécanol sur la fonction respiratoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORIN J.

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une étude classique de toxicité, les effets de l'utilisation, en milieu aquatique, des alcools gras supérieurs (hexadécanol et octadécanol ont été étudiés sélectivement sur la fonction respiratoire de la truite arc-en-ciel selon deux techniques. 1. Dans les conditions du confinement aquatique, seules des concentrations massives (1000 ppm d'octadécanol provoquent en aigu un abaissement significatif du point d'oxygéno-dépendance aussi bien durant la phase d'exposition qu'après deux heures de récupération en eau pure. Par ailleurs, la consommation d'oxygène est augmentée seulement pendant la phase de récupération en eau pure et ceci 2 heures après une exposition à des concentrations de 10, 100 et 1000 ppm d'alcools gras. 2. Dans les conditions du semi-confinement aquatique, les alcools gras supérieurs ne semblent pas affecter la valeur globale du métabolisme de repos du poisson pour des concentrations de 2 à 3 ppm d'alcools gras.

  3. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding are good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not need to ... holding, rocking, or cuddling. The infant's growth or development does not appear normal. Your infant seems to ...

  4. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  5. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  6. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  7. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  8. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip problems later in life? ResourcesScreening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ... 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...

  9. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  10. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  11. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  12. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  13. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  15. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  16. Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

  17. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  18. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  19. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for it until their first birthdays. Spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, found in dirt and dust, can contaminate ... from the illness. Prevention Like many germs, the Clostridium botulinum spores that cause botulism in infants are everywhere ...

  20. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  1. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  2. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  3. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas. These formulas are made with cow's milk protein that has been changed to be more like ... be helpful for infants who have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or wheezing ...

  4. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  5. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  6. Reflux in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 14 months. What causes reflux and GERD in infants? There is a muscle (the lower esophageal ... contents don't flow back into the esophagus. In babies who have reflux, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  7. CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti S. Christian (M.P.T Cardiopulmonary Conditions

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the normal lung, secretions are removed by Mucociliary activity, normal breathing cycles, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce the ability to clear secretions, and may increase exacerbations and infections. Many chest physiotherapy techniques like postural drainage, percussion and vibration are used since many years. These techniques are derived from adult studies but these techniques are quite stressful for the infants as the infant respiratory system is different from the adult respiratory system. Advance chest physiotherapy techniques were developed specifically for infants; in accordance with their physiological characteristics. So this review is to introduce some new chest physiotherapy helpful for newborn infants.

  8. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  9. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  10. Recurrent Wheezing in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Manon; De Blic, Jacques; Laforest, Laurent; Laigle, Valérie; Chanut-Vogel, Céline; Lamezec, Liliane; Brouard, Jacques; Fauroux, Brigitte; de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ginoux, Marine; Van Ganse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent wheezing (RW) has a significant impact on infants, caregivers, and society, but morbidity and related medical resource utilization (MRU) have not been thoroughly explored. The burden of RW needs to be documented with population-based data. The objective was to assess the characteristics, medical management, and MRU of RW infants identified from national claims data. Infants aged from 6 to 24 months, receiving ≥2 dispensations of respiratory drugs within 3 months, and presenting a marker of poor control (index date), were selected. During the 6 months after index date, MRU was described in the cohort and among 3 subgroups with more severe RW, defined as ≥4 dispensations of respiratory drugs, ≥3 dispensations of oral corticosteroids (OCS), or ≥1 hospitalization for respiratory symptoms. A total of 115,489 infants had RW, corresponding to 8.2% of subjects in this age group. During follow-up, 68.7% of infants received inhaled corticosteroids, but only 1.8 U (unit) were dispensed over 6 months, suggesting discontinuous use. Control was mostly inadequate: 61.7% of subjects received OCS, 80.2% antibiotics, and 71.2% short-acting beta-agonists, and medical/paramedical visits were numerous, particularly for physiotherapy. Severe RW concerned 39.0% of the cohort; 32.8% and 11.7% of infants had repeated use of respiratory drugs and OCS, respectively, and 5.5% were hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. In this real-life nation-wide study, RW was common and infants had poor control and high MRU. Interventions are needed to support adequate use of controller therapy, and to improve medical care. PMID:27082618

  11. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  12. Infants' Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Zarin koob

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a study performed following the study between the years 1980 to 1982 to investigate risk factors and diagnostic and rehabilitative patterns in a group of newborns suffered hearing loss in a city centre. The current findings which have been attained from 1983 to 1988 manifested that just one third of the deaf newborns can be tracked by means of common auditory evaluation tests in the Neonatal Intense Care Unit (NICU. Although these newborns have been followed sooner than the infants in the Well Baby Nursery (WBN. The age for enrolling in the Parent-Infant Program for both groups is approximately 20 month. During these 8 years it has been detected that the common age for taking part in the rehabilitative programs for newborns is 1 year or more greater than that recommended by Joint Committee on infant hearing

  13. Infant death scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  14. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  15. Occult intracranial injury in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenes, D S; Schutzman, S A

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to determine whether clinical symptoms and signs of brain injury are sensitive indicators of intracranial injury (ICI) in infants admitted with head trauma, (2) to describe the clinical characteristics of infants who have ICI in the absence of symptoms and signs of brain injury, and (3) to determine the clinical significance of those ICIs diagnosed in asymptomatic infants. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all infants younger than 2 years of age admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with acute ICI during a 6(1/2)-year period. Infants were considered symptomatic if they had loss of consciousness, history of behavior change, seizures, vomiting, bulging fontanel, retinal hemorrhages, abnormal neurologic examination, depressed mental status, or irritability. All others were considered to have occult ICI. Of 101 infants studied, 19 (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 12%, 28%) had occult ICI. Fourteen of 52 (27%) infants younger than 6 months of age had occult ICI, compared with 5 of 34 (15%) infants 6 months to 1 year, and none of 15 (0%) infants older than 1 year. Eighteen (95%) infants with occult ICI had scalp contusion or hematoma, and 18 (95%) had skull fracture. Nine (47%) infants with occult ICI received therapy for the ICI. No infants with occult ICI (0%) (95% CI 0, 14%) required surgery or medical management for increased intracranial pressure. Only 1 subject (5%) with occult ICI had any late symptoms or complications: a brief, self-limited convulsion. We found that 19 of 101 ICIs in infants admitted with head trauma were clinically occult. All 19 occult ICIs occurred in infants younger than 12 months of age, and 18 of 19 had skull fractures. None experienced serious neurologic deterioration or required surgical intervention. Physicians cannot depend on the absence of clinical signs of brain injury to exclude ICI in infants younger than 1 year of age.

  16. Colic in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Peter

    2010-02-05

    Colic in infants causes one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for colic in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase carrying, advice to reduce stimulation, casein hydrolysate milk, cranial osteopathy, crib vibrator device, focused counselling, gripe water, infant massage, low-lactose milk, simethicone, soya-based infant feeds, spinal manipulation, and whey hydrolysate milk.

  17. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  18. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  19. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  20. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents.

  1. Bromoderma in an infant*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Isadora da Rosa; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Hagemann, Laura Netto; Rhoden, Deise Louise Bohn; Kiszewski, Ana Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Bromoderma is a cutaneous eruption caused by the absorption of bromide. Clinical manifestations include acneiform and vegetative lesions. We report the case of an infant with bromoderma caused by the use of syrup for abdominal colic containing calcium bromide. The lesions regressed after discontinuation of the drug.

  2. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  3. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  4. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  5. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  6. Pesticides et toxicité chez l'abeille - USA

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Reed M.; Marion D Ellis; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Until 1985 discussions of pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the USA were focused on pesticides applied to crops and the unintentional exposure of foraging bees to them. The recent introduction of arthropod pests of honey bees, Acarapis woodi (1984), Varroa destructor (1987), and Aethina tumida (1997), to the USA have resulted in the intentional introduction of pesticides into beehives to suppress these pests. Both the unintentional and the intentional exposure of ho...

  7. L'orchratoxine A : nature, origine et toxicité

    OpenAIRE

    Rouvier, Marion

    2002-01-01

    L'OTA est une mycotoxine de répartition mondiale, synthétisée par des moisissures des genres Aspergillus et Penicillium. Ce composé est néphrotoxique chez l'animal et chez l'homme et cancérogène dans différentes espèces. Cette étude vise à présenter la nature et l'importance du risque chez l'homme et surtout l'animal. Les conditions de contamination des aliments sont tout d'abord décrites dans le but de préciser l'exposition des animaux à l'OTA. Puis les différentes formes d'ochratoxicose che...

  8. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  9. Brain tumors in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Ghodsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12 were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16; bulge fontanel (15; vomiting (15; developmental regression (11; sunset eye (7; seizure (4; loss of consciousness (4; irritability (3; nystagmus (2; visual loss (2; hemiparesis (2; torticollis (2; VI palsy (3; VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2; and ptosis (1. Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7, followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6 and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%, from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%, 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%, and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary.

  10. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  11. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  12. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Zhu; Tao Liu; Guangyi Li; Tong Li; Yoshio Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such sys...

  13. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  15. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  16. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Infant Sleep Positioner Example See more images of Infant Sleep ...

  17. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand when and how to give an infant massage. By Mayo Clinic Staff Infant massage is a way for you to gently nurture ... Find out about the possible benefits of infant massage and know how to get started. Research suggests ...

  18. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something's not right. By ...

  19. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  20. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  1. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  2. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  3. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  4. Selectivity in Infant Social Referencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not…

  5. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  6. Recovery of Habituation in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Charity N.; Cohen, Leslie B.

    1970-01-01

    Male infants habituated their fixation time over trials and differentiated between the novel and familiar stimuli when the posthabituation interval was 15 seconds, but neither male nor female infants did so when the interval was 5 minutes. This paper is based upon a thesis submitted by the first author in partial fulfillment of the requirements…

  7. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  8. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  9. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  10. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  11. Sleep Apnoea in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dario Galante

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available For nearly 3,000 years, it has been recognized that apparently healthy infants could die suddenly and unexpectedly during their sleep .Throughout most of history, it was believed that these infants somehow suffocated, implying that these babies died a respiratory death. Nearly one infant per thousand live births continues to die suddenly and unexpectedly from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS

  12. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking...

  13. Fear of heights in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.

  14. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  15. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  16. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan M; Adair, Linda; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months), we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level) and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) and skin fold (SF) measures) in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206). Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight. PMID:19656377

  17. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  18. Copenhagen infant mental health project:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  19. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  20. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  1. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Celiac Disease Eosinophilic Esophagitis Inflammatory Bowel Disease Nutrition & Obesity Reflux & GERD Reflux & GERD in Infants Symptoms & Diagnosis ... Nutrition (NASPGHAN) Celiac Disease Eosinophilic Esophagitis Pediatric IBD Nutrition & Obesity Reflux & GERD Research & Grants Our Supporters Site Map © ...

  2. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants ...

  3. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  4. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  5. Parental education and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L D; Cerda, S P

    1999-02-01

    An infant oral health evaluation encompasses the assessment and identification of oral disease, the establishment of preventive practices and the monitoring of developing dentofacial structures. The article presented here focuses on the need for dentists to begin a dialogue with parents of young children with regard to their infant's oral health. Emphasis is on oral hygiene, fluoride intake, non-nutritive habits, bottle feeding and diet.

  6. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  7. Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID

  8. Wearable sensor systems for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-02-05

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  9. Prolonged hyperprolactinemia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, M; Schenker, J; Glassman, M; Ben-david, M

    1978-10-01

    Serum PRL levels were followed serially in full term (FT; 39-41 weeks) and preterm (PT; 30-32 weeks) infants, from birth to 12 and 20 postnatal weeks, respectively. Values were higher in FT infants than in PT infants on day 1 after birth (267 +/- 20 vs. 156 +/- 8 ng/ml) but were similar in both by the age of 2-4 weeks (69 +/- 8 vs. 69 +/- 6 ng/ml). Between the ages of 4-12 weeks, the serum PRL in FT infants fell to near adult levels (24 +/- 2 ng/ml), but this fall was seen much later in PT infants, between 12-20 weeks postnatally (23 +/- 2 ng/ml). When values in FT and PT infants were compared at parallel postmenstrual ages in contradistinction to postnatal ages, a similar course of PRL was discernable in both groups. These data may provide indirect evidence for the establishment and maturation of inhibition of PRL secretion (i.e. PRL-inhibitory factor production) postnatally, between 44-52 weeks postmenstrually.

  10. Cervical accelerometry in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Eric W; Vice, Frank L; Bosma, James F; Gewolb, Ira H

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to use digital signal processing (DSP) technology to describe quantitatively and statistically swallow-associated sounds in preterm infants and to use this method to analyze changes as infants mature. Twelve recordings of accelerometric and physiological data on bottle-feeding preterm infants between 32 and 39 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were analyzed. Cervical auscultation was performed using an accelerometer attached over the larynx. Acoustic data were recorded and graphically displayed using DSP software. Initial discrete sounds (IDSs) were identified and used to construct an average waveform from which a 'variance index' (VI) was calculated for each infant. The shape of the IDS waveforms became progressively more uniform with advancing PMA, as indicated by a significant inverse correlation between VI and PMA (r=0.739; p=0.006). DSP technology facilitated the development of a new method to quantitatively analyze feeding in preterm infants. This method provides an elegant tool to track maturation of infant feeding and assessing feeding readiness. This technique makes the interpretation of cervical auscultation data less subjective by replacing the verbal description of the sounds of feeding with quantitative numeric values. It is anticipated that this method can be automated to facilitate further the analysis of cervical accelerometry data.

  11. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  12. Aide informatisée aux gestes de chirurgie cardiaque

    OpenAIRE

    Chavanon, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing the bibliography concerning CAMI in general, CAMI and guidance systems applied to soft tissues, we will present three projects developed in our laboratory. Computer-assisted-pericardiocentesis (CASPER) is a guidance system based on a modeling of the pericardial effusion, thanks to preoperative 3-D data recording. The procedure requires an ultrasonic device and a needle, both connected to a 3-D localizer, and a computer. Validation on an experimental model, on an animal model, ...

  13. Diabete sucre et decompensation cardiaque: specificites ethiopathogeniques et therapeutiques.

    OpenAIRE

    DE FLINES, Jenny; Scheen, André

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus increases by 2.5 to 5 the relative risk of congestive heart failure. Besides the classical risk factors of congestive heart failure such as obesity, arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease that are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes, a diabetic cardiomyopathy plays also a role. This specific complication is related to metabolic factors and oxidative stress, leading to muscular cell apoptosis and fibrosis. The management of a diabetic patient with congestive h...

  14. [Infants wearing teething necklaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefer, A; Casasoprana, A; Cascarigny, F; Claudet, I

    2012-10-01

    Numerous infants wear teething necklaces, a quack remedy with a real risk of strangulation or aspiration of small beads. Evaluate parental perceptions and beliefs about the use of teething necklaces and analyze parental knowledge about the associated dangers. Between March and July 2011, in three different pediatric units of a tertiary children's hospital and a general hospital in Toulouse and Montauban (southwest France), voluntary parents were invited to be interviewed about their child wearing a teething necklace. The interviews were conducted following an anthropological approach: they were recorded and then fully transcribed and analyzed. Parents were informed that the conversation was recorded. During the study period, 48 children were eligible. Eleven families refused to participate, 29 parents were interviewed face to face. The children's mean age was 14 years ± 7 months, the male:female ratio was equal to 0.8 (12 boys, 15 girls). The mean age of children when necklace wearing was started was equal to 4 ± 2 months. The mean mother's age was 31 ± 5 years and 33 ± 4 years for fathers. The parents' religion was mostly Catholic (60%). Teething necklaces were mainly made of amber (n=23). Sales information about the risks associated with the necklaces was for the most part absent (92%). The most frequent positive parental perceptions were analgesic properties and a soothing remedy (73%); a birth accessory and memory (64%); an esthetic accessory (60%); a protective amulet (60%); and an alternative or additional element to other traditional therapeutics (55%). The negative parental perceptions (n=4) were an unnecessary accessory, costume jewelry, a pure commercial abuse of a popular belief, a dangerous item with a risk of strangulation, and the absence of proof of its efficacy. Although parents concede that teeth eruption is benign, they fear its related symptoms. To a natural phenomenon a natural response: they use a necklace to satisfy the analogy. The

  15. Indonesia lowers infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, S

    1991-11-01

    Indonesia's success in reaching World Health Organization (WHO) universal immunization coverage standards is described as the result of a strong national program with timely, targeted donor support. USAID/Indonesia's Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) and other USAID bilateral cooperation helped the government of Indonesia in its goal to immunize children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and measles by age 1. The initial project was to identify target areas and deliver vaccines against the diseases, strengthen the national immunization organization and infrastructure, and develop the Ministry of Health's capacity to conduct studies and development activities. This EPI project spanned the period 1979-90, and set the stage for continued expansion of Indonesia's immunization program to comply with the full international schedule and range of immunizations of 3 DPT, 3 polio, 1 BCG, and 1 measles inoculation. The number of immunization sites has increased from 55 to include over 5,000 health centers in all provinces, with additional services provided by visiting vaccinators and nurses in most of the 215,000 community-supported integrated health posts. While other contributory factors were at play, program success is at least partially responsible for the 1990 infant mortality rate of 58/1,000 live births compared to 72/1,000 in 1985. Strong national leadership, dedicated health workers and volunteers, and cooperation and funding from UNICEF, the World Bank, Rotary International, and WHO also played crucially positive roles in improving immunization practice in Indonesia.

  16. INFANT MORTALITY MAR URAL POPULATION OF MEERUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Prakash

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in eight selected villages of Meerut District [UJP.} to find out infant mortality rate alongwith other various health care delivery practices associated with this. An infant mortality rate of 106.7/1000 LB was found in the study population. Infant mortality was higher in female infants, infants of mothers not availed antenatal care, not received tetanus toxoid, delivered by untrained personnel and where cow-dung was applied to cord stump. Among the causes of infant deaths prematurity or low birth weight was the commonest cause followed by respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases and tetanus neonatorum

  17. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  18. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  19. Current concepts in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Y L; Paige, D M

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional needs vary during the first year of life according to the infant's individualized pattern of growth and amount of physical activity. After delivery, the infant must make many physiologic adjustments, develop immunologic defenses, and take in adequate nutrients for survival. The type and consistency of foods change as the gastrointestinal system matures and becomes able to metabolize the components and excrete the needed metabolites of increasingly complex foods. The recommended dietary allowance for infancy is based on the amount of nutrients provided to healthy infants in human milk during the first six months of life and on the consumption of formula and increasing amounts of solid food during the second six months. The introduction of solid foods should parallel the developmental changes that occur within the central nervous system throughout the first year; these provide a level of readiness for the infant to manage foods of various textures from full liquid to soft. Even though significant technologic advances have led to changes in the way infants can be fed, human milk is still the optimal choice. Most women can be encouraged to breast-feed regardless of their own nutritional status or dietary intake. Contraindications can be managed on an individual basis. If women do not elect to breast-feed, suitable commercial formulas are available. The important issue in feeding is that of providing a variety of appropriately prepared foods offered in a nonjudgmental atmosphere so that the foundation is laid for the development of good food habits.

  20. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  1. Clinical mimics of infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ann Marie O; Arnon, Stephen S

    2007-04-01

    Since 1992, Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been provided by the California Department of Health Services to infants with probable infant botulism, the intestinal toxemia form of human botulism. Human Botulism Immune Globulin became available in California in 1992-1997 within a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, pivotal clinical trial and subsequently became available nationwide in 1998-2003 in an open-label study until its licensure in October 2003 as BabyBIG. Thereafter, Human Botulism Immune Globulin remained available nationwide as an approved orphan-drug product. To achieve prompt neutralization of circulating botulinum toxin, the decision to treat with Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been based on clinical criteria that include a consistent history and physical findings of bulbar palsies, hypotonia, and weakness. After licensure, the charts of patients who did not have laboratory-confirmed infant botulism were reviewed to identify their actual diagnoses. The approximately 5% of 681 patients treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin who did not have infant botulism fell into 5 categories: spinal muscular atrophy, metabolic disorders, other infectious diseases, miscellaneous, and probable infant botulism lacking laboratory confirmation.

  2. New supplements to infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  3. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  4. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  5. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000805.htm How to Save Money on Infant Formula To use the sharing features ... several months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . Money-Saving Ideas Here are ...

  6. Infants prefer to imitate a reliable person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Brooker, Ivy; Polonia, Alexandra

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that preschoolers prefer to learn from individuals who are a reliable source of information. The current study examined whether the past reliability of a person's emotional signals influences infants' willingness to imitate that person. An emotional referencing task was first administered to infants in order to demonstrate the experimenter's credibility or lack thereof. Next, infants in both conditions watched as the same experimenter turned on a touch light using her forehead. Infants were then given the opportunity to reproduce this novel action. As expected, infants in the unreliable condition developed the expectation that the person's emotional cues were misleading. Thus, these infants were subsequently more likely to use their hands than their foreheads when attempting to turn on the light. In contrast, infants in the reliable group were more likely to imitate the experimenter's action using their foreheads. These results suggest that the reliability of the model influences infants' imitation.

  7. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  8. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  9. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study....... Participants filled out a questionnaire package including measures of PTSD (the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), coping (the Coping Style Questionnaire), perceived social support (the Crisis Support Scale) and attachment (the Revised Adult Attachment Scale). Associations between variables were examined through...

  10. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...... filled out a questionnaire package including measures of PTSD (the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), coping (the Coping Style Questionnaire), perceived social support (the Crisis Support Scale) and attachment (the Revised Adult Attachment Scale). Associations between variables were examined through the use...

  11. Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionIn general breast-fed infants suffer less from infection, which could be partly explained by the specificcompostionand metabolic activity of their intestinalmicroflora. During the last two decades, many attempts have been made to mimic the intestinal flora of breast fed infants in formula fed infants. Bothprebioticsandprobioticsbased concepts have been developed to beneficially change the intestinalmicrofloraand thus induce positive health effects. We conducted two infant nutritio...

  12. Mother and infant: early emotional ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, M

    1998-11-01

    Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.

  13. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  14. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  15. Breast feeding and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G V; Calvert, L J; Kanto, W P

    1978-04-01

    Breast feeding is a management problem requiring knowledge of the physiology of lactation, maternal and infant nutritional requirements, and specifics such as drugs which enter the milk. The job of the physician is to allay anxiety; this helps establish the let-down reflex and increases milk production. "Caking," mastitis and even abscesses are not indications for weaning. Rest, warm compresses and frequent nursing are indicated. Breast-fed infants have less tendency to obesity than those who are bottle-fed. Early solid foods in the diet are not needed.

  16. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  17. Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

  18. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  19. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  20. Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

  1. Segmental Production in Mandarin-Learning Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Kent, Raymond D.

    2010-01-01

    The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, the infant-directed speech of 24 caregivers was recorded…

  2. Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

  3. Investigating human infant anthropomorphism in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellen, K.; Saaksjarvi, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we set out to investigate the nature and effects of infant anthropomorphism in products, i.e. products that share features of human infants. Across four studies, evidence suggests that infant anthropomorphism comprise four dimensions: sweetness, simplicity, sympathy, and smallness. We

  4. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  5. Self-Regulation and Infant-Directed Singing in Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn how to regulate internal states and subsequent behavior through dyadic interactions with caregivers. During infant-directed (ID) singing, mothers help infants practice attentional control and arousal modulation, thus providing critical experience in self-regulation. Infants with Down syndrome are known to have attention deficits and delayed information processing as well as difficulty managing arousability, factors that may disrupt their efforts at self-regulation. The researcher explored responses to ID singing in infants with Down syndrome (DS) and compared them with those of typically developing (TD) infants. Behaviors measured included infant gaze and affect as indicators of self-regulation. Participants included 3- to 9-month-old infants with and without DS who were videotaped throughout a 2-minute face-to-face interaction during which their mothers sang to them any song(s) of their choosing. Infant behavior was then coded for percentage of time spent demonstrating a specific gaze or affect type. All infants displayed sustained gaze more than any other gaze type. TD infants demonstrated intermittent gaze significantly more often than infants with DS. Infant status had no effect on affect type, and all infants showed predominantly neutral affect. Findings suggest that ID singing effectively maintains infant attention for both TD infants and infants with DS. However, infants with DS may have difficulty shifting attention during ID singing as needed to adjust arousal levels and self-regulate. High levels of neutral affect for all infants imply that ID singing is likely to promote a calm, curious state, regardless of infant status. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

  7. Denmark: botulism in an infant or infant botulism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, A; Angen, O; Lisby, M;

    2008-01-01

    was noted. Botulism was suspected and confirmed by testing of patient serum in a bioassay. The condition of the patient improved following administration of botulism antiserum. The clinical picture was suggestive of intestinal (infant) botulism. However, botulism acquired from consumption of food...

  8. Infant mortality and infant feeding in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, M E; Marchante, R F; Kramer, M

    1942-03-01

    Data on infant mortality and infant feeding in Puerto Rico were examined. The material studied was the infant and preschool records found in the active and pending files of the public health units. The information tabulated was that of the status of the child at the time of 1st admission to Health Department service, before any specific benefit could have been obtained from that service. A total of 1189 records was tabulated from 3 municipalities: 171 from Ciales; 360 from Guayama; and 658 from Rio Piedras. Results of the 2 sexes were combined. Breastfed means that the sole source of milk was breast. The proportion breastfed declined with advancing age of child. There was a striking difference between Ciales, an area of relatively low infant mortality, and the other 2 municipalities. The proportion breastfed in Ciales was definitely higher than in the other 2 communities in the 2-3 months group. The difference was even greater in the 4-5 months group. The total records from Ciales were only 171, but the differences were statistically significant. Rio Piedras was consistently the lowest in every age group. In the youngest age group of the children there was a decreasing proportion breastfed with the advancing age of the mother. This finding was statistically significant. In the group of children 6 months and older, it appeared that the older mothers had the highest proportion of breastfed children. In this group, the difference according to mother's age only approached significance. In regard to rural-urban differences, there was clearly little difference in the early months of life, but in the older age groups the proportion breastfed was higher for inhabitants of rural areas. These differences were significant and suggest that rural mothers tend to nurse their infants longer. There was no evidence that the rates for older infants in the rural areas were weighted with older mothers tending to have th e highest proportion of infants breastfed at age of 6 months and

  9. Invulnerable High Risk Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, David R.; And Others

    In an effort to look at factors moderating the negative effects of preterm low birthweight and perinatal illness, the study followed up (at 7 and 12 months of age) 50 preterm infants whose cumulative morbidity score was greater than 100 and/or who had a life threatening complication. Home visits provided ratings of maternal sensitivity, the…

  10. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  11. Asymmetry and infants born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijsink, J.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis was to contribute to the diagnostic process and clinical decision making by pediatric physiotherapists in very young infants with an atypical motor performance, influenced by both an asymmetric development, and a development according to a preterm birth. In Part I, the

  12. Noise Exclusion Ability in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geroldene Tsui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An important perceptual ability is to filter out background distractions from relevant information. However, prior research has not identified when this begins in humans. Our study aims to investigate whether noise exclusion ability occurs in infancy. Infants' contrast sensitivity function (CSF was measured by a Baynesian adaptive inference method. Infants' attention was directed to the middle of a monitor where an 8.72 degree static Gabor grating was presented on the left or right side of the monitor. In half the trials, the grating was presented against a gray background; in the other half, against a 16% contrast random-dot noise background. The experimenter and two independent coders judged which side the infants gazed at (force-choice preferential looking paradigm. One-hundred babies aged from 4 to 10 months satisfied the 70% interrater consistency criterion for inclusion. Four parameters defined the best-fitted CSF for each infant. Of these, peak spatial frequency, bandwidth and truncation of CSF were similar in conditions with and without noise. The peak gain estimate was most significantly impaired by external noise, but a marked 31% improvement was observed in 7- to 10-month-olds. This may be the first sign of development of human's noise exclusion ability, and is worth further study.

  13. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a cure, education, awareness, and mutual support. Nurses who work in neonatal intensive care units and nursery departments have experience caring for very small and fragile infants. They can help parents learn the skills and gain confidence necessary to care for their ...

  14. Safety of sildenafil in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Samiee-Zafarghandy; P.B. Smith; J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the i

  15. America's Infant-Mortality Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberstadt, Nicholas

    1991-01-01

    Conventional explanations attributing the high infant mortality rate in United States to the prevalence of poverty and lack of adequate health care do not tell the whole story. Contributions of parental behavior, lifestyles, and public health care availability versus utilization must be examined in determining public policies to address the…

  16. Infant Mortality: The Shared Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagarty, Margaret C.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the causes for and implications of infant mortality. Besides the more immediate causes such as disease, nutrition, and lifestyle, there are the additional hurdles of government bureaucracy, lack of funds, and institutional attitudes that block access to prenatal care. Suggests structural solutions, including a consistent, individual,…

  17. [The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida's Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

  18. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  19. Infants' Memory for Musical Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated 6- and 7-month-olds' preference and memory for expressive recordings of sung lullabies. In Experiment 1, both age groups preferred lower-pitched to higher-pitched renditions of unfamiliar lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants were tested after 2 weeks of daily exposure to a lullaby at one pitch level. Seven-month-olds listened…

  20. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  1. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  2. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  3. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, D; Dembinski, J; Heep, A; Bartmann, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in preterm infants with neonatal bacterial infection (NBI). Methods: Blood samples were analysed of 57 preterm (28+1 to 36+6, median 33+2 weeks gestation) and 17 term infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within the first 72 hours of life with suspicion of NBI. Samples were obtained at first suspicion of sepsis and after 12 and 24 hours. Diagnosis of NBI was confirmed by raised concentrations of C reactive protein and/or interleukin 6. The influence of gestational age and labour was analysed. Results: Maximum LBP concentrations in infants with NBI were greatly increased compared with infants without NBI (13.0–46.0 µg/ml (median 20.0 µg/ml) v 0.6–17.4 µg/ml (median 4.2 µg/ml)). LBP concentrations in infected infants were not yet significantly raised when NBI was first suspected. The LBP concentrations of preterm infants were comparable to those of term infants. Regression analysis revealed no significant effect of labour or gestational age on LBP. Conclusions: Raised LBP concentrations indicate NBI in preterm and term infants. Preterm infants of > 28 weeks gestation seem to be capable of producing LBP as efficiently as term infants. Neonatal LBP concentrations are not influenced by labour. LBP may be a useful diagnostic marker of NBI in preterm infants. PMID:15499153

  4. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  5. Targeted interventions and infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovel, H

    1989-01-01

    The main causes of infant mortality in 71% of the cases are diarrhea, measles, acute respiratory infection, and neonatal tetanus. A UN child survival strategy includes growth monitoring, oral rehydration, breast feeding, immunization, fertility, food and female literacy (GOBI-FFF). Previous research has shown a correlation between low levels of infant mortality and high levels of female literacy. Educated women are more likely to delay marriage, and childbearing. Child mortality is much higher for those born to women under 20 years old and also much higher for those born within 1 or 2 after the previous birth. Maternal mortality is also higher for mothers under 20 and with closely spaced births of 3 or more children. The majority of adults in developing countries have knowledge of family planning but teen pregnancy is a concern. Better nutrition during pregnancy would decrease infant deaths. Growth monitoring is another way to reduce infant mortality and morbidity. The difficulties are in the reluctance to adapt programs to local traditional methods of growth monitoring and going to direct recording scales. Immunization is estimated to have prevented over 3 million deaths from measles, tetanus, whooping cough and polio in 1984 alone. In spite of progress, only 50% of children in developing countries are immunized against diphtheria, pertussis, polio, and tetanus by the age of 1 year. these activities must be integrated into primary health care and community development projects to make better contact with people needing this service. oral rehydration therapy not only reduces mortality from diarrhea but can reduce morbidity by reducing the duration of the illness and by increasing the weight gain. Breast feeding has been shown in many studies to reduce the risk of deaths of infants. The promotion of breast feeding includes the issues of maternity leave, job security, and child care at the work place.

  6. Infant incubators and radiant warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E F

    1983-10-01

    Incubators and radiant warmers are used to maintain the body temperature of newborn infants. This is best done so that the energy expended for metabolic heat production is minimized. The heat output of these devices is usually regulated by servocontrol to keep the skin temperature constant at a site on the abdomen where a thermistor probe is attached. In incubators, air temperature can also be controlled as an alternative to skin temperature servocontrol. Increased ambient humidity, heat shields and clothing have been used to decrease the evaporative or nonevaporative heat loss of infants in incubators under certain conditions. Double-walled incubators, by adding a second inner layer of Plexiglas, reduce radiant heat loss. They may also reduce total heat loss, but only if air temperature is controlled rather than skin temperature. The minimal oxygen consumption under a radiant warmer is the same or perhaps slightly higher than it is for the same infant in an incubator. Compared with incubators, the partition of body heat loss is quite different under radiant warmers. Radiant warmers increase convective and evaporative heat loss and insensible water loss but eliminate radiant heat loss or change it to net gain. A heat shield of thin polyethylene film can be used with a radiant warmer to reduce heat loss by convection and evaporation. The major advantage of the radiant warmer is the easy access it provides to critically-ill infants without disturbing the thermal environment. Its major disadvantage is the increase in insensible water loss produced by the radiant warmer. Most infants can be safely and adequately cared for in either incubator or radiant warmer bed.

  7. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  8. The effect of pain on infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, B F; Conner, D A

    1995-08-01

    Facial, body, and cry behaviors, heart rate, palmar sweating, and acoustic cry measures were compared across differing levels of infant pain. Eighty-eight infants were placed in a 16-cell matrix of 4 ages (0 to 3 mo., 4 to 6 mo., 7 to 9 mo., and 10 to 12 mo.) and levels of pain (LOP) (none, mild, moderate, severe) with 5 to 6 infants occupying each cell. Matrix placement was determined by agreement of > 75% among five pediatric clinical nurse specialists who viewed videotapes and read information about the infant's history, diagnosis, medical and/or surgical status, medications, and nutritional/fluid status. Coded infant behaviors and acoustic cry parameters were compared using a 2-level (LOP, age) MANOVA. Behaviors that differed across LOP were influenced by infant development. Facial expressions were clinically useful LOP indicators only for 0- to 3-month-old infants. Facial and body behaviors and cry measures that differed across LOP in younger infants did not differ in older infants due to the development of intentionality. Cry orientation and consolability may be useful clinical indicators of pain with older infants.

  9. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  10. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan S; Hay, William W

    2016-04-22

    Considerable advances have been made in the field of infant feeding research. The last few decades have witnessed the expansion in the number of studies on the composition and benefits of human milk. The practice of breastfeeding and use of human milk represent today's reference standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Additional research regarding the benefits of breastfeeding is needed to determine which factors in human milk and in the act of breastfeeding itself, singly or in combination, are most important for producing the beneficial effects on infant growth, body composition, and neurodevelopmental outcome. We examine evidence that breastfeeding confers health benefits and offer suggestions on how best to interpret the data and present it to the public. We also describe some examples of well-designed infant nutrition studies that provide useful and clinically meaningful data regarding infant feeding, growth, and development. Because not all mothers choose to breastfeed or can breastfeed, other appropriate feeding options should be subjected to critical review to help establish how infant formula and bottle feeding can confer benefits similar to those of human milk and the act of breastfeeding. We conclude with the overarching point that the goal of infant feeding research is to promote optimal infant growth and development. Since parents/families may take different paths to feeding their infants, it is fundamental that health professionals understand how best to interpret research studies and their findings to support optimal infant growth and development.

  11. Infant with MRSA necrotizing fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panglao Rajan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panglao Rajan,1 Pinkal Patel,1 Lori Cash,1 Anjali Parish,2 Scott Darby,1 Jack Yu,3 Jatinder Bhatia11Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 2Medical Center of Central Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USAAbstract: This is an unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in this premature infant, which highlights severity, rapid progression of this disease and shows outcome if intervention is initiated at an early stage. This case also highlights one of the possible serious complications of percutaneous inserted central catheter (PICC line, which can be life threatening.Keywords: necrotizing fasciitis, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, PICC, premature infant

  12. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic....... Participants filled out a questionnaire package including measures of PTSD (the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), coping (the Coping Style Questionnaire), perceived social support (the Crisis Support Scale) and attachment (the Revised Adult Attachment Scale). Associations between variables were examined through......, female sex, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping, rational coping, feeling let down and social support satisfaction accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD severity. Conclusions: The study highlights the long-term impact of infant loss and points to attachment, coping...

  13. Some thoughts about infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickse, R G

    1983-12-01

    This article summarizes the nutritional considerations, impact on infection and immunity, and psychosocial aspects of the breast versus bottle feeding debate and concludes with guidelines for reorganizing government health services to promote breastfeeding. Its aim is to encourage reappraisal on the part of physicians of the direct implications of infant feeding for the health and well-being of people in all societies, but especially in developing countries. As a result of widespread abandonment of breastfeeding in developing countries, marasmus and infant diarrhea have increased. Although the biologic advatages of breast over bottle feeding are indisputable, the social and economic advantages are more difficult to quantify. Many Third World women curtail breastfeeding to meet the conditions of employment; however, the economic advantages of artificial feeding diminish as one descends down the pay scale. The counterproductive trend toward bottle feeding has been compounded by adoption of this method on the part of the educated elite in Third World countries, including medical and nursing professionals, thus conferring on it as status associated with progress and affluence. The present trend can be reversed only if communities are convinced of the advantages of breastfeeding and make adjustments to facilitate this practice. Preparation for motherhood must be viewed as an integral function of the health care system, with emphasis placed on the nutrition of pregnant and lactating women, preparation for breastfeeding, and the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Obstetric units must actively discourage the removal of infants from their mothers or routine artificial feeding. In addition, facilities must be provided at workplaces for breastfeeding, the working day should be modified to allow brestfeeding, maternity leaves should be extended, and appropriate payments should be made to nursing mothers. The nutrition needs of infants must be viewed as a shared

  14. Hypocalcemic rachitic cardiomyopathy in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissy, Abdelwahab T.H.; Munawarah, Medinah; Alharbi, Khalid M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in infants is characterized by heart failure in a previously normal infant with hypocalcemia without organic cardiac lesion. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is increasing in Middle East. In a six month study 136 cases of rickets were diagnosed in the main Children’s Hospital in Almadinah but none of them showed evidence of cardiomyopathy. Concerned of missing this serious complication of rickets we searched pub med and present this review article. Results 61 cases of hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy were reported as case reports with two series of 16 and 15 cases from London and Delhi, respectively. The major features of these cases: the age ranged from one month to 15 months with a mean age of 5 months. All presented with heart failure and hypocalcemia. There was a minor feature of rickets in a few of the cases. All had high alkaline phosphatase. Echocardiology evidence of cardiomyopathy was found in all. Most of them responded to calcium, vitamin D and cardiotonic and diuretics. Discussion We concentrated on pathogenesis of this hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy and reviewed the literature. The evidence available supports that the most likely cause of cardiomyopathy is hypocalcemia. Hypovitamin D also contributes but hyperparathyroidism might have a protective role as we did not detect any evidence of cardiomyopathy with hyperparathyroidism and florid features of rickets. Conclusion We need to look out for cardiomyopathy among infants with hypocalcemia. For prevention maternal supplementation during pregnancy and lactation with up to 2000 units of vitamin D and 400 units for their infants. PMID:24174842

  15. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  16. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants' ability to discriminate vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Desjardins, Renée N

    2002-06-01

    "Baby talk" or speech directed to prelinguistic infants is high in pitch and has exaggerated pitch contours (up/down patterns of pitch change) across languages and cultures. Using an acoustic model, we predicted that the large pitch contours of infant-directed speech should improve infants' ability to discriminate vowels. On the other hand, the same model predicted that high pitch would not benefit, and might actually impair, infants' ability to discriminate vowels. We then confirmed these predictions experimentally. We conclude that the exaggerated pitch contours of infant-directed speech aid infants' acquisition of vowel categories but that the high pitch of infant-directed speech must serve another function, such as attracting infants' attention or aiding emotional communication.

  18. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.

  19. Using Language to Navigate the Infant Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura; Lakusta, Laura

    2009-03-01

    How do infants represent objects, actions, and relations in events? In this review, we discuss an approach to studying this question that begins with linguistic theory-specifically, semantic structures in language. On the basis of recent research exploring infant cognition and prominent linguistic analyses, we examine whether infants representations of motion events are articulated in terms of the components proposed by Talmy (1985; e.g., path, manner) and whether infants' event representations are defined in terms of broad semantic roles (agent, patient, source, goal) as proposed by Jackendoff (1990) and Dowty (1991). We show how recent findings in infant cognition are consistent with the idea that the infant's representation of events is a close reflection of the linguistic categories. We especially highlight research that is explicitly guided by linguistic categories likely to have correlates in nonlinguistic cognition to illustrate the usefulness of using language to pose questions about early conceptual representations. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  20. How Infants Learn About the Visual World

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning vi...

  1. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...

  2. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  3. In and out of Synch: Infant Childcare Teachers' Adaptations to Infants' Developmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Shin, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the social exchanges and responsive connections between infants and their infant childcare teachers within a group care context. Infants' naturally occurring behaviours were videotaped purposefully at two separate time points, near the end of their first year and approximately six months later. Findings…

  4. Caregiver-Infant Interaction and Early Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Leila; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Caregiver-infant transactions with 51 premature infants were studied in naturalistic observations in the home when the infants were aged 1, 3, and 8 months. Gesell developmental schedules and a sensorimotor scale were administered at 9 months. (Author/JH)

  5. In and out of Synch: Infant Childcare Teachers' Adaptations to Infants' Developmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Shin, Minsun

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study explored the social exchanges and responsive connections between infants and their infant childcare teachers within a group care context. Infants' naturally occurring behaviours were videotaped purposefully at two separate time points, near the end of their first year and approximately six months later. Findings…

  6. A Study of Auditory Preferences in Nonhandicapped Infants and Infants with Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Sheila M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Eleven infants with Down's syndrome and 10 of 11 nonhandicapped infants operated an automatic device which enabled them to choose to listen to nursery rhymes sung or played on musical instruments. Both groups preferred the singing, and the Down's Syndrome infants had much longer response durations for the more complex auditory stimuli. (Author/DB)

  7. The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

  8. Infant Temperament, Maternal Personality, and Parenting Stress as Contributors to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Ferguson, Melissa C.; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined contributions of maternal personality and infant temperament to infant vocabulary and cognitive development both directly and indirectly through parental stress. Participants were recruited at birth and included 63 infant twin pairs and their mothers. Assessments were completed at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age and included…

  9. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Livingston

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1 to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2 to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC. Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation

  10. Body-Part Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure adult human movement. However, these methods cannot be transferred directly to motion tracking of infants due to the big differences in the underlying human model. However, motion tracking of infants can be used for automatic...... analysis of infant development and might be able to tell something about possible motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy. In this paper, we address markerless 3D body part detection of infants using a widely available depth sensor and discuss some of the major challenges that arise. We present a method...

  11. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article...... argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  12. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu

    2017-01-11

    Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  13. Infant botulism: review and clinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, Laura K; Strober, Jonathan B

    2015-05-01

    Botulism is a rare neuromuscular condition, and multiple clinical forms are recognized. Infant botulism was first identified in the 1970s, and it typically occurs in infants younger than 1 year of age who ingest Clostridium botulinum spores. A specific treatment for infant botulism, intravenous botulism immunoglobulin (BIG-IV or BabyBIG®), was developed in 2003, and this treatment has substantially decreased both morbidity and hospital costs associated with this illness. This article will review the pathogenesis of infant botulism as well as the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition.

  14. Body-Part Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    analysis of infant development and might be able to tell something about possible motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy. In this paper, we address markerless 3D body part detection of infants using a widely available depth sensor and discuss some of the major challenges that arise. We present a method......Motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure adult human movement. However, these methods cannot be transferred directly to motion tracking of infants due to the big differences in the underlying human model. However, motion tracking of infants can be used for automatic...

  15. Breastfeeding during maternal or infant illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M M; Riordan, J

    1992-01-01

    The continuation of breastfeeding during a hospital stay is not only possible, it can be beneficial for both the mother and the infant. The ill mother avoids breast engorgement and possible mastitis; the infant of an ill mother continues to receive, in breast milk, antibodies to the mother's illness. Through breast milk, an ill infant receives antibodies to his illness, liquids, and an easily digested, nourishing food. In addition, the physical and emotional comfort the mother and infant give each other eases the job of the nurse who cares for them. Hospital policies that take a woman's lactational status into account and encourage breastfeeding should be the accepted standard.

  16. Chronic Malnutrition Among Infants of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of infants in Varanasi? Objectives: To find out the magnitude of PEM among infants of Varanasi district. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Urban slum and rural areas. Participants: 360 infants. Study variables: Age, height (length, weight. Outcome variables: Protein Energy Malnutrition. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions; Chi- square test. Results: As per the height for age criteria; only 10.56% of infants were stunted (<90% of reference standard and according to Seoane Latham classification; 44.96%, 6.05% and 4.03% were suffering from acute malnutrition and nutritional dwarfing respectively (90% of reference standard as entry point

  17. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts.

  18. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is aey component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants.

  19. Infants' learning of phonological status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eSeidl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive todifferences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in theinput and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that areneither present nor meaningful in the input over the course of development. Here, wereview an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problemof sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonologicalstatus, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemiccategory vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input,but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one andthe same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the sameunderlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasaland the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than thosethan map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treatthem differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity todimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11 months.We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which shedslight on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggeststhat the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phoneticsimilarity operate in concert to guide infants towards a functional interpretation ofsounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition toreviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamentaltheoretical and empirical questions.

  20. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  1. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  2. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3′-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota. PMID:28079170

  3. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  4. Palatal Mucormycosis in An Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Bansal, Vishal; Kantoor, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    The maxilla rarely undergoes necrosis due to its rich vascularity. Maxillary necrosis can occur due to bacterial infections, viral infections, or fungal infections. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection that mainly infects immunocompromised patients. The fungus invades the arteries, leading to thrombosis that subsequently causes necrosis of hard and soft tissues. The occurrence of mucormycosis is not considered rare in the jaws of adults, but involvement of the maxilla in infants is not usually seen. The purpose of this report is to discuss the diagnosis and management of a rare case of mucormycosis in the palate of a two-month-old boy.

  5. Considerations in planning vegan diets: infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, A R; Messina, V

    2001-06-01

    Appropriately planned vegan diets can satisfy nutrient needs of infants. The American Dietetic Association and The American Academy of Pediatrics state that vegan diets can promote normal infant growth. It is important for parents to provide appropriate foods for vegan infants, using guidelines like those in this article. Key considerations when working with vegan families include composition of breast milk from vegan women, appropriate breast milk substitutes, supplements, type and amount of dietary fat, and solid food introduction. Growth of vegan infants appears adequate with post-weaning growth related to dietary adequacy. Breast milk composition is similar to that of non-vegetarians except for fat composition. For the first 4 to 6 months, breast milk should be the sole food with soy-based infant formula as an alternative. Commercial soymilk should not be the primary beverage until after age 1 year. Breastfed vegan infants may need supplements of vitamin B-12 if maternal diet is inadequate; older infants may need zinc supplements and reliable sources of iron and vitamins D and B-12. Timing of solid food introduction is similar to that recommended for non-vegetarians. Tofu, dried beans, and meat analogs are introduced as protein sources around 7-8 months. Vegan diets can be planned to be nutritionally adequate and support growth for infants.

  6. Infant Mortality: Priority for Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Orme, Terri

    1987-01-01

    Bemoans the failure of the social work profession to claim infant mortality as a professional priority in spite of evidence of the appropriateness of social work interventions. Stresses social work's role in the reduction of preventable infant deaths. (Author/KS)

  7. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

  8. Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

  9. Optimizing Infant Development: Strategies for Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine

    This guide for infant day care providers examines the importance of early experience for brain development and strategies for providing optimal infant care. The introduction discusses the current devaluation of day care and idealization of maternal care and identifies benefits of quality day care experience for intellectual development, sleep…

  10. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  11. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  12. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  13. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  14. Ultrasonically detectable cerebellar haemorrhage in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa Kenyon

    2011-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ≤32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).

  15. Immune Vulnerability of Infants to Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Vanden Driessche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges faced by the infant immune system is learning to distinguish the myriad of foreign but nonthreatening antigens encountered from those expressed by true pathogens. This balance is reflected in the diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines by both innate and adaptive immune cells in the infant. A downside of this bias is that several factors critical for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are significantly restricted in infants, including TNF, IL-1, and IL-12. Furthermore, infant T cells are inherently less capable of differentiating into IFN-γ-producing T cells. As a result, infected infants are 5–10 times more likely than adults to develop active tuberculosis (TB and have higher rates of severe disseminated disease, including miliary TB and meningitis. Infant TB is a fundamentally different disease than TB in immune competent adults. Immunotherapeutics, therefore, should be specifically evaluated in infants before they are routinely employed to treat TB in this age group. Modalities aimed at reducing inflammation, which may be beneficial for adjunctive therapy of some forms of TB in older children and adults, may be of no benefit or even harmful in infants who manifest much less inflammatory disease.

  16. Toys and Social Interaction between Infant Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerman, Carol O.; Whatley, Judith L.

    1977-01-01

    Results showed that infants as young as 10 months of age are responsive to the person and behavior of an unfamiliar peer and that they are no less responsive than older infants (22-24 months of age) to the social versus nonsocial aspects of a novel setting. (Author/JMB)

  17. Do Infants Have a Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    The central question debated in current research on infant social cognition is "do infants have a theory of mind?" It is argued here that this question is understood and treated in radically different ways by different participants of the debate arguing either for (e.g., Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005) or against early competence in theory of mind…

  18. Jinan:infant clothing test notification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Before the Spring Festival, Jinan Consumer Council issued the report of comparison test on 16 brands of infant apparel. The results show that all the products are qualified. To create a safe, secure environment for consumption, to ensure that the infants

  19. Preference patterns in infant vowel perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Monika T.; Polka, Linda

    2001-05-01

    Infants show directional asymmetries in vowel discrimination tasks that reveal an underlying perceptual bias favoring more peripheral vowels. Polka and Bohn (2003) propose that this bias is language independent and plays an important role in the development of vowel perception. In the present study we measured infant listening preferences for vowels to assess whether a perceptual bias favoring peripheral vowels can be measured more directly. Monolingual (French and English) and bilingual infants completed a listening preference task using multiple natural tokens of German /dut/ and /dyt/ produced by a male talker. In previous work, discrimination of this vowel pair by German-learning and by English-learning infants revealed a robust directional asymmetry in which /u/ acts as a perceptual anchor; specifically, infants had difficulty detecting a change from /u/ to /y/, whereas a change from /y/ to /u/ was readily detected. Preliminary results from preference tests with these stimuli show that most infants between 3 and 5 months of age also listen longer to /u/ than to /y/. Preference data obtained from older infants and with other vowel pairs will also be reported to further test the claim that peripheral vowels have a privileged perceptual status in infant perception.

  20. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

  1. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

  2. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  3. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  4. Nutritional care of premature infants: microminerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domellöf, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Microminerals, including iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, iodine, chromium and molybdenum, are essential for a remarkable array of critical functions and need to be supplied in adequate amounts to preterm infants. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants carry a very high risk of developing iron deficiency which can adversely affect neurodevelopment. However, a too high iron supply in iron-replete VLBW infants may induce adverse effects such as increased infection risks and impaired growth. Iron needs are influenced by birth weight, growth rates, blood losses (phlebotomy) and blood transfusions. An enteral iron intake of 2 mg/kg/day for infants with a birth weight of 1,500-2,500 g and 2-3 mg/kg/day for VLBW infants is recommended. Higher doses up to 6 mg/kg/day are needed in infants receiving erythropoietin treatment. Regular monitoring of serum ferritin during the hospital stay is advisable. Routine provision of iron with parenteral nutrition for VLBW infants is not recommended. Less certainty exists for the advisable intakes of other microminerals. It appears prudent to provide enterally fed VLBW infants with daily amounts per kilogram body weight of 1.4-2.5 mg zinc, 100-230 μg copper, 5-10 μg selenium, 1-15 μg manganese, 10-55 μg iodine, 0.03-2.25 μg chromium, and 0.3-5 μg molybdenum. Future scientific findings may justify deviations from these suggested ranges.

  5. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  6. Euthanasia of Severely Handicapped Infants: Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Libby

    Ethical decisions are involved in life and death decisions for severely handicapped infants. Although it has become common practice for physicians not to treat severely handicapped infants, the ethical considerations involved in euthanasia are complex. A review of the literature reveals that concerns center around the quality of life of the…

  7. Neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lauren H; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-11-01

    Infants' direct interactions with caregivers have been shown to powerfully influence social and cognitive development. In contrast, little is known about the cognitive influence of social contexts beyond the infant's immediate interactions with others, for example, the communities in which infants live. The current study addressed this issue by asking whether neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' propensity to learn from diverse social partners. Data were taken from a series of experiments in which 19-month-old infants from monolingual, English-speaking homes were tested in paradigms that assessed their tendency to imitate the actions of an adult who spoke either English or Spanish. Infants who lived in more linguistically diverse neighborhoods imitated more of the Spanish speaker's actions. This relation was observed in two separate datasets and found to be independent from variation in infants' general imitative abilities, age, median family income and population density. These results provide novel evidence suggesting that infants' social learning is predicted by the diversity of the communities in which they live.

  8. Young adults' reactions to infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, C.C.C.; Doornen, L.J.P. van; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    An infant's optimal development is determined to a great extent by the adequate and sensitive responses of the caregiver. The adequacy and sensitivity of a reaction to an infant in distress (i.e. crying) will partly depend on the causal attributions of the crying and on the individual's sympathy for

  9. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  10. The Efficiency of Sensory Integration Interventions in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekçetin, Serkan; Akı, Esra; Üstünyurt, Zeynep; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of individualized sensory integration interventions on the sensory processing functions of preterm infants. Thirty-four preterm infants (intervention group) at a corrected age of seven months and 34 term infants (control group) were included. The preterm infants underwent an eight-week sensory integration intervention. Before and after the intervention, the preterm infants' sensory processing functions were evaluated using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and compared with those of term infants. Preterm infants had significantly poorer sensory processing function preintervention when compared with term infants. There was a significant improvement in preterm infants' sensory processing functions after the sensory integration intervention. In conclusion, preterm infants should be evaluated for sensory processing disorders and individualized sensory integration interventions should be implemented.

  11. Heart size in new born infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Won; Yu, Yun Jeong; Chung, Hye Kyung [Eul-ji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Cardiac size of 291 new-bone infants was measured using the method illustrated on Fig 1. Among the 291 infants, 53 were asphyxiated, and asphyxia was only regarded from Apgar score below 6 on 1 min. and 5 min. Remaining 238 infants were normal, and classified to group with lung abnormalities and without lung abnormalities on chest A-P film. The results are as follows; 1. The average CTR. of normal group was 52.37. (C/T1; 54.89, C/T2; 49.43, C/T3; 49.15, C/T4;55.97) 2. The average CTR. of asphyxiated group was 54.91 (C/T1; 57.13, C/T2; 51.69, C/T3; 51.94, C/T4;58.25) 3. Consequently, asphyxiated infants revealed larger cardiac size than normal infant group.

  12. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studies...... are based on 2D images, but few are based on 3D information. In this paper, we present a model-based approach for tracking infants in 3D. The study extends a novel study on graph-based motion tracking of infants and we show that the extension improves the tracking results. A 3D model is constructed...... that resembles the body surface of an infant, where the model is based on simple geometric shapes and a hierarchical skeleton model....

  13. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  14. Inferences about infants' visual brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    We discuss hypotheses that link the measurements we can make with infants to inferences about their developing neural mechanisms. First, we examine evidence from the sensitivity to visual stimulus properties seen in infants' responses, using both electrophysiological measures (transient and steady-state recordings of visual evoked potentials/visual event-related potentials) and behavioral measures and compare this with the sensitivity of brain processes, known from data on mammalian neurophysiology and human neuroimaging. The evidence for multiple behavioral systems with different patterns of visual sensitivity is discussed. Second, we consider the analogies which can be made between infants' behavior and that of adults with identified brain damage, and extend these links to hypothesize about the brain basis of visual deficits in infants and children with developmental disorders. Last, we consider how these lines of data might allow us to form "inverse linking hypotheses" about infants' visual experience.

  15. Breastfeeding the premature infant and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda

    2012-02-01

    Research indicates that feeding preterm infants at the breast is physiologically less stressful than bottle-feeding. Poor sucking reflexes make it difficult to initiate breastfeeding for these high-risk infants. Mothers need to understand the difficulties of breastfeeding, as well as the advantages for herself and her baby. It is important for nurses to be well educated on how preterm infants are breastfed and how to best support the mother through her experience. The nurse must focus on caring for the infant as well as fostering the mother-infant connection to promote breastfeeding. A mother will need continual support, encouragement, and advice from the nurse, while teaching her baby how to breastfeed.

  16. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  17. Enteral nutrition of the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutritional support for preterm infants is critical because such support influences long-term outcome. Minimal enteral feeding should be initiated as soon as possible if an infant is stable and if feeding advancement is recommended as relevant to the clinical course. Maternal milk is the gold standard for enteral feeding, but fortification may be needed to achieve optimal growth in a rapidly growing premature infant. Erythromycin may aid in promoting gastrointestinal motility in cases that exhibit feeding intolerance. Selected preterm infants need vitamins, mineral supplements, and calorie enhancers to meet their nutritional needs. Despite all that is known about this topic, additional research is needed to guide postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants in order to maintain optimal growth and neurodevelopment.

  18. Iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Young; Kim, Keun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background In Korea, the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among older infants and young children remains high. To detect IDA early and to reduce its adverse impact, we assessed the characteristics of infants and young children who had IDA or were at risk of developing IDA, or who exhibited characteristics associated with severe anemia. Methods Among the 1,782 IDA-affected children aged 6 months to 18 years who visited the hospital, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records and laboratory data of 1,330 IDA-affected children aged 6–23 months who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2013. We excluded patients with a C-reactive protein level ≥5 mg/dL. Results IDA was predominant in boys (2.14:1) during infancy and early childhood. The peak IDA incidence was noted among infants aged 9–12 months. Only 7% patients exhibited symptoms of IDA, while 23.6% patients with severe IDA demonstrated classic symptoms/signs of IDA. Low birth weight (LBW) infants with IDA demonstrated low adherence to iron supplementation. In a multivariate analysis, prolonged breastfeeding without iron fortification (odds ratio [OR] 5.70), and a LBW (OR 6.49) were identified as risk factors of severe anemia. Conclusion LBW infants need more attention in order to increase their adherence to iron supplementation. For the early detection of IDA, nutritional status of all infants, and iron batteries of high-risk infants (LBW infants, infants with prolonged breastfeeding, picky eaters, and/or infants with the presence of IDA symptoms) should be evaluated at their health screening visits. PMID:28090490

  19. [Treatment of burns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyatier, J L; Latarjet, J; Comparin, J P; Zaragori, M; Robert, A; Braye, F; Weill, E; Masson, C L

    1995-10-01

    Because of the potential severity of their residual deformities, burn injuries in infants justify an early management in specialized centres when they cover more than 5% of body surface and in every case when hands, face, or external genitalia are concerned. Cooling with cold water is the first aid treatment to be performed as early as possible after the injury. The treatment in specialized centres must be both general and surgical. General treatment includes fluid and electrolyte therapy, temperature control, appropriate nutrition and pain suppression. Pain suppression is a major part of the treatment and morphine must be largely used. Surgical treatment starts as soon as the patient arrives in the centre and is eventually performed under general anesthesia: all the burned areas are covered with occlusive dressings. Infections are prevented by systematic cultures and adjusted antibiotic therapy. A vigorous rehabilitation program must be instituted as soon as possible: massages, compressive clothes, splints, physical therapy, plastic surgery. Primary prevention by sustained parental education is important in order to reduce the frequency of burn injuries in infants.

  20. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  1. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Vicente, Juan Francisco; Bernal-Cava, Maria Jose; Lopez-Fernandez, Amparo; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Bodenstab, Stefan; Sanchez-Siles, Luis Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents). Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606) and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494). Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life. PMID:28098769

  2. Infants' social withdrawal symptoms assessed with a direct infant observation method in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puura, Kaija; Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Luoma, Ilona; Kaukonen, Pälvi; Guedeney, Antoine; Salmelin, Raili; Tamminen, Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Distressed infants may withdraw from social interaction, but recognising infants' social withdrawal is difficult. The aims of the study were to see whether an infant observation method can be reliably used by front line workers, and to examine the prevalence of infants' social withdrawal symptoms. A random sample of 363 families with four, eight or 18-month-old infants participated in the study. The infants were examined by general practitioners (GPs) in well-baby clinics with the Alarm Distress BaBy Scale (ADBB), an observation method developed for clinical settings. A score of five or more on the ADBB Scale in two subsequent assessments at a two-week interval was regarded as a sign of clinically significant infant social withdrawal. Kappas were calculated for the GPs' correct rating of withdrawn/not withdrawn against a set of videotapes rated by developer of the method, Professor Guedeney and his research group. The kappas for their ratings ranged from 0.5 to 1. The frequency of infants scoring above the cut off in two subsequent assessments was 3%. The ADBB Scale is a promising method for detecting infant social withdrawal in front line services. Three percents of infants were showing sustained social withdrawal as a sign of distress in this normal population sample.

  3. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  4. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Haro-Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents. Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606 and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494. Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life.

  5. Nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; O'Connor, Deborah L; Wang, Danhua; Rigo, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Early nutritional support of preterm infants is critical to life-long health and well being. Numerous studies have demonstrated that preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity, including disturbances in brain development. To date, much attention has focused on enhancing the nutritional support of very low and extremely low birth weight infants to improve survival and quality of life. In most countries, preterm infants are sent home before their expected date of term birth for economic or other reasons. It is debatable whether these newborns require special nutritional regimens or discharge formulas. Furthermore, guidelines that specify how to feed very preterm infants after hospital discharge are scarce and conflicting. On the other hand, the late-preterm infant presents a challenge to health care providers immediately after birth when decisions must be made about how and where to care for these newborns. Considering these infants as well babies may place them at a disadvantage. Late-preterm infants have unique and often-unrecognized medical vulnerabilities and nutritional needs that predispose them to greater rates of morbidity and hospital readmissions. Poor or inadequate feeding during hospitalization may be one of the main reasons why late-preterm infants have difficulty gaining weight right after birth. Providing optimal nutritional support to late premature infants may improve survival and quality of life as it does for very preterm infants. In this work, we present a review of the literature and provide separate recommendations for the care and feeding of late-preterm infants and very preterm infants after discharge. We identify gaps in current knowledge as well as priorities for future research. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infant-Mother Attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Mary McMahan; Pisani, Lelia; Oumar, Fadimata

    2001-01-01

    Examined infant-mother attachment in Mali's Dogon ethnic group. Found that distribution of Strange Situation classifications was 67 percent secure, 0 percent avoidant, 8 percent resistant, and 25 percent disorganized. Infant attachment security related to quality of mother-infant communication. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly…

  7. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  8. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  9. Coccidioidomycosis in infants: A retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica M; Graciano, Ana Lia; Dabrowski, Lukasz; Kuzmic, Brenik; Tablizo, Mary Anne

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to adults, coccidioidomycosis is a rare disease in infants and the mechanisms of disease acquisition are not well described in infants. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in infants in an endemic area. We performed a retrospective observational study of all patients less than 12 months of age admitted to a tertiary free standing children's hospital from 2003-2012 diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis. Thirteen infants were hospitalized during the study period. The majority of the patients presented with upper and/or lower respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptoms included fever (77%), cough (61%), and respiratory distress (38%). Disseminated disease, included pericardial effusion, neck abscess, and lesions in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and left temporoparietal skull. Fluconazole was the initial, antifungal agent used. Amphotericin B was reserved for significant lung disease and disseminated cases. Failed response to fluconazole and amphotericin B were treated with a combination of voriconazole and caspofungin. Average length of treatment was 4 years. All patients survived to hospital discharge. The majority of the patients had resolution of chest radiograph and coccidiodal complement fixing antibody titers. Infant coccidioidomycosis has a non-specific presentation and can mimic common infant respiratory illnesses. In endemic areas, coccidioidomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infants with pulmonary symptoms unresponsive to conventional treatment. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:858-862. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Advances in nutrition of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jane E; Cormack, Barbara E; Alexander, Tanith; Alsweiler, Jane M; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2017-04-22

    Nutrition of newborn infants, particularly of those born preterm, has advanced substantially in recent years. Extremely preterm infants have high nutrient demands that are challenging to meet, such that growth faltering is common. Inadequate growth is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and although improved early growth is associated with better cognitive outcomes, there might be a trade-off in terms of worse metabolic outcomes, although the contribution of early nutrition to these associations is not established. New developments include recommendations to increase protein supply, improve formulations of parenteral lipids, and provide mineral supplements while encouraging human milk feeding. However, high quality evidence of the risks and benefits of these developments is lacking. Clinical trials are also needed to assess the effect on preterm infants of experiencing the smell and taste of milk, to determine whether boys and girls should be fed differently, and to test effects of insulin and IGF-1 supplements on growth and developmental outcomes. Moderate-to-late preterm infants have neonatal nutritional challenges that are similar to those infants born at earlier gestations, but even less high quality evidence exists upon which to base clinical decisions. The focus of research in nutrition of infants born at term is largely directed at new formula products that will improve cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Providing the most effective nutrition to preterm infants should be prioritised as an important focus of neonatal care research to improve long-term metabolic and developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal Time of Tracheotomy in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Unal MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Infants with respiratory failure may require prolonged intubation. There is no consensus on the time of tracheotomy in neonates. Methods. We evaluated infants applied tracheotomy, time of procedure, and early complications in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU retrospectively from January 2012 to December 2013. Results. We identified 9 infants applied tracheotomy with gestational ages 34 to 41 weeks. Their diagnoses were hypotonic infant, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal cleft, neck mass, and chronic lung disease. Age on tracheotomy ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. Early complication ratio was 33.3% with minimal bleeding (1, air leak (1, and canal revision requirement (1. We discharged 7 infants, and 2 infants died in the NICU. Conclusion. Tracheotomy makes infant nursing easy for staff and families even at home. If carried out by a trained team, the procedure is safe and has low complication. When to apply tracheotomy should be individualized, and airway damage due to prolonged intubation versus risks of tracheotomy should be taken into consideration.

  12. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia R. Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow’s milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow’s milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  13. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Camilia R; Ling, Pei-Ra; Blackburn, George L

    2016-05-11

    Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk. A number of alternatives to cow's milk-based formula also exist. In this article, we review the nutritional information of breast milk and infant formulas for better understanding of the importance of breastfeeding and the uses of infant formula from birth to 12 months of age when a substitute form of nutrition is required.

  14. Preventing infant abductions: an infant security program transitioned into an interdisciplinary model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Jacqueline; Pyka, Jeanine; Burks, Colleen; Pisegna, Lily; Gador, Rachel Ann

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to identify vulnerabilities. By establishing an interdisciplinary approach to infant security, participants were able to unravel a complicated concept, systematically analyze the gaps, and agree to a plan of action. This resulted in improved communication and clarification of roles between the nursing and security divisions. Supply costs decreased by 17.4% after the first year of implementation. Most importantly, this project enhanced and strengthened the existing infant abduction prevention measures, hard wired the importance of infant security, and minimized vulnerabilities.

  15. Social Welfare Expenditures and Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social welfare expenditures on infant mortality (deaths younger than age 1 per 1,000 live births) across 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data are obtained from various sources including the OECD, World Health Organization, and World Bank. The findings indicate that among three social welfare expenditure measures for families, the expenditures on family cash allowances are predicted to reduce infant mortality. However, the other two measures-the expenditures on parental and maternity leave and expenditures on family services-have no significant effects on infant mortality.

  16. The nasogastric tube syndrome in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jeffrey; Balakrishnan, Karthik; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Hart, Catherine K

    2014-05-01

    This series of three patients is the first description of the presentation, clinical course, and endoscopic findings of nasogastric tube-related airway distress, or nasogastric tube syndrome, in infants. We identify key differences in disease features from those described in adults, based on our literature review. Specifically, infant nasogastric tube syndrome presented as significant respiratory distress and postcricoid inflammation without vocal fold immobility. Symptoms resolved more quickly (mean±SD, 2±1 days) than reported in adults. We suggest that nasogastric tube syndrome should be considered in infants with otherwise unexplained respiratory distress, even in the absence of impaired vocal fold mobility.

  17. SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies. PMID:25152535

  18. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  19. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T., ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  20. Sleep architecture in infants of substance-abusing mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Hanft, A; Burnham, M; Goodlin-Jones, B; Anders, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal, year-long study compared sleep-wake state organization in two groups of infants-infants whose mothers abused substances during their pregnancies and nonexposed, typically developing, age-matched comparison infants-to determine whether differences in sleep-wake state organization existed between the two groups. Seventeen infants of mothers who were participating in a parent-infant residential treatment program for substance abuse were enrolled. Their sleep-wake state organiz...

  1. Relationship between maternal contingent responsiveness and infant social expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Mcquaid, Nancy Ella

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal contingent responsiveness and 4- and 5-month-old infants' (N = 61) social expectation behaviour in a Still Face procedure. Mothers were asked to interact with their infants for 2 minutes (Interactive phase), remain still-faced for 1 minute (Still Face phase), and resume interaction for 2 minutes. Mother and infant behaviour was assessed for the frequency of infant and mother smiles, mother smiles that were contingent to infant smiles d...

  2. An Opinion on "Staging" of Infant Formula: A Developmental Perspective on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is a dynamic fluid with compositional changes occurring throughout the period of lactation. Some of these changes in nutrient concentrations reflect the successively slowing growth rate and developmental changes in metabolic requirements that infants undergo during the first year of life. Infant formula, in contrast, has a static composition, intended to meet the nutritional requirements of infants from birth to 6 or 12 months of age. To better fit the metabolic needs of infants and to avoid nutrient limitations or excesses, we suggest that infant formulas should change in composition with the age of the infant, that is, different formulas are created/used for different ages during the first year of life. We propose that specific formulas for 0 to 3 months (stage 1), 3 to 6 months (stage 2), and 6 to 12 months (stage 3) of age may be nutritionally and physiologically advantageous to infants. Although this initially may impose some difficult practical/conceptual issues, we believe that this staging concept would improve nutrition of formula-fed infants and, ultimately, improve outcomes and make their performance more similar to that of breast-fed infants.

  3. Potential Central Nervous System Involvement in Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Bradley T

    2015-07-01

    Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) in infancy which includes Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the commonest diagnosed cause of death in the United States for infants 1 month to 1 year of age. Central nervous system mechanisms likely contribute to many of these deaths. We discuss some of these including seizure disorders, prolonged breath holding, arousal from sleep and its habituation, laryngeal reflex apnea potentiated by upper airway infection, and failure of brainstem-mediated autoresuscitation. In the conclusions section, we speculate how lives saved through back sleeping might result in later developmental problems in certain infants who otherwise might have died while sleeping prone.

  4. A study of auditory preferences in nonhandicapped infants and infants with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, S M; Cunningham, C C; Joyce, P F

    1981-01-01

    11 infants with Down's syndrome (MA 9.2 months, CA 12.7 months) and 10 of 11 nonhandicapped infants (MA 9.6 months, CA 9.3 months) demonstrated that they could operate an automated device which enabled them to choose to listen to 1 of a pair of auditory signals. All subjects showed preferential responding. Both groups of infants showed a significant preference for nursery rhymes sung by a female voice rather than played on musical instruments. The infants with Down's syndrome had much longer response durations for the more complex auditory stimuli. The apparatus provides a useful technique for studying language development in both normal and abnormal populations.

  5. Related visual impairment to mother-infant interaction and development in infants with bilateral retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Michie; Hirose, Taiko; Toju, Kyoko; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Okamitsu, Motoko; Teramoto, Taeko; Omori, Takahide; Kawamura, Aki; Takeo, Naoko

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted with infants diagnosed with bilateral retinoblastoma (RB) and their mothers. It explored characteristics of the mother-infant interaction, the infants' developmental characteristics and related risk factors. Cross-sectional statistical analysis was performed with 18 dyads of one-year-old infants with bilateral RB and their mothers. Using the Japanese Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (JNCATS) results showed that infants with RB had significantly lower scores compared to normative Japanese scores on all of the infants' subscales and "Child's contingency" (p visual impairment at high risk of developmental problems had a pass rate of 0% on six JNCATS items. There were positive correlations between Developmental quotients (DQ) and JNCATS score of "Responsiveness to caregiver" (ρ = 0.50, p visual impairment were characterized by high likelihood of developmental delays and problematic behaviors; they tended not to turn their face or eyes toward their mothers, smile in response to their mothers' talking to them or the latter's changing body language or facial expressions, or react in a contingent manner in their interactions. These infant behaviors noted by their mothers shared similarities with developmental characteristics of children with visual impairments. These findings indicated a need to provide support promoting mother-infant interactions consistent with the developmental characteristics of RB infants with visual impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. More than maternal sensitivity shapes attachment: infant coping and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Santos, Pedro Lopes Dos; Beeghly, Marjorie; Tronick, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a set of factors from multiple levels of influence: infant temperament, infant regulatory behavior, and maternal sensitivity on infant's attachment. Our sample consisted of 48 infants born prematurely and their mothers. At 1 and 3 months of age, mothers described their infants' behavior using the Escala de Temperamento do Bebé. At 3 months of age, infants' capacity to regulate stress was evaluated during Tronick's Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. At 9 months of age, mothers' sensitivity was evaluated during free play using the CARE-Index. At 12 months of age, infants' attachment security was assessed during Ainsworth's Strange Situation. A total of 16 infants were classified as securely attached, 17 as insecure-avoidant, and 15 as insecure-resistant. Mothers of securely attached infants were more likely than mothers of insecure infants to describe their infants as less difficult and to be more sensitive to their infants in free play. In turn, secure infants exhibited more positive responses during the Still-Face. Infants classified as insecure-avoidant were more likely to self-comfort during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more controlling during free play. Insecure-resistant exhibited higher levels of negative arousal during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more unresponsive in free play. These findings show that attachment quality is influenced by multiple factors, including infant temperament, coping behavior, and maternal sensitivity.

  7. Breast vs. bottle: differences in the growth of Croatian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Zlatko; Pirički, Antonija Perl; Kenjerić, Daniela; Haničar, Branka; Tanasić, Igor

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the paper was to compare the growth of rural Croatian infants with 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth standards and to evaluate the potential preventive influence of breastfeeding on the development of obesity in infancy. Two hundred three infant-mother pairs from Baranja, an Eastern region of Croatia, were enrolled into this study. Retrospective evaluation of infants' medical charts was used to obtain anthropometric data recorded at the birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Infant feeding mode was self-reported by mothers. Breastfed infants gained the least weight of all observed groups. Up to 6 months of age, formula fed infants had the highest weight gain and after 6 months of age, mixed milk fed infants had the highest weight gain. At 12 months of age, 6.4% of all study infants and 7.6% of mixed milk fed infants were at risk of overweight, while the same risk for the group of breastfed infants was 4%. Most of the study infants achieved higher values of body mass and length than the child growth standards. Exclusively breastfed infants, in comparison with other study groups (formula fed infants, mixed milk fed infants and cow's milk fed infants), had lower weight-for-length z-scores during the first year, which suggests that breastfeeding may have a preventive impact on obesity development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  9. Illness Human - MDC_InfantMortality2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the rate of infant mortality per 1000 births in Miami-Dade County, 2006. Rate does not include out of...

  10. Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Project (CIMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf

    practice in screening for and preventing adverse infant mental health risks. Aims: The overall aim of CIMHP is to test the feasibility of an infant mental health screening and indicated prevention system and its capacity to (1) detect children at risk of longer term mental health adversities and (2) alter...... these risks in a cost effective way in a general population. Methods: In a period of 20 months 8.800 mothers and infants in Copenhagen are screened (at 2, 4 and 8 months) using two standardized screening instruments: 1) Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) in detecting infant social withdrawal and 2) Edinburg...... Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in detecting maternal postpartum depression. A sample of 326 eligible parent(s) enters into a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an attachment based intervention program, Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P), compared to Care as usual (CAU) in preventing...

  11. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    consecutively enrolled into the study. Results: The preliminary findings were created in a theoretical framework of self-esteem understood in a physiological perspective. The interviews showed that individual, relational and structured aspects influenced the parents’ experiences of their self-esteem after birth...... of their preterm infant. The fathers described feeling torn between taking care of the mother and the infant admitted to the NICU. The mothers experienced difficulties in remembering what happened the first 24 hours after giving birth. The relational aspects affected the relationship between mothers and fathers...... of their self-esteem in the first 24 hours after the birth of a preterm infant are influenced by division (the fathers) and amnesia (the mothers). Later, when the parents build up their sense of parenthood they become very susceptible to the mutual relationship, the relationship to the infant and closest...

  12. Prognostic Accuracy of Electroencephalograms in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Emilie Pi; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Greisen, Gorm;

    2017-01-01

    (267 infants). Any aEEG background abnormality was a predictor of abnormal outcome. For prediction of a developmental quotient ...CONTEXT: Brain injury is common in preterm infants, and predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic test accuracy of the background activity of the EEG recorded as amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) or conventional EEG early in life in preterm infants...... for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. STUDY SELECTION: We included observational studies that had obtained an aEEG or EEG within 7 days of life in preterm infants and reported...

  13. An interacting systems model of infant habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Mareschal, Denis

    2004-10-01

    Habituation and related procedures are the primary behavioral tools used to assess perceptual and cognitive competence in early infancy. This article introduces a neurally constrained computational model of infant habituation. The model combines the two leading process theories of infant habituation into a single functional system that is grounded in functional brain circuitry. The HAB model (for Habituation, Autoassociation, and Brain) proposes that habituation behaviors emerge from the opponent, complementary processes of hippocampal selective inhibition and cortical long-term potentiation. Simulations of a seminal experiment by Fantz [Visual experience in infants: Decreased attention familiar patterns relative to novel ones. Science, 146, 668-670, 1964] are reported. The ability of the model to capture the fine detail of infant data (especially age-related changes in performance) underlines the useful contribution of neurocomputational models to our understanding of behavior in general, and of early cognition in particular.

  14. Future Applications of Antioxidants in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer W.; Davis, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review will examine the unique susceptibility of premature infants to oxidative stress, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of common disorders of the preterm infant, and potential for therapeutic interventions using enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic antioxidants. Recent Findings Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the ability to detoxify them with the help of antioxidants. The premature infant is especially susceptible to ROS-induced damage because of inadequate antioxidant stores at birth, as well as impaired upregulation in response to oxidant stress. Thus, the premature infant is at increased risk for the development of ROS-induced diseases of the newborn, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and periventricular leukomalacia. Summary Potential therapies for ROS-induced disease include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant preparations. More research is required to determine the beneficial effects of supplemental antioxidant therapy. PMID:21150443

  15. Topiramate and Metabolic Acidosis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The acid-base metabolism was investigated in 9 infants and toddlers, aged 5 months to 2.3 years (median, 6 months, treated with topiramate (TPM for seizures at Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

  16. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Everyone: Easy-to-read Schedules Infants and Children Preteens and Teens Adults Display Immunization Schedules and Quiz ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  17. Intradermal vaccination for infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Akihiko; Aizawa, Yuta

    2016-09-01

    Intradermal (ID) vaccination induces a more potent immune response and requires lower vaccine doses as compared with standard vaccination routes. To deliver ID vaccines effectively and consistently, an ID delivery device has been developed and is commercially available for adults. The clinical application of ID vaccines for infants and children is much anticipated because children receive several vaccines, on multiple occasions, during infancy and childhood. However, experience with ID vaccines is limited and present evidence is sparse and inconsistent. ID delivery devices are not currently available for infants and children, but recent studies have examined skin thickness in this population and reported that it did not differ in proportion to body size in infants, children, and adults. These results are helpful in developing new ID devices and for preparing new vaccines in infants and children.

  18. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  19. Young adults' reactions to infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hechler, C.H.; Beijers, R.; Weerth, C. de

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether young childless adults show negative emotions and cognitive disturbances when listening to infant crying, compared to other disturbing noises, and whether negative emotions and cognitive disturbances are associated. METHODS: We tested the cognitive performances and emotiona

  20. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.

    OpenAIRE

    O`Sullivan, K.; Taylor, M.

    1983-01-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  1. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M

    1983-09-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld.

  2. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire - Infant Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudia Castro; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Pinto, Tiago Miguel

    2017-08-23

    This study proposed a version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire for infants under 12 months (CSHQ-I). The sample was comprised of 299 infants, aged between 2 weeks and 12 months. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four subscales: Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Anxiety, Positive Sleep Habits, and Daytime Sleepiness. The CSHQ-I total scale presented good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The CSHQ-I also showed good concurrent validity, with significant associations found between the CSHQ-I total scale and subscales and a measure of infant sleep-wake behaviors. The present study suggested the CSHQ-I as a reliable instrument to assess sleep problems in infants during the first year of life. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabovski Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  4. Infant feeding practices in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S A; Ngo, T T; Knodel, J; Le, H; Tran, T T

    1995-12-01

    Data from the 1988 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey and the 1994 Demographic Survey are used to determine the trends in breast feeding and amenorrhea among ever married women of reproductive age. Life table procedures are used to calculate monthly probabilities of weaning. Then five month moving averages of equal weight are computed for observed monthly probabilities of weaning. The smoothed probabilities are used to calculate the cumulative proportion weaned at successive monthly ages. Breast feeding is universal in Vietnam. Infants are put to the breast earlier when delivery occurs at home. Almost all children are breast fed through the first six months, and 80% are breast fed for a year. The median duration was 15.3 months in the 1988 survey and 15.9 months in the 1994 survey based on life table methods. Calculations based on current status methods were slightly higher for both years. Rural women tended to breast feed longer than urban women. Children who had mothers working in agriculture were breast fed longer than children whose mothers had other occupations. Socioeconomic factors did not correlate well with breast feeding duration. Findings indicate that over 66% of breast fed infants aged under 3 months were given plain water, and over 90% of infants aged 3-5 months were given plain water. Fresh cow's milk is not given to Vietnamese infants. Juices were given to children aged older than 6 months. Sugar water was given to younger infants. The introduction of supplemental liquids was more common in urban areas. Few infants during the first few months of life were given solid or mushy foods. But by 4 months of age, 50% of infants were given solid or mushy foods, and the practice was more common in rural areas. The urban-rural gap closed by 6 months of age. Over 90% of infants received solids at 9 months. It is expected that modernization will negatively impact on breast feeding.

  5. Cortical Source Localization of Infant Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, GD; Richards, JE

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density EEG recording and cortical source loca...

  6. Optimizing nutrition of the preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William W Jr

    2017-01-01

    The goal of nutrition of the preterm infant is to meet the growth rate of the healthy fetus of the same gestational age and to produce the same body composition of the healthy fetus in terms of organ growth, tissue components, and cell number and structure. Nutritional quantity and quality are fundamental for normal growth and development of preterm infants, including neurodevelopmental outcomes. Failure to provide the necessary amounts of all of the essential nutrients has produced not only growth failure, but also increased morbidity and less than optimal neurodevelopment. Growth velocities during the NICU hospitalization period for preterm infants exert a significant effect on neurodevelopmental and anthropometric outcomes. Despite the obvious need for optimal nutrition, growth failure is almost universal among preterm infants. There is every reason, therefore, to optimize nutrition of the preterm infant, in terms of total energy and protein, but also in terms of individual components such as amino acids, specific carbohydrates and lipids, and even oxygen. This review presents scientific rationale for nutrient requirements and practical guidelines and approaches to intravenous and enteral feeding for preterm infants. Intravenous feeding, including amino acids, should be started right after birth at rates that are appropriate for the gestational age of the infant. Enteral feeding should be started as soon as possible after birth, using mother's colostrum and milk as first choices. Enteral feeding should begin with trophic amounts and advanced as rapidly as tolerated, decreasing IV nutrition accordingly, while maintaining nutrient intakes at recommended rates. Feeding protocols are valuable for improving nutrition and related outcomes. Further research is needed to determine the optimal nutrition and rate of growth in preterm infants that will achieve optimal neurocognitive benefits while minimizing the longer-term risk of chronic diseases.

  7. Trial of Immune Globulin in Infant Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV in 122 infants in California with confirmed infant botulism (75 caused by type A Clostridium botulinum toxin, and 47 by type B toxin was conducted at the California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA; National Botulism Surveillance and Reference Laboratory, CDC and P, Atlanta; and Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley.

  8. Speech versus singing: Infants choose happier sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieve eCorbeil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants’ attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech versus hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children’s song spoken versus sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children’s song versus a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.

  9. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  10. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  11. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  12. Perinatal Factors Associated with Infant Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between birth outcomes and child maltreatment remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to test whether infants without congenital or chronic disease who are low birth weight (LBW, preterm, or small for gestational age (SGA are at an increased risk of being maltreated.Methods: A hospital-based case-control study of infants without congenital or chronic diseases who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2005 was conducted. Cases (N = 35 and controls (N = 29 were compared on mean birth weight, gestational age, and z-score of birth weight.Results: SGA was significantly associated with infant maltreatment after adjusting for other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio: 4.45, 95% CI: 1.29–15.3. LBW and preterm births were not associated with infant maltreatment.Conclusion: Infants born as SGA are 4.5 times more at risk of maltreatment, even if they do not have a congenital or chronic disease. This may be because SGA infants tend to have poorer neurological development which leads them to be hard-to-soothe and places them at risk for maltreatment.

  13. [Developmental change in facial recognition by premature infants during infancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yukihiko; Kusaka, Takashi; Nishida, Tomoko; Isobe, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    Premature infants are thought to be at increased risk for developmental disorders. We evaluated facial recognition by premature infants during early infancy, as this ability has been reported to be impaired commonly in developmentally disabled children. In premature infants and full-term infants at the age of 4 months (4 corrected months for premature infants), visual behaviors while performing facial recognition tasks were determined and analyzed using an eye-tracking system (Tobii T60 manufactured by Tobii Technologics, Sweden). Both types of infants had a preference towards normal facial expressions; however, no preference towards the upper face was observed in premature infants. Our study suggests that facial recognition ability in premature infants may develop differently from that in full-term infants.

  14. Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Human milk contains an abundance of biologically active components that are highly likely to contribute to the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding. Many of these components are proteins; this article describes some of these proteins, such as α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development. An important consideration when adding bioactive proteins to infant formula is that the total protein content of formula needs to be reduced, because formula-fed infants have significantly higher concentrations of serum amino acids, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen than do breastfed infants. When reducing the protein content of formula, the amino acid composition of the formula protein becomes important because serum concentrations of the essential amino acids should not be lower than those in breastfed infants. Both the supply of essential amino acids and the bioactivities of milk proteins are dependent on their digestibility: some proteins act only in intact form, others act in the form of larger or small peptides formed during digestion, and some are completely digested and serve as a source of amino acids. The purity of the proteins or protein fractions, potential contaminants of the proteins (such as lipopolysaccharide), as well as the degree of heat processing used during their isolation also need to be considered. It is likely that there will be more bioactive components added to infant formulas in the near future, but guidelines on how to assess their bioactivities in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical studies need to be established. The extent of testing needed is likely going to depend on the degree of complexity of the components and their bioequivalence with the human compounds whose effects they are intended to mimic.

  15. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in preterm infants: association with neurodevelopmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Reina; Sato, Yoshiaki; Ito, Miharu; Sugiyama, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Chikako; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Saito, Akiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Natsume, Jun; Hayakawa, Masahiro

    2017-07-19

    To compare magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolite ratios in preterm infants at term-equivalent age with those in term infants and to evaluate the association between MRS metabolites and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months corrected age in preterm infants. We studied infants born at a gestational age preterm infants and 16 term infants were enrolled in this study. Preterm infants with normal development at 18 months showed significantly lower NAA/Cho ratios in the frontal white matter than term infants. There were no differences in the Cre/Cho ratios between preterm and term infants. At 18 months corrected age, 9 preterm infants with a mild developmental delay showed significantly lower NAA/Cho ratios in the thalamus than 24 preterm infants with normal development. Preterm infants at term-equivalent age showed reduced MRS metabolites (NAA/Cho) compared with term infants. Decreased NAA/Cho ratios in the thalamus were associated with neurodevelopmental delay at 18 months corrected age in preterm infants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. From the father's point of view: how father's representations of the infant impact on father-infant interaction and infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R A S; De Waard, I E M; Tooten, A; Hoffenkamp, H N; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2014-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that fathers uniquely contribute to the development of their infants, relatively few studies have focused on the father-infant relationship during early infancy. In the present longitudinal study we included 189 fathers and examined whether their early attachment representations of the infant predicted future quality of father-infant interaction. We also investigated whether these representations were related to the infant's development. Paternal attachment representations were assessed by the Working Model of Child Interview (WMCI) at 6 months post-partum and classified fathers' representations as 'balanced' or 'unbalanced' (disengaged or distorted). At 24 months, father-infant interaction was videotaped and analyzed by the NICHD coding scales. Further, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) was administered to evaluate the infant's verbal development. Results revealed that fathers' early attachment representations of the infant predict the quality of future father-infant interaction, with balanced representations more strongly associated with more favorable behaviors in fathers and infants. In addition, paternal interactive behavior appears an important mechanism through which paternal representations influence the development of the infant. These results underline the importance of early identification of fathers with unbalanced attachment representations, and we therefore recommend that more attention should be directed to the quality of the early father-infant relationship in clinical settings.

  17. Groupness in Preverbal Infants: Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Benjamin Sylvester; Smithson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infant sociability is generally conceived in terms of dyadic capacities and behaviors. Recently, quantitative evidence has been published to support arguments that infants achieve a criterion for groupness: the capacity to interact simultaneously with two others. Such studies equate this capacity with alternating dyadic acts to the two other members of an interacting trio. Here we propose a stricter threefold criterion for infant groupness, of which the crux is whether the social behavior of an infant at time B is shown to be influenced by what two or more group-members were previously doing at time A. We test the viability of this conceptualization: (a) through its justification of the novel laboratory procedure of studying infant sociability in infant–peer quartets (rather than trios); and, (b) in an analysis of a pilot study of gaze-behavior recorded in 5-min interactions among two quartets of infants aged 6–9 months. We call this a ‘proof of concept’ because our aim is to show that infants are capable of groupness, when groupness is conceptualized in a supra-dyadic way—not that all infants will manifest it, nor that all conditions will produce it, nor that it is commonplace in infants’ everyday lives. We found that both quartets did achieve the minimum criterion of groupness that we propose: mutual gaze predicting coordinated gaze (where two babies, A and B, are looking at each other, and B is then looked at by C, and sometimes D) more strongly than the reverse. There was a significant absence of ‘parallel mutual gaze,’ where the four babies pair off. We conclude that, under specific conditions, preverbal infants can manifest supra-dyadic groupness. Infants’ capacities to exhibit groupness by 9 months of age, and the paucity of parallel mutual gaze in our data, run counter to the assumption that infant sociability, when in groups, is always generated by a dyadic program. Our conceptualization and demonstration of groupness in 8-month-olds thus

  18. Infant Social Development across the Transition from Crawling to Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    The onset of walking is a developmental transition that sets in motion a cascade of change across a range of domains, including social interactions and language learning. However, research on the unfolding of such change in the infant across this transition is limited. This investigation utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effect of walking acquisition on infant social development and parent perceptions of the infant to explore how changes in these factors relate with infant language development. Parents reported on infant social behaviors and their perception of the infant, as well as motor and language development, in 2-week intervals from 10.5 to 13 months of age. Mixed linear models revealed infant initiation of joint engagement (e.g., pointing, bringing objects to the parent) and following of the parent's joint engagement cues (e.g., point following, gaze following) increased as a function of infant walking experience, particularly between 2- and 4-weeks after the onset of walking, independent of age. Additionally, the parent's perception of the infant as an individual increased between 2- and 4-weeks after the infant began to walk. Finally, the unique relations of infant walking experience, following of social cues, and the parents' perception of the infant as an individual with infant language development were examined. Infant following of joint engagement behaviors and parent perception of the infant as an individual were related to receptive, but not productive, vocabulary size. Additionally, infant walking experience remained a significant predictor of infant receptive and productive language. These findings provide insight on important factors that change as the infant begins to walk. Future research utilizing more direct assessment of these factors is described, as well as general patterning of developmental change across the transition from crawling to walking.

  19. Functioning within a relationship : Mother-infant synchrony and infant sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graag, Jolien A.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Hasselman, Fred; Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the coupling of the biological system of infant sleep and the social system of mother-infant synchrony. Before birth and shortly after birth the systems appear to be connected, but it is unclear whether this remains the case over time. This study therefore ex

  20. Mother-infant interaction and contingency learning in pre-term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnroks, L

    1997-01-01

    Contingency learning was assessed in 12-month-old pre-term infants and related to neonatal factors, and mother-infant interaction. Measures of speed of contingency detection and motivation to control stimulus-feedback were derived from behavioural observation and individual response patterns. The fi

  1. Maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed in US infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Michelle M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Goodman, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To identify maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed (ASSB) in US infants. Using 2000-2002 US linked infant birth and death certificate cohort files, we compared ASSB deaths to survivors. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from logistic regression were used to analyze associations between selected maternal and infant characteristics and ASSB mortality. During 2000-2002, 1,064 infants died from ASSB, resulting in an ASSB mortality rate of 9.2 per 100,000 live births. Most ASSB deaths (71%) occurred before an infant reached 4 months old. Maternal factors associated with an increased risk of ASSB were younger age (using maternal age of 25-29 years as reference aOR 2.6 for mothers mortality risk. Younger, less educated, mulitparous, non-Hispanic black or American Indian women and their families who smoke during their pregnancy and deliver male or preterm infants, may need more intense safe sleeping education during the infant's first year of life, especially during the first 4 months of age.

  2. Infants in Multirisk Families. Case Studies in Preventive Intervention. Clinical Infants Reports Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; And Others

    Work conducted by the Clinical Infant Development Program (CIDP) of the National Institute of Mental Health, involving 47 multirisk families and their infants over a period of several years, is described. Part I contains four detailed case studies by Delise Williams, Euthymia Hibbs, Serena Wieder and others, providing data for comprehensive…

  3. Changing patterns of infant behavior and mother-infant interaction : Intra- and interindividual variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerth, C.; Van Geert, P. L. C.

    2002-01-01

    Mother-infant dyads were observed weekly at their homes for a 15-month period. In this way longitudinal data about the infants' crying, fretting/fussing, smiling and different types of physical contact with the mother were collected. The subject of this study concerns the variability and stability i

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome: are we any closer to identifying which infants will be affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez TL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tara L Ramirez, Michael H MalloyDepartment of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USAAbstract: Sudden infant death syndrome is a complex and multifactoral process. The classification and definition of the syndrome has changed over time. As knowledge in the genetics of this complex syndrome continues to advance, additional causes of vulnerability have been found, but no single cause has yet been discovered. Over the last 40 years there have also been many advances in the identification of risk factors that make a given infant more vulnerable to succumbing to sudden infant death. There have also been great strides made in decreasing the number of infant deaths from this syndrome by modification of these risk factors, most notably with the initiation of the Back to Sleep campaign. With the initiation of the Safe to Sleep campaign there is hope that sudden infant death syndrome as a component of all sudden unexpected infant deaths can be further reduced.Keywords: sudden infant death syndrome, sudden unexpected death of infancy, risk factors, sleep-related infant death, crib death, cot death

  5. Intersubjective Interaction between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants during the Infant's First 18 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W.

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf…

  6. Histological Findings in Unclassified Sudden Infant Death, Including Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrechts-Akkerman, Germaine; Bovee, Judith V. M. G.; Wijnaendts, Liliane C. D.; Maes, Ann; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; de Krijger, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to study histological variations and abnormalities in unclassified sudden infant death (USID), including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in The Netherlands. Two hundred Dutch USID cases between 1984 and 2005 were identified. The histology slides and autopsy reports of 187 case

  7. Histological findings in unclassified sudden infant death, including sudden infant death syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liebrechts-Akkerman (Germaine); J.V.M.G. Bovée (Judith V. M. G.); L.C.D. Wijnaendts (Liliane); A. Maes (Ann); P.G.J. Nikkels (Peter); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOur objective was to study histological variations and abnormalities in unclassified sudden infant death (USID), including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in The Netherlands. Two hundred Dutch USID cases between 1984 and 2005 were identified. The histology slides and autopsy reports

  8. Infant Temperament Characteristics Related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Its Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Three major components have been repeatedly implicated for the origin(s) of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): system, minor sickness and surroundings. All these factors also frame infant temperament, and therefore it seems logical to suppose that the babies who either succumb to or are at risk of SIDS may present with certain behavioral…

  9. EFFECT OF INFANT FORMULA SUPPLEMENTED WITH OLIGOSACCHARIDES ON STOOL CHARACTERISTICS OF INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ye-xuan; TANG Qing-ya; FENG Yi; CAI Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether addition of oligosaccharides to a regular infant formula can lead to changes in the colonic function in vivo, particularly the fecal characteristics. Methods One hundred and two health full term infants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental formula groups: oligosaccharide formula (OF) group or regular formula (RF) group. Fifty breast-fed infants served as a control group during the same period. During the 3 weeks' study, stool characteristics, including stooling frequency, stool consistency, pH and color, were recorded daily by parents. Results The mean fecal frequency of the infants in the OF group was significantly more than those of the RF group ( P < 0. 05 ). The stools of the RF group were significantly harder than those in the OF group( P < 0. 001 ). Although the mean stool pH score and stool color score of infants in the OF group were not significantly different from that of infants in the RF group, it was much closer to that of breast-fed infants. Conclusion The addition of oligosaccharides to a normal infant formula could lead to improvements in fecal characteristics.

  10. Suction patterns in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, M; Martínez, G; González, M; Díaz Rosselló, J L

    1993-01-01

    The suction pattern for breast and bottle feeding in two groups of preterm infants is described. The time elapsed between birth and the moment of suction was longer in preterm neonates born at lower gestational ages for both groups studied, breast and bottle fed (figure 1). The evolution of suckling in breastfeeding was analyzed in a composite study (longitudinal and transverse) in a group of 16 neonates starting from 32 weeks of gestation. The velocity of milk extraction during suckling varied with gestational age. It was uniform at lower gestational ages, then it became faster in the first minutes and at the 36th week, it was very similar to that of mature neonates (figure 2 and table I). The evaluation of bottle feeding was performed in a transverse study in 46 preterm neonates which had been exclusively bottle fed during 1 or 2 weeks. All of them had previously been fed using an orogastric tube. Nourishing time was shorter than in breastfeeding; the average duration was 3.7 minutes (table II). The greatest volume was ingested in the first minute, 40% (range between 44 and 25%) (figure 3). The frequency of suction did not change the duration of feeding, but it was found that the efficiency of suction (number of suctions to ingest 1 cc) was significantly lower in the first minute (Anova, p < 0.05) (figure 4).

  11. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  12. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes.

  13. Parents' emotional availability and infant emotional competence: predictors of parent-infant attachment and emerging self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; McElwain, Nancy L; Notaro, Paul C; Herrera, Carla

    2002-12-01

    One-year-old infants (N = 62) and their mothers and fathers were observed in free play and teaching sessions in order to examine parents' emotional availability and the infant's emotional competence. Mothers were more emotionally available than fathers, and infants exhibited more effortful attention with mothers than with fathers. Similar relations between parental emotional availability and infant emotional competence were found for mother-infant and father-infant dyads. Change in parental emotional availability covaried with change in infant emotional competence. Individual differences in parental emotional availability and infant emotional competence were more consistent across contexts than across parents. Infant effortful attention at 12 months was a mediator between maternal emotional availability at 12 months and toddler situational compliance at 16 months.

  14. Breastfeeding progression in preterm infants is influenced by factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones...... in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants...... based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24-36 weeks. RESULTS: Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached...

  15. Two cases of type A infant botulism in Grenoble, France: no honey for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, Gautier; Pelloux, Isabelle; Gayot, Armelle; Wroblewski, Isabelle; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Mazuet, Christelle; Maurin, Max; Croizé, Jacques

    2012-03-01

    We report two severe cases of infant botulism diagnosed at Grenoble University Hospital, France, respectively in 2006 and 2009. Both cases were characterized by a delay in diagnosis, severe neurological manifestations and extended period of hospitalization in intensive care unit, but a complete recovery. Infant botulism is a rare but life-threatening disease. It primarily affects infants, and the main risk factor is honey ingestion. Diagnosis should be systematically evoked by pediatricians in infants suffering from constipation, fatigue, muscle weakness, difficult feeding and altered cry, but before the onset of generalized flaccid paralysis, so as to administer specific treatment (BabyBIG®, a human derived botulinum antitoxin) at an early stage of the disease when it is most effective. In conclusion, parents should be aware of the role of honey as a source of spores of Clostridium botulinum and therefore infant botulism in the first year of life.

  16. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  17. Multiple nutritional deficiencies in infants from a strict vegetarian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, E; Gorodischer, R; Bar-Ziv, J

    1979-02-01

    Severe nutritional deficiencies developed in four infants from a new vegan religious community. They had received breast milk until the age of 3 months; thereafter, breast milk was supplemented with or replaced by extremely low caloric-density preparations. All of the infants had profound protein-caloric malnutrition, severe rickets, osteoporosis, and vitamin B12 and other deficiencies. One infant died, while the three others had an uneventful recovery. After discharge of the infants from the hospital, the community responded well to a modification of the infants' diet, which did not violate their vegetarian philosophy. However, they refused to give their infants vitamin B12 on a regular basis.

  18. "MOODY BLUES": Affect Interpretation of Infant Facial Expressions and Negative Affect in Mothers of Preterm and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig J.A. van Bakel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth places infants at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes, with self- and affect regulation problems among the most important impairments. However, few studies have empirically examined maternal interpretation of infant affect in mothers of pre- and term infants. The current study examines how negative affect of mothers of preterm and term infants is associated with their interpretation of infant facial expressions.One hundred and sixty-eight mothers with their infants (64 term and 104 preterm participated. Seven days after birth, mothers completed the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL; Matthews, Jones, & Chamberlain, 1990 to assess maternal negative affect. During a home visit, six months after birth, mothers additionally completed a task developed to measure infant affect interpretation (Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotions through Looking at Pictures task, IFEEL pictures task; Emde, Osofsky, & Butterfield, 1993.Mothers of preterm infants reported more negative affect than mothers of term infants. However, the relationship between infant birth status (i.e., term vs. preterm and maternal interpretation of infant facial expressions was moderated by the mother's own negative affectivity. Surprisingly, particularly mothers of term infants who also reported high levels of negative affect were found to interpret infant affect significantly more negatively.Prematurity itself does not seem to be a dominant factor in determining maternal infant affect interpretation, though maternal psychological negative mood does. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  19. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  20. Infant dreaming and fetal memory: a possible explanation of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christos, G A

    1995-04-01

    During rapid-eye-movement sleep, when we dream, the brain is thought to be processing stored memory. The memory of a newborn infant is dominated by its fetal experience, and the infant is likely to dream about its life in the womb. Research with lucid (or conscious) dreaming has shown that dream images are supported by the corresponding body actions, using those muscles which remain active during rapid-eye-movement sleep. We suggest that sudden infant death syndrome or cot death may be a result of an infant dreaming about its life (or memory) as a fetus. In the course of that dream, since a fetus does not breathe (in the usual sense) the infant may cease to breathe and may die. This simple hypothesis is consistent with all of the known facts about sudden infant death syndrome (pathological and epidemiological), such as the age at death curve (the observed exponential decay and possibly the peak at 2-3 months), the higher risk with the prone sleeping position (but not excluding the supine position), and the observed climatic variation (seasonal and regional) in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. Many of these well-established facts have no other known explanation and other theories can generally only account for a few of the known facts about sudden infant death syndrome. Our hypothesis is also supported by recent findings that, as a group, sudden infant death syndrome infants have a higher proportion of rapid-eye-movement sleep, and also that they have an average higher heart rate (corresponding to possible fetal dreams) but only during rapid-eye-movement sleep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  2. Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G

    1993-06-01

    Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first

  3. COMMERCIAL BABY PORRIDGES IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issue of the most important product among additional food for infants — baby porridges. It includes historical data on usage of various cereal crops in human nutrition. A special significance of porridges in culture of food and traditions of Russian population is highlighted. The authors give information about nutritional value and chemical composition of different cereals — buckwheat, rice, pearl-barley, millet, oats etc. A special attention is given to differences in concentrations of nutrients and micronutrients manufactured by different ways from the same kind of cereal. The necessity to feed infants with commercial baby porridges is based in the article. There are also represented characteristics of various commercial porridges for nutrition of infants: hypoallergenic, glutenfree and containing gluten, enriched with pre- and probiotics. The article also contains data on nutritional value of milk and milk-free porridges. The authors raised a discussion on possibility and standards of usage of different additional components, such as sugar, maltodextrin, honey, vanillin, vegetable oils in production of infant porridges. The selection of certain type of porridges as additional food for healthy and infants with different diseases and digestive disorders is based.

  4. Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrttiaho, Santeri; Niehaus, Dana; Thomas, Eileen; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2017-02-06

    Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs. strong). Pupil dilation was highly sensitive to the valence of facial expressions, being larger for negative vs. positive facial expressions. A separate control experiment with luminance-matched non-face stimuli indicated that the valence effect was specific to facial expressions and cannot be explained by luminance confounds. Pupil response was not sensitive to the arousal level of facial expressions. The results show the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a marker of mothers' affective responses to ecologically valid infant stimuli and point to a particularly prompt maternal response to infant distress cues.

  5. Intravenous Lipids for Preterm Infants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan S. A. Salama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW are born at a time when the fetus is undergoing rapid intrauterine brain and body growth. Continuation of this growth in the first several weeks postnatally during the time these infants are on ventilator support and receiving critical care is often a challenge. These infants are usually highly stressed and at risk for catabolism. Parenteral nutrition is needed in these infants because most cannot meet the majority of their nutritional needs using the enteral route. Despite adoption of a more aggressive approach with amino acid infusions, there still appears to be a reluctance to use early intravenous lipids. This is based on several dogmas that suggest that lipid infusions may be associated with the development or exacerbation of lung disease, displace bilirubin from albumin, exacerbate sepsis, and cause CNS injury and thrombocytopena. Several recent reviews have focused on intravenous nutrition for premature neonate, but very little exists that provides a comprehensive review of intravenous lipid for very low birth and other critically ill neonates. Here, we would like to provide a brief basic overview, of lipid biochemistry and metabolism of lipids, especially as they pertain to the preterm infant, discuss the origin of some of the current clinical practices, and provide a review of the literature, that can be used as a basis for revising clinical care, and provide some clarity in this controversial area, where clinical care is often based more on tradition and dogma than science.

  6. Non-therapeutic infant male circumcision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Elabd, Kossay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of the benefits and harms of infant male circumcision, and the legal and ethical perspectives of infant male circumcision. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library up to June 2015. We searched the medical law literature using the Westlaw and Lexis Library law literature resources up to June 2015. Results: Male circumcision significantly reduced the risk of urinary tract infections by 87%. It also significantly reduced transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among circumcised men by 70%. Childhood and adolescent circumcision is associated with a 66% reduction in the risk of penile cancer. Circumcision was associated with 43% reduction of human papilloma virus infection, and 58% reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women with circumcised partners compared with women with uncircumcised partners. Male infant circumcision reduced the risk of foreskin inflammation by 68%. Conclusion: Infant male circumcision should continue to be allowed all over the world, as long as it is approved by both parents, and performed in facilities that can provide appropriate sterilization, wound care, and anesthesia. Under these conditions, the benefits of infant male circumcision outweigh the rare and generally minor potential harms of the procedure. PMID:27570848

  7. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  8. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional status among children ... and practices on infant feeding, socio-demographic factors that influence choice of ... refusal by the child to breastfeed or feeding on complementary food.

  9. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L.; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L.; Theodorou, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian (AI) mothers’ perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 AI mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of AI culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that healthcare providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports AI mothers and their premature infants. PMID:25721716

  10. Socioemotional Transformations in the Family System Following Infant Crawling Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joseph J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the possibility that relations in the family system are affected when infants begin to crawl. Parents' expressions of prohibition and anger, and their use of physical punishment, increased after infants began to crawl. (BG)

  11. Sudden infant death syndrome prevention: a model program for NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Sherri L; Lipke, Bethann; LeMura, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Health care providers' opinions can influence how parents place their infant to sleep. Neonatal nurses can improve how they teach and model safe infant sleep practices to parents. To increase neonatal nurses' knowledge, a sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention program was implemented. Program components included a computerized teaching tool, a crib card, sleep sacks, and discharge instructions. Initial program evaluation showed that 98 percent of infants slept supine and 93 percent slept in sleep sacks in open cribs. However, nurses continued to swaddle some infants with blankets to improve thermoregulation. To increase nursing compliance in modeling safe infant sleep practices, Halo SleepSack Swaddles were provided for nurses to use in place of a blanket to regulate infant temperature. Recent data show that 100 percent of infants in open cribs are now sleeping supine wearing a Halo Swaddle or a traditional Halo SleepSack. This model program can easily be replicated to enhance neonatal nurses' knowledge about SIDS prevention.

  12. Maternal Emotional Signals, Social Referencing, and Infants' Reactions to Strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maria; Campos, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the significance of emotional communication and social referencing of the mother by her infant as determinants of the infant's affective reactions to other social figures in the environment. (PCB)

  13. Birthing and Parenting a Premature Infant in a Cultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada L; Holdtich-Davis, Diane; Docherty, Sharron L; Theodorou, Christina S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal qualitative descriptive study was to explore American Indian mothers' perceptions of parenting their premature infants over their first year of life in the context of their culture, including the birth and hospitalization experience. A convenience sample of 17 American Indian mothers and their premature infants were recruited from either a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric clinic in the southeast. Semistructured interviews were conducted at two time points. Through content analytic methods, three broad categories were revealed: descriptions of having a premature infant in the NICU, descriptions of parenting a premature infant, and the influence of Lumbee culture on parenting a premature infant. Certain aspects of American Indian culture appear to be important in having a premature infant in the NICU and in parenting a premature infant. We recommend that health care providers deliver culturally appropriate care that fully supports American Indian mothers and their premature infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Travelers' Health: Traveling Safely with Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in soil, including ascariasis, hookworm infestation, cutaneous or visceral larva migrans, trichuriasis, and strongyloidiasis. Children and infants ... be secured in the aircraft seat belt. Ear pain can be troublesome for infants and children during ...

  15. Intersubjective Interaction Between Deaf Parents/Deaf Infants During the Infant's First 18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Carin; Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie; Falkman, Kerstin W

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of a larger longitudinal project with the aim of focusing early social interaction and development of mentalizing ability in 12 deaf infants, including the interaction between the infants and their deaf parents. The aim of the present paper is to describe early social interaction and moments of intersubjectivity between the deaf infants and their deaf parents during the first 18 months of the infant's life. The study is focused on the dyadic interaction rather than on the behaviors of the infant and the caregiver separately. In the analysis, the Intersubjective Developmental Theory Model (Loots, Devisé, & Sermijn, 2003) and the definitions of moments of intersubjectivity (Loots, Devisé, & Jacquet, 2005) were used. The findings show that the participating infants follow a typical developmental trajectory of intersubjectivity, both with regard to developmental stages and age. This development is supported by a visual, simultaneous way of communicating by gaze rather than having constant eye contact. Parents use complex visual communication skills in maintaining joint attention and also expect the infant to grasp the meaning of the interaction by use of gaze contact.

  16. Emergence of Japanese infants' prosodic preferences in infant-directed vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Akiko; Mazuka, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the role of infant-directed vocabulary (IDV) in infants language acquisition, specifically addressing the question of whether IDV forms that are not prominent in adult language may nonetheless be useful to the process of acquisition. Japanese IDV offers a good test case, as IDV characteristically takes a bisyllabic H(eavy)-L(ight) form that is rare in adult speech. In 5 experiments using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP), 8- to 10-month-old Japanese infants, but not 4- to 6-month-olds, were found to show a preference for bisyllabic H-L words over other types of words. These results demonstrate (a) that infants may develop a preference for a dominant prosodic form based on infant-directed speech, even when it is not a prominent characteristic of adult language; and perhaps more importantly, and (b) that infant-directed speech may provide a boost for a feature that could be useful for infants' acquisition of language even when it not prominent in adult language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Infant-directed speech reduces English-learning infants' preference for trochaic words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Christopher S; Houston, Derek M

    2016-12-01

    Over the past couple of decades, research has established that (1) infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitates speech, language, and cognitive development; and (2) infants are sensitive to the rhythmic structures in the ambient language. However, little is known about the role of IDS in infants' processing of rhythmic structures. Building on these two lines of research, whether IDS enhances infants' sensitivity to the predominant stress pattern (trochaic) in English was asked. To address this question, 9-month-old American infants were familiarized and tested with both trochaic (e.g., lazy) and iambic (e.g., cartoon) words presented in either IDS or adult-directed speech (ADS). Infants showed listening preference for the trochaic over iambic words when the speech was presented in ADS, but not in IDS. These results suggest that IDS attenuates infants' preference for trochaic stress pattern. Further acoustical analyses demonstrated that IDS provided less salient spectral cues for the contrasts between stressed and unstressed syllables in trochaic words. These findings encourage further efforts to explore the effects of IDS on language acquisition from a broader perspective.

  18. The Power of an Infant's Smile: Maternal Physiological Responses to Infant Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Mizugaki

    Full Text Available Infant emotional expressions, such as distress cries, evoke maternal physiological reactions. Most of which involve accelerated sympathetic nervous activity. Comparatively little is known about effects of positive infant expressions, such as happy smiles, on maternal physiological responses. This study investigated how physiological and psychological maternal states change in response to infants' emotional expressions. Thirty first-time mothers viewed films of their own 6- to 7-month-old infants' affective behavior. Each observed a video of a distress cry followed by a video showing one of two expressions (randomly assigned: a happy smiling face (smile condition or a calm neutral face (neutral condition. Both before and after the session, participants completed a self-report inventory assessing their emotional states. The results of the self-report inventory revealed no effects of exposure to the infant videos. However, the mothers in the smile condition, but not in the neutral condition, showed deceleration of skin conductance. These findings demonstrate that the mothers who observed their infants smiling showed decreased sympathetic activity. We propose that an infant's positive emotional expression may affect the branch of the maternal stress-response system that modulates the homeostatic balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

  19. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  20. Quantitative linking hypotheses for infant eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yurovsky

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.

  1. The role of taurine in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, R W; Helms, R A; Christensen, M; Budreau, A M; Han, X; Sturman, J A

    1998-01-01

    The importance of taurine in the diet of pre-term and term infants has not always been clearly understood and is a topic of interest to students of infant nutrition. Recent evidence indicates that it should be considered one of the "conditionally essential" amino acids in infant nutrition. Plasma values for taurine will fall if infants are fed a taurine-free formula or do not have taurine provided in the TPN solution. Urine taurine values also fall, which is indicative of an attempt by the kidney to conserve taurine. The very-low-birth-weight infant, for a variety of reasons involving the maturation of tubular transport function, cannot maximally conserve taurine by enhancing renal reabsorption and, hence, is potentially at greater risk for taurine depletion than larger pre-term or term infants, and certainly more than older children who have taurine in their diet. Taurine has an important role in fat absorption in pre-term and possibly term infants and in children with cystic fibrosis. Because taurine-conjugated bile acids are better emulsifiers of fat than glycine-conjugated bile acids, the dietary (or TPN) intake has a direct influence on absorption of lipids. Taurine supplementation of formulas or TPN solutions could potentially serve to minimize the brain phospholipid fatty acid composition differences between formula-fed and human milk-fed infants. Taurine appears to have a role in infants, children, and even adults receiving most (> 75%) of their calories from TPN solutions in the prevention of granulation of the retina and electroencephalographic changes. Taurine has also been reported to improve maturation of auditory-evoked responses in pre-term infants, although this point is not fully established. Clearly, taurine is an important osmolyte in the brain and the renal medulla. At these locations, it is a primary factor in the cell volume regulatory process, in which brain or renal cells swell or shrink in response to osmolar changes, but return to their

  2. Acute Appendicitis in Infants. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luis González López

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is more common in school-age children, but it rarely occurs in infants. The younger the patient, the fastest the course of the disease. In addition, there are greater risks of complications. A case of a nine-month-old infant, admitted to the pediatric hospital with fever and diarrhea, is presented. After several tests, he underwent surgery. Peritonitis caused by acute gangrenous appendicitis was diagnosed. While the patient was in the intensive care unit, he suffered a septic shock and acute multiple organ failure. As a result, he died 24 hours later. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute gangrenous appendicitis. Acute appendicitis is a disease that must be considered by doctors who treat infants with fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain related to irritability. Thus, an early diagnosis of the disease as well as the implementation of an appropriate surgical treatment can be performed.

  3. Unilateral galactocele in a male infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahović Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Galactocele, generally occuring in young women during or after lactation, is an extremely rare cause of breast enlargement in infants and children of exclusively male gender. Only 26 cases have been published so far, including two our cases. Case report. We described unilateral, cystic, breast enlargement, without any endocrinologic and other abnormalities in a 29-month-old boy. A typical clinical and histopathologic presentation of galactocele was followed with a complete excision. Conclusion. This was a 27th well documented case of galactocele in a male infant with typical clinical and histopathologic presentation. There are several hypotheses regarding etiology of the lesion, but it is likely to be multifactorial. Because of its extreme rarity, there are some difficulties in differential diagnosis and treatment options of galactocele in male infants.

  4. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

  5. Infant mortality and crisis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1992-01-01

    Data derived from the Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud (ENFES) confirm that overall levels of infant mortality in Mexico have been steadily declining. However, a more specific analysis furnishes evidence that this decline has occurred at varying rates within different social groups, reflecting an increase in social inequalities. The analytical strategy used in this article leads to three basic conclusions: (1) the impact of the economic crisis on infant mortality is reflected not in a reversal of the declining trend but an increase in social inequalities; (2) certain variables universally accepted as determinants of infant mortality, such as mother's education, seem nonsignificant for some social sectors; and (3) certain biodemographic characteristics assumed to have a uniform mortality-related behavior vary among sectors, suggesting that even these constants are determined by social factors.

  6. A new and simple infant assessment table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Muthu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral examination of an infant forms an important first step toward a lifetime of excellent oral health. Examining an infant during the first visit and the subsequent preventive examination visits may be challenging to dentists and pediatric dentists. There are few concerns regarding the effective oral examination using the traditional "knee-to-knee" position. This paper presents a new, simple infant examination table (INFANTT to facilitate this examination. This table has many advantages, which includes its stability and simplicity. It is non-threatening and resembles common household furniture. Various modifications of the basic design are also possible to suit the individual dentist′s preferences and dental office needs. Additionally, it is possible to use this INFANTT for performing fluoride varnish applications, taking radiographs of the anterior teeth and extraction of natal, neonatal teeth and traumatized teeth.

  7. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusion: Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  8. The neurobiology of infant maternal odor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Infant rats must learn to identify their mother’s diet-dependent odor. Once learned, maternal odor controls pups’ approach to the mother, their social behavior and nipple attachment. Here we present a review of the research from four different laboratories, which suggests that neural and behavioral responses to the natural maternal odor and neonatal learned odors are similar. Together, these data indicate that pups have a unique learning circuit relying on the olfactory bulb for neural plasticity and on the hyperfunctioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus flooding the olfactory bulb with norepinephrine to support the neural changes. Another important factor making this system unique is the inability of the amygdala to become incorporated into the infant learning circuit. Thus, infant rats appear to be primed in early life to learn odors that will evoke approach responses supporting attachment to the caregiver.

  9. Effects of infant massage on state anxiety in mothers of preterm infants prior to hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afand, Nahid; Keshavarz, Maryam; Fatemi, Naiemeh Seyed; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of infant massage on anxiety in mothers of preterm infants who discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit. Birth of preterm infants commonly leads to great levels of distress and anxiety in mothers. Although various methods have been suggested to help mothers cope with such stressful conditions, the effects of infant massage have not been adequately studied in mothers. This was a quasi-experimental clinical trial. Overall, in 70 mothers and their preterm infants who scheduled to be discharged within 24 hours, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scale (Spielberger) was completed for mothers in both groups in the morning of the day before discharge. The experimental group received eight minutes of massage including two standard similar parts (each part four minutes). The massage was repeated in two parts on the day of discharge, and then, state anxiety was re-measured using Spielberg's scale for all mothers. The control group received no intervention. The results showed that on the day of discharge, there was a significant difference in the overall mean score of maternal state anxiety between the two groups (p anxiety. In both groups, the mean score of maternal state anxiety was significantly decreased on the day of discharge (p anxiety of mothers of preterm infants, so it is recommended that mothers apply massage for preterm infants to improve their mental health. Mothers of preterm infants can promote mental health by continuing massage of their infants at home. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Detecting "Infant-Directedness" in Face and Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    Five- and 3-month-old infants' perception of infant-directed (ID) faces and the role of speech in perceiving faces were examined. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of two side-by-side talking faces, one infant-directed and one adult-directed (AD), while listening to ID speech, AD speech, or in silence. Infants…

  11. Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of levobupivacaine following infant spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Geoff; Hallett, Ben; Velkov, Tony; Bjorksten, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Infant spinal anesthesia with levobupivacaine has been promoted as a technique to reduce both the risk of postoperative apnea and exposure to volatile anesthesia. There is, however, no pharmacokinetic data to support the currently recommended doses. Our aim was to determine whether infant levobupivacaine spinal anesthesia is associated with plasma concentrations consistent with a low risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. This was an open-label pharmacokinetic safety and tolerability study of levobupivacaine spinal anesthesia in infants spinal anesthetic with levobupivacaine 1 mg·kg(-1) in the left lateral position. Spinal anesthesia was successful in 25 (86.2%) of 29 infants (postmenstrual age 36-52 weeks; weight 2.2-4.7 kg). The median (IQR) total venous levobupivacaine plasma concentrations was 0.33 (0.25-0.42) μg·ml(-1) and unbound venous levobupivacaine was 19.5 (14.5-38) ng·ml(-1) . Median protein binding was 93.5 (91.4-96%). Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations were 0.25 (0.17-0.37) g·l(-1) and albumin concentrations were 29 (24-32) g·l(-1) . Total plasma concentrations and unbound (free) concentration of levobupivacaine were consistently lower than concentrations reported in cases of pediatric local anesthetic toxicity. In a small number of infants requiring a repeat spinal of 1 mg·kg(-1) was also associated with acceptable total and free concentrations. We conclude that levobupivacaine at 1 mg·kg(-1) is associated with no systemic side effects in infants receiving awake spinal anesthesia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. INSIGHT Responsive Parenting Intervention and Infant Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Savage, Jennifer S; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Marini, Michele E; Mindell, Jodi A; Birch, Leann L

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate sleep during infancy is associated with adverse outcomes for infants and families. We sought to improve sleep behaviors and duration through a responsive parenting (RP) intervention designed for obesity prevention. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is a randomized trial comparing a RP intervention with a safety control. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads were randomized after childbirth, and research nurses delivered intervention content at home visits at infant ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks and at a research center visit at 1 year. The RP sleep component included developmentally appropriate messages about bedtime routines, sleep location and behaviors, and responses to wakings. Portions of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire were administered 2, 8, and 52 weeks after birth with expanded sleep-related data collection at 16 and 40 weeks. Two hundred and seventy-nine dyads completed the first home visit; 90.7% completed the 1-year visit. Compared with controls, RP group infants were less likely to have prolonged bedtime routines >45 minutes and more likely to have earlier bedtimes at 16 and 40 weeks. They were less likely to be fed immediately before bed and more likely to self-soothe to sleep. At 8, 16, and 40 weeks, RP group nocturnal sleep duration was longer by 35, 25, and 22 minutes, respectively (P < .05 for all). Sleep duration at 1 year was similar between groups. The INSIGHT RP intervention positively influenced developmentally appropriate bedtime routines, sleep-related behaviors, and sleep duration for infants. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Impact of rotavirus vaccine on premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Jean-Michel; Nowak, Emmanuel; Le Gal, Grégoire; Lemaitre, Thomas; Oger, Emmanuel; Poulhazan, Elise; Giroux, Jean-Dominique; Garenne, Armelle; Gagneur, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    Infants born preterm are at a higher risk of complications and hospitalization in cases of rotavirus diarrhea than children born at term. We evaluated the impact of a rotavirus vaccination campaign (May 2007 to May 2010) on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a population of children under 3 years old born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) in the Brest University Hospital birth zone. Active surveillance from 2002 to 2006 and a prospective collection of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea were initiated in the pediatric units of Brest University Hospital until May 2010. Numbers of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea among the population of children born prematurely, before and after the start of the vaccination program, were compared using a Poisson regression model controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation. A total of 217 premature infants were vaccinated from 2007 to 2010. Vaccine coverage for a complete course of three doses was 41.9%. The vaccine safety in premature infants was similar to that in term infants. The vaccination program led to a division by a factor of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 5.2) in the number of hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea during the first two epidemic seasons following vaccine introduction and by a factor of 11 (95% CI, 3.5 to 34.8) during the third season. We observed significant effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine on the number of hospitalizations in a population of prematurely born infants younger than 3 years of age. A multicenter national study would provide better assessment of this impact. (This study [Impact of Systematic Infants Vaccination Against Rotavirus on Gastroenteritis Hospitalization: a Prospective Study in Brest District, France (IVANHOE)] has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00740935.).

  15. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M;

    1998-01-01

    variation in levels of inhibin B, FSH, and LH within each age. In conclusion, the sustained elevation of inhibin B to supraadult levels in infant boys indicates that the neonatal period may be a developmental window important for Sertoli cell proliferation and maturation. Thus, the gonads may be potentially...... vulnerable to exogenous endocrine interference, e.g. from environmental factors during this period of life. Measurement of serum levels of inhibin B in infants may give clinical clues about developmental deficiencies in the gonads that otherwise only become apparent around puberty or later in life....

  16. [Home falls in infants before walking acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Gurrera, E; Honorat, R; Rekhroukh, H; Casasoprana, A; Grouteau, E

    2013-05-01

    Minor head trauma is frequent among infants and leads to numerous visits to emergency departments for neurological assessment to evaluate the value of cerebral CT scan with the risk for traumatic brain injuries (TBI). To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of nonwalking infants admitted after falling at home and to analyze associated factors for skull fractures and TBI. Between January 2007 and December 2011, all children aged 9 months or younger and admitted after a home fall to the pediatric emergency unit of a tertiary children's hospital were included. The data collected were age, sex, weight and height, body mass index; geographic origin, referral or direct admission, mode of transportation; month, day and time of admission; causes of the fall, alleged fall height, presence of an eyewitness, type of landing surface; Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, application of the head trauma protocol, location and type of injuries, cerebral CT scan results, length of hospital stay, progression, and neglect or abuse situations. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS: within the study period, 1910 infants were included. Fifty-four percent of children were aged less than 6 months with a slight male prevalence (52%). Falls from parental bed and infant carriers accounted for the most frequent fall circumstances. GCS score on admission was equal to 14 or 15 in 99% of cases. A cerebral CT scan was performed in 34% of children and detected 104 skull fractures and 55 TBI. Infants aged less than 1 month had the highest rate of TBI (8.5%). Eleven percent of patients were hospitalized. A situation of abuse was identified in 51 infants (3%). UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS: Male children and infants aged less than 3 months had a higher risk of skull fractures (P = 0.03 and P = 0.0003, respectively). In the TBI group, children were younger (3.8 ± 2.6 months versus 5.4 ± 2.5 months, P walking acquisition, children are particularly vulnerable and have the highest rate of TBI after a vertical fall. In this age

  17. Thyroid function in the preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFranchi, S

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid gland function develops and matures during fetal life, with production of serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations beginning around 12 weeks gestation and increasing to term. Infants born prior to term have lower cord serum T4 concentrations that correlate with gestational age or birth weight. This is partially the result of lower thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations. The cord serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations also correlate with gestational age, but they are not proportionately as low as the cord T4 concentration. Preterm infants have a postnatal thyrotropin (TSH) surge and rise in serum T4 and triiodothyronine (T3), which is qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively smaller than, term infants. In contrast to term infants, preterm infants often experience a fall in serum T4 and T3 in the first week of life to below birth levels. This drop appears to be the result of many factors, including nutritional problems and decreased hepatic TBG production, immaturity of hypothalamic-pituitary control of the thyroid gland, immaturity of the thyroid gland itself, and increased tissue utilization of T4. These changes are impacted by complications of prematurity, such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which result in nonthyroidal illness-like changes. Again, serum FT4 seems less affected, and when measured by equilibrium dialysis may be in the normal range for age. Several studies have correlated different measures of morbidity and mortality in the preterm infant with lower serum T4 concentrations. However, as with adults, it may be that low serum T4 concentrations are a marker of the sickest preemies. Also, as with adults, this has led to speculation that T4 treatment might be beneficial in improving these complications of prematurity, in particular the neurological outcome. While some studies appear to show improvement in some facet of medical complications with T4 treatment, most show no effect. Regarding neurological outcome, the 2 best

  18. Development of PVEP in Infants and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    The development of components of VEP was studied in 150 infants and children between 2 weeks and 9 years of age participated as subjects. Ten adult subjects, 25 ito 35 years of age were also studied. The results indicated that the VEP had a simple wave form, consisting of only a slowly rising positive wave to 140', 70' and 35' checks from infants of 2 to 8 weeks following birth. P_1 wave appeared in response to 17.5' check stimulus at 10 weeks following birth. The latencies of P_1 components shortened d...

  19. Infectious causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the relation between seasonality and incidence of SIDS, which often showed a winter peak. These all may suggest an infectious aetiology of SIDS. In this review we have summarised the current literature on infectious aetiologies of SIDS by looking at viral, bacterial, genetic and environmental factors which are believed to be associated with SIDS.

  20. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome with Harlequin Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin fetus, a severe variant of ichthyosis, occurs rarely, and these babies die within the first few days of life. Early retinoid therapy may improve the disorder and help increase survival rates. The exact cause of the sudden infant death syndrome of the suckling is not known and the incidence approximately is 0.1-0.3 %. In general, these babies looked well and healthy at the time of the sleeping but were found dead in their bed in the morning. We report a harlequin fetus with sudden infant death syndrome.

  1. Neurosonographic findings of bacterial meningitis in Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Chul; Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Hong Kue; Lee, Soon Il [Sowa Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    44 infants under 1 year were studied retrospectively during these illness and follow up after 1 week intervals. The spectrum of sonographic features of bacterial meningitis in acute stage included normal scan (20 patients), echogenic sulci (10 patients), echogenic lining of epandymas (8 patients), Abnormal parenchymal echogenecity (6 patients). On follow up examination with 1 week intervals, variety of complications was found in 14 patients (32%) of the infants. There were ventriculomegaly in 7 patients, extraaxial fluid collection in 4 patients, brain abscess in 2 patients and poor encephalic cyst in 1 patient. We conclude that ultrasound was an effective method for evaluation of progression and complications of bacterial meningitis.

  2. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents.

  3. Infant Attention to Intentional Action Predicts Preschool Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Lopez-Duran, Sarah; LaBounty, Jennifer; Hamilton, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    This research examines whether there are continuities between infant social attention and later theory of mind. Forty-five children were studied as infants and then again as 4-year-olds. Measures of infant social attention (decrement of attention during habituation to displays of intentional action) significantly predicted later theory of mind…

  4. Prolonged unassisted survival in an infant with anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Holly; Fletke, Kyle; Redfern, Roberta E

    2016-10-31

    Anencephaly is one of the most lethal congenital defects. This case report is of an anencephalic infant who lived to 28 months of life and defies current literature. She is the longest surviving anencephalic infant who did not require life-sustaining interventions. This case presents the obstacles that arose from this infant's prolonged life and recommendations based on these findings.

  5. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N=56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants' learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old…

  6. Beyond Baby Doe: Does Infant Transplantation Justify Euthanasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper examines ethical issues in the transplantation of organs from infants with anencephaly into infants with severe heart and kidney disease. It argues that active euthanasia of infants with anencephaly should be prohibited to safeguard the rights of all persons with severe neurological disabilities. (Author/DB)

  7. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  8. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  9. Infant Contingency/Extinction Performance after Observing Partial Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Catherine; Toland, Cynthia; King, Rose Ann; Martin, Lisa Maas

    2005-01-01

    Social information gathering by infants 6 and 12 months old was examined as a foundation for later social learning that may be uniquely human. Infant performance on a contingency/extinction task was studied following a caregiver demonstration of the contingency on varied reinforcement schedules. Infants who observed caregivers receive any…

  10. Infants' Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There's extensive research on infant's discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant's discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants' perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  11. Effects of Infant Massage on Attachment Security: An Experimental Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Vonda K.

    The formation of attachments is an important phenomenon occurring in the realm of socioemotional development. This study examined the impact of infant massage on infants' subsequent attachment security. Fifty-seven mother-infant dyads (48 dyads from Head Start, 9 from the community at large) were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group…

  12. Transpyloric feeding in 49 infants undergoing intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, E

    1980-11-01

    The use of transpyloric feeding in 46 very ill newborn infants requiring assisted ventilation was evaluated. It was found to be a simple and well-tolerated technique. A possible complication of significance was necrotising enterocolitis in 4 infants. Transpyloric tube feeding in 3 infants with treated upper small-bowel atresia is also described.

  13. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  14. Pelvic musculoskeletal infection in infants -- diagnostic difficulties and radiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, S E; Carty, H

    1997-10-01

    Musculoskeletal infection involving the pelvis has rarely been reported in infants. When such infections involve the pelvic muscles they are generally believed to result from secondary spread from adjacent structures. We report five cases of primary pelvic musculoskeletal infection affecting infants pelvic musculoskeletal infection in infants and the role of the various radiological investigations in its diagnosis is discussed.

  15. Prediction of gestational age of infants from the abdominal radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, M.R.; Edwards, D.K.

    1980-07-01

    Measurements of lumbar spine elements on abdominal radiographs of 183 white infants were compared with the estimated gestational ages of these infants as determined by physical examination. Using the technique of multiple regression, an equation was derived to predict infant age from the measurements of the spine.

  16. Families, Not Parents, Differ: Development of Communication in Finnish Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakoski, Maija; Silven, Maarit

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant…

  17. HUMAN RHINOVIRUS CAUSES SEVERE INFECTION IN PRETERM INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Piggelen, Renee O.; van Loon, Anton M.; Krediet, Tanette G.; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.

    2010-01-01

    Data of 11 infants (median gestational age and birth weight 30 weeks and 1520 g, respectively) with severe human rhinovirus infection (HRV) are described. Nine of 11 (82%) were preterm infants and 7 of these 9 (78%) became infected during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. All infants p

  18. Beyond Baby Doe: Does Infant Transplantation Justify Euthanasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper examines ethical issues in the transplantation of organs from infants with anencephaly into infants with severe heart and kidney disease. It argues that active euthanasia of infants with anencephaly should be prohibited to safeguard the rights of all persons with severe neurological disabilities. (Author/DB)

  19. Father-Infant Interactions Are Enhanced by Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christy; Field, Tiffany; Escalona, Angelica; Hartshorn, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Examined the impact of fathers giving massages to their infants, ages 3 to 14 months, for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for 1 month. Found that fathers who had massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor-play interactions with their infants than did fathers in the wait-list control…

  20. Development of Face Recognition in Infant Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, M.; Yamaguchi, M.K.; Tomonaga, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed the developmental changes in face recognition by three infant chimpanzees aged 1-18 weeks, using preferential-looking procedures that measured the infants' eye- and head-tracking of moving stimuli. In Experiment 1, we prepared photographs of the mother of each infant and an ''average'' chimpanzee face using…

  1. Direct Gaze Modulates Face Recognition in Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Teresa; Massaccesi, Stefano; Menon, Enrica; Johnson, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    From birth, infants prefer to look at faces that engage them in direct eye contact. In adults, direct gaze is known to modulate the processing of faces, including the recognition of individuals. In the present study, we investigate whether direction of gaze has any effect on face recognition in four-month-old infants. Four-month infants were shown…

  2. Hypernatremic Dehydration in Breastfed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Ergin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since it can cause life-threatening complications in newborns, diagnosis and treatment of hypernatremic dehydration associated with inadequate breastfeeding is important.Materials and Methods: Records of exclusively-breastfed newborns (37-42 weeks with hypernatremic dehydration (serum Na ≥150mEq/L admitted between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed retrospectively.Results: The mean gestational age, birth weight, weight loss, maternal age, and age at diagnosis of 26 newborns with hypernatremic dehydration were 38.8±1.1 weeks, 3292±458 gr, 13.5±5.5%, 27.6±4.9 years, and 3.9±3.5 days, respectively. The percentages of female patients, caesarean delivery, and primipar mothers were 57.6%, 61.6%, and 57.6% respectively. Admission complaints were fever (30.7%, poor feeding and jaundice (26.9%, restlessness and hypoactivity (7.6%. Hypernatremic dehydration frequency within first five days, in summer season, during hospitalization were 84.6%, 73%, and 42.3%, respectively. The mean serum BUN, creatinine, Na levels were found 45.6±64.1 mg/dl, 1.5±2.3mg/dl, and 157±11.9 mEq/L, respectively. Of 26 mothers, 57.6% had received breastfeeding education and 84% had inadequate fluid intake. Among four patients with seizures, three had prerenal failure, one had renal failure requiring dialysis, and brain edema developed in one. Serum Na levels were higher in infants who were baby of primipar mother (p=0.002, born in another hospital (p=0.012, from young mothers (p=0.035, from mothers with no breastfeeding education (p=0.007, and with delayed hospital admission (p<0.01. Serum Na concentrations ≥160mEq/L were associated with complications (p<0.01. Serum Na levels were negatively correlated with maternal age (p=0.035 and positively correlated with (p=0.016 weight loss.Conclusions: Hypernatremic dehydration can be prevented in newborns by close monitoring of weight loss and by teaching successful breastfeeding techniques and signs of dehydration to

  3. Infants' Background Television Exposure during Play: Negative Relations to the Quantity and Quality of Mothers' Speech and Infants' Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Olson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Research on immediate effects of background television during mother-infant toy play shows that an operating television in the room disrupts maternal communicative behaviors crucial for infants' vocabulary acquisition. This study is the first to examine associations between frequent background TV/video exposure during mother-infant toy play at…

  4. Infants' Evolving Representations of Object Motion during Occlusion: A Longitudinal Study of 6- to 12-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredeback, Gustaf; von Hofsten, Claes

    2004-01-01

    Infants' ability to track temporarily occluded objects that moved on circular trajectories was investigated in 20 infants using a longitudinal design. They were first seen at 6 months and then every 2nd month until the end of their 1st year. Infants were presented with occlusion events covering 20% of the target's trajectory (effective occlusion…

  5. CLASS-Infant: An Observational Measure for Assessing Teacher-Infant Interactions in Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Cabell, Sonia Q.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The growing body of literature demonstrating the importance of quality interactions with caregivers to infant development coupled with the increasing number of infants spending time in classroom settings highlights the need for a measure of interpersonal relationships between infants and caregivers. This article introduces a new…

  6. Broadening the Study of Infant Security of Attachment: Maternal Autonomy-Support in the Context of Infant Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Natasha; Bernier, Annie; Mageau, Genevieve A.

    2011-01-01

    Although security of attachment is conceptualised as a balance between infants' attachment and exploratory behaviours, parental behaviours pertaining to infant exploration have received relatively little empirical attention. Drawing from self-determination theory, this study seeks to improve the prediction of infant attachment by assessing…

  7. Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Reducing the Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Pregnancy and Infant Loss Support, Inc. Centering Corporation Prevention Health care providers and researchers don't ... PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file ...

  8. British English infants segment words only with exaggerated infant-directed speech stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floccia, Caroline; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; DePaolis, Rory; Duffy, Hester; Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; White, Laurence; Goslin, Jeremy; Vihman, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The word segmentation paradigm originally designed by Jusczyk and Aslin (1995) has been widely used to examine how infants from the age of 7.5 months can extract novel words from continuous speech. Here we report a series of 13 studies conducted independently in two British laboratories, showing that British English-learning infants aged 8-10.5 months fail to show evidence of word segmentation when tested in this paradigm. In only one study did we find evidence of word segmentation at 10.5 months, when we used an exaggerated infant-directed speech style. We discuss the impact of variations in infant-directed style within and across languages in the course of language acquisition.

  9. Infant preferences for attractive faces: a cognitive explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, A J; Kalakanis, L; Langlois, J H

    1999-05-01

    Research on infant face perception has shown that infants' preferences for attractive faces exist well before socialization from parents, peers, and the media can affect these preferences. Four studies assessed a cognitive explanation for the development of attractiveness preferences: cognitive averaging and infant preferences for mathematically averaged faces, or prototypes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that both adults and 6-month-old infants prefer prototypical, mathematically averaged faces. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that 6-month-olds can abstract the central tendency from a group of naturalistic faces. Taken together, the studies suggest that infants' preferences for attractive faces can be explained by general information-processing mechanisms.

  10. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  11. Brain vein disorders in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review

  12. Anterior fontanelle pressure monitoring in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.C.G. Overweg-Plandsoen

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe objectives of this study were 1 To evaluate whether the R TT could be used as a 'fontanometer'. The literature on non-invasive ICP measurement techniques used in infants and children was studied to avoid problems already encountered by others. Subsequently, a special R TT holding dev

  13. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  14. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  15. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, I.; Háden, G.P.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H.

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the o

  16. Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionIn general breast-fed infants suffer less from infection, which could be partly explained by the specificcompostionand metabolic activity of their intestinalmicroflora. During the last two decades, many

  17. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  18. The excessively crying infant : etiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhnikh, S.; Engelberts, A.C.; Sleuwen, B.E. van; Hoir, M.P. L’; Benninga, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive crying, often described as infantile colic, is the cause of 10% to 20% of all early pediatrician visits of infants aged 2 weeks to 3 months. Although usually benign and selflimiting, excessive crying is associated with parental exhaustion and stress. However, and underlying organic cause i

  19. Paracetamol and Preterm Infants: a painless liaison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.E. Roofthooft (Daniella)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the late 1980s there was a true turnabout on the important issue of neonatal pain. Then, Anand and co-workers [1, 2], published a trial on preterm infants randomly allocated to fentanyl with a muscle relaxant or muscle relaxant only during surgical patent ductus arte

  20. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); G.L. Kearns (Greg); D.J. Murry (Darryl); G. Koren (Gideon); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In preterm infants, the biotransformation of midazolam (M) to 1-OH-midazolam (OHM) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is developmentally immature, but it is currently unknown whether the glucuronidation of OHM to 1-OH-midazolam glucuronide (OHMG) is also decreased. The aim of our

  1. A case of Pompe disease in infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Sudorgina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Pompe disease in infant in Orenburg is presented in this article. Clinical picture of the infantile form of the disease is described. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with alglucosidase alfa is presented (alglucosidase alfa is not registered in Russia, was administered due tolife-threatening indication. Nowadays ERT is the only possible pathogenetic treatment of Pompe disease.

  2. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  3. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); G.L. Kearns (Greg); D.J. Murry (Darryl); G. Koren (Gideon); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In preterm infants, the biotransformation of midazolam (M) to 1-OH-midazolam (OHM) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is developmentally immature, but it is currently unknown whether the glucuronidation of OHM to 1-OH-midazolam glucuronide (OHMG) is also decreased. The aim of our s

  4. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge a...

  5. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, I.; Háden, G.P.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H.

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the

  6. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  7. Preterm Infant Massage Therapy Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood. The increases noted in vagal activity, gastric motility, insulin and IGF-1 levels following moderate pressure massage are potential underlying mechanisms. However, those variables combined do not explain all of the variance in weight gain, highlighting the need for additional mechanism studies. PMID:20137814

  8. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  9. Fostering Early Language with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2014-01-01

    This articles describes the learning process of infants and toddlers and provides tips that parents and caregivers can use to promote the development of rich language skills, as well as an abiding passion for learning. From the earliest days, talking with babies encourages their knowledge of words. Singing and reading books increases their…

  10. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics.

  11. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  12. Infants Segment Continuous Events Using Transitional Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E.; Romberg, Alexa R.; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants…

  13. Audiologic Assessment of Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Judith S.

    This paper provides guidelines for the audiologic assessment of infants and young children, highlighting recent technologic advances in auditory electrophysiology, acoustic immitance measure procedures, and behavioral audiometric techniques. First, audiologic assessment guidelines developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association are…

  14. [Head injuries in infants and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, Violaine; Duigou, Anne-Laure; Seizeur, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Head injuries in children are frequent reasons for visits to emergency departments. Depending on age, the causes are different: falls for younger infants and accidents for older children. Those treating children, especially in cases of serious injury, must be aware of the specificities of paediatric anatomy and physiology. As with adults, the initial assessment and surveillance help to prevent the condition from worsening.

  15. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  16. Surfactant protein D in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Juvonen, Pekka Olavi; Holmskov, Uffe;

    2005-01-01

    , the highest levels being observed in infants born by cesarean section. It was concluded that SP-D concentrations in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood are highly variable and depend on several perinatal conditions. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effect of respiratory distress and infection...

  17. The Dynamics of Infant Visual Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steven S.; Guckenheimer, John; Masnick, Amy M.; Bacher, Leigh F.

    2004-01-01

    Human infants actively forage for visual information from the moment of birth onward. Although we know a great deal about how stimulus characteristics influence looking behavior in the first few postnatal weeks, we know much less about the intrinsic dynamics of the behavior. Here we show that a simple stochastic dynamical system acts…

  18. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This mini- ... Transmission of CMV by natural routes relates ... infection from the fresh breast milk containing the virus. ... As a result of transmission during the course of delivery ... hepatitis was speculated to be caused by primary.

  19. Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionIn general breast-fed infants suffer less from infection, which could be partly explained by the specificcompostionand metabolic activity of their intestinalmicroflora. During the last two decades, many attemp

  20. Excessive infant crying : definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Hirasing, RA

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting evidenc

  1. Peripheral venepuncture in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willock, Jane; Richardson, Jim; Brazier, Anna; Powell, Colin; Mitchell, Emma

    Venepuncture can be a painful and frightening experience for children. Nurses play an active role in helping them to cope with this experience and in reducing the adverse effects of venepuncture. This article explains how infants, children and their families can be supported and cared for before, during and after venepuncture.

  2. Alcohol Use and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Karen B.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    2004-01-01

    Despite general evidence of fetal toxicities associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), there has been limited research focusing on the effects of parental alcohol use on SIDS occurrence, either directly or in interaction with other risk conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on parental, especially maternal,…

  3. [General vitamin K prevention in newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, W

    1986-01-01

    Vitamin K is required for the synthesis of active forms of some coagulation factors. Bleeding due to low levels of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn) is most frequently seen in newborns with a low intake of breast milk, who are not fed supplemental formula, since transplacental transfer of vitamin K seems to be small and breast milk is relatively deficient in vitamin K. Severe bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency is also observed in 4-12 weeks old infants. The reason for the deficiency in otherwise healthy infants of this age is unclear. Classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is not existent in infants given vitamin K intramuscularly at birth. Also, the late manifestation of vitamin K deficiency has been observed virtually exclusively in infants, who had not been given vitamin K parenterally at birth. Since most newborns will be breast fed and supplemental formula feeding will not be required in most healthy full term newborns, all newborns should be given a dose of vitamin K intramuscularly immediately after birth. Whether it is safe to administer vitamin K to the mother or orally to the child requires further investigation.

  4. College Students' Attitudes regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Anne K.; Chang, Yunhee; Knight, Kathy B.; Tidwell, Diane K.; Wachter, Kathy; Endo, Seiji; West, Charles K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of college students toward various infant feeding practices using a questionnaire created by the authors on the basis of a review of the literature. Five hundred ten students enrolled at the University of Mississippi took part in the study. Findings indicated that respondents believed both high school and…

  5. A Device to Record Infant Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Clement; Bullinger, Andre

    1976-01-01

    The device described is a system to indicate left-to-right head position. It is limited to indicating relative left-right movements without vertical or up-down discrimination. Although developed for newborns, the system can be applied to older subjects by using a holding device for the infant. (JH)

  6. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. Aims: To inves......Background: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. Aims......: To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity,mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association....... Methods: Mothers of 9125 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first year of life. A subsample of the cohort comprising 1155 individuals participated in a follow-up when they were aged 20–34 years and were administered the Wechsler Adult...

  7. Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents are defined as the amount of energy needed to balance total energy expenditure (TEE) at a desirable level of physical activity, and to support optimal growth and development consistent with long-term health. The latest FAO/WHO/UNU recommendati...

  8. Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Tonkin BND (Hons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This review aimed to investigate the relationship between varying levels of enteral protein intake and growth in preterm infants, regardless of feeding method. Data Sources. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, as were review articles, reference lists, and text books. Study Selection. Trials were included if they were randomized or quasirandomized, participants were 1000 g.

  9. INTERFERON TREATMENT OF INFANTS WITH INTRAUTERINE INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shamsheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of clinical diagnostic methods for risk assessment childbirth with intrauterine infection, data from clinical trials with a high level of evidence efficacy VIFERON® in adjuvant therapy in preterm infants with severe intrauterine viral infections. 

  10. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  11. effet de la toxicite du fer sur l'activite photosynthetique du riz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    in leaf chlorophyll content, but wth that of light energy conversion efficiency by photosystem II (PSII). Iron toxicity affected the photosynthetic apparatus of rice leaves. Key words : Rice ...... Characterization of photosynthetic pigment composition ...

  12. Late neurotoxicity after nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment;Toxicite neurologique tardive apres traitement des carcinomes nasopharynges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siala, W.; Mnejja, W.; Daoud, J. [Hopital Habib-Bourguiba, Service de Radiotherapie Carcinologique, Sfax (Tunisia); Khabir, A.; Boudawara, T. [Hopital Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Sfax (Tunisia); Ben Mahfoudh, K. [Hopital Habib-Bourguiba, Service de Radiologie, Sfax (Tunisia); Ghorbel, A. [Hopital Habib-Bourguiba, Service d' ORL, Sfax (Tunisia); Frikha, M. [Hopital Habib-Bourguiba, Service de Carcinologie Medicale, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose A retrospective analysis of risk factors for late neurological toxicity after nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy. Patients and methods Between 1993 and 2004, 239 patients with non metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy associated or not to chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered with two modalities: hyperfractionated for 82 patients and conventional fractionation for 157 patients. We evaluated the impact of tumour stage, age, gender, radiotherapy schedule and chemotherapy on neurological toxicity. Results After a mean follow-up of 107 months (35-176 months), 21 patients (8.8%) developed neurological complications, such as temporal necrosis in nine cases, brain stem necrosis in five cases, optics nerve atrophy in two cases and myelitis in one case. Five- and ten-year free of toxicity survival was 95 and 84% respectively. Young patients had greater risk of temporal necrosis, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with a significantly higher risk of neurological complications (14.6% vs 5.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, hyperfractionation and age were insignificant. Conclusion Late neurological toxicity after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma was rare. Younger age and hyperfractionation were considered as risk factors of neurological toxicity in our study

  13. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity; Biocinetique et toxicite de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A

    2000-07-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation.

  14. Effects of the acoustic properties of infant-directed speech on infant word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Yung; Demuth, Katherine; Morgan, James

    2010-07-01

    A number of studies have examined the acoustic differences between infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech, suggesting that the exaggerated acoustic properties of IDS might facilitate infants' language development. However, there has been little empirical investigation of the acoustic properties that infants use for word learning. The goal of this study was thus to examine how 19-month-olds' word recognition is affected by three acoustic properties of IDS: slow speaking rate, vowel hyper-articulation, and wide pitch range. Using the intermodal preferential looking procedure, infants were exposed to half of the test stimuli (e.g., Where's the book?) in typical IDS style. The other half of the stimuli were digitally altered to remove one of the three properties under investigation. After the target word (e.g., book) was spoken, infants' gaze toward target and distractor referents was measured frame by frame to examine the time course of word recognition. The results showed that slow speaking rate and vowel hyper-articulation significantly improved infants' ability to recognize words, whereas wide pitch range did not. These findings suggest that 19-month-olds' word recognition may be affected only by the linguistically relevant acoustic properties in IDS.

  15. Parental psychological distress and confidence after an infant's birth: the role of attachment representations in parents of infants with congenital anomalies and parents of healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Nazaré, Bárbara; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine parental psychological distress and confidence after an infant's birth, when parenting an infant with a diagnosis of a congenital anomaly, and to understand the role of attachment representations on parental adjustment. Parents of infants with a congenital anomaly (44 couples) and parents of healthy infants (46 couples) completed measures of adult attachment representations and of psychological distress and parental confidence (one month after the infant's birth). Results showed no group differences in psychological distress. Mothers in the clinical group presented lower confidence than mothers in the comparison group, while for fathers the inverse pattern was found, showing their involvement in the caretaking of the infant. Insecure attachment representations predicted parental psychological distress, and a moderator role of group was found only for fathers. These results highlight the role of secure attachment representations as an individual resource in stress-inducing situations.

  16. Umbilical Cord Milking Versus Delayed Cord Clamping in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katheria, Anup C; Truong, Giang; Cousins, Larry; Oshiro, Bryan; Finer, Neil N

    2015-07-01

    Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is recommended for premature infants to improve blood volume. Most preterm infants are born by cesarean delivery (CD), and placental transfusion may be less effective than in vaginal delivery (VD). We sought to determine whether infants umbilical cord milking (UCM) have higher measures of systemic blood flow than infants who undergo DCC. This was a 2-center trial. Infants delivered by CD were randomly assigned to undergo UCM or DCC. Infants delivered by VD were also randomly assigned separately. UCM (4 strippings) or DCC (45-60 seconds) were performed. Continuous hemodynamic measurements and echocardiography were done at site 1. A total of 197 infants were enrolled (mean gestational age 28 ± 2 weeks). Of the 154 infants delivered by CD, 75 were assigned to UCM and 79 to DCC. Of the infants delivered by CD, neonates randomly assigned to UCM had higher superior vena cava flow and right ventricular output in the first 12 hours of life. Neonates undergoing UCM also had higher hemoglobin, delivery room temperature, blood pressure over the first 15 hours, and urine output in the first 24 hours of life. There were no differences for the 43 infants delivered by VD. This is the first randomized controlled trial demonstrating higher systemic blood flow with UCM in preterm neonates compared with DCC. UCM may be a more efficient technique to improve blood volume in premature infants delivered by CD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Effect of situation on mother-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, A Janneke B M; Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2013-02-01

    Research has shown that the early parent-infant relationship is of critical importance for children's developmental outcomes. While the effect of different settings on mother-infant interactive behavior is well studied, only few researchers systematically examined the effect of situational variables on mother-infant interaction. In the present study the effect of situational variables within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interaction at 6 months was examined as well as the consistency in the quality of behaviors of mother and infant across these situations. During a home visit 292 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in three different situations (i.e., free play, face-to-face play, and diaper change). Interactive behaviors of mother and infant were assessed with the NICHD global ratings scales. Results showed substantial effects of situation on the interactive behavior of the mother-infant dyad. Despite the observed situational effects maternal sensitivity to non-distress, intrusiveness, stimulation of development, and positive regard and all five infant behavioral scales remained stable across the different situations. Insight into situational effects within the home setting on the quality of mother-infant interactive behavior may assist researchers to make well-informed decisions about measuring the parent-infant interaction in one or more specific situations.

  18. Oxytocin and mutual communication in mother-infant bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eNagasawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mother-infant bonding is universal to all mammalian species. In this review, we describe the manner in which reciprocal communication between the mother and infant leads to mother-infant bonding in rodents. In rats and mice, mother-infant bond formation is reinforced by various social stimuli, such as tactile stimuli and ultrasonic vocalizations from the pups to the mother, and feeding and tactile stimulation from the mother to the pups. Some evidence suggests that mother and infant can develop a cross-modal sensory recognition of their counterpart during this bonding process. Neurochemically, oxytocin in the neural system plays a pivotal role in each side of the mother-infant bonding process, although the mechanisms underlying bond formation in the brains of infants has not yet been clarified. Impairment of mother-infant bonding, that is, deprivation of social stimuli from the mother, strongly influences offspring sociality, including maternal behavior toward their own offspring in their adulthood, implying a non-genomic transmission of maternal environment, even in rodents. The comparative understanding of cognitive functions between mother and infants, and the biological mechanisms involved in mother-infant bonding may help us understand psychiatric disorders associated with mother-infant relationships.

  19. Differences in object sharing between infants at risk for autism and typically developing infants from 9 to 15 months of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2016-01-01

    Object sharing abilities of infants at risk for autism (AR infants) and typically developing (TD) infants were compared from 9 to 15 months of age. Specifically, we examined the effects of infants’ locomotor abilities on their object sharing skills. 16 TD infants and 16 AR infants were observed during an “object sharing” paradigm at crawling and walking ages. Overall, AR walking infants demonstrated lower rates of object sharing with caregivers compared to TD walking infants. Specifically, AR walking infants had lower rates of giving and approaches toward caregivers compared to TD walking infants. AR walking infants also had lower step rates toward task-appropriate targets, i.e. caregivers and objects compared to TD walking infants. No group differences in object sharing were observed at crawling ages. Object sharing could be a valuable context for early identification of delays in infants at risk for developing ASD. PMID:26803417

  20. Cardiac imaging by means of four-detector row computed tomography and cardiac gating; Imagerie cardiaque en tomodensitometrie a quatre canaux d'acquisition et synchronisation cardiaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelslegers, E.; Coche, E.; Goffette, P.; Maldague, B.; Be, Van Beers [Clinique Universitaires UCL Saint-Luc, Bruxelles (Belgium); Gerber, B. [Clinique Universitaires UCL Saint-Luc, Dept. d' Imagerie Medicale, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-09-01

    Electrocardiographically-assisted imaging is a recent development in multislice spiral computed tomography, In this article, we summarize the principles of four-detector row CT for cardiac applications. Following is an overview of the potential of this technique to evaluate the heart, the thoracic aorta, and the para-cardiac pulmonary parenchyma. Technical considerations for optimal imaging are highlighted. (authors)

  1. [Application of massage therapy in premature infant nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan

    2007-02-01

    Massage therapy has been used in the care of premature infants for many years in western countries, and a significant body of research has already shown the effectiveness of massage therapy in significantly increasing body weight, decreasing infant hospital durations, enhancing bone formation, and improving behavior. Key considerations when applying massage therapy on premature infants include gestational age, bodyweight, and physical condition. Nurses can teach parents to administer massage therapy on their premature infants to enhance parent-child attachment and interaction. This article introduces massage therapy principles and methods, the effectiveness of massage therapy in premature infant care, and an approach to teaching parents how to apply massage therapy on their premature infants. Massage therapy can be included in premature infant care programs in the future.

  2. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R

    1984-07-01

    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  3. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development.

  4. Hypotension in Newborn Infants and Its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Uysal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic hypotension is a common complication of sick premature infants and may be associated with major adverse outcomes, including intraventricular hemorrhage, neuro-developmental morbidity, and mortality. There is no consensus among neonatologists regarding either the definition of hypotension or the lower threshold level of systemic arterial blood pressure in which neurological injury is inevitable. For this reason, there is a considerable variation in the reported prevalence of hypotension among different neonatal units. However, it is widely accepted by many of clinicians that early and aggressive treatment of hypotension in the neonates leads to improved neurologic outcome and survival. The goal of treatment of hypotension is to maintain adequate organ blood flow, particularly, cerebral blood flow. Because of difficulties in evaluating organ perfusion and adequacy of cerebral oxygen delivery, treatment decisions are based on statistically defined gestational and postnatal age-dependent normative blood-pressure values combined with clinical intuition. Current treatment of hypotension in the premature infant includes the use of volume expansions, inotropes, vasopressor agents and corticosteroids. It has been reported that dopamine, as a commonly used inotropic agents in the neonatal period, is more effective than dobutamine in the raising of blood pressure. Some hypotensive premature infants have low cortisol levels because of adrenocortical insufficiency, and corticosteroids are generally reserved for treatment of refractory hypotension of these infants; however, it is not recommended for prophylaxis or routine clinical use because of its potential serious side effects. This article aims to review some of the controversies about diagnosis and management of systemic hypotension in the newborn infants. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013;11:68-76

  5. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

  6. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  7. ASPHYXIA AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.

  8. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: the types of foods fed to Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Ziegler, Paula; Briefel, Ronette; Novak, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of breastfeeding and formula feeding, the age of introduction to specific foods, and the types of foods and beverages consumed by Hispanic infants and toddlers compared with similarly aged non-Hispanic infants and toddlers living in the United States. Descriptive and comparative analysis of dietary recall data and responses to specific interview questions, which were collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. Breastfeeding status, timing of introduction of complementary foods, percentage consuming foods from specific food groups, and the most frequently consumed fruits and vegetables by Hispanic and non-Hispanic children by age group (4-5 months, 6-11 months, 12-24 months). A national random sample of 371 Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic infants and toddlers between the ages of 4 and 24 months. To test for differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic children in the percentage who consumed a particular food item, we calculated percentages and standard errors in SUDAAN and 95% and 99% confidence intervals. The most frequently consumed fruits and vegetables were determined by tallying the percentage of infants and toddlers who consumed each specific fruit or vegetable on a given day. Although there were some similarities, the early flavor and food experiences of Hispanic infants were different from similarly aged non-Hispanic infants in several ways. Hispanic infants younger than 1 year of age were more likely to have ever been breastfed and those who were 4 to 5 months were more likely than non-Hispanics to be eating pureed baby foods on a daily basis. Although less likely to be eating non-infant cereals and baby food vegetables, 6- to 11-month-old Hispanics were more likely to be eating fresh fruits, fruit-flavored drinks, baby cookies, and foods such as soups, rice, and beans that are common in many Hispanic cultures. When fruits were introduced into the Hispanic child's diet, they were most commonly consumed fresh. This

  9. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011 on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475, 10 probiotics studies (N = 933 and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563 were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal

  10. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-10-04

    Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was

  11. Economy in the feeding of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, E; Delaney, J; Dwyer, J T

    1977-02-01

    The food costs of various infant feeds were examined with focus on how these vary and the cost differences between different feeding patterns in the 1st year of life. The objectives were: 1) to compare prices for branded commercial milk-based products with other types of formulas and breast milk, and with each other according to source of supply, 2) to compare prices of different sources of Beikost (foods other than milk or formulas) used in feeding babies and how these vary by form (home made versus various types of commercially prepared products) and among brands, 3) to review total annual costs of 5 different hypothetical feeding patterns and actual patterns; and 4) to summarize factors other than price which may be significant in the economics and efficiency of infant feeding. National price survey data on a large number of commercial products from several companies producing food for infants were made available for this study. In addition, during June 1976 price surveys were conducted in several large supermarkets, small grocery stores, and drugstores in the Boston area to furnish information on local price differentials. The least expensive acceptable food for an infant was found to be a home made evaporated milk formula. While food costs were quite low, the formula must be prepared, and preparation time was slightly longer than it was with pre-mixed products. Whole milk was the most inexpensive milk-based feed but was undesirable for infant feeding, at least in the early months of life. On a moderate cost diet which supplies the extra nutrients required for lactation primarily from animal resources, lactation ranked in the middle from the standpoint of food cost. The various commercial milk-based feeds were nearly twice the cost of evaporated milk formulas. Concentrated formulas were least expensive, followed by powdered, with ready-to-feed products being the most expensive. Costs of breast feeding for a year ranged from $156 to $281, depending on the diet

  12. Maternal executive function, infant feeding responsiveness and infant growth during the first 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, A J; Demerath, E W; Finsaas, M C; Moore, C J; Georgieff, M K; Carlson, S M

    2017-08-01

    There is limited research in young infants, particularly executive function (cognitive control over one's own behaviour), maternal feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. We used a checklist to assess cues mothers use to decide when to initiate and terminate infant feedings at 2 weeks and 3 months of age (N = 69). Maternal executive function was assessed using the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery subtests for executive function and infant body composition using air displacement plethysmography. Mothers with higher executive function reported relying on fewer non-satiety cues at 2 weeks of age (β = -0.29, p = 0.037) and on more infant hunger cues at 3 months of age (β = 0.31, p = 0.018) in their decisions on initiating and terminating feedings. Responsive feeding decisions, specifically the use of infant-based hunger cues at 3 months, in turn were associated with lower gains in weight-for-length (β = -0.30, p = 0.028) and percent body fat (β = -0.2, p = 0.091; non-covariate adjusted β = -0.27, p = 0.029). These findings show both an association between maternal executive function and responsive feeding decisions and an association between responsive feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity gains. The causal nature and direction of these associations require further investigation. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Infant intersubjectivity: research, theory, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevarthen, C; Aitken, K J

    2001-01-01

    We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal state and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others. Mutual self-other-consciousness is found to play the lead role in developing a child's cooperative intelligence for cultural learning and language. A variety of preconceptions have animated rival research traditions investigating infant communication and cognition. We distinguish the concept of "intersubjectivity", and outline the history of its use in developmental research. The transforming body and brain of a human individual grows in active engagement with an environment of human factors--organic at first, then psychological or inter-mental. Adaptive, human-responsive processes are generated first by interneuronal activity within the developing brain as formation of the human embryo is regulated in a support-system of maternal tissues. Neural structures are further elaborated with the benefit of intra-uterine stimuli in the foetus, then supported in the rapidly growing forebrain and cerebellum of the young child by experience of the intuitive responses of parents and other human companions. We focus particularly on intrinsic patterns and processes in pre-natal and post-natal brain maturation that anticipate psychosocial support in infancy. The operation of an intrinsic motive formation (IMF) that developed in the core of the brain before birth is evident in the tightly integrated intermodal sensory-motor coordination of a newborn infant's orienting to stimuli and preferential learning of human signals, by the temporal coherence and intrinsic

  14. Type of object motion facilitates word mapping by preverbal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatyaho-Bullaro, Dalit J; Gogate, Lakshmi; Mason, Zachary; Cadavid, Steven; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed whether specific types of object motion, which predominate in maternal naming to preverbal infants, facilitate word mapping by infants. A total of 60 full-term 8-month-old infants were habituated to two spoken words, /bæf/ and /wem/, synchronous with the handheld motions of a toy dragonfly and a fish or a lamb chop and a squiggly. They were presented in one of four experimental motion conditions-shaking, looming, upward, and sideways-and one all-motion control condition. Infants were then given a test that consisted of two mismatch (change) and two control (no-change) trials, counterbalanced for order. Results revealed that infants learned the word-object relations (i.e., looked longer on the mismatch trials relative to the control trials) in the shaking and looming motion conditions but not in the upward, sideways, and all-motion conditions. Infants learned the word-object relations in the looming and shaking conditions likely because these motions foreground the object for the infants. Thus, the type of gesture an adult uses matters during naming when preverbal infants are beginning to map words onto objects. The results suggest that preverbal infants learn word-object relations within an embodied system involving matches between infants' perception of motion and specific motion properties of caregivers' naming.

  15. Translating research-based knowledge about infant sleep into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Wendy; Yaure, Robin; Huey, Erron L

    2015-06-01

    Review infant sleep research with a focus on understanding the elements related to infant safety and infant and maternal well-being during nighttime care. This review summarizes current research and addresses the controversies and conflicting outcomes reported in infant nighttime care. This review addresses current literature on infant sleep patterns, as well as factors that influence infant sleep and are consequences of different care routines. Conversation points are provided to help nurse practitioners (NPs) address safety and practice concerns. Shared information can help parents provide a safe and healthy environment for infants and help to facilitate communication ties between the healthcare providers and the families. NPs need to help parents understand infant sleep patterns norms, what is current knowledge about infant nightwakings and parental presence, as well as about approaches to altering infant sleep patterns. Integrating this knowledge with parent preferences that are influenced by cultural practices and individual differences is crucial in helping parents develop a strong sense of competence and comfort with their choices and behaviors. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L;

    2000-01-01

    In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA <28 weeks, n = 20) and infants of GA 28 - 32 weeks; the gro......In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA ... low GA received 28 blood transfusions, corresponding to 27.0 ml/kg of blood on average during the study period. Four developed late anaemia; thus, in total, 14 (70%) of the infants born extremely early received 35 transfusions during the first 3 months of life, corresponding to a total mean of 34.8 ml....../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...

  17. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L

    2000-01-01

    In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA <28 weeks, n = 20) and infants of GA 28 - 32 weeks; the gro......In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA .../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...... in extremely preterm, critically ill infants. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Apr...

  18. Patterns of infant mortality in Kuwait from 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waheeb, Salah; Al-Kandary, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Infant death is often tragic, particularly in the Arab World, where infants, especially males, are supposed to carry their family's names due to ancient cultural traditions. The conditions and events that may be associated with infant death are extremely varied. Infants may die from either congenital disorders or natural diseases, or may pass away as a consequence of a complicated delivery. Infants are also victims of accidents and violence such as homicides. The main aim of this study was to investigate the reported medico legal cases of infant mortality in Kuwait due to natural and un-natural causes between 2003 and 2006. The average IMR rate in Kuwait during the study period was better than the IMR average for developing countries and the IMR average for the world during the same study period. In general, these figures for Kuwait are even better than the average for Middle East and North Africa. More medico- legal cases were reported for deaths among Kuwaiti infants in 2004, 2005 and 2006 compared to non Kuwaiti infants. More Kuwaiti infants died due to RTA and domestic accidents. In contrast, only non Kuwaiti infant died from infanticide.

  19. Baby care products: possible sources of infant phthalate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Karr, Catherine J; Lozano, Paula; Brown, Elizabeth; Calafat, Antonia M; Liu, Fan; Swan, Shanna H

    2008-02-01

    Phthalates are man-made chemicals found in personal care and other products. Recent studies suggest that some phthalates can alter human male reproductive development, but sources of infant exposure have not been well characterized. We investigated the relationship between phthalate metabolite concentrations in infant urine and maternal reported use of dermally applied infant care products. We measured 9 phthalate metabolites in 163 infants who were born in 2000-2005. An infant was considered to have been exposed to any infant care product that the mother reported using on her infant within 24 hours of urine collection. Results of multiple linear regression analyses are reported as the ratio of metabolite concentrations (with 95% confidence intervals) in exposed and unexposed infants. We standardized concentrations by forming z scores and examined combined exposure to multiple metabolites. In most (81%) infants, > or = 7 phthalate metabolites were above the limit of detection. Exposure to lotion was predictive of monoethyl phthalate and monomethyl phthalate concentrations, powder of monoisobutyl phthalate, and shampoo of monomethyl phthalate. Z scores increased with number of products used. Most associations were stronger in younger infants. Phthalate exposure is widespread and variable in infants. Infant exposure to lotion, powder, and shampoo were significantly associated with increased urinary concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, monomethyl phthalate, and monoisobutyl phthalate, and associations increased with the number of products used. This association was strongest in young infants, who may be more vulnerable to developmental and reproductive toxicity of phthalates given their immature metabolic system capability and increased dosage per unit body surface area.

  20. Differences in the stratum corneum of Indonesian infants and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Fujimura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Although understanding the stratum corneum (SC of infant skin is important to avoid skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, there has been no such investigation in Indonesian infants to date. Objective  To obtain a basic knowledge of SC characteristics in Indonesian infants in order to develop methods for infant-specific skin care and to prevent dermatitis and infection. Methods Seventy-two healthy, full term infants aged 1 to 24 months who were native Indonesians residing in Jakarta were enrolled in this study. Some of the mothers were also enrolled in the study as adults (n=30. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration of the SC (capacitance on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured after sufficient acclimation in an air-conditioned room, in both infants and mothers. Results The SC hydration was significantly higher in infants than adults at all sites measured, including the buttocks, which is a diaper area. Infant TEWL values were also significantly higher than in adults at all sites. Hydration of the SC and TEWL values showed no significant correlation with age of infant for any site. The SC hydration and TEWL values of Indonesian infants did not decrease to adult values within 24 months, which indicates that the SC characteristics in infants continue to develop after 24 months of age. Conclusion  Indonesian infants aged 0-24 months have significantly higher SC hydration and TEWL values than Indonesian mothers. However, infant age has no correlation to SC hydration or to TEWL values.

  1. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  2. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant... by the infant formula. (b) Carry out additional effectiveness checks, if the agency's audits,...

  3. Infants' Use of Sound in Search for Mother During Brief Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J.; Corter, Carl M.

    Infants' use of auditory information in guiding their search behavior is examined in this study. The subjects were two groups of 9-month-old crawling infants. Group 1 consisted of 24 infants and Group 2 of 16 infants. The auditory stimuli was the mother's voice. Infants in both groups were initially positioned by their mothers behind a screen in a…

  4. Understanding newborn infant readmission: findings of the Ontario Mother and Infant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, W A; Watt, S; Krueger, P D; Kyong, S L; Sheehan, D D; Roberts, J G; Gafni, A

    2001-01-01

    The Ontario Mother and Infant Survey examined health and social service utilization of postpartum women and newborn infants from five hospital sites. A cross-sectional multilanguage survey design with longitudinal follow-up was used: 1,250 eligible, consenting women completed a self-report questionnaire in hospital and 875 women participated in a structured telephone interview at four weeks post-discharge. Rates of newborn infant readmission ranged from 2.4% to 6.7%. The best predictors of readmission were: main source of household income was other than employment; maternal self-rating of health was poor; mother anticipated inadequate help and support at home following discharge; mother received help from friends/neighbours following discharge; and mother had concern about infant care and behaviour. Readmission was not associated with length of postpartum hospital stay. The study findings suggest that there is a complex relationship between infant health care needs, family resources and provider practices that produces clinically important, site-specific readmission patterns.

  5. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010–2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants. PMID:27669283

  6. Palm olein in infant formula: absorption of fat and minerals by normal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S E; Rogers, R R; Frantz, J A; Ziegler, E E

    1996-09-01

    Palm olein, a low-melting fraction of palm oil, and soy oil can be combined to obtain fat blends with proportions of palmitic and oleic acids similar to those of human milk. We compared the absorption of fat and calcium by infants fed a formula containing a blend of palm olein (53%) and soy oil (47%) (Formula PO/S) with that by infants fed a formula containing a blend of soy oil (60%) and coconut oil (40%) (Formula S/C). In a randomized crossover design, one study was performed with each formula in each of 11 normal infants ranging in age from 27 to 161 d. Six of the infants were admitted for 72-h metabolic balance studies. In the other five infants, feces (with some admixture of urine) were collected at home for 96 h by using acid-washed cloth diapers. Mean (+/- SD) absorption of fat was 90.6 +/- 1.6% of intake when Formula PO/S was fed and 95.2 +/- 1.1% of intake when Formula S/C was fed; the difference was significant (P palm olein and 47% soy oil than from a mixture of 60% soy oil and 40% coconut oil, and that absorption of calcium is less from a formula containing palm olein, presumably because of the formation of insoluble calcium soaps of unabsorbed palmitic acid.

  7. Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Bennett, Cathy; Midgley, Nick; Larkin, Soili K; Wei, Yinghui

    2015-01-08

    Parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP) is a dyadic intervention that works with parent and infant together, with the aim of improving the parent-infant relationship and promoting infant attachment and optimal infant development. PIP aims to achieve this by targeting the mother's view of her infant, which may be affected by her own experiences, and linking them to her current relationship to her child, in order to improve the parent-infant relationship directly. 1. To assess the effectiveness of PIP in improving parental and infant mental health and the parent-infant relationship.2. To identify the programme components that appear to be associated with more effective outcomes and factors that modify intervention effectiveness (e.g. programme duration, programme focus). We searched the following electronic databases on 13 January 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2014, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BIOSIS Citation Index, Science Citation Index, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, checked reference lists, and contacted study authors and other experts. Two review authors assessed study eligibility independently. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (quasi-RCT) that compared a PIP programme directed at parents with infants aged 24 months or less at study entry, with a control condition (i.e. waiting-list, no treatment or treatment-as-usual), and used at least one standardised measure of parental or infant functioning. We also included studies that only used a second treatment group. We adhered to the standard methodological procedures of The Cochrane Collaboration. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference (MD) in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. We presented standardised mean differences (SMDs) and

  8. Infant oral exam and first dental home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kavitha

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to familiarize general practitioners with the components of a dental home including an infant oral exam, and to the First Dental Home initiative, which is unique to the State of Texas. This article encourages the general practitioners to actively participate in providing care for young children under the age of 3. Components of an infant oral examination are described here with emphasis on knee-to-knee or lap exam, caries risk assessment, preventive treatment, age-appropriate anticipatory guidance, and parent education. The First Dental Home is uniquely designed to help pediatric clients 6 months through 35 months of age to establish a dental home. The objectives, goal and components of FDH are discussed in detail.

  9. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights.

  10. Technical inventions that enabled artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Artificial feeding of infants, called hand-feeding, was unsafe well into the 19th century. This paper aims to identify technical innovations which made artificial feeding less dangerous. In rapid succession from 1844 to 1886, the vulcanization of rubber, production of rubber teats, cooling machines for large-scale ice production, techniques for milk pasteurization, evaporation and condensation, and packing in closed tins were invented or initiated. Remarkably, most of these inventions preceded the discovery of pathogenic bacteria. The producers of proprietary infant formula made immediate use of these innovations, whereas in the private household artificial feeding remained highly dangerous - mostly because of ignorance about bacteria and hygiene, and partly because the equipment for safe storage, transport, preparation and application of baby food was lacking.

  11. Traumatic cervical epidural hematoma in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Rangarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-month-old male infant had presented with a history of a fall from the crib a fortnight ago. He had developed progressive weakness of both lower limbs. On examination, the infant had spastic paraplegia. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging of the cervical spine showed an epidural hematoma extending from the fourth cervical (C4 to the first dorsal (D1 vertebral level with cord compression. The patient had no bleeding disorder on investigation. He underwent cervical laminoplasty at C6 and C7 levels. The epidural hematoma was evacuated. The cervical cord started pulsating immediately. Postoperatively, the patient′s paraplegia improved dramatically in 48 hours. According to the author′s literature search, only seven cases of post-traumatic epidural hematoma have been reported in pediatric patients, and our patient is the youngest. The present case report discusses the etiopathology, presentation, and management of this rare case.

  12. Recurring Facial Erythema in an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of facial rashes and erythema in infants are many but rarely only happen during feeding times which are commonly and sometimes wrongly attributed to food allergy. There is a rare condition called Auriculotemporal nerve syndrome that is characterized by recurrent episodes of gustatory facial flushing and sweating along the cutaneous distribution of Auriculotemporal nerve: the so-called Frey syndrome. This condition is most frequently observed in adults usually after parotid surgery. It is rare in children and is mostly attributed to forceps assisted delivery. It can also be misinterpreted as food allergy. Here we report a case of an infant with Frey syndrome without any history of perinatal trauma, which was considered initially as food allergy and highlights the importance of distinguishing it from food allergy.

  13. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy.

  14. Newborn infants detect the beat in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-02-17

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate.

  15. Fortification of human milk for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmacher, Paula G; Adamkin, David H

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants, including those of very low birth weight (milk is not available or the amount produced is not sufficient to meet daily needs, donor human milk may (should) be used in its place. However, donor human milk is generally term in quality and likely has insufficient protein to promote appropriate growth. Whether donor or mother's own milk, fortification of human milk is required to meet nutrient requirements for growth and development for these preterm infants who are at high risk for growth faltering during the hospital stay. There are multiple strategies and products that may be employed to support desired growth rates. The advent of human milk analyzers may be helpful in a more customized approach to fortification.

  16. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alorainy Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  17. Diabetes insipidus in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Elizabeth; Kadakia, Rachel; Zimmerman, Donald

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus, the inability to concentrate urine resulting in polyuria and polydipsia, can have different manifestations and management considerations in infants and children compared to adults. Central diabetes insipidus, secondary to lack of vasopressin production, is more common in children than is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the inability to respond appropriately to vasopressin. The goal of treatment in both forms of diabetes insipidus is to decrease urine output and thirst while allowing for appropriate fluid balance, normonatremia and ensuring an acceptable quality of life for each patient. An infant's obligate need to consume calories as liquid and the need for readjustment of medication dosing in growing children both present unique challenges for diabetes insipidus management in the pediatric population. Treatment modalities typically include vasopressin or thiazide diuretics. Special consideration must be given when managing diabetes insipidus in the adipsic patient, post-surgical patient, and in those undergoing chemotherapy or receiving medications that alter free water clearance.

  18. [Role of rhythmicity in infant development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, A

    2015-09-01

    This article deals with rhythm in the experiences of infants, focusing in particular on the function of rhythmicity in the baby's sense of being and its continuity. Infants are inevitably subjected to experiences of discontinuity. These experiences are necessary to development, but they expose the child to chaotic experiences when a basic rhythmicity is not ensured. The rhythmicity of childcare experiences gives the illusion of permanence and enables anticipation. This nourishes the basic feeling of security and supports the development of thought. Interactive and intersubjective exchanges must be rhythmic and must be in keeping with the rhythm of the baby, who needs to withdraw regularly from the interaction to internalize the experience of the exchange. Without this retreat, the interaction is over-stimulating and prevents internalization. Object presence/ absence must also be rhythmic, to enable the infant to keep the object alive inside him/ herself. Observation of babies has demonstrated their ability to manage experiences of discontinuity: they are able to sustain a continuous link via their gaze, look for clues indicating the presence of a lost object, search for support in sensations, and fabricate rhythmicity to remain open to the self and the world. The author gives some examples of infant observations that provide evidence of these capacities. One observation shows how a baby defends itself against a discontinuity by actively maintaining a link via his/her gaze. Another example shows an infant holding on to "hard sensations" in order to stay away from "soft" ones, which represent the fragility of the separation experience. This example pertains to a seven-month-old's prelanguage and "prosodic tonicity". The author takes this opportunity to propose the notion of "psychic bisensuality" to describe these two sensation poles, which must be harmoniously articulated to guarantee an inner sense of security. Such repairs of discontinuity are only possible if the

  19. Assigning cause for sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carl E; Darnall, Robert A; McEntire, Betty L; Hyma, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    We have reached a conundrum in assigning cause of death for sudden unexpected infant deaths. We summarize the discordant perspectives and approaches and how they have occurred, and recommend a pathway toward improved consistency. This lack of consistency affects pediatricians and other health care professionals, scientific investigators, medical examiners and coroners, law enforcement agencies, families, and support or advocacy groups. We recommend that an interdisciplinary international committee be organized to review current approaches for assigning cause of death, and to identify a consensus strategy for improving consistency. This effort will need to encompass intrinsic risk factors or infant vulnerability in addition to known environmental risk factors including unsafe sleep settings, and must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate a progressively expanding knowledge base.

  20. Gastrointestinal ultrasound in neonates, infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Maria Luisa, E-mail: mluisalobo@gmail.com; Roque, Mariana, E-mail: mianaroque@gmail.com

    2014-09-15

    Today US plays an important and increasing role in the assessment of many, partially age-specific conditions in the GI tract in neonates, infants and children. Knowledge of the potential capabilities of US and its restrictions together with a skillful performance of GI US examination can provide essential anatomic and functional diagnostic information in many pediatric GI disorders. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential of ultrasound (US) in the evaluation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in neonates, infants and children. Basic and potential applications of modern US tools in pediatric GI tract are addressed, the GI US examination technique is discussed – including some common and/or typical clinical applications of and indications for US.

  1. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  2. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... with a desirable goal of children and adolescents aged ≥ 2-18 years. Intakes should probably be even lower in infants and toddlers consumption should be established in infancy, with the aim of preventing negative health effects in later...... or unsweetened milk drinks. National Authorities should adopt policies aimed at reducing the intake of free sugars in infants, children and adolescents. This may include education, improved labelling, restriction of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures...

  3. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... with a desirable goal of children and adolescents aged ≥ 2-18 years. Intakes should probably be even lower in infants and toddlers consumption should be established in infancy, with the aim of preventing negative health effects in later...... or unsweetened milk drinks. National Authorities should adopt policies aimed at reducing the intake of free sugars in infants, children and adolescents. This may include education, improved labelling, restriction of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures...

  4. Hospital stay for healthy term newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitz, William E

    2015-05-01

    The hospital stay of the mother and her healthy term newborn infant should be long enough to allow identification of problems and to ensure that the mother is sufficiently recovered and prepared to care for herself and her newborn at home. The length of stay should be based on the unique characteristics of each mother-infant dyad, including the health of the mother, the health and stability of the newborn, the ability and confidence of the mother to care for herself and her newborn, the adequacy of support systems at home, and access to appropriate follow-up care in a medical home. Input from the mother and her obstetrical care provider should be considered before a decision to discharge a newborn is made, and all efforts should be made to keep a mother and her newborn together to ensure simultaneous discharge. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Infant SES as a predictor of personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    ), and Eysenck personality traits in adulthood. An additional aim was to investigate whether intelligence and education may mediate this association. METHODS: SES of 9125 children in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort was recorded at a 1-year examination. A subsample of this cohort, comprising 1182 individuals...... correlations, and the mediating effects of intelligence and years of education were analysed. RESULTS: Higher SES in infancy was associated with lower neuroticism (r = -0.06; p = 0.05), lower lie-scale scores (r = -0.11; p = 0.0002), and higher psychoticism (r = 0.09; p = 0.003). However, analyses of mediation...... revealed no direct effect of infant SES on any of the adult personality traits, but only indirect effects mediated by intelligence and years of education, with intelligence being the main mediating factor. CONCLUSION: Only weak associations were observed between infant SES and personality in young...

  6. Breastfeeding and infant growth: biology or bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael S; Guo, Tong; Platt, Robert W; Shapiro, Stanley; Collet, Jean-Paul; Chalmers, Beverley; Hodnett, Ellen; Sevkovskaya, Zinaida; Dzikovich, Irina; Vanilovich, Irina

    2002-08-01

    Available evidence suggests that prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding is associated with lower infant weight and length by 6 to 12 months of age. This evidence, however, is based on observational studies, which are unable to separate the effects of feeding mode per se from selection bias, reverse causality, and the confounding effects of maternal attitudinal factors. A cluster-randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus of a breastfeeding promotion intervention modeled on the World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative versus control (then current) infant feeding practices. Healthy, full-term, singleton breastfed infants (n = 17 046) weighing > or =2500 g were enrolled soon after birth and followed up at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months old for measurements of weight, length, and head circumference. Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat, while accounting for within-cluster correlation. To assess the potential for bias in observational studies of breastfeeding, we also analyzed our data as if we had conducted an observational study by ignoring treatment, combining the 2 randomized groups, and comparing 1378 infants weaned in the first month and those breastfed for the full 12 months of follow-up with either > or =3 months (n = 1271) or > or =6 months (n = 251) of exclusive breastfeeding. Infants from the experimental sites were significantly more likely to be breastfed (to any degree) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and were far more likely to be exclusively breastfed at 3 months (43.3% vs 6.4%). Mean birth weight was nearly identical in the 2 groups (3448 g, experimental; 3446 g, control). Mean weight was significantly higher in the experimental group by 1 month of age (4341 vs 4280 g). The difference increased through 3 months (6153 g vs 6047 g), declined slowly thereafter, and disappeared by 12 months (10564 g vs 10571 g). Analysis by z scores confirmed that infants in both groups gained more weight than the WHO/Centers for

  7. Acute bronchiolitis in infants, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common medical emergency situations in infancy, and physicians caring for acutely ill children will regularly be faced with this condition. In this article we present a summary of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis, and focus on guidelines for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants. The cornerstones of the management of viral bronchiolitis are the administration of oxygen and appropriate fluid therapy, and overall a “minimal handling approach” is recommended. Inhaled adrenaline is commonly used in some countries, but the evidences are sparse. Recently, inhalation with hypertonic saline has been suggested as an optional treatment. When medical treatment fails to stabilize the infants, non-invasive and invasive ventilation may be necessary to prevent and support respiratory failure. It is important that relevant treatment algorithms exist, applicable to all levels of the treatment chain and reflecting local considerations and circumstances. PMID:24694087

  8. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...... haemodynamics' includes cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood flow velocity, and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Therapy aimed at changing vascular anatomy is not available. Therefore, prevention of disturbances in CBF and CBV is pivotal. However, continuous monitoring of CBF and CBV is still unavailable...... for clinical use. Tissue oxygenation may be used as a surrogate for CBF, although precision is still questionable. General knowledge of the regulation of CBF and CBV is important. Although this knowledge is still incomplete, especially regarding autoregulation and the exact role of CBV, it is still useful...

  9. PREVALENCE AND OUTCOME OF THE MACROSOMIC INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haji Ebrahim Tehrani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The birth weight is one of the important factors affecting the perinatal morbidity and mortality. Fetal macrosomia is associated with increased risks of cesarean section and trauma. To determine prevalence and outcome of the macrosomic infants, this case-control, prospective study is performed in the two university hospitals in Tehran during a 36- month period between 2002 through 2004. 1000 neonates with birth weight of at least 4000g (<90th centile constituted the case group. Another 2000 Cases amongst the newborns delivered in the same period between 2500 and 3999g (10th-90th centile formed the control group. A total of 17236 deliveries occurred during the study period. The prevalence of macrosomic deliveries was 5.8 and prevalence of the deliveries (>4500g or heavier was 0.84%. The mean birth weight of study group was 4254215 and 3245310g of control group (P<0.001.While the cesarean section rate was 35.2% for study group and it was 18.5% for the control group (P<0.001 in the study group. 16 cases of clavicular fracture (1.6%, 13 cases of brachial plexus palsy (1.3%, (p<0.001. No perinatal mortality was recorded in two groups. There were 12 cases (1.2% of asphyxia related to delivery in the study group (p<0.01. The rate of maternal complication, were significantly higher in the study group (p<0.01. The macrosomic infants are in increased risk for birth trauma and asphyxia. The risk of birth trauma for the infants weighing 4500g or more is even greater. The majority of factors which lead to the delivery of macrosomic infants are preventable.

  10. A theoretical model of infant incubator dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, B N; Reddy, N P; Kantak, A

    1994-08-01

    A spatially lumped mathematical model was developed and used for a computer simulation of the neonate-incubator system for parametric analysis of the factors that influence neonatal thermo-regulation. The simulation examined the effects of the following parameters: (1) size of the infant; (2) respiratory rate; (3) metabolic rate; (4) heart rate; (5) thermal properties of the mattress; (6) specific heat capacity of the incubator wall; (7) air flow rate; (8) heater control mechanisms.

  11. The association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant mortality among U.S. infants born in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Regina R; Hofferth, Sandra L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of inadequate gestational weight gain as a cause of infant mortality. Birth and infant death certificate data were obtained from a random sample of 100,000 records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 2002 Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data File. Descriptive and proportional hazards regression analyses were used to assess the odds of infant mortality associated with inadequate gestational weight gain compared to normal weight gain. Nearly 30% of women experienced inadequate weight gain. Infants born to women with inadequate gestational weight gain had odds of infant death that were 2.23 times the odds for infants born to women with normal weight gain. Increased odds remained after adjustment for gestational age, low birth weight, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal race. Among racial or ethnic subgroups, African American women were 1.3 times as likely as white women to have an infant die, but they were no more likely to have an infant die than white women if they had inadequate weight gain. There is a substantial and significant association between inadequate gestational weight gain and infant death that does not differ by race, ethnic group membership, or maternal age.

  12. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p food intake and lack of cream use seem to be accountable for DD whereas human milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  13. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  14. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Famciclovir in Infants and Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis in Infants and Children ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Adib; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Sallas, William; Kaiser, Guenther; Hamed, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter, open-label study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of a pediatric oral famciclovir (prodrug of penciclovir) formulation in infants aged 1 to 12 months with suspicion or evidence of herpes simplex virus infection. Individualized single doses of famciclovir based on the infant's body weight ranged from 25 to 175 mg. Eighteen infants were enrolled (1 to <3 months old [n = 8], 3 to <6 months old [n = 5], and 6 to 12 months old [n = 5]). Seventeen infants were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis; one infant experienced immediate emesis and was excluded. Mean Cmax and AUC0-6 values of penciclovir in infants <6 months of age were ∼3- to 4-fold lower than those in the 6- to 12-month age group. Specifically, mean AUC0-6 was 2.2 μg·h/ml in infants aged 1 to <3 months, 3.2 μg·h/ml in infants aged 3 to <6 months, and 8.8 μg·h/ml in infants aged 6 to 12 months. These data suggested that the dose administered to infants <6 months was less than optimal. Eight (44.4%) infants experienced at least one adverse event with gastrointestinal events reported most commonly. An updated pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, which incorporated the data in infants from the present study and previously published data on children 1 to 12 years of age. An eight-step dosing regimen was derived that targeted exposure in infants and children 6 months to 12 years of age to match the penciclovir AUC seen in adults after a 500-mg dose of famciclovir. PMID:20160046

  15. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  16. Cortical source localization of infant cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Richards, John E

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and cortical source localization techniques. The current article provides an overview of a method developed for such analyses. The method consists of four steps: (1) recording high-density (e.g., 128-channel) EEG. (2) Analysis of individual participant raw segmented data with independent component analysis (ICA). (3) Estimation of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) that represent cortical sources for the observed ICA component clusters. (4) Calculation of component activations in relation to experimental factors. We discuss an example of research applying this technique to investigate the development of visual attention and recognition memory. We also describe the application of "realistic head modeling" to address some of the current limitations of infant cortical source localization.

  17. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  18. Totally vegetarian diets and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwell, E D; Gorodischer, R

    1982-10-01

    Observations on the deleterious effects of a totally vegetarian diet in infancy are reported and the difficulties encountered in the prevention of nutritional deficiencies in a vegan religious community are discussed. Twenty-five infants of this community who were seen at the hospital showed evidence of protein-calorie malnutrition, iron- and vitamin B12-deficient anemia, rickets, zinc deficiency, and multiple recurrent infections. Evidence of growth retardation was also found in 47 infants seen at the local mother-child health (well-baby) clinic. Samples of breast milk showed low levels of carbohydrate (1.6 to 3.5 gm/100 ml), protein (0.8 to 1.4 gm/100 ml), and fat (2.4 to 4.1 gm/100 ml). The main constituent of the infants' diet after the age of 3 months (a "soya milk" prepared at the community's central kitchen) was extremely dilute with a very low calorific value (13.7 kcal/100 ml). Persistent attempts to find dietary modifications that would satisfy both the vegan philosophy and also the recommended dietary allowances failed. This problem represents a scientific and medicosocial challenge to pediatricians and nutritionists.

  19. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  20. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.