WorldWideScience

Sample records for infants risk factor

  1. Environmental risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami

    2016-12-01

    While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p Japan. Smoking cessation programs should be further implemented for parents to decrease risks of SIDS in Japan. What is Known: • The prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, however, this decline has plateaued recently. What is New: • Most infants were laid sleeping in the supine position (96.7 %) and were fed breast milk or a mix of expressed milk and formula (92.7 %), and 2.1 % of mothers smoked at the one-month medical checkup. • Maternal smoking prevalence significantly increased from the one-month medical checkup to one year later, and smoking mothers were more likely to feed infants by formula rather than breast milk. • Independent risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits included younger maternal age, maternal smoking habits at one month, and paternal smoking habits one year later.

  2. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  3. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newschaffer Craig J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

  4. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, TB; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Lundemose, JB

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome...... or unknown risk factors for thrombosis as possible etiological factors for sudden infant death syndrome. It is likely that we must continuously employ the exclusion principle on possible etiological causes in genetic material from a large group of victims of sudden infant death syndrome if the phenomenon...

  6. Causes and risk factors for infant mortality in Nunavut, Canada 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Sorcha A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern territory Nunavut has Canada’s largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. Nunavut has rates of infant mortality, postneonatal mortality and hospitalisation of infants for respiratory infections that greatly exceed those for the rest of Canada. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. Nunavut has the largest Inuit population in Canada, a population which has been identified as having high rates of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and infant deaths due to infections. Methods To determine the causes and potential risk factors of infant mortality in Nunavut, we reviewed all infant deaths ( Results Sudden death in infancy (SIDS/SUDI; 48% and infection (21% were the leading causes of infant death, with rates significantly higher than for Canada (2003–2007. Of SIDS/SUDI cases with information on sleep position (n=42 and bed-sharing (n=47, 29 (69% were sleeping non-supine and 33 (70% were bed-sharing. Of those bed-sharing, 23 (70% had two or more additional risk factors present, usually non-supine sleep position. CPT1A P479L homozygosity, which has been previously associated with infant mortality in Alaska Native and British Columbia First Nations populations, was associated with unexpected infant death (SIDS/SUDI, infection throughout Nunavut (OR:3.43, 95% CI:1.30-11.47. Conclusion Unexpected infant deaths comprise the majority of infant deaths in Nunavut. Although the CPT1A P479L variant was associated with unexpected infant death in Nunavut as a whole, the association was less apparent when population stratification was considered. Strategies to promote safe sleep practices and further understand other potential risk factors for infant mortality (P479L variant, respiratory illness are underway with local partners.

  7. Infant mortality in Pelotas, Brazil: a comparison of risk factors in two birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Santos, Iná Silva dos; Victora, Cesar Gomes; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2005-12-01

    To compare two population-based birth cohorts to assess trends in infant mortality rates and the distribution of relevant risk factors, and how these changed after an 11-year period. Data from two population-based prospective birth cohorts (1982 and 1993) were analyzed. Both studies included all children born in a hospital (> 99% of all births) in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Infant mortality was monitored through surveillance of all maternity hospitals, mortality registries and cemeteries. There were 5,914 live-born children in 1982 and 5,249 in 1993. The infant mortality rate decreased by 41%, from 36.0 per 1,000 live births in 1982 to 21.1 per 1,000 in 1993. Socioeconomic and maternal factors tended to become more favorable during the study period, but there were unfavorable changes in birthweight and gestational age. Poverty, high parity, low birthweight, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction were the main risk factors for infant mortality in both cohorts. The 41% reduction in infant mortality between 1982 and 1993 would have been even greater had the prevalence of risk factors remained constant during the period studied here. There were impressive declines in infant mortality which were not due to changes in the risk factors we studied. Because no reduction was seen in the large social inequalities documented in the 1982 cohort, it is likely that the reduction in infant mortality resulted largely from improvements in health care.

  8. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Banner, Jytte

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia....... The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital...

  9. [Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Ting; Wang, Yong-Qin; Zhao, Yue-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Ye; Sang, Yu-Tong

    2018-03-01

    To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the elevated TBA group and the non-elevated TBA group in gestational age at birth, birth weight, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, proportion of infants undergoing ventilator-assisted ventilation, fasting time, parenteral nutrition time, and incidence of neonatal respiratory failure and sepsis (PTBA in preterm infants. Low birth weight and neonatal sepsis may lead to elevated TBA in preterm infants.

  10. FATHERS' AND MOTHERS' REPRESENTATIONS OF THE INFANT: ASSOCIATIONS WITH PRENATAL RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2015-01-01

    Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Wheeze in Dutch Infants in Their First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Chantal A. N.; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Eggink, Jenny; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Factors operating in the first year of life are critical in determining the onset and persistence of wheezing in preschool children. This study was designed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of wheeze in the first year of life in Dutch infants. This was a population-based survey of

  13. Risk Factors for Invasive Candidiasis in Infants >1500 g Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Herring, Amy H.; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background We describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of invasive candidiasis in infants >1500 g birth weight. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants >1500 g birth weight discharged from 305 NICUs in the Pediatrix Medical Group from 2001–2010. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified risk factors for invasive candidiasis. Results Invasive candidiasis occurred in 330/530,162 (0.06%) infants. These were documented from positive cultures from ≥1 of these sources: blood (n=323), cerebrospinal fluid (n=6), or urine from catheterization (n=19). Risk factors included day of life >7 (OR 25.2; 95% CI 14.6–43.3), vaginal birth (OR 1.6 [1.2–2.3]), exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics (OR 1.6 [1.1–2.4]), central venous line (OR 1.8 [1.3–2.6]), and platelet count candidiasis had increased mortality (OR 2.2 [1.3–3.6]). Conclusions Invasive candidiasis is uncommon in infants >1500 g birth weight. Infants at greatest risk are those exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics and with platelet counts of <50,000/mm3. PMID:23042050

  14. Sepsis risk factors in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michaël; Le Sache, Nolwenn; Mokhtari, Mostafa; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cuzon, Gaelle; Bueno, Benjamin; Fouquet, Virginie; Benachi, Alexandra; Eleni Dit Trolli, Sergio; Tissieres, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare congenital anomaly and remains among the most challenging ICU-managed disease. Beside severe pulmonary hypertension, lung hypoplasia and major abdominal surgery, infective complications remain major determinants of outcome. However, the specific incidence of sepsis as well as associated risk factors is unknown. This prospective, 4-year observational study took place in the pediatric intensive care and neonatal medicine department of the Paris South University Hospitals (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France), CDH national referral center and involved 62 neonates with CDH. During their ICU stay, 28 patients (45%) developed 38 sepsis episodes. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP: 23/38; 31.9 VAP per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation) and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI: 5/38; 5.5 per 1000 line days) were the most frequently encountered infections. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational age at birth and intra-thoracic position of liver were significantly associated with the occurrence of sepsis. Infected patients had longer duration of mechanical and noninvasive ventilation (16.2 and 5.8 days, respectively), longer delay to first feeding (1.2 days) and a longer length of stay in ICU (23 days), but there was no difference in mortality. Healthcare-associated infections, and more specifically VAP, are the main infective threat in children with CDH. Sepsis has a significant impact on the duration of ventilator support and ICU length of stay but does not impact mortality. Low gestational age and intra-thoracic localization of the liver are two independent risk factors associated with sepsis.

  15. Bowel Perforation in Premature Infants with Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Risk Factors and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine risk factors and clinical outcomes for bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC. We analyzed clinical data of 57 cases of premature infants with NEC at our NICU between January 2010 and December 2012. Based on the presence of bowel perforation, we divided these infants into two groups: perforated NEC group (n=10 and nonperforated NEC group (n=47. We compared general information, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings between groups. The perforated NEC group, compared to the nonperforated NEC group, had significantly lesser gestational age, lower birth weight, higher prevalence of apnea, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and shock, lower blood pH, higher levels of blood glucose, abnormal WBC count and thrombocytopenia, and elevated CRP (all P<0.05. Moreover, the perforated NEC group had significantly longer durations of fasting and TPN usage, higher incidences of EUGR and cholestasis, longer duration of antibiotics, higher frequency of advanced antibiotics use, and poorer prognosis than the nonperforated NEC group (all P<0.05. Bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC was associated with multiple risk factors. Early identification of some of these risk factors in premature infants with NEC may help implement early intervention to reduce the incidence of bowel perforation and thereby improve the prognosis.

  16. Pneumothorax in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome: focus on risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Terzic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumothorax is a life threatening condition, more often seen in immature infants receiving mechanical ventilation. It carries a significant risk of death and impaired outcome.Objective: To determine predictive factors for the occurrence of pneumothorax in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.Patients and methods: The present study was conducted in a tertiary research and educational hospital, NICU, Pediatric Clinic UKC Sarajevo, from January 2010 to December 2013. All infants had chest X-ray at admission, and were treated due to RDS with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, or high frequency oscillatory ventilation. At admission we registered data regarding birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, prenatally given steroids. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 417 infants. Data about timing, circumstances, side and treatment of pneumothorax were gathered from medical records.Results: Mean birth weight was 1,477 g, mean gestational age 29.6 weeks. We report 98 infants who did not survive. We also report incidence of pneumothorax in 5% of the infants with RDS. In this study pneumothorax and non-pneumothorax groups didn’t differ regarding sex, gestational age (median 29 and 30 nor birth weight (p = 0.818. Apgar score at the 1st and 5th minute of life had no influence in genesis of pulmonary air leak, neither prenatally given steroids (p = 0.639, nor surfactant administration. There was a low coverage of preterm infants with prenatal steroids (overall 28.29%. We found that FiO2 ≥ 0.4 in the first 12 hours of life, and need for mechanical ventilation are predicting factors for developing pneumothorax (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Together with mechanical ventilation, inspired fraction of oxygen higher than 40%, needed to provide adequate oxygenation in the first 12 hours of life in preterm infants, could be a predictive factor in selecting the highest risk babies for development of

  17. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  18. Longitudinal Regional Brain Development and Clinical Risk Factors in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S; Counsell, Serena J; Benders, Manon J N L

    2016-11-01

    To investigate third-trimester extrauterine brain growth and correlate this with clinical risk factors in the neonatal period, using serially acquired brain tissue volumes in a large, unselected cohort of extremely preterm born infants. Preterm infants (gestational age regions covering the entire brain. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the influence of clinical variables on volumes at both scans, as well as on volumetric growth. MRIs at term equivalent age were available for 210 infants and serial data were available for 131 infants. Growth over these 10 weeks was greatest for the cerebellum, with an increase of 258%. Sex, birth weight z-score, and prolonged mechanical ventilation showed global effects on brain volumes on both scans. The effect of brain injury on ventricular size was already visible at 30 weeks, whereas growth data and volumes at term-equivalent age revealed the effect of brain injury on the cerebellum. This study provides data about third-trimester extrauterine volumetric brain growth in preterm infants. Both global and local effects of several common clinical risk factors were found to influence serial volumetric measurements, highlighting the vulnerability of the human brain, especially in the presence of brain injury, during this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Collaco

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a significant cause of morbidity in preterm infants, but no screening guidelines exist. We sought to identify risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with PH in preterm infants to develop a PH risk score.Retrospective analysis of two separate populations of preterm infants (NICU cohort n = 230; Clinic registry n = 580.8.3% of the NICU cohort had PH after 4 weeks of age, while 14.8% of the clinic registry had PH after 2 months of age. Lower birth weights and longer initial hospitalizations were associated with PH in both populations (p<0.001 for all tests. Using adjusted logistic regression, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA requiring ligation was associated with PH in both the NICU cohort (OR: 3.19; p = 0.024 and the clinic registry (OR: 2.67; p<0.001. Risk factors (birth weight ≤780 grams, home supplemental oxygen use, and PDA ligation identified in the clinic registry (training dataset were validated in the NICU cohort with 0-1 factors present were associated with ≤1.5% probability of having PH, any 2 factors with a 25% probability, and all 3 factors with a 40% probability.Lower birth weight, PDA ligation, and respiratory support were associated with PH in both populations. A PH risk score based on clinical indicators from the training dataset predicted PH in the validation set. This risk score could help focus resources to preterm infants at higher risk for PH. Further work is needed to determine whether earlier or more aggressive management of ductal lesions could alter PH outcomes.

  20. [Risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus infection of lower respiratory tract in hospitalized infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Lijuan; Shi, Peng; Jiang, Gaoli; Jia, Pin; Wang, Chuankai; Wang, Libo; Qian, Liling

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the clinical epidemiologic characteristics and analyze risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). ALRI infants admitted to Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 1st, 2011 to February 29th, 2012, were enrolled in this study. Patient information included demographic characteristics, feeding history, family status, clinical presentation, accessory examination, treatment and prognosis. According to the etiology of ALRI infants, we compared the seasonal distribution, demographic characteristics, household characteristics and underlying diseases between RSV-positive patients and RSV-negative patients. Univariate and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors that were associated with risk of RSV infection. Among 1 726 ALRI infants, there were 913 RSV-positive infants (52.9%). The occurrence of RSV infection had a seasonal variation, with a peak in winter (59.1%). The median (P25, P75) age of RSV infants was 64 (21-155) days. The gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) was (37.5 ± 2.4) weeks and (3.07 ± 0.66) kg, respectively. The male/female ratio among these was 1.9: 1. RSV infection was more popular among infants in the families with smoking members, crowded living conditions, history of atopic mother. Differences of the proportion of patients with underlying disease between RSV-positive and negative groups were statistically significant (59.4% vs. 54.2%, P infection were: GAinfection (OR = 1.351, 95%CI: 1.024-1.783; OR = 1.713, 95%CI: 1.332-2.204). Multivariate logistic regression determined the factors increasing the risk of RSV infection were: underlying CHD (OR = 1.298, 95%CI: 1.002-1.681), mother with atopic diseases (OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.237-2.520), autumn or winter infection (OR = 1.481, 95%CI: 1.105-1.985; OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.358-2.296). The prevalence of RSV infection was the highest in winter, while

  1. Intraventricular hemorrhage in a very low birth weight infants: Associated risk factors in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiee, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Prematurely born infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) suffer significant morbidity and mortality, particularly with those infants with high-grade hemorrhage. Previous studies have proposed a number of risk factors for IVH; however, lack of adequate matching for gestational age and birth weight may have confounded the results. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that affect the risk of IVH. We identified 31 preterm infants with gestational age < 32 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g, with IVH, from November 2003 to January 2005 at Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A control group of 90 infants, matched for gestational age and birth weight was selected. Maternal factors, labor and delivery characteristics and neonatal parameters were collected in both groups. Results of cranial ultrasound examinations were also collected. The significant risk factors for IVH were found to be: patent ductus artreiosus arteriosus (PDA) [4 (13.3%) versus 3(3.3%) (p=0.01)], longer duration of assisted ventilation [4 (2.8+-5.8 days versus 0.5+-2.1 days (p=0.002)], a higher number of endotracheal suctioning [9.7+-18.4 versus 3.06+-13.7 (p=0.004)], surfactant use, [7(22.6%) versus 3(3.4%) (p=0.003)], positive pressure ventilation at birth [12 (38.7%) versus 12(13.3%), (p=0.004)] and low Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes. Whereas antenatal steroid treatments and cesarean sections have protective effect on the occurrence of IVH. Our data emphasize the importance of obstetric and prenatal care to improve outcomes of premature infants. (author)

  2. Risk Factors and In-Hospital Outcomes following Tracheostomy in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Smith, P Brian; Quek, M Bin Huey; Laughon, Matthew M; Clark, Reese H; Hornik, Christoph P

    2016-06-01

    To describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and in-hospital outcomes of tracheostomy in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed electronic medical records from 348 neonatal intensive care units for the period 1997 to 2012, and evaluated the associations among infant demographics, diagnoses, and pretracheostomy cardiopulmonary support with in-hospital mortality. We also determined the trends in use of infant tracheostomy over time. We identified 885 of 887 910 infants (0.1%) who underwent tracheostomy at a median postnatal age of 72 days (IQR, 27-119 days) and a median postmenstrual age of 42 weeks (IQR, 39-46 weeks). The most common diagnoses associated with tracheostomy were bronchopulmonary dysplasia (396 of 885; 45%), other upper airway anomalies (202 of 885; 23%), and laryngeal anomalies (115 of 885; 13%). In-hospital mortality after tracheostomy was 14% (125 of 885). On adjusted analysis, near-term gestational age (GA), small for GA status, pulmonary diagnoses, number of days of forced fraction of inspired oxygen >0.4, and inotropic support before tracheostomy were associated with increased in-hospital mortality. The proportion of infants requiring tracheostomy increased from 0.01% in 1997 to 0.1% in 2005 (P Tracheostomy is not commonly performed in hospitalized infants, but the associated mortality is high. Risk factors for increased in-hospital mortality after tracheostomy include near-term GA, small for GA status, and pulmonary diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: risk factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Mário Cícero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of risk factors to the occurrence of urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study (1997 including full-term infants having a positive urine culture by bag specimen. Urine collection was based on: fever, weight loss > 10% of birth weight, nonspecific symptoms (feeding intolerance, failure to thrive, hypoactivity, debilitate suction, irritability, or renal and urinary tract malformations. In these cases, another urine culture by suprapubic bladder aspiration was collected to confirm the diagnosis. To compare and validate the risk factors in each group, the selected cases were divided into two groups: Group I - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and negative urine culture by suprapubic aspiration, and Group II - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and positive urine culture by suprapubic aspiration . RESULTS: Sixty one infants were studied, Group I, n = 42 (68.9% and Group II, n = 19 (31.1%. The selected risk factors (associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, renal and urinary tract malformations, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition and intravascular catheter were more frequent in Group II (p<0.05. Through relative risk analysis, risk factors were, in decreasing importance: parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal and urinary tract malformations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, and associated infectious diseases contributed to increase the frequency of neonatal urinary tract infection, and in the presence of more than one risk factor, the occurrence of urinary tract infection rose up to 11 times.

  4. Comparison of Risk Factors in Necrotizing Enterocolitis among Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Necrotizing enterocolitis is one of the important problems of premature infants. The incidence is about 1-5% in infants followed in neonatal care units and inversely related to gestational age and birth weight. Materials and Methods: In this study, 31 infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and 31 infants with similar gestational age and birth weight as control group hospitalized in Cukurova University Neonatal Care Unit between 1 January 2001-31 January 2004 were evaluated. Results: The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in this period was 1.4 (31/2214 admission. Mean gestational age was 30.5  3.2 weeks (25-36, mean birth weight was 1331  384 (730-2150 grams while 71% was younger than 32 gestational weeks and 67.7% was under 1500 grams. The signs of NEC were detected at a mean of 11.2  10. (2-38 days. Twenty-six (83.9% were being fed at the time of the necrotizing enterocolitis signs appeared. According to the Walsh and Kliegman classification, 19 (61.3% infants were in stage 1 (17 were 1a, 2 were 1b; 3 (9.6% infants were in stage 2a, 9 (%29.1 infants were in stage 3 (7 were in 3b. Blood culture was positive in 7 (%22.6 infants with predominance of gram negative microorganisms (5 infants. Eleven (%35.5 infants were exitus, 12 were discharged. Hypoxia, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage and umbilical catheterization were significant risk factors in necrotizing enterocolitis . Thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and high C-reactive protein levels were significantly high in necrotizing enterocolitis group. Breast feeding is significantly high in control group. Conclusion: Necrotizing enterocolitis, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Early breast feeding with small amounts, increasing amount of milk slowly, antenatal steroids, caring hygiene rules can prevent the development of it. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 642-647

  5. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis: comprehensive single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2014-05-01

    We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors influencing parents' decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Linda A; Pearce, Margaret M

    2014-11-01

    To examine factors that influence a parent's decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research. Grounded theory, using semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 postpartum mother or mother-father dyads in an urban teaching hospital. Data were collected from July 2011 to January 2012. Audiorecorded semistructured interviews were conducted in private rooms with mothers or mother-father dyads 24 to 48 hr after the birth of their healthy, full-term infant. Data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Parents' willingness to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk pediatric genetic research emerged as a process involving three interacting components: the parents, the scientist, and the comfort of the child embedded within the context of benefit to the child. The purpose of the study and parents' perception of their commitment of time and resources determined their willingness to participate. The scientist's ability to communicate trust in the research process influenced parents' decisions. Physical discomfort of the child shaped parents' decision to donate DNA. Parental perception of a direct benefit to their child affected their willingness to discuss genetic research and its outcomes. Significant gaps and misunderstandings in parental knowledge of pediatric genetic research may affect parental willingness to donate their healthy child's DNA. Nurses knowledgeable about the decision-making process parents utilize to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research and the factors influencing that decision are well positioned to educate parents about the role of genetics in health and illness and reassure potential research participants of the value and safeguards in pediatric genetic research. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Subdural hematoma in infants without accidental or nonaccidental injury: benign external hydrocephalus, a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Partha S; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2011-10-01

    Benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) is considered a self-limiting condition in infants. Subdural hematoma (SDH) in infants without a history of trauma indicates nonaccidental injury (NAI). The authors studied whether SDH can complicate BEH without apparent trauma. Out of 45 children younger than 3 years with nontraumatic SDH, 9 (7 boys) with mean age 6 months had BEH as risk factor. Symptoms included increasing head size (8), fussiness, and irritability (3). Three had up-gaze restriction, 1 axial hypotonia, and 6 normal examination. Neuroimaging showed prominent extra-axial spaces; SDH was bilateral (6), subacute (5). Other etiological workup for SDH was negative except NAI in 1. Two required evacuation of SDH and subdural-peritoneal shunt; others managed conservatively. Development was normal in 8 on follow-up. On follow-up imaging of 8, SDH completely resolved in 3, markedly reduced in 3, and remained stable in 2. BEH is a risk factor for SDH in infants, thus not always benign.

  8. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are risk factors for infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siminerio, Lara L; Himes, Katherine P; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Lash, Timothy L; Parisi, Sara M; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of the joint and independent relationships of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) on risk of infant mortality was performed. This study used Pennsylvania linked birth-infant death records (2003-2011) from infants without anomalies born to mothers with prepregnancy BMI categorized as underweight (n = 58,973), normal weight (n = 610,118), overweight (n = 296,630), grade 1 obesity (n = 147,608), grade 2 obesity (n = 71,740), and grade 3 obesity (n = 47,277). Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by BMI category were used to estimate dose-response associations between z scores of gestational weight gain and infant death after confounder adjustment. Infant mortality risk was lowest among normal-weight women and increased with rising BMI category. For all BMI groups except for grade 3 obesity, there were U-shaped associations between gestational weight gain and risk of infant death. Weight loss and very low weight gain among women with grades 1 and 2 obesity were associated with high risks of infant mortality. However, even when gestational weight gain in women with obesity was optimized, the predicted risk of infant death remained higher than that of normal-weight women. Interventions aimed at substantially reducing preconception weight among women with obesity and avoiding very low or very high gestational weight gain may reduce risk of infant death. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. Bacteriological profile of septicemia and the risk factors in neonates and infants in Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechen C Tsering

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial infections remain an important cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. It might be possible to reduce these factors by early diagnosis and proper management. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriological profiles with their antibiogram, and to register the risk factors for septicemia in neonates and infants. Setting and design: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital at Gangtok, Sikkim, India, and included clinically suspected cases of septicemia in neonates and infants. Materials and Methods: Blood culture reports were studied in 363 cases of clinically suspected septicemia in neonates and infants, using the standard technique of Mackie and McCartney. The antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion method. Risk factors for sepsis in the children were registered. Results: Blood culture was positive in 22% of cases. Gram-negative septicemia was encountered in 61% of the culture-positive cases. Pseudomonas and Enterobacter species were the predominant pathogens amongst gram-negative organisms. Most gram-negative organisms were sensitive to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Co-trimoxazole. The most common gram-positive organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (97%. More than 70% of Staphylococci isolated were resistant to Penicillin, but were sensitive to Clindamycin (70% and Vancomycin (40%. The most important risk factors of septicemia in our study population were preterm birth (31%, followed by respiratory distress (5% and low birth weight (4%. Conclusion: As the cultures showed variable antibiogram with complicated patterns of resistance, culture and sensitivity test should be performed in all cases of septicemia.

  10. [Risks factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeballos Sarrato, Susana; Villar Castro, Sonia; Ramos Navarro, Cristina; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Sánchez Luna, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Pre-term delivery is one of the leading causes of foetal and perinatal mortality. However, perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal death in preterm deliveries have not been well studied. To analyse foetal mortality and perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pregnancies of less than 32 weeks gestational age. The study included all preterm deliveries between 22 and 31 +1 weeks gestational age (WGA), born in a tertiary-referral hospital, over a period of 7 years (2008-2014). A logistic regression model was used to identify perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality (foetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded). During the study period, the overall foetal mortality was 63.1% (106/168) (≥22 weeks of gestation) occurred in pregnancies of less than 32 WGA. A total of 882 deliveries between 22 and 31+6 weeks of gestation were included for analysis. The rate of foetal mortality was 11.3% (100/882). The rate of intra-partum foetal death was 2.6% (23/882), with 78.2% (18/23) of these cases occurring in hospitalised pregnancies. It was found that Assisted Reproductive Techniques, abnormal foetal ultrasound, no administration of antenatal steroids, lower gestational age, and small for gestational age, were independent risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality. This study showed that there is a significant percentage intra-partum foetal mortality in infants between 22 and 31+6 WGA. The analysis of intrapartum mortality and risk factors associated with this mortality is of clinical and epidemiological interest to optimise perinatal care and improve survival of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors for adverse events after vaccinations performed during the initial hospitalization of infants born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilińska, Maria; Warakomska, Małgorzata; Głuszczak-Idziakowska, Ewa; Jackowska, Teresa

    There are significant delays in implementing vaccination among preterm infants. Description of the frequency and kinds of adverse events following immunization in preterms. Establishment of the group of preterms who will distinctively be susceptible to adverse events. Demographical, clinical data and the occurrence of adverse events after DTaP, HIB and pneumococcal vaccination among preterms during their initial hospitalization were prospectively collected with the use of an electronic data form between 1st June 2011 and 31st May 2015. The analysis was conducted on 138 patients. The groups were divided according to maturity (I: ≤ GA 28w n=73 and GA 29-36 w n=65). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the occurrence of adverse events. Out of the total group, following vaccination apnoea developed in 6 newborns (4%) and activity dysfunctions were observed in 13 newborns (10%). The occurrence of apnoea after vaccination positively correlated with the time of non-invasive ventilation and the occurrence of late infection. There were no statistically significant demographical or clinical risk factors for the development of activity dysfunctions following vaccination. Term vaccination in clinically stable preterm infants is a safe medical procedure. However, long-term non-invasive respiratory support and late infections are risk factors for apnea following vaccinations. In these patients vaccinations should be considered during hospitalization.

  12. Analysis of risk factors for hydrocephalus development in newborn infants with germinal matrix hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L; Ros, B; Arráez, M A; Ríus, F; González, L; Martín, A; Carrasco, A; Segura, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of hydrocephalus in newborn infants with germinal matrix (GM) hemorrhage. The study comprised 271 patients admitted to Carlos Haya University Hospital in Malaga with GM hemorrhage. The following data were recorded: gestational age, gender, twin birth, head circumference at birth, weight at birth, and Papile grade. Severe obstetrical (abruption, chorioamnionitis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, tocolytic treatment) and neonatal disorders (respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection, coagulation disorder, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis) were also recorded. Symptomatic hydrocephalus was diagnosed in the event of a progressive increase in head circumference and ventricular indices requiring shunting. Of the 271 patients, 139 (51%) developed posthemorrhagic ventriculomegaly; 47 patients (17%) developed symptomatic hydrocephalus and needed shunt implantation. We found a significant relationship between the development of symptomatic hydrocephalus and Papile grade, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, twin birth, and neonatal infection. Awareness of risk factors for the development of hydrocephalus in newborn infants with GM hemorrhage should be emphasized in order to enable an early diagnosis of ventriculomegaly and symptomatic hydrocephalus and thus make a correct therapeutic decision.

  13. Risk factors for wheezing during infancy. A study of 5,953 infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Dalgaard, P; Nyboe, J

    1987-01-01

    --particularly environmental. Poor social environment increases the risk of wheezing, as does the mother's smoking, and placement of the baby in day-care. Boys experienced wheezing more often than girls. Premature infants are more liable to develop wheezing than mature children. Remarkably, children born in the period April......Risk factors for the development of wheezing during infancy were studied in 5,953 children. The data for the study were collected from a large prospective investigation of children born in 1959-61, who had attended a one-year follow-up examination. Wheezing was diagnosed when the symptom had been...... through September develop wheezing, but not bronchitis, more often than children born in October through March....

  14. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for sudden infant death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell-Naughton, M

    2012-04-01

    A population based case control study was conducted to examine alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of SIDS in an Irish population. Each SIDS case (n = 287) was compared with control infants (n = 832) matched for date and place of birth for infants born from 1994 to 2001. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate differences between Cases and Controls establishing Odds Ratio\\'s (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Mothers who smoked were 3 times more likely to have a SIDS Case, and a dose response effect was apparent, with mothers smoking 1-10 cigarettes\\/day OR 2.93 (CI 1.50-5.71), and those smoking > 10 cigarettes\\/day OR 4.36 (CI 2.50-7.61). More Case mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy than Control mothers and, within drinkers, the amount of alcohol consumed was also greater (p < 0.05). A dose response with frequency of drinking was apparent. The adjusted odds ratio for those consuming alcohol in all three trimesters was 3.59 (CI:1.40-9.20). Both of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be incorporated into antenatal education from a SIDS point of view.

  15. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingsheng; Feldman, Amy S; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D; Hartert, Tina V

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  16. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingsheng Wu

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma.We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS, mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated.Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  17. Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection Decision Tree Analysis of Risk Factors for Infant Anemia in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fang; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Jie; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin-Ying; Wang, Lin

    2016-05-20

    In the past decades, studies on infant anemia have mainly focused on rural areas of China. With the increasing heterogeneity of population in recent years, available information on infant anemia is inconclusive in large cities of China, especially with comparison between native residents and floating population. This population-based cross-sectional study was implemented to determine the anemic status of infants as well as the risk factors in a representative downtown area of Beijing. As useful methods to build a predictive model, Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree analysis and logistic regression analysis were introduced to explore risk factors of infant anemia. A total of 1091 infants aged 6-12 months together with their parents/caregivers living at Heping Avenue Subdistrict of Beijing were surveyed from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014. The prevalence of anemia was 12.60% with a range of 3.47%-40.00% in different subgroup characteristics. The CHAID decision tree model has demonstrated multilevel interaction among risk factors through stepwise pathways to detect anemia. Besides the three predictors identified by logistic regression model including maternal anemia during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months, and floating population, CHAID decision tree analysis also identified the fourth risk factor, the maternal educational level, with higher overall classification accuracy and larger area below the receiver operating characteristic curve. The infant anemic status in metropolis is complex and should be carefully considered by the basic health care practitioners. CHAID decision tree analysis has demonstrated a better performance in hierarchical analysis of population with great heterogeneity. Risk factors identified by this study might be meaningful in the early detection and prompt treatment of infant anemia in large cities.

  18. Risk factors and the occurrence of cerebral palsy in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Handryastuti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of cerebral palsy (CP has increased due to better survival rates of high-risk babies. Early detection and time to the occurrence of CP in the first year of life is important in order to provide early intervention. Objectives To determine the proportion of CP in high-risk babies, the time to the occurrence of CP in the first year, and assess possible associations between risk factors of CP and time to the occurrence of CP. Methods A prospective cohort study was done on 150 high-risk babies up to the age of 12 months. We obtained history of motor ability and assessed primitive reflexes and postural reactions of subjects at the ages of 4 and 6 months. The diagnosis of CP was established at 6 and 12 months of age. Results The proportion of CP was 26% at 6 months and 24% at 12 months of age. Significant risk factors associated with CP at 6 and 12 months of age were cerebral ultrasound abnormalities, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and intracranial hemorrhage. In 88.7% of subjects with CP, CP was detected in the first 6 months. Mean age at the occurrence of CP was 9.99 months (95%CI 9.46 to 10.53. Risk factors that significantly affected the time to the occurrence of CP by survival analysis were ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusions Cerebral palsy can be detected as early as the first 6 months of life. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are the risk factors associated with CP.

  19. Perinatal risk factors for pneumothorax and morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Fermín; Urquía Martí, Lourdes; Galán Henríquez, Gloria; Rivero Rodríguez, Sonia; Tejera Carreño, Patricia; Molo Amorós, Silvia; Cabrera Vega, Pedro; Rodríguez Ramón, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    To determine the perinatal risk factors for pneumothorax in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) infants and the associated morbidity and mortality in this population. Retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively from a cohort of VLBW neonates assisted in our Unit (2006-2013). We included all consecutive in-born patients with ≤ 1500 g, without severe congenital anomalies. Perinatal history, demographics, interventions and clinical outcomes were collected. Associations were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 803 VLBW infants were assisted in our Unit, of whom 763 were inborn. Ten patients (1.2%) died in delivery room, and 18 (2.2%) with major congenital anomalies were excluded. Finally, 735 (91.5%) neonates were included in the study. Seventeen (2.3%) developed pneumothorax during the first week of life [median (IQR): 2 (1-2) days]. After correcting for GA and other confounders, prolonged rupture of membranes [aOR =1.002 (95% CI 1.000-1.003); p = 0.040] and surfactant administration [aOR = 6.281 (95% CI 1.688-23.373); p = 0.006] were the independent risk factors associated with pneumothorax. Patients with pneumothorax had lower probabilities of survival without major brain damage (MBD): aOR = 0.283 (95% CI = 0.095-0.879); p = 0.029. Pneumothorax in VLBW seems to be related to perinatal inflammation and surfactant administration, and it is significantly associated with a reduction in the probabilities of survival without MBD.

  20. HIV, malaria, and infant anemia as risk factors for postneonatal infant mortality among HIV-seropositive women in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kager, Piet A.; Lal, Renu B.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with poor pregnancy outcome and infant survival. We studied the association of placental malaria, infant malaria and anemia, and infant HIV status with postneonatal infant mortality (PNIM) among infants of HIV-seropositive women.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES IN INFANTS 6-12 MONTHS OF AGE ACCORDING TO IMPACT OF PERINATAL RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskimanauri, N; Khachapuridze, N; Imnadze, P; Chanadiri, T; Bakhtadze, S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the developmental follow-up of infants (at age of 6 month and 12 month), exposed to separate and combination impact of perinatal risk factors, compared with not exposed cases, within the prospective cohort study. Between January 2015 and January 2017, in this research we prospectively enrolled 1018 live-born infants from the medical reports of the participating clinics in Tbilisi (capital of Republic of Georgia) and Mtskheta, Dusheti (districts of Georgia). Within postnatal follow-up, the children from whole population were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age by family doctors using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver II). The association between the risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes was analyzed by Chi-square test of independence. Statistical analysis of these data was performed using the SPSS version 12. (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Prevalence of abnormal development in whole population was revealed 9.0% or 92 cases at age of 6 month and 36 cases or 3.5% at age of 12 month. Point prevalence of farther neurodevelopmental adversities for healthy born children not influenced by studied risk factors was 0.1% and for infants with impact of the risk factors - 1.5%; on the other hand, prevalence of observed abnormal development in infant's population who had neonatal pathologies was 2.3% if risk factors were not exposed and 21.6% under influence of risk factors. Statistical analysis showed that an abnormal developmental outcomes were more frequent when researched risk factors were exposed (OR-23.18, CI 95% - 11.83 to 45.41 - at age of 6 month; OR - 26.12, CI 95% - 7.95 to 85.85 - at age of 12 month) as well, as correlation of these risk factors with neurodevelopmental adverse outcomes was significant (prisk factors, such as maternal age (35Y), pathologies of pregnancy and delivery as well as gestation age (risk factors increased probability of

  2. Influence of behaviour and risk factors on motor performance in preterm infants at age 2 to 3 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Akkermans, R.P.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Kollee, L.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the influence of test-taking behaviour and risk factors for delayed motor performance in 437 preterm infants (244 males, 193 females; < or = 32 weeks of gestation) at the corrected age of 2 to 3 years (mean 29mo [SD 3.3]). Other mean (SD) sample

  3. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection as risk factors for anemia in infants in Kisumu, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Misore, Ambrose O.; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Kager, Piet A.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2002-01-01

    The role of maternal and pediatric infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and malaria as risk factors for anemia was determined in a birth cohort of infants born to mothers participating in a study of the interaction between placental malaria and HIV infection, in Kisumu, Kenya.

  4. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  5. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-06-23

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients.

  6. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M.; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients. PMID:28890772

  7. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  8. Risk Factors for the Development of Refeeding Syndrome-Like Hypophosphatemia in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Aiko; Okuno, Takashi; Ohta, Genrei; Tokuriki, Shuko; Ohshima, Yusei

    2017-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbance including hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia upon reinstitution of nutrition in severely malnourished patients. The present study sought to identify the risk factors for the development of refeeding syndrome-like metabolic disturbance in very low birth weight infants. The correlations of severe hypophosphatemia with the serum levels of potassium and ionized calcium, daily calorie and phosphate intake, and umbilical cord blood flow on ultrasonography were analyzed in 49 very low birth weight infants. Fifteen infants (36%) presented with hypophosphatemia during the first postnatal week. Hypophosphatemia was significantly associated with birth weight z score (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.47; p = 0.034) and umbilical artery resistance index (odds ratio, 7.72 E -04; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 E -06-0.523; p = 0.031). Multiple regression analysis revealed that umbilical artery resistance index was independently associated with hypophosphatemia. Umbilical artery resistance index may serve as a useful marker for future development of refeeding syndrome-like hypophosphatemia in very low birth weight infants. Close monitoring of serum phosphorus and potassium levels and early intervention are important for the management of very low birth weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction due to placental dysfunction.

  9. Risk Factors for the Development of Refeeding Syndrome-Like Hypophosphatemia in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Igarashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Refeeding syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbance including hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia upon reinstitution of nutrition in severely malnourished patients. Objective. The present study sought to identify the risk factors for the development of refeeding syndrome-like metabolic disturbance in very low birth weight infants. Methods. The correlations of severe hypophosphatemia with the serum levels of potassium and ionized calcium, daily calorie and phosphate intake, and umbilical cord blood flow on ultrasonography were analyzed in 49 very low birth weight infants. Results. Fifteen infants (36% presented with hypophosphatemia during the first postnatal week. Hypophosphatemia was significantly associated with birth weight z score (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–2.47; p=0.034 and umbilical artery resistance index (odds ratio, 7.72E−04; 95% confidence interval, 1.14E−06–0.523; p=0.031. Multiple regression analysis revealed that umbilical artery resistance index was independently associated with hypophosphatemia. Conclusions. Umbilical artery resistance index may serve as a useful marker for future development of refeeding syndrome-like hypophosphatemia in very low birth weight infants. Close monitoring of serum phosphorus and potassium levels and early intervention are important for the management of very low birth weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction due to placental dysfunction.

  10. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rachel C; Mello, Rosane R; Silva, Kátia S

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition) at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. mean birth weight was 1,119g (SD: 247) and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2). Approximately 44.3%(n=86) of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n=79) had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk of allergy : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; Koopman, LP; van Strien, RT; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; Aalberse, RC; Neijens, HJ; Brunekreef, B; Postma, DS; Gerritsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the period immediately after birth is a sensitive period for the development of atopic disease. Objective We investigated whether birth characteristics and environmental factors are associated with the development of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life.

  12. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk of allergy: the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Koopman, L. P.; van Strien, R. T.; Wijga, A.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Neijens, H. J.; Brunekreef, B.; Postma, D. S.; Gerritsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that the period immediately after birth is a sensitive period for the development of atopic disease. We investigated whether birth characteristics and environmental factors are associated with the development of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. Seventy-six children

  13. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Stenting in Tetralogy of Fallot Infants With Risk Factors for Early Primary Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Juan Pablo; Chaturvedi, Rajiv R; Benson, Lee; Morgan, Gareth; Van Arsdell, Glen; Honjo, Osami; Caldarone, Christopher; Lee, Kyong-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot with cyanosis requiring surgical repair in early infancy reflects poor anatomy and is associated with more clinical instability and longer hospitalization than those who can be electively repaired later. We bridged symptomatic infants with risk factors for early primary repair by right ventricular outflow tract stenting (stent). Four groups of tetralogy of Fallot with confluent central pulmonary arteries were studied: stent group (n=42), primary repair (aged 3mo group; n=45). Stent patients had the smallest pulmonary arteries with a median (95% credible intervals) Nakata index (mm 2 /m 2 ) of 79 (66-85) compared with the early-PA 139 (129-154), early-PS 136 (121-153), and surg>3mo 167 (153-200) groups. Only stent infants required unifocalization of aortopulmonary collaterals (17%). Stent and early-PA infants had younger age and lower weight than early-PS infants. Stent infants had the most multiple comorbidities. Stenting allowed deferral of complete surgical repair to an age (6 months), weight (6.3 [5.8-7.0] kg), and Nakata index (147 [132-165]) similar to the low-risk surg>3mo group. The 3 early treatment groups had similar intensive care unit/hospital stays and high reintervention rates in the first 12 months after repair, compared with the surg>3mo group. Right ventricular outflow tract stenting of symptomatic tetralogy of Fallot with poor anatomy (small pulmonary arteries) and adverse factors (multiple comorbidities, low weight) relieves cyanosis and defers surgical repair. This allowed pulmonary arterial and somatic growth with clinical results comparable to early surgical repair in more favorable patients. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Recurrent wheezing in relation to environmental risk factors in infancy. A prospective study of 276 infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Husby, S

    1991-01-01

    Clinical course and environmental factors were recorded in a prospective study of 276 unselected infants followed from birth to the age of 18 months. The study was performed with a questionnaire at the age of 6 and 12 months and a physical examination at 18 months. Fifty-nine (21%) of the children......, 192 (70%) were in daycare, 62 (22%) lived in flats and 167 (61%) were in daily contact with furred pets at home and/or in daycare. In social class V a preponderance of children were exposed to passive tobacco smoking, a majority were living in flats and a minority were breastfed greater than or equal...

  15. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants born before 25 weeks gestation in a Korean single neonatal intensive care unit: incidence, natural history and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mingui; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Ham, Don Il; Kang, Se Woong; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-12-01

    As younger preterm infants are able to survive, more extremely preterm infants are at risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). To investigate the incidence, progression and risk factors of ROP in extremely preterm infants in Korea, the medical records of infants born before 25 weeks gestation were retrospectively reviewed. The criteria for laser treatment agreed with type 1 ROP as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. Of the 121 infants included in the analysis, 119 (98.4%) infants developed any stage ROP, including 78 infants (64.5%) with type 1 ROP. The mean postmenstrual age (PMA) at the onset of any ROP and type 1 ROP were 33.5 and 36.1 weeks, respectively. All but one infant developed type 1 ROP after 31 weeks PMA. Univariate analysis showed that duration of total parenteral nutrition and onset of any ROP (PMA) were associated with the development of type 1 ROP. In conclusion, this study shows high incidence of ROP in extremely preterm infants and suggests that, although current screening protocols are feasible for most preterm infants born before 25 weeks gestation, earlier screening before 31 weeks PMA may be necessary in infants with an unstable clinical course.

  16. Prospective Characterization of the Risk Factors for Transmission and Symptoms of Primary Human Herpesvirus Infections Among Ugandan Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Orem, Jackson; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Schiffer, Joshua T; Jerome, Keith R; Nakaganda, Annet; Wald, Anna; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections are common during infancy. Primary infections are frequently asymptomatic and best studied prospectively by using direct viral detection. Oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected weekly from Ugandan newborn infants, their mothers, and other children in the household. Blood specimens were collected every 4 months. Samples were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-8, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-two infants, 32 mothers, and 49 other household children were followed for a median of 57 weeks. Seventeen mothers had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection; no infants acquired HIV-1. The 12-month incidence of postnatal infection was 76% for HHV-6B, 59% for CMV, 47% for EBV, 8% for HSV-1, and 0% for HHV-8. The quantity of oropharyngeal shedding by contacts was associated with HHV-6A or HHV-6B transmission. Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with EBV transmission, while breastfeeding and younger child contacts were associated with CMV transmission. Except for HSV-1, primary HHV infections were subclinical. By capturing exposures and acquisition events, we found that the incidence and risk factors of infection vary by HHV type. HSV-1 infection, unlike other HHV infections, caused acute clinical illness in these infants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Interactions of infectious symptoms and modifiable risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome. The Nordic Epidemiological SIDS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Banner, Jytte; Oyen, N

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of infection on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and to analyse whether modifiable risk factors of SIDS, prone sleeping, covered head and smoking act as effect modifiers. In a consecutive multicentre case-control study of SIDS in Denmark, Norway...... regression. Significantly more cases than controls presenting symptoms of infectious diseases during the last week and/or last day were treated with antibiotics and had been seen by a physician. The finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an infectious mechanism in SIDS induced by local microorganism......, prone sleeping, head covered or parental smoking, was far greater than the sum of each individual factor. These risk factors thus modify the dangerousness of infection in infancy....

  18. Risk factors for eczema in infants born in Cuba: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Venero-Fernández, Silvia Josefina; de la Mora-Faife, Esperanza; García-García, Gladys; Del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Fabré-Ortiz, Dania; Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-03-25

    There is a concern that allergic disease in childhood is higher than expected in Cuba. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for eczema of infants aged 12-15 months living in Havana. We used a cross-sectional epidemiological study design. Data on eczema symptoms and a wide range of lifestyle factors were collected by researcher administered questionnaires. Data were collected on 1956 children (96% response rate), of whom 672 (34%) were reported as having had eczema. Independent risk factors for eczema included young maternal age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.98 per additional year of age; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99), child's weight (OR 1.13 per additional kg; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25), insect sting allergy (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.33-3.35), rodents in the home (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.76), attendance at childcare facilities (OR 1.34: 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) and self-reported mould in the home (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41). Infant exposure to paracetamol was associated with an increased risk of eczema even after adjustment for wheeze (OR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). Despite a very different culture and environment, the consistency of these findings with those from more economically developed countries suggests potential causal associations. The association with paracetamol, even after adjustment for wheeze, suggests that intervention studies are required in young infants, to ascertain if this commonly used anti-pyretic medication increases allergic disease.

  19. Analysis of Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity Among Very-low-birth-weight Infants in North Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yo Yang

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of ROP among VLBW infants was 45.8%; 19.0% had severe ROP. Infants of lower GAs and/or with LBW, whose mother had preeclampsia or who had a long duration of mechanical ventilation are at risk for the development of threshold ROP.

  20. Risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in infants with melamine-associated urolithiasis and follow-up: a multi-center retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiqi; Yue, Zhongjin; Tang, XiaoShuang; Chang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Shi, Wei; Wang, Zhiping; Shang, Panfeng

    2014-10-01

    Abstract An epidemic of urinary tract stones was noted among infants in China, 2008. This event was believed to be associated with consumption melamine-contaminated powdered formula. The patients with symptoms and clinical manifests had already been analyzed in our previous studies. In this study, our aim is to investigate the risk factors of melamine-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and the potential relationship toward children growth in our five years follow-up. A total of 619 infants with melamine-associated urolithiasis were admitted into 20 different hospitals in the Gansu province, China. All clinical data were divided into AKI and control groups according to the occurrence of AKI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with a logistic regression model to assess the independent risk factors of AKI. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of AKI was 19.62 in the group of infants who consumed Sanlu® milk powdered infant milk formula. A higher prevalence of AKI was observed in infants age of 6-11 months (OR: 9.59, p Sanlu® milk powdered infant formula), age (6-17 months) and symptoms of URTI, diarrhea, dehydration or fever were risk factors of AKI in infants with melamine-associated urolithiasis.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors For vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants in Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of healthy infants 6-18 months of age in Sacramento, CA. Patients and Methods: This was a one-year, cross-sectional study among a convenience sample of healthy infants seen at routine “well child” or follow-up appointments at t...

  2. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the ... In sub-Saharan Africa, infant morbidity and mortality are excessively high and reductions in mortality rates .... lower respiratory infection for children under two months of age, for older infants, a cut-off value of 50 per ...

  3. Prevalence and risk factors associated with non-attendance in neurodevelopmental follow-up clinic among infants with CHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccoh, Eméfah C; Yu, Sunkyung; Donohue, Janet; Lowery, Ray; Butcher, Jennifer; Pasquali, Sara K; Goldberg, Caren S; Uzark, Karen

    2018-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental impairment is increasingly recognised as a potentially disabling outcome of CHD and formal evaluation is recommended for high-risk patients. However, data are lacking regarding the proportion of eligible children who actually receive neurodevelopmental evaluation, and barriers to follow-up are unclear. We examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with failure to attend neurodevelopmental follow-up clinic after infant cardiac surgery. Survivors of infant (neurodevelopmental clinic attendees and non-attendees in univariate and multivariable analyses. A total of 552 patients were included; median age at surgery was 2.4 months, 15% were premature, and 80% had moderate-severe CHD. Only 17% returned for neurodevelopmental evaluation, with a median age of 12.4 months. In univariate analysis, non-attendees were older at surgery, had lower surgical complexity, fewer non-cardiac anomalies, shorter hospital stay, and lived farther from the surgical center. Non-attendee families had lower income, and fewer were college graduates or had private insurance. In multivariable analysis, lack of private insurance remained independently associated with non-attendance (adjusted odds ratio 1.85, p=0.01), with a trend towards significance for distance from surgical center (adjusted odds ratio 2.86, p=0.054 for ⩾200 miles). The majority of infants with CHD at high risk for neurodevelopmental dysfunction evaluated in this study are not receiving important neurodevelopmental evaluation. Efforts to remove financial/insurance barriers, increase access to neurodevelopmental clinics, and better delineate other barriers to receipt of neurodevelopmental evaluation are needed.

  4. Prevalence and independent risk factors for hearing loss in NICU infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.; Straaten, H.L.M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Straaten, I. van; Verkerk, P.; Hille, E.; Baerts, W.; Bunkers, C.; Smink, E.; Elburg, R. van; Kleine, M. de; Kok, J.H.; Ilsen, A.; Visser, D.; Steiner, K.; Vries, L.S. de; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Sprij, A.; Lopriori, E.; Brokx, J.; Gavilanes, D.; Geven, W.; Bos, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and independent relationship between hearing loss and risk factors in a representative neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population. Methods: Automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) hearing screening has been introduced since 1998 in the Dutch NICUs. After a

  5. Recurrent wheezing in relation to environmental risk factors in infancy. A prospective study of 276 infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Husby, S

    1991-01-01

    Clinical course and environmental factors were recorded in a prospective study of 276 unselected infants followed from birth to the age of 18 months. The study was performed with a questionnaire at the age of 6 and 12 months and a physical examination at 18 months. Fifty-nine (21%) of the children...... had greater than or equal to 2 episodes of wheezing before they were 18 months old. A total of 58 (21%) of the children belonged to the lowest social class V, 182 (66%) were daily exposed to passive tobacco smoking at home and/or in daycare, 164 (59%) were breastfed greater than or equal to 3 months......, 192 (70%) were in daycare, 62 (22%) lived in flats and 167 (61%) were in daily contact with furred pets at home and/or in daycare. In social class V a preponderance of children were exposed to passive tobacco smoking, a majority were living in flats and a minority were breastfed greater than or equal...

  6. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Preterm Infants Born at 34 Weeks of Gestation or Less Following Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyan; Wang, Qiuxia; Lu, Junyin; Zhang, Qiang; Kumar, Pravesh

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to identify possible perinatal risk factors related to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). A total of 292 preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM were enrolled in the study, while 155 newborns with incomplete data, especially those that lack histological examination of the placenta, maternal details, and neonatal characteristics, have been further excluded. Finally, data of 137 preterm infants were included in the analysis. All infants underwent ultrasonographic screening for IVH. Thirty-three infants with IVH were considered as cases and 104 infants without IVH were considered as controls. The association between risk factors and IVH was evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The incidence of IVH in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM was 24.1%, while the incidence of maternal chorioamnionitis was 43.8%. By univariate analysis, gestational age, birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, maternal chorioamnionitis, fetal distress, amniotic fluid index, and latency of the rupture of membranes to birth were found to be significantly different between the 2 groups. By logistic regression analysis, lower gestational age, low birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, and maternal chorioamnionitis were found to be independent risk factors for IVH. Lower gestational age, low birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, and maternal chorioamnionitis are independent risk factors for IVH in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydronephrosis in Infants and Children: Natural History and Risk Factors for Persistence in Children Followed by a Medical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Van Dervoort

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infants with neonatal hydronephrosis and a normal voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG are presumed to have ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO. There is little current information about the natural history of children with hydronephrosis or clinical factors that predict resolution of the radiological abnormality. Objective To determine the time course until spontaneous resolution of neonatal hydronephrosis and define risk factors for persistence of the abnormality. Methods This retrospective single center review examined infants and children <5 years of age with hydronephrosis who were followed for at least 12 months. Results 136 children were identified (96 male:40 female. The mean age at diagnosis of hydronephrosis was 3.3 ± 9.7 months and 76% of the patients were diagnosed at birth. The hydronephrosis was unilateral in 98 (72% of cases, and hydronephrosis was at least moderate in severity in 22% of affected kidneys. At last follow-up at 30 ± 10 months, the abnormality had resolved in 77 out of 115 (67% available patients, 30 (26% had been referred to urology, and 12 (10% had persistent hydronephrosis. Severity of hydronephrosis was the only clinical feature that predicted persistence of the abnormality (P < 0.001. There was an association between detection at birth and lack of resolution of hydronephrosis. Conclusions Children with hydronephrosis and presumed UPJO and normal kidney parenchyma can be followed for at least 2 years to allow for spontaneous resolution before referral to urology. Serial sonography can be performed at 6 month intervals in uncomplicated cases. More severe hydronephrosis and presence of the lesion at birth may predict infants and children requiring closer observation and referral for possible surgical correction of the hydronephrosis.

  8. Estudio de factores de riesgo para la hemorragia de la matriz germinal del prematuro Risk factors for germinal matrix hemorrhage in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys P. Arango

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de facilitar el diagnóstico clínico de la hemorragia de la matriz germinal del prematuro, se diseñó un estudio de casos (n: 56 y controles (n: 66 para determinar los factores de riesgo de la madre y del niño; también se buscó asociación entre dichos factores y la gravedad del evento. No se halló relación entre los factores de riesgo maternos y la presencia o gravedad de la hemorragia. En cuanto a los niños, la edad gestacional menor de 31 semanas, el uso de ventilación mecánica y la persistencia del ductus arterioso mostraron una relación estadística con el evento (p < 0.05, mientras que la sumatoria de tres o más riesgos la tuvo con la gravedad del mismo (p < 0.05. Se concluye que los mencionados factores de riesgo pueden ser indicativos del desarrollo de la hemorragia de la matriz germinal en el prematuro. To facilitate clinical diagnosis of germinal matrix hemorrhage In preterm infants, a study of cases {n: 56 and controls {n: 66 was carried out. Association was investigated between hemorrhage and maternal and neonatal risk factors; also included was the correlation between such factors and seriousness of the hemorrhagic episode. No correlation was found between maternal risk factors and hemorrhage or its seriousness. Concerning neonatal risks, gestational age under 31 weeks, the use of mechanical ventilation and persistence of ductus arteriosus, independently, showed statistical correlation with the hemorrhage {p < 0.05, whereas the simultaneous presence of three or more risks correlated with intensity of hemorrhage {p < 0.05. We conclude that the abovementioned neonatal risk factors can be suggestive of the development of germinal matrix hemorrhage in preterm Infants.

  9. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  10. Fatores de risco para diárreia persistente em lactentes Risk factors to persistent diarrhea in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Moura Lins

    2003-12-01

    . PATIENT AND METHODS: This is a case-control study. The sample consisted of 212 infants under 24 months, hospitalized with acute diarrhea, at the "Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco", Recife, PE, Brazil. Cases were infants with persistent diarrhea and controls those with acute diarrhea. Cases and controls were compared to a series of socio-economic, biological and clinical variables, previous morbidities and therapeutic management prior to hospital admission. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio were used with the respective 95% confidence intervals. It was adopted the level of significance of 5%. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to control for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: The risk of persistent diarrhea was higher for infants with: dysentery, fever at the onset of diarrhea, fasting and taking antibiotics prior to hospital admission. The variables that showed the highest adjusted odds ratios for persistent diarrhea were infants living in households without refrigerator and perianal hyperemia at hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement of environmental conditions and an adequate clinical management of diarrhea for hospitalized infants may contribute to the reduction of diarrhea morbidity.

  11. Differential effects of risk factors on infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis emphasize a different etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Simonsen, Jacob B; Petersen, Janne

    2005-01-01

    regression models. RESULTS: The following variables had significantly differential effects on infant wheezing and AD: parental hay fever, parental asthma, parental AD, sex, maternal age, maternal occupation, smoking during pregnancy, season of birth, birth weight, gestational age, head circumference, breast-feeding...

  12. Hypothermia in Preterm Infants in the First Hours after Birth : Occurrence, Course and Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mank, Arenda; van Zanten, Henriëtte A; Meyer, Michael P; Pauws, Steffen; Lopriore, Enrico; Te Pas, Arjan B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Preterm infants frequently have hypothermia when they are admitted to the NICU, but there is no data on the occurrence of hypothermia during the first hours after admission. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence

  13. Risk factors for possible serious bacterial infection in a rural cohort of young infants in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible serious bacterial infection (PBSI is a major cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. We studied risk factors for PSBI in a large rural population in central India where facility deliveries have increased as a result of a government financial assistance program. Methods We studied 37,379 pregnant women and their singleton live born infants with birth weight ≥ 1.5 kg from 20 rural primary health centers around Nagpur, India, using data from the 2010–13 population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry supported by NICHD’s Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research. Factors associated with PSBI were identified using multivariable Poisson regression. Results Two thousand one hundred twenty-three infants (6 % had PSBI. Risk factors for PSBI included nulliparity (RR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.03–1.23, parity > 2 (RR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.07–1.57 compared to parity 1–2, first antenatal care visit in the 2nd/3rd trimester (RR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.08–1.98 compared to 1st trimester, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (RR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.60–2.61, low birth weight (RR 3.10, 95 % CI 2.17–4.42, male sex (RR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.10–1.31 and lack of early initiation of breastfeeding (RR 3.87, 95 % CI 2.69–5.58. Conclusion Infants who are low birth weight, born to mothers who present late to antenatal care or receive antenatal corticosteroids, or born to nulliparous women or those with a parity > 2, could be targeted for interventions before and after delivery to improve early recognition of signs and symptoms of PSBI and prompt referral. There also appears to be a need for a renewed focus on promoting early initiation of breastfeeding following delivery in facilities. Trial registration This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01073475 .

  14. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics...... affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day...... care absences on web-based questionnaires. RESULTS: Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2...

  15. [Can obstructive bronchitis be a risk factor of bronchial asthma in infants and small children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowska, Joanna; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława

    2009-01-01

    One of more frequent reasons for hospitalizations concerning infants and small children are obstructive bronchitis. Great prevalence of bronchial tree obturation during infancy and in small children is a result of anatomical and functional differences of airways and immunological differences that occur in infants and small children. The most frequent cause of bronchial tree obturation is infection induced by viruses, rarely by bacteria. Recurrences of bronchial tree obturation are observed in some patients. Obturation recurrences can be caused by number of diseases that appear during infancy and in small children, for example cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Also the presence of foreign body in the airways, immotile cilia syndrome, immunological disturbances, innate anomalies of the respiratory system and the circulatory system and bronchial asthma can result in obturation recurrences. Various clinical criteria are established and new markers of allergic inflammation are searched in view of difficulties to diagnose bronchial asthma in the youngest children. There are no unequivocal rules to diagnose bronchial asthma in infants and small children despite these searches.

  16. Risk factors of extubation failure in extremely low birth weight infants: a five year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yi; Su, Bai-Horng; Lin, Tsung-Wen; Lin, Hung-Chih; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wang, Nai-Phon

    2002-01-01

    Extubation failure is one of the most serious complications in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) on mechanical ventilation therapy. We performed a 5-year retrospective analysis to realize the status of extubation failure in ELBWI. Extubation failure was defined as requirements of re-intubation within 72 hours after extubation. The extubation failure rate was 21% (29/138). The mean birth body weight was 808.3 +/- 140.4 gm. The mean gestational age was 25.8 +/- 1.2 wks. The incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) in infants with extubation failure was 100% (29/29). Apnea of prematurity 49% (14/29) and post-extubation atelectasis 39% (11/29) were the most common reasons for reintubation. The major microbiology findings which correlated with nosocomial pneumonia in infants with extubation failure were Acinetobacter baumanni (21%), Klebsiella pneumonia (21%), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (14%), and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (14%). In conclusion, post-extubation atelectasis and apnea were the most common reasons for reintubation. ELBWI with extubation failure had higher incidences of post-extubation atelectasis, CLD, and nosocomial pneumonia. Further prospective studies are needed in order to clarify the appropriate extubation program for ELBWI and to prevent post-extubation atelectasis and nosocomial pneumonia.

  17. Young and vulnerable: Spatial-temporal trends and risk factors for infant mortality in rural South Africa (Agincourt, 1992-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vounatsou Penelope

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality is an important indicator of population health in a country. It is associated with several health determinants, such as maternal health, access to high-quality health care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health policy and practices. Methods A spatial-temporal analysis was performed to assess changes in infant mortality patterns between 1992-2007 and to identify factors associated with infant mortality risk in the Agincourt sub-district, rural northeast South Africa. Period, sex, refugee status, maternal and fertility-related factors, household mortality experience, distance to nearest primary health care facility, and socio-economic status were examined as possible risk factors. All-cause and cause-specific mortality maps were developed to identify high risk areas within the study site. The analysis was carried out by fitting Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical negative binomial autoregressive models using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation-based Bayesian kriging was used to produce maps of all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Results Infant mortality increased significantly over the study period, largely due to the impact of the HIV epidemic. There was a high burden of neonatal mortality (especially perinatal with several hot spots observed in close proximity to health facilities. Significant risk factors for all-cause infant mortality were mother's death in first year (most commonly due to HIV, death of previous sibling and increasing number of household deaths. Being born to a Mozambican mother posed a significant risk for infectious and parasitic deaths, particularly acute diarrhoea and malnutrition. Conclusions This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical models in assessing risk factors and producing smooth maps of infant mortality risk in a health and socio-demographic surveillance system. Results showed marked geographical differences in mortality risk across

  18. Perinatal Factors Associated with Infant Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara M.D., Ph.D., MPH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The association between birth outcomes and child maltreatment remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to test whether infants without congenital or chronic disease who are low birth weight (LBW, preterm, or small for gestational age (SGA are at an increased risk of being maltreated. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of infants without congenital or chronic diseases who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2005 was conducted. Cases (N = 35 and controls (N = 29 were compared on mean birth weight, gestational age, and z-score of birth weight. Results SGA was significantly associated with infant maltreatment after adjusting for other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio: 4.45, 95% CI: 1.29–15.3. LBW and preterm births were not associated with infant maltreatment. Conclusion Infants born as SGA are 4.5 times more at risk of maltreatment, even if they do not have a congenital or chronic disease. This may be because SGA infants tend to have poorer neurological development which leads them to be hard-to-soothe and places them at risk for maltreatment. Abbreviations SCAN, Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect; LBW, low birth weight; ZBW, z-score of birth weight adjusted for gestational age, sex, and parity; SGA, small for gestational age; SD, standard deviation; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; IPV, intimate partner violence.

  19. INNOVATIONS IN NUTRITION AS RISK-DECREASING FACTOR OF ALIMENTARY-DEPENDENT DISEASES IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Borodulina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of breast feeding in Sverdlovsk region during last 5 years is analyzed. An adherence to breast feeding increases in presence of regional social support of pregnant and nursing women and provision with dry specialized milk mixture «Bellakt Mama». All artificially fed children 0–8 months old received adopted mixture «Bellakt 0–12», and children under 3 years old have opportunity (if they have social need to receive liquid and past-like milk products for children’s nutrition, dry milk products for children after 1 year old and quick-dissolving cereals. Special attention is given to children’s nutrition in boarding schools. Rachitis, hypotrophy, functional intestinal disorders and other alimentary-dependent states are diagnosed 1.3 times frequently and anemia — 1.7 times frequently in children from orphans’ houses and boarding schools than in whole population. For the correction of micronutrient deficiency in infants, fortified milk drink «Be Healthy» («Bud Zdorov» was developed; it contains prophylactic doses of vitamins (A, D, E, C, PP and microelements (iodine, iron, zinc, selenium.Key words: infants, health, nutrition, milk mixture(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 111–114

  20. Caffeine is a risk factor for osteopenia of prematurity in preterm infants: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ebtihal; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Moffatt, Michael; Narvey, Michael; Reed, Martin; Jiang, Depeng

    2018-01-22

    Caffeine, the most commonly used medication in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, has calciuric and osteoclastogenic effects. To examine the association between the cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine and osteopenia of prematurity, a retrospective cohort study was conducted including premature infants less than 31 weeks and birth weight less than 1500 g. Osteopenia of prematurity was evaluated using chest X-rays on a biweekly basis over 12 weeks of hospitalization. The cohort included 109 infants. 51% had osteopenia of prematurity and 8% had spontaneous rib fractures. Using the generalized linear mixed model, caffeine dose and duration of caffeine therapy showed a strong association with osteopenia of prematurity. Steroids and vitamin D were also significantly correlated with osteopenia of prematurity while diuretic use did not show a statistically significant effect. The cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine, as well as steroid are associated with osteopenia of prematurity in this cohort. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the lowest dose of caffeine needed to treat effectively apnea of prematurity.

  1. Analysis of risk factors for infant mortality in the 1992-3 and 2002-3 birth cohorts in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Byberg

    Full Text Available Though still high, the infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau has declined. We aimed to identify risk factors including vaccination coverage, for infant mortality in the rural population of Guinea-Bissau and assess whether these risk factors changed from 1992-3 to 2002-3.The Bandim Health Project (BHP continuously surveys children in rural Guinea-Bissau. We investigated the association between maternal and infant factors (especially DTP and measles coverage and infant mortality. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated using Cox regression. We tested for interactions with sex, age groups (defined by current vaccination schedule and cohort to assess whether the risk factors were the same for boys and girls, in different age groups in 1992-3 and in 2002-3.The infant mortality rate declined from 148/1000 person years (PYRS in 1992-3 to 124/1000 PYRS in 2002-3 (HR = 0.88;95%CI:0.77-0.99; this decline was significant for girls (0.77;0.64-0.94 but not for boys (0.97;0.82-1.15 (p = 0.10 for interaction. Risk factors did not differ significantly by cohort in either distribution or effect. Mortality decline was most marked among girls aged 9-11 months (0.56;0.37-0.83. There was no significant mortality decline for girls 1.5-8 months of age (0.93;0.68-1.28 (p = 0.05 for interaction. DTP and measles coverage increased from 1992-3 to 2002-3.Risk factors did not change with the decline in mortality. Due to beneficial non-specific effects for girls, the increased coverage of measles vaccination may have contributed to the disproportional decline in mortality by sex and age group.

  2. Regulatory cells, cytokine pattern and clinical risk factors for asthma in infants and young children with recurrent wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, L M; Arroz, M J; Videira, P; Martins, C; Guimarães, H; Nunes, G; Papoila, A L; Trindade, H

    2009-08-01

    Several risk factors for asthma have been identified in infants and young children with recurrent wheeze. However, published literature has reported contradictory findings regarding the underlying immunological mechanisms. This study was designed to assess and compare the immunological status during the first 2 years in steroid-naive young children with >or= three episodes of physician-confirmed wheeze (n=50), with and without clinical risk factors for developing subsequent asthma (i.e. parental asthma or a personal history of eczema and/or two of the following: wheezing without colds, a personal history of allergic rhinitis and peripheral blood eosinophilia >4%), with age-matched healthy controls (n=30). Peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells and their cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), GITR and Foxp3 expression were analysed by flow cytometry. Cytokine (IFN-gamma, TGF-beta and IL-10), CTLA-4 and Foxp3 mRNA expression were evaluated (real-time PCR) after peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (24 h) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts (7th day). Flow cytometry results showed a significant reduction in the absolute number of CD4(+)CD25(high) and the absolute and percentage numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)CTLA-4(+) in wheezy children compared with healthy controls. Wheezy children at a high risk of developing asthma had a significantly lower absolute number of CD4(+)CD25(+) (P=0.01) and CD4(+)CD25(high) (P=0.04), compared with those at a low risk. After PMA stimulation, CTLA-4 (P=0.03) and Foxp3 (P=0.02) expression was diminished in wheezy children compared with the healthy children. After HDM stimulation, CTLA-4 (P=0.03) and IFN-gamma (P=0.04) expression was diminished in wheezy children compared with healthy children. High-risk children had lower expression of IFN-gamma (P=0.03) compared with low-risk and healthy children and lower expression of CTLA-4 (P=0.01) compared with healthy

  3. Early Infant Exposure to Excess Multivitamin: A Risk Factor for Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Sheng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects boys more than girls, is often associated with altered levels of monoamines (serotonin and catecholamines, especially elevated serotonin levels. The monoamines act as both neurotransmitters and signaling molecules in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The evidence related to monoamine metabolism may be summarized as follows: (i monoamine neurotransmitters are enzymatically degraded/inactivated by three mechanisms: oxidative deamination, methylation, and sulfation. The latter two are limited by the supply of methyl groups and sulfate, respectively. (ii A decrease in methylation- and sulfation-mediated monoamine inactivation can be compensated by an increase in the oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase, an X-linked enzyme exhibiting higher activity in females than in males. (iii Vitamins can, on one hand, facilitate the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters and, on the other hand, inhibit their inactivation by competing for methylation and sulfation. Therefore, we postulate that excess multivitamin feeding in early infancy, which has become very popular over the past few decades, may be a potential risk factor for disturbed monoamine metabolism. In this paper, we will focus on the relationship between excess multivitamin exposure and the inactivation/degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters and its possible role in the development of autism.

  4. Early infant exposure to excess multivitamin: a risk factor for autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Da; Ma, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects boys more than girls, is often associated with altered levels of monoamines (serotonin and catecholamines), especially elevated serotonin levels. The monoamines act as both neurotransmitters and signaling molecules in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The evidence related to monoamine metabolism may be summarized as follows: (i) monoamine neurotransmitters are enzymatically degraded/inactivated by three mechanisms: oxidative deamination, methylation, and sulfation. The latter two are limited by the supply of methyl groups and sulfate, respectively. (ii) A decrease in methylation- and sulfation-mediated monoamine inactivation can be compensated by an increase in the oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase, an X-linked enzyme exhibiting higher activity in females than in males. (iii) Vitamins can, on one hand, facilitate the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters and, on the other hand, inhibit their inactivation by competing for methylation and sulfation. Therefore, we postulate that excess multivitamin feeding in early infancy, which has become very popular over the past few decades, may be a potential risk factor for disturbed monoamine metabolism. In this paper, we will focus on the relationship between excess multivitamin exposure and the inactivation/degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters and its possible role in the development of autism.

  5. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjaer, Anni; Ritz, Christian; Hojsak, Iva; Michaelsen, Kim; Mølgaard, Christian

    2018-03-14

    We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged eight months to 14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day care absences on web-based questionnaires. Over a mean of 5.6 months in day care, 36% and 20% of the infants had at least one URTI or LRTI, and 60% had diarrhoeal episodes. The risk of at least one URTI was increased by previous respiratory infections, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.65, but was inversely associated with having a pet (OR: 0.43), being cared for by registered child minders compared to day care centres (OR: 0.36), birthweight (OR 0.40) and age at day care enrolment (OR: 0.64). No significant risk factors for LRTIs and diarrhoea were found. Infection risks were associated with environmental factors and factors related to the child. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Related risk factors of cleft lip and palate in a group of infants born in Tehran (2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Hamedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies. The etiology of non syndromic orofacial clefts is multifactorial. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the related risk factors of cleft lip and palate in a group of infants born in Tehran during the years between 2012-2015. Methods: In this case-control study the files of 105 newborns with oral clefts, and 218 normal newborns as control group with their mothers were evaluated in Mofid Hospital in Tehran. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Findings: Among 105 cases, 40 cases (38% were females and 65 cases (62% were males. The frequency of cleft lip and palate, cleft palate and cleft lip were 58%, 27.6% and 14.2% respectively. A significant relationship was found between parents with familial marriage (P=0.001. The highest number of clefts belonged to 25-35 year-old mothers (51.4%, 41% of mothers reported smoking during pregnancy thus maternal smoking would be an effective predisposing factor to have a child with oral clefts (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that history of familial matrimony, mother’s age above 35 years and maternal smoking during pregnancy can enhance the risk of orofacial clefts 18, 17 and 14 times respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of preconception counseling of mothers-to-be on amendable lifestyle factors in order to reduce the birth prevalence of cleft lip/palate in future generations.

  7. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in very-low-birth-weight infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Ghoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW infants had cranial ultrasound screening at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH and to determine the prevalence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities. To compare the characteristics and risk factors of those VLBW infants with cranial ultrasound abnormalities to those with normal cranial ultrasound findings. Methods. This was a retrospective case-controlled study of infants <1 500 g admitted to CMJAH from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Cases were identified as infants with IVH or cPVL. Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562 of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ultrasound screening. The final sample included 803 VLBW infants. IVH was identified in 26.7% of cases (n=215; 95% confidence interval (CI 23.8 - 29.9 and 0.9% had cPVL (n=8; 95% CI 0.5 - 1.9. A total of 197 cases were identified and matched with 394 controls. Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039. Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases. The use of antenatal steroids was significantly higher in the grades I - II IVH/no-IVH group v. grades III - IV IVH group (44% v. 25%; p=0.017. Conclusion. The prevalence of IVH in our setting was consistent with that of developed countries. Improving antenatal care, infection control, and adequate early resuscitation could decrease the incidence of IVH and cPVL. All VLBW infants should undergo cranial ultrasound screening

  8. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient infants: Enzyme activity and gene variants as risk factors for phototherapy in the first week of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fei-Liang; Ithnin, Azlin; Othman, Ainoon; Cheah, Fook-Choe

    2017-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a recognised cause of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and identifying which infants are at risk could optimise care and resources. In this study, we determined if G6PD enzyme activity (EA) and certain gene variants were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy during the first week after birth. Newborn infants with G6PD deficiency and a group with normal results obtained by the fluorescent spot test were selected for analyses of G6PD EA and the 10 commonly encountered G6PD mutations in this region, relating these with whether the infants required phototherapy before discharge from the hospital in the first week. A total of 222 infants with mean gestation and birth weight of 38.3 ± 1.8 weeks and 3.02 ± 0.48 kg, respectively, were enrolled. Of these, n = 121 were deficient with EA ≤6.76 U/g Hb, and approximately half (43%) received phototherapy in the first week after birth. The mean EA level was 3.7 U/g Hb. The EA had good accuracy in predicting phototherapy use, with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.81 ± 0.05. Infants on phototherapy more commonly displayed World Health Organization Class II mutations (deficiency in EA and mutation at c.1388G>A (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5 and 5.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-1.76 and 1.30-25.0, respectively) were independent risk factors for phototherapy. Low G6PD EA (G6PD gene variant, c.1388G>A, are risk factors for the need of phototherapy in newborn infants during the first week after birth. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Analysis of risk factors for infant mortality in the 1992-3 and 2002-3 birth cohorts in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Though still high, the infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau has declined. We aimed to identify risk factors including vaccination coverage, for infant mortality in the rural population of Guinea-Bissau and assess whether these risk factors changed from 1992-3 to 2002-3. METHODS......, age groups (defined by current vaccination schedule) and cohort to assess whether the risk factors were the same for boys and girls, in different age groups in 1992-3 and in 2002-3. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate declined from 148/1000 person years (PYRS) in 1992-3 to 124/1000 PYRS in 2002-3 (HR...... = 0.88;95%CI:0.77-0.99); this decline was significant for girls (0.77;0.64-0.94) but not for boys (0.97;0.82-1.15) (p = 0.10 for interaction). Risk factors did not differ significantly by cohort in either distribution or effect. Mortality decline was most marked among girls aged 9-11 months (0...

  11. RISK FACTORS AND PECULIARITIES OF NUTRITION OF INFANTS WITH CHRONIC DIARRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Lazareva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of observation of children from 2,5 months to 4 years old, treated in hospital with diagnosis chronic diarrhea are analyzed in this article. Diarrhea debuted in first year of living in most cases. The reason of onset of diarrhea often was alimentary factor. Hereditary predisposition, pathologic pregnancy, and diseases in women at the time of pregnancy played an important role in development of disease. Nutrition of children in early age was characterized by low duration of breast feeding and early conversion of children to the mixed and artificial feeding. Main food stuffs in children's nutrition on mixed and artificial feeding was adapted milk formulas, and rarely non adapted milk food (cow's and goat's milk, kefir. Only 30% of mothers had a definite knowledge of proper child's feeding and advantages of breast feeding. This fact indicates necessity of more active educational work by medical staff.Key words: children, chronic diarrhea, nutrition.

  12. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is an independent risk factor for frequent wheezing in infants by age 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sartini, Claudio; Mendez, Michelle; Morales, Eva; Guxens, Mònica; Basterrechea, Mikel; Arranz, Leonor; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity has been linked to the offspring's risk for subsequent asthma. We determined whether maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of wheezing phenotypes early in life. We used data on 1107 mother-child pairs from two birth cohorts from the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente project. Maternal height was measured and prepregnancy weight self-reported at enrolment (on average at 13.7 ± 2 weeks of gestation). Maternal prepregnancy body mass index was categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese according to WHO recommendations. Information on child's wheezing was obtained through questionnaires up to the age of 14 (± 1) months. Wheezing was classified as infrequent (<4 reported wheezing episodes) or frequent (≥ 4 episodes). Weight and length of infants were measured by trained study staff at 14.6 (± 1) months of age and weight-for-length z-scores computed. Although maternal obesity did not increase the risk of the child to have any or infrequent wheezing, children of obese mothers were more likely to have frequent wheezing than children of normal-weight mothers (11.8% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.002). In fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression models, including infants' weight-for-length z-scores and other covariates, maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with increased risk of frequent [adjusted relative risk (RR) 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55, 11.3] but not infrequent (RR 1.05 [95% CI 0.55, 2.01]) wheezing in their children. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is independently associated with an increased risk of frequent wheezing in the infant by the age of 14 months. These findings add evidence on the potential effects of in utero exposures on asthma-related phenotypes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The mother as most important risk factor for colonization of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkel, Luisa A; Schwab, Frank; Kola, Axel; Leistner, Rasmus; Garten, Lars; von Weizsäcker, Katharina; Geffers, Christine; Gastmeier, Petra; Piening, Brar

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in very low birth weight (VLBW; mothers. This investigation was conducted in the perinatal centre at the Charité Berlin between May 2012 and June 2013. VLBW infants and their mothers were screened for colonization with ESBL-E and MRSA. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the German nationwide surveillance system for nosocomial infections in VLBW infants (NEO-KISS) and used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses. Of 209 VLBW infants, 12 (5.7%) were colonized with ESBL-E. Eighteen of 209 (8.6%) ESBL-E-tested neonates were related to an ESBL-E-positive mother. Univariate analysis, strain typing and multivariate analysis (OR 7.4, 95% CI 2.1-26.7, P = 0.002) identified an ESBL-E-positive mother and maternal-neonatal transmission as a main source of colonization. The prevalence of MRSA was 2.3% (5 of 221) among VLBW infants. One of the 221 (0.5%) MRSA-tested neonates was related to an MRSA-positive mother. No risk factors for transmission of MRSA could be detected in this study. Our study demonstrated that maternal-neonatal transmission of ESBL-E from mother to child is an important risk factor for colonization of VLBW infants. As a consequence, routine ESBL-E screening of neonates and mothers should be considered as a means of reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A Qualitative Study on Knowledge and Attitude towards Risk Factors, Early Identification and Intervention of Infant Hearing Loss among Puerperal Mothers- A Short Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudda, Ravi; Muniyappa, Hanumanth Prasad; Puttaraju, Sahana; Lakshmi, M S

    2017-07-01

    Maternal active participation and their support are critical for the success of early hearing loss detection program. Erroneous maternal decisions may have large life long consequences on the infant's life. The mothers' knowledge and their attitudes towards infant hearing loss is the basis for their decisions. The present study was done to determine the mothers' knowledge and their attitude towards risk factors of infant hearing loss, its early identification and intervention and also awareness of effect of consanguinity on hearing loss. In this cross-sectional questionnaire survey study, a total of 100 mothers were interviewed using the questionnaire which consisted of three sections namely risk factors, early identification and early intervention of hearing loss. Chi-square test was used to establish relationship between consanguineous and non-consanguineous mother's responses to its effect on hearing loss. A p-value consanguinity and benefits of early identification. However, mothers were least aware of neonatal jaundice, NICU admission (>5 days), signs of late-onset and neural hearing loss, management of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and therapy necessity, which might interfere in early detection and intervention of hearing loss. It is crucial to educate mothers on few risk factors and management of hearing loss to reduce its consequences.

  15. Failure of a repeat course of cyclooxygenase inhibitor to close a PDA is a risk factor for developing chronic lung disease in ELBW infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrouche-Amrani Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment regimen or protocol for managing a persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants has not been well established. This study was aimed at evaluating the failure rate of a cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitor (COI for PDA closure and to determine the incidence of a PDA requiring ligation in ELBW infants. We examined the clinical characteristics and risk factors that may predict the clinical consequences of failure of PDA closure by COI. Methods Medical information on 138 infants with birth weight (BW 48 hours was retrieved. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients whose PDAs closed with COI were compared with those who did not close. Results Of the 138 patients, 112 survived to discharge. Eighty (71.4% of those who survived received 1-3 courses of COI treatment for a symptomatic PDA. A total of 32 (40% failed COI treatment and underwent PDA ligation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis suggests that the observed differences in the outcomes in infants with or without symptomatic PDA can be explained by the babies with symptomatic PDA being more immature and sicker. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD in infants whose PDA was treated medically versus those who failed medical treatment and then underwent ligation. However, after adjusting for disease severity and other known risk factors, the odds ratio of developing CLD for surviving babies with a persistent PDA compared to those whose PDA was successfully closed with 1-2 courses of COI is 3.24 (1.07-9.81; p = 0.038. Conclusions When successfully treated, PDA in ELBW infants did not contribute significantly to the adverse outcomes such as CLD, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and age at discharge. This suggests that it is beneficial for a hemodynamically significant PDA to be closed. The failure of a repeat course of COI to close a PDA is a major risk factor for

  16. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Do Not Use Infant Sleep Positioners Due to the Risk of Suffocation Share ... to top Safety Advice for Putting Babies to Sleep NEVER use infant sleep positioners. Using this type ...

  17. Correlation between risk factors during the neonatal period and appearance of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hadi AM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Hadi, Islam Shereen HamdyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt, from January 2010 to January 2012.Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in infants weighing < 1250 g and maternal postmenstrual age < 32 weeks if there was concern about prolonged exposure to oxygen. The main clinical outcomes were occurrence of any stage of ROP and in particular severe ROP. Perinatal variables considered were: birth weight, gestational age, gender, method of ventilation (nasal continuous airway pressure or intermittent mechanical ventilation, packed red blood cell and/or plasma transfusion, occurrence of sepsis, neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, infants at risk were examined for ROP using indirect ophthalmoscopy, ie, RetCam II fundus photography.Results: The study included 152 infants of mean gestational age 31.02 weeks and mean birth weight 1.229 kg. Seventy-two cases (47.5% were male and 80 cases (52.5% were female. Of the cases screened, 100 (65.6% had no ROP, 52 had ROP of any stage (34.4%, and 27 (18% had stage 1, five (3.3% had stage 2, 17 (11.5% had stage 3, and three (1.6% had stage 4 disease. No infants had stage 5 ROP. Of all our cases with ROP, 15 (28.6% had prethreshold disease type 1 that required treatment, comprising 9.8% of all cases screened for ROP. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, all risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with the development of ROP, except for neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of ROP was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age.Conclusion: ROP occurred in 34.4% of all infants screened in the neonatal intensive

  18. Factors influencing maternal decision-making for the infant sleep environment in families at higher risk of SIDS: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Fleming, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant sleep position, co-sleeping, smoking, dummy use, feeding and disrupted routines. The interviews were transcribed, coded and thematic analysis carried out. Participants were invited based on an algorithm developed in a previous SIDS case control study that identified an increased risk of SIDS from four demographic characteristics: young maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, three or more children, and a measure of deprivation. The presence of three, or more characteristics led to being invited to take part in the qualitative study. Factors influencing mothers' adherence to the safe sleep messages included previous experience and the credibility of the advice given. They described disrupted routines that led to risky scenarios with a belief that occasional risks were acceptable. Where circumstances made following the advice more difficult they found alternative strategies to reduce the risk, including the use of movement monitors, regular checking and a belief that lighter maternal sleep in the presence of a baby was protective. Safer sleep messages should be tailored to fit with the lived realities of mothers, especially those at higher risk. The traditional list of 'do's' and 'don'ts' was not well accepted by this group. Interventions that seek to influence this higher-risk group should acknowledge mothers' own protective instincts and consider their beliefs and understanding behind the safer sleep messages if they are to be effective and encourage this group to change.

  19. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-10

    The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province from January 2001 to December 2012. We used data from 16 monitoring sites to examine the trend and risk factors for premature birth as well as infant mortality associated with prematurity. A total of 818,481 live births were documented, including 76,923 preterm infants (94 preterm infants per 1,000 live births) and 2,248 deaths due to prematurity (2.75 preterm deaths per 1,000 live births). From 2001 to 2012, the incidence of preterm birth increased from 56.7 to 105.2 per 1,000 live births (P for trend prematurity declined from 95.0 to 13.4 per 1,000 live births (P for trend prematurity were observed in Hubei Province from 2001 to 2012. Our results provide important information for areas of improvements in reducing incidence and mortality of premature birth.

  20. Factors influencing maternal decision-making for the infant sleep environment in families at higher risk of SIDS:a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Pete; Fleming, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages.Design and setting: Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant ...

  1. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  2. Nutritional strategies and gut microbiota composition as risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis in very-preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Lepage, Patricia; Martin-Marchand, Laetitia; Al Nabhani, Ziad; Delannoy, Johanne; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Aires, Julio; Durox, Mélanie; Darmaun, Dominique; Neu, Josef; Butel, Marie-José

    2017-09-01

    Background: The pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains poorly understood. Objective: We assessed the relation between feeding strategies, intestinal microbiota composition, and the development of NEC. Design: We performed a prospective nationwide population-based study, EPIPAGE 2 (Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels), including preterm infants born at Etude Epidémiologique de la flore), in 20 of the 64 NICUs, analyzed the intestinal microbiota by culture and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: Among the 3161 enrolled preterm infants, 106 (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.8%, 4.0%) developed NEC. Individual characteristics were significantly associated with NEC. Slower and intermediate rates of progression of enteral feeding strategies were associated with a higher risk of NEC, with an adjusted OR of 2.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 4.5; P = 0.01) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.5; P = 0.02), respectively. Less favorable and intermediate direct-breastfeeding policies were associated with higher NEC risk as well, with an adjusted OR of 2.5 (95% CI: 1.1, 5.8; P = 0.03) and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.8; P = 0.02), respectively. Microbiota analysis performed in 16 cases and 78 controls showed an association between Clostridium neonatale and Staphylococcus aureus with NEC ( P = 0.001 and P = 0.002). Conclusions: A slow rate of progression of enteral feeding and a less favorable direct-breastfeeding policy are associated with an increased risk of developing NEC. For a given level of risk assessed by propensity score, colonization by C. neonatale and/or S. aureus is significantly associated with NEC. This trial (EPIFLORE study) was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Acompanhamento do desenvolvimento da linguagem de lactentes de risco para surdez Follow-up of language development in infants with risk factors for hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Zaratini Fernandes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desenvolvimento da linguagem, de acordo com o gênero, idade gestacional e peso ao nascimento, aos quatro, oito e 12 meses, de lactentes que permaneceram em UTI Neonatal e que apresentaram um ou mais indicadores de risco para perda auditiva de aparecimento tardio. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de lactentes nascidos entre agosto de 2007 e julho de 2008 que, na UTI, apresentaram resultado normal no Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico, e que necessitaram de monitoramento audiológico e de linguagem, por apresentarem indicadores de risco para perda auditiva. Os lactentes foram avaliados no 4º, 8º e 12° meses de vida por meio da Escala de Aquisições Iniciais de Linguagem. RESULTADOS: Compareceram a todas as avaliações 87 lactentes e 60 (69% apresentaram como indicador de risco a permanência na UTI associada à hipertensão pulmonar. Na Escala de Aquisições Iniciais de Linguagem, nove lactentes apresentaram alterações aos quatro meses e 11 lactentes aos oito meses de idade. Aos 12 meses, 18 (20,6% lactentes apresentaram alteração e desses, cinco tiveram atraso nos meses anteriores. Os dados estatísticos demonstraram que resultados alterados aos quatro e oito meses podem predizer dificuldades nas respostas dos lactentes aos 12 meses. Houve o aparecimento de desvios transitórios no desenvolvimento da linguagem oral, normalizados na maioria dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: Deve-se realizar a avaliação de linguagem no primeiro ano de vida a fim de monitorar possíveis atrasos em lactentes com indicador de risco para surdez.PURPOSE: To compare language development, according to gender, gestational age and birth weight, at four, eight and 12 months of life, of infants who remained in the Neonate Intensive Care Unit, who presented at least one risk factor for hearing loss with delayed onset. METHODS: Longitudinal study of infants born between August 2007 and July 2008, who, in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, showed

  4. Risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and coping strategies in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rosa, Wojciech; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the potential risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit. The development of neonatal intensive care units has increased the survival rate of infants. However, one of the major parental problems is post-traumatic stress disorder. An observational study covered 125 parents (72 mothers and 53 fathers) of infants aged 3-12 months who were hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit during the neonatal period. Third-referral neonatal intensive care unit. Several standardised and self-reported research tools were used to estimate the level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact Event Scale-Revised), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and coping strategies (COPE Inventory). The respondents also completed a Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. The mothers and fathers did not differ in their parental and infant characteristics. Post-traumatic stress disorder was present in 60% of the mothers and 47% of the fathers. Compared to the fathers, the mothers felt greater stress (p = .020) and presented a higher severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (p stress disorder in the mothers. In the fathers, an Apgar test at 1 min after birth (p = .030) and a partner's post-traumatic stress disorder (p = .038) were related to post-traumatic stress disorder. The mothers compared to the fathers were more likely to use strategies such as: positive reinterpretation and growth, focusing on and venting of emotions, instrumental social support, religious coping and acceptance. In the fathers, the predictors included an Apgar score at 1 min after birth, a lack of congenital anomalies in the child and mental disengagement. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as coping strategies, differ in women compare to men. Knowledge of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, specific to

  5. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  6. Algunos factores de riesgo asociados al recién nacido con bajo peso Some risk factors associated with the low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora María Pérez Guirado

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y con un modelo de diseño del tipo de casos y controles de toda las mujeres pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico Docente "Bernardo Posse", en el municipio San Miguel del Padrón, que tuvieron un recién nacido con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g en el período comprendido entre los años 1995 y 2004, conformada así la muestra estudio. De forma aleatoria se conformó un grupo control de mujeres con recién nacidos con peso superior o igual a los 2 500 g. Se aplicaron test estadísticos para la determinación del riesgo relativo, el Chi cuadrado y el intervalo de confianza del riesgo relativo de cada factor. En esta investigación quedó demostrado que la edad mayor de 35 años, la anemia, la urosepsis, la hipertensión arterial y las modificaciones cervicales son, entre otros, los antecedentes y riesgos que con más frecuencia aportaron a este indicador en nuestra área de salud. Se observó también la incidencia de los problemas nutricionales relacionados con la ganancia total de peso menor de 8 kg, la valoración nutricional de bajo peso, y el antecedente de recién nacido bajo peso al nacer.An observational analytical case and control study was conducted among all women from the health area of "Bernardo Posse" Teaching Polyclinic, in the municipality of San Miguel del Padrón, that had children with a weight under 2 500 g between 1995 and 2004 (study group. A control group composed of women with newborns with a weight equal to or over 2 500 g was selected at random. Statistical tests, such as Chi square test and the confidence interval of the relative risk of every factor, were applied to determine the relative risk. It was proved in this research that age over 35, anemia, urosepsis, arterial hypertension and the cervical modifications are, among others, the antecedents and risks that influenced the most on this indicator in our health area. It was also observed the incidence of

  7. Factors that elevate the internal radionuclide and chemical retention, dose and health risks to infants and children in a radiological-nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    The factors that influence the dose and risk to vulnerable population groups from exposure and internal uptake of chemicals are examined and, in particular, the radionuclides released in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive events. The paper seeks to identify the areas that would benefit from further research. The intake and body burdens of carbon and calcium were assessed as surrogates for contaminants that either act like or bind to hydrocarbons (e.g. tritium and 14 C) or bone-seeking radionuclides (e.g. 90 Sr and 239 Pu). The shortest turnover times for such materials in the whole body were evaluated for the newborn: 11 d and 0.5 y for carbon and calcium, respectively. However, their biokinetic behaviour is complicated by a particularly high percentage of the gut-absorbed dietary intake of carbon (∼16%) and calcium (∼100%) that is incorporated into the soft tissue and skeleton of the growing neonate. The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients (Sv Bq -1 ) were examined for 14 radionuclides, including 9 of concern because of their potential use in radiological dispersal devices. The dose coefficients for a 3-month-old are greater than those for adults (2-56 times more for ingestion and 2-12 times for inhalation). The age-dependent dose and exposure assessment of contaminant intakes would improve by accounting for gender and growth where it is currently neglected. Health risk is evaluated as the product of the exposure and hazard factors, the latter being about 10-fold greater in infants than in adults. The exposure factor is also approximately 10-fold higher for ingestion by infants than by adults, and unity for inhalation varying with the contaminant. Qualitative and quantitative physiological and epidemiological evidence supports infants being more vulnerable to cancer and neurological deficit than older children). (authors)

  8. Leading causes of preterm delivery as risk factors for intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants: results of the EPIPAGE 2 cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Pierrat, Veronique; Delorme, Pierre; Kayem, Gilles; Durox, Mélanie; Goffinet, François; Marret, Stephane; Ancel, Pierre Yves

    2017-05-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, few studies have investigated how pregnancy complications responsible for preterm delivery are related to intraventricular hemorrhage. We sought to investigate the association between the main causes of preterm delivery and intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants born in France during 2011 between 22-31 weeks of gestation. The study included 3495 preterm infants from the national EPIPAGE 2 cohort study who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units and had at least 1 cranial ultrasound assessment. The primary outcome was grade I-IV intraventricular hemorrhage according to the Papile classification. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between risk of intraventricular hemorrhage and the leading causes of preterm delivery: vascular placental diseases, isolated intrauterine growth retardation, placental abruption, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes, with or without associated maternal inflammatory syndrome. The overall frequency of grade IV, III, II, and I intraventricular hemorrhage was 3.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.2-4.5), 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9), 12.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.0-13.3), and 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 15.7-18.4), respectively. After adjustment for gestational age, antenatal magnesium sulfate therapy, level of care in the maternity unit, antenatal corticosteroids, and chest compressions, infants born after placental abruption had a higher risk of grade IV and III intraventricular hemorrhage compared to those born under placental vascular disease conditions, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.0) and 4.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.6), respectively. Similarly, preterm labor with concurrent inflammatory syndrome was associated with an increased risk of grade IV intraventricular hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio

  9. ACUTE ENCEPHALITIS SYNDROME (AES ASSOCIATED WITH SOCIOCULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS IN INFANTS/CHILDREN OF MUZAFFARPUR, BIHARHOSPITAL-BASED, PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute encephalitis syndrome is a group of clinical neurologic manifestation caused by wide range of viruses, bacteria, fungus, parasites, spirochetes, chemicals and toxins. According to AES guidelines- Acute encephalitis syndrome due to unknown agent is defined as a suspected case in which no diagnostic testing is performed or in which testing was performed, but no aetiological agent was identified or in which the test results were indeterminate. Acute encephalitis syndrome in children is due to interaction of several factors in combination. The aim of the study is to evaluate the sociocultural and environmental factors, which plays a major role in AES. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study design was non-interventional, hospital-based, prospective study. The study was conducted at Paediatric Department of S.K.M.C.H., Muzaffarpur, Bihar, over a period of January 1, 2015, to July 31, 2017. Infants/children admitted in S.K.M.C.H., Muzaffarpur, were included in study. All defined cases according to AES guidelines were included and 92 infants/children were selected. Percentage, proportion and Chi-square test were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS Among 92 selected infants/children, AES was highest in rural area, 80 (86.95%. The seasonal incidence of AES was March to July in which highest incidence was found in June, 63 (68.47%. Highest incidence of AES was seen between 1-5 years of age. There was significant statistical association among age of children and AES. AES was more common in male than female. AES was highest in dwellers of kachcha (mud house. AES was highest, 90 (97.82% among children of labour/farmer. AES was highest, 90 (97.82% in which mother was illiterate. Incidence of AES was highest in Hindu religion. All AES, 92 (100% was seen in malnourished/undernourished children. CONCLUSION Sociocultural and environmental factors were the major determinant risk factors for AES. Among these, malnutrition/under nutrition was the

  10. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  11. Multi-risk infants: predicting attachment security from sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health risk among African-American preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M; Black, Maureen M

    2011-08-01

    Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads participated. Psychosocial (maternal depression, stress and self-efficacy) and sociodemographic risk (poverty, maternal education, marital status) were maternal self-report (0-4 months). Infant health risk was obtained from hospital charts. Infant-mother attachment (12 months) and maternal sensitivity (4 months) were assessed with Q-sort measures. Psychosocial and sociodemographic risk, but not infant health risk, negatively related to attachment. Both were mediated by maternal sensitivity. The impact of risk domains on attachment security was mediated by maternal sensitivity. Results emphasize the need for early intervention programs targeting premature infants to identify and address environmental and personal factors that place parenting at risk. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Mitochondrial mutation m.1555A>G as a risk factor for failed newborn hearing screening in a large cohort of preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Göpel, Wolfgang; Berkowski, Sandra; Preuss, Michael; Ziegler, Andreas; Küster, Helmut; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Gortner, Ludwig; Mögel, Michael; Härtel, Christoph; Herting, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial m.1555A>G mutation is associated with a high rate of permanent hearing loss, if aminoglycosides are given. Preterm infants have an increased risk of permanent hearing loss and are frequently treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics. Methods We genotyped preterm infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams who were prospectively enrolled in a large cohort study for the m.1555A>G mutation. Treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics in combination with mitochondrial m....

  13. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury after Congenital Cardiac Surgery in Infants and Children: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Kyung Park

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI after pediatric cardiac surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Modifiable risk factors for postoperative AKI including perioperative anesthesia-related parameters were assessed. The authors conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 220 patients (aged 10 days to 19 years who underwent congenital cardiac surgery between January and December 2012. The incidence of AKI within 7 days postoperatively was determined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO criteria. Ninety-two patients (41.8% developed AKI and 18 (8.2% required renal replacement therapy within the first postoperative week. Among patients who developed AKI, 57 patients (25.9% were KDIGO stage 1, 27 patients (12.3% were KDIGO stage 2, and eight patients (3.6% were KDIGO stage 3. RACHS-1 (Risk-Adjusted classification for Congenital Heart Surgery category, perioperative transfusion and fluid administration as well as fluid overload were compared between patients with and without AKI. Multivariable logistic regression analyses determined the risk factors for AKI. AKI was associated with longer hospital stay or ICU stay, and frequent sternal wound infections. Younger age (3 g/dl from preoperative level on POD1 was entered into the multivariable analysis, it was independently associated with postoperative AKI (OR, 6.51; 95% CI, 2.23-19.03 compared with no increase. This association was significant after adjustment with patient demographics, medication history and RACHS-1 category (hemoglobin increase >3g/dl vs. no increase: adjusted OR, 6.94; 95% CI, 2.33-20.69, regardless of different age groups and cyanotic or non-cyanotic heart disease. Prospective trials are required to evaluate whether correction of preoperative anemia and prevention of hemoconcentration may ameliorate postoperative AKI in patients who underwent congenital cardiac surgery.

  14. Effects of lay support for pregnant women with social risk factors on infant development and maternal psychological health at 12 months postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Popo

    Full Text Available The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year.A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW, and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed.486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03.The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.

  15. Effects of lay support for pregnant women with social risk factors on infant development and maternal psychological health at 12 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popo, Emma; Kenyon, Sara; Dann, Sophie-Anna; MacArthur, Christine; Blissett, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk) RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year. A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW), and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition) and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed. 486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03). The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.

  16. Excessive infant crying: Definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  17. Developmental trajectories of attention and executive functioning in infants born preterm: The influence of perinatal risk factors and maternal interactive styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants born preterm (born before 37 weeks of gestation) are at a heightened risk for developmental delay and learning disabilities. Even children born preterm who have intellectual abilities within the normal range at school age often require special educational services. The preterm population is

  18. Associations of biological factors and affordances in the home with infant motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia C; Pereira, Keila Rg; Müller, Alessandra B; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-04-01

    Whereas considerable work has been published regarding biological factors associated with infant health, much less is known about the associations of environmental context with infant development - the focus of the present cross-sectional study. Data were collected on 561 infants, aged newborn to 18 months. Measures included the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale, Alberta Infant Motor Scale, and selected bio/medical factors. Correlation and regression were used to analyze the data. Home environmental factors were associated with children's motor development as much as some typically high-risk biologic factors. The home environment partially explained infant development outcomes and infants at risk could possibly be helped with a home assessment for affordances. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  20. Greater Caregiving Risk, Better Infant Memory Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Quan, Jeffry; Richmond, Jenny; Goh, Shaun Kok Yew; Sim, Lit Wee; Chong, Yap Seng; Francois-Bureau, Jean; Chen, Helen; Qiu, Anqi

    2018-04-16

    Poor early life care often relates to cognitive difficulties. However, newer work suggests that in early-life, adversity may associate with enhanced or accelerated neurodevelopment. We examine associations between postnatal caregiving risks (i.e., higher self-reported postnatal-anxiety and lower observed maternal sensitivity) and infant relational memory (i.e. via deferred imitation and relational binding). Using subsamples of 67-181 infants (aged 433-477 post-conceptual days, or roughly five to seven months since birth) taking part in the GUSTO study, we found such postnatal caregiving risk significantly predictive of "better" performance on a relational binding task following a brief delay, after Bonferroni adjustments. Subsequent analyses suggest that the association between memory and these risks may specifically be apparent amongst infants spending at least 50% of their waking hours in the presence of their mothers. Our findings echo neuroimaging research concerning similar risk exposure and larger infant hippocampal volume, and likewise underscore the importance of considering developmental context in understanding early life experience. With this in mind, these findings caution against the use of cognitive outcomes as indices of experienced risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The role of sociodemographic factors in maternal psychological distress and mother-preterm infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Kaboni W; White-Traut, Rosemary; Brandon, Debra; Pan, Wei; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth has been associated with greater psychological distress and less positive mother infant interactions than were experienced by mothers of full-term infants. Maternal and infant sociodemographic factors have also shown a strong association with psychological distress and the mother-infant relationship. However, findings on their effects over time are limited. In this longitudinal analysis, we explored the relationship of maternal and infant sociodemographic variables (maternal age, maternal education, marital status, being on social assistance, maternal race, infant birth weight, and infant gender) to maternal psychological distress (depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, parenting stress symptoms, and maternal worry about child's health) through 12 months corrected age for prematurity, and on the home environment, and mother-infant interactions through 6 months corrected age for prematurity. We also explored differences related to maternal obstetrical characteristics (gestational age at birth, parity, mode of delivery, and multiple birth) and severity of infant conditions (Apgar scores, need for mechanical ventilation, and infant medical complications). Although the relationship of maternal and infant characteristics with these outcomes did not change over time, psychological distress differed based on marital status, maternal education, infant gender, and infant medical complications. Older mothers provided more a positive home environment. Mother-infant interactions differed by maternal age, being on public assistance, maternal race, infant gender, and infant medical complications. More longitudinal research is needed to better understand these effects over time in order to identify and support at-risk mothers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility

  3. Clinical and laboratory characteristics and associated risk factors of infants hospitalized in neonatal unit due to indirect hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Hatipoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate characteristicsof neonates hospitalized to Neonatal Unit dueto indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to determine risk factorsfor indirect hyperbilirubinemia.Materials and methods: Totally 222 newborns, aged≥35 weeks of gestational age and hospitalized in neonatalunit with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, were investigated.Physical examination and laboratory studies of childrenwere performed. Decision of phototherapy and exchangetransfusion was done according to total serum bilirubin(TSB level that notified in the Guidelines of AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics.Results: Study group consisted of 131 (60% male and91 (30% female newborns. No significant difference wasfound in TSB values between male and female neonates.There was 71.2% term and 19.8% late preterm newbornbabies. Babies born with spontaneous vaginal deliveryhad borderline higher TSB values compared with cesareansection deliveries (p=0.051. ABO blood group incompatibilitywas found in 30.1% and Rh incompatibilityin 6.7%. Insufficient nutrition and inadequate caloric intakewere found in 49 (22.7% of neonates, urinary tractinfection in 19 (8.5%, hypernatremic dehydration in 9(4.5% and hypothyroidism in 4 (2.0%. Exchange transfusionwas performed in 10 newborns and kernicterus occurredin two. A significant negative correlation was foundbetween TSB values at hospitalization and baby’s birth(p<0.05 and a positive correlation between initial TSBvalue and percent of patient weight loss (p<0.05.Conclusions: According to our results, the most frequentetiological causes of jaundice in newborns were ABOblood group incompatibility, insufficient nutrition and beinglate preterm. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(1: 38-43

  4. Infant mortality in Pelotas, Brazil: a comparison of risk factors in two birth cohorts La mortalidad de menores de un año en Pelotas, Brasil: comparación de factores de riesgo en dos cohortes de nacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare two population-based birth cohorts to assess trends in infant mortality rates and the distribution of relevant risk factors, and how these changed after an 11-year period. METHODS: Data from two population-based prospective birth cohorts (1982 and 1993 were analyzed. Both studies included all children born in a hospital (> 99% of all births in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Infant mortality was monitored through surveillance of all maternity hospitals, mortality registries and cemeteries. RESULTS: There were 5 914 live-born children in 1982 and 5 249 in 1993. The infant mortality rate decreased by 41%, from 36.0 per 1 000 live births in 1982 to 21.1 per 1 000 in 1993. Socioeconomic and maternal factors tended to become more favorable during the study period, but there were unfavorable changes in birthweight and gestational age. Poverty, high parity, low birthweight, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction were the main risk factors for infant mortality in both cohorts. The 41% reduction in infant mortality between 1982 and 1993 would have been even greater had the prevalence of risk factors remained constant during the period studied here. CONCLUSIONS: There were impressive declines in infant mortality which were not due to changes in the risk factors we studied. Because no reduction was seen in the large social inequalities documented in the 1982 cohort, it is likely that the reduction in infant mortality resulted largely from improvements in health care.OBJETIVOS: Comparar dos cohortes de nacimiento tomadas de la población en general a fin de evaluar las tendencias observadas en las tasas de mortalidad de menores de un año y la distribución de los factores de riesgo asociados con ella, así como los cambios sufridos por ambas cosas al cabo de un período de 11 años. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos procedentes de dos cohortes de nacimiento prospectivas (1982 y 1993 tomadas de la población en

  5. Risk factors for infant developmental problems Factores de riesgo para problemas de desarrollo infantil Fatores de risco para problemas de desenvolvimento infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Rose Santa Maria-Mengel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive-correlational study aimed to detect risks for child developmental problems in the first four years of age, to identify the protective resources in the familiar environment, and to verify the best predictive variables of the development at risk. The non-clinical sample was composed by 120 children registered in a Family Health Program. The assessment instruments for global development, expressive language and familiar environment were used. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the lower the father's educational level, the higher the risk for developmental problems. Both the history of low nutritional state at six months of age and the psychosocial risk in the family environment increased the chances of having expressive language problems. It is concluded that screening tests of risk for developmental problems and the analysis of the psychosocial factors in the familiar context should be considered as preventive intervention procedure in the Family Health Programs.El estudio descriptivo-correlacional objetiva detectar riesgos para problemas del desarrollo del niño en los cuatro primeros años, identificar recursos protectores en el ambiente familiar, verificar las mejores variables antedichas del desarrollo en riesgo, en una muestra no-clínica de 120 niños registrados en un Programa de Salud de la Familia. Fueron utilizados instrumentos de evaluación del desarrollo global, lenguaje expresivo del niño y ambiente familiar. El análisis de regresión logística indicó que cuanto menor escolaridad del padre, mayor chance de riesgo para problemas de desarrollo. El histórico del estado nutricional debajo de lo normal a los seis meses de edad y el riesgo psicosocial en el ambiente familiar aumentaba la probabilidad de problemas de lenguaje expresivo. Concluyendo, la selección de riesgos para problemas de desarrollo del niño y el análisis de factores psicosociales del contexto familiar deben incluirse como

  6. Prediction of Small for Gestational Age Infants in Healthy Nulliparous Women Using Clinical and Ultrasound Risk Factors Combined with Early Pregnancy Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley M E McCowan

    Full Text Available Most small for gestational age pregnancies are unrecognised before birth, resulting in substantial avoidable perinatal mortality and morbidity. Our objective was to develop multivariable prediction models for small for gestational age combining clinical risk factors and biomarkers at 15±1 weeks' with ultrasound parameters at 20±1 weeks' gestation.Data from 5606 participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE cohort study were divided into Training (n = 3735 and Validation datasets (n = 1871. The primary outcomes were All-SGA (small for gestational age with birthweight <10th customised centile, Normotensive-SGA (small for gestational age with a normotensive mother and Hypertensive-SGA (small for gestational age with an hypertensive mother. The comparison group comprised women without the respective small for gestational age phenotype. Multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression beginning with clinical variables, and subsequent additions of biomarker and then ultrasound (biometry and Doppler variables. Model performance was assessed in Training and Validation datasets by calculating area under the curve.633 (11.2% infants were All-SGA, 465(8.2% Normotensive-SGA and 168 (3% Hypertensive-SGA. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals for All-SGA using 15±1 weeks' clinical variables, 15±1 weeks' clinical+ biomarker variables and clinical + biomarkers + biometry /Doppler at 20±1 weeks' were: 0.63 (0.59-0.67, 0.64 (0.60-0.68 and 0.69 (0.66-0.73 respectively in the Validation dataset; Normotensive-SGA results were similar: 0.61 (0.57-0.66, 0.61 (0.56-0.66 and 0.68 (0.64-0.73 with small increases in performance in the Training datasets. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals for Hypertensive-SGA were: 0.76 (0.70-0.82, 0.80 (0.75-0.86 and 0.84 (0.78-0.89 with minimal change in the Training datasets.Models for prediction of small for gestational age, which combine biomarkers, clinical and

  7. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  8. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  9. Nighttime parenting strategies and sleep-related risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J

    2013-02-01

    A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may

  10. Differences in modifiable feeding factors by overweight status in Latino infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Diana; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Masho, Saba W

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevalence remains disproportionally high for young American children from low-socioeconomic and ethnic minorities. Modifiable feeding factors may lead to infant overfeeding and an increased risk for obesity. This study explored differences in modifiable feeding factors by overweight status (>85% weight-for-length) in the first year of life of Latino infants. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional pilot study of 62 low-income immigrant Latina mothers and their infants (ages 4-12 months). Measures included maternal feeding practices, feeding pattern, infant's 24-hour dietary recall, and maternal perception of infant weight. Chi-square and t-tests were used for comparisons between healthy weight and overweight infants. Birth weight z-scores did not significantly differ by weight status. Overweight status was not associated with maternal feeding practices, feeding pattern or infant dietary intake. A trend toward significance was seen in the maternal perception of infant weight. Overweight infants were similar to healthy weight infants in their birth weight z-scores and supports the premise that modifiable feeding factors are in play and thus targeted early feeding interventions may prove effective in decreasing obesity risk in Latinos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. State infant mortality: an ecologic study to determine modifiable risks and adjusted infant mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David A; Mackley, Amy; Locke, Robert G; Stefano, John L; Kroelinger, Charlan

    2009-05-01

    To determine factors contributing to state infant mortality rates (IMR) and develop an adjusted IMR in the United States for 2001 and 2002. Ecologic study of factors contributing to state IMR. State IMR for 2001 and 2002 were obtained from the United States linked death and birth certificate data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Factors investigated using multivariable linear regression included state racial demographics, ethnicity, state population, median income, education, teen birth rate, proportion of obesity, smoking during pregnancy, diabetes, hypertension, cesarean delivery, prenatal care, health insurance, self-report of mental illness, and number of in-vitro fertilization procedures. Final risk adjusted IMR's were standardized and states were compared with the United States adjusted rates. Models for IMR in individual states in 2001 (r2 = 0.66, P < 0.01) and 2002 (r2 = 0.81, P < 0.01) were tested. African-American race, teen birth rate, and smoking during pregnancy remained independently associated with state infant mortality rates for 2001 and 2002. Ninety five percent confidence intervals (CI) were calculated around the regression lines to model the expected IMR. After adjustment, some states maintained a consistent IMR; for instance, Vermont and New Hampshire remained low, while Delaware and Louisiana remained high. However, other states such as Mississippi, which have traditionally high infant mortality rates, remained within the expected 95% CI for IMR after adjustment indicating confounding affected the initial unadjusted rates. Non-modifiable demographic variables, including the percentage of non-Hispanic African-American and Hispanic populations of the state are major factors contributing to individual variation in state IMR. Race and ethnicity may confound or modify the IMR in states that shifted inside or outside the 95% CI following adjustment. Other factors including smoking during pregnancy and teen birth rate, which are

  12. Sudden infant death syndrome: The risk of infants in Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Latorre-Castro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The results reflect the risk to which infants are exposed because of wrong practices associated with poor knowledge, and recommendations given, in many cases, by health professionals. Likewise, risk is higher among the poorest population.

  13. Visual performance in preterm infants with brain injuries compared with low-risk preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Merçè; Forns, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Reinoso, Marta; Gargallo, Estrella

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal brain injuries are the main cause of visual deficit produced by damage to posterior visual pathways. While there are several studies of visual function in low-risk preterm infants or older children with brain injuries, research in children of early age is lacking. To assess several aspects of visual function in preterm infants with brain injuries and to compare them with another group of low-risk preterm infants of the same age. Forty-eight preterm infants with brain injuries and 56 low-risk preterm infants. The ML Leonhardt Battery of Optotypes was used to assess visual functions. This test was previously validated at a post-menstrual age of 40 weeks in newborns and at 30-plus weeks in preterm infants. The group of preterm infants with brain lesions showed a delayed pattern of visual functions in alertness, fixation, visual attention and tracking behavior compared to infants in the healthy preterm group. The differences between both groups, in the visual behaviors analyzed were around 30%. These visual functions could be identified from the first weeks of life. Our results confirm the importance of using a straightforward screening test with preterm infants in order to assess altered visual function, especially in infants with brain injuries. The findings also highlight the need to provide visual stimulation very early on in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  15. Factors Associated With Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants' Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Steven M; Xu, Yinghui; Jackson, Richard D; Eckert, George J; Levy, Barcey T; Fontana, Margherita

    2016-07-01

    Parents have an important role ensuring their infants receive oral and medical health care. Their decisions affect the well-being of their children. This study used data collected from a longitudinal, prospective study with the aim of developing and validating a caries risk assessment tool. The objectives of this study are to (a) compare parents' perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums versus how well they do in taking care of the infants' medical health and (b) determine factors associated with parental perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums. A total of 1323 parent/infant pairs were enrolled in the study at Duke University, Indiana University, and the University of Iowa. Through a survey, 283 (21%) of the parents perceived they did an excellent job of both taking care of both the infant's oral and medical health, while 861 (65%) perceived the care of their infant's medical health was better than their care of the teeth and/or gums. In the multivariable model, parents who perceived they provided excellent/very good/good care for the infants' teeth and/or gums were more likely to brush the infant's teeth daily, use toothpaste daily, clean inside the infant's mouth and/or gums daily, and not let the infant have something other than water after brushing and prior to bedtime. Also, those with infants having Medicaid or State Insurance, parents not eating sugary snacks frequently, and parents getting dental checkups at least annually were likely to perceive that they provided excellent/very good/good care for their infant's teeth and/or gums. Parents who provide good infant oral health care are more likely to perceive they provide good care and more likely to have better personal dental health behaviors. This agrees with previous studies concerning older children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. A measurement model of perinatal stressors: identifying risk for postnatal emotional distress in mothers of high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMier, R L; Hynan, M T; Hatfield, R F; Varner, M W; Harris, H B; Manniello, R L

    2000-01-01

    A measurement model of perinatal stressors was first evaluated for reliability and then used to identify risk factors for postnatal emotional distress in high-risk mothers. In Study 1, six measures (gestational age of the baby, birthweight, length of the baby's hospitalization, a postnatal complications rating for the infant, and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min) were obtained from chart reviews of preterm births at two different hospitals. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the six measures could be accounted for by three factors: (a) Infant Maturity, (b) Apgar Ratings, and (c) Complications. In Study 2, a modified measurement model indicated that Infant Maturity and Complications were significant predictors of postnatal emotional distress in an additional sample of mothers. This measurement model may also be useful in predicting (a) other measures of psychological distress in parents, and (b) measures of cognitive and motor development in infants.

  17. Neurological follow-up of small-for-gestational age newborn infants: a study of risk factors related to prognosis at one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz D. Gherpelli

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the relative importance of some risk factors and neurological prognosis in the first year of life, 37 small-for-gestational age newborns were followed prospectively to 1 year of conceptional age. An abnormal neurological examination was found in 51.3% of the newborns and, at 12 months, 32.5% were still considered abnormal. Only 8.1% of the group had severe neurological sequelae at 1 year of corrected age. The developmental tests showed little changes during the first year, with abnormality rates varying from 16.1 to 25%. The following risk factors were analyzed concerning their relation to neurological and developmental abnormalities: high-risk pregnancy, maternal hypertension, social class, pre-term birth, neonatal asphyxia and weight and height less than 2.5 percentile at the age of 1 year. The statistical analysis showed a high correlation between subnormal weight gain and neurological (p=0.000l and developmental (p=0.001 abnormalities at 1 year. None of the other risk factors were statistically related to neurological prognosis at 1 year.

  18. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  19. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  20. Breastfeeding progression in preterm infants is influenced by factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1-7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones...... in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants...

  1. Clinical and demographic factors associated with urinary tract infection in young febrile infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorc, Joseph J; Levine, Deborah A; Platt, Shari L; Dayan, Peter S; Macias, Charles G; Krief, William; Schor, Jeffrey; Bank, David; Shaw, Kathy N; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has identified clinical predictors for urinary tract infection (UTI) to guide urine screening in febrile children or =38 degrees C) infants who were pediatric emergency departments from October through March 1999-2001 were eligible. Clinical appearance was evaluated using the Yale Observation Scale. UTI was defined as growth of a known bacterial pathogen from a catheterized specimen at a level of (1) > or =50000 cfu/mL or (2) > or =10000 cfu/mL in association with a positive dipstick test or urinalysis. We used bivariate tests and multiple logistic regression to identify demographic and clinical factors that were associated with the likelihood of UTI. A total of 1025 (67%) of 1513 eligible patients were enrolled; 9.0% of enrolled infants received a diagnosis of UTI. Uncircumcised male infants had a higher rate of UTI (21.3%) compared with female (5.0%) and circumcised male (2.3%) infants. Infants with maximum recorded temperature of > or =39 degrees C had a higher rate of UTI (16.3%) than other infants (7.2%). After multivariable adjustment, UTI was associated with being uncircumcised (odds ratio: 10.4; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval: 4.7-31.4) and maximum temperature (odds ratio: 2.4 per degrees C; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.6). Factors that were reported previously to be associated with risk for UTI in infants and toddlers, such as white race and ill appearance, were not significantly associated with risk for UTI in this cohort of young infants. Being uncircumcised and height of fever were associated with UTI in febrile infants who were < or =60 days of age. Uncircumcised male infants were at particularly high risk and may warrant a different approach to screening and management.

  2. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.I.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged <7 mo by means of a

  3. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  5. Factores de riesgo de la anemia por deficiencia de hierro en lactantes de un área de salud Risk factors of iron-deficiency anemia in infants from a health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Gautier du Défaix Gómez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 57 lactantes, supuestamente sanos y tomados al azar, de la población urbana entre 6 y 12 meses de edad de un policlínico de la Ciudad de La Habana, con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de anemia por deficiencia de hierro y sus factores de riesgo. Se observó anemia por deficiencia de hierro relacionada con la lactancia materna exclusiva de menos de 4 meses de duración, la introducción temprana e ingestión exagerada de leche de vaca y el antecedente de diarreas e ingresos por esta causa. Se halló además correlación directa y significativa del peso al nacer con la ferritina y de la edad gestacional en el momento del parto con la hemoglobina, así como correlación directa de todos los indicadores de la deficiencia de hierro con la duración de la lactancia materna. El rápido crecimiento corporal, la dieta cuyo componente principal fue la leche de vaca y el aumento de las pérdidas por diarreas, constituyen las causas más frecuentes de deficiencia de hierro en este estudio57 infants who were apparently spund were selected at random from the urban population aged 6-12 months of a polyclinic in Havana City aimed at determining the frequency of iron-deficiency anemia and its risk factors. It was observed that iron-deficiency anemia was connected with exclusive breast feeding of less than 4 months of duration, the early introduction and exagerated ingestion of cow milk and the history of diarrheas and admissions for this cause. A direct and significant correlation was found between birth weight and ferritin and between gestational age at delivery and hemoglobin. A direct correlation of all the indicators of iron-deficiency anemia with the duration of breast feeding was also noted. The rapid body growth, the diet with cow milk as the main component and the increase of losses due to diarrheas were the commonest causes of iron-deficiency anemia according to this study

  6. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84%

  7. Risks for communication delays and disorders in infants in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... factors associated with communication disorders in South Africa is limited. Objective. To identify and describe risk factors for communication delays in infants 0 - 12 months of age at Daspoort Polyclinic in Gauteng. Methods. A structured interview schedule was utilised to conduct an interview with the caregiver participants.

  8. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  9. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional status among children aged 6-24 months attending child welfare clinics in Kajiado Sub-County. ... and of their spouses 88.9% had attended formal education at varying levels.

  10. Risk factors for pneumonia in infants and young children and the role of solid fuel for cooking: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalanabis, D.; Gupta, S.; Paul, D.; Gupta, A.; Lahiri, M.; Khaled, M.A. [Society of Applied Studies, Calcutta (India)

    2002-08-01

    The paper evaluates the risk factors for childhood pneumonia with particular reference to indoor air-pollution associated with solid fuel use for cooking (e.g. coal, wood, dung), using a case-control study in a children's hospital in Calcutta. Cases were 127 children aged 2-35 months of either sex admitted with pneumonia and controls were 135 children attending their immunization clinic. Solid fuel use (odds ratio = 3.97, CI = 2.00-7.88), history of asthma in the child (OR = 5.49, CI = 2.37-12.74), poor economic status indicator (OR = 4.95, CI = 2.38 to 10.28), keeping large animals (OR = 6.03, CI = 1.13-32.27) were associated with high risk of pneumonia after adjusting for confounding (logistic regression analysis). Nearly 80% of people in India use such smoke producing fuel and the population attributable risk would be very high. This finding has important health policy implications. Furthermore, history of asthma is a useful prognostic indicator for early action for prevention of severe pneumonia.

  11. Growth of Korean preterm infants in a family-centered tradition during early infancy: the influence of health risks, maternal employment, and the sex of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee; Sohn, Min; Lee, Sangmi

    2014-10-01

    The physical growth of mild preterm infants (maternal employment status, and the infant sex. There were four noteworthy findings on growth variation in Korean mild preterm infants during early infancy: (i) the secular trend of intrauterine growth; (ii) the cumulative adverse effects of four risk factors; (iii) the possible burden of maternal employment if insufficient support; and (iv) the possibility of the cultural favoritism to male infants regardless of the modern industrialized society. The study suggests that, in a modern society, while mild preterm infants could sustain typical fetal growth, the early postnatal growth may vary based on health risks and sociocultural circumstances related to child-bearing and -rearing practices surrounding them. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  12. Iatrogenic Skin Disorders and Related Factors in Newborn Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoma, Zsanett Renáta; Meszes, Angéla; Ábrahám, Rita; Kemény, Lajos; Tálosi, Gyula; Doró, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological advances and diagnostic and therapeutic innovations have resulted in an impressive improvement in the survival of newborn infants requiring intensive care. Consequently, with the use of modern invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the incidence of iatrogenic events has also increased. The aim of this study was to assess various iatrogenic complications in neonates requiring intensive care and determine possible contributing factors to the injuries. Our prospective cross-sectional cohort survey was conducted in a central regional level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Correlations between intensive therapeutic interventions, complications, factors influencing attendance and prognosis, and the prevalence of iatrogenic skin injuries (ISIs) were investigated over a 2-year study period. Between January 31, 2012, and January 31, 2014, 460 neonates were admitted to the NICU, 83 of whom exhibited some kind of ISI. The major risk factors for ISIs were low birthweight, young gestational age, long NICU stay, use of the intubation-surfactant-extubation (INSURE) technique, surfactant use, mechanical ventilation, insertion of an umbilical arterial catheter, circulatory and cardiac support with dopamine or dobutamine, pulmonary hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and positive microbiology culture results. To prevent ISIs, careful consideration of risk factors and the creation of protocols ensuring efficient treatment of injuries are needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fatores de risco associados ao desmame precoce e ao período de desmame em lactentes matriculados em creches Risk factors associated to early weaning and to weaning period of infants enrolled in daycare centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Borelli Barbosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores de risco no processo de desmame de lactentes matriculados em creches. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico transversal com 56 crianças de nove a 18 meses de idade matriculadas em cinco creches de São Paulo. As mães das crinaças responderam ao questionário pré-testado que abordava questões demográficas, socioeconômicas, de gestação e nascimento, morbidade, aleitamento materno, alimentação complementar (quando/como foram introduzidos novos alimentos e atividades da criança na creche. Os fatores associados ao desmame precoce e menor período de desmame (variável definida pela diferença entre tempo de aleitamento exclusivo e tempo de aleitamento total foram avaliados em análises bivariadas. As variáveis com p25 anos (OR 4,91; IC95% 1,35-17,95; mãe morar sem companheiro (OR 6,42; IC95% 1,28-32,20 e uso de chupeta antes dos 30 dias de vida (OR 8,75; IC95% 1,90-40,23. Os fatores de risco para tempo insuficiente de desmame foram: frequentar creche pública (OR 3,20; IC95% 0,77-14,29 e início tardio do pré-natal (OR 4,13; IC95% 0,70-31,29. CONCLUSÕES: Características relacionadas à família e à instituição creche são fatores de risco para o desmame de crianças institucionalizadas. A abordagem desses determinantes para definir ações de saúde e nutrição é estratégica para favorecer a prática do aleitamento e qualificar o papel da creche como promotora de saúde e nutrição infantil.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with weaning of infants enrolled in daycare centers. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study comprising 56 children aged nine to 18 months in five daycare centers of São Paulo. A pre-tested questionnaire was applied to their mother, including questions on demographics and socioeconomic issues, gestation and birth, illness, breastfeeding, complementary feeding (when and how new foods were introduced and children activities in daycare centers. Factors associated with early

  14. Late preterm infants – impact of perinatal factors on neonatal results. A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Jakiel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infants born between the 34[sup]th[/sup] – 36[sup]th[/sup] week of pregnancy account for 75% of all preterm infants. Their seemingly slight immaturity is related to serious health problems. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyse perinatal factors that influence the occurrence in infants of such problems as respiratory failure, metabolic problems and early onset sepsis (EOS. Materials and method. The material for the study included all mothers and their late preterm infants: 34+0 – 36+6 born in our hospital (a tertiary referral academic centre in 2010 and 2011. The course of pregnancy and delivery, the type of delivery, applied preventive measures and treatment, as well as demographic data and the clinical state of infants were all analysed. Data from individual documentation of each mother and infant were collected by 5 designated people and data reliability was independently monitored by a random control of the documentation conducted by the supervising person. Results. A statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome and infant immaturity, bad state after birth and sepsis in infants were confirmed. Sepsis was more common in the case of vaginal delivery, and coexisted with respiratory distress syndrome. The mother’s diseases during pregnancy, a perinatal preventive antibiotic therapy, and possible delivery complications did not influence the infection. Perinatal asphyxia in an infant positively correlated with a Caesarean section and respiratory distress syndrome after birth. Conclusions. It is necessary to thoroughly establish the type of delivery of a late preterm infant in order to prevent an infection in the newborn child. The improvement of diagnosis of intrauterine hypoxia may reduce the number of Caesarean sections. The decision about late preterm delivery should be based on indices of the mother’s state of health. Premature delivery is related to the

  15. Socioeconomic factors affecting infant sleep-related deaths in St. Louis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Though the Back to Sleep Campaign that began in 1994 caused an overall decrease in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) rates, racial disparity has continued to increase in St. Louis. Though researchers have analyzed and described various sociodemographic characteristics of SIDS and infant deaths by unintentional suffocation in St. Louis, they have not simultaneously controlled for contributory risk factors to racial disparity such as race, poverty, maternal education, and number of children born to each mother (parity). To determine whether there is a relationship between maternal socioeconomic factors and sleep-related infant death. This quantitative case-control study used secondary data collected by the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services between 2005 and 2009. The sample includes matched birth/death certificates and living birth certificates of infants who were born/died within time frame. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square, and logistic regression. The controls were birth records of infants who lived more than 1 year. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses confirmed that race and poverty have significant relationships with infant sleep-related deaths. The social significance of this study is that the results may lead to population-specific modifications of prevention messages that will reduce infant sleep-related deaths. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  17. [Influencing factors on the death of infants born to HIV infected mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-wen; Xing, Zai-ling; Wang, Lin-hong; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Ding-yong; Huang, Yue-hua; Zhang, Yan

    2009-11-01

    To understand the influencing factors on the death of infants born to HIV infected mothers in areas with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in China. Based on the follow-up cohort study targeting at HIV/AIDS infected pregnant women and their babies initiated in 2004, a survey on the death status and influencing factors on the infants born to HIV/AIDS infected mothers enrolled in this cohort from Jan.2004 to Nov.2007 was carried out during Aug.to Nov.2008 in seven counties of four provinces in China. A total of 498 pairs of HIV-infected mothers and their infants were enrolled and their related information was collected. Single factor and multiple factors Cox model methods were adopted for data analysis. The total observed person-years of 498 infants was 406.22, among which, 45 infants died, and the mortality density was 110.78 per 1000 child-year. A single factor Cox model showed, the pregnancy in pre-period of HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS period (RR = 1.971, 95%CI: 1.143 - 3.396), living status of the pregnancy (RR = 3.062, 95%CI: 1.097 - 8.550), multipara women (RR = 0.517, 95%CI: 0.278 - 0.961), natural childbirth (RR = 0.561, 95%CI: 0.345 - 0.910), premature labor (RR = 5.302, 95%CI: 2.944 - 9.547), low birth weight (RR = 4.920, 95%CI: 2.691 - 8.994), mother-child pairs taking antiretroviral drugs (RR = 0.227, 95%CI: 0.121 - 0.428) and infants infected HIV (RR = 5.870, 95%CI: 3.232 - 10.660) could affect the infants death. The death of HIV-exposed infants was influenced by various factors. The death risk of infants born to HIV infected mothers who were in the danger of pre-period of HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS period was greater than the infants delivered by HIV infected mothers who were in preclinical period of HIV/AIDS (RR = 6.99, 95%CI: 1.92 - 25.64). The death risks were greater in the group that the women whose CD4(+)TLC count number lower than 200 cells/microl (RR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.01 - 4.15). The infants whose mothers had no ARV treatment had higher possibility to die than

  18. Perinatal factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth: the Bedouin Infant Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Berendest, H W; Lewando-Hundt, G; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1991-04-01

    Bedouin Arab women delivering newborns at Soroka Medical Center, Israel, during 1 year were interviewed in hospital to determine the factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth. Eighty-six per cent breastfed, 11% breast and bottlefed, and 3% bottlefed at birth. Based on a multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors that significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) of exclusive breastfeeding vs. breast and bottle feeding or bottle feeding at birth include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.49); maternal recall of feeling unwell during pregnancy (OR = 0.59); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.10); a newborn diagnosed with major malformations (OR = 0.30) or with major illnesses (OR = 0.32); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.09). In contrast, multiparae experienced an increased odds (OR = 1.67) of breastfeeding. Among primiparae, the factors that significantly reduced the odds of exclusive breastfeeding include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.47); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.12); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.18). Mothers of high-risk neonates and those who deliver by Caesarean section need to be educated about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Young primiparae are a challenge and require qualitative and quantitative research into the reasons precluding exclusive breastfeeding.

  19. Risks and realities: dyadic interaction between 6-month-old infants and their mothers in opioid maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfi, Monica; Smith, Lars; Waal, Helge; Sundet, Jon Martin

    2011-12-01

    A number of studies point to methadone exposure in utero as a possible risk factor in the developing mother-infant relationship in the first year of life. This study is part of a larger, national follow-up of 38 infants prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and 36 comparison, low-risk infants. The aim of the present paper is to assess the quality of mother-infant relationship when the infants are 6 months old. Videotaped mother-infant interactions were rated in a global scale (NICHD). Maternal and infant contributions collapsed into the variables "infant style" and "maternal style" showed that the only factor making significant contribution to the outcome measure "dyadic mutuality" was maternal style. The importance of group membership (exposed versus non-exposed), was reduced when controlling for maternal drug use prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), maternal depression and parenting stress as well as infants' developmental status and sensory-integrative functions. This suggests that prediction of dyadic mutuality should be based on individual characteristics rather than group characteristics. These results support previous research findings that methadone and buprenorphine use per se does not have direct influence on the quality of early mother-infant relationship, but tailored follow-up procedures targeting drug-free pregnancies and parenting support are beneficial for women in OMT and their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parenting of 7-month-old infants at familial risk for ADHD during infant's free play, with restrictions on interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Rivka; Amiel-Laviad, Riki; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

    2009-04-01

    Patterns of interaction of 34 mothers and fathers with their 7-month-old boys at familial risk for ADHD and 25 comparison families were studied during infant play with blocks. The parents were instructed to refrain from intervening as much as possible. Infants in the risk group did not differ from those in the comparison group in frequency of needing help or involving parents in play. Nonetheless, they received adequate responsivity from their mothers less often than infants in the comparison group. Mothers in the risk group were also more likely not to respond to these needs at all. Mothers in the comparison group were more physically intrusive. No group difference was found for maternal rebuilding of the infant's play. No group differences were found for any of father's behaviors. However, fathers in both groups rebuilt their infant's play more frequently than mothers, infants looked at them more often, and a larger number of infants involved the father in their play.

  1. A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunston, Wendy; Franich-Ray, Candice; Tatlow, Sara

    2017-10-17

    Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child's caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties.

  2. A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Bunston

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child’s caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of primiparae and multiparae Mothers sampled from three health facilities in the Greater Accra and Central Regions of Ghana: Levels of Contamination, Influencing factors and infant risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Human Breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for babies and infants during the first six (6) months following birth. Breast milk protects the infants against diseases and infections. Interestingly, because breast milk is a lipid-rich tissue, it attracts, retains and accumulates lipophilic contaminants like persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the ambient environment. The lipophilic contaminant load of the mother’s breast milk is subsequently, transferred to the breast-fed child. This makes breast milk an important biological matrix for the monitoring of the lactating mother’s body burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The study, assessed the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide (OCPs)] in the breast milk of lactating mothers (primiparae and multiparae) who reside within the catchment areas and attend child welfare clinic at one of three health facilities in Southern Ghana [Princess Marie Louis (PML) Children Hospital (Korle Wokon, Accra Central); GAEC Hospital (Kwabenya, Accra); and Gomoa Brofo Community based Health and Planning Services, (Gomoa Brofo, Gomoa West district, Central region)]. The study also evaluated the factors (age of lactating mothers, parity and area of residence) influencing the accumulation of the POPs; and, in addition, assessed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of breast milk by the infants through estimation of the infant’s daily intakes and hazard quotient. A total of two hundred and eighty-eight (288) healthy lactating mothers between the ages of 17-38 years from the three sampling locations [PML (135), GAEC (112), CHPS (41)] were selected for the study based on questionnaires administered to obtain information on the mothers [personal characteristics, number of births (parity), age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI)]. The non-invasive sampling technique was used for the collection of breast milk samples. Gas

  4. Early Erythropoietin Administration does not Increase the Risk of Retinopathy in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsu Chou

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: EPO administration did not significantly increase the risk of ROP of any stage reported or Stage ≥3. Further clinical trials investigating the impact of EPO on ROP in premature infants should include all confounding factors to clarify this important issue.

  5. Factors associated with the time to the first wheezing episode in infants : a cross-sectional study from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco-Gonzalez, Rosa M.; Mallol, Javier; Sole, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L. P.; Perez-Fernandez, Virginia; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Male gender, asthmatic heredity, perinatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory infections have been associated with wheeze in the first years of life, among other risk factors. However, information about what factors modify the time to the first episode of wheeze in infants is lacking. The

  6. Maternal verbal responses to communication of infants at low and heightened risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan B; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates mothers' responses to infant communication among infants at heightened genetic risk (high risk) of autism spectrum disorder compared to infants with no such risk (low risk). A total of 26 infants, 12 of whom had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder, were observed during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with their mothers at 13 and 18 months of age. Results indicate that overall, mothers of low-risk and high-risk infants were highly and similarly responsive to their infants' communicative behaviors. However, examination of infant vocal and gestural communication development together with maternal verbal responses and translations (i.e. verbally labeling a gesture referent) suggests that delays in early communication development observed among high-risk infants may alter the input that these infants receive; this in turn may have cascading effects on the subsequent development of communication and language. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  8. Factors associated with father involvement in infant care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falceto, Olga G; Fernandes, Carmen L; Baratojo, Claudia; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2008-12-01

    To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment) and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables selected. Prevalence ratio was used to estimate the magnitude of associations. Fathers of 13% of infants had no contact with their children. Among families whose parents lived together (78% of all), 33% of the fathers reported not actively participating in their children's care. Problematic couple relationship and mother as a housewife were associated with lack of father involvement in infant care. High prevalence of families whose father is not actively involved with infant care, especially when couple relationship is problematic and the mother does not have a paid job.

  9. Risk profiles of infants ≥32 weeks' gestational age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Infants in neonatal intensive care are at risk of swallowing difficulties, in particular oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and oesophageal dysphagia (OD). OPD is treated by speech-language therapists while OD is managed by doctors. Diagnosis of dysphagia is a challenge as equipment for instrumental ...

  10. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  11. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.; Adams, V.I.; Blackbourne, B.D.; Marks, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  12. Infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing gastroschisis related mortality in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfeld, Jordan C; Wren, Sherry M; Macheka, Nyasha; Mbuwayesango, Bothwell A; Bruzoni, Matias; Sylvester, Karl G; Kastenberg, Zachary J

    2015-12-01

    Survival for infants with gastroschisis in developed countries has improved dramatically in recent decades with reported mortality rates of 4-7%. Conversely, mortality rates for gastroschisis in sub-Saharan Africa remain as great as 60% in contemporary series. This study describes the burden of gastroschisis at the major pediatric hospital in Zimbabwe with the goal of identifying modifiable factors influencing gastroschisis-related infant mortality. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all cases of gastroschisis admitted to Harare Children's Hospital in 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing survival. A total of 5,585 neonatal unit admissions were identified including 95 (1.7%) infants born with gastroschisis. Gastroschisis-related mortality was 84% (n = 80). Of infants with gastroschisis, 96% (n = 91) were born outside Harare Hospital, 82% (n = 78) were born outside Harare Province, and 23% (n = 25) were home births. The unadjusted odds of survival for these neonates with gastroschisis were decreased for low birth weight infants (age; OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.50), and for those born to teenage mothers (age; OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.46). There was also a trend toward decreased odds of survival for home births (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.02-1.34) and for those born outside Harare Province (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.10-1.22). Gastroschisis-related infant mortality in Zimbabwe is associated with well-known risk factors, including low birth weight, prematurity, and teenage mothers. However, modifiable factors identified in this study signify potential opportunities for developing innovative approaches to perinatal care in such a resource-constrained environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. From the lab - Predicting Autism in High-Risk Infants | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-Risk Infants Follow us Photo: iStock Predicting Autism in High-Risk Infants AN NIH-SUPPORTED STUDY ... high-risk, 6-month-old infants will develop autism spectrum disorder by age 2. Such a tool ...

  14. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  15. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of neonatal dysphagia is increasing, as medical advances contribute to the survival of critically ill and preterm infants. Additional factors such as low birth weight (LBW), gastro-oesoephageal reflux disorder, failure-to-thrive (FTT), and HIV may increase the complexity of dysphagia symptoms.

  16. The Infant Gut Microbiome: Evidence for Obesity Risk and Dietary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Petya T.; Bridgman, Sarah L.; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing globally, particularly in children, obesity is a serious public health issue and risk factor for overweight and metabolic disease in later life. Both in experimental animal and human studies, advances in gene sequencing technologies have yielded intriguing possibilities for the role of the gut microbiome in later development of overweight status. Before translating study findings into practice, we must first reconcile inconsistencies between animal experimentation, and human adult and infant studies. Recent evidence for associations with gut microbiota and infant weight gain or child weight status, implicate Bacteroides and Lactobacillus species. Dietary manipulation with human milk and pre/probiotic formulations holds promise for preventing obesity. PMID:25835047

  17. The Infant Gut Microbiome: Evidence for Obesity Risk and Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya T. Koleva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing globally, particularly in children, obesity is a serious public health issue and risk factor for overweight and metabolic disease in later life. Both in experimental animal and human studies, advances in gene sequencing technologies have yielded intriguing possibilities for the role of the gut microbiome in later development of overweight status. Before translating study findings into practice, we must first reconcile inconsistencies between animal experimentation, and human adult and infant studies. Recent evidence for associations with gut microbiota and infant weight gain or child weight status, implicate Bacteroides and Lactobacillus species. Dietary manipulation with human milk and pre/probiotic formulations holds promise for preventing obesity.

  18. Depressão pós-parto: fatores de risco e repercussões no desenvolvimento infantil Post-partum depression: risk factors and repercussions in infant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluisa Bordin Schmidt

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A depressão pós-parto é uma condição que afeta 10% a 15% das mulheres no pós-parto. Este quadro tem seu início em algum momento durante o primeiro ano do pós-parto, havendo maior incidência entre a quarta e oitava semana após o parto. Geralmente se manifesta por um conjunto de sintomas como irritabilidade, choro freqüente, sentimentos de desamparo e desesperança, falta de energia e motivação, desinteresse sexual, transtornos alimentares e do sono, ansiedade, sentimentos de incapacidade de lidar com novas solicitações. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica acerca da depressão pós-parto. São abordados aspectos conceituais, epidemiológicos, fatores de risco associados a sua ocorrência e algumas repercussões da depressão pós-parto na relação materno-infantil e no desenvolvimento da criança. O conhecimento destes aspectos reveste-se de grande importância considerando as conseqüências prejudiciais às mães bem como ao desenvolvimento cognitivo, social e emocional de suas crianças.The post-partum depression is a condition that affects 10 to 15% of the women in the post-partum period. These symptoms begin at some moment during the first year after delivery, occurring more frequently between the fourth and eighth week after parturition. It is generally expressed through a complexity of symptoms where there is a presence of irritability, frequent crying, feelings of abandonment and hopelessness, lack of energy and motivation, lack of sexual interest, disturbances in sleep and eating patterns, anxiety, and feelings of not being able to cope with new demands. The objective of this paper is to present a bibliographical revision regarding the post-partum depression. Conceptual and epidemiological aspects, risk factors associated with their occurrence as well as a few repercussions of the post-partum depression in the mother-child relation, and the development of the infant will be broached. The

  19. Male gender and prematurity are risk factors for incarceration in pediatric inguinal hernia: A study of 922 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Ksia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: IH occurs mainly in male infants. Prematurity and male gender were identified as risk factors of incarceration. Contralateral metachronous hernia was reported, especially in female infants and after a left side surgical repair of the hernia.

  20. Recovery of Abnormal ABR in Neonates and Infants at Risk of Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Psarommatis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study is to present the clinical experience of a single institution on the recovery of ABR thresholds in a large population of neonates and infants at risk of hearing loss. Potential prognostic factors associated with this phenomenon were also investigated. Out of 2248 high risk infants, 384 had abnormal ABR at initial hearing evaluation and 168 of them had absent ABR or a threshold ≥80 dBnHL. From this subgroup, a significant percentage showed complete or partial recovery on reexamination (32.7% and 9.3%, resp., performed 4–6 months later. The presence of normal otoacoustic emissions was associated with the ABR restoration on reexamination. Moreover, the very young age at the initial hearing screening seems to be related to higher probabilities of false positive ABR. The potential recovery of hearing in HR infants raises concerns about the very early cochlear implantation in HR infants less than one year. Such a treatment modality should be decided cautiously and only after obtaining valid and stable objective and subjective hearing thresholds. This holds especially true for infants showing an auditory neuropathy profile, as they presented a much greater probability of ABR recovery.

  1. Recovery of Abnormal ABR in Neonates and Infants at Risk of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarommatis, Ioannis; Voudouris, Charalampos; Kapetanakis, Ioannis; Athanasiadi, Faselida; Douros, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to present the clinical experience of a single institution on the recovery of ABR thresholds in a large population of neonates and infants at risk of hearing loss. Potential prognostic factors associated with this phenomenon were also investigated. Out of 2248 high risk infants, 384 had abnormal ABR at initial hearing evaluation and 168 of them had absent ABR or a threshold ≥80 dBnHL. From this subgroup, a significant percentage showed complete or partial recovery on reexamination (32.7% and 9.3%, resp.), performed 4-6 months later. The presence of normal otoacoustic emissions was associated with the ABR restoration on reexamination. Moreover, the very young age at the initial hearing screening seems to be related to higher probabilities of false positive ABR. The potential recovery of hearing in HR infants raises concerns about the very early cochlear implantation in HR infants less than one year. Such a treatment modality should be decided cautiously and only after obtaining valid and stable objective and subjective hearing thresholds. This holds especially true for infants showing an auditory neuropathy profile, as they presented a much greater probability of ABR recovery.

  2. Linking infant-directed speech and face preferences to language outcomes in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership. Thirty-six infants were tested at ages 6, 8, 12, and 18 months. Infants heard 2 ID and 2 adult-directed (AD) speech passages paired with either a checkerboard or a face. The authors assessed expressive language at 12 and 18 months and general functioning at 12 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (Mullen, 1995). Both infant groups preferred ID to AD speech and preferred faces to checkerboards. SIBS-TD demonstrated higher expressive language at 18 months than did SIBS-A, a finding that correlated with preferences for ID speech at 12 months. Although both groups looked longer to face stimuli than to the checkerboard, the magnitude of the preference was smaller in SIBS-A and predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months in this group. Infants' preference for faces contributed to risk-group membership in a logistic regression analysis. Infants at heightened risk of ASD differ from typically developing infants in their preferences for ID speech and faces, which may underlie deficits in later language development and social communication.

  3. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  4. Stability of Early Risk Assessment for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaari, Maya; Yitzhak, Neta; Harel, Ayelet; Friedlander, Edwa; Bar-Oz, Benjamin; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Mankuta, David; Gamliel, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    Stability and change in early autism spectrum disorder risk were examined in a cohort of 99 preterm infants (?34 weeks of gestation) using the Autism Observation Scale for Infants at 8 and 12 months and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule--Toddler Module at 18 months. A total of 21 infants were identified at risk by the Autism Observation…

  5. A predictive model to estimate the risk of serious bacterial infections in febrile infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, RMF; Berger, MY; vanSteenselMoll, HA; DzoljicDanilovic, G; DerksenLubsen, G

    Low risk criteria have been defined to identify febrile infants unlikely to have serious bacterial infection (SBI). Using these criteria approximately 40% of all febrile infants can be defined as being at low risk. Of the remaining infants (60%) only 10%-20% have an SBI. No adequate criteria exists

  6. Infant feeding patterns and risk of acute respiratory infections in Baghdad/Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatha S. Al-Sharbatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: exclusive breastfeeding has been shown to protect infants from contracting various diseases. The aims of this study were: to examine the relationships between infant feeding patterns and the risk of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI, and to assess the importance of some factors that can increase such risk.

    Methods: a case-control study was carried out during the period between February 1st 2005 - May 1st 2005. The study included 137 infants who were hospitalized in the Children Welfare Teaching Hospital for ARIs during the period of study (a case definition of acute lower respiratory infection as given by the WHO (1995 was used. The Control group included 157 healthy infants who were randomly selected from two primary health care centers of the AI-Karkh sector of Baghdad for immunization. The risk of various factors thought to be associated to ARI were studied, these being: non-modifiable (age, gender, birth order, parent education, crowded residence, family history of asthma and history of ARIs in household members in previous 2 weeks and modifiable (short duration of breastfeeding, cigarette smoking in proximity to the infant, delayed immunization and malnutrition. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders and for calculating adjusted odds ratios.

    Results: formula fed infants had a 2.7 times higher risk (CI:1.6-4.68 for ARIs compared to breast fed infants. Infants who had undergone a short duration of breastfeeding (<3 months had a 1.4 times increased risk or ARI (CI: 0.89—2.23. Additional factors that were associated with higher ARIs were, female gender (OR= 2.0, CI:1.3-3.3, low educational level of mothers (OR= 6.4, CI:3.2-12.7 and fathers (OR=4.5, CI:2.27-8.78, crowded residence (OR= 4.5, CI: 2.6-7.8, positive history of ARIs in household members in the 2 weeks prior to the study (OR= 5.5, CI:3.3-9.3, family history of asthma (OR = 2.6, CI:1

  7. Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) Performance of Greek Preterm Infants: Comparisons With Full-Term Infants of the Same Nationality and Impact of Prematurity-Related Morbidity Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrengelas, Dimitrios; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Kleisiouni, Paraskevi; Manta, Vassiliki; Mellos, Stavros; Pons, Roser; Chrousos, George P; Siahanidou, Tania

    2016-07-01

    Only a few studies have been conducted with the objective of creating norms of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) for the assessment of gross motor development of preterm infants. The AIMS performance of preterm infants has been compared with that of the Canadian norms of full-term infants, but not with that of full-term infants of the same nationality. Moreover, the possible impact of prematurity-related morbidity factors on AIMS performance is unknown. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate AIMS trajectory in a large population of Greek preterm infants and create norms, (2) to compare it with the AIMS trajectory of Greek full-term infants, and (3) to examine the possible influence of neonatal morbidity on AIMS scores in the preterm sample. This was a cross-sectional study. Mean AIMS scores were compared, per month (1-19), between 403 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of age, corrected for prematurity) and 1,038 full-term infants. In preterm infants, the association of AIMS scores with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade ≤III, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and sepsis was assessed by hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores were significantly lower in preterm infants than in full-term infants. Mean AIMS scores in preterm infants were significantly associated with RDS (b=-1.93; 95% CI=-2.70, -1.16), IVH (b=-0.97; 95% CI=-1.69, -0.25), and ROP (b=-1.12; 95% CI=-1.99, -0.24) but not with BPD or sepsis in hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale norms were created for Greek preterm infants. This study confirms that AIMS trajectories of preterm infants are below those of full-term infants of the same nationality. The influence of morbidity factors, including RDS, IVH, and ROP, should be taken into account when administering the AIMS in preterm infants. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Guiraud

    Full Text Available The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16 = 17.153, p = 0.001. The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25 = 0.09, p = 0.767, in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41 = 4.466, p = 0.041. In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for infantile colic in District Mansehra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazil, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Infantile colic is a common problem among infants age 3 days to 3 months. It may affect parental feelings negatively and the parents may undertake all kinds of actions to stop excessive crying. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of infantile colic and its risk factors in infants born in District Mansehra. Methods: In this prospective study, all those newborn babies were included who were born at King Abdullah Teaching Hospital Mansehra between January 1 2008 and March 31, 2008, and those newborn babies who were brought to children OPD for routine check-up and EPI centre for vaccination of this hospital during this time period. For every infant, gender, mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, birth weight, birth order, and mother's reproductive history were collected. These babies were seen at least once in a week up to 12 weeks and history from the mothers about the duration of crying and fussiness behaviour was recorded. At the end of 3 months the infants were again assessed and additional information on infant nutritional source was obtained and any medication used for colic relief was identified. Cases of colic were identified by applying Wessel criteria to recorded data. Chi-square tests were used. Results: From total 512 infants, follow-up was completed for 426 infants. In total, 90 infants (21.77%) satisfied the Wessel criteria for infantile colic. No statistical significance was found between colicky and non-colicky infants according to sex, gestational age at birth, birth weight, type of delivery, and, infant's feeding pattern. However, firstborn infants had higher rate for developing colic (p=0.03). Conclusion: Prevalence of colic was 21.77% in this infant population of District Mansehra. Except for birth order, no other variable was significantly associated with infantile colic. (author)

  10. [Birth weight distribution among premature infants and related social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-jun; Ye, Rong-wei; Wang, Gui-xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-wen; Ren, Ai-guo

    2009-12-01

    To understand the distribution of birth weight among premature infants and the associated social factors. The study population consisted of 97 537 women who delivered singleton live birth of 20 to 41 gestational weeks in 4 counties/cities, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China from 1995 to 2000. Chi-square test was employed to test the difference of proportions between respective groups. One- way ANOVA was used to test the differences regarding the mean of gestational weeks at the first prenatal visit and the mean of prenatal visits between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors associated with premature birth. Women aged 35 years had higher (8.8%) premature incidence than those aged less than 24 years (5.6%), 25 - 29 years (4.6%), or 30 - 34 years (4.5%, P premature incidence than those with height taller than 150 cm (5.0%). Women whose BMI were at least 28 and 24 - 28 had higher (5.5%, 5.5%) premature incidences than those whose BMI were 18.5 - 24.0 (5.0%), premature birth was 6.0% among women without previous pregnancy, higher than that among those women with 4 times of pregnancies (5.7%), 2 times of pregnancies (4.3%), and 3 times of pregnancies (4.0%). Parous women with at least two deliveries had higher (9.3%) premature incidence than the primiparous women (5.2%) and whose women with only one delivery (4.5%, P premature incidence than those who did not receive the service (6.1%). The mean times of prenatal visits among women with premature births was 8.53, less than that of those with full term delivery (10.97). Women with less than four times of prenatal visit had higher (18.9%) premature incidence than those with at least five prenatal visits (4.9%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that premature delivery risk was associated with age, height, BMI, gravidity, parity, early prenatal care, the mean of gestational weeks at first prenatal visit and the mean number of prenatal visits etc. Premature delivery

  11. Factors associated with not breastfeeding exclusively among mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sarnia; Williams, Maynard; Tukuitonga, Colin; Paterson, Janis

    2004-06-04

    This study investigated the association between not breastfeeding exclusively (among mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants in New Zealand) and several maternal, sociodemographic, and infant care factors. The data were gathered as part of the Pacific Islands Families (PIF) Study. Infant feeding information was obtained through interviews with mothers (6 weeks post-birth) and from hospital records for 1247 of the 1365 biological mothers. Factors significantly associated with not exclusively breastfeeding at hospital discharge included smoking, unemployment prior to pregnancy, years in New Zealand, not seeing a midwife during pregnancy, caesarean delivery, and twin birth status. Factors significantly associated with cessation (before 6 weeks post-birth) of exclusive breastfeeding (for mothers who initially breastfed exclusively) included smoking, employment prior to pregnancy, being in current employment, high parity, dummy use, not receiving a visit from Plunket, infant not discharged at the same time as the mother, infant not sharing the same room as the parent(s) at night, regular childcare, and having a home visit for the infant from a traditional healer. Aside from smoking, different factors were associated with initiation and maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding. Identification of risk factors should assist targeting women who are at heightened risk of not breastfeeding exclusively.

  12. The Association between Infants' Attention Control and Social Inhibition Is Moderated by Genetic and Environmental Risk for Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2011-01-01

    Infant social inhibition is associated with increased risk for anxiety later in life. Although both genetic and environmental factors are associated with anxiety, little empirical work has addressed how developing regulatory abilities work with genetic and environmental risk to exacerbate or mitigate problem behaviors. The current study was aimed…

  13. Can very early music interventions promote at-risk infants' development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtala, Paula; Partanen, Eino

    2018-04-30

    Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development. Children born very preterm, in turn, have an increased likelihood of sensory, cognitive, and motor deficits. To ameliorate these deficits, we have developed early interventions focusing on music. Preliminary results of our ongoing longitudinal studies suggest that music making and parental singing promote infants' early language development and auditory neural processing. Together with previous findings in the field, the present studies highlight the role of active, social music making in supporting auditory and language development in at-risk children and infants. Once completed, the studies will illuminate both risk and protective factors in development and offer a comprehensive model of understanding the promises of music activities in promoting positive developmental outcomes during the first years of life. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Mother-infant interaction in schizophrenia: transmitting risk or resilience? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; Harder, Susanne; MacBeth, Angus; Lundy, Jenna-Marie; Gumley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The parent-infant relationship is an important context for identifying very early risk and resilience factors and targets for the development of preventative interventions. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies investigating the early caregiver-infant relationship and attachment in offspring of parents with schizophrenia. We searched computerized databases for relevant articles investigating the relationship between early caregiver-infant relationship and outcomes for offspring of a caregiver with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Studies were assessed for risk of bias. We identified 27 studies derived from 10 cohorts, comprising 208 women diagnosed with schizophrenia, 71 with other psychoses, 203 women with depression, 59 women with mania/bipolar disorder, 40 with personality disorder, 8 with unspecified mental disorders and 119 non-psychiatric controls. There was some evidence to support disturbances in maternal behaviour amongst those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and there was more limited evidence of disturbances in infant behaviour and mutuality of interaction. Further research should investigate both sources of resilience and risk in the development of offspring of parents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychosis. Given the lack of specificity observed in this review, these studies should also include maternal affective disorders including depressive and bipolar disorders.

  15. Prevalence, etiological factors and the treatment of infant exogenous obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Edio Luiz Petroski; Ludmila Dalben Soares

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of excessive weight gain during childhood, due to the fact that the development of fat tissue in this period is a determinant of adult body composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of infant obesity, to identify possible etiological factors, and to highlight treatments that have been used to reduce and/or prevent child obesity. Results have shown that obesity has increased more than an...

  16. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  17. Paternal perception of infant sleep risks and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Heather M; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) results in 3400 sleep-related deaths yearly in the United States, yet caregivers' compliance with safe sleep recommendations remains less than optimal. Paternal caregiver's attitudes toward infant safe sleep messages are largely unaddressed, despite established differences between female and male caregiver perceptions. This study aimed to explore the determinants of safe sleep practices among male caregivers. Focus groups were conducted in Arkansas with male caregivers of infants ages 2-12 months to discuss infant sleep routines, parental roles, sources for safe sleep information, and messaging suggestions for safe sleep promotion. The Health Belief Model of behavior change framed a moderator guide. Transcript-based analysis was used, and data were managed using HyperRESEARCH (version 2.8.3). The transcribed data were coded to identify significant themes. Ten focus groups were conducted with 46 participants. Inconsistent adherence to safe sleep practices was reported. Participants were more likely to describe safe location (57% of participants) and supine position behaviors (42%) than an uncluttered bed environment (26%). Caregivers acknowledged the importance of recommended safe sleep behavior, but admitted to unsafe practices, such as co-sleeping and unsafe daytime sleep. Lack of perceived risk, comfort, and/or resources, and disagreement among family members about safety practices were identified as barriers. Participants voiced concerns that current advertising portrays males as incompetent caregivers. Suggestions included portraying positive images of fathers and male caregivers acting to promote safety and the incorporation of statistics about the hazards of unsafe sleep to better engage fathers. Potential distribution venues included sporting events, home improvement and/or automotive stores, and social media from trusted sites (e.g. hospitals or medical professionals). Male caregivers demonstrate some knowledge base

  18. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima; Maria Amélia Sayeg Campos Porto; Arnaldo Prata Barbosa; Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetri...

  19. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  20. [Recurrent wheezing: prevalence and associated factors in infants from Buenos Aires City, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulman, Gabriela Aída; Freilij, Héctor; Behrends, Ilse; Gentile, Ángela; Mallol, Javier

    The episodes of bronchial obstruction at early age constitute a frequent problem in Pediatrics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of recurrent wheezing in infants in Buenos Aires City, as well as to identify any associated factors. Cross-sectional study performed from 2011 to 2012 in the Children Hospital Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires City, as part of the International Study of Wheezing in Infants. A validated questionnaire was applied to parents of infants aged between 12 and 15 months. The prevalence of wheezing, mostly the recurrent episodes (three or more), and their probable associated factors were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed with χ 2 , Fisher's test, binary and logistics multiple regression analysis. The significance level was 0.05. Over 1063 infants, 58.9% (confidence interval (CI) 95% 55.9-61.9) presented at least one episode of wheezing and 26.3% (CI95% 23.8-29.9) three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Risk factors associated to wheezing were male gender (p=0.001), six or more episodes of cold during the first year of life (p Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal drug use: evaluation of risks to breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirksey, A; Groziak, S M

    1984-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of the literature, evaluates the risks to infants of maternal drug use during lactation. The potential harm of a particular drug to the breastfed infant is related both to the complex mechanism of milk synthesis and secretion and the mode of passage of the drug from plasma into milk. The 1st part of the paper discusses mammary cell and milk synthesis, milk secretion and composition, the mode of passage of drugs into milk, and factors influencing drug concentrations in milk. Drug concentrations in milk are dependent on 6 major factors: drug dosage, proportion bound in plasma, molecular weight, lipid solubility, degree of ionization, and pH difference between plasma and milk. Drugs that are weak acids are ionized to a greater extent and are more protein-bound than weak alkaline drugs. The 2nd part of the paper evaluates the risks to breastfed infants of selected pharmacons. Some categories of drugs that contain pharmacons that should be limited or avoided by nursing mothers are alkylating agents, analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, anti-infective agents, central nervous system stimulants, hormones, laxatives, minerals, provitamins, psychotherapeutic agents, thyroid affecting agents, and vitamins. The following precautions are suggested to minimize the risks of potentially harmful pharmacons: 1) all unnecessary medications should be avoided by nrusing mothers; 2) if medication is necessary during lactation, drug dosage should be controlled and the infant should be monitored for adverse symptoms; 3) drugs should be administered shortly after breastfeeding and the interval prolonged before the next feeding; and 4) if the infant must be fed soon after a potentially harmful drug has been taken by the mother, bottle feeding is recommended.

  2. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  3. Weight change between successive pregnancies and risks of stillbirth and infant mortality: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnattingius, Sven; Villamor, Eduardo

    2016-02-06

    Maternal overweight and obesity are risk factors for stillbirth and infant mortality. Whether temporal changes in maternal weight affect these risks is not clear. We aimed to assess whether change of BMI between first and second pregnancies affects risks of stillbirth and infant mortality in the second-born offspring. In a Swedish population-based cohort of women who gave birth to their first and second child between Jan 1, 1992, and Dec 31, 2012, we investigated associations between change in maternal body-mass index (BMI) during early pregnancy from first to second pregnancies and risks of stillbirth and neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality after the second pregnancy. Relative risks (RRs) for each outcome according to BMI change categories were calculated with binomial regression. Complete information was available for 456,711 (77.7%) of 587,710 women who had their first and second single births in the study period. Compared with women with a stable BMI (change between -1 kg/m(2) and Karolinska Institutet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk Factors in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

  5. Atypical Cry Acoustics in 6-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Iverson, Jana M.; Rinaldi, Melissa L.; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in acoustic characteristics of infant cries in a sample of babies at risk for autism and a low-risk comparison group. Cry samples derived from vocal recordings of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 21) and low-risk infants (n = 18) were subjected to acoustic analyses using analysis software designed for this purpose. Cries were categorized as either pain-related or non-pain-related based on videotape coding. At-risk infants produ...

  6. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  7. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  8. Perinatal risk factors and social withdrawal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Cote, Sylvana J; Larroque, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to assess prevalence of social withdrawal behaviour in infants aged 12 months included in the French Perinatal Risk Factor Study Eden; (2) To study the correlation between relational withdrawal and several perinatal and parental factors assessed in the EDEN study. A longitudinal study using the ADBB scale was conducted within the Eden Cohort in the year 2008. 1,586 infants were included in the study. Fourteen percent of the children who had an ADBB assessment had a score at 5 and over on the ADBB, a scale designed to assess social withdrawal behaviour at age 0-24 months. Social withdrawal at 12 months was associated with low birth weight, low gestational age and with intra uterine growth retardation. Social withdrawal was independently associated with several maternal and paternal risk factors. The level of social withdrawal behaviour increased with a score of maternal difficulties. This study on a large longitudinally followed volunteer sample demonstrate a clear association of social withdrawal behaviour at age one with low birth weight and preterm birth, possibly mediated by parental vulnerabilities. Social withdrawal behaviour seems to be an important alarm signal to detect early on particularly in premature and small for date babies. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  9. The Effect of Parenting Style on Social Smiling in Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Colleen M.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Nguyen, Thanh P.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how parenting style at 9 months predicts growth in infant social engagement (i.e., social smiling) between 9 and 18 months during a free-play interaction in infants at high (HR-infants) and low (LR-infants) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that across all infants, higher levels of maternal…

  10. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  11. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still ... it. Treatment can delay complications that increase the risk of stroke. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Seek help. ...

  12. Growth pattern in Ethiopian infants - the impact of exposure to maternal HIV infection in relation to socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Walles, John; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Winqvist, Niclas; Björkman, Per

    2017-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions. Anthropometric and socio-economic data were collected retrospectively from PMTCT registers (for HIV-EU infants), with HIV-U controls recruited at measles vaccination at public health facilities in Ethiopia. Growth was compared with regard to HIV exposure and socio-economic variables in multivariate regression analysis. The following growth measurements were found for 302 HIV-EU and 358 HIV-U infants at 9-12 months of age, respectively: mean weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) 0.04 and -0.21, p growth and higher mean WAZ than HIV-U controls. Poor growth development was associated with socio-economic factors. This suggests health benefits from PMTCT participation for infant growth. Similar interventions could be considered for Ethiopian infants, irrespective of HIV exposure, with a particular focus on children with poor socio-economic status.

  13. Factors associated with the time to the first wheezing episode in infants: a cross-sectional study from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Gonzalez, Rosa M; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L P; Perez-Fernandez, Virginia; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2016-01-21

    Male gender, asthmatic heredity, perinatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory infections have been associated with wheeze in the first years of life, among other risk factors. However, information about what factors modify the time to the first episode of wheeze in infants is lacking. The present study analyses which factors are associated with shorter time to the first episode of wheeze in infants. Parents of 11- to 24-month-old children were surveyed when attending their health-care centres for a control visit. They answered a questionnaire including the age in months when a first wheeze episode (if any) had occurred (outcome variable). The study was performed in 14 centres in Latin America (LA) and in 8 centres in Europe (EU) (at least 1,000 infants per centre). Factors known to be associated with wheezing in the cohort were included in a survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). Summary hazard ratios adjusted for all risk factors (aHR) were calculated using the meta-analysis approach with random effects. A total of 15,067 infants had experienced wheezing at least once, out of 35,049 surveyed. Male gender in LA (aHR 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.10, P=0.047), parental asthma in LA and EU (aHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.11, P=0.037), infant eczema in EU (aHR 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.39, Passociated with a shorter period of time to the first episode. Breast feeding for at least 3 months was associated with a longer period, only in LA (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.96, Passociation.

  14. Vacuum assisted birth and risk for cerebral complications in term newborn infants: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on cerebral complications among newborn infants delivered by vacuum extraction (VE). The aim of this study was to determine the risk for intracranial haemorrhage and/or cerebral dysfunction in newborn infants delivered by VE and to compare this risk with that after cesarean section in labour (CS) and spontaneous vaginal delivery, respectively. Methods Data was obtained from Swedish national registers. In a population-based cohort from 1999 to 2010 including all singleton newborn infants delivered at term after onset of labour by VE (n = 87,150), CS (75,216) or spontaneous vaginal delivery (n = 851,347), we compared the odds for neonatal intracranial haemorrhage, traumatic or non-traumatic, convulsions or encephalopathy. Logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted (for major risk factors and indication) odds ratios (AOR), using spontaneous vaginal delivery as reference group. Results The rates of traumatic and non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhages were 0.8/10,000 and 3.8/1,000. VE deliveries provided 58% and 31.5% of the traumatic and non-traumatic cases, giving a ten-fold risk [AOR 10.05 (4.67-21.65)] and double risk [AOR 2.23 (1.57-3.16)], respectively. High birth weight and short mother were associated with the highest risks. Infants delivered by CS had no increased risk for intracranial hemorrhages. The risks for convulsions or encephalopathy were similar among infants delivered by VE and CS, exceeding the OR after non-assisted spontaneous vaginal delivery by two-to-three times. Conclusion Vacuum assisted delivery is associated with increased risk for neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. Although causality could not be established in this observational study, it is important to be aware of the increased risk of intracranial hemorrhages in VE deliveries, particularly in short women and large infants. The results warrant further studies in decision making and conduct of assisted vaginal delivery. PMID:24444326

  15. Quality-Improvement Effort to Reduce Hypothermia Among High-Risk Infants on a Mother-Infant Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine; Whatley, Colleen; Smith, Meaghan; Brayton, Emily Caron; Simone, Suzanne; Holmes, Alison Volpe

    2018-02-14

    Neonatal hypothermia is common in low birth weight (LBW) (preventive measures for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit. We conducted plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles aimed at decreasing environmental hypothermia for LPIs and/or LBW infants in a mother-infant unit with no other indications for NICU-level care. Interventions included using warm towels after delivery, a risk identification card, an occlusive hat, delayed timing of first bath, submersion instead of sponge-bathing, and conducting all assessments under a radiant warmer during the initial hours of life. We implemented these interventions in 3 PDSA cycles and followed hypothermia rates by using statistical process control methods. The baseline mean monthly hypothermia rate among mother-infant unit LPIs and/or LBW infants was 29.8%. Postintervention, the rate fell to 13.3% (-16.5%; P = .002). This decrease occurred in a stepwise fashion in conjunction with the PDSA cycles. In the final, full-intervention period, the rate was 10.0% (-19.8%; P = .0003). A special-cause signal shift was observed in this final period. Targeted interventions can significantly reduce hypothermia in otherwise healthy LPIs and/or LBW newborns and allow them to safely remain in a mother-infant unit. If applied broadly, such preventive practices could decrease preventable hypothermia in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Fracture Risk and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, Christian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-05-25

    As the population ages, diseases of the elderly are becoming more common, including osteoporosis. Ways to assess the risk of fracture and the distribution and effects of known risk factors for osteoporosis will be important in planning for future healthcare needs, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. The study population included 6029 men and women aged 20-90 who underwent examination in the second follow-up wave of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or in the basal SHIP-Trend Study. The risk of fracture was estimated on the basis of quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneus. Prior fractures and risk factors for osteoporosis were ascertained in standardized interviews. 4.6% of the male subjects and 10.6% of the female subjects were judged to have an elevated risk of fracture. The corresponding percentages among subjects over age 65 were 8.8% for men and 28.2% for women. Even among subjects under age 55, risk factors for osteoporosis were associated with lower bone stiffness: the mean stiffness index was 103/98 (men/women) without risk factors, 99/96 with one risk factor, and 93/95 with more than one risk factor. Logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-2.50; p<0.01) for prevalent fractures among subjects aged 75 and older compared to subjects under age 55. The data indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis from age 65 onward. These findings are consistent with those of other studies from Germany and across Europe. Younger men and women should already begin taking steps to counteract modifiable risk factors.

  17. Optimal breastfeeding durations for HIV-exposed infants: the impact of maternal ART use, infant mortality and replacement feeding risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Divya; MacLean, Rachel L; Shapiro, Roger; Dabis, Francois; Engelsmann, Barbara; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Leroy, Valeriane; Lockman, Shahin; Walensky, Rochelle; Rollins, Nigel; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. We defined "optimal" breastfeeding durations as those maximizing 24-month HFS. We varied maternal ART duration, mortality rates among breastfed infants/children, and relative risk of mortality associated with replacement feeding ("RRRF"), modelled as a multiplier on all-cause mortality for replacement-fed infants/children (range: 1 [no additional risk] to 6). The base-case simulated RRRF = 3, median infant mortality, and 24-month maternal ART duration. In the base-case, HFS ranged from 83.1% (no breastfeeding) to 90.2% (12-months breastfeeding). Optimal breastfeeding durations increased with higher RRRF values and longer maternal ART durations, but did not change substantially with variation in infant mortality rates. Optimal breastfeeding durations often exceeded the previous WHO recommendation of 12 months. In settings with high RRRF and long maternal ART durations, HFS is maximized when mothers breastfeed longer than the previously-recommended 12 months. In settings with low RRRF or short maternal ART durations, shorter breastfeeding durations optimize HFS. If mothers are supported to use ART for longer periods of time, it is possible to reduce transmission risks and gain the benefits of longer breastfeeding durations. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  18. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  19. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  20. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-12-08

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater

  1. The Impact of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on the Risk of Strabismus among Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shilpa; Andrews, Chris A.; Apkarian, Alexandra O.; Musch, David C.; Lee, Paul P.; Stein, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Strabismus causes irreversible vision loss if not detected and treated early. It is unclear whether birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) are risk factors for strabismus. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of BW and GA on the likelihood of developing strabismus among premature infants. DESIGN In this longitudinal cohort analysis, we followed a group of premature children from birth to determine the proportion which developed strabismus and the timing of first strabismus diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression analyses assessed the relationships of BW and GA and the development of strabismus. Regression models were adjusted for other known risk factors for strabismus, sociodemographic factors, and ocular comorbidities. SETTING Communities throughout the United States PARTICIPANTS 38055 otherwise healthy children born prematurely who were enrolled for >6 months in a nationwide US managed care network between 2001–2011. EXPOSURE BW strabismus with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) RESULTS Of 38055 otherwise healthy children who were born prematurely, 587 were diagnosed with strabismus later in life. Cumulative incidence of strabismus was 3.0% at 5 years. Controlling for GA and other factors, infants born with BW strabismus. Controlling for BW and other covariates, there was no significant association between strabismus and GA (HR=0.98, [CI, 0.69–1.38]). Among premature infants with BW strabismus relative to those born after 32 weeks (HR=1.27, [CI, 0.86–1.88]). In contrast, among those with GA ≤32 weeks, BW strabismus relative to BW >2000g (HR=14.4, [CI 1.99–104]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Independent of GA, very low BW conferred a large increase in strabismus risk among premature infants. In contrast, independent of BW, GA did not significantly impact the risk of strabismus. Updates to existing guidelines in the pediatric and ophthalmic literature should be considered, highlighting the importance of BW rather than GA and alerting clinicians about

  2. Fatores determinantes do crescimento infantil Determinant factors of infant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation

  3. Risk status for dropping out of developmental followup for very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlett, A T; Thompson, R J; Johndrow, D A; Boshkoff, M R

    1993-01-01

    Not keeping scheduled visits for medical care is a major health care issue. Little research has addressed how the interaction of demographic and biomedical parameters with psychosocial processes has an impact on appointment keeping. Typical factors are stress of daily living, methods of coping, social support, and instrumental support (that is, tangible assistance). In this study, the authors examine the role of these parameters and processes in the risk status for dropping out of a developmental followup program for very low birth weight infants. The findings suggest that the stress of daily living is a significant predictor for the mother's return when the infant is 6 months of age (corrected for prematurity). The predictors for return at 24 months corrected age include marital status, race, gestational age of the infant, maternal intelligence, and efficacy expectations. Providing transportation was found to be a successful intervention strategy for a subgroup at very high risk for dropping out due to a constellation of biomedical, demographic, and psychosocial factors.

  4. Is ambient temperature associated with risk of infant mortality? A multi-city study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-10-01

    Although numerous studies have shown increased risk of mortality from elevated temperatures for adults, limited studies have examined temperature's effect on mortality for infants. Our study investigated the city-specific and overall effects of ambient temperature on infant mortality in seven major cities in Korea, 2004-2007. Birth cohort using a linked birth and death records included 777,570 births with 557 all-cause deaths. We estimated city-specific hazard ratios for each city using an extended Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. Then we combined city-specific hazard ratios to generate overall hazard ratio across the seven cities using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Stratified analyses were conducted by cause of death (total and SIDS), exposure period (whole gestation, each trimester, lifetime, 1 month before death, and 2 weeks before death), sex, and maternal characteristics. Overall across the cities, we found significantly positive associations between ambient temperature during 1 month before death or 2 weeks before death and infant mortality from total or SIDS. The overall hazard ratio of infant mortality from total deaths and SIDS for a 1°C increase during 1 month before death was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.57) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.35-1.66), respectively. We also found suggestive evidence that some factors such as mother's age may modify the association. Our findings have implications for establishment of policy to reduce the risk of infant mortality from high ambient temperature under climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  6. Study of mother-infant attachment patterns and influence factors in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2012-05-01

    In contrast to the considerable volume of international research on infant attachment development, significantly less research has been conducted in China. The present study was designed to identify the patterns of mother-infant attachment in Shanghai and to explore the influence factors. The subjects included 160 healthy infant-mother dyads. Infant attachment and temperament were assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure and Carey's temperament questionnaire, respectively; the mother's personality, maternal sensitivity and marital satisfaction were assessed with Eysenck's personality questionnaire, Maternal Behavior Q-sort Manual Version 3.1 and Olson's marital questionnaire, respectively. A self-formulated questionnaire of family environment factors was completed by the infant's mother. Of the 160 infants, 68.2% were rated as securely attached (B) and 31.8% as insecurely attached. Of those infants rated as insecurely attached, 7.5% were characterized as avoidant (A), 21.8% as resistant (C) and 2.5% as disorganized (D). Maternal sensitivity and marital satisfaction as well as the approachability dimension of infant temperament, were significantly different between securely attached infants and insecurely attached infants. From a temperament perspective, resistant infants showed higher-level intensity of reaction than avoidant infants. Moreover, multiple caregivers in the family and infant's sleeping with other caregivers at night were more likely to be associated with insecure mother-infant attachment. There exist certain cultural characteristics in mother-infant attachment patterns in Shanghai. The influence factors are related with the high involvement of non-mother caregivers as well as maternal sensitivity, marital satisfaction and infant's temperament characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing Multiple Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lollis, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    ...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...

  8. Smoking in pregnancy a key factor for sudden infant death among Māori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, M; Mitchell, E A; Thompson, J M D; Lawton, B; Zuccollo, J; Elder, D; Taylor, B; McDonald, G; Stewart, A W; Percival, T; Baker, N; Schlaud, M; Fleming, P

    2018-06-05

    To examine the Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) disparity between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand. A nationwide prospective case-control study ran from March 2012-February 2015. Exposure to established SUDI risk factors was analysed to investigate the disparity experienced by Māori. Infant ethnicity was based on mother's ethnicity. Māori ethnicity was prioritised. Non-Māori includes Pacific, Asian, NZ European and Other. There were 137 cases and 649 controls. The Māori SUDI rate was 1.41/1,000 live births compared to 0.53/1,000 for non-Māori. Parents/caregivers of 133 cases (97%) and 258 controls (40%) were interviewed. Smoking in pregnancy was associated with an equally-increased SUDI risk for Māori (adjusted OR=8.11, 95%CI=2.64, 24.93) and non-Māori (aOR=5.09, 95% CI=1.79, 14.47), as was bed-sharing (aOR=3.66, 95% CI=1.49, 9.00 versus aOR=11.20, 95% CI=3.46, 36.29). Bed-sharing prevalence was similar, however more Māori controls smoked during pregnancy (46.7%) than non-Māori (22.8%). The main contributor relating to increased SUDI risk for Māori/non-Māori infants is the combination of smoking in pregnancy and bed-sharing. The association between known SUDI risk factors, including bed-sharing and/or smoking in pregnancy and SUDI risk, is the same regardless of ethnicity. Māori infants are exposed more frequently to both behaviours because of the higher Māori smoking rate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatores de risco para mortalidade infantil em município do Nordeste do Brasil: linkage entre bancos de dados de nascidos vivos e óbitos infantis - 2000 a 2002 Risk factors for infant mortality in a city of northeastern Brazil: linkage between live birth and infant death databases - 2000 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Ferreira da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar fatores de risco para a morte de crianças menores de um ano de idade, do município de Maracanaú, Estado do Ceará, entre os anos de 2000 e 2002, através de linkage das informações do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos e Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade. MÉTODOS: Coorte retrospectiva de 11.127 nascimentos vivos com declaração de nascido vivo preenchida, ocorridos entre 01/01/2000 e 31/12/2002 e 119 óbitos infantis relacionados a essa coorte de nascidos vivos, com declaração de óbito ou instrumento de investigação de óbito infantil preenchidos, ocorridos entre 01/01/2000 e 31/12/2003. Os fatores de risco para a mortalidade infantil foram estimados utilizando-se as análises bivariada e multivariada através da regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas odds ratio (OR estatisticamente significativas para nascidos vivos com baixo peso ao nascer (OR=3,16; IC95% 1,58-6,35, nascidos vivos prematuros (OR=2,70 ; IC95% 1,25-5,86, nascidos vivos de mães com consultas pré-natal igual ou menores a 6 (OR=2,05; IC95% 1,15-3,64 e nascidos vivos cujo escore de Apgar no primeiro (OR=4,40 IC95% 2,48-7,81 e quinto (OR=5,5; IC95% 2,75-11,20 minutos de vida foram inferiores a sete. CONCLUSÕES: Esse estudo possibilitou o uso das bases de dados de nascimentos e óbitos, sugerindo a vigilância contínua e oferta de assistência adequada ao subgrupo de recém-nascidos com maior risco de morte e a garantia de assistência pré-natal de qualidade.OBJECTIVE: to analyze risk factors for the death of children at one year of age in the town of Maracanaú, in the State of Ceará, between the year 2000 and 2002, through the linkage of information of the System of Information on Live Births and the Mortality System of Information. METHODS: retrospective cohort of 11,127 live births with certificate of born-alive filled out and occurred between 01/01/2000 and 31/01/2002 and 119 infant deaths linked to this cohort

  10. Parent-Child Interaction Synchrony for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W; Smith, Amanda; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated interactions between parents and 12-month-old infants at high (HR-SIBS; n = 27) and low (LR-SIBS; n = 14) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The contributions of parental variables, as well as child's autism symptom severity and verbal skills, to the parent interaction style were examined. Parents of HR-SIBS exhibited a higher level of synchronous-demanding behaviors, which was associated with parental report of atypical mood in the infant, but not with autism symptom severity, verbal skills, or parental depressive symptoms. These preliminary findings suggest a need for further investigation into HR-SIBS' emotional development and parental perception of that development, as these factors may shape parent-child interaction and influence the effectiveness of parent-assisted early intervention programs.

  11. Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-11-01

    Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective.

  12. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  13. Nosocomial pertussis infection of infants: still a risk in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jennifer M; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2010-12-01

    The Sydney West Centre for Population Health investigated a confirmed pertussis infection in a health care worker on a maternity ward and identified pertussis infection in 4 neonates cared for by this case. This report describes the public health intervention to identify and prevent further cases. Of the 4 neonates, three were laboratory-confirmed cases and one was diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. All were cared for by the infected worker during only one shift and developed symptoms six to 16 days afterwards. No other possible source of infection was identified. This investigation highlights the need to maintain awareness, particularly amongst staff working with neonates, that pertussis infection can arise despite complete vaccination. Thus it is important to investigate new coughing illnesses and exclude symptomatic staff from contact with neonates until pertussis infection is excluded or effectively treated. The burden on the health system arising from a pertussis infection in a health care worker in a high-risk setting is also described with the hospitalisation of 4 infants, and prophylactic antibiotics given to 73 new mothers, infants and health care workers.

  14. Communicating with parents of high-risk infants in neonatal intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Wendy; Ross, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Good communication between parents and staff about the likely outcome of high-risk infants is essential to ensure parents’ full involvement in decision-making. The present paper discusses the literature on this topic to explore the best practices for professionals communicating with parents of high-risk infants.

  15. Communicating with parents of high-risk infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wendy; Ross, Sue

    2006-05-01

    Good communication between parents and staff about the likely outcome of high-risk infants is essential to ensure parents' full involvement in decision-making. The present paper discusses the literature on this topic to explore the best practices for professionals communicating with parents of high-risk infants.

  16. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark....... DESIGN: A retrospective, register-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. METHODS: The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration...

  17. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  18. Newborn hearing screening program: association between hearing loss and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Priscila Karla Santana; Martins, Adriana de Souza; Vieira, Márcia Ribeiro; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: hearing loss in newborns. Aim: to verify the prevalence of auditory alterations in newborns of Hospital São Paulo (hospital), observing if there are any correlations with the following variables: birth weight, gestational age, relation weight/gestational age and risk factors for hearing loss. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 1696 newborns; 648 records of preterm infants and 1048 records of infants born at term. All of the infants had been submitted to an...

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  20. Household chaos, sociodemographic risk, coparenting, and parent-infant relations during infants' first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Corey J; Teti, Douglas M; Crosby, Brian; Kim, Bo-Ram

    2015-04-01

    Household chaos is a construct often overlooked in studies of human development, despite its theoretical links with the integrity of individual well-being, family processes, and child development. The present longitudinal study examined relations between household chaos and well-established correlates of chaos (sociodemographic risk, major life events, and personal distress) and several constructs that, to date, are theoretically linked with chaos but never before assessed as correlates (quality of coparenting and emotional availability with infants at bedtime). In addressing this aim, we introduce a new measure of household chaos (the Descriptive In-home Survey of Chaos--Observer ReporteD, or DISCORD), wholly reliant on independent observer report, which draws from household chaos theory and prior empirical work but extends the measurement of chaos to include information about families' compliance with a home visiting protocol. Household chaos was significantly associated with socioeconomic risk, negative life events, less favorable coparenting, and less emotionally available bedtime parenting, but not with personal distress. These findings emphasize the need to examine household chaos as a direct and indirect influence on child and family outcomes, as a moderator of intervention attempts to improving parenting and child development, and as a target of intervention in its own right. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  2. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 in preterm infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Mori, Masaaki; Nishimaki, Shigeru; An, Hiromi; Naruto, Takuya; Sugai, Toshiyuki; Shima, Yoshio; Seki, Kazuo; Yokota, Shumpei

    2010-04-01

    It is clear that inflammation plays an important role in developing chronic lung disease in preterm infants. The purpose of the present study is to investigate changes of serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 levels over time in infants with chronic lung disease. The serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 were measured after delivery, and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of age in 10 infants with chronic lung disease and in 18 infants without chronic lung disease. The serum level of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 was significantly higher in infants with chronic lung disease than in infants without chronic lung disease after delivery. The differences between these two groups remained up to 28 days of age. Prenatal inflammation with persistence into postnatal inflammation may be involved in the onset of chronic lung disease.

  3. The Development of Coordinated Communication in Infants at Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parladé, Meaghan V.; Iverson, Jana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which developmental change in coordination of social communication in early infancy differentiates children eventually diagnosed with ASD from those not likely to develop the disorder. A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 9 infants at heightened risk for ASD (HR) later diagnosed with ASD, to 13 HR infants with language delay, 28 HR infants with no diagnosis, and 30 low risk infants. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that ASD infants exhibited significantly slower growth in coordinations overall and in gestures coordinated with vocalizations, even relative to HR infants with language delay. Disruption in the development of gesture-vocalization coordinations may result in negative cascading effects that negatively impact later social and linguistic development. PMID:25689930

  4. The effect of sociodemographic factors on infant mortality according to cause of death: a birth cohort in Seoul, Korea, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status and demographic factors on infant mortality, classified by cause of death, in a group of children born in Seoul, Korea during 1999-2003. Linked infant birth and death data were collected from the Korea National Statistical Office. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors on infant mortality. The results were adjusted to take into account the infants' length of gestation and birth weight. Infant death rates from all causes tended to decrease as the parents' educational level increased. We observed a similar pattern for deaths from other specific causes. We also found higher mortality rates for mothers less than 20 years of age and over 35. Our analysis shows that socioeconomic and demographic factors affect infant mortality. In the case of postneonatal infant death, we confirmed that adequate follow-up care can reduce the risks of death from these acquired factors. This suggests that these are important factors to consider in reducing infant mortality.

  5. Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelo, María Del Carmen Suárez; Movilla-Fernández, María Jesús; Pita-García, Paula; Novío, Silvia

    2018-04-22

    The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women ( n = 297) were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain). Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75), which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.841, CI 95% = 0.735⁻0.948), showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy.

  6. Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Suárez Cotelo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women (n = 297 were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain. Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75, which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve = 0.841, CI95% = 0.735–0.948, showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy.

  7. Exclusively breastfed overweight infants are at the same risk of childhood overweight as formula fed overweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Willik, E.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Altenburg, T.M.; Gademan, M.G.J.; van Holthe, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Several early life determinants play a role in childhood obesity. Rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy increases the risk while breast feeding seems to protect against childhood overweight. However, should we worry about exclusively breastfed overweight infants? The

  8. Variations in infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation programmes across Europe and factors influencing adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Uday

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional rickets is a growing global public health concern despite existing prevention programmes and health policies. We aimed to compare infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation policies, implementation strategies and practices across Europe and explore factors influencing adherence. Methods: European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Bone and Growth Plate Working Group members and other specialists completed a questionnaire on country-specific vitamin D supplementation policy and child health care programmes, socioeconomic factors, policy implementation strategies and adherence. Factors influencing adherence were assessed using Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient. Results: Responses were received from 29 of 30 European countries (97%. Ninety-six per cent had national policies for infant vitamin D supplementation. Supplements are commenced on day 1–5 in 48% (14/29 of countries, day 6–21 in 48% (14/29; only the UK (1/29 starts supplements at 6 months. Duration of supplementation varied widely (6 months to lifelong in at-risk populations. Good (≥80% of infants, moderate (50–79% and low adherence (<50% to supplements was reported by 59% (17/29, 31% (9/29 and 10% (3/29 of countries, respectively. UK reported lowest adherence (5–20%. Factors significantly associated with good adherence were universal supplementation independent of feeding mode (P = 0.007, providing information at neonatal unit (NNU discharge (P = 0.02, financial family support (P = 0.005; monitoring adherence at surveillance visits (P = 0.001 and the total number of factors adopted (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Good adherence to supplementation is a multi-task operation that works best when parents are informed at birth, all babies are supplemented, and adherence monitoring is incorporated into child health surveillance visits. Implementation strategies matter for delivering efficient prevention policies.

  9. Factores de riesgo para el desarrollo psicomotor en lactantes nacidos en óptimas condiciones biológicas Risk factors for psychomotor development among infants born under optimal biological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidora de Andraca

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVO: Evaluar el efecto de factores de riesgo para el desarrollo infantil en niños, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, nacidos en óptimas condiciones biológicas pero expuestos a condiciones sociales adversas. METODOLOGÍA: Lactantes de ambos sexos em número de 788, fueron exhaustivamente estudiados en términos de: alimentación, crecimiento, ambiente físico y psicosocial. Se controlaron prospectivamente hasta los 12 meses de edad, momento en que se evaluó el desarrollo mental (MDI y motor (PDI a través de la escala de Bayley. A partir de las variables medidas se identificó 18 factores de riesgo, los que fueron dicotomizados (bajo y alto riesgo. RESULTADOS: Lactancia materna, temperamento del niño, inteligencia materna y estimulación en el hogar se asocian consistentemente con MDI y PDI. Luego de ajustar por covariables, la estimulación en el hogar persiste como factor significativo en la explicación de la variabilidad del MDI y PDI, en tanto que el sexo del niño se consolida como factor condicionante del desarrollo motor. El efecto acumulado de 7 o más factores de riesgo se asocia con una disminución significativa de los puntajes de desarrollo. La combinación de categorías de riesgo de temperamento infantil, inteligencia materna, rol del padre y estimulación en el hogar alcanza mejor predicción del desarrollo infantil que otras combinaciones puestas a prueba en este estudio. CONCLUSIONE: Se concluye que, aún en niños biológicamente indemnes, el desarrollo psicomotor se afecta negativamente ante la presencia de condiciones ambientales adversas que actúan simultáneamente.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito dos fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento infantil em crianças de n��vel socioeconômico baixo, nascidos em ótimas condições biológicas, mas expostos a condições sociais adversas. METODOLOGIA: Lactentes dos dois sexos, no total de 788, foram exaustivamente estudados quanto a alimentação, crescimento, ambiente f

  10. Atypical cry acoustics in 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Iverson, Jana M; Rinaldi, Melissa L; Lester, Barry M

    2012-10-01

    This study examined differences in acoustic characteristics of infant cries in a sample of babies at risk for autism and a low-risk comparison group. Cry samples derived from vocal recordings of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 21) and low-risk infants (n = 18) were subjected to acoustic analyses using analysis software designed for this purpose. Cries were categorized as either pain-related or non-pain-related based on videotape coding. At-risk infants produced pain-related cries with higher and more variable fundamental frequency (F (0) ) than low-risk infants. At-risk infants later classified with ASD at 36 months had among the highest F (0) values for both types of cries and produced cries that were more poorly phonated than those of nonautistic infants, reflecting cries that were less likely to be produced in a voiced mode. These results provide preliminary evidence that disruptions in cry acoustics may be part of an atypical vocal signature of autism in early life. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Risk profiles of infants ≥32 weeks' gestational age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference with the nutritional requirements of infants may cause negative ... central nervous system impairments, neurodevelopmental delay and syndromes affecting craniofacial ..... Dysphagia: Clinical Management in Adults and. Children.

  12. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these ... with age, gender or haematological test. ... A meta-analysis of prospective studies on ..... The marked difference may be because monthly .... and dyslipidemia among patients taking first-line,.

  13. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Angeles Cerezo; Purificación Sierra-García; Gemma Pons-Salvador; Rosa M. Trenado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each gro...

  14. Reduced occurrence of early atopic dermatitis because of immunoactive prebiotics among low-atopy-risk infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grueber, Christoph; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Mosca, Fabio; Moro, Guido; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Wahn, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most infants developing atopic dermatitis have a low risk for atopy. Primary prevention of atopic dermatitis is difficult. Objective: To assess the effect of supplementation of an infant and follow-on formula with prebiotic and immunoactive oligosaccharides on the occurrence of atopic

  15. Pivotal Response Treatment for Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Amanda Mossman; Gengoux, Grace W.; Klin, Ami; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was…

  16. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting poses risk for infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M; Su, Jinni; Calkins, Susan D; O'Brien, Marion; Supple, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    The extent to which indices of maternal physiological arousal (skin conductance augmentation) and regulation (vagal withdrawal) while parenting predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems directly or indirectly via maternal sensitivity was examined in a sample of 259 mothers and their infants. Two covariates, maternal self-reported emotional risk and Adult Attachment Interview attachment coherence were assessed prenatally. Mothers' physiological arousal and regulation were measured during parenting tasks when infants were 6 months old. Maternal sensitivity was observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were 6 and 14 months old, and an average sensitivity score was calculated. Attachment disorganization was observed during the Strange Situation when infants were 14 months old, and mothers reported on infants' behavior problems when infants were 27 months old. Over and above covariates, mothers' arousal and regulation while parenting interacted to predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems such that maternal arousal was associated with higher attachment disorganization and behavior problems when maternal regulation was low but not when maternal regulation was high. This effect was direct and not explained by maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting places infants at risk for psychopathology.

  18. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11 No. 2. Dysphagia in children is ever-increasing, mostly due to the improved survival rate of infants and children with life-threatening ... infants presented with feeding difficulties secondary to other conditions such as LBW and prematurity, ... or under-nutrition, severe irritability during feeding, history of ..... Learning, 2001.

  19. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role.

  20. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  1. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, Camila de Andrade [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Stein, Airton Tetelbom [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupo Hospitalar Conceição (GHC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%), which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  2. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Andrade Brum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. Objective: To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. Methods: This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Results: Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%, which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. Conclusion: It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  3. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brum, Camila de Andrade; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%), which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality

  4. Growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high vs. low risk for abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapala, Matthew A.; Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Growth recovery lines, also known as growth arrest lines, are transverse radiodense metaphyseal bands that develop due to a temporary arrest of endochondral ossification caused by local or systemic insults. To determine if growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high risk versus low risk for abuse. Reports of American College of Radiology compliant skeletal surveys (1999-2013) were reviewed with clinical records. Infants at low risk for abuse had a skull fracture without significant intracranial injury, history of a fall and clinical determination of low risk (child protection team/social work assessment). Infants at high risk had significant intracranial injury, retinal hemorrhages, other skeletal injuries and clinical determination of high risk. There were 52 low-risk infants (mean: 4.7 months, range: 0.4-12 months) and 21 high-risk infants (mean: 4.2 months, range: 0.8-9.1 months). Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the skeletal survey radiographs of the knees/lower legs for the presence of at least one growth recovery line. When growth recovery lines are scored as probably present or definitely present, their prevalence in the low-risk group was 38% (standard deviation [SD] = 8%; reader 1 = 17/52, reader 2 = 23/52) vs. 71% (SD = 7%; reader 1 = 16/21, reader 2 = 14/21) in the high-risk group (P < 0.001; odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI: 1.7-9.5). Growth recovery lines are encountered at a significantly higher rate in infants at high risk vs. low risk for abuse. This suggests that abused infants are prone to a temporary disturbance in endochondral ossification as a result of episodic physiological stresses. (orig.)

  5. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  6. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific

  7. The effects of parenting interventions for at-risk parents with infants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe Lynne Boe; Rasmussen, Ida Scheel; Klest, Sihu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically...... review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent–child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0–12 months. Design This is a systematic review and meta-analyses. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016......, and supplemented with grey literature and hand search. We assessed risk of bias, calculated effect sizes and conducted meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria (1) Randomised controlled trials of structured psychosocial interventions offered to at-risk families with infants aged 0–12 months in Western Organisation...

  8. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  9. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent-Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Sierra-García, Purificación; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant's gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent's gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more "active" than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving 'in-out' of 'Child Social Approach neutral - Sensitive Approach neutral' state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state 'Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral' distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers) based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26) of the father-infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26) of the mother-infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and quantifies the actual moment-to-moment flow

  10. Fatores de risco e proteção à infecção respiratória aguda em lactentes Factores de riesgo y protección de la infección respiratoria aguda en lactantes Risk and protective factors of acute respiratory infections in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Cachulo Lopes

    2009-12-01

    embarazo (n=42, y el tercero la recibía en el posparto inmediato (n=45. Las infecciones presumiblemente causadas por el pneumococo en los lactantes fueron acompañadas a los tres y seis meses de vida y colectadas muestras de nasofaringe. Fueron investigados factores de riesgo como: fumadores en el domicilio, otros niños en el domicilio y amamantamiento materno exclusivo. RESULTADOS: La vacuna pneumocóccica polisacarídica no mostró protección contra infecciones causadas por pneumococo. Sin embargo, el amamantamiento materno exclusivo hasta los seis meses protegió los lactantes contra las infecciones respiratorias (OR=7,331. La colonización de la nasofaringe por pneumococo a los tres o seis meses aumentó la probabilidad de infecciones respiratorias (OR=2,792. CONCLUSIONES: Lactantes amamantados exclusivamente con leche materna hasta los seis meses son significativamente protegidos contra infecciones por pneumococos, independientemente de la vacunación pneumocóccica.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of maternal pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the risk and protective factors for acute respiratory infections in infants. METHODS: Nested cross-sectional study of a clinical trial evaluating children of 139 women selected in a public prenatal care unit in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from 2005 to 2006. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: non-immunized (n=46; immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in the last trimester of pregnancy (n=42; and immunized with the vaccine immediately after childbirth (n=45. Infants were followed up for infections presumably caused by pneumococcus at the age of three and six months and nasopharyngeal samples were collected. Risk factors such as smokers living in the same household, siblings and exclusive maternal breastfeeding were investigated. RESULTS: The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine did not provide protection against pneumococcus infections. However, exclusive maternal

  11. The effect of hypo-allergenic formulas in infants at risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Jacobsen, H P; Høst, A

    1995-01-01

    to tobacco smoke is found to be associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing/asthma and inhalant allergy. In infants with atopic predisposition (first-degree relatives), exclusively breastfeeding > or = four months is found associated with a significant reduction of the cumulative prevalence...... of cow's milk. Some high risk infants may benefit from maternal diet during lactation, but there is no documented beneficial effect of maternal diet during pregnancy....

  12. Place of Residence Moderates the Risk of Infant Death in Kenya: Evidence from the Most Recent Census 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gruebner

    Full Text Available Substantial progress has been made in reducing childhood mortality worldwide from 1990-2015 (Millennium Development Goal, target 4. Achieving target goals on this however remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya's infant mortality rates are higher than the global average and are more pronounced in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Only limited knowledge exists about the differences in individual level risk factors for infant death among rural, non-slum urban, and slum areas in Kenya. Therefore, this paper aims at 1 assess individual and socio-ecological risk factors for infant death in Kenya, and at 2 identify whether living in rural, non-slum urban, or slum areas moderated individual or socio-ecological risk factors for infant death in Kenya.We used a cross-sectional study design based on the most recent Kenya Population and Housing Census of 2009 and extracted the records of all females who had their last child born in 12 months preceding the survey (N = 1,120,960. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify risk factors that accounted for the risk of dying before the age of one at the individual level in Kenya. Place of residence (rural, non-slum urban, slum was used as an interaction term to account for moderating effects in individual and socio-ecological risk factors.Individual characteristics of mothers and children (older age, less previously born children that died, better education, girl infants and household contexts (better structural quality of housing, improved water and sanitation, married household head were associated with lower risk for infant death in Kenya. Living in non-slum urban areas was associated with significantly lower infant death as compared to living in rural or slum areas, when all predictors were held at their reference levels. Moreover, place of residence was significantly moderating individual level predictors: As compared to rural areas, living in urban areas was a protective factor

  13. Risk Factors Correlated with Incidence of Low Birth Weight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjas Dwi Purwanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The infant with Low Birth Weight (LBW was one of the risk factors that contributed to the high infant mortality, especially in the neonatal period. About 17% from 25 millions birth each year in the world are infant with LBW. LBW could be caused by multifactor that were maternal factors (maternal age, birth interval, parity, anemia, social-economic and behaviour, fetus factor, placental factor, and environmental factor. The research aims was to analyze the risk factors correlated with incidence of LBW. This research was an observational  research with case-control design. The number of samples in this research were 120 mothers who delivered in working area of RSIA Kendangsari in 2014. The subjects were selected used systematic random method. The independent variabels in this research were maternal age, education level, employment status, birth interval, parity, age pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension, and anemia, while the dependent variable in this research was LBW. Based on correlation analysis used Chi-square test showed there were not significant correlation (p>0,05 between birth interval and parity with LBW cases and there were significant correlations (p<0,05 between age pregnancy, hypertension during pregnancy and anemia with LBW cases. Odds Ratio (OR were 13,571 on age pregnancy, 2,224 on multiple pregnancy,2,753 on hypertension and 4,030 on anemia. The conlusion showed that the risk factors of LBW cases were age pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension and anemia. While maternal age, education level, employment status, birth intervaland parity were not had any correlation with LBW cases. Keywords: LBW, risk factors, babies, maternal, pregnancy

  14. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  15. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The economics of screening infants at risk of hearing impairment: an international analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Martyn J; Shenton, Ruth C; Taylor, Matthew J

    2012-02-01

    Hearing impairment in children across the world constitutes a particularly serious obstacle to their optimal development and education, including language acquisition. Around 0.5-6 in every 1000 neonates and infants have congenital or early childhood onset sensorineural deafness or severe-to-profound hearing impairment, with significant consequences. Therefore, early detection is a vitally important element in providing appropriate support for deaf and hearing-impaired babies that will help them enjoy equal opportunities in society alongside all other children. This analysis estimates the costs and effectiveness of various interventions to screen infants at risk of hearing impairment. The economic analysis used a decision tree approach to determine the cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening strategies. Two unique models were built to capture different strategic screening decisions. Firstly, the cost-effectiveness of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) was compared to selective screening of newborns with risk factors. Secondly, the cost-effectiveness of providing a one-stage screening process vs. a two-stage screening process was investigated. Two countries, the United Kingdom and India, were used as case studies to illustrate the likely cost outcomes associated with the various strategies to diagnose hearing loss in infants. In the UK, the universal strategy incurs a further cost of approximately £2.3 million but detected an extra 63 cases. An incremental cost per case detected of £36,181 was estimated. The estimated economic burden was substantially higher in India when adopting a universal strategy due to the higher baseline prevalence of hearing loss. The one-stage screening strategy accumulated an additional 13,480 and 13,432 extra cases of false-positives, in the UK and India respectively when compared to a two-stage screening strategy. This represented increased costs by approximately £1.3 million and INR 34.6 million. The cost

  17. The Effect of Parenting Style on Social Smiling in Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Colleen M; Ibañez, Lisa V; Nguyen, Thanh P; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L

    2016-07-01

    This study examined how parenting style at 9 months predicts growth in infant social engagement (i.e., social smiling) between 9 and 18 months during a free-play interaction in infants at high (HR-infants) and low (LR-infants) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that across all infants, higher levels of maternal responsiveness were concurrently associated with higher levels of social smiling, while higher levels of maternal directiveness predicted slower growth in social smiling. When accounting for maternal directiveness, which was higher in mothers of HR-infants, HR-infants exhibited greater growth in social smiling than LR-infants. Overall, each parenting style appears to make a unique contribution to the development of social engagement in infants at high- and low-risk for ASD.

  18. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-01-01

    Background Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6–23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administere...

  19. Motion Tracking of Infants in Risk of Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard

    Every year 2-3 out of 1000 infants are born with cerebral cerebral palsy. Among others, the disorder often affects motor, cognitive and perceptual skills. The disorder is usually detected when the infants are old enough the crawl and walk, i.e. when the infant is 1-2 years old. However, studies...... show that the infant’s movements are affected already in the first year of life and methods exist for assessing the movements. The methods often require observation of the movements and qualitative evaluation of these. A more objective measure is desired in order to be able to diagnose cerebral palsy...... for automatic assessment of infant movement. This includes a preliminary study on automatic classification of movements related to cerebral palsy. The contributions included in this thesis can be divided into two groups. The first two contributions consider the analysis in order to estimate and track the body...

  20. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors; risk estimationwas based on the odds ratio (95% confidence interval; a bi-variantmultivariate regression logistic analysis was applied to variables forp < 0.1. Results: Of 818 babies born during the studied period, 94(11% had jaundice prior to hospital discharge. Phototherapy was usedon 69 (73% patients. Predictive factors for severity were multiparity;prolonged rupture of membranes, dystocia, cephalohematoma, a lowApgar score, prematurity and small-for-date babies. Following birth,breastfeeding, sepsis, Rh incompatibility, and jaundice presentingbefore the third day of life were associated with an increased risk ofhyperbilirubinemia and the need for therapy. Conclusion: Other thanthose characteristics that are singly associated with phototherapy,we concluded that multiparity, presumed neonatal asphyxia, low birthweight and infection are the main predictive factors leading to moderateand severe jaundice in newborn infants in our neonatal unit.

  1. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles Cerezo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent’s gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more “active” than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving ‘in–out’ of ‘Child Social Approach neutral – Sensitive Approach neutral’ state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state ‘Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral’ distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26 of the father–infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26 of the mother–infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and

  2. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  3. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  4. Factors Associated with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Adriana; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Yu, Qilu; Cohen, Rachel A; Almeida, Volia C; Amaral, Fabiana R; Freimanis, Laura; Harris, Donald Robert; Smith, Christiana; Siberry, George

    2018-06-01

    To identify factors that predispose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization, and death in the first 6-24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries (LILAC) studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months, matched by date and place of birth. Infants and mothers had plasma antibodies measured against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (PIV) 1, 2, 3, influenza, and pneumococcus 1, 5, 6B, and 14. Compared with LRTI-, mothers of LRTI+ HEUs had lower years of education, lower CD4 + cells, and higher HIV plasma viral load at delivery, but similar use of antiretrovirals and cotrimoxazole and other sociodemographic characteristics. LRTI+ and LRTI- HEUs had similar demographic and hematological characteristics and antibody concentrations against respiratory pathogens at birth. At 6 months, the rates of seroconversions to respiratory pathogens and antibody responses to tetanus vaccine were also similar. However, antibody concentrations to RSV were significantly higher in LRTI+ compared with LRTI- HEUs and marginally higher to PIV1. Maternal factors associated with advanced HIV disease, but unrelated to the use of antiretrovirals, cotrimoxazole, or the level of maternal antibodies against respiratory pathogens, contribute to the increased risk of LRTI in HEUs. In HEUs, antiretroviral and cotrimoxazole use, exposure to respiratory pathogens and humoral immune responses were not associated with the incidence of LRTI.

  5. Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants: a prospective observational study in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-11-01

    The WHO (2001) recommends exclusive breast-feeding and delaying the introduction of solid foods to an infant\\'s diet until 6 months postpartum. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice. Therefore, this prospective, observational study aimed to assess compliance with the WHO recommendation and examine weaning practices, including the timing of weaning of infants, and to investigate the factors that predict weaning at ≤ 12 weeks. From an initial sample of 539 pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, 401 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data were obtained on mothers\\' weaning practices using semi-structured questionnaires and a short dietary history of the infant\\'s usual diet at 6 months. Only one mother (0.2%) complied with the WHO recommendation to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months. Ninety-one (22.6%) infants were prematurely weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks with predictive factors after adjustment, including mothers\\' antenatal reporting that infants should be weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks, formula feeding at 12 weeks and mothers\\' reporting of the maternal grandmother as the principal source of advice on infant feeding. Mothers who weaned their infants at ≤ 12 weeks were more likely to engage in other sub-optimal weaning practices, including the addition of non-recommended condiments to their infants\\' foods. Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices.

  6. Effects of maternal absence due to employment on the quality of infant-mother attachment in a low-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barglow, P; Vaughn, B E; Molitor, N

    1987-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that day-care experience initiated prior to 12 months of age is associated with increased proportions of infants whose attachment to mother is classified as "insecure-avoidant." However, reviewers have questioned the generality of these findings, noting that samples in which associations between early day-care experience and avoidant attachment patterns have been reported come from high-risk populations, and/or that the infants' day-care settings may not have been of high quality. In the present study, effects of maternal absences on infant-mother attachment quality were assessed in a low-risk, middle-class sample (N = 110). In all instances, substitute care had been initiated at least 4 months prior to the infant's first birthday and was provided in the infant's home by a person unrelated to the baby. Infants were assessed using the Ainsworth Strange Situation when they were 12-13 months of age. Analyses indicated that a significantly greater proportion of infants whose mothers worked outside the home (N = 54) were assigned to the category "insecure-avoidant" as compared to infants whose mothers remained in the home (N = 56) throughout the first year of life. Analyses of demographic and psychological data available for the sample indicated that this relation is dependent upon maternal parity (primi- vs. multiparous mother). The association between attachment quality and work status was significant only for firstborn children of full-time working mothers. The results are interpreted as evidence that the repeated daily separations experienced by infants whose mothers are working full-time constitute a "risk" factor for the development of "insecure-avoidant" infant-mother attachments.

  7. Development of a screening MRI for infants at risk for abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flom, Lynda; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fromkin, Janet [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Neurosurgery, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berger, Rachel P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of morbidity in infants. Identifying which well-appearing infants are at risk for AHT and need neuroimaging is challenging, and concern about radiation exposure limits the use of head CT. Availability of an MRI protocol that is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage would allow for AHT screening of well-appearing infants without exposing them to radiation. To develop a screening MRI protocol to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants at risk for AHT. Infants enrolled in a parent study of well-appearing infants at increased risk for AHT were eligible for the current study if they underwent both head CT and conventional brain MRI. A derivation cohort of nine infants with AHT was used to identify sequences that provided the highest sensitivity for intracranial hemorrhage. A validation cohort of 78 infants including both controls with normal neuroimaging and cases with AHT was used to evaluate the accuracy of the selected sequences. Three pulse sequences - axial T2, axial gradient recalled echo (GRE) and coronal T1-W inversion recovery - were 100% sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage in the derivation cohort. The same sequences were 100% sensitive (25/25) and 83% specific (44/53) for intracranial hemorrhage in the validation cohort. A screening MRI protocol including axial T2, axial GRE and coronal T1-W inversion recovery sequences is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage and may be useful as a screening tool to differentiate well-appearing infants at risk for AHT who should undergo head CT from those who can safely be discharged without head CT. Additional research is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in clinical practice. (orig.)

  8. Risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural......-born children, we observed 1193 cases of isolated CHC (0.062/1000) born children. First-borns had an increased risk of isolated CHC compared to later-borns (1.32 95% CI 1.17 to 1.49) (0.72/1000 born children). First trimester exposure to maternal use of antidepressants was associated with a significantly...

  9. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Righi

    Full Text Available In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants. In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD (based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not at 6- and 12-months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds. We found that by 12-months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by 12-months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD. These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life.

  10. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Giulia; Tierney, Adrienne L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants. In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD (based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not) at 6- and 12-months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds. We found that by 12-months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by 12-months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD. These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life.

  11. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  12. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  13. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  14. Perinatal factors and type 1 diabetes-associated dysbiosis in Mexican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-León, María Esther; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is currently an autoimmune disease occurring more frequently and early in life. T1D development requires genetic predisposition and environmental factors, which influence the gut microbiota in early infancy and could increase the risk for T1D-associated autoimmunity. In Mexico there are no published microbiota studies in children <6 years old with T1D. We report two contrasting Mexican T1D cases of children <6 years of age and a third case of a healthy child prior to autoimmunity and T1D onset. Perinatal factors, feeding regimes in the first year of life and gut microbiota composition are discussed and related to the T1D onset. The three cases show a particular microbiota profile with decreased bacterial diversity as compared with healthy children, which could be related to environmental factors prior to the development of T1D and disease control. T1D infant cases presented a decreased bacterial diversity, which appeared before autoimmunity and T1D onset. Glycemic control could tend to correct the gut dysbiosis in T1D children. Prospective studies are needed to follow-up healthy children at high genetic risk to assess factors related to the microbiota structure. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  16. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  17. Back to Sleep: Reduce the Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) [and] Questions and Answers for Professionals on Infant Sleeping Position and SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC. Maternal and Child Health Bureau.

    The "Back to Sleep" public health campaign, which recommends that infants be placed on their backs for sleeping help reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), was initiated in 1994. The campaign was led by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and co-sponsored by the U.S. Public Health Service, the…

  18. Spontaneous initiation of communication in infants at low and heightened risk for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Breanna M; Wozniak, Robert H; Parladé, Meaghan V; Iverson, Jana M

    2013-10-01

    Communication spontaneously initiated by infants at heightened risk (HR; n = 15) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is compared with that in low-risk (LR; n = 15) infants at 13 and 18 months of age. Infants were observed longitudinally during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with caregivers. At both ages, HR infants spontaneously produced Words, Communicative Non-Word Vocalizations, show and point Gestures, and Gesture + Non-Word Vocalization combinations at lower rates than LR peers. This difference also held for Gesture + Word combinations at 18 but not 13 months. At 36 months, all HR children were evaluated for ASD, and 3 received a diagnosis of autistic disorder. At both 13 and 18 months, these 3 children had been at or near the bottom of the distribution on all spontaneous communication variables.

  19. Correlative factors for the location of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Feng, Rui-Ling; Jiang, Lan; Ren, Hong-Bo; Li, Qi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to analyze factors related to the location of tracheobronchial foreign bodies in infants and children, and provide help in the assessment of the disease, surgical risk and prognosis. The clinical data of 1,060 pediatric patients with tracheobronchial foreign bodies diagnosed from January 2015 to December 2015 were retrospectively studied, the association of the location of the foreign bodies with age, gender, granulation formation, chest computed tomography and 3D reconstruction results, preoperative complications, operation time, and hospital stay was analyzed. The location of foreign bodies was not correlated with age, gender, operation time and length of hospital stay, but was correlated to granulation formation, chest computed tomography and 3D reconstruction results, and preoperative complications. The location of foreign bodies was correlated to granulation formation, the location of foreign bodies displayed by chest computed tomography, and preoperative complications.

  20. Can a Risk Factor Based Approach Safely Reduce Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Friddle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current American retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening guidelines is imprecise for infants ≥ 30 weeks with birth weights between 1500 and 2000 g. Our objective was to evaluate a risk factor based approach for screening premature infants at low risk for severe ROP. Study Design. We performed a 13-year review from Intermountain Health Care (IHC data. All neonates born at ≤32 weeks were reviewed to determine ROP screening and/or development of severe ROP. Severe ROP was defined by stage ≥ 3 or need for laser therapy. Regression analysis was used to identify significant risk factors for severe ROP. Results. We identified 4607 neonates ≤ 32 weeks gestation. Following exclusion for death, with no retinal exam or incomplete data, 2791 (61% were included in the study. Overall, severe ROP occurred in 260 (9.3%, but only 11/1601 ≥ 29 weeks (0.7%. All infants with severe ROP ≥ 29 weeks had at least 2 identified ROP risk factors. Implementation of this risk based screening strategy to the IHC population over the timeline of this study would have eliminated screening in 21% (343/1601 of the screened population. Conclusions. Limiting ROP screening for infants ≥ 29 and ≤ 32 weeks to only those with clinical risk factors could significantly reduce screening exams while identifying all infants with severe ROP.

  1. Infections in infants during the first 12 months of life: role of placental malaria and environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Le Port

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between placental malaria (PM and first peripheral parasitaemias in early infancy was assessed in Tori Bossito, a rural area of Benin with a careful attention on transmission factors at an individual level. METHODOLOGY: Statistical analysis was performed on 550 infants followed weekly from birth to 12 months. Malaria transmission was assessed by anopheles human landing catches every 6 weeks in 36 sampling houses and season defined by rainfall. Each child was located by GPS and assigned to the closest anopheles sampling house. Data were analysed by survival Cox models, stratified on the possession of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs at enrolment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among infants sleeping in a house with an ITN, PM was found to be highly associated to first malaria infections, after adjusting on season, number of anopheles, antenatal care (ANC visits and maternal severe anaemia. Infants born from a malaria infected placenta had a 2.13 fold increased risk to present a first malaria infection than those born from a non infected placenta ([1.24-3.67], p<0.01 when sleeping in a house with an ITN. The risk to present a first malaria infection was increased by 3.2 to 6.5, according to the level of anopheles exposure (moderate or high levels, compared to the absence of anopheles. CONCLUSIONS: First malaria infections in early childhood can be attributed simultaneously to both PM and high levels of exposure to infected anopheles. Protective measures as Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy (IPTp and ITNs, targeted on both mothers and infants should be reinforced, as well as the research on new drugs and insecticides. In parallel, investigations on placental malaria have to be strengthened to better understand the mechanisms involved, and thus to protect adequately the infants high risk group.

  2. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24–36 weeks. Results Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached at different PMAs for different GA groups, but preterm infants were able to initiate breastfeeding at early times, with some delay in infants less than GA 32 weeks. Very preterm infants had lowest mean PMA (35.5 weeks) at first complete breastfeed, and moderate preterm infants had lowest mean PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding (36.4 weeks). Admitting mothers to the NICU together with the infant and minimising the use of a pacifier during breastfeeding transition were associated with 1.6 (95% CI 0.4–2.8) and 1.2 days (95% CI 0.1–2.3) earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding respectively. Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1–7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting mothers together with their infants to the NICU and minimising the use of pacifiers may contribute to earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:25251690

  3. Increased Cytomegalovirus Secretion and Risks of Infant Infection by Breastfeeding Duration From Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Compared to Negative Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musonda, Kunda G; Nyonda, Mary; Filteau, Suzanne; Kasonka, Lackson; Monze, Mwaka; Gompels, Ursula A

    2016-06-01

    Breastfeeding imparts beneficial immune protection and nutrition to infants for healthy growth, but it is also a route for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. In previous studies, we showed that HCMV adversely affects infant development in Africa, particularly with maternal HIV exposure. In this study, we analyzed infants risks for acquisition of HCMV infection from breastfeeding and compared HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. Two cohorts were studied in Zambia. (1) Two hundred sixty-one HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers were compared for HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) loads and genotypes (glycoprotein gO) in milk from birth to 4 months postpartum. (2) Maternally HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants were compared for HCMV infection risk factors. The second cohort of 460 infants, from a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary-food to breastfeeding, were studied between 6 and 18 months of age. Human cytomegalovirus seroprevalence was assayed, and logistic regression was used to calculate risk factors for HCMV infection, including maternal HIV exposure and breastfeeding duration. Human cytomegalovirus was detected in breast milk from 3 days to 4 months postpartum, with significantly raised levels in HIV-positive women and independent of genotype. In infants, HCMV antibody seroprevalence was 83% by 18 months age. Longer breastfeeding duration increased infection risk in maternally HIV-unexposed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.69 for 18 months vs 6 months vs never; 95% CI, 3.71-111.70; P breastfeeding, which is common in Africa, increased risk of HCMV infection in infants. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had extended milk HCMV secretion. Women who were HIV-positive secreted higher HCMV levels, and for longer duration, with their children at increased infection risk. Human cytomegalovirus control is required to maintain health benefits of breastfeeding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  4. Atypical Hemispheric Specialization for Faces in Infants At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehn, Brandon; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimaging findings from typically developing infants and children have demonstrated that the right hemisphere becomes specialized for processing faces. Face processing impairments and atypical hemispheric specialization have previously been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of this study was to examine the emergence of the right-lateralized face processing network in infants at high-risk for autism (HRA; defined as having an older sibling with ASD) and low-risk comparison (LRC) infants, defined as having no family history of ASD. To investigate the earliest appearance of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence (a measure of intra-hemispheric connectivity) to faces during the first year of life. Forty-nine HRA and 46 LRC infants contributed a total of 127 data sets at 6- and/or 12-months. EEG was recorded while infants viewed pictures of either their mother or a stranger. Event-related gamma-band (30-50Hz) phase coherence between anterior-posterior regions for left and right hemispheres was computed. HRA infants showed an aberrant pattern of leftward lateralization of intra-hemispheric coherence by the end of the first year of life, suggesting that the network specialized for face processing may develop atypically in these infants. Further, infants with the greatest leftward asymmetry at 12-months were those that later met diagnostic criteria for ASD, providing support to the growing body of evidence that atypical hemispheric specialization may be an early neurobiological marker for ASD. Among the many experimental findings that tend to distinguish those with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are face processing deficits, reduced hemispheric specialization, and atypical neurostructural and functional connectivity. To investigate the earliest manifestations of these features, we examined lateralization of event-related gamma-band coherence to faces during the first

  5. Identification of pain indicators for infants at risk for neurological impairment: A Delphi consensus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camfield Carol

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of infant pain measures have been developed over the past 15 years incorporating behavioural and physiologic indicators; however, no reliable or valid measure exists for infants who are at risk for neurological impairments (NI. The objective of this study was to establish consensus about which behavioural, physiologic and contextual indicators best characterize pain in infants at high, moderate and low levels of risk for NI. Methods A 39- item, self-administered electronic survey that included infant physiologic, behavioral and contextual pain indicators was used in a two round Delphi consensus exercise. Fourteen pediatric pain experts were polled individually and anonymously on the importance and usefulness of the pain indicators for the 3 differing levels of risk for NI. Results The strength of agreement between expert raters was moderate in Round 1 and fair in Round 2. In general, pain indicators with the highest concordance for all three groups were brow bulge, facial grimace, eye squeeze, and inconsolability. Increased heart rate from baseline in the moderate and severe groups demonstrated high concordance. In the severe risk group, fluctuations in heart rate and reduced oxygen saturation were also highly rated. Conclusion These data constitute the first step in contributing to the development and validation of a pain measure for infants at risk for NI. In future research, we will integrate these findings with the opinions of (a health care providers about the importance and usefulness of infant pain indicators and (b the pain responses of infants at mild, moderate and high risk for NI.

  6. Nutritional factors and visual function in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, V C; Northrop-Clewes, C A; Tubman, R; Thurnham, D I

    2001-05-01

    Approximately 5-7% of all infants are born prematurely, and birth before 37 weeks is the most common cause of neonatal mortality, morbidity and long-term disability. Premature infants are poorly equipped for life outside the womb, and oxidant stress has been implicated in the aetiology of visual impairment in these infants, who are often exposed to increased O2 concentrations and high light intensity in neonatal units. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which give the macular area of the eye its yellow colour, are located in the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye, and are believed to play a role in protecting it against oxidative and light damage. The macular pigments are of dietary origin, and green leafy vegetables are the primary source of lutein and zeaxanthin. Lutein is one of the five most common carotenoids found in the diet. There is current interest in the macular pigment in relation to age-related macular degeneration, but these pigments may also have a protective role in the retinal pigment epithelium of the newborn infant. Little information is available on blood lutein and zeaxanthin levels in neonates. Levels of lutein in human milk are two to three times higher than those of beta-carotene, whereas their concentrations in the mothers' blood are approximately the same. Human milk is the main dietary source of lutein and zeaxanthin for infants until weaning occurs. The biochemical mechanisms which mediate the transport of the macular carotenoids into the eye are not known, but tubulin has been identified as the major carotenoid-binding protein, and may play a role in the physiology of the macula.

  7. Newborn infant characteristics and risk of future rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders J; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Houen, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The twin-control study design provides an opportunity to investigate the significance of potential prenatal determinants for adult morbidity by accounting for maternal characteristics and early environmental...... for developing RA as first born twin was 2.33 (95 % CI 0.97-5.60) when adjusting for birth length, birth weight, and sex, irrespective of ACPA status. In this twin-control study, birth weight was not associated with the development of RA in adult life. Being born first may predispose to RA....

  8. Development and Application of a Probabilistic Risk-Benefit Assessment Model for Infant Feeding Integrating Microbiological, Nutritional, and Chemical Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Géraldine; Cummins, Enda; Guillou, Sandrine; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-12-01

    A probabilistic and interdisciplinary risk-benefit assessment (RBA) model integrating microbiological, nutritional, and chemical components was developed for infant milk, with the objective of predicting the health impact of different scenarios of consumption. Infant feeding is a particular concern of interest in RBA as breast milk and powder infant formula have both been associated with risks and benefits related to chemicals, bacteria, and nutrients, hence the model considers these three facets. Cronobacter sakazakii, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were three risk/benefit factors selected as key issues in microbiology, chemistry, and nutrition, respectively. The present model was probabilistic with variability and uncertainty separated using a second-order Monte Carlo simulation process. In this study, advantages and limitations of undertaking probabilistic and interdisciplinary RBA are discussed. In particular, the probabilistic technique was found to be powerful in dealing with missing data and to translate assumptions into quantitative inputs while taking uncertainty into account. In addition, separation of variability and uncertainty strengthened the interpretation of the model outputs by enabling better consideration and distinction of natural heterogeneity from lack of knowledge. Interdisciplinary RBA is necessary to give more structured conclusions and avoid contradictory messages to policymakers and also to consumers, leading to more decisive food recommendations. This assessment provides a conceptual development of the RBA methodology and is a robust basis on which to build upon. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Association of Age With Risk of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Preterm Infants With Chronic Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Almut G; Choi, Yoonyoung; Meissner, H Cody

    2018-02-01

    It is unknown whether the age threshold (≤24 months) for preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) to receive immunoprophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as currently recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines correctly identified infants at higher risk for hospitalization for RSV. To determine the age when the risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD becomes equivalent to the risk for healthy, 1-month-old term infants who do not qualify for immunoprophylaxis. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 1 018 593 healthy term infants and 5181 preterm infants with CLD using Medicaid billing records (Medicaid Analytic eXtract files) from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2010, linked to Florida and Texas birth and death certificates. Age-trend discrete time logistic regression models within a survival analysis framework were developed, adjusting for covariates including the use of immunoprophylaxis, to compare the risk of hospitalization of preterm infants (CLD at 3 through 34 months of age with the risk of hospitalization of term infants (37-41 weeks' gestational age) at 1 month of age. Age at which risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD equals the risk for healthy term infants at age 1 month. The study cohort included 1 018 593 healthy term infants and 5181 preterm infants with CLD; because patients could reenter the cohort for a second or third season, the total study cohort consisted of 1 880 531 healthy term infant-seasons (926 206 girls and 954 325 boys; mean [SD] age at first season entry, 12.6 [9.6] months) and 8680 CLD infant-seasons (3519 girls and 5161 boys; mean [SD] age at first season entry, 15.1 [9.1] months). Among term infants with siblings, the risk of hospitalization for RSV averaged across all covariate strata was 9.0 (95% CI, 8.4-9.6) per 1000 patient season-months at 1 month of age. The risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD

  10. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated. Differences in mother-to-infant attachment (e.g. quality of attachment, absence of hostility, and pleasure in interaction) between mothers with and without symptoms of depression 6-8 months postpartum were analyzed in a low-risk community sample (n = 38, 19 per group). Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depressed mothers indicated mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology (mean BDI-II 11.26 ± 3.86) but did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode and, thus, were referred to as 'subclinically' depressed. Potential confounders, namely maternal history of own rearing experiences and infant temperament, were explored by multivariate AN(C)OVA. Primiparous mothers with subclinical depression differed significantly from healthy control mothers, i.e. showed poorer mother-to-infant attachment and higher infant-related hostility 6-8 months postpartum. As expected, infant temperament and mother's history of own rearing experiences were both associated with mother-to-infant attachment but did not explain the negative effects of subclinical depression on the mother-infant relationship. Given the high prevalence of maternal depression, the current findings give reason for increased concern for the developing mother

  11. Risk factors for tornado injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, M; Lybarger, J A; Parsons, J E; MacCormack, J N; Freeman, J I

    1990-12-01

    Tornadoes in North and South Carolina on 28 March 1984 caused 252 people to be injured seriously enough to require hospitalization and 59 to be killed. To evaluate risk factors, we gathered information on 238 (94%) of those hospitalized and 46 (78%) of those killed. Those hospitalized or deceased had statistically significantly more deep cuts, concussions, unconsciousness and broken bones than those with them at the time of the tornado who were not hospitalized or killed. People living in mobile homes were more likely to be hospitalized or die than people occupying conventional houses. Other risk factors for hospitalization or death included advanced age (60+ years), no physical protection (not having been covered with a blanket or other object), having been struck by broken window glass or other falling objects, home lifted off its foundation, collapsed ceiling or floor, or walls blown away. More awareness of the tornado risk before it strikes and better adherence to tornado protection guidelines could reduce injuries and deaths in the future.

  12. Progress on study of the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Cheng Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity(ROPis an ocular disease caused by retinal ophthalmic dysplasia in premature infants, leads to strabismus, amblyopia, cataract, glaucoma, and even blindness, which seriously affects the quality of life of preterm infants. The infant blindness ratio has climbed to 6%-18%, according to figures released by the World Health Organisation. ROP is the primary cause of blindness in children of the world in recent years. But the pathogenesis of ROP is not yet clear. Gestational age, birth weight, oxygen intake, delivery mode, multiple newborns, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, anemia, blood transfusion, sepsis, infection, hypercapnia, hyperbilirubinemia, maternal prenatal use of a drug are all the risk factors. We reviewed the risk factors and possible mechanism of ROP, in order to offer theoretical support for the study and prevention of ROP in premature infants.

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  14. Neurodevelopment in preterm infants with and without placenta-related intrauterine growth restriction and its relation to perinatal and postnatal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel-Pau, Júlia; Perapoch López, Josep; Castillo Salinas, Félix; Sánchez Garcia, Olga; Pérez Hoyos, Santiago; Llurba Olivé, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine-growth restriction is associated with impaired neurodevelopment. However, studies on early childhood neurodevelopment of premature infants with placenta-related intrauterine-growth restriction (IUGR) are scarce and heterogeneous. We aimed to analyze the impact of placenta-related IUGR on preschool age neurodevelopment in preterm infants, and to ascertain which prenatal and postnatal factors influence neurodevelopment in these infants. Prospective cohorts study: 48 placenta-related IUGR premature infants and 25 matched non-IUGR premature infants (mean gestational age: 31.4 and 31.6 weeks, respectively). Preschool neurodevelopment assessment with cognitive Bayley Scales III and with ASQ-III surveys (age interval: 34.07-42.50 months). Inter-cohort result comparison. Analysis of perinatal and environmental factors associated with impaired neurodevelopment in both cohorts. No statistically significant neurodevelopment differences were observed at preschool age between both preterm cohorts. Multivariate analysis of perinatal and environmental factors showed daycare, breastfeeding, higher parental educational level, and absence of severe neonatal morbidity to be associated with a lower risk of altered neurodevelopment at preschool age. Placenta-related IUGR does not have a significant impact on preschool neurodevelopment in our preterm patients. Instead, post-natal positive environmental factors such as parental educational level, breastfeeding, and daycare attendance make a difference towards an improvement in neurodevelopment in these infants.

  15. Prevalence, etiological factors and the treatment of infant exogenous obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of excessive weight gain during childhood, due to the fact that the development of fat tissue in this period is a determinant of adult body composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of infant obesity, to identify possible etiological factors, and to highlight treatments that have been used to reduce and/or prevent child obesity. Results have shown that obesity has increased more than any other nutritional problem in both developed and developing countries over the last decade. Etiological factors linked to childhood obesity were early weaning, introduction of inadequate nutrition, and physical inactivity. The treatment of childhood obesity requires a multidisciplinary team consisting of a doctor, nutritionist, psychologist, and physical educator. There are also some general recommendations to be followed: a balanced diet for adequate growth and weight control, and controlled physical exercise together with individual and family emotional support. Parental cooperation is important for the best results. Schools also have a fundamental role in teaching children positive attitudes and behavior towards physical activity and nutrition. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, o interesse sobre os efeitos do ganho de peso excessivo na infância tem aumentado consideravelmente, devido ao fato que o desenvolvimento da celularidade adiposa neste período ser determinante nos padrões de composição corporal de um indivíduo adulto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência da obesidade infantil, identificar os possíveis fatores etiológicos além de verifi car quais as intervenções que se destacaram nesta última década como forma de diminuir e/ou prevenir a obesidade em crianças. Os resultados encontrados foram que a obesidade é uma das enfermidades nutricionais que mais têm apresentado aumento de sua prevalência, tanto nos pa

  16. Risk factor management: antiatherogenic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Sandri, Marcus; Schuler, Gerhard; Teupser, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Despite the advances in interventional techniques, the management of stable atherosclerosis remains the domain of optimal guideline-oriented therapy. Recent studies on the effects of aggressive lipid lowering on atheroma volume changes using intravascular ultrasound indicate that it is possible to achieve atherosclerosis regression by reaching low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels less than 75 mg/dl. The pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular (CV) event observed with aggressive lipid lowering. As a second important strategy to prevent disease progression, lifestyle changes with regular physical exercise are capable of halting the atherosclerotic process and reducing angina symptoms and CV events. Optimal medical therapy, a healthy lifestyle with regular physical exercise, and coronary interventions are not mutually exclusive treatment strategies. Over the last few decades, both have proved to be effective in significantly reducing the CV mortality in the Western world. However, risk factor modification contributed to at least half the effect in the reduction of CV mortality. This figure provides an estimate of what could be achieved if we were to take risk factor modification more seriously - especially in the acute care setting. The knowledge is there: today we have a better understanding on how to stop progression and even induce regression of atherosclerosis. Much research still needs to be done and will be done. In the meantime, however, our primary focus should lie in implementing what is already known. In addition, it is essential not just to treat CV risk factors, but also to treat them to achieve the target values as set by the guidelines of European Society of Cardiology.

  17. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-I in preterm infants with chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Nishimaki, Shigeru; An, Hiromi; Shima, Yoshio; Naruto, Takuya; Sugai, Toshiyuki; Iwasaki, Shiho; Seki, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Yokota, Shumpei

    2009-04-01

    The aim of our study was (i) to determine whether chorioamnionitis (CAM) is associated with an elevated soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFR-I) level and (ii) to examine the time course of the concentration of sTNFR-I in preterm infants after birth. We measured sTNFR-I levels in the cord blood of 112 preterm infants (gestational age < or =34 weeks), and those in peripheral blood of 30 preterm infants on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The median value for the sTNFR-I was significantly elevated in 33 infants with CAM at stage 3 (4618 pg/mL) compared with the 52 infants without CAM (2866 pg/mL), or the 13 infants with CAM at stage 1 (3638 pg/mL) and the 14 infants at stage 2 (3242 pg/mL). The severity of CAM is an independent factor for the elevation of cord blood sTNFR-I. The sTNFR-I level on day 0 was significantly higher in eight infants with CAM at stage 3 than in the 22 infants without CAM or with CAM at stage 1 and 2; however there were no significant differences on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The serum level of sTNFR-I showed a significant gradual decline with time. We suggest that there is an association between elevated sTNFR-I levels in cord blood and maternal CAM, and this elevation may reflect the fetal inflammation. However the elevation of sTNFR-I could not persist postnatally for a long time.

  18. Problematic parent-infant relationships in two-parent families: prevalence and risk factors in a Brazilian neighborhood Relações problemáticas entre pais e criança em famílias com pai e mãe: prevalência e fatores de risco em um bairro brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Garcia Falceto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the quality of parent-child relationships is known to be associated with the offspring's mental health, little is known about the prevalence of problematic relationships in this scenario. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of different types of early parent-infant relationships in a Brazilian population group. Methods: During 1 year, all families (n = 230 from an urban community of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, with 4-month-old infants born in public hospitals were identified, and 148 were fully investigated by two family therapists. This study describes data on the 116 infants with two-parent families. Demographic, obstetric, and relational variables were collected through questionnaires and scales (Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale, Global Assessment of Relational Functioning, and Self-Report Questionnaire. Prevalence ratios were calculated, and Poisson regression with robust variance was performed to adjust for covariates. Results: Almost 10% of mothers and 12% of fathers showed at least a significantly perturbed relationship with their 4-month-old infants. Inadequate mother-infant bonding coincided with evidence of paternal mental disorder, poor maternal social network, and discontinuation of breastfeeding at 4 months. A problematic father-infant relationship was associated with a dysfunctional couple relationship and with low infant birth weight. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of early parent-child relationship problems, suggesting a need for health system interventions. Parent-infant relational problems are prevalent very early in life and more associated with other relational problems than with socioeconomic burden.Introdução: Embora seja consenso que a qualidade das relações pais-filho influencie a saúde mental da prole, pouco se sabe sobre a prevalência de relações problemáticas nessa esfera. Este estudo transversal teve como objetivo

  19. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2011-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United King...

  20. Infections in infants during the first 12 months of life: role of placental malaria and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, Agnès; Watier, Laurence; Cottrell, Gilles; Ouédraogo, Smaila; Dechavanne, Célia; Pierrat, Charlotte; Rachas, Antoine; Bouscaillou, Julie; Bouraima, Aziz; Massougbodji, Achille; Fayomi, Benjamin; Thiébaut, Anne; Chandre, Fabrice; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Garcia, André; Cot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The association between placental malaria (PM) and first peripheral parasitaemias in early infancy was assessed in Tori Bossito, a rural area of Benin with a careful attention on transmission factors at an individual level. Statistical analysis was performed on 550 infants followed weekly from birth to 12 months. Malaria transmission was assessed by anopheles human landing catches every 6 weeks in 36 sampling houses and season defined by rainfall. Each child was located by GPS and assigned to the closest anopheles sampling house. Data were analysed by survival Cox models, stratified on the possession of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) at enrolment. Among infants sleeping in a house with an ITN, PM was found to be highly associated to first malaria infections, after adjusting on season, number of anopheles, antenatal care (ANC) visits and maternal severe anaemia. Infants born from a malaria infected placenta had a 2.13 fold increased risk to present a first malaria infection than those born from a non infected placenta ([1.24-3.67], prisk to present a first malaria infection was increased by 3.2 to 6.5, according to the level of anopheles exposure (moderate or high levels, compared to the absence of anopheles). First malaria infections in early childhood can be attributed simultaneously to both PM and high levels of exposure to infected anopheles. Protective measures as Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) and ITNs, targeted on both mothers and infants should be reinforced, as well as the research on new drugs and insecticides. In parallel, investigations on placental malaria have to be strengthened to better understand the mechanisms involved, and thus to protect adequately the infants high risk group.

  1. Use of combination neonatal prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in European high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Elena; Galli, Luisa; Giaquinto, Carlo; Ene, Luminita; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Judd, Ali; Lisi, Catiuscia; Malyuta, Ruslan; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Ramos, Jose Tomas; Rojo-Conejo, Pablo; Rudin, Christoph; Tookey, Pat; de Martino, Maurizio; Thorne, Claire

    2013-03-27

    To evaluate use of combination neonatal prophylaxis (CNP) in infants at high risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in Europe and investigate whether CNP is more effective in preventing MTCT than single drug neonatal prophylaxis (SNP). Individual patient-data meta-analysis across eight observational studies. Factors associated with CNP receipt and with MTCT were explored by logistic regression using data from nonbreastfed infants, born between 1996 and 2010 and at high risk for MTCT. In 5285 mother-infant pairs, 1463 (27.7%) had no antenatal or intrapartum antiretroviral prophylaxis, 915 (17.3%) had only intrapartum prophylaxis and 2907 (55.0%) mothers had detectable delivery viral load despite receiving antenatal antiretroviral therapy. Any neonatal prophylaxis was administered to 4623 (87.5%) infants altogether; 1105 (23.9%) received CNP. Factors significantly associated with the receipt of CNP were later calendar birth year, no elective caesarean section, maternal CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/μl, maternal delivery viral load more than 1000 copies/ml, no antenatal antiretroviral therapy, receipt of intrapartum single-dose nevirapine and cohort. After adjustment, absence of neonatal prophylaxis was associated with higher risk of MTCT compared to neonatal prophylaxis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.29; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.46-2.59; P use is increasing and associated with presence of MTCT risk factors. The finding of no observed difference in MTCT risk between one drug and CNP may reflect residual confounding or the fact that CNP may be effective only in a subgroup of infants rather than the whole population of high-risk infants.

  2. The role of sociodemographic risk and maternal behavior in the prediction of infant attachment disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedaly, Lindsey R; Leerkes, Esther M

    2016-12-01

    Predictors of infant attachment disorganization were examined among 203 primiparous mothers (52% European American, 48% African American) and their infants (104 female). The Strange Situation Procedure was administered at one year. Global maternal insensitivity and overtly negative maternal behavior were observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were six months and one year old. Mothers reported on their demographics to yield a measure of sociodemographic risk (i.e., age, education, income-to-needs). Overtly negative maternal behavior was positively associated with the infant attachment disorganization rating scale score, but did not predict being classified as disorganized. Global maternal insensitivity was associated with higher attachment disorganization, both the rating and the classification, when sociodemographic risk was high but not when sociodemographic risk was low. The pattern of results did not vary by maternal race. The results provide some support for the view that negative maternal behavior and the combination of sociodemographic risk and global maternal insensitivity play a role in the development of infant attachment disorganization.

  3. Association of surfactant protein A polymorphisms with otitis media in infants at risk for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracken Michael B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media is one of the most common infections of early childhood. Surfactant protein A functions as part of the innate immune response, which plays an important role in preventing infections early in life. This prospective study utilized a candidate gene approach to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in loci encoding SP-A and risk of otitis media during the first year of life among a cohort of infants at risk for developing asthma. Methods Between September 1996 and December 1998, women were invited to participate if they had at least one other child with physician-diagnosed asthma. Each mother was given a standardized questionnaire within 4 months of her infant's birth. Infant respiratory symptoms were collected during quarterly telephone interviews at 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Genotyping was done on 355 infants for whom whole blood and complete otitis media data were available. Results Polymorphisms at codons 19, 62, and 133 in SP-A1, and 223 in SP-A2 were associated with race/ethnicity. In logistic regression models incorporating estimates of uncertainty in haplotype assignment, the 6A4/1A5haplotype was protective for otitis media among white infants in our study population (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.07,0.73. Conclusion These results indicate that polymorphisms within SP-A loci may be associated with otitis media in white infants. Larger confirmatory studies in all ethnic groups are warranted.

  4. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  5. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  6. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  7. Factors affecting infants' manual search for occluded objects and the genesis of object permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments systematically examined factors that influence infants' manual search for hidden objects (N=96). Experiment 1 used a new procedure to assess infants' search for partially versus totally occluded objects. Results showed that 8.75-month-old infants solved partial occlusions by removing the occluder and uncovering the object, but these same infants failed to use this skill on total occlusions. Experiment 2 used sound-producing objects to provide a perceptual clue to the objects' hidden location. Sound clues significantly increased the success rate on total occlusions for 10-month-olds, but not for 8.75-month-olds. An identity development account is offered for why infants succeed on partial occlusions earlier than total occlusions and why sound helps only the older infants. We propose a mechanism for how infants use object identity as a basis for developing a notion of permanence. Implications are drawn for understanding the dissociation between looking time and search assessments of object permanence.

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Hand Movements in Typical Infants and Those at Risk of Developmental Disorders: An Observational Study of Kinematics during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ouss

    2018-02-01

    are significantly associated with age in cohorts of typical and at-risk infantsdiffer significantly at 5–6 months of age, depending on the context: relating either with an object or a person.Environmental and developmental factors shape the developmental trajectories of hand movements in different cohorts: environment for infants with VIMs; stage of development for premature infants and those with West syndrome; and both factors for infants with orality disorders.The curvature of hand movements specifically reflects atypical development in infants with West syndrome when developmental age is considered.We aimed to discriminate between typical and atypical developmental trajectory patterns of at-risk infants in an interactive setting in this observational and longitudinal study, with the assumption that hand movements (HM reflect preverbal communication and its disorders. We examined the developmental trajectories of HM in five cohorts of at-risk infants and one control cohort, followed from ages 2 to 10 months: 25 West syndrome (WS, 13 preterm birth (PB, 16 orality disorder (OD, 14 with visually impaired mothers (VIM, 7 early hospitalization (EH, and 19 typically developing infants (TD. Video-recorded data were collected in three different structured interactive contexts. Descriptors of the hand motion were used to examine the extent to which HM were associated with age and cohort. We obtained four principal results: (i the kinematics of HM (spatial use, curvature, acceleration, and velocity were significantly associated with age in all cohorts; (ii HM significantly differed at 5–6 months of age in TD infants, depending on the context; (iii environmental and developmental factors shaped the developmental trajectories of HM in different cohorts: environment for VIM, development for PB and WS, and both factors for OD and; (iv the curvatures of HM showed atypical development in WS infants when developmental age was considered. These findings support the importance

  9. Arousal responses in babies at risk of sudden infant death syndrome at different postnatal ages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, K P

    1992-03-01

    Hypercarbic and hypoxic arousal responses during sleep were measured in healthy term infants, infants where a previous sibling died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infants suffering a clearly defined apparent life threatening event (ALTE) requiring vigorous or mouth to mouth resuscitation. Groups of infants were tested at approximately one, six and 13 weeks postnatally. Arousal was defined as gross body movement with eyes opening and moving or crying. Hypercarbic arousal was by step increases in F1 Co2 until arousal occurred or until endtidal (PETCO2) reached 8.7 KpA (65 mm Hg) Hypoxic arousal was by step decreases in FIO2 until arousal occurred or until an FIO2 of 0.15 had been maintained for 20 minutes. There was no difference in hypercaribic arousal threshold with age in any group. Hypercarbic arousal threshold was significantly higher in siblings (mean 53.4, 53.6, 54.7 mmHg. [7.12, 7.14, 7.29 KPA] at 0, 6, 13 postnatal weeks) compared to controls (mean 50.9, 52.3, 53.0mm Hg. [6.78, 6.97, 7.29 KPS respectively). ALTE infants differed only at 12 weeks having a significantly lower threshold (51.0mmHg. [6.80 KPA] V 53.0mm Hg. (7.06 KPA]) compared to controls. There was no difference in hypoxic arousal response with age in any group. An arousal response to hypoxia occurred in only 22% of ALTE infants and 40% of siblings compared to 67% of normal infants. Deficient sleep arousal, especially to hypoxia, is common in infants and especially those considered at increased risk from SIDS. This deficiency is present in the first postnatal week and did not vary overy the first three months of postnatal life.

  10. Prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade: estudo com 450 pré-termos de muito baixo peso Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity: study with 450 very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Borges Fortes Filho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Analisar prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP entre pré-termos com peso de nascimento (PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou idade gestacional (IG d"32 semanas admitidos em uma instituição hospitalar universitária de nível terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte institucional, prospectivo e descritivo, realizado entre outubro de 2002 e julho de 2008, incluindo todos os pré-termos com PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou com IG d"32 semanas, que sobreviveram até a 42ª semana de IG corrigida. Foram determinadas a prevalência da ROP em seus vários estadiamentos evolutivos. Os principais fatores de risco para o surgimento da ROP no período pós-natal foram comparados por análises uni e multivariadas entre os pacientes que desenvolveram e os que não desenvolveram a doença. Para a análise das variáveis contínuas entre os dois grupos, foi usado o Teste t (Student para amostras independentes e para a comparação das variáveis categóricas, o Qui-Quadrado. A regressão logística incluiu as variáveis com significância após a análise univariada. RESULTADOS:Foram estudadas 450 crianças cuja média de PN e IG foram 1.213,50 gramas (± 277,4 e 30,3 semanas (± 2,2, respectivamente. A ROP, em qualquer estadiamento, afetou 24,2% das crianças. Doença limiar, necessitando de tratamento pela fotocoagulação, ocorreu em 24 pacientes (5,3%. Após análise univariada, a IG, o PN, o ganho ponderal do nascimento até a 6ª semana de vida, o uso de oxigenioterapia em ventilação mecânica e de indometacina, as ocorrências de sepse e hemorragia intraventricular e a necessidade de transfusões sanguíneas, estiveram associados com a ROP. A regressão logística confirmou a importância da IG (OR: 0,856; IC95%: 1,141-1,447; P=0,014, do baixo ganho ponderal (OR: 0,997; IC95%: 0,996-0,999; PPURPOSE: This study aims to analyze prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP among preterms with birth weight (BW d"1

  11. Displasia broncopulmonar: incidência, fatores de risco e utilização de recursos em uma população sul-americana de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence, risk factors and resource utilization in a population of South-American very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Tapia

    2006-02-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, its risk factors and resource utilization in a large South American population of very low birth weight infants. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from infants weighing 500 to 1,500 g born at 16 NEOCOSUR Network centers from 10/2000 through 12/2003. Multivariate relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Poisson regression with robust error variance to find factors that affected the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. RESULTS: 1,825 very low birth weight infant survivors were analyzed. Mean birth weight and gestational age were 1085+279 g and 29+3 weeks respectively. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence averaged 24.4% and survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia augmented with increasing gestational age. Higher birth weight and gestational age and a female gender all decreased the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Factors that independently increased that risk were surfactant requirement, mechanical ventilation, air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia infants had more days of hospitalization (91±27 vs. 51±19, on mechanical ventilation (19±20 vs. 4±7 and oxygen therapy (72±30 vs. 8±14 in comparison with non BPD infants. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence was 24.4% in a large South American population and is related to greater resource utilization. Risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in this study were: surfactant requirement, mechanical ventilation, air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. These studies may provide information useful to the design of effective preventive perinatal strategies.

  12. New risk factors for atherosclerosis and patient risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Nierman, Melchior C.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Duriez, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the ways in which the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including standard lipid (eg, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and nonlipid (eg, hypertension) risk factors, interact to initiate

  13. Suicide During Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Orsolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.

  14. Asma bronquial: factores de riesgo de las crisis y factores preventivos Bronchial asthma: risk factors of crises and preventive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Abdo Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, y con motivo de los avances que se realizan en el campo de la investigación del asma bronquial, los conceptos en su prevención han ido cambiando entre los especialistas que lo tratan. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo llevar el conocimiento básico necesario a los profesionales de la medicina, para que a cada paciente asmático, atendido por primera vez, se le determinen los alergenos desencadenantes, los factores agravantes y socioculturales que le rodean y que pueden estar afectándolo. Se aborda la sensibilización a alergenos desde la etapa embrionaria y lactancia en el niño atópico, cuándo debemos considerar a un niño con alto riesgo alérgico, los factores de riesgo más importantes, con experiencias prácticas en el Hospital Universitario “Calixto García”, y las recomendaciones para la prevención de las enfermedades alérgicas en lactantes e infantes de alto riesgo alérgico.En recent years and advances in research field of bronchial asthma, features in its prevention has been changing among specialists treating it. Aim of this paper is to transmit the basic and necessary knowledge to medicine professionals for that in each asthmatic patient treated for the first time, the triggering allergens, aggravating factors, and the surrounded sociocultural ones, affecting him be determined. Authors approach sensitivity to allergens from embryonic stage and the lactation in atopic child, when we must to consider the case of an allergic and in high risk child, the more significant risk factors, with practical experiences in “Calixto García” University Hospital, and recommendations for preventions of allergic diseases in infants and breast-fed child in high risk of allergy.

  15. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  16. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... injury. Risk factors may be considered as characteristic indicators ... by examining the cardiovascular risk factors that are related to various forms .... Cross country race, Handball, Jogging, Rope jumping, Running Soccer,.

  17. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  18. Labor epidural analgesia is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Agakidou, Eleni; Philip Thomas, Sumesh; Murthy, Prashanth; John Lloyd, David

    2011-09-01

    To explore whether epidural analgesia (EA) in labor is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia. Retrospective observational study of 480 consecutive term singleton infants born to mothers who received EA in labor (EA group) and 480 term infants delivered to mothers who did not receive EA (NEA group). Mothers in the EA group had significantly higher incidence of intrapartum pyrexia [54/480 (11%) vs. 4/480 (0.8%), OR = 15.1, p neonatal pyrexia [68/480 (14.2%) vs. 15/480 (3.1%), OR = 5.1, p Neonates in the EA group had a median duration of pyrexia of 1 h (maximum 5 h) with a peak temperature within 1 h. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that maternal EA was independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia (>37.5°C) after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia (>37.9°C) and other confounders (OR = 3.44, CI = 1.9-6.3, p neonates. It is unnecessary to investigate febrile offspring of mothers who have had epidurals unless pyrexia persists for longer than 5 h or other signs or risk factors for neonatal sepsis are present.

  19. Interleukin-6 polymorphism and bronchopulmonary dysplasia risk in very low-birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Touhei; Kobayashi, Takehiro; Sakakibara, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Kaneko, Takayuki; Wada, Masaki; Onozuka, Junya; Numata, Osamu; Torigoe, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Hajime; Sato, Takashi; Nagayama, Yoshihisa; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-6-634 polymorphism in neonatal disorders such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. This prospective cohort study included 202 infants (gestational age at birth, 23-34 weeks; birthweight, 500-1499 g). Genotypic analysis (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) was performed with DNA extracted from whole-blood samples. Genotype distribution (66.8% CC, 28.2% CG, 5.0% GG) was similar to that in the adult Japanese population. BPD occurred in 85 infants (42.1%) among 202 VLBW infants. The duration of O(2) therapy in infants with CG/GG genotypes was significantly longer than that in infants with the CC genotype (CG/GG vs CC: 40.3 ± 52.2 days vs 28.4 ± 32.6 days, P < 0.05), but the prevalence of BPD was not associated with the CG/GG genotype (CG/GG, 40.0%; CC, 46.3%, P= 0.24). Infants with CG/GG genotypes were more likely to have received postnatal corticosteroid therapy for BPD than those with the CC genotype (CG/GG vs CC: 20.9% vs 11.1%, P = 0.05). PVL occurred in six infants (3.0%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of PVL among IL-6-634 polymorphisms (CG/GG, 3.0%; CC, 3.0%, P = 0.65). IL-6-634 polymorphism is associated with duration of oxygen therapy in VLBW infants. This suggests that the IL-6-634 polymorphism G allele is an aggravating factor of BPD. IL-6-634 polymorphism is not associated with PVL. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  1. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  2. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN TO HIGH-RISK INFANTS AND YOUNG-CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROOTHUIS, [No Value; SIMOES, EAF; LEVIN, MJ; HALL, CB; LONG, CE; RODRIGUEZ, WJ; ARROBIO, J; MEISSNER, HC; FULTON, DR; WELLIVER, RC; TRISTRAM, DA; SIBER, GR; PRINCE, GA; VANRADEN, M; HEMMING, VG

    1993-01-01

    Background. Infants with cardiac disease or prematurity are at risk for severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Immune globulin with a high titer of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus may offer infants and young children at risk protection from this serious, common

  4. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  5. Infants with prenatally diagnosed kidney anomalies have an increased risk of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Andersen, René F

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study estimated the urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in a nationwide cohort of infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies compared with a comparison cohort. METHODS: A Danish population-based nationwide cohort of foetuses diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies...... between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with foetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age. Cumulative incidences of UTIs were...... computed. Mortality was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We identified 412 foetuses with parenchymal kidney anomalies out of 362 069 who underwent ultrasound scans and 277 were born alive. The overall risk of a UTI before the age of two years was 19%, and it was 14% among infants without...

  6. Joint Attention Development in Low-risk Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Around 18 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Noriko; Takada, Satoshi

    2016-10-18

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental characteristics of joint attention in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with a low risk of complications. Section B of the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) was administered to 31 VLBW and 45 normal birth weight (NBW) infants aged 18-22 months, while the sessions were recorded with a video camera. A semi-structured observation scale was developed to assess infants' joint attention from the video footage, and was shown to be reliable. VLBW, compared to NBW, infants showed significantly poorer skills in 2 of 4 items on responding to joint attention, and in 6 of 10 items on initiating joint attention. VLBW infants need more clues in order to produce joint attention. The difficulty was attributed to insufficient verbal and fine motor function skills. Continuous follow-up evaluation is essential for both high-risk and low-risk VLBW infants and their parents.

  7. A Study Of Infant Feeding Practices And The Underlying Factors In A Rural Area Of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja D. K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What are the infant feeding practices in a rural area? 2. What are the reasons underlying the harmful infant feeding practices? Objectives: 1. To study feeding practices among infants. 2. To find out the factors underlying various harmful practices. 3. To find out the sources of information/advice for the prevailing practices. 4. To determine Whether the Practice of giving diluted animal milk to infants is associated with type of family, caste or educational status of mother. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Rural field practice center of a Medical College in Delhi. Participants: Mothers of infants 6-9 Months of age, attending immunization clinic. Statistical analysis: Percentage, chi square test. Results: Water was commonly given to breast fed babies and top feeds introduced early. Consequently exclusive breast-feeding was uncommon. Semisolids were started late and diluted animal milk was commonly given to infants; as mothers often thought that child can not digest semisolids or undiluted milk. Milk was also diluted for economic reasons. Insufficient breast milk, illness of mother or child were cited as main reasons for early introduction of top milk.

  8. Maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy and risk for a small-for-gestational-age infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Beck, James D; Murtha, Amy P; Moss, Kevin; Offenbacher, Steven

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether periodontal disease is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant. In a prospective study of oral health, periodontal disease was categorized as health, mild, or moderate/severe on the basis of clinical criteria. Small for gestational age was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. A risk ratio (95th percentile confidence interval) for a small-for-gestational-age infant among women with moderate or severe periodontal disease was calculated. Sixty-seven of 1017 women (6.6%) delivered a small-for-gestational-age infant, and 143 (14.3%) had moderate or severe periodontal disease. The small-for-gestational-age rate was higher among women with moderate or severe periodontal disease, compared with those with health or mild disease (13.8% versus 3.2% versus 6.5%, P periodontal disease was associated with a small-for-gestational-age infant, a risk ratio of 2.3 (1.1 to 4.7), adjusted for age, smoking, drugs, marital and insurance status, and pre-eclampsia. Moderate or severe periodontal disease early in pregnancy is associated with delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant. Understanding the mechanism of periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes could lead to interventions to improve fetal growth.

  9. Association of Maternal Preeclampsia With Infant Risk of Premature Birth and Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P prematurity, because prematurity is an outcome of preeclampsia.

  10. Fatores de risco de anemia em lactentes matriculados em creches públicas ou filantrópicas de São Paulo Risk factors for anemia in infants enrolled in public or philanthropic day-care centers in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Konstantyner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e quantificar os fatores de risco de anemia em lactentes matriculados em creches públicas ou filantrópicas no município de São Paulo e discutir o impacto das ações da creche no controle desta carência nutricional específica. MÉTODO: Estudo seccional compreendendo 212 lactentes de duas creches públicas e três filantrópicas. Foram realizadas entrevistas com as mães, coleta de sangue por punção digital e antropometria. Considerou-se como anemia, hemoglobina inferior a 11g/dL. Foi ajustado um modelo de regressão logística para fatores de risco entre grupos de lactentes com e sem anemia. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 51,9%. O modelo logístico final foi composto por 4 variáveis: presença de 1 ou mais irmãos menores que 5 anos (Odds Ratio=2,57; p=0,005; estar freqüentando creche de administração exclusivamente pública (Odds Ratio=2,12; p=0,020; uso de aleitamento materno exclusivo inferior a 2 meses (Odds Ratio=1,88; p=0,044, e idade inferior a 15 meses (Odds Ratio=2,32; p=0,006. CONCLUSÃO:Concluiu-se que a alta prevalência de anemia evidencia a ineficiência das creches estudadas para controlar e prevenir esta carência nutricional; portanto, cabe ao planejador de saúde considerar os riscos de anemia identificados e quantificados quando da elaboração de programas de controle e prevenção.OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify the risk factors for anemia in infants enrolled in public or philanthropic day care centers in São Paulo city and discuss the impact of the actions of day care centers in controlling this specific nutritional deficiency. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising 212 infants of two public and three philanthropic day care centers. Interviews with the mothers, collection of blood by digital puncture and anthropometry were performed. Anemia was characterized by hemoglobin levels below 11g/dL. A logistic regression model for risk factors between groups of infants with

  11. Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Heather Cody; Gu, Hongbin; Munsell, Brent C; Kim, Sun Hyung; Styner, Martin; Wolff, Jason J; Elison, Jed T; Swanson, Meghan R; Zhu, Hongtu; Botteron, Kelly N; Collins, D Louis; Constantino, John N; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Evans, Alan C; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gerig, Guido; Kostopoulos, Penelope; McKinstry, Robert C; Pandey, Juhi; Paterson, Sarah; Pruett, John R; Schultz, Robert T; Shaw, Dennis W; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2017-02-15

    Brain enlargement has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the timing of this phenomenon, and the relationship between ASD and the appearance of behavioural symptoms, are unknown. Retrospective head circumference and longitudinal brain volume studies of two-year olds followed up at four years of age have provided evidence that increased brain volume may emerge early in development. Studies of infants at high familial risk of autism can provide insight into the early development of autism and have shown that characteristic social deficits in ASD emerge during the latter part of the first and in the second year of life. These observations suggest that prospective brain-imaging studies of infants at high familial risk of ASD might identify early postnatal changes in brain volume that occur before an ASD diagnosis. In this prospective neuroimaging study of 106 infants at high familial risk of ASD and 42 low-risk infants, we show that hyperexpansion of the cortical surface area between 6 and 12 months of age precedes brain volume overgrowth observed between 12 and 24 months in 15 high-risk infants who were diagnosed with autism at 24 months. Brain volume overgrowth was linked to the emergence and severity of autistic social deficits. A deep-learning algorithm that primarily uses surface area information from magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of 6-12-month-old individuals predicted the diagnosis of autism in individual high-risk children at 24 months (with a positive predictive value of 81% and a sensitivity of 88%). These findings demonstrate that early brain changes occur during the period in which autistic behaviours are first emerging.

  12. Risks for communication delays and disorders in infants in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may result in conditions such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. (FASD).[4,5] South ... communication delays or disorders in infants aged 0 12 months in an urban PHC ..... Results from the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and ...

  13. Prognostic significance of neurological signs in high-risk infants : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the significance of specific neurological signs in infancy, in particular in infants at risk for developmental problems such as cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Embase, Web of

  14. Prognostic significance of neurological signs in high-risk infants - a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, E.G.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the significance of specific neurological signs in infancy, in particular in infants at risk for developmental problems such as cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Embase, Web of

  15. Non-Adjacent Dependency Learning in Infants at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie; de Bree, Elise; de Klerk, Maartje; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical…

  16. The mathematical pathogenetic factors analysis of acute inflammatory diseases development of bronchopulmonary system among infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Lezhenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. To study the factor structure and to establish the associative interaction of pathogenetic links of acute diseases development of the bronchopulmonary system in infants.Materials and methods. The examination group consisted of 59 infants (average age 13.8 ± 1.4 months sick with acute inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases. Also we tested the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(ОНD, vitamin D-binding protein, hBPI, cathelicidin LL-37, ß1-defensins, lactoferrin in blood serum with the help of immunoenzymometric analysis. Selection of prognostically important pathogenetic factors of acute bronchopulmonary disease among infants was conducted using ROC-analysis. The procedure for classifying objects was carried out using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis by the method of Centroid-based clustering. Results. Based on the results of the ROC-analysis were selected 15 potential predictors of the development of acute inflammatory diseases of the bronchopulmonary system among infants. The factor analysis made it possible to determine the 6 main components . The biggest influence in the development of the disease was made by "the anemia factor", "the factor of inflammation", "the maternal factor", "the vitamin D supply factor", "the immune factor" and "the phosphorus-calcium exchange factor” with a factor load of more than 0.6. The performed procedure of hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the initial role of immuno-inflammatory components. The conclusions. The highlighted factors allowed to define a group of parameters, that must be influenced to achieve a maximum effect in carrying out preventive and therapeutic measures. First of all, it is necessary to influence the "the anemia factor" and "the calcium exchange factor", as well as the "the vitamin D supply factor". In other words, to correct vitamin D deficiency and carry out measures aimed at preventing the development of anemia. The prevention and treatment of the pathological course of

  17. [Prevalence and determinants of medication during pregnancy by risk class among mothers of liveborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter; Vargas Filho, Edson Fauth; Geib, Débora; Mesquita, Débora Iasmin; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2007-10-01

    In order to identify the maternal determinants of the consumption of medication during pregnancy according to risk class, we conducted a population cohort baseline cross-sectional study with 2,262 mothers of liveborn infants in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected from the Information System on Live Births and through home interviews (an instrument adapted from the Maternity Advice Survey). The drugs were classified according to criteria. We conducted bivariate analyses and logistic regression according to the hierarchical model of determination. 80% of the mothers consumed at least one medicine during the pregnancy, distributed in risk classes as follows: A (53.4%), B (18.1%), C (24.46%), D (1.47%), X (0.06%), and V (various) (2.1%). Incomplete prenatal care and maternal age consumption of medication in class A and pregnancy complications in classes B, C, and D. In class C, cesarean section and previous abortion also determined consumption, which in class V was independent of the variables analyzed. Maternal factors, especially health complications, determine the consumption of medicines during pregnancy, suggesting that the prescribing physician should orient the safe and proper use of such medication.

  18. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  19. Factors associated with long turnaround time for early infant diagnosis of HIV in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiha, Soe; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Philip, Sairu; Aung, Thet Ko; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Wint War, May; Oo, Htun Nyunt

    2017-01-01

    A previous review of early infant diagnosis (EID) using polymerase chain reaction technology (PCR) under integrated HIV care (IHC) program in Myanmar revealed a low uptake of timely (within 6 to 8 weeks of babies' age) EID and a long turnaround time (TAT) of receiving results. This study aimed to determine the proportion and factors associated with the composite outcome of a long TAT (≥7 weeks; from sample collection to receipt of result by mother) or nonreceipt of result among HIV-exposed babies whose blood samples were collected for PCR at mother's CD4 count of 100-350 cells/mm 3 at enrollment [adjusted RR (0.95 confidence intervals, CI): 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)] had a 20% lower risk of long TAT or nonreceipt of results when compared with ≥350 cells/mm 3 . Distance between ART center and PCR facility ≥105 km [adjusted RR (0.95 CI): 1.2 (1.1, 1.4)], when compared with mother was high. Point-of-care testing for EID may reduce TAT/nonreceipt of results by the mother. Health system, laboratory, and logistic factors such as sample transportation, laboratory procedures, and result dispatching associated with long TAT should be further explored.

  20. Atypical object exploration skills in infants at-risk for autism between 6 to 15 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninderjit eKaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually diagnosed after the second year of life. Early signs of ASD within the first year of life are still unclear. The main purpose of the present study was to compare object exploration skills between infants at-risk for ASD and typically developing (TD infants to determine early markers for autism within the first year of life. Sixteen at-risk infants and 16 TD infants were longitudinally followed from 6 to 15 months of age during an object exploration task involving three objects with distinct size, shape, and texture, i.e., a long rattle, a rigid circular ball, and a soft circular koosh ball. All sessions were videotaped for coding of manual, oral, and visual exploration. We also obtained follow-up outcomes using various developmental questionnaires at 18 months and email follow-up on developmental delays/ASD diagnoses after the infants’ second birthdays. Our results showed object-based differences in exploration patterns that extend across both groups. We also noticed group differences for various object exploration behaviors across objects and ages. Specifically, at 6 months, at-risk infants showed less grasping of the rigid ball as well as less mouthing and greater looking at the rattle compared to TD infants. At 9 and 12 months, at-risk infants demonstrated significantly lower levels of purposeful dropping of all objects. Lastly, at 15 months, at-risk infants looked longer at the rattle and showed persistent mouthing of the rigid ball and rattle compared to TD infants. In addition, 10 out of 16 at-risk infants developed various motor, social, and language delays or ASD diagnoses at follow-up. Taken together, early context-dependent delays/abnormalities in object exploration could be markers for future developmental delays in infants at-risk for autism. Moreover, promoting early object experiences through socially embedded object play could have implications for

  1. [FACTORS RELATED TO MORTALITY IN NECROTIZINGENTEROCOLITIS(NEC) IN NEONATES AND OLDER INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos D , Hugo; Rivera M , Juan

    1997-01-01

    In order to determine the factors related to mortality in Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), medical records of neonates and older infants diagnosed of NEC in the Instituto de Salud del Niño between 1984 and 1993 were retrospectively reviewed. Only the cases with a reliable roentgenologic, surgical or pathologic diagnosis were included. Sixty cases (46 infants and 14 neonates) were found, with a higher incidence in males (37 males vs 23 females). Twenty six cases required surgical treatment. Overall mortality was 77%, with no significant differences between neonates and infants, nor between those who were operated or not. Moderate or severe malnutrition, diarrhea as an early clinical manifestations, bronchopneumonia, shock and poor nutricional management were found as factors related to mortality.

  2. Late preterm infants – impact of perinatal factors on neonatal results. A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Jakiel

    2015-09-01

    It is necessary to thoroughly establish the type of delivery of a late preterm infant in order to prevent an infection in the newborn child. The improvement of diagnosis of intrauterine hypoxia may reduce the number of Caesarean sections. The decision about late preterm delivery should be based on indices of the mother’s state of health. Premature delivery is related to the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome in a late preterm infant, although the risk is reduced by the application of an antenatal steroid therapy.

  3. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Newborn Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Lochan; Huang, Hong; Pant, Amrita; Westgate, Philip M; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, John A; Giannone, Peter J; Sithisarn, Thitinart

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a type of growth factor that promotes growth and survival of neurons. Fetal exposure to opiates can lead to postnatal withdrawal syndrome, which is referred as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between opiates exposure and alteration in BDNF expression in the brain and serum levels in adult. However, to date, there are no data available on the effects of opiate exposure on BDNF levels in infant who are exposed to opiates in utero and whether BDNF level may correlate with the severity of NAS. To compare plasma BDNF levels among NAS and non-NAS infants and to determine the correlation of BDNF levels and the severity of NAS. This is a prospective cohort study with no intervention involved. Infants ≥35 weeks of gestation were enrolled. BDNF level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique from blood samples drawn within 48 h of life. The severity of NAS was determined by the length of hospital stay, number of medications required to treat NAS. 67 infants were enrolled, 34 NAS and 33 non-NAS. Mean gestational age did not differ between the two groups. Mean birth weight of NAS infants was significantly lower than the non-NAS infants (3,070 ± 523 vs. 3,340 ± 459 g, p  = 0.028). Mean BDNF level in NAS group was 252.2 ± 91.6 ng/ml, significantly higher than 211.3 ± 66.3 ng/ml in the non-NAS group ( p  = 0.04). There were no differences in BDNF levels between NAS infants that required one medication vs. more than one medication (254 ± 91 vs. 218 ± 106 ng/ml, p  = 0.47). There was no correlation between the BDNF levels and length of hospital stay ( p  = 0.68) among NAS infants. Overall, there were no significant correlations between BDNF levels and NAS scores except at around 15 h after admission (correlation 0.35, p  = 0.045). Plasma BDNF level was significantly increased in NAS infants

  4. Nourodevelopmental follow-up in high-risk infants: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing and developing are influenced by genetic, social and environmental factors and it's most important and initial phase step is formed of the early life of the fetus and infant. According to the world health organization, the incidence of preterm birth and low birth weight are increasing in most countries that most of it related to developing countries. Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems that can affect growing and developing so that it can threaten public health. Advances in medical technology in recent decades at intensive care unit, increased survival of premature infants and high-risk specialist care is needed, but failed, to reduce the complications of premature birth but it couldn’t reduce complications of preterm birth. There is also an increased recognition of the potential disconnect between perinatal outcomes and long-term outcomes. The administration of oxygen and postnatal steroids are prime examples of interventions that may have immediate positive effects but negative long-term effects. Many premature babies will be encounter with mobility problems, cognitive, neurosensory impairments, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances in the future. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Without a doubt, one of the tragedies of the world is people with physical or mental damage caused by premature birth, many of these disorders are not early diagnosed and the prediction of long term complications of infants discharged from the NICU is difficult. Although nourodevelopmental follow-up of these babies is a necessary part of the neonatal assessment but there is no standard process

  5. Enteral feeding of intrauterine growth restriction preterm infants: theoretical risks and practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bozzetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR infants are thought to have impaired gut function after birth secondary to intrauterine redistribution of the blood flow, due to placental insufficiency, with a consequent reduction of gut perfusion. For this reason, infants complicated by IUGR have been considered at higher risk of feeding intolerance. Postnatal evaluation of splanchnic perfusion, through Doppler of the superior mesenteric artery, and of splanchnic oxygenation, through near infrared spectroscopy measurements, may be useful in evaluating the persistence (or not of the redistribution of blood flow occurred in utero.

  6. Limited Fine Motor and Grasping Skills in Six-month-old Infants at High Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Sheperd, Kelly A.; Ross, Samuel W.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical motor behaviors are common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, little is known about onset and functional implications of differences in early motor development among infants later diagnosed with ASD. Two prospective experiments were conducted to investigate motor skills among six-month-olds at increased risk (high-risk) for ASD (N1 = 129; N2 = 46). Infants were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and during toy play. Across both experiments, high-risk infants exhibited less mature object manipulation in a highly structured (MSEL) context and reduced grasping activity in an unstructured (free play) context than infants with no family history of ASD. Longitudinal assessments suggest that between six and ten months, grasping activity increases in high-risk infants. PMID:24978128

  7. Limited fine motor and grasping skills in 6-month-old infants at high risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Sheperd, Kelly A; Ross, Samuel W; Landa, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Atypical motor behaviors are common among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about onset and functional implications of differences in early motor development among infants later diagnosed with ASD. Two prospective experiments were conducted to investigate motor skills among 6-month-olds at increased risk (high risk) for ASD (N1  = 129; N2  = 46). Infants were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and during toy play. Across both experiments, high-risk infants exhibited less mature object manipulation in a highly structured (MSEL) context and reduced grasping activity in an unstructured (free-play) context than infants with no family history of ASD. Longitudinal assessments suggest that between 6 and 10 months, grasping activity increases in high-risk infants. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Depressive symptoms and compromised parenting in low-income mothers of infants and toddlers: distal and proximal risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Martinez, Maria I; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia S

    2014-08-01

    Low-income mothers develop depressive symptoms at higher rates than the general population, adding to the existing risk that economic hardship places on their infants and toddlers. Emphasizing a few key intervention targets, an approach that is especially relevant to mothers when depressive symptoms compromise their energy and concentration, can improve interventions with populations facing adversity. The goal of this study was to identify contextual risk factors that significantly contributed to depressive symptoms and that, in combination with depressive symptoms, were associated with compromised parenting. Using baseline data from 251 ethnically diverse mothers from six Early Head Start programs in the Northeastern and Southeastern US, who were recruited for a clinical trial of an in-home intervention, Belsky's ecological framework of distal to proximal levels of influence was used to organize risk factors for depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression models. Under stress, mothers of toddlers reported more severe depressive symptoms than mothers of infants, supporting the need for depressive symptom screening and monitoring past the immediate postpartum period. Multivariate models revealed intervention targets that can focus depression prevention and intervention efforts, including helping mothers reduce chronic day-to-day stressors and conflicts with significant others, and to effectively handle challenging toddler behaviors, especially in the face of regional disciplinary norms. Presence of a live-in partner was linked to more effective parenting, regardless of participants' depressive symptom severity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Autism Parent Screen for Infants: Predicting Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based on Parent-Reported Behavior Observed at 6-24 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R.; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel M.; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline; Garon, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether a novel parent-report questionnaire, the Autism Parent Screen for Infants, could differentiate infants subsequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder from a high-risk cohort (siblings of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (n = 66)) from high-risk and low-risk comparison infants (no family history of…

  10. Fatores de risco para a doença por refluxo gastroesofágico em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso portadores de displasia broncopulmonar Risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís B. Mendes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer os fatores de risco para a doença por refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso com displasia broncopulmonar. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo caso-controle incluindo 23 casos e 23 controles com displasia broncopulmonar, sendo realizada investigação por monitorização prolongada do pH esofágico no período de janeiro de 2001 a outubro de 2005. Para cada caso, selecionou-se um controle, e foram comparados pela idade gestacional, peso ao nascimento, gênero, uso de corticóide pré-natal, tempo de ventilação assistida, tempo de oxigenoterapia, tempo de uso de sonda gástrica, uso de xantinas, idade pós-conceptual e peso durante a monitorização do pH esofágico. Realizou-se a análise por regressão logística múltipla para estabelecer o odds ratio (OR com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Os dois grupos (com e sem DRGE não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação às variáveis demográficas e de evolução pós-natal, uso de corticóide pré e pós-natal, bem como ao tempo de uso de cafeína, ventilação mecânica e oxigenoterapia. Entretanto, as variáveis intolerância alimentar (OR = 6,55; IC95% 1,05-40,8 e tempo de uso de sonda gástrica (OR = 1,67; IC95% 1,11-2,51 comportaram-se como fatores de risco para DRGE. A variável idade pós-conceptual ao exame de monitorização do pH (OR = 0,02; IC95% OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in 23 cases and 23 control subjects with bronchopulmonary dysplasia submitted to 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring between January 2001 and October 2005. Cases and controls were compared for gestational age, birth weight, gender, use of antenatal steroids, duration of assisted ventilation, duration of oxygen therapy, length of gastric tube use, administration of xanthines

  11. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  12. Excess vitamin intake: An unrecognized risk factor for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yiming

    2014-02-15

    Over the past few decades, food fortification and infant formula supplementation with high levels of vitamins have led to a sharp increase in vitamin intake among infants, children and adults. This is followed by a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity and related diseases, with significant disparities among countries and different groups within a country. It has long been known that B vitamins at doses below their toxicity threshold strongly promote body fat gain. Studies have demonstrated that formulas, which have very high levels of vitamins, significantly promote infant weight gain, especially fat mass gain, a known risk factor for children developing obesity. Furthermore, ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin consumption is strongly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. We therefore hypothesize that excess vitamins may play a causal role in the increased prevalence of obesity. This review will discuss: (1) the causes of increased vitamin intake; (2) the non-monotonic effect of excess vitamin intake on weight and fat gain; and (3) the role of vitamin fortification in obesity disparities among countries and different groups within a country.

  13. Contribution of Histologic Chorioamnionitis and Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome to Increased Risk of Brain Injury in Infants With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Lu, Jun-Ying

    2016-08-01

    To determine the association of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) and fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) with brain injuries in infants born to mothers with preterm premature rupture of membranes. A total of 103 singleton infants born to mothers with preterm premature rupture of membranes were enrolled. The placental inflammation was confirmed by HCA, and FIRS was defined in fetuses with preterm labor and an elevation of the fetal plasma interleukin-6 concentration. Examination of brain images was conducted to confirm the existence of brain injuries. Based on placental HCA and umbilical cord blood interleukin-6 level, all patients were divided into three groups: HCA(-)FIRS(+), HCA(+)FIRS(-), and HCA(+)FIRS(+). Among all infants with preterm premature rupture of membranes, 53.40% were exposed to HCA, 20.38% experienced FIRS, and the overall incidence of brain injuries was 38.83%. The incidence of brain injury in HCA(-)FIRS(+), HCA(+)FIRS(-), and HCA(+)FIRS(+) groups were 20.83%, 41.18%, and 76.19%, respectively. HCA at the advanced grades and stages was associated with increased risk of brain injury. Umbilical cord blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in premature infants with brain injuries were significantly higher than in those without brain injuries. Infants diagnosed with both HCA and FIRS showed significantly higher levels of IL-8, TNF-α, and G-CSF than those with HCA alone. Preterm infants exposed to severe chorioamnionitis had an increased risk of brain injury. IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and G-CSF in cord blood were associated with brain injuries in preterm infants and may be used as extradiagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Symptomatic acquired zinc deficiency in at-risk premature infants: high dose preventive supplementation is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarot, Sébastien; Chantier, Emilie; Kuster, Alice; Hello, Muriel; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Blouin, Eric; Stalder, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in many metabolisms. Zinc deficiency induces various disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, either inherited or acquired. We report three cases of premature infants (24-31 wks gestational age) with low birthweight (650 to 940 g) and enteropathy, two of whom presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. All infants were fed by total parenteral nutrition. At a chronological age ranging from 73 to 80 days, all infants developed a periorificial dermatitis. Before the onset of the first signs, they had received zinc supplementation ranging from 146% to 195% of the recommended dose (400 microg/kg/day). Increased zinc supplementation over a course of 6-18 days induced a complete resolution of symptoms in all cases. No abnormality in the neurologic examination and no recurrence were observed at the end of the zinc treatment. Low birthweight premature infants with enteropathy on total parenteral nutrition are at risk of developing zinc deficiency. The usual recommended zinc supplementation is probably insufficient for those infants. A delay in the diagnosis of zinc deficiency may lead to severe complications.

  15. Postnatal fish oil supplementation in high-risk infants to prevent allergy: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Martino, D; McCarthy, S; Metcalfe, J; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2012-10-01

    Relative deficiency of dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been implicated in the rising allergy prevalence in Westernized countries. Fish oil supplementation may provide an intervention strategy for primary allergy prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil n-3 PUFA supplementation from birth to 6 months of age on infant allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 420 infants at high atopic risk received a daily supplement of fish oil containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 110 mg eicosapentaenoic acid or a control (olive oil), from birth to age 6 months. PUFA levels were measured in 6-month-old infants' erythrocytes and plasma and their mothers' breast milk. Eczema, food allergy, asthma and sensitization were assessed in 323 infants for whom clinical follow-up was completed at 12 months of age. At 6 months of age, infant docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were significantly higher (both P acid levels were lower (P = .003) in the fish oil group. Although n-3 PUFA levels at 6 months were associated with lower risk of eczema (P = .033) and recurrent wheeze (P = .027), the association with eczema was not significant after multiple comparisons and there was no effect of the intervention per se on the primary study outcomes. Specifically, between-group comparisons revealed no differences in the occurrence of allergic outcomes including sensitization, eczema, asthma, or food allergy. Postnatal fish oil supplementation improved infant n-3 status but did not prevent childhood allergic disease.

  16. Proof of concept of microbiome-metabolome analysis and delayed gluten exposure on celiac disease autoimmunity in genetically at-risk infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sellitto

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a unique autoimmune disorder in which the genetic factors (DQ2/DQ8 and the environmental trigger (gluten are known and necessary but not sufficient for its development. Other environmental components contributing to CD are poorly understood. Studies suggest that aspects of gluten intake might influence the risk of CD occurrence and timing of its onset, i.e., the amount and quality of ingested gluten, together with the pattern of infant feeding and the age at which gluten is introduced in the diet. In this study, we hypothesize that the intestinal microbiota as a whole rather than specific infections dictates the switch from tolerance to immune response in genetically susceptible individuals. Using a sample of infants genetically at risk of CD, we characterized the longitudinal changes in the microbial communities that colonize infants from birth to 24 months and the impact of two patterns of gluten introduction (early vs. late on the gut microbiota and metabolome, and the switch from gluten tolerance to immune response, including onset of CD autoimmunity. We show that infants genetically susceptible to CD who are exposed to gluten early mount an immune response against gluten and develop CD autoimmunity more frequently than at-risk infants in which gluten exposure is delayed until 12 months of age. The data, while derived from a relatively small number of subjects, suggest differences between the developing microbiota of infants with genetic predisposition for CD and the microbiota from infants with a non-selected genetic background, with an overall lack of bacteria of the phylum Bacteriodetes along with a high abundance of Firmicutes and microbiota that do not resemble that of adults even at 2 years of age. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis reveals potential biomarkers for the prediction of CD. This study constitutes a definite proof-of-principle that these combined genomic and metabolomic approaches will be key to

  17. Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2007-05-01

    Controversial information exists on the contribution of several dietary factors for overweight development in childhood, but there is no doubt that obesity prevalence is increasing. We review the most up-to-date information in order to clarify the evidence-based dietary aspects influencing obesity development in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are the preferred method for analysing the relationship between dietary factors and obesity development. With the exception of infants, there are no conclusive associations between energy intake or diet composition and later overweight development in children. Among formula or mixed-fed infants, the increase in energy intake has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight during childhood. Breastfeeding seems to be a protective factor for later obesity development. In terms of food intake, longitudinal studies have only found a clear and positive association between obesity development and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; this is not the case with snacking, fast food or food portion sizes. Cross-sectional studies have found correlations between being overweight in childhood and buying lunch at school, eating supper while watching television or without family supervision, consuming less energy at breakfast or more at dinner, and missing breakfast. Results from longitudinal studies must be taken into account in order to design preventive strategies to counteract the increased prevalence of obesity and its consequences in children. Lack of breastfeeding, high early energy intake and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seem to be the main dietary factors contributing to obesity development.

  18. Synthesizing Risk from Summary Evidence Across Multiple Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Colditz, Graham A; Steele, Russell J

    2018-07-01

    Although meta-analyses provide summary effect estimates that help advise patient care, patients often want to compare their overall health to the general population. The Harvard Cancer Risk Index was published in 2004 and uses risk ratio estimates and prevalence estimates from original studies across many risk factors to provide an answer to this question. However, the published version of the formula only uses dichotomous risk factors and its derivation was not provided. The objective of this brief report was to provide the derivation of a more general form of the equation that allows the incorporation of risk factors with three or more levels.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraporti, Marisete Inês; Scherer Adami, Fernanda; Dutra Rosolen, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Systemic hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in childhood can potentially have a significant impact on future adverse outcomes. To investigate the relationship of diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) with anthropometric data and area of residence of children in municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of 709 children between six and nine years of age. Blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Statistical tests had a maximum significance level of 5% (p≤0.05) and the software used was SPSS version 13.0. Obesity was significantly associated with pre-hypertension, and stage 1 and 2 hypertension as assessed by DBP and SBP (≤0.05); high WC was significantly associated with a classification of pre-hypertension and stage 1 hypertension based on DBP and a classification of stage 1 and 2 hypertension based on SBP (≤0.01). Children living in urban areas had significantly higher mean SBP than those living in rural areas. Those with high WC presented higher SBP and DBP compared to children with normal WC. Obese children showed higher mean SBP and DBP compared to those who were overweight or normal weight and mean SBP and DBP also increased with older age and higher mean body mass index and WC. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Profile and Risk Factor Analysis of Unintentional Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamkar, Rahul; Seth, Bageshree; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-10-01

    To study the profile and various risk factors associated with unintentional injuries in children. The study is a cross sectional analysis of data collected from 351 children presenting with unintentional injury to a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. Data were collected about variables based on Haddon Phase Factor Matrix - host, environment and agent factors. Proportions for categorical variables across various groups were compared using Chi square test or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the factors. Falls (36 %) were the most common injuries followed by bites (23 %). Majority of children were school going children (38 %) followed by preschool children (29 %). Forty-seven percent were from lower socioeconomic class. Commonest place of injury was home (48 %) and the commonest time was evening (49 %). Though there was male predominance in injuries, the difference across gender did not vary significantly (p = 0.15). Poisonings were significantly more common in infants and toddlers and in rural population (p risk of bites compared to urban (p Profile of injuries varies widely as per the variations in agent, host and environmental factors. Socio-environmental, economic conditions and infancy-toddler age groups are predisposing risk factors for bites and poisoning. Although rural areas and lower socioeconomic class population are more vulnerable to serious types of injuries, they still lack essential basic medical care.

  1. Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon

    2017-07-01

    Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery is rare and has not been extensively studied. We performed a retrospective review of cesarean deliveries with neonatal clavicle fracture during a 12-year period. Maternal and neonatal factors as well as surgical factors related to cesarean delivery for the fracture were determined and compared to the control group to analyze their significance. Among a total 89 367 deliveries during the study period, 36 286 babies were born via cesarean section. Nineteen cases of clavicle fractures in cesarean section were identified (0.05% of total live births via cesarean section). In the analysis of maternal and neonatal risk factors, birthweight, birthweight ≥ 4000  g and maternal age were significantly associated with clavicle fracture in cesarean section. However, clavicle fractures were not correlated with the selected surgical factors such as indication for cesarean section, skin incision to delivery time and incision type of skin and uterus. Logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the major risk factor for clavicle fracture. Clavicle fractures complicated 0.05% of cesarean deliveries. The main risk factor related to a clavicle fracture in cesarean section was the birthweight of an infant. As reported in previous studies associated with vaginal delivery, clavicle fracture is considered to be an unavoidable event and may not be eliminated, even in cesarean delivery.

  2. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  3. SOME OF THE RISK FACTORS FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Stanković – Babić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP remains the main cause of visual impairment in preterm infants. The study was aimed to assess the impact of some of the risk factors (gestational age, body weight of children at birth, associated diseases in children, maternal age at delivery, maternal smoking during pregnancy, multiple pregnancies on the occurrence of ROP in the sample of premature infants. We statistically processed the results (Student’s t test and the χ2 test of 93 preterm infants of both sexes: 39 boys and 54 girls, examined by indirect ophthalmoscope (Haine 500, Germany in mydriasis. The examination included all premature neonates with birth weight ≤ 2000g and/or gestational age ≤37 weeks, as well as neonates >37 weeks which have associated risk factors (oxygen, ventilation, sepsis, etc. Among 93 premature infants, with normal findings on the retina there were 72 children (77.42%, while in 21 (22.58% children we found ROP. Ophthalmological findings: the first stage of ROP was found in 15.05%, the second stage of ROP in 2.15% and third stage of ROP in 5.38% of the examined children. There were no patients with an aggressive form of ROP. Children with ROP were statistically of lower gestational age - 32.10 ± 2.70 compared to children without ROP - 35.37 ± 1.72 (p<0.001. Children with ROP had at birth significant lower body weight of 1741g ± 579.19 than children without ROP - 2168.75 ± 528.58 (p<0.01. Mothers of the children with ROP were, at the time of giving birth, over 29 ± 6.09 years old compared to mothers of children without ROP who were 26.42 ± 5.75 years old (p=0.0773. The presence of other diseases was significantly more prevalent in children with ROP 52.38% vs. 2.78% (p<0.001. The number of mothers of children with ROP who smoked during their pregnacy was considerable - 57.14 % vs. 37.50% (percent of non-smoking mothers, though the difference was not statistically significant. Knowing the risk factors and their

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire in Latino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles T; Perreira, Krista M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan M; Bentley, Margaret E; Bronaugh, Andrea B; Thompson, Amanda L

    2016-05-01

    Parent feeding practices affect risk of obesity in children. Latino children are at higher risk of obesity than the general population, yet valid measure of feeding practices, one of which is the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire (IFSQ), have not been formally validated in Spanish. To validate the IFSQ among Latino families, we conducted confirmatory factor analysis of pressuring, restrictive, and responsive feeding constructs from the IFSQ. The IFSQ was administered at the 12-month visit in the Greenlight study, a multi-center cluster randomized trial to prevent obesity. Parents were included if they were of Latino origin (n = 303) and completed an English or Spanish language modified IFSQ (without the indulgence construct). Scores from nine sub-constructs of the IFSQ were compared between English and Spanish language versions. We tested reliability with Cronbach's alpha coefficients and performed confirmatory factor analysis to examine factor loadings and goodness of fit characteristics, modifying constructs to achieve best fit. Of 303 parents completing the IFSQ, 84% were born outside the US, and 74% completed the IFSQ in Spanish. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.28 to 0.61 for the laissez-faire sub-constructs and from 0.58 to 0.83 for the pressuring, restrictive, and responsive sub-constructs. Results for all coefficients were similar between participants responding to an English and Spanish version of the IFSQ. Goodness of fit indices ranged from CFI 0.82-1 and RMSEA 0.00-0.31, and the model performed best in pressuring-soothing (CFI 1.0, RMSEA 0.00) and restrictive-amount (CFI 0.98, RMSEA 0.1) sub-constructs. In a sample of Latino families, pressuring, restrictive, and responsive constructs performed well. The modified IFSQ in both English and Spanish-speaking Latino families may be used to assess parenting behaviors related to early obesity risk in this at-risk population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors that predict remission of infant atopic dermatitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kobyletzki, Laura; Svensson, Åke; Apfelbacher, Christian; Schmitt, Jochen

    2015-04-01

    The individual prognosis of infants with atopic dermatitis (AD) is important for parents, healthcare professionals, and society. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors for remission of infant AD until school age. A systematic review was carried out of clinical and epidemiological studies investigating the effect of filaggrin gene (FLG) loss-of-function mutations, sex, exposure to pets, topical anti-inflammatory treatment, disease severity, and atopic sensitization during infancy on complete remission of infant-onset AD until 6-7 years of age. Systematic electronic searches until September 2013, data abstraction, and study quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) were performed. From 3,316 abstracts identified, 2 studies of good study quality were included. Parental allergies and sex did not significantly affect remission. For non-remission of AD, the included articles reported an association with any atopic sensitization at 2 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-5.91), frequent scratching with early AD (aOR 5.86; 95% CI 3.04-11.29), objective severity score at 2 years old (aOR 1.10; 95% CI 1.07-1.14), and exposure to pets (cat OR 2.33; 95% CI 0.85-6.38). It is largely unknown which factors predict remission of infant AD. This is a highly relevant research gap that hinders patient information on the prognosis of infant-onset AD.

  6. Do high-risk infants have a poorer outcome from primary repair of coarctation? Analysis of 192 infants over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuinness, Jonathan G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty for infant coarctation is associated with a high recurrence rate, making operative repair the gold standard for low-risk infants. Debate exists as to whether high-risk infants might be better served with primary angioplasty. We compared the outcome in high-risk versus low-risk infants over 20 years, in a center that always used surgical repair as the primary intervention. METHODS: Of 192 infants from 1986 to 2005, 56 were considered "high-risk," defined as requiring prostaglandin infusion together with either epinephrine infusion for 24 hours preoperatively, or ventilation and milrinone infusion for 24 hours preoperatively. All high-risk patients had a period of ventricular dysfunction prior to surgery, ranging from mild to severe. Outcomes were compared using Bonferroni comparison of means or the Fischer exact test as appropriate. RESULTS: Although the high-risk patients were smaller (3.3 +\\/- 0.1 vs 4.2 +\\/- 0.2 kg, p < 0.01), younger (18 +\\/- 4 vs 57 +\\/- 7 days, p < 0.01), and more often required a concomitant pulmonary artery band (25% vs 15%, p = 0.05), their cross-clamp times were the same as the low-risk patients (18.9 +\\/- 0.9 vs 18.0 +\\/- 0.4 minutes, p = 0.27) and there was no difference in postoperative morbidity (7% vs 3%, p = 0.11). However, there was a trend toward higher perioperative mortality (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). When compared with the published studies of primary angioplasty in comparable high-risk infants, the mortality rate in our surgically treated high-risk group is much lower. Additionally, only 11% of our high-risk group required reintervention, with two-thirds treated successfully with a single angioplasty at 3.8 +\\/- 2.2 years later, far lower than recurrence rates with primary angioplasty. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that primary surgical repair of coarctation in infants who are high risk should be the primary treatment, with angioplasty reserved for recurrent coarctation.

  7. Risk Factors for Dystocia in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-01-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources. PMID:21535929

  8. Risk factors for fetal anaemia in a malarious area of Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabin, B. J.; Kalanda, B. F.; Verhoeff, F. H.; Chimsuku, L. H.; Broadhead, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of infants born with low cord haemoglobin (fetal anaemia) is high in areas where malaria and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy are common. The objective of the present study was to determine risk factors for fetal anaemia in an area of high malaria transmission in southern Malawi.

  9. Retinopathy of Prematurity; Risk Factors, Prognosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyo¤lu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence, related risk factors, treatment and follow-up results in cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Material and Method: Medical records of 405 premature infants who attended our clinic between August 1999 and September 2004 were retrospectively screened. Among these patients, 379 infants were followed up in our neonatology unit and 26 were referred to us from other clinics. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation and/or cryotherapy were performed when prethreshold or threshold ROP was detected. Surgery was performed in stage IV-V ROP. Results: ROP was detected in 88 out of 405 infants (21.72%. At the first examination, stage I ROP was detected in 18 eyes (10.4%, stage II - in 67 eyes (38.72%, stage III - in 82 eyes (47.39%, and stage IV-V – in 6 eyes (3.46%. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation was applied to 34 eyes with stage II and in 47 eyes with stage III ROP. Ten eyes with threshold ROP and 4 eyes which progressed to threshold ROP were treated with cryotherapy. Scleral buckling was performed in 3 eyes that progressed to stage IV ROP. At the first examination, 2 eyes with stage IV-V ROP were treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. Discussion: In our series, the most important risk factors for development and progression of ROP were found to be low birth weight, low gestational age, mechanical ventilation and multiple pregnancy. Effective screening, follow-up and appropriate treatment are important for prevention of permanent damage and unfavorable outcome in ROP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 128-32

  10. Peanut allergy: is maternal transmission of antigens during pregnancy and breastfeeding a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesRoches, A; Infante-Rivard, C; Paradis, L; Paradis, J; Haddad, E

    2010-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an important public health problem in western countries. However, the risk factors associated with this allergy remain uncertain. To determine whether the consumption of peanuts during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a risk factor for peanut allergy in infants. We enrolled 403 infants in a case-control study. The cases were infants aged 18 months or less with a diagnosis of peanut allergy based on a history of clinical reaction after exposure to peanuts and the presence of peanut-specific immunoglobulin E. Controls were age-matched infants with no known clinical history or signs of atopic disease. The mothers of the children filled out a detailed questionnaire about maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the infant's diet, the presence of peanut products in the infant's environment, and family history of atopy. The mean (SD) age of cases was 1.23 (0.03) years. The groups were comparable in terms of the rate and duration of breastfeeding. However, the reported consumption of peanuts during pregnancy and breastfeeding was higher in the case group and associated with an increased risk of peanut allergy in offspring (odds ratio [OR], 4.22 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-11.30 and OR, 2.28 [95% CI, 1.31-3.97] for pregnancy and breastfeeding, respectively). Overall, the infants with peanut allergy did not seem to be more exposed to peanut products in their environment than the controls. Early exposure to peanut allergens, whether in utero or through human breast milk, seems to increase the risk of developing peanut allergy.

  11. The general movement assessment helps us to identify preterm infants at risk for cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa eEinspieler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from motor and behavioral dysfunctions, deficits in cognitive skills are among the well-documented sequelae of preterm birth. However, early identification of infants at risk for poor cognition is still a challenge, as no clear association between pathological findings based on neuroimaging scans and cognitive functions have been detected as yet. The Prechtl General Movement Assessment (GMA has shown its merits for the evaluation of the integrity of the young nervous system. It is a reliable tool for identifying infants at risk for neuromotor deficits. Recent studies on preterm infants demonstrate that abnormal general movements also reflect impairments of brain areas involved in cognitive development. The aim of this systematic review was to discuss studies that included (i the Prechtl GMA applied in preterm infants, and (ii cognitive outcome measures in six data bases. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and yielded the following results: (a children born preterm with consistently abnormal general movements up to 8 weeks after term had lower intelligence quotients at school age than children with an early normalization of general movements; (b from 3 to 5 months after term, several qualitative and quantitative aspects of the concurrent motor repertoire, including postural patterns, were predictive of intelligence at 7 to 10 years of age. These findings in 428 individuals born preterm suggest that normal general movements along with a normal motor repertoire during the first months after term are markers for normal cognitive development until at least age 10.

  12. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination during pregnancy and reduced risk of infant acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R; Conlin, Ava Marie S

    2017-10-09

    To protect infants from pertussis infection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy. Here, we assessed the association between timing of maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and infant ARI at vaccination during pregnancy vs those who did not were 9% less likely to be diagnosed with an ARI at risk was 17% lower if vaccination was received between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). Similar results were observed when comparing mothers who received Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy in addition to Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy versus mothers who only received vaccination prior to pregnancy (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98). Maternal Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy was consistently protective against infant ARI in the first 2months of life vs no vaccination during pregnancy, regardless of Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy. Our findings strongly support current ACIP guidelines recommending Tdap vaccination in late pregnancy for every pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. REFLECTING ON THE PRACTICE OF INFANT MENTAL HEALTH AND THE REDUCTION OF RISK IN INFANCY AND EARLY PARENTHOOD: AN ESSAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherston, Deborah J

    2017-01-01

    This essay discusses infant mental health (IMH) as well as its origins and relational framework. The author then reflects, professionally and personally, on the meaning of psychological vulnerability of boys under 5 years of age, the importance of early caregiving relationships to the reduction of risk, and implications for education and training in the IMH field. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a predictor factor for motor alteration at 6 months corrected age in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Priscila Silveira; Mello,Rosane Reis de; Silva,Kátia Silveira da

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as a predisposing factor for alteration in the psychomotor development index (PDI) in premature infants and verify the incidence of neuromotor alterations at 6 months corrected age. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor development of 152 very low birth weight premature infants, with psychomotor development index as the outcome. The study used the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 6 mo...

  15. The Study of Maternal Perception of Preterm Infants and Some Related Factors in Selected Hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafoorie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Appropriate maternal care is necessary to provide Physical growth and mental development of neonate which is related to establishing a good relationship between mother and infant. Positive perception of mothers to their neonates, creates a better relationship between them. Maternal perception of neonates is based on her understanding of biological behavior of the infant. Special features of prematurity, maternal stress and anxiety due to premature delivery are effective on maternal perceptions. The purpose of this study was to determine the maternal perception of premature infants as determining it’s related factors. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 150 mothers of preterm infants who were been admitted to Neonatal intensive care units of 2 selected hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, entered the study. Broussard questionnaire were used to measure the maternal perception. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical analysis and Kay square and Fisher's exact tests were used for analyzing the data. Results: Most of mother’s had a negative perception of their preterm infant. Based on the results, Mather’s job, fathers’ job, mothers’ age, husband’s support, desire about the pregnancy, history of miscarriage and still birth were related with perception of mothers of preterm infants. Discussion: Negative perceptions in mothers of preterm infants are prevalent and in some groups are in higher risk. As negative perception can have a role in developmental processes and cause problems in future, preparing circumstances to decrease mothers’ stress and providing facilities and interventions to increase mother-infant communications are essential. These are treatment team’s duties. The health care team can screen susceptible cases and by supportive interventions, it is possible to create better mother-baby relationship and prepare better care to prevent future developmental problems.

  16. Down syndrome as risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization: A prospective multicenter epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Luna, Manuel; Medrano, Constancio; Lirio, Julián

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood, particularly in premature infants, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To compare the hospitalization rates due to RSV infection and severity of disease between infants with and without Down syndrome (DS) born at term and without other associated risk factors for severe RSV infection. In a prospective multicentre epidemiological study, 93 infants were included in the DS cohort and 68 matched by sex and data of birth (±1 week) and were followed up to 1 year of age and during a complete RSV season. The hospitalization rate for all acute respiratory infection was significantly higher in the DS cohort than in the non-DS cohort (44.1% vs 7.7%, P<.0001). Hospitalizations due to RSV were significantly more frequent in the DH cohort than in the non-DS cohort (9.7% vs 1.5%, P=.03). RSV prophylaxis was recorded in 33 (35.5%) infants with DS. The rate of hospitalization according to presence or absence of RSV immunoprophylaxis was 3.0% vs 15%, respectively. Infants with DS showed a higher rate of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infection and RSV infection compared to non-DS infants. Including DS infants in recommendations for immunoprophylaxis of RSV disease should be considered. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years in very preterm infants below 1250 grams: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pratibha Keshav; Shi, Luming; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Zheng, Qishi; Yang, Phey Hong; Khoo, Poh Choo; Quek, Bin Huey; Daniel, Lourdes Mary

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm very-low birth weight (PT/VLBW) infants at 2 years and identify risk factors associated with significant developmental delay or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). We evaluated 165 PT/VLBW infants born between January 2010 and December 2011, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III). NDI was defined as the presence of neurosensory impairment or significant delay with Bayley-III score deaf and none were blind. Regression models identified significant positive associations of delayed cognitive skills with male gender (Odds ratio (OR) 22.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-341.1; P = 0.025), lack of anntenatal steroids (ANS) (OR 41.5, 95% CI 3.5-485.7; P = 0.003), and hypotension needing inotropes (OR 36.0, 95% CI 2.6-506.0; P = 0.008); delayed language skills with lower maternal education (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10.3; P = 0.10), lack of ANS (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.4; P = 0.04), and 5 minute Apgar Score ≤ 5 (OR 7.4, 95% CI 1.4-38.4; P = 0.017) and delayed motor skills with chronic lung disease at 36 weeks (OR 38.3, 95% CI 2.4-603.4; P = 0.010). NDI was associated with lack of ANS (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.21-7.00; P = 0.02) and use of postnatal steroids (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.07-10.54; P = 0.0374). Risk factors for both NDI and individual domain delay were identified and will be helpful in planning of specific and targeted early intervention services.

  18. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the main cause of visual impairment in preterm newborn infants. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3 is associated with proliferative ROP and has a role in pathogenesis of the disease in premature infants. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 preterm infants born at or before 32 weeks of gestation participated in this study. Studied patients consisted of 41 neonates without vaso-proliferative findings of ROP as the control group and 30 preterm infants with evidence of severe ROP in follow up eye examination as the case group. Blood samples obtained from these infants 6-8 weeks after birth and blood levels of IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The mean gestation age and birth weight of the studied patients were 28.2±1.6 weeks and 1120.7±197 gram in the case group and 28.4±1.6 weeks and 1189.4±454 gram in the control group (P=0.25 and P=0.44 respectively. The infants in the case group had significantly lower Apgar score at first and 5 min after birth. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3 was significantly lower in the patients with proliferative ROP than the patients without ROP [592.5±472.9 vs. 995.5±422.2 ng/ml (P=0.009]. Using a cut-off point 770.45 ng/ml for the plasma IGFBP-3, we obtained a sensitivity of 65.9% and a specificity of 66.7% in the preterm infants with vasoproliferative ROP. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that the blood levels IGFBP-3 was significantly lower in the patients with ROP and it is suspected that IGFBP-3 deficiency in the premature infants may have a pathogenetic role in proliferative ROP.

  20. [The relationship between socioeconomic factors and maternal and infant health programs in 13 Argentine provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, Graciela; Paganini, José María

    2007-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between maternal and infant health and socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors in Argentina; to evaluate how health program quality affects the primary health indicators for mothers and infants. This is a cross-sectional study with multiple variables. The authors studied six indicators for maternal and infant health: rates for maternal, infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality; the percentage of newborns with low birthweight; and the percentage of premature newborns. The study was conducted in 79 administrative units in 13 provinces that represent different geographic regions of Argentina. They included (1) the provinces of Salta and Jujuy in northwest Argentina; (2) the provinces of Córdoba, Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires in central Argentina; (3) the provinces of Entre Ríos and Misiones in the Mesopotamia or northeast region; (4) the provinces of San Luis, San Juan, and Mendoza in the Cuyo or northwest, Andean region; and (5) the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, and Chubut in the south. The explanatory variable in the study was the quality of health programs, controlled by socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors in 1999 and 2000. The definition of program quality ("poor," "average," "good," and "very good") was based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of selected variables such as policies, organization, and procedures as determined by the investigators. Documentation was obtained from secondary official sources. The investigators interviewed 117 health system managers (including supervisors of provincial and local health programs, administrators of maternal and child health programs, and hospital directors), who provided information on characteristics and indicators of the health programs. There were marked geographic differences in the levels of maternal and infant health, medical care, and socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors. Only 10.0% of health programs were classified as "very good," 35.4% as

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of risk factors and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Port, Alexander D; Swan, Ryan; Campbell, J Peter; Chan, R V Paul; Chiang, Michael F

    2018-04-19

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease that affects premature infants. Despite improvements in neonatal care and management guidelines, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Current screening guidelines are primarily based on two risk factors: birth weight and gestational age; however, many investigators have suggested other risk factors, including maternal factors, prenatal and perinatal factors, demographics, medical interventions, comorbidities of prematurity, nutrition, and genetic factors. We review the existing literature addressing various possible ROP risk factors. Although there have been contradictory reports, and the risk may vary between different populations, understanding ROP risk factors is essential to develop predictive models, to gain insights into pathophysiology of retinal vascular diseases and diseases of prematurity, and to determine future directions in management of and research in ROP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk Factors Affecting the Severity of Full-Term Neonatal Retinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore the underlying clinical factors associated with the degree of retinal hemorrhage (RH in full-term newborns. Methods. A total of 3054 full-term infants were included in this study. Eye examinations were performed with RetCamIII within one week of birth for all infants. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal parameters were compared between newborns with RH and controls. The RH group was divided into three sections (I, II, and III based on the degree of RH. Results. RH was observed in 1202 of 3054 infants (39.36% in this study. The quantity and proportion of newborns in groups I, II, and III were 408 (13.36%, 610 (19.97%, and 184 (6.03%, respectively. Spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD, prolonged duration of second stage of labor, advanced maternal age, and neonatal intracranial hemorrhage positively correlated with aggravation of the degree of RH in newborns. Conversely, cesarean section was protective against the incidence of RH. Conclusions. SVD, prolonged duration of second stage of labor, advanced maternal age, and neonatal intracranial hemorrhage were potential risk factors for aggravation of the degree of RH in full-term infants. Accordingly, infants with these risk factors may require greater attention with respect to RH development.

  3. Parent-delivered early intervention in infants at risk for ASD: Effects on electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J H; Dawson, Geraldine; Kelly, Jean; Estes, Annette; Jane Webb, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infants with older siblings with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have indicated that differences in the neurocognitive systems underlying social attention may emerge prior to the child meeting ASD diagnostic criteria. Thus, targeting social attention with early intervention might have the potential to alter developmental trajectories for infants at high risk for ASD. Electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention were collected at 6, 12, and 18 months in a group of high-risk infant siblings of children with ASD (N = 33). Between 9 and 11 months of age, infant siblings received a parent-delivered intervention, promoting first relationships (PFR), (n = 19) or on-going assessment without intervention (n = 14). PFR has been previously shown to increase parental responsivity to infant social communicative cues and infant contingent responding. Compared to infants who only received assessment and monitoring, infants who received the intervention showed improvements in neurocognitive metrics of social attention, as reflected in a greater reduction in habituation times to face versus object stimuli between 6 and 12 months, maintained at 18 months; a greater increase in frontal EEG theta power between 6 and 12 months; and a more comparable P400 response to faces and objects at 12 months. The high-risk infants who received the intervention showed a pattern of responses that appeared closer to the normative responses of two groups of age-matched low-risk control participants. Though replication is necessary, these results suggest that early parent-mediated intervention has the potential to impact the brain systems underpinning social attention in infants at familial risk for ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 961-972. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Objective factors affecting the image quality of low-dose cranial CT of infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Na; Gan Yungen; Wang Hongwei; Zeng Hongwu; Cao Weiguo; Sun Longwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the objective factors that affect the image quality of infant cranial CT using different mAs. Materials and Methods: Ninety infants were divided into three groups randomly. The maximum anteroposterior diameter (MAPD) of skull of each infant was measured. Three reference levels, cerebellar, basal ganglia and centrum semiovale levels were selected respectively. Only one level was studied in each group and scanned with 150, 100 and 80 mAs. The subjective quality grade and the objective noise of all images were recorded and analysed statistically. Results: The average MAPD of ninety patients was (148.0±17.4) mm. On the cerebellar level, the subjective quality grade was lower than the other two levels, which were 6.3%, 9.4% and 22.9% respectively when mAs were 150, 100 and 80 mAs. Both quality grade of image and objective noise were significantly correlated with MAPD. Conclusions: The inherent high noise of cerebellar level and MAPD were the objective factors that affect the image quality of low-dose cranial CT of infant. (authors)

  5. Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in the First 1,000 Days: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Locks, Lindsey M; Cheng, Erika R; Blake-Lamb, Tiffany L; Perkins, Meghan E; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the origins of childhood obesity and related disparities can be found as early as the "first 1,000 days"-the period from conception to age 2 years. The main goal of this study is to systematically review existing evidence for modifiable childhood obesity risk factors present from conception to age 2 years. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies published between January 1, 1980, and December 12, 2014, of childhood obesity risk factors present during the first 1,000 days. Prospective, original human subject, English-language research with exposure occurrence during the first 1,000 days and with the outcome of childhood overweight or obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex) collected between age 6 months and 18 years were analyzed between December 13, 2014, and March 15, 2015. Of 5,952 identified citations, 282 studies met inclusion criteria. Several risk factors during the first 1,000 days were consistently associated with later childhood obesity. These included higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal excess gestational weight gain, high infant birth weight, and accelerated infant weight gain. Fewer studies also supported gestational diabetes, child care attendance, low strength of maternal-infant relationship, low SES, curtailed infant sleep, inappropriate bottle use, introduction of solid food intake before age 4 months, and infant antibiotic exposure as risk factors for childhood obesity. Modifiable risk factors in the first 1,000 days can inform future research and policy priorities and intervention efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Factors influencing the prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Hong; Shi, Li-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zheng; Lin, Hui-Jia; DU, Li-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the factors influencing the prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A total of 194 VLBW infants who were admitted from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled as study subjects. According to cardiac ultrasound findings and treatment outcome, these infants were divided into non-PDA group, spontaneous closure group, pharmaceutical closure group, and surgical closure group. Their clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were analyzed. The spontaneous closure rate of PDA was 58.7%. The spontaneous closure group showed significantly higher gestational age, birth weight, and proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants than the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups (Pclosure groups had a significantly higher incidence rate of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and a significantly higher proportion of infants who were given pulmonary surfactant (PS) than the spontaneous closure group (Pclosure group had a significantly smaller ductus arteriosus diameter than the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups (Pductus arteriosus diameter at 48 hours were significantly associated with the prognosis of PDA. The major transductal flow pattern in the spontaneous closure group was closing pattern, while in the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups, the main flow patterns were pulmonary hypertension and growing patterns within 48 hours and growing pattern on days 4 and 7. The VLBW infants have a high spontaneous closure rate of PDA. A decreased closure rate of PDA is associated with the lower gestational age and the application of PS. PDA with a large ductus arteriosus diameter and a growing or pulsatile flow pattern cannot easily achieve spontaneous closure.

  7. A change in temporal organization of fidgety movements during the fidgety movement period is common among high risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Rannei; Støen, Ragnhild; Vik, Torstein; Fjørtoft, Toril; Vågen, Randi Tynes; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Lydersen, Stian; Adde, Lars

    2016-07-01

    General movement assessment (GMA) at 9-20 weeks post-term, can effectively predict cerebral palsy. Our aim was to evaluate intra-individual variability of the temporal organization of fidgety movements (FMs) in high risk infants. 104 High risk infants (66 males) with at least two video recordings from the FMs period participated. 45 of the infants had GA <28 weeks and/or BW ≤800 g. Mean post-term age at first and second assessments was 11.0 (8-16) and 14.0 (11-17) weeks, respectively, and median time-difference between the assessments was 2.0 (range: three days to six weeks) weeks. Video recordings were analyzed according to Prechtl's GMA. 33 (32%) Infants were classified differently at first and second assessments. Six infants (6%) changed from normal to abnormal, and 10 (10%) changed from abnormal to normal FMs. Seven of the ten who changed classification from abnormal to normal were born before GA 26 weeks. A change between intermittent and continual, which are both considered normal, was observed in 17 (16%) infants. A change in temporal organization of FMs is common in high risk infants. Especially in extremely preterm infants with abnormal FMs, more than one assessment should be performed before long-term prognosis is considered. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of DDT residue in maize consumed by infants as complementary diet in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors for Depression : Differential Across Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, Roxanne; Comijs, Hannie C; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of well-established risk factors for depression differs across the lifespan. Risk factors may be more strongly associated with depression at ages when occurrence, and therefore expectance, is relatively low ("on-time off-time" hypothesis). This large-scale study examined

  10. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, Geertje A M; Van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  11. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy

  12. Secondhand smoke risk in infants discharged from an NICU: potential for significant health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L; Evans, Patricia W; Green, Charles E; Northrup, Thomas F; Dodrill, Carrie L; Fox, Jeffery M; Tyson, Jon E; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2011-11-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) threatens fragile infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Smoking practices were examined in families with a high respiratory risk infant (born at very low birth weight; ventilated > 12 hr) in a Houston, Texas, NICU. Socioeconomic status, race, and mental health status were hypothesized to be related to SHSe and household smoking bans. Data were collected as part of The Baby's Breath Project, a hospital-based SHSe intervention trial targeting parents with a high-risk infant in the NICU who reported a smoker in the household (N = 99). Measures of sociodemographics, smoking, home and car smoking bans, and depression were collected. Overall, 26% of all families with a high-risk infant in the NICU reported a household smoker. Almost half of the families with a smoker reported an annual income of less than $25,000. 46.2% of families reported having a total smoking ban in place in both their homes and cars. Only 27.8% families earning less than $25,000 reported having a total smoking ban in place relative to almost 60% of families earning more (p < .01). African American and Caucasian families were less likely to have a smoking ban compared with Hispanics (p < .05). Mothers who reported no smoking ban were more depressed than those who had a household smoking ban (p < .02). The most disadvantaged families were least likely to have protective health behaviors in place to reduce SHSe and, consequently, are most at-risk for tobacco exposure and subsequent tobacco-related health disparities. Innovative SHSe interventions for this vulnerable population are sorely needed.

  13. Mothers Speak Differently to Infants At-Risk for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Goswami, Usha; Burnham, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt…

  14. The development of parents-infant relationship in high-risk pregnancies and preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Pisoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of human attachment, developed in 1951 by John Bowlby, has been widely applied across psychological, medical and social disciplines, especially in the context of developmental psychology; more recently it has been studied in the obstetric and neonatal fields. Numerous studies suggest that attachment patterns have an impact on the social, cognitive and emotional development of the off-spring, and are also believed to influence the individual’s psychosocial trajectories across the lifespan. Starting from empirical study of attachment, the psychological analysis of the experience of pregnancy allowed to introduce the concept of prenatal attachment, considered as the earlier internalized representation of the fetus that both parents acquire and elaborate during pregnancy. Recent studies have attempted to investigate how prenatal attachment develops in conditions of hazard, as for example in women hospitalized for a high-risk pregnancy or preterm birth. Literature showed that these clinical conditions may represent risk factors that, along with psychological distress and lack of familiar and social support, may adversely affect the mother-child relationship, with consequences on the psycosocial development of the off-spring. During pregnancy, medical team should assess mothers’ distress and attachment, perform procedures to positively develop attachment, and direct parents with low attachment scores to receive a professional, specific counseling. In the premature birth context, it is important to closely support mother-infant contact and to decrease maternal stress in every possible way during hospitalization and after discharge. Promotion of psychological wellbeing and attachment during pregnancy and after birth may serve as a crucial opportunity of improving maternal health practices, perinatal health and neonatal outcomes. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014

  15. Integrated approaches to improve birth outcomes: perinatal periods of risk, infant mortality review, and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin Margaret; Donatoni, Giannina; Bemis, Cathleen; Donovan, Kevin; Harding, Cynthia; Davenport, Deborah; Gilbert, Carol; Kasehagen, Laurin; Peck, Magda G

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an example of how Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) can provide a framework and offer analytic methods that move communities to productive action to address infant mortality. Between 1999 and 2002, the infant mortality rate in the Antelope Valley region of Los Angeles County increased from 5.0 to 10.6 per 1,000 live births. Of particular concern, infant mortality among African Americans in the Antelope Valley rose from 11.0 per 1,000 live births (7 cases) in 1999 to 32.7 per 1,000 live births (27 cases) in 2002. In response, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Programs partnered with a community task force to develop an action plan to address the issue. Three stages of the PPOR approach were used: (1) Assuring Readiness; (2) Data and Assessment, which included: (a) Using 2002 vital records to identify areas with the highest excess rates of feto-infant mortality (Phase 1 PPOR), and (b) Implementing Infant Mortality Review (IMR) and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Project, a population-based study to identify potential factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. (Phase 2 PPOR); and (3) Strategy and Planning, to develop strategic actions for targeted prevention. A description of stakeholders' commitments to improve birth outcomes and monitor infant mortality is also given. The Antelope Valley community was engaged and ready to investigate the local rise in infant mortality. Phase 1 PPOR analysis identified Maternal Health/Prematurity and Infant Health as the most important periods of risk for further investigation and potential intervention. During the Phase 2 PPOR analyses, IMR found a significant proportion of mothers with previous fetal loss (45%) or low birth weight/preterm (LBW/PT) birth, late prenatal care (39%), maternal infections (47%), and infant safety issues (21%). After adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age, race, education level, and marital status), the

  16. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  17. Fatores de risco para anemia em lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde: a importância das práticas alimentares e da suplementação com ferro Risk factors for anemia in infants assisted by public health services: the importance of feeding practices and iron supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle G. Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores de risco para anemia em lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, foram avaliadas 205 crianças de 6 a 12 meses no município de Viçosa (MG. A coleta de dados envolveu variáveis socioeconômicas, ambientais e biológicas, bem como aquelas relacionadas ao estado nutricional, à mãe, ao nascimento, ao cuidado com a saúde infantil, às práticas alimentares e à suplementação com ferro. O diagnóstico da anemia baseou-se nos valores de hemoglobina inferiores a 11 g/dL, utilizando o fotômetro portátil Hemocue. Na análise da associação das variáveis com a anemia, foi utilizada a regressão logística múltipla hierarquizada. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 57,6%. Apresentaram maior chance de anemia os lactentes que pertenciam às famílias com renda per capita inferior a 0,5 salário mínimo, não consumiam frutas diariamente e não ingeriam suplementos medicamentosos com ferro. CONCLUSÃO: A adequada assistência à saúde e nutrição das famílias de baixa renda, o incentivo às práticas alimentares saudáveis e a prescrição de suplementos medicamentosos com ferro são medidas de grande importância para a prevenção e o controle da anemia entre os lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors for anemia in infants assisted by public health services. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study carried out in Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 205 children from 6 to 12 months were evaluated. Socioeconomic, environmental and biological data were collected, as well as information on child's birth, nutritional status, maternal data, child health care practices, feeding practices, and iron supplementation. Diagnosis of anemia was based on hemoglobin levels under 11 g/dL, using a portable Hemocue photometer. To analyze variables associated with anemia, a hierarchical logistic regression model was used

  18. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  19. Clinical sonography in premature infant: Sonographic analysis of incidence and grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage according to gestational age,risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, I. W.; Yeon, K. M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors reviewed 63 premature infants who was born from January 1986 to August 1988 at College of Medicine Seoul National University, to analyze grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage to gestational age, risk.

  20. Creating the Action Model for High Risk Infant Follow Up Program in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Jodiery, Behzad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Heidarabadi, Seifollah; HabibeLahi, Abbas

    2013-11-01

    Intervention in early childhood development as one of the social determinants of health, is important for reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow up program in Iran. This study was carreid out to design high risk infants follow up care program with the practical aim of creating an model action for whole country, in 2012. This qualitative study has been done by the Neonatal Department of the Deputy of Public Health in cooperation with Pediatrics Health Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. After study of international documents, consensus agreement about adapted program for Iran has been accomplished by focus group discussion and attended Delphi agreement technique. After compiling primary draft included evidence based guidelines and executive plan, 14 sessions including expert panels were hold to finalize the program. After finalizing the program, high risk infants follow up care service package has been designed in 3 chapters: Evidence based clinical guidelines; eighteen main clinical guidelines and thirteen subsidiaries clinical guidelines, executive plan; 6 general, 6 following up and 5 backup processes. Education program including general and especial courses for care givers and follow up team, and family education processes. We designed and finalized high risk infants follow up care service package. It seems to open a way to extend it to whole country.

  1. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, F.T. de [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, G. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  2. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J.; Bruine, F.T. de; Wezel-Meijler, G. van

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  3. Risk factors for invasive reptile-associated salmonellosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M; Relly, Christa; Hug, Martina; Wittenbrink, Max M; Berger, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    Reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) in children has been reported primarily due to direct contact with turtles, but recently also due to indirect contact with more exotic reptiles, causing disease in infants. To evaluate risk factors for RAS, we reviewed the RAS cases published in the literature since 1965. A case was defined as a child ≤18 years of age with an epidemiological link by identification of Salmonella enterica in cultures from both the affected child and the exposed reptile. We identified a total of 177 otherwise healthy children (median age 1.0 years, range 2 days to 17.0 years). RAS manifested mainly with gastrointestinal disease, but 15% presented with invasive RAS, including septicemia, meningitis, and bone and joint infection. The children with invasive RAS were significantly younger than children with noninvasive disease (median age 0.17 and 2.0 years, preptiles other than turtles, including iguanas, bearded dragons, snakes, chameleons, and geckos. Children exposed to those latter reptiles usually kept indoors were younger than children exposed to turtles mostly kept outdoors (preptiles, other than turtles, kept indoors is associated with RAS at younger age and more invasive disease. This finding is helpful for recognizing or even preventing invasive RAS in young infants that are at highest risk.

  4. School-age outcomes of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Young, Gregory S; Hill, Monique; Phelps Hanzel, Elise; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Ozonoff, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have proliferated, but few of these samples have been followed longer-term. We conducted a follow-up study, at age 5.5-9 years, of younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 79) or typical development (low-risk group, n = 60), originally recruited as infants. Children with ASD were excluded because of the focus on understanding the range of non-ASD outcomes among high-risk siblings. Using examiner ratings, parent ratings, and standardized assessments, we evaluated differences in clinical outcomes, psychopathology symptoms, autism symptoms, language skills, and nonverbal cognitive abilities. After adjusting for covariates, the high-risk group had increased odds of any clinically elevated/impaired score across measures relative to the low-risk group (43% vs. 12%, respectively). The high-risk group also had increased odds of examiner-rated Clinical Concerns (CC) outcomes (e.g., ADHD concerns, broader autism phenotype, speech-language difficulties, anxiety/mood problems, learning problems) relative to the low-risk group (38% vs. 13%, respectively). The high-risk group with CC outcomes had higher parent-reported psychopathology and autism symptoms, and lower directly-assessed language skills, than the Low-Risk Typically Developing (TD) and High-Risk TD groups, which did not differ. There were no differences in nonverbal cognitive skills. For some in the high-risk group, clinical concerns persisted from early childhood, whereas for others clinical concerns were first evident at school-age. Results suggest continued vulnerability in at least a subgroup of school-age children with a family history of ASD and suggest that this population may benefit from continued screening and monitoring into the school-age years. Autism Res 2016, 9: 632-642. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals

  5. Contextual factors in liquidity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.; van Lelyveld, I.P.P.; Zymek, R.

    2015-01-01

    We assess the determinants of banks’ liquidity holdings using data for nearly 7000 banks from 25 OECD countries. We highlight the role of several bank-specific, institutional and policy variables in shaping banks’ liquidity risk management. Our main question is whether liquidity regulation

  6. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  7. Desenvolvimento motor e funcional em crianças nascidas pré-termo e a termo: influência de fatores de risco biológico e ambiental Desarrollo motor y funcional en niños nacidos pretérmino y a término: influencia de factores de riesgo biológico y ambiental Motor and functional development in infants born preterm and full term: influence of biological and environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edifrance Sá de Souza

    2012-12-01

    adquisición de la marcha en el grupo pretérmino (p=0,005, aunque no se haya encontrado diferencia significativa entre los grupos en la AIMS a los 12 (p=0,187 y a los 15 meses (p=0,80. A los 18 meses se encontraron diferencias significativas en el desarrollo motor grueso (pOBJECTIVE: To compare motor development in preterm and full term infants from 12 to 18 months and to investigate the relationship between functional performance and quantity and quality of environmental stimulation. METHODS: Quantitative, exploratory and longitudinal study, which included 30 preterm (gestational age: 30.0±2.3 weeks and birth weight: 1178±193g and 30 full term infants (39±1.3 weeks and 3270±400g. Motor development was evaluated by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. Home environment was assessed by the Home Observation Measurement of the Environment. The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory was used to examine functional abilities. RESULTS: The preterm group presented slower gait acquisition (p=0.005, although no significant differences between groups were found in the Alberta Infant Motor Scale at 12 (p=0.187 and 15 months (p=0.80. At 18 months, significant differences were found in gross (p<0.001 and fine (p=0.001 motor development and in functional abilities, with a better performance of the full term group. There were differences between groups in the Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS: Performance differences between groups increased from 12 to 18 months, and environmental factors might have enhanced the effects of biological risks. Developmental follow-up programs should focus on aspects of the environment where the child lives.

  8. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  9. Influence of milk-feeding type and genetic risk of developing coeliac disease on intestinal microbiota of infants: the PROFICEL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada De Palma

    Full Text Available Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD. This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder.

  10. Differential factors associated with challenge-proven food allergy phenotypes in a population cohort of infants: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R L; Allen, K J; Dharmage, S C; Lodge, C J; Koplin, J J; Ponsonby, A-L; Wake, M; Lowe, A J; Tang, M L K; Matheson, M C; Gurrin, L C

    2015-05-01

    Food allergy, eczema and wheeze are early manifestations of allergic disease and commonly co-occur in infancy although their interrelationship is not well understood. Data from population studies are essential to determine whether there are differential drivers of multi-allergy phenotypes. We aimed to define phenotypes and risk factors of allergic disease using latent class analysis (LCA). The HealthNuts study is a prospective, population-based cohort of 5276 12-month-old infants in Melbourne, Australia. LCA was performed using the following baseline data collected at age 12 months: food sensitization (skin prick test ≥ 2 mm) and allergy (oral food challenge) to egg, peanut and sesame; early (food-sensitized eczema (16%), single egg allergy (9%), multiple food allergies (predominantly peanut) (3%) and multiple food allergies (predominantly egg) (2%). Compared to the baseline group of no allergic disease, shared risk factors for all allergic phenotypes were parents born overseas (particularly Asia), delayed introduction of egg, male gender (except for single egg allergy) and family history of allergic disease, whilst exposure to pet dogs was protective for all phenotypes. Other factors including filaggrin mutations, vitamin D and the presence of older siblings differed by phenotype. Multiple outcomes in infancy can be used to determine five distinct allergy phenotypes at the population level, which have both shared and separate risk factors suggesting differential mechanisms of disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Association between Interleukin-10-1082 G/A and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α 308 G/A Gene Polymorphisms and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Iranian Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Omidvari, Peyman; Moradi, Fahimeh; Hamidi, Majid; Teimori, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Cytokine polymorphisms may contribute to the prevalence of respiratory distress syndrome. The present study was done to investigate the frequency of interleukin- (IL-) 10 and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) ? gene polymorphisms and their association with the risk of RDS in preterm infants. One-hundred and nineteen patients with RDS and 119 healthy preterm infants were enrolled. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the frequency of IL-10 and TNF-? genotypes at -1082...

  12. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Danish National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Rasmussen, Steen; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø; Greisen, Gorm; la Cour, Morten

    2016-04-01

    One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark. A retrospective, register-based cohort study. The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration number. Each of the 31 candidate risk factors were evaluated in univariate analyses, while adjusted for known risk factors (i.e., gestational age [GA] at delivery, small for gestational age [SGA], multiple births, and male sex). Significant outcomes were analyzed thereafter in a backward selection multiple logistic regression model. Treatment-demanding ROP and its associations to candidate risk factors. Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-4.08; P large study population, blood transfusion and mechanical ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment-demanding ROP during a recent birth period (2003-2008). Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased risk of Group B Streptococcus invasive infection in HIV-exposed but uninfected infants : a review of the evidence and possible mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAS DAUBY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV exposed but uninfected (HEU infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV unexposed uninfected infants (HUU. A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases (LOD and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection. Maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy is a major risk factor for early-onset GBS invasive disease but colonization rates are not higher in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women, while selective colonization with more virulent strains in HIV-infected women is suggested in some studies. Lower serotype specific GBS maternal antibody transfer and quantitative and qualitative defects of innate immune responses in HEU infants may play a role in the increased risk of GBS invasive disease. The impact of maternal antiretroviral treatment and its consequences on immune activation in HEU newborns is important to study. Maternal immunization presents a promising intervention to reduce GBS burden in the growing HEU population.

  14. Short mandible - a possible risk factor for cleft palate with/without a cleft lip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To estimate the influence of a short mandible on the risk of developing a cleft palate with/without a cleft lip (CP). Setting and sample population The retrospective sample consisted of 115 2-month-old Danish infants with CP, and 70 control infants with unilateral...... the risk of having a cleft palate. Results The mean mandibular length in the group with CP was about 4mm shorter than in the control group. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated to be 0.58 (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.68), implying that an individual's risk of cleft palate with/without a cleft lip increases...... about 50% per mm decrease in mandibular length. Conclusions A special facial type including a short mandible is a possible risk factor for cleft palate, and it was found that the risk of cleft palate increases 58% per mm decreases in mandibular length....

  15. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  16. Musculoskeletal Risk Factors in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B

    1989-11-01

    In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.

  17. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  18. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  19. Factors Affecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay Duration in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Niknajad, Akram; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sattarzadeh, Niloufar; Bashar Hashemi, Fazileh; Dezham Khoy Shahgholi, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Improved survival of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requires urgent intensive care, professional nursing and medical care. On the other hand, long hospital stay period imposes emotional and economic burdens on the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the most important factors affecting their hospitalization duration to lessen unwanted outcomes of premature birth and to eliminate or relieve the problems. Methods: In a descri...

  20. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): a time lag factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G M

    1991-02-01

    A time lag factor of about five days has been identified in an increased incidence of SIDS in relation to a cold day. Sudden exposure to chilling appeared to trigger skeletal muscle weakness and renal failure about five days later in a man found to have only 25% of normal carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity in biopsied skeletal muscle. White Muscle Disease is a muscular dystrophy in young ruminants which appears about five days after turnout to pasture in the weaned ruminant raised on a diet deficient in vitamin E and selenium (VESD). Pasture has high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid (high PUFA diet) which are modified by developing rumen bacteria. Corbucci investigated the effects of circulatory shock (cardiogenic) on skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity in humans. Cytochrome oxidase activity fell markedly and, in particular, the capacity to oxidase palmitoyl carnitine was greatly reduced. He considered a consequence of this disorder was sequestration of carnitine as acyl carnitine which could not be recycled. Unusual acyl carnitines have been identified in six out of 13 SIDS victims in a USA group. In Finland, researchers identified a rise in SIDS incidence (mostly found in the prone position) after great and rapid temperature changes. Foster found a relationship between 1984 SIDS incidence and the incidence of goitre in World War I troops.

  1. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  2. Risk factors associated with stunting among infants and young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the primary caregivers on household socioeconomic characteristics, household food availability, dietary diversity, responsive feeding practices among mothers and caregivers, age of introduction of complementary foods, frequency of feeding, types of foods and ...

  3. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  4. Increased risk of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus by intrapartum infantile exposure to maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Christoph; Kundi, Michael; Jatzko, Gerlinde; Kiss, Herbert; Lischka, Andreas; Holzmann, Heidemarie

    2003-02-01

    Virological and clinical data from 73 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected pregnant women who gave birth to 75 children were merged retrospectively, by logistic regression analysis, to investigate risk factors for vertical transmission of HCV. Eighty-two percent of the HCV-infected mothers were HCV-RNA-positive during pregnancy, and 10% were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nine children were HCV infected, 1 was HIV infected, but none was HIV-HCV coinfected. Among vaginal deliveries, the mean HCV load of mothers who transmitted HCV to their infants was higher than that of those who did not (8.1 x 10(5) vs. 1.4 x 10(4) copies/mL; P=.056). A reduction in umbilical cord-blood pH (relative risk, 3.9; P=.04) or the occurrence of perineal or vaginal laceration (relative risk, 6.4; P=.028) during vaginal delivery significantly increased the risk of vertical HCV transmission. In conclusion, high maternal viremia, infantile hypoxia, and intrapartum exposure to virus-contaminated maternal blood increased the risk of HCV transmission during vaginal deliveries. Consequently, cesarean section may reduce the risk of vertical HCV transmission in selected cases.

  5. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Newborn Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochan Subedi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a type of growth factor that promotes growth and survival of neurons. Fetal exposure to opiates can lead to postnatal withdrawal syndrome, which is referred as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between opiates exposure and alteration in BDNF expression in the brain and serum levels in adult. However, to date, there are no data available on the effects of opiate exposure on BDNF levels in infant who are exposed to opiates in utero and whether BDNF level may correlate with the severity of NAS.ObjectiveTo compare plasma BDNF levels among NAS and non-NAS infants and to determine the correlation of BDNF levels and the severity of NAS.MethodsThis is a prospective cohort study with no intervention involved. Infants ≥35 weeks of gestation were enrolled. BDNF level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique from blood samples drawn within 48 h of life. The severity of NAS was determined by the length of hospital stay, number of medications required to treat NAS.Results67 infants were enrolled, 34 NAS and 33 non-NAS. Mean gestational age did not differ between the two groups. Mean birth weight of NAS infants was significantly lower than the non-NAS infants (3,070 ± 523 vs. 3,340 ± 459 g, p = 0.028. Mean BDNF level in NAS group was 252.2 ± 91.6 ng/ml, significantly higher than 211.3 ± 66.3 ng/ml in the non-NAS group (p = 0.04. There were no differences in BDNF levels between NAS infants that required one medication vs. more than one medication (254 ± 91 vs. 218 ± 106 ng/ml, p = 0.47. There was no correlation between the BDNF levels and length of hospital stay (p = 0.68 among NAS infants. Overall, there were no significant correlations between BDNF levels and NAS scores except at around 15 h after admission (correlation 0.35, p = 0.045.ConclusionPlasma BDNF

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ademu

    twenty eight days of life from factors like hypoglycemia, sepsis, respiratory distress, prematurity etc. In Nigeria, neonatal death (death of an infant in the first twenty eight days of .... the leading causes of stillbirths and perinatal mortality.15-. 18.

  7. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.856

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphism in toll-like receptor 6 is associated with a decreased risk for ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Alexandra H; Levan, Tricia D; Vogel, Stefanie N; Chesko, Kirsty L; Pollin, Toni I; Viscardi, Rose M

    2013-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp. respiratory tract colonization is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants, but differences in host susceptibility have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that variants in genes regulating the innate immune response are associated with altered risk for Ureaplasma spp. respiratory colonization and BPD in preterm infants. Twenty-four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were assayed in 298 infants Ureaplasma spp. and were evaluated for BPD. The majority of subjects (N = 205 [70%]) were African-American. One hundred ten (37%) were Ureaplasma positive. Four SNPs in TLR2 and TLR6 were significantly associated with Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization. Single SNPs in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were associated with BPD. TLR6 SNP rs5743827 was associated with both a decreased risk for Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization and decreased risk for BPD (odds ratio: 0.54 [0.34-0.86] and odds ratio: 0.54 [0.31-0.95], respectively). There was a significant additive interaction between Ureaplasma colonization and genotype at TLR6 SNP rs5743827 (Padditive = 0.023), with an attributable proportion due to interaction of 0.542. Polymorphisms in host defense genes may alter susceptibility to Ureaplasma infection and severity of the inflammatory response contributing to BPD. These observations implicate host genetic susceptibility as a major factor in BPD pathogenesis in Ureaplasma-infected preterms.

  9. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  10. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  11. Early postnatal hyperglycaemia is a risk factor for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Louise Bering; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Fledelius, Hans Callø; Greisen, Gorm; Cour, Morten de la

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether neonatal hyperglycaemia in the first postnatal week is associated with treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This is a Danish national, retrospective, case-control study of premature infants (birth period 2003-2006). Three national registers were searched, and data were linked through a unique civil registration number. The study sample consisted of 106 cases each matched with two comparison infants. Matching criteria were gestational age (GA) at birth, ROP not registered and born at the same neonatal intensive care unit. Potential 'new' risk factors were analysed in a multivariate logistic regression model, while adjusted for previously recognised risk factors (ie, GA at birth, small for gestational age, multiple birth and male sex). Hospital records of 310 preterm infants (106 treated; 204 comparison infants) were available. Nutrition in terms of energy (kcal/kg/week) and protein (g/kg/week) given to the preterm infants during the first postnatal week were statistically insignificant between the study groups (Mann-Whitney U test; p=0.165/p=0.163). Early postnatal weight gain between the two study groups was borderline significant (t-test; p=0.047). Hyperglycaemic events (indexed value) were statistically significantly different between the two study groups (Mann-Whitney U test; p<0.001). Hyperglycaemia was a statistically independent risk factor (OR: 1.022; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.042; p=0.031). An independent association was found between the occurrence of hyperglycaemic events during the first postnatal week and later development of treatment-demanding ROP, when adjusted for known risk factors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Factors determining anti-poliovirus type 3 antibodies among orally immunised Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Giri, Sidhartha; Praharaj, Ira; Karthikeyan, Arun S; Babji, Sudhir; John, Jacob; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Grassly, Nicholas; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-09-22

    Among the three poliovirus serotypes, the lowest responses after vaccination with trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) are to serotype 3. Although improvements in routine immunisation and supplementary immunisation activities have greatly increased vaccine coverage, there are limited data on antibody prevalence in Indian infants. Children aged 5-11months with a history of not having received inactivated polio vaccine were screened for serum antibodies to poliovirus serotype 3 (PV3) by a micro-neutralisation assay according to a modified World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. Limited demographic information was collected to assess risk-factors for a lack of protective antibodies. Student's t-test, logistic regression and multilevel logistic regression (MLR) model were used to estimate model parameters. Of 8454 children screened at a mean age of 8.3 (standard deviation [SD]-1.8) months, 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 87.4-88.8) had protective antibodies to PV3. The number of tOPV doses received was the main determinant of seroprevalence; the maximum likelihood estimate yields a 37.7% (95% CI: 36.2-38.3) increase in seroprevalence per dose of tOPV. In multivariable logistic regression analysis increasing age, male sex, and urban residence were also independently associated with seropositivity (Odds Ratios (OR): 1.17 (95% CI: 1.12-1.23) per month of age, 1.27 (1.11-1.46) and 1.24 (1.05-1.45) respectively). Seroprevalence of antibodies to PV3 is associated with age, gender and place of residence, in addition to the number of tOPV doses received. Ensuring high coverage and monitoring of response are essential as long as oral vaccines are used in polio eradication. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Safe sleep practices and sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction: NICU and well-baby nursery graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Aja J; Evans, Patricia W; Etchegaray, Jason M; Ottenbacher, Allison; Arnold, Cody

    2013-11-01

    Our primary objective was to compare parents of infants cared for in newborn intensive care units (NICUs) and infants cared for in well-baby ("general") nurseries with regard to knowledge and practice of safe sleep practices/sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction measures and guidelines. Our secondary objective was to obtain qualitative data regarding reasons for noncompliance in both populations. Sixty participants (30 from each population) completed our survey measuring safe sleep knowledge and practice. Parents of NICU infants reported using 2 safe sleep practices-(a) always placing baby in crib to sleep and (b) always placing baby on back to sleep-significantly more frequently than parents of well infants. Additional findings and implications for future studies are discussed.

  14. Developmental neurotoxicity and autism: A potential link between indoor neuroactive pollutants and the curious birth order risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wesley A; Billock, Vincent A

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological and demographic studies find an increased risk of autism among first-borns. Toxicological studies show that some semi-volatile substances found in infant products produce adverse effects in neural and endocrine systems of animals, including behavioral and developmental effects. Several factors elevate the exposure of human infants to these chemicals. The highest exposures found in infants are comparable to the exposures that induce neural toxicity in animals. A review of these literatures suggests a linking hypothesis that could bridge the epidemiological and toxicological lines of evidence: an infant's exposure to neuroactive compounds emitted by infant products is increased by product newness and abundance; exposure is likely maximized for first-born children in families that can afford new products. Exposure is reduced for subsequently-born children who reuse these now neuroactive-depleted products. The presence of neuroactive chemical emissions from infant products has implications for birth-order effects and for other curious risk factors in autism, including gender, socioeconomic status, and season-of-birth risk factors. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Caldas, Eloisa Dutra, E-mail: eloisa@unb.br [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  16. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  17. Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. ... ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes.

  18. risk factors for abnormal tubal hysterosalpingographic findings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    So many presumed risk factors for female tubal infertility are seen among. Nigerian women. ... strategies such as health awareness campaigns against unwanted pregnancy, promotion of responsible ..... of CT findings in acute pyogenic pelvic.

  19. Shoulder Dystocia