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Sample records for infants risk factor

  1. Risk factors of infant anemia in the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Michio; Kusakawa, Isao; Ohde, Sachiko; Yamanaka, Michiko; Yoda, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Infants are at particular risk of iron-deficiency anemia. We investigated changes in the blood count of the mother and infant as well as the relationship between them and the relationship between infant nutrition method and infant anemia. This retrospective cohort study included healthy neonates born between August 2011 and July 2014 at St Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Data from maternal blood samples obtained during late pregnancy and those of infants obtained at birth and at the age of 3, 6, and 9 months were analyzed. Using multivariate logistic regression, we investigated nutrition methods, maternal anemia, and other clinically relevant parameters that were potential risk factors for infant anemia. In total, data for 3472 infants and their mothers were analyzed. Nutrition method was the most significant risk factor for infant anemia, with risk of future anemia decreasing in the following order: exclusive breast-feeding, partial breast-feeding, and formula feeding. Furthermore, low umbilical cord blood hemoglobin led to a tendency toward anemia in the child. Infant nutrition method was the most significant factor related to anemia in late infancy. Infants with low umbilical cord blood hemoglobin are more likely to develop anemia in late infancy. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  3. Risk factors for macrosomia in infants born to Latina women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, JM.; Hessol, NA.; Heyman, MB.; Fuentes-Afflick, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess risk factors for macrosomic infant birth among Latina women. Study Design Prospective study of Latina women recruited during pregnancy from prenatal clinic at San Francisco General Hospital. Information was obtained through a structured interview and review of medical records. Result A total of 11% of women delivered macrosomic infants (birth weight >4000 g). In unadjusted analyses, significant risk factors for macrosomia included older maternal age, increasing gravidity, previous history of macrosomic birth and pre-pregnancy overweight. After adjusting for confounders using multivariate analyses, older mothers (10-year increments) had an elevated risk of macrosomia (odds ratio (OR) 2.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 5.24). Conclusion Efforts to reduce macrosomia in Latina women should focus on older mothers. PMID:18596709

  4. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  5. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newschaffer Craig J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

  6. Risk factors for measles among infants in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wagner, A L; Wang, X; Carlson, B F; Ding, Y; Montgomery, J P; Gillespie, B W; Boulton, M L

    2017-10-01

    Infants aged measles vaccination in China but represent a disproportionate number of cases. We examined the risk factors for measles among infants in Tianjin, China. Case-control study. Cases were enrolled from a surveillance system, and IgG-negative controls were sampled from registries at immunization clinics. A logistic regression model assessed for risk factors. Among 82 cases and 485 controls, exposure to a municipal hospital (OR [odds ratio]: 5.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-22.82) or a specialty hospital (OR: 13.22; 95% CI: 6.13-28.51) was associated with the disease, whereas visiting a township or district hospitals was not associated with increased odds of measles. Hospitals were an important focal point of measles transmission for infants. Hospitals, particularly higher-level municipal and specialty hospitals, should enforce infection control programs to separate infants with highly communicable diseases to prevent transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  8. Brazilian infant motor and cognitive development: Longitudinal influence of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Keila Rg; Valentini, Nadia C; Saccani, Raquel

    2016-12-01

    Infant developmental delays have been associated with several risk factors, such as familial environmental, individual and demographic characteristics. The goal of this study was to longitudinally investigate the effects of maternal knowledge and practices, home environment and biological factors on infant motor and cognitive outcomes. This was a prospective cohort study with a sample of 49 infants from Southern Brazil. The infants were assessed three times over 4 months using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (Mental Development Scale). Parents completed the Daily Activities Scale of Infants, the Affordances in The Home Environment for Motor Development - Infant Scale, the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory and a demographic questionnaire. Generalized estimating equation with Bonferroni method as the follow-up test and Spearman correlation and multivariate linear backward regression were used. Cognitive and motor scores were strongly associated longitudinally and increased over time. Associations between the home affordances, parental practices and knowledge, and motor and cognitive development over time were observed. This relationship explained more variability in motor and cognitive scores compared with biological factors. Variability in motor and cognitive development is better explained by environment and parental knowledge and practice. The investigation of factors associated with infant development allows the identification of infants at risk and the implementation of educational programs and parental training to minimize the effects of developmental delay. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Acute kidney injury in ELBW infants (grams) and its associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcinue, R; Kantak, A; Elkhwad, M

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of neonatology over the past 20 years has allowed a greater number of ELBW infants to survive. However, these advancements have contributed to the increased incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) seen in this population. Understanding the risk factors for AKI in this population of ELBW infants is imperative for the successful survival of these infants since the morbidity and mortality rates from this disease are increasing. 1) to determine the prevalence of AKI in ELBW (grams). 2) to compare the mortality rate of ELBW infants (grams) with and without AKI; and 3) to identify the associated risk factors of AKI in ELBW infants (grams). A retrospective chart review of all infants with AKI as defined by AKIN criterias, admitted to the NICU between 1998 and 2008 was conducted. Case-controls were matched for BW, gestational age and date of birth, (SPSS v17.0 software, using Student's t test, X2 test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence rate of ELBW infants (grams) with AKI admitted at CHMCA NICU from 1998 to 2008 was 26% . The mortality rate of ELBW infants (grams) with AKI was 54% , compared to 20% in those ELBW infants who did not have AKI. The associated risk factors of AKI in the ELBW infants (grams) were as follows: presence of maternal placental abruption/bleeding, grade III or IV IVH, PDA, positive culture/s, NEC, use of steroid, nephrotoxic drugs, and longer use of the ventilator and TPN.

  10. Risk factors for diarrhea-associated infant mortality in the United States, 2005-2007.

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    Mehal, Jason M; Esposito, Douglas H; Holman, Robert C; Tate, Jacqueline E; Callinan, Laura S; Parashar, Umesh D

    2012-07-01

    Diarrhea-associated deaths among US children increased from the mid-1980s through 2006, particularly among infants. Understanding risk factors for diarrhea-associated death could improve prevention strategies. Records of singleton infants with diarrhea listed anywhere on the death certificate were selected from the US Linked Birth/Infant Death data for the period, 2005 to 2007; characteristics of these infants were compared with those of infants who survived their first year. During 2005 to 2007, 1087 diarrhea-associated infant deaths were reported; 86% occurred among low birth weight (LBW, risk ratio: 91.9, 95% confidence interval: 77.4-109.0) and younger median age at death (7 versus 15 weeks, Pdiarrhea-associated death among LBW and NBW infants were sepsis (26%) and volume depletion (20%), respectively. Among LBW infants, 97% of diarrhea-associated deaths occurred in inpatient settings, whereas 27% of NBW infant deaths occurred in outpatient settings and 5.3% in the decedent's home. Male sex, black race, unmarried status and low 5-minute Apgar score (diarrhea-associated morality should focus on understanding and improving management of diarrhea in vulnerable LBW infants. For prevention of diarrhea-associated deaths in NBW infants, educating mothers who fit the high-risk profile regarding home hydration therapy and timely access to medical treatment is important.

  11. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, TB; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Lundemose, JB

    2000-01-01

    . The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital...

  12. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Banner, Jytte

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia....... The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital...

  13. Risk factors for acute otitis media in Nigerian infants | Uwaezuoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The risk factors for acute otitis media (AOM) have been well documented in studies mostly conducted in temperate, developed countries. The present study seeks to determine the relevance of five selectedrisk factors in a tropical developing country. Method: A cross-sectional study of two hundred and ten (210) ...

  14. [Pathogen distribution, risk factors, and outcomes of nosocomial infection in very premature infants].

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    Zhang, De-Shuang; Xie, Dong-Ke; He, Na; Dong, Wen-Bin; Lei, Xiao-Ping

    2017-08-01

    To study the pathogen distribution and risk factors of nosocomial infection in very preterm infants, as well as the risk of adverse outcomes. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 111 very preterm infants who were born between January and December, 2016 and had a gestational age of nosocomial infection after 72 hours of hospitalization, the infants were divided into infection group and non-infection group. The infection group was analyzed in terms of pathogenic bacteria which caused infection and their drug sensitivity. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the potential risk factors and risk of adverse outcomes of nosocomial infection in very preterm infants. Gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogens for nosocomial infection in very preterm infants and accounted for 54%, among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common one; the following pathogens were fungi (41%), among which Candida albicans was the most common one. The drug sensitivity test showed that Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to β-lactam and carbapenems and highly sensitive to quinolones, while fungi had low sensitivity to itraconazole and high sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B. Early-onset sepsis, duration of peripherally inserted central catheter, steroid exposure, and duration of parenteral nutrition were risk factors for nosocomial infection in very preterm infants (Pinfection group, the infection group had significantly higher risks of pulmonary complications (PNosocomial infection in very preterm infants is affected by various factors and may increase the risk of adverse outcomes. In clinical practice, reasonable preventive and treatment measures should be taken with reference to drug sensitivity, in order to improve the prognosis of very premature infants.

  15. Amblyopia risk factors in infants with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

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    Kim, Jung Wan; Lee, Hwa; Chang, Minwook; Park, Minsoo; Lee, Tae Soo; Baek, Sehyun

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to report the prevalence of amblyopia risk factors in patients with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstructions. We recruited patients who were treated for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction from April 2007 to December 2011 at Korea University Ansan Hospital. We evaluated visual acuity and refraction, performed strabismus test and slit-lamp examination, and assessed marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) to rule out amblyopia risk factors. We examined 26 children among 115 patients. Ten patients underwent probing procedure and 16 underwent Monoka stent intubation. Nine (35%) patients showed amblyopia risk factors, which occurred in the same eye as the congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in 8 (89%) patients. Seven out of 9 patients had refractive error alone, and 2 patients had both refractive error and strabismus. One (11%) had anisometropia, 2 (22%) had hyperopia, and 8 (89%) had astigmatism. Children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction had a higher prevalence of amblyopia risk factors than children in the general population. Children with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction require special attention and treatments for refractive error. We recommend early treatment, such as probing or intubation, for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  16. FATHERS' AND MOTHERS' REPRESENTATIONS OF THE INFANT: ASSOCIATIONS WITH PRENATAL RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeswijk, Charlotte M J M; Rijk, Catharina H A M; Maas, A Janneke B M; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2015-01-01

    Parents' representations of their infants consist of parents' subjective experiences of how they perceive their infants. They provide important information about the quality of the parent-infant relationship and are closely related to parenting behavior and infant attachment. Previous studies have shown that parents' representations emerge during pregnancy. However, little is known about prenatal (risk) factors that are related to parents' representations. In a prospective study, 308 mothers and 243 fathers were followed during pregnancy and postpartum. Prenatal risk factors were assessed with an adapted version of the Dunedin Family Services Indicator (T.G. Egan et al., ; R.C. Muir et al., ). At 26 weeks' gestation and 6 months' postpartum, parents' representations of their children were assessed with the Working Model of the Child Interview (C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, L. Hirshberg, M.L. Barton, & C. Regan). Results showed stability between pre- and postnatal representations, with fathers having more disengaged representations than did mothers. In addition, prenatal risk factors of parenting problems were associated with the quality of parents' prenatal (only in mothers) and postnatal representations. This study provides valuable information concerning parents at risk of developing nonbalanced representations of their children. In clinical practice, these families could be monitored more intensively and may be supported in developing a more optimal parent-infant relationship. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Risk Factors for Gross Motor Dysfunction in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

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    Long, Suzanne H.; Eldridge, Bev J.; Galea, Mary P.; Harris, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) that is severe enough to require early surgery are at risk for cognitive and motor delays, as well as musculoskeletal impairments, and are best managed by an interdisciplinary team during their hospital stay and after discharge. The purpose of this article is to review some of the risk factors associated…

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Wheeze in Dutch Infants in Their First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Chantal A. N.; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Eggink, Jenny; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Factors operating in the first year of life are critical in determining the onset and persistence of wheezing in preschool children. This study was designed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of wheeze in the first year of life in Dutch infants. This was a population-based survey of

  19. Risk Factors for Invasive Candidiasis in Infants >1500 g Birth Weight

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    Lee, Jan Hau; Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Herring, Amy H.; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background We describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of invasive candidiasis in infants >1500 g birth weight. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants >1500 g birth weight discharged from 305 NICUs in the Pediatrix Medical Group from 2001–2010. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified risk factors for invasive candidiasis. Results Invasive candidiasis occurred in 330/530,162 (0.06%) infants. These were documented from positive cultures from ≥1 of these sources: blood (n=323), cerebrospinal fluid (n=6), or urine from catheterization (n=19). Risk factors included day of life >7 (OR 25.2; 95% CI 14.6–43.3), vaginal birth (OR 1.6 [1.2–2.3]), exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics (OR 1.6 [1.1–2.4]), central venous line (OR 1.8 [1.3–2.6]), and platelet count candidiasis had increased mortality (OR 2.2 [1.3–3.6]). Conclusions Invasive candidiasis is uncommon in infants >1500 g birth weight. Infants at greatest risk are those exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics and with platelet counts of <50,000/mm3. PMID:23042050

  20. Sepsis risk factors in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michaël; Le Sache, Nolwenn; Mokhtari, Mostafa; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cuzon, Gaelle; Bueno, Benjamin; Fouquet, Virginie; Benachi, Alexandra; Eleni Dit Trolli, Sergio; Tissieres, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare congenital anomaly and remains among the most challenging ICU-managed disease. Beside severe pulmonary hypertension, lung hypoplasia and major abdominal surgery, infective complications remain major determinants of outcome. However, the specific incidence of sepsis as well as associated risk factors is unknown. This prospective, 4-year observational study took place in the pediatric intensive care and neonatal medicine department of the Paris South University Hospitals (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France), CDH national referral center and involved 62 neonates with CDH. During their ICU stay, 28 patients (45%) developed 38 sepsis episodes. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP: 23/38; 31.9 VAP per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation) and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI: 5/38; 5.5 per 1000 line days) were the most frequently encountered infections. Multivariate analysis showed that gestational age at birth and intra-thoracic position of liver were significantly associated with the occurrence of sepsis. Infected patients had longer duration of mechanical and noninvasive ventilation (16.2 and 5.8 days, respectively), longer delay to first feeding (1.2 days) and a longer length of stay in ICU (23 days), but there was no difference in mortality. Healthcare-associated infections, and more specifically VAP, are the main infective threat in children with CDH. Sepsis has a significant impact on the duration of ventilator support and ICU length of stay but does not impact mortality. Low gestational age and intra-thoracic localization of the liver are two independent risk factors associated with sepsis.

  1. Pneumothorax in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome: focus on risk factors

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    Sabina Terzic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumothorax is a life threatening condition, more often seen in immature infants receiving mechanical ventilation. It carries a significant risk of death and impaired outcome.Objective: To determine predictive factors for the occurrence of pneumothorax in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.Patients and methods: The present study was conducted in a tertiary research and educational hospital, NICU, Pediatric Clinic UKC Sarajevo, from January 2010 to December 2013. All infants had chest X-ray at admission, and were treated due to RDS with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, or high frequency oscillatory ventilation. At admission we registered data regarding birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, prenatally given steroids. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 417 infants. Data about timing, circumstances, side and treatment of pneumothorax were gathered from medical records.Results: Mean birth weight was 1,477 g, mean gestational age 29.6 weeks. We report 98 infants who did not survive. We also report incidence of pneumothorax in 5% of the infants with RDS. In this study pneumothorax and non-pneumothorax groups didn’t differ regarding sex, gestational age (median 29 and 30 nor birth weight (p = 0.818. Apgar score at the 1st and 5th minute of life had no influence in genesis of pulmonary air leak, neither prenatally given steroids (p = 0.639, nor surfactant administration. There was a low coverage of preterm infants with prenatal steroids (overall 28.29%. We found that FiO2 ≥ 0.4 in the first 12 hours of life, and need for mechanical ventilation are predicting factors for developing pneumothorax (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Together with mechanical ventilation, inspired fraction of oxygen higher than 40%, needed to provide adequate oxygenation in the first 12 hours of life in preterm infants, could be a predictive factor in selecting the highest risk babies for development of

  2. [Clinical analysis of nosocomial infection and risk factors of extremely premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qi; Li, Haijing; Mai, Jingyun; Lin, Zhenlang

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the incidence of nosocomial infections of extremely premature infants and to explore the risk factors and strategies for infection control. There were 118 extremely premature infants who were confirmed to have nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care unit of the authors' hospital from January 2008 to December 2012. Their data of the infection rate, risk factors and clinical characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. During the study, nosocomial infection occurred in 78 extremely premature infants 129 times. The nosocomial infection rate was 66.10%. The rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was 1.43% (35/2 452). The catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI) rate was 0.35% (16/4 613). There were 74 (57.36%) cases of pneumonia, which was the most common nosocomial infection of extremely premature infants. There were 35 cases of VAP, which accounted for 47.30% of pneumonia. The next was sepsis, 48 cases. Seventy-four (74/90, 82.22%) strains of isolates were Gram-negative bacteria, which accounted for the highest proportion, followed by Gram-positive (12 strains), fungus (4 strains); Klebsiella pneumonia is the most common pathogens of nosocomial infection in extremely premature infants. The isolation rates of Klebsiella pneumonia with positive extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) were 90.91% (20/22) , universally resistant to cephalosporins. Single-factor analysis showed that the body weight, mechanical ventilation, umbilical vein catheterization, central venous catheter, parenteral nutrition and hospitalization time were risk factors for nosocomial infections in extremely preterm infants. Logistic regression analysis showed that length of hospitalization (OR = 1.024, P = 0.043) and central venous catheterization (OR = 6.170, P = 0.041) were independent risk factors of nosocomial infection. Extremely preterm infants were at higher risk of nosocomial infection. It is important to identify the high risk factors for nosocomial

  3. Risk factors associated with neonatal hypothermia during cleaning of newborn infants in labour rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, F C; Boo, N Y

    2000-02-01

    Cleaning newborn infants with coconut oil shortly after birth is a common practice in Malaysian labour rooms. This study aimed: (1) to determine whether this practice was associated with a significant decrease in the core temperature of infants; and (2) to identify significant risk factors associated with neonatal hypothermia. The core temperature of 227 randomly selected normal-term infants immediately before and after cleaning in labour rooms was measured with an infrared tympanic thermometer inserted into their left ears. Their mean post-cleaning body temperature (36.6 degrees C, SD = 1.0) was significantly lower than their mean pre-cleaning temperature (37.1 degrees C, SD = 1.0; p radiant warmer before cleaning p = 0.03); and (2) lower labour room temperature (p temperature (p temperature (p temperature should be set at a higher level and cleaning infants in the labour room should be discouraged.

  4. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  5. Risk factors and prediction for functional and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to determine mainly significant risk factors and prediction for development of functional bowel disease and chronic non-ulcerative non-specific colitis in infants. Materials and methods. Retrospective studies were conducted using the method of questioning parents and analysis of medical records of 344 infants in the age from 6 months to 3 years of life, including 134 infants with functional constipation (FC , 64 infants with functional diarrhea (FD and 146 children with chronic non-specific not-ulcerative colitis (CNNC. The control group included 50 healthy children of similar age and gender. In groups of children retrospectively determined the frequency of risk factors. To compare the data between different groups was used analysis of Pearson c2 criteria and relative risks (relative risk, RR with 95% confidence intervals. Prediction for the development of FC, FD and CNNC was applied the method of discriminant function analysis based on the analysis of 51 essential marks. Results. Mathematical analysis of risk factors for bowel diseases allowed to identify the most important of them, in particular, family history of diseases of the digestive system, including bowel disease, complications during pregnancy and at birth disorders, women chronic extragenital diseases, chronic diseases of women characterized by prolonged exposure in the body to opportunistic or pathogenic bacteria, nutritional and feeding disorders, high infection index and history of infectious diseases. Revealed by the discriminant function analysis significant risk factors, represent their important role in the development of functional bowel disorders and chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis. Conclusions. Identifying the risk factors for the development and application of prediction algorithm for functional bowel diseases and chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis is enable to develop the effective treatment and preventive measures to reduce the

  6. Longitudinal Regional Brain Development and Clinical Risk Factors in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; Makropoulos, Antonios; Aljabar, Paul; Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S; Counsell, Serena J; Benders, Manon J N L

    2016-11-01

    To investigate third-trimester extrauterine brain growth and correlate this with clinical risk factors in the neonatal period, using serially acquired brain tissue volumes in a large, unselected cohort of extremely preterm born infants. Preterm infants (gestational age brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at around 30 weeks postmenstrual age and again around term equivalent age. MRIs were segmented in 50 different regions covering the entire brain. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the influence of clinical variables on volumes at both scans, as well as on volumetric growth. MRIs at term equivalent age were available for 210 infants and serial data were available for 131 infants. Growth over these 10 weeks was greatest for the cerebellum, with an increase of 258%. Sex, birth weight z-score, and prolonged mechanical ventilation showed global effects on brain volumes on both scans. The effect of brain injury on ventricular size was already visible at 30 weeks, whereas growth data and volumes at term-equivalent age revealed the effect of brain injury on the cerebellum. This study provides data about third-trimester extrauterine volumetric brain growth in preterm infants. Both global and local effects of several common clinical risk factors were found to influence serial volumetric measurements, highlighting the vulnerability of the human brain, especially in the presence of brain injury, during this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Risk factors for anemia in infants aged 6-12 months from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ren-Fu; Liang, Xia; Liu, Cheng-Fang; Zhang, Lin-Xiu; Yue, Ai

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of anemia and related risk factors in infants aged 6-12 months from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province. A questionnaire survey was used to collect the basic information on infants aged 6-12 months and their families from rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. The content of hemoglobin was measured in these infants. A multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for the development of anemia in infants. A total of 1 802 infants and their families participated in the survey, and there were 1 770 valid samples. A total of 865 infants (865/1 770, 48.87%) were found to have anemia. The multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that breastfeeding after birth (lack of scientific supplementary food) increased the risk of anemia in infants (OR=1.768, Panemia in infants. In the rural areas in southern Shaanxi Province, anemia in infants aged 6-12 months is still a serious public health problem. Improper feeding can increase the risk of anemia in infants, and scientific addition of supplementary food is the key to reducing anemia in infants.

  8. Prevalence of and risk factors for late diagnosis of HIV infection in Brazilian infants and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Mara Dolce de Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV diagnosis is an important cause of HIV-related morbidity and mortality in infants and children. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected children diagnosed in Sergipe, in northeastern Brazil, between 2002 and 2011 aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for late HIV diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 55 infants and children with confirmed infection, 42 (76.5% were diagnosed at ≥ 12 months old. No antiretroviral prophylaxis during delivery (OR 5.48, 95% CI 1.11-32.34 was associated with late diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: More than 75% of cases were diagnosed late. Efforts are needed to improve early HIV diagnosis in infants.

  9. Intraventricular hemorrhage in a very low birth weight infants: Associated risk factors in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiee, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Prematurely born infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) suffer significant morbidity and mortality, particularly with those infants with high-grade hemorrhage. Previous studies have proposed a number of risk factors for IVH; however, lack of adequate matching for gestational age and birth weight may have confounded the results. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that affect the risk of IVH. We identified 31 preterm infants with gestational age < 32 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g, with IVH, from November 2003 to January 2005 at Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A control group of 90 infants, matched for gestational age and birth weight was selected. Maternal factors, labor and delivery characteristics and neonatal parameters were collected in both groups. Results of cranial ultrasound examinations were also collected. The significant risk factors for IVH were found to be: patent ductus artreiosus arteriosus (PDA) [4 (13.3%) versus 3(3.3%) (p=0.01)], longer duration of assisted ventilation [4 (2.8+-5.8 days versus 0.5+-2.1 days (p=0.002)], a higher number of endotracheal suctioning [9.7+-18.4 versus 3.06+-13.7 (p=0.004)], surfactant use, [7(22.6%) versus 3(3.4%) (p=0.003)], positive pressure ventilation at birth [12 (38.7%) versus 12(13.3%), (p=0.004)] and low Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes. Whereas antenatal steroid treatments and cesarean sections have protective effect on the occurrence of IVH. Our data emphasize the importance of obstetric and prenatal care to improve outcomes of premature infants. (author)

  10. Risk Factors and In-Hospital Outcomes following Tracheostomy in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Smith, P Brian; Quek, M Bin Huey; Laughon, Matthew M; Clark, Reese H; Hornik, Christoph P

    2016-06-01

    To describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and in-hospital outcomes of tracheostomy in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed electronic medical records from 348 neonatal intensive care units for the period 1997 to 2012, and evaluated the associations among infant demographics, diagnoses, and pretracheostomy cardiopulmonary support with in-hospital mortality. We also determined the trends in use of infant tracheostomy over time. We identified 885 of 887 910 infants (0.1%) who underwent tracheostomy at a median postnatal age of 72 days (IQR, 27-119 days) and a median postmenstrual age of 42 weeks (IQR, 39-46 weeks). The most common diagnoses associated with tracheostomy were bronchopulmonary dysplasia (396 of 885; 45%), other upper airway anomalies (202 of 885; 23%), and laryngeal anomalies (115 of 885; 13%). In-hospital mortality after tracheostomy was 14% (125 of 885). On adjusted analysis, near-term gestational age (GA), small for GA status, pulmonary diagnoses, number of days of forced fraction of inspired oxygen >0.4, and inotropic support before tracheostomy were associated with increased in-hospital mortality. The proportion of infants requiring tracheostomy increased from 0.01% in 1997 to 0.1% in 2005 (P Tracheostomy is not commonly performed in hospitalized infants, but the associated mortality is high. Risk factors for increased in-hospital mortality after tracheostomy include near-term GA, small for GA status, and pulmonary diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Laryngotracheobronchial anomalies in infants and the related risk factors of in-hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Lung Lee

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Most infants with LTBAs were initially diagnosed and hospitalized when they were aged 3 months or younger. The risk factors for in-hospital mortality of the children with LTBAs included being diagnosed and treated at an age of 4 months and older, and the presence of perinatal disease, cardiovascular anomalies, other congenital anomalies, neurological diseases, and an age of 4 months and older.

  12. Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: risk factor analysis

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    Falcão Mário Cícero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of risk factors to the occurrence of urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study (1997 including full-term infants having a positive urine culture by bag specimen. Urine collection was based on: fever, weight loss > 10% of birth weight, nonspecific symptoms (feeding intolerance, failure to thrive, hypoactivity, debilitate suction, irritability, or renal and urinary tract malformations. In these cases, another urine culture by suprapubic bladder aspiration was collected to confirm the diagnosis. To compare and validate the risk factors in each group, the selected cases were divided into two groups: Group I - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and negative urine culture by suprapubic aspiration, and Group II - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and positive urine culture by suprapubic aspiration . RESULTS: Sixty one infants were studied, Group I, n = 42 (68.9% and Group II, n = 19 (31.1%. The selected risk factors (associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, renal and urinary tract malformations, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition and intravascular catheter were more frequent in Group II (p<0.05. Through relative risk analysis, risk factors were, in decreasing importance: parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal and urinary tract malformations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, and associated infectious diseases contributed to increase the frequency of neonatal urinary tract infection, and in the presence of more than one risk factor, the occurrence of urinary tract infection rose up to 11 times.

  13. Comparison of Risk Factors in Necrotizing Enterocolitis among Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Necrotizing enterocolitis is one of the important problems of premature infants. The incidence is about 1-5% in infants followed in neonatal care units and inversely related to gestational age and birth weight. Materials and Methods: In this study, 31 infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and 31 infants with similar gestational age and birth weight as control group hospitalized in Cukurova University Neonatal Care Unit between 1 January 2001-31 January 2004 were evaluated. Results: The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in this period was 1.4 (31/2214 admission. Mean gestational age was 30.5  3.2 weeks (25-36, mean birth weight was 1331  384 (730-2150 grams while 71% was younger than 32 gestational weeks and 67.7% was under 1500 grams. The signs of NEC were detected at a mean of 11.2  10. (2-38 days. Twenty-six (83.9% were being fed at the time of the necrotizing enterocolitis signs appeared. According to the Walsh and Kliegman classification, 19 (61.3% infants were in stage 1 (17 were 1a, 2 were 1b; 3 (9.6% infants were in stage 2a, 9 (%29.1 infants were in stage 3 (7 were in 3b. Blood culture was positive in 7 (%22.6 infants with predominance of gram negative microorganisms (5 infants. Eleven (%35.5 infants were exitus, 12 were discharged. Hypoxia, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage and umbilical catheterization were significant risk factors in necrotizing enterocolitis . Thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and high C-reactive protein levels were significantly high in necrotizing enterocolitis group. Breast feeding is significantly high in control group. Conclusion: Necrotizing enterocolitis, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Early breast feeding with small amounts, increasing amount of milk slowly, antenatal steroids, caring hygiene rules can prevent the development of it. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 642-647

  14. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis: comprehensive single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2014-05-01

    We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors and prognostic significance of altered left ventricular geometry in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Swati; Salter, Amber; Cunningham, Tyler W; Levy, Philip T; Hackett, Brian P; Singh, Gautam K; Johnson, Mark C

    2018-02-06

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) predicts adverse cardiac events in adults. We sought to determine the risk factors and prognostic significance of altered LV geometry in preterm infants. In an echocardiographic, single-center, retrospective case-control study we investigated the risk factors and outcomes in patients with altered LV geometry (either increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) or increased relative wall thickness (RWT)) from a cohort of 503 preterm infants ≤2 kg. Altered LV geometry was seen in 180 patients and was predicted by postnatal steroids and small for gestational age. Hospital stay was longer in the elevated RWT cases. Altered LV geometry resolved in 129 of the 131 cases with follow-up echocardiogram. Fifteen of 94 patients with elevated RWT died compared to 3/90 controls (P = 0.004). Altered LV geometry in preterm infants is associated with postnatal steroid use and small for gestational age. Elevated RWT is associated with longer hospital stay and increased mortality.

  16. Maternal risk factors for HIV infection in infants in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Lígia M D; Lippi, Joseph; Rutherford, George W; Duarte, Gabriella S; Martins, Nágyla G R; Santos, Victor S; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2013-10-01

    While the rate of vertically transmitted HIV infection has fallen in most regions of Brazil, there have been no similar decreases in northern and northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with vertical transmission in the state of Sergipe in northeastern Brazil. This was a retrospective cohort study. We recorded clinic and registry data for all HIV-infected pregnant women and exposed children diagnosed in Sergipe from 1990 to 2011. We identified 538 deliveries and 561 HIV-exposed infants (23 sets of twins). One hundred one (18.9%) infants were HIV-infected. In the multivariate analysis, infant antiretroviral prophylaxis was a significant protective factor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.41, p=0.003). Breastfeeding was marginally associated with an increased odds of perinatal transmission (aOR 4.52, 95% CI 0.78-26.17, p = 0.092). The attributable risk percentage for breastfeeding over the study period was 91.0%. Transmission decreased from 91 per 100 live births before 1997 to 2 per 100 in 2011 following the adoption of the prevention protocol. Transmission declined over the study period. The screening of pregnant women and timely initiation of prophylaxis and therapy are issues that require further attention. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors of sepsis after open congenital cardiac surgery in infants: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Fakhri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postsurgical sepsis is one of the main causes of the high mortality and morbidity after open congenital heart surgery in infants.  This study aimed to evaluate the role of cardiopulmonary bypass duration, thymectomy, surgical complexity, and nutritional status on postsurgical sepsis after open congenital cardiac surgery in infants.Methods: A total of 40 patients <1 year of age with congenital heart disease, Aristotle Basic Score (ABS ≥6 were followed for clinical and laboratory data before and after surgery until the occurrence of signs or symptoms of sepsis or until a maximum of 7 days after surgery. Bivariate analyses were performed. Variables with p≤0.200 were then included for logistic regression.Results: Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass ≥90 minutes was associated with 5.538 increased risk of postsurgical sepsis in comparison to those ≤90 minutes (80% vs 25%, RR=5.538, p=0.006. No association was observed between the incidence of postsurgical sepsis with poor nutritional status (86% vs 84%, RR=1.059, p=1.000, thymectomy (and 50% vs 76%, RR=0.481, p=0.157, and Aristotle Basic Score (p=0.870.Conclusion: Cardiopulmonary bypass time influences the incidence of sepsis infants undergoing open congenital cardiac surgery. Further studies are needed to elaborate a number of risk factors associated with the incidence of sepsis in this population.

  18. [Risks factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pre-term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeballos Sarrato, Susana; Villar Castro, Sonia; Ramos Navarro, Cristina; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Sánchez Luna, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Pre-term delivery is one of the leading causes of foetal and perinatal mortality. However, perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal death in preterm deliveries have not been well studied. To analyse foetal mortality and perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality in pregnancies of less than 32 weeks gestational age. The study included all preterm deliveries between 22 and 31 +1 weeks gestational age (WGA), born in a tertiary-referral hospital, over a period of 7 years (2008-2014). A logistic regression model was used to identify perinatal risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality (foetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded). During the study period, the overall foetal mortality was 63.1% (106/168) (≥22 weeks of gestation) occurred in pregnancies of less than 32 WGA. A total of 882 deliveries between 22 and 31+6 weeks of gestation were included for analysis. The rate of foetal mortality was 11.3% (100/882). The rate of intra-partum foetal death was 2.6% (23/882), with 78.2% (18/23) of these cases occurring in hospitalised pregnancies. It was found that Assisted Reproductive Techniques, abnormal foetal ultrasound, no administration of antenatal steroids, lower gestational age, and small for gestational age, were independent risk factors associated with intra-partum foetal mortality. This study showed that there is a significant percentage intra-partum foetal mortality in infants between 22 and 31+6 WGA. The analysis of intrapartum mortality and risk factors associated with this mortality is of clinical and epidemiological interest to optimise perinatal care and improve survival of preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 6 to 12 months and its effects on neuropsychological development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Zhang, Cui-Mei; Huang, Lian-Hong; Fu, Si-Mao; Liu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ang; Ou, Jun-Bin

    2015-08-01

    To study the risk factors for moderate and severe iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants aged 6-12 months, and to preliminarily investigate the effects of IDA on the neuromotor development and temperament characteristics of infants. A total of 326 infants aged 6-12 months with IDA were classified into three groups: mild IDA (n=176), moderate IDA (n=111), and severe IDA (n=39) according to the severity of anemia. The risk factors for moderate or severe IDA were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and forty-six infants without IDA who showed matched age, sex, and other backgrounds were selected as the control group. The Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale was used to evaluate children's mental development. The Temperament Scale for infants was used for evaluating children's temperament. The univariate analysis showed that the severity of IDA was associated with sex, birth weight, gestational age, multiple birth, maternal anemia during pregnancy, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA (Panemia during pregnancy, breast feeding, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA were the risk factors for severe IDA (OR>1; P1; Panemia during pregnancy and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA in infants aged 6-12 months. Infants with IDA have delayed neuromotor development and most of them have negative temperaments. More attention should be paid to mental and behavior problems for the infants. It is necessary to provide guidance for their parents in feeding and education.

  20. Analysis of risk factors for hydrocephalus development in newborn infants with germinal matrix hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L; Ros, B; Arráez, M A; Ríus, F; González, L; Martín, A; Carrasco, A; Segura, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of hydrocephalus in newborn infants with germinal matrix (GM) hemorrhage. The study comprised 271 patients admitted to Carlos Haya University Hospital in Malaga with GM hemorrhage. The following data were recorded: gestational age, gender, twin birth, head circumference at birth, weight at birth, and Papile grade. Severe obstetrical (abruption, chorioamnionitis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, tocolytic treatment) and neonatal disorders (respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection, coagulation disorder, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis) were also recorded. Symptomatic hydrocephalus was diagnosed in the event of a progressive increase in head circumference and ventricular indices requiring shunting. Of the 271 patients, 139 (51%) developed posthemorrhagic ventriculomegaly; 47 patients (17%) developed symptomatic hydrocephalus and needed shunt implantation. We found a significant relationship between the development of symptomatic hydrocephalus and Papile grade, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, twin birth, and neonatal infection. Awareness of risk factors for the development of hydrocephalus in newborn infants with GM hemorrhage should be emphasized in order to enable an early diagnosis of ventriculomegaly and symptomatic hydrocephalus and thus make a correct therapeutic decision.

  1. Risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss in NICU infants compared to normal hearing NICU controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenraad, S.; Goedegebure, A.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Hoeve, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate independent etiologic factors associated with sensorineural hearing loss in infants who have been admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit compared to normal hearing controls. Between 2004 and 2009, 3366 infants were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Sophia Children's

  2. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for sudden infant death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell-Naughton, M

    2012-04-01

    A population based case control study was conducted to examine alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of SIDS in an Irish population. Each SIDS case (n = 287) was compared with control infants (n = 832) matched for date and place of birth for infants born from 1994 to 2001. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate differences between Cases and Controls establishing Odds Ratio\\'s (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Mothers who smoked were 3 times more likely to have a SIDS Case, and a dose response effect was apparent, with mothers smoking 1-10 cigarettes\\/day OR 2.93 (CI 1.50-5.71), and those smoking > 10 cigarettes\\/day OR 4.36 (CI 2.50-7.61). More Case mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy than Control mothers and, within drinkers, the amount of alcohol consumed was also greater (p < 0.05). A dose response with frequency of drinking was apparent. The adjusted odds ratio for those consuming alcohol in all three trimesters was 3.59 (CI:1.40-9.20). Both of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be incorporated into antenatal education from a SIDS point of view.

  3. Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection Decision Tree Analysis of Risk Factors for Infant Anemia in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fang; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Jie; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin-Ying; Wang, Lin

    2016-05-20

    In the past decades, studies on infant anemia have mainly focused on rural areas of China. With the increasing heterogeneity of population in recent years, available information on infant anemia is inconclusive in large cities of China, especially with comparison between native residents and floating population. This population-based cross-sectional study was implemented to determine the anemic status of infants as well as the risk factors in a representative downtown area of Beijing. As useful methods to build a predictive model, Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree analysis and logistic regression analysis were introduced to explore risk factors of infant anemia. A total of 1091 infants aged 6-12 months together with their parents/caregivers living at Heping Avenue Subdistrict of Beijing were surveyed from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014. The prevalence of anemia was 12.60% with a range of 3.47%-40.00% in different subgroup characteristics. The CHAID decision tree model has demonstrated multilevel interaction among risk factors through stepwise pathways to detect anemia. Besides the three predictors identified by logistic regression model including maternal anemia during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months, and floating population, CHAID decision tree analysis also identified the fourth risk factor, the maternal educational level, with higher overall classification accuracy and larger area below the receiver operating characteristic curve. The infant anemic status in metropolis is complex and should be carefully considered by the basic health care practitioners. CHAID decision tree analysis has demonstrated a better performance in hierarchical analysis of population with great heterogeneity. Risk factors identified by this study might be meaningful in the early detection and prompt treatment of infant anemia in large cities.

  4. Risk factors and the occurrence of cerebral palsy in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Handryastuti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of cerebral palsy (CP has increased due to better survival rates of high-risk babies. Early detection and time to the occurrence of CP in the first year of life is important in order to provide early intervention. Objectives To determine the proportion of CP in high-risk babies, the time to the occurrence of CP in the first year, and assess possible associations between risk factors of CP and time to the occurrence of CP. Methods A prospective cohort study was done on 150 high-risk babies up to the age of 12 months. We obtained history of motor ability and assessed primitive reflexes and postural reactions of subjects at the ages of 4 and 6 months. The diagnosis of CP was established at 6 and 12 months of age. Results The proportion of CP was 26% at 6 months and 24% at 12 months of age. Significant risk factors associated with CP at 6 and 12 months of age were cerebral ultrasound abnormalities, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and intracranial hemorrhage. In 88.7% of subjects with CP, CP was detected in the first 6 months. Mean age at the occurrence of CP was 9.99 months (95%CI 9.46 to 10.53. Risk factors that significantly affected the time to the occurrence of CP by survival analysis were ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusions Cerebral palsy can be detected as early as the first 6 months of life. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are the risk factors associated with CP.

  5. Interactions of infectious symptoms and modifiable risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome. The Nordic Epidemiological SIDS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Banner, Jytte; Oyen, N

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of infection on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and to analyse whether modifiable risk factors of SIDS, prone sleeping, covered head and smoking act as effect modifiers. In a consecutive multicentre case-control study of SIDS in Denmark, Norway......, prone sleeping, head covered or parental smoking, was far greater than the sum of each individual factor. These risk factors thus modify the dangerousness of infection in infancy....

  6. An Investigation of the Mortality Rate and Risk Factors in Newborn Infants With Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the serious challenges facing neonatal medicine is meconium aspiration syndrome, delays in the treatment of which can lead to high mortality. Objectives This study was designed and conducted with the aim of determining the mortality rate and risk factors affecting this rate in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome. Methods This study was conducted as a retrospective descriptive research on newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Fatemieh and Be’sat hospitals in Hamadan city during a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Demographic information of the mother and the newborn, hospitalization course, the need for mechanical ventilation, and complications and outcomes of disease were extracted and were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. Results Sixty-three newborn infants, diagnosed with meconium aspiration syndrome, were entered in this study, 40% of them were male, 85.7% wighed more than 2500 g, and 17.5% were post term, 25.3% had a five-minute Apgar Score (AS5min of less than seven, 39.6% were nonvigorous at birth, 31.8% needed to be placed on mechanical ventilation, and 14.3% died during the hospitalization course. There was a significant relationship between the need for mechanical ventilation, nonvigorous state at the birth, complications of disease and mortality rate. Conclusions Despite the progress made in medicine, meconium aspiration syndrome is still one of the causes of newborn infants’ mortality. The mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced by improvement in perinatal care, prevention of post term delivery, timely caesarean and effective neonatal resuscitation at birth.

  7. Retinopathy of Prematurity among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea: Incidence, Treatment, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jong Hee; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to describe the incidence, risk factors, and current treatment status of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants registered in the Korean Neonatal Network database. Medical records of 2,009 VLBW infants born between January 2013 and June 2014 who underwent examination by an ophthalmologist were reviewed. The total incidence of ROP was 34.1%. Of the patients, 11.6% showed ROP stage ≥ 3 and 11.5% received treatment of VLBW. Among all infants who received treatment of ROP, 63.6% underwent operation only; 16.9%, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment only; and 19.5%, both operation and anti-VEGF treatment. The mean gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) were significantly lower and the prevalence rates of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), invasive ventilator duration, and sepsis were significantly higher in the VLBW infants with ROP than in those without ROP. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, PDA (odd ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.79) and invasive ventilator duration (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02) were significant risk factors of ROP and ROP stage ≥ 3. In conclusion, the high incidence of ROP is associated with low GA and BW, and attempt to reduce the aforementioned risk factors could reduce the incidence of ROP stage ≥ 3 in VLBW infants.

  8. HIV, malaria, and infant anemia as risk factors for postneonatal infant mortality among HIV-seropositive women in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kager, Piet A.; Lal, Renu B.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with poor pregnancy outcome and infant survival. We studied the association of placental malaria, infant malaria and anemia, and infant HIV status with postneonatal infant mortality (PNIM) among infants of HIV-seropositive women.

  9. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection as risk factors for anemia in infants in Kisumu, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Misore, Ambrose O.; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Kager, Piet A.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2002-01-01

    The role of maternal and pediatric infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and malaria as risk factors for anemia was determined in a birth cohort of infants born to mothers participating in a study of the interaction between placental malaria and HIV infection, in Kisumu, Kenya.

  10. Influence of behaviour and risk factors on motor performance in preterm infants at age 2 to 3 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Akkermans, R.P.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Kollee, L.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the influence of test-taking behaviour and risk factors for delayed motor performance in 437 preterm infants (244 males, 193 females; < or = 32 weeks of gestation) at the corrected age of 2 to 3 years (mean 29mo [SD 3.3]). Other mean (SD) sample

  11. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  12. Knowledge and cultural beliefs of mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss and awareness of audiology services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Govender

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102 receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62 believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients.

  13. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-06-23

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients.

  14. Infectious diseases and immune system in infants Risk factors and consequences: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duijts (Liesbeth)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPreterm birth and low birth weight are considered as important public health concerns since both are important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality (1-3). Furthermore, these adverse birth outcomes seem to have long term consequences. Preterm birth infants are at risk for

  15. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in High Risk Infants of Mediocre Socio-economic Background at Around One Year of Age and Their Correlation with Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Suranjana Sur; Mukherjee, Suchandra; Sarkar, Kakali Das

    2013-12-01

    The present study tried to determine the hearing threshold by brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) in the high-risk infants from a mediocre socio-economic background at around 1 year of age and correlate different risk factors with hearing loss. BERA was done on 127 infants of 6-18 months age of which 87 were high risk. All were given monaural acoustic stimulus using Cz-M1/M2 Montage. Based on the appearance of wave V at minimum stimulus intensity, hearing threshold in decibels (dB) of each ear was determined. To study the association of the individual risk factor with hearing loss multiple logistic regression test was applied. Taking BERA threshold for 'Pass' as ≤40 dBnHL, out of 87 high risk infants 10.34 % (n = 9) had bilateral severe to profound hearing loss, 17.24 % (n = 15) had bilateral mild to moderate hearing loss and 12.64 % (n = 11) had impaired hearing in one ear. All of the control group infants had normal hearing threshold of 30 dBnHL. Twenty major risk factors were identified in the whole study group at an average of 2.3 factors per infant. Twelve factors were examined for correlation using Odd's ratio (OR) with >40 dBnHL threshold as the outcome variable. Factors with very high OR were family history of deafness, Ototoxic drugs and Cranio-facial abnormality followed by others. High risk infants have a persistent and definitive risk of hearing loss prompting early intervention.

  16. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  17. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in High Risk Infants of Mediocre Socio-economic Background at Around One Year of Age and Their Correlation with Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Suranjana Sur; Mukherjee, Suchandra; Sarkar, Kakali Das

    2012-01-01

    The present study tried to determine the hearing threshold by brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) in the high-risk infants from a mediocre socio-economic background at around 1 year of age and correlate different risk factors with hearing loss. BERA was done on 127 infants of 6–18 months age of which 87 were high risk. All were given monaural acoustic stimulus using Cz-M1/M2 Montage. Based on the appearance of wave V at minimum stimulus intensity, hearing threshold in decibels (dB) of...

  18. Analysis of risk factors for infant mortality in the 1992-3 and 2002-3 birth cohorts in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2017-01-01

    : The Bandim Health Project (BHP) continuously surveys children in rural Guinea-Bissau. We investigated the association between maternal and infant factors (especially DTP and measles coverage) and infant mortality. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox regression. We tested for interactions with sex......INTRODUCTION: Though still high, the infant mortality rate in Guinea-Bissau has declined. We aimed to identify risk factors including vaccination coverage, for infant mortality in the rural population of Guinea-Bissau and assess whether these risk factors changed from 1992-3 to 2002-3. METHODS......, age groups (defined by current vaccination schedule) and cohort to assess whether the risk factors were the same for boys and girls, in different age groups in 1992-3 and in 2002-3. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate declined from 148/1000 person years (PYRS) in 1992-3 to 124/1000 PYRS in 2002-3 (HR...

  19. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rachel C; Mello, Rosane R; Silva, Kátia S

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition) at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. mean birth weight was 1,119g (SD: 247) and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2). Approximately 44.3%(n=86) of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n=79) had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Factors Contribute to Risk for Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome among Moderately Preterm, Late Preterm, and Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Carol L.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Meyer, Julia; Cole, F. Sessions; Wambach, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the genetic contribution to risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) among moderately preterm, late preterm, and term infants (estimated gestational age ≥32 weeks) of African and European-descent. Study Design We reviewed clinical records for 524 consecutive twin pairs ≥32 weeks gestation. We identified pairs in which at least 1 twin had RDS (n=225) and compared the concordance of RDS between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). Using mixed effects logistic regression, we identified covariates that increased disease risk. We performed additive genetic, common environmental, and residual effects modeling to estimate genetic variance and used the ratio of genetic variance to total variance to estimate genetic contribution to RDS disease risk. Results Monozygotic twins were more concordant for RDS than dizygotic twins (p=0.0040). Estimated gestational age, European-descent, male sex, delivery by cesarean, and five minute Apgar score each independently increased risk for RDS. After adjusting for these covariates, genetic effects accounted for 58% (p=0.0002) of the RDS disease risk variance for all twin pairs. Conclusions In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors may contribute to RDS risk among moderately preterm, late preterm, and term infants. Discovery of risk alleles may be important for prediction and management of RDS risk. PMID:26935785

  1. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk of allergy: the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M.; Koopman, L. P.; van Strien, R. T.; Wijga, A.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Neijens, H. J.; Brunekreef, B.; Postma, D. S.; Gerritsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that the period immediately after birth is a sensitive period for the development of atopic disease. We investigated whether birth characteristics and environmental factors are associated with the development of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life. Seventy-six children

  2. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in infants at high risk of allergy : the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; Koopman, LP; van Strien, RT; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; Aalberse, RC; Neijens, HJ; Brunekreef, B; Postma, DS; Gerritsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the period immediately after birth is a sensitive period for the development of atopic disease. Objective We investigated whether birth characteristics and environmental factors are associated with the development of atopic dermatitis in the first year of life.

  3. [Teenage pregnancy and other risk factors for fetal and infant mortality in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Elaine Fernandes Viellas de; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Silva, Cosme Marcelo Furtado Passos da

    2010-03-01

    This article analyzes teenage pregnancy and other risk factors for fetal and infant mortality in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included a sample of births in Rio de Janeiro, and exposure variables were organized hierarchically. For fetal death, the results showed the protective effect of adequate prenatal care, while maternal morbidity increased the risk. For neonatal death, adequate prenatal care and female gender in the newborn were protective factors, while black or brown maternal skin color, history of stillbirth, maternal morbidity, and physical aggression during the index pregnancy increased the risk. Low birth weight and prematurity were corroborated as determinants of fetal and neonatal death. Risk of post-neonatal death was highest with increased parity, intra-gestational morbidity, and low birth weight. Teenage pregnancy itself was an independent factor for post-neonatal death. The findings reaffirm the relevance of social and health policies targeting adolescents, as well as improvements in prenatal care.

  4. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Stenting in Tetralogy of Fallot Infants With Risk Factors for Early Primary Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Juan Pablo; Chaturvedi, Rajiv R; Benson, Lee; Morgan, Gareth; Van Arsdell, Glen; Honjo, Osami; Caldarone, Christopher; Lee, Kyong-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot with cyanosis requiring surgical repair in early infancy reflects poor anatomy and is associated with more clinical instability and longer hospitalization than those who can be electively repaired later. We bridged symptomatic infants with risk factors for early primary repair by right ventricular outflow tract stenting (stent). Four groups of tetralogy of Fallot with confluent central pulmonary arteries were studied: stent group (n=42), primary repair (aged 3mo group; n=45). Stent patients had the smallest pulmonary arteries with a median (95% credible intervals) Nakata index (mm 2 /m 2 ) of 79 (66-85) compared with the early-PA 139 (129-154), early-PS 136 (121-153), and surg>3mo 167 (153-200) groups. Only stent infants required unifocalization of aortopulmonary collaterals (17%). Stent and early-PA infants had younger age and lower weight than early-PS infants. Stent infants had the most multiple comorbidities. Stenting allowed deferral of complete surgical repair to an age (6 months), weight (6.3 [5.8-7.0] kg), and Nakata index (147 [132-165]) similar to the low-risk surg>3mo group. The 3 early treatment groups had similar intensive care unit/hospital stays and high reintervention rates in the first 12 months after repair, compared with the surg>3mo group. Right ventricular outflow tract stenting of symptomatic tetralogy of Fallot with poor anatomy (small pulmonary arteries) and adverse factors (multiple comorbidities, low weight) relieves cyanosis and defers surgical repair. This allowed pulmonary arterial and somatic growth with clinical results comparable to early surgical repair in more favorable patients. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. [Study of risk factors for recurrence in severe life-threatening conditions in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimet, Y; Poujol, A; Cournelle, M A; Cornus, P; Courcier, D; Brusquet, Y

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study, 180 infants, mean age 2-6 months, hospitalized for apparent life threatening events between October 1985 and September 1988 (for 7,261 infants admitted into the pediatric unit during the same period), were submitted to the following investigations: careful anamnesis, complete clinical examination, systematic paraclinical investigations (standard biological studies, infectious and metabolic tests, investigations for gastro esophageal reflux (GER) and vagal hyper-reflectivity (VHR), polysomnography) or adapted to the clinical situation (toxic tests, brain computed scan, laryngoscopy, etc). Pathologies were mainly functional with neuro-vegetative immaturity (67.5%): gastro esophageal reflux (49%), vagal hyper-reflectivity (8.5%) or both (10%). An incidental pathological factor (breath holding spell, convulsion, intoxication, infection) was found in 18.5% of the infants, and 14% had normal results. Diphemanil 10 mg/kg/24h corrected the VHR and Metoclopramide 1 mg/kg/24h controlled 52% of the GER. The recurrence rate of illness in the GER and VHR groups was statistically lower with efficient therapy (12% vs 48%); no recurrence occurred in other groups.

  6. Risk factors for eczema in infants born in Cuba: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Venero-Fernández, Silvia Josefina; de la Mora-Faife, Esperanza; García-García, Gladys; Del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Fabré-Ortiz, Dania; Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-03-25

    There is a concern that allergic disease in childhood is higher than expected in Cuba. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for eczema of infants aged 12-15 months living in Havana. We used a cross-sectional epidemiological study design. Data on eczema symptoms and a wide range of lifestyle factors were collected by researcher administered questionnaires. Data were collected on 1956 children (96% response rate), of whom 672 (34%) were reported as having had eczema. Independent risk factors for eczema included young maternal age (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.98 per additional year of age; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99), child's weight (OR 1.13 per additional kg; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25), insect sting allergy (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.33-3.35), rodents in the home (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.76), attendance at childcare facilities (OR 1.34: 95% CI: 1.05-1.70) and self-reported mould in the home (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41). Infant exposure to paracetamol was associated with an increased risk of eczema even after adjustment for wheeze (OR 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.46). Despite a very different culture and environment, the consistency of these findings with those from more economically developed countries suggests potential causal associations. The association with paracetamol, even after adjustment for wheeze, suggests that intervention studies are required in young infants, to ascertain if this commonly used anti-pyretic medication increases allergic disease.

  7. Analysis of Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity Among Very-low-birth-weight Infants in North Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yo Yang

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of ROP among VLBW infants was 45.8%; 19.0% had severe ROP. Infants of lower GAs and/or with LBW, whose mother had preeclampsia or who had a long duration of mechanical ventilation are at risk for the development of threshold ROP.

  8. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Banner, Jytte

    2000-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Austral...

  9. HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS IN NEW-BORNS AND INFANTS: CLINICAL COURSE AND PERINATAL RISK FACTORS OF ARRHYTHMIAS APPEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kovalyov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical course, prognosis and mechanisms of separate forms of heart rhythm disorders in children differ from those in adults. Especially, it refers to new-borns and infants whose conduction system differs by functional and morphologic immaturity. In connection with it, the assessment of natural history of heart rhythm disorders, occurred in a perinatal period, and determination of risk factors of arrhythmia appearance in infants are of some interest. 88 newborns took part in the study. The patients were involved by continuous sampling technique. Risk factors, occurred in a perinatal period and potentially influenced on development of heart rhythm disorders, were assessed. In our study we took biological, gynecologic and obstetric history, data of gestation and delivery course, early and late neonatal period, early infancy, Echo, neurosonography, Holter monitoring with determination of heart rhythm variability, and determined thyroid hormonal status. Maximum specific gravity had extrasystoles – 32.4% – in the structure of idiopathic arrhythmias in infants. Heart rhythm disorders with natural history were kept at six months of life only in 5,4% of children. Persistence of arrhythmias was marked during one year only for WPW syndrome. Heart rhythm disorders are often marked significantly in children whose mothers had acute respiratory disease during the pregnancy, or if the children were born from the first pregnancy, had the signs of central nervous system damage syndromes in an early perinatal period (arrest, intracranial hypertension, convulsive disorder. Disorders of autonomic imbalance of cardiac function and peculiarities of hemodynamics of pulmonary circulation contribute significantly into appearance and persistence of all types of arrhythmias. On the whole, the prognosis of heart rhythm disorders, occurred in the perinatal period, without organic and structural changes of myocardium is favorable. The exclusion can be made for

  10. Risk factors for wheezing during infancy. A study of 5,953 infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Dalgaard, P; Nyboe, J

    1987-01-01

    Risk factors for the development of wheezing during infancy were studied in 5,953 children. The data for the study were collected from a large prospective investigation of children born in 1959-61, who had attended a one-year follow-up examination. Wheezing was diagnosed when the symptom had been...

  11. Recurrent wheezing in relation to environmental risk factors in infancy. A prospective study of 276 infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Husby, S

    1991-01-01

    Clinical course and environmental factors were recorded in a prospective study of 276 unselected infants followed from birth to the age of 18 months. The study was performed with a questionnaire at the age of 6 and 12 months and a physical examination at 18 months. Fifty-nine (21%) of the children...... had greater than or equal to 2 episodes of wheezing before they were 18 months old. A total of 58 (21%) of the children belonged to the lowest social class V, 182 (66%) were daily exposed to passive tobacco smoking at home and/or in daycare, 164 (59%) were breastfed greater than or equal to 3 months......, 192 (70%) were in daycare, 62 (22%) lived in flats and 167 (61%) were in daily contact with furred pets at home and/or in daycare. In social class V a preponderance of children were exposed to passive tobacco smoking, a majority were living in flats and a minority were breastfed greater than or equal...

  12. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Preterm Infants Born at 34 Weeks of Gestation or Less Following Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyan; Wang, Qiuxia; Lu, Junyin; Zhang, Qiang; Kumar, Pravesh

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to identify possible perinatal risk factors related to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). A total of 292 preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM were enrolled in the study, while 155 newborns with incomplete data, especially those that lack histological examination of the placenta, maternal details, and neonatal characteristics, have been further excluded. Finally, data of 137 preterm infants were included in the analysis. All infants underwent ultrasonographic screening for IVH. Thirty-three infants with IVH were considered as cases and 104 infants without IVH were considered as controls. The association between risk factors and IVH was evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The incidence of IVH in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM was 24.1%, while the incidence of maternal chorioamnionitis was 43.8%. By univariate analysis, gestational age, birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, maternal chorioamnionitis, fetal distress, amniotic fluid index, and latency of the rupture of membranes to birth were found to be significantly different between the 2 groups. By logistic regression analysis, lower gestational age, low birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, and maternal chorioamnionitis were found to be independent risk factors for IVH. Lower gestational age, low birth weight, asphyxia resuscitation, and maternal chorioamnionitis are independent risk factors for IVH in preterm infants born at 34 weeks of gestation or less following pPROM. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estudio de factores de riesgo para la hemorragia de la matriz germinal del prematuro Risk factors for germinal matrix hemorrhage in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys P. Arango

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de facilitar el diagnóstico clínico de la hemorragia de la matriz germinal del prematuro, se diseñó un estudio de casos (n: 56 y controles (n: 66 para determinar los factores de riesgo de la madre y del niño; también se buscó asociación entre dichos factores y la gravedad del evento. No se halló relación entre los factores de riesgo maternos y la presencia o gravedad de la hemorragia. En cuanto a los niños, la edad gestacional menor de 31 semanas, el uso de ventilación mecánica y la persistencia del ductus arterioso mostraron una relación estadística con el evento (p < 0.05, mientras que la sumatoria de tres o más riesgos la tuvo con la gravedad del mismo (p < 0.05. Se concluye que los mencionados factores de riesgo pueden ser indicativos del desarrollo de la hemorragia de la matriz germinal en el prematuro. To facilitate clinical diagnosis of germinal matrix hemorrhage In preterm infants, a study of cases {n: 56 and controls {n: 66 was carried out. Association was investigated between hemorrhage and maternal and neonatal risk factors; also included was the correlation between such factors and seriousness of the hemorrhagic episode. No correlation was found between maternal risk factors and hemorrhage or its seriousness. Concerning neonatal risks, gestational age under 31 weeks, the use of mechanical ventilation and persistence of ductus arteriosus, independently, showed statistical correlation with the hemorrhage {p < 0.05, whereas the simultaneous presence of three or more risks correlated with intensity of hemorrhage {p < 0.05. We conclude that the abovementioned neonatal risk factors can be suggestive of the development of germinal matrix hemorrhage in preterm Infants.

  14. Hydronephrosis in Infants and Children: Natural History and Risk Factors for Persistence in Children Followed by a Medical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Van Dervoort

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infants with neonatal hydronephrosis and a normal voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG are presumed to have ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO. There is little current information about the natural history of children with hydronephrosis or clinical factors that predict resolution of the radiological abnormality. Objective To determine the time course until spontaneous resolution of neonatal hydronephrosis and define risk factors for persistence of the abnormality. Methods This retrospective single center review examined infants and children <5 years of age with hydronephrosis who were followed for at least 12 months. Results 136 children were identified (96 male:40 female. The mean age at diagnosis of hydronephrosis was 3.3 ± 9.7 months and 76% of the patients were diagnosed at birth. The hydronephrosis was unilateral in 98 (72% of cases, and hydronephrosis was at least moderate in severity in 22% of affected kidneys. At last follow-up at 30 ± 10 months, the abnormality had resolved in 77 out of 115 (67% available patients, 30 (26% had been referred to urology, and 12 (10% had persistent hydronephrosis. Severity of hydronephrosis was the only clinical feature that predicted persistence of the abnormality (P < 0.001. There was an association between detection at birth and lack of resolution of hydronephrosis. Conclusions Children with hydronephrosis and presumed UPJO and normal kidney parenchyma can be followed for at least 2 years to allow for spontaneous resolution before referral to urology. Serial sonography can be performed at 6 month intervals in uncomplicated cases. More severe hydronephrosis and presence of the lesion at birth may predict infants and children requiring closer observation and referral for possible surgical correction of the hydronephrosis.

  15. [Apnoea in infants with bronchiolitis: Incidence and risk factors for a prediction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Ramírez-Álvarez, María; Martínez García, Yasmina; Artacho-González, Lourdes; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2017-05-04

    The presence of apnoea in acute bronchiolitis (AB) varies between 1.2% and 28.8%, depending on the series, and is one of its most fearsome complications. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of apnoea in hospitalised patients diagnosed with AB, and to define their associated risk factors in order to construct a prediction model. A retrospective observational study of patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in the last 5 years with a diagnosis of AB, according to the classic criteria. Data was collected on the frequency of apnoea and related clinical variables to find risk factors in a binary logistic regression model for the prediction of apnoea. A ROC curve was developed with the model. Apnoea was recorded during the admission of 53 (4.4%) patients out of a total 1,197 cases found. The risk factors included in the equation were: Female (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.27-1.37), Caesarean delivery (OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.5-7.7), Postmenstrual age ≤43 weeks (OR: 6.62, 95% CI: 2.38-18.7), Fever (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.09-1.97), Low birth weight (OR: 5.93, 95% CI: 2.23-7.67), Apnoea observed by caregivers before admission (OR: 5.93, 95% CI: 2.64-13.3), and severe bacterial infection (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.68-9.46). The optimal sensitivity and specificity of the model in the ROC curve was 0.842 and 0.846, respectively (P<.001). The incidence of apnoea during admission was 4.4 per 100 admissions of AB and year. The estimated prediction model equation may be of help to the clinician in order to classify patients with increased risk of apnoea during admission due to AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. IMPACT OF FATHERS' ALCOHOLISM AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PARENT-INFANT ATTACHMENT STABILITY FROM 12 TO 18 MONTHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ellen P; Eiden, Rina D; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2004-11-01

    This study examined short-term attachment stability and sought to identify predictors of stability and change within a sample characterized by fathers' alcoholism. Results suggest moderate stability of attachment classifications (60% for mothers, 53% for fathers) from 12 to 18 months. Higher paternal and maternal alcohol symptoms, maternal depression, and maternal antisocial behavior were found in families with stable insecure mother-infant attachment compared to those who were stable secure. Mother-infant stable insecurity was associated with higher levels of maternal negative affect expression during play. Father-infant stable insecurity was associated with lower levels of paternal positive affect expression and decreased sensitivity during play. Stable insecure children also had higher levels of negative affect during parent-infant interactions and higher negative emotionality during other episodes compared to stable secure children. Results indicate that infants who were insecure at both time points had the highest constellation of family risk characteristics.

  17. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

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    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  18. Fatores de risco para diárreia persistente em lactentes Risk factors to persistent diarrhea in infants

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    Maria das Graças Moura Lins

    2003-12-01

    . PATIENT AND METHODS: This is a case-control study. The sample consisted of 212 infants under 24 months, hospitalized with acute diarrhea, at the "Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco", Recife, PE, Brazil. Cases were infants with persistent diarrhea and controls those with acute diarrhea. Cases and controls were compared to a series of socio-economic, biological and clinical variables, previous morbidities and therapeutic management prior to hospital admission. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio were used with the respective 95% confidence intervals. It was adopted the level of significance of 5%. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to control for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: The risk of persistent diarrhea was higher for infants with: dysentery, fever at the onset of diarrhea, fasting and taking antibiotics prior to hospital admission. The variables that showed the highest adjusted odds ratios for persistent diarrhea were infants living in households without refrigerator and perianal hyperemia at hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement of environmental conditions and an adequate clinical management of diarrhea for hospitalized infants may contribute to the reduction of diarrhea morbidity.

  19. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics...... affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day...

  20. Risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis developed by preterm infants in dependence on their age

    OpenAIRE

    Eilers, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) has not completely been understood until today. We analysed the clinical history of 101 preterms with NEC (> IIa) who were treated in the clinics of neonatology Campus Benjamin Franklin and Campus Virchow Klinikum in an eleven years` period. In the analysed period from 1993 to 2003 we saw a decrease in the incidence of NEC from 7% to 1%. Various risk factors are known to play a role in the development of NEC. Those that are thought to be the...

  1. Infant Feeding Choices and Practices as Risk Factors of Mother-to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mother to child transmission of HIV infection (vertical transmission) is of major concern, because of the attendant consequences of morbidity and mortality on the child. The success of a prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programme in reducing sero-conversion among exposed newborn infants ...

  2. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the .... with 95% confidence and 80% power, with a 6 to 1 ratio of infants in the NBW to LBW group, a sample of 162 NBW ..... community and in order to improve prevention strategies. Fetal anaemia and morbidity incidence.

  3. Differential effects of risk factors on infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis emphasize a different etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Simonsen, Jacob B; Petersen, Janne

    2005-01-01

    regression models. RESULTS: The following variables had significantly differential effects on infant wheezing and AD: parental hay fever, parental asthma, parental AD, sex, maternal age, maternal occupation, smoking during pregnancy, season of birth, birth weight, gestational age, head circumference, breast-feeding...

  4. Risk factors for possible serious bacterial infection in a rural cohort of young infants in central India

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    Marie E. Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible serious bacterial infection (PBSI is a major cause of neonatal mortality worldwide. We studied risk factors for PSBI in a large rural population in central India where facility deliveries have increased as a result of a government financial assistance program. Methods We studied 37,379 pregnant women and their singleton live born infants with birth weight ≥ 1.5 kg from 20 rural primary health centers around Nagpur, India, using data from the 2010–13 population-based Maternal and Newborn Health Registry supported by NICHD’s Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research. Factors associated with PSBI were identified using multivariable Poisson regression. Results Two thousand one hundred twenty-three infants (6 % had PSBI. Risk factors for PSBI included nulliparity (RR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.03–1.23, parity > 2 (RR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.07–1.57 compared to parity 1–2, first antenatal care visit in the 2nd/3rd trimester (RR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.08–1.98 compared to 1st trimester, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (RR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.60–2.61, low birth weight (RR 3.10, 95 % CI 2.17–4.42, male sex (RR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.10–1.31 and lack of early initiation of breastfeeding (RR 3.87, 95 % CI 2.69–5.58. Conclusion Infants who are low birth weight, born to mothers who present late to antenatal care or receive antenatal corticosteroids, or born to nulliparous women or those with a parity > 2, could be targeted for interventions before and after delivery to improve early recognition of signs and symptoms of PSBI and prompt referral. There also appears to be a need for a renewed focus on promoting early initiation of breastfeeding following delivery in facilities. Trial registration This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01073475 .

  5. Population-Attributable Risk of Risk Factors for Recurrent Wheezing in Moderate Preterm Infants During the First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, M.O.; Korsten, K.; Achten, N.B.; Tamminga, S.; Nibbelke, E.E.; Sanders, E.A.; Smit, H.A.; Groenwold, R.H.; Bont, L.; Liem, D.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrent wheezing in young infants has a high prevalence, influences quality of life, and generates substantial health care costs. We previously showed that respiratory syncytial virus infection is an important mechanism of recurrent wheezing in moderate preterm infants. We aimed to

  6. [Can obstructive bronchitis be a risk factor of bronchial asthma in infants and small children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowska, Joanna; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława

    2009-01-01

    One of more frequent reasons for hospitalizations concerning infants and small children are obstructive bronchitis. Great prevalence of bronchial tree obturation during infancy and in small children is a result of anatomical and functional differences of airways and immunological differences that occur in infants and small children. The most frequent cause of bronchial tree obturation is infection induced by viruses, rarely by bacteria. Recurrences of bronchial tree obturation are observed in some patients. Obturation recurrences can be caused by number of diseases that appear during infancy and in small children, for example cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Also the presence of foreign body in the airways, immotile cilia syndrome, immunological disturbances, innate anomalies of the respiratory system and the circulatory system and bronchial asthma can result in obturation recurrences. Various clinical criteria are established and new markers of allergic inflammation are searched in view of difficulties to diagnose bronchial asthma in the youngest children. There are no unequivocal rules to diagnose bronchial asthma in infants and small children despite these searches.

  7. [Epidemiology and risk factors in injuries due to fall in infants under one year-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de Domingo, Ana; Rubio García, Elena; Marañon Pardillo, Rafael; Arias Constanti, Vanessa; Frontado Haiek, Luis Alberto; Soriano Arola, Marta; Ripoll Oliveras, Francesc; Remón García, Cristina; Estopiña Ferrer, Gloria; Lorente Romero, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of unintentional injuries due to falls in children under one year and to analyse the risk factors associated with severe injuries. This multicentre, observational and cross-sectional study included all children less than one year treated for unintentional fall in the Emergency Departments of 8 Spanish Hospitals, belonging to the «Unintentional Paediatric Injury Workshop» of the Spanish Paediatric Emergency Society, between March 1st, 2014 and February 28th, 2015. Out of 289,887 emergency department cases, 1,022 were due to unintentional falls. The median age was 8 months and 52.5% were males. Fall injuries were more frequent among children aged 9-12 months (37.6%), and 83.5% occurred at home. The most common mechanism was fall from nursery equipment (69.4%), and 47.8% occurred from a height under 50cm. More than two-thirds (68%) of falls were witnessed, but in half of the cases (329) the caregiver was not in area. Serious injuries were seen in 12% of cases. In this study, a fall height greater than 50cm, falls in the street, from the arms of the carer, and from the stairs were identified as independent risk factors for worse outcomes. The most serious injuries occur in children 50cm, though not related to unwitnessed falls. Because the most common serious injury mechanism is the fall from the arms of the carer, from stairs, and falls in the street, these facts should be highlighted in order to avoid morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Young and vulnerable: Spatial-temporal trends and risk factors for infant mortality in rural South Africa (Agincourt, 1992-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vounatsou Penelope

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality is an important indicator of population health in a country. It is associated with several health determinants, such as maternal health, access to high-quality health care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health policy and practices. Methods A spatial-temporal analysis was performed to assess changes in infant mortality patterns between 1992-2007 and to identify factors associated with infant mortality risk in the Agincourt sub-district, rural northeast South Africa. Period, sex, refugee status, maternal and fertility-related factors, household mortality experience, distance to nearest primary health care facility, and socio-economic status were examined as possible risk factors. All-cause and cause-specific mortality maps were developed to identify high risk areas within the study site. The analysis was carried out by fitting Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical negative binomial autoregressive models using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation-based Bayesian kriging was used to produce maps of all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Results Infant mortality increased significantly over the study period, largely due to the impact of the HIV epidemic. There was a high burden of neonatal mortality (especially perinatal with several hot spots observed in close proximity to health facilities. Significant risk factors for all-cause infant mortality were mother's death in first year (most commonly due to HIV, death of previous sibling and increasing number of household deaths. Being born to a Mozambican mother posed a significant risk for infectious and parasitic deaths, particularly acute diarrhoea and malnutrition. Conclusions This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical models in assessing risk factors and producing smooth maps of infant mortality risk in a health and socio-demographic surveillance system. Results showed marked geographical differences in mortality risk across

  9. The prevalence and risk factors of preterm small-for-gestational-age infants: a population-based retrospective cohort study in rural Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Zhu, Rong; Zhu, Huijuan; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying; Wang, Linjie; Jiang, Yu; Lian, Bill Q; Yan, Chengsheng; Li, Jianqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Shi-Kun; Pan, Hui

    2017-07-20

    Preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) are strong indicators of neonatal adverse outcomes. With the growing importance of preterm SGA infants, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for preterm SGA in China. We analyzed the data of parents and infants from a population-based cohort research of the free National Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project (NPCP) in rural China. Only singleton live births that occurred between 24 weeks +0 days and 36 weeks +6 days of pregnancy were included in this study. SGA was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile of the reference birth-weight-for-gestational-age population. A multiple logistic regression model was built using the statistically significant variables from the 371 variables in the questionnaire. A total of 11,474 singleton, preterm, live-birth infants were included. Of the total infants, 317 (2.77%) were preterm SGA infants. A higher risk of preterm SGA infants was observed among mothers who were on oral contraceptives (OR: 8.162, 95% CI: 1.622-41.072), mothers who had syphilis (OR: 12.800, 95% CI: 1.250-131.041), and mothers with a high eosinophil percentage (OR: 13.292, 95% CI: 1.282-135.796). Maternal intake of folic acid at least 3 months before pregnancy (OR: 0.284, 95% CI:0.124-0.654) and paternal intake of egg and meat (OR: 0.097,95% CI:0.030-0.315) were protective factors. Compared with North China, the incidence of preterm SGA infants was higher in South China. Preterm SGA infants were associated with both maternal and paternal factors.

  10. Perinatal Factors Associated with Infant Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara M.D., Ph.D., MPH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The association between birth outcomes and child maltreatment remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to test whether infants without congenital or chronic disease who are low birth weight (LBW, preterm, or small for gestational age (SGA are at an increased risk of being maltreated. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of infants without congenital or chronic diseases who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2005 was conducted. Cases (N = 35 and controls (N = 29 were compared on mean birth weight, gestational age, and z-score of birth weight. Results SGA was significantly associated with infant maltreatment after adjusting for other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio: 4.45, 95% CI: 1.29–15.3. LBW and preterm births were not associated with infant maltreatment. Conclusion Infants born as SGA are 4.5 times more at risk of maltreatment, even if they do not have a congenital or chronic disease. This may be because SGA infants tend to have poorer neurological development which leads them to be hard-to-soothe and places them at risk for maltreatment. Abbreviations SCAN, Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect; LBW, low birth weight; ZBW, z-score of birth weight adjusted for gestational age, sex, and parity; SGA, small for gestational age; SD, standard deviation; OR, odds ratio; aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; IPV, intimate partner violence.

  11. Caffeine is a risk factor for osteopenia of prematurity in preterm infants: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ebtihal; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Moffatt, Michael; Narvey, Michael; Reed, Martin; Jiang, Depeng

    2018-01-22

    Caffeine, the most commonly used medication in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, has calciuric and osteoclastogenic effects. To examine the association between the cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine and osteopenia of prematurity, a retrospective cohort study was conducted including premature infants less than 31 weeks and birth weight less than 1500 g. Osteopenia of prematurity was evaluated using chest X-rays on a biweekly basis over 12 weeks of hospitalization. The cohort included 109 infants. 51% had osteopenia of prematurity and 8% had spontaneous rib fractures. Using the generalized linear mixed model, caffeine dose and duration of caffeine therapy showed a strong association with osteopenia of prematurity. Steroids and vitamin D were also significantly correlated with osteopenia of prematurity while diuretic use did not show a statistically significant effect. The cumulative dose and duration of therapy of caffeine, as well as steroid are associated with osteopenia of prematurity in this cohort. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the lowest dose of caffeine needed to treat effectively apnea of prematurity.

  12. INNOVATIONS IN NUTRITION AS RISK-DECREASING FACTOR OF ALIMENTARY-DEPENDENT DISEASES IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Borodulina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of breast feeding in Sverdlovsk region during last 5 years is analyzed. An adherence to breast feeding increases in presence of regional social support of pregnant and nursing women and provision with dry specialized milk mixture «Bellakt Mama». All artificially fed children 0–8 months old received adopted mixture «Bellakt 0–12», and children under 3 years old have opportunity (if they have social need to receive liquid and past-like milk products for children’s nutrition, dry milk products for children after 1 year old and quick-dissolving cereals. Special attention is given to children’s nutrition in boarding schools. Rachitis, hypotrophy, functional intestinal disorders and other alimentary-dependent states are diagnosed 1.3 times frequently and anemia — 1.7 times frequently in children from orphans’ houses and boarding schools than in whole population. For the correction of micronutrient deficiency in infants, fortified milk drink «Be Healthy» («Bud Zdorov» was developed; it contains prophylactic doses of vitamins (A, D, E, C, PP and microelements (iodine, iron, zinc, selenium.Key words: infants, health, nutrition, milk mixture(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 111–114

  13. Early Infant Exposure to Excess Multivitamin: A Risk Factor for Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Sheng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects boys more than girls, is often associated with altered levels of monoamines (serotonin and catecholamines, especially elevated serotonin levels. The monoamines act as both neurotransmitters and signaling molecules in the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The evidence related to monoamine metabolism may be summarized as follows: (i monoamine neurotransmitters are enzymatically degraded/inactivated by three mechanisms: oxidative deamination, methylation, and sulfation. The latter two are limited by the supply of methyl groups and sulfate, respectively. (ii A decrease in methylation- and sulfation-mediated monoamine inactivation can be compensated by an increase in the oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamine oxidase, an X-linked enzyme exhibiting higher activity in females than in males. (iii Vitamins can, on one hand, facilitate the synthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters and, on the other hand, inhibit their inactivation by competing for methylation and sulfation. Therefore, we postulate that excess multivitamin feeding in early infancy, which has become very popular over the past few decades, may be a potential risk factor for disturbed monoamine metabolism. In this paper, we will focus on the relationship between excess multivitamin exposure and the inactivation/degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters and its possible role in the development of autism.

  14. Protective effect of an improved immunization practice of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus and risk factors associated with immunoprophylaxis failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Chuan; Jia, Zhi-Fang; Wu, Xing; Wen, Si-Min; Kong, Fei; Hu, Ke-Qin; Li, Jie; Jiang, Jing; Niu, Jun-Qi

    2016-08-01

    Although routine immunoprophylaxis has been known to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission, immunoprophylaxis failure still occurs. The study aimed to investigate the protective efficacy of an improved immunoprophylaxis protocol to prevent mother-to-infant transmission of HBV and to explore the potential risk factors associated with immunoprophylaxis failure and low antibody response.A prospective observational cohort study was conducted from July 2012 to April 2015. A total of 863 HBsAg-positive mothers and their 871 infants (8 pairs of twins) were included in the study. Two different hepatitis B vaccine doses (20 or 10 μg) were administered to the infants based on the hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) status of their mothers. Simultaneously, hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) was administered to the infants. Initial injections of HBIG and the hepatitis vaccine were given within 2 hours after birth. Rates of HBV infections among the infants were evaluated at 7 months of age. Factors associated with immunoprophylaxis failure and low responses to vaccination were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression..At 7 months of age, no immunoprophylaxis failure was observed in the 565 infants born to HBeAg-negative mothers. Among the 306 infants born to HBeAg-positive mothers, immunoprophylaxis failed in 16 infants (5.2%) of the infants and they were found to be HBsAg-positive. Further analysis showed that HBV DNA levels ≥10 IU/mL [odds ratio (OR) = 4.53, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.19-17.34], delayed vaccination (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.00-17.18), and inadequate initial injections (OR = 7.69, 95% CI: 1.71-34.59) were independently associated with immunoprophylaxis failure. Adequate titers of antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs, ≥100 mIU/mL) were present in 96.5% of immunoprophylaxis-successful infants. For full-term infants, birth weights vaccination.This improved immunoprophylaxis protocol is effective in preventing perinatal transmission of HBV

  15. Pattern of milk feeding and family size as risk factors for iron deficiency anemia among poor Egyptian infants 6 to 24 months old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalfy, Mohsen S; Hamdy, Ahmad M; Maksoud, Sahar S Abdel; Megeed, Reham I Abdel

    2012-02-01

    Infants between 6 and 24 months of age are at the highest risk of development of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in developing countries. Consuming unmodified cow's milk, delayed introduction of solid foods after 6 months, and high birth order could be predictors of the presence of IDA. Three hundred infants between the ages of 6 and 24 months (mean, 13.94 ± 6.17 months) from Ain Shams University Children's Hospital were enrolled in the study. Data collected included demographic information and dietary assessment including the type of milk feeding, introduction of solid foods, and daily iron intake. The infants were examined, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Anemic infants (hemoglobin level Anemia was diagnosed among 198 infants (66%), of whom 129 (43%) had IDA. Red cell distribution width at a cutoff value of 15.8% was 86% sensitive and 74% specific in predicting IDA. The main risk factors for IDA included being between 6 and 18 months of age, of the male sex, birth order above the second order, consuming cow's milk, predominant breast-feeding beyond 6 months of age, and low daily iron intake. We conclude that IDA is the most common cause of anemia among Egyptian infants 6 to 24 months old of low socioeconomic standard. Independent clinical predictors were consuming cow's milk during the first 6 months, delayed introduction of solid foods after 6 months, and birth order beyond the second order. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mothers speak differently to infants at-risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Goswami, Usha; Burnham, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt a novel interactional perspective on early linguistic environment and dyslexia by simultaneously studying two pre-existing factors, one maternal and one infant, that may contribute to these interactions; and two behaviours, one maternal and one infant, to index the effect of these factors. The maternal factor is whether mothers are themselves dyslexic or not (with/without dyslexia) and the infant factor is whether infants are at-/not-at family risk for dyslexia (due to their mother or father being dyslexic). The maternal behaviour is mothers' infant-directed speech (IDS), which typically involves vowel hyperarticulation, thought to benefit speech perception and language acquisition. The infant behaviour is auditory perception measured by infant sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time, which has been found to be reduced in dyslexic children. Here, at-risk infants showed significantly poorer acoustic sensitivity than not-at-risk infants and mothers only hyperarticulated vowels to infants who were not at-risk for dyslexia. Mothers' own dyslexia status had no effect on IDS quality. Parental speech input is thus affected by infant risk status, with likely consequences for later linguistic development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Factors affecting infant and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, A L; Suchindran, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper examines the determinants of infant and child mortality variations in Jordan, Yemen, Egypt, and Tunisia using data from WFS surveys. The analysis considers biological correlates of mortality--mother's age, birth order, birth interval, and previous infant loss--and several social factors--mother's and father's education, mother's residence, father's occupation, and mother's work experience since marriage. The estimates for the 4 countries show large variations in the mortality rates and an expected pattern of declining infant and child mortality during the period of 20 years prior to the survey. Further, the proportionate decline in child mortality in each country was generally greater than the proportionate decline in infant mortality. A persistent pattern of higher child mortality for females than for males is found, suggesting preferential care and treatment of male offspring. The higher mortality risk is found for infants born to very young and very old mothers, with short previous birth intervals, of higher birth orders, and where the previous infant had died. Among the socioeconomic characteristics, the education of the mother and rural-urban residence are found to affect infant survival. In childhood, among the demographic factors, only birth interval shows a significant effect on mortality. The risk of child mortality decreases considerably with the increase in the birth interval. The analysis of the effect of breastfeeding on mortality, although based on limited information, clearly shows the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on the infant's survival, especially during the early months of life. For all countries, the mortality rate for the non-breastfeeders is substantially higher than for the breastfeeders even when the effect of the other covariates is controlled.

  18. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in very-low-birth-weight infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Ghoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW infants had cranial ultrasound screening at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH and to determine the prevalence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities. To compare the characteristics and risk factors of those VLBW infants with cranial ultrasound abnormalities to those with normal cranial ultrasound findings. Methods. This was a retrospective case-controlled study of infants <1 500 g admitted to CMJAH from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Cases were identified as infants with IVH or cPVL. Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562 of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ultrasound screening. The final sample included 803 VLBW infants. IVH was identified in 26.7% of cases (n=215; 95% confidence interval (CI 23.8 - 29.9 and 0.9% had cPVL (n=8; 95% CI 0.5 - 1.9. A total of 197 cases were identified and matched with 394 controls. Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039. Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases. The use of antenatal steroids was significantly higher in the grades I - II IVH/no-IVH group v. grades III - IV IVH group (44% v. 25%; p=0.017. Conclusion. The prevalence of IVH in our setting was consistent with that of developed countries. Improving antenatal care, infection control, and adequate early resuscitation could decrease the incidence of IVH and cPVL. All VLBW infants should undergo cranial ultrasound screening

  19. RISK FACTORS AND PECULIARITIES OF NUTRITION OF INFANTS WITH CHRONIC DIARRHEA

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Lazareva; F.F. Zhvaniya

    2008-01-01

    Results of observation of children from 2,5 months to 4 years old, treated in hospital with diagnosis chronic diarrhea are analyzed in this article. Diarrhea debuted in first year of living in most cases. The reason of onset of diarrhea often was alimentary factor. Hereditary predisposition, pathologic pregnancy, and diseases in women at the time of pregnancy played an important role in development of disease. Nutrition of children in early age was characterized by low duration of breast feed...

  20. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-10

    The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province from January 2001 to December 2012. We used data from 16 monitoring sites to examine the trend and risk factors for premature birth as well as infant mortality associated with prematurity. A total of 818,481 live births were documented, including 76,923 preterm infants (94 preterm infants per 1,000 live births) and 2,248 deaths due to prematurity (2.75 preterm deaths per 1,000 live births). From 2001 to 2012, the incidence of preterm birth increased from 56.7 to 105.2 per 1,000 live births (P for trend infant mortality rate due to prematurity declined from 95.0 to 13.4 per 1,000 live births (P for trend infant male sex were independently associated with a higher incidence of preterm birth (all p values mortality rate, while use of newborn emergency transport services (NETS) was associated with a lower preterm mortality rate (all p values infant mortality due to prematurity were observed in Hubei Province from 2001 to 2012. Our results provide important information for areas of improvements in reducing incidence and mortality of premature birth.

  1. RISK FACTORS AND PECULIARITIES OF NUTRITION OF INFANTS WITH CHRONIC DIARRHEA

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    T.S. Lazareva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of observation of children from 2,5 months to 4 years old, treated in hospital with diagnosis chronic diarrhea are analyzed in this article. Diarrhea debuted in first year of living in most cases. The reason of onset of diarrhea often was alimentary factor. Hereditary predisposition, pathologic pregnancy, and diseases in women at the time of pregnancy played an important role in development of disease. Nutrition of children in early age was characterized by low duration of breast feeding and early conversion of children to the mixed and artificial feeding. Main food stuffs in children's nutrition on mixed and artificial feeding was adapted milk formulas, and rarely non adapted milk food (cow's and goat's milk, kefir. Only 30% of mothers had a definite knowledge of proper child's feeding and advantages of breast feeding. This fact indicates necessity of more active educational work by medical staff.Key words: children, chronic diarrhea, nutrition.

  2. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is an independent risk factor for frequent wheezing in infants by age 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sartini, Claudio; Mendez, Michelle; Morales, Eva; Guxens, Mònica; Basterrechea, Mikel; Arranz, Leonor; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity has been linked to the offspring's risk for subsequent asthma. We determined whether maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of wheezing phenotypes early in life. We used data on 1107 mother-child pairs from two birth cohorts from the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente project. Maternal height was measured and prepregnancy weight self-reported at enrolment (on average at 13.7 ± 2 weeks of gestation). Maternal prepregnancy body mass index was categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese according to WHO recommendations. Information on child's wheezing was obtained through questionnaires up to the age of 14 (± 1) months. Wheezing was classified as infrequent (<4 reported wheezing episodes) or frequent (≥ 4 episodes). Weight and length of infants were measured by trained study staff at 14.6 (± 1) months of age and weight-for-length z-scores computed. Although maternal obesity did not increase the risk of the child to have any or infrequent wheezing, children of obese mothers were more likely to have frequent wheezing than children of normal-weight mothers (11.8% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.002). In fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression models, including infants' weight-for-length z-scores and other covariates, maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with increased risk of frequent [adjusted relative risk (RR) 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55, 11.3] but not infrequent (RR 1.05 [95% CI 0.55, 2.01]) wheezing in their children. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is independently associated with an increased risk of frequent wheezing in the infant by the age of 14 months. These findings add evidence on the potential effects of in utero exposures on asthma-related phenotypes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Domestic violence as a risk factor for infant and child mortality: a community-based case-control study from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, S; Prasad, J H; Jacob, K S

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women may have an impact on infant and child mortality. We aimed to determine whether domestic violence is a risk factor for infant and child death. Eighty infant and child deaths (under 5 years of age) were identified from a central register of a comprehensive community health programme in rural southern India; controls were matched for age, gender and street of residence. Domestic violence during the lifetime (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.39-4.99), which was severe (OR 4.00, 95% CI 2.02-7.94) and during pregnancy (OR 5.69, 95% CI 2.03-15. 93) and father's smoking status (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.92-7.55) were significantly related to infant and child death while immunization being completed for age (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.19) and having at least one boy child in the family (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.14-0.59) were protective. These variables remained statistically significantly associated with outcome after adjusting for other determinants using conditional logistic regression. There is evidence for an association between domestic violence in mothers, and infant and child death. Copyright 2013, NMJI.

  4. Reaching and grasping movements in infants at risk: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Campos, A.C.; Rocha, N.A.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Although the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the development of reaching and grasping skills in typical infants has been extensively described in the literature, the effect of such factors on at-risk infants is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to

  5. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Poor Outcome in Infants Less Than 90 Days of Age with Bacterial Meningitis in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okike, Ifeanyichukwu O; Ladhani, Shamez N; Johnson, Alan P; Henderson, Katherine L; Blackburn, Ruth M; Muller-Pebody, Berit; Cafferkey, Mary; Anthony, Mark; Ninis, Nelly; Heath, Paul T

    2018-01-29

    To describe the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with poor outcome in infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis. Prospective, enhanced, national population-based active surveillance for infants aged <90 days with bacterial meningitis in the United Kingdom and Ireland between July 2010 and July 2011. Infants were identified through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, laboratory surveillance and meningitis charities. Clinical details was available for 263 out of 298 (88%) infants where a bacterium was identified, 184 (70%) were born at term. Fever was reported in 143 (54%), seizures in 73 (28%), bulging fontanelle in 58 (22%), coma in 15 (6%) and neck stiffness in 7 (3%). 23 (9%) died and 56/240 (23%) of the survivors had serious central nervous system (CNS) complications at discharge. Temperature instability (odds ratio [OR] 2.99; 95% CI: 1.21-7.41), seizures (OR 7.06; 95% CI: 2.80-17.81), CSF protein greater than the median concentration (2275mg/dl; OR 2.62; 95% CI: 1.13-6.10) and pneumococcal meningitis (OR 4.83; 95% CI: 1.33-17.58) were independently associated with serious CNS complications, while prematurity (OR 5.84; 95% CI: 2.02-16.85), low birthweight (OR 8.48; 95% CI: 2.60-27.69), coma at presentation (OR 31.85; 95% CI: 8.46-119.81) and pneumococcal meningitis (OR 4.62; 95% CI: 1.19-17.91) were independently associated with death. The classic features of meningitis were uncommon. The presentation in young infants is often non-specific and only half of cases presented with fever. A number of clinical and laboratory factors were associated with poor outcomes; further research is required to determine how knowledge of these risk factors might improve clinical management and outcomes.

  6. Correlation between risk factors during the neonatal period and appearance of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt

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    Abdel Hadi AM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Hadi, Islam Shereen HamdyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt, from January 2010 to January 2012.Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in infants weighing < 1250 g and maternal postmenstrual age < 32 weeks if there was concern about prolonged exposure to oxygen. The main clinical outcomes were occurrence of any stage of ROP and in particular severe ROP. Perinatal variables considered were: birth weight, gestational age, gender, method of ventilation (nasal continuous airway pressure or intermittent mechanical ventilation, packed red blood cell and/or plasma transfusion, occurrence of sepsis, neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, infants at risk were examined for ROP using indirect ophthalmoscopy, ie, RetCam II fundus photography.Results: The study included 152 infants of mean gestational age 31.02 weeks and mean birth weight 1.229 kg. Seventy-two cases (47.5% were male and 80 cases (52.5% were female. Of the cases screened, 100 (65.6% had no ROP, 52 had ROP of any stage (34.4%, and 27 (18% had stage 1, five (3.3% had stage 2, 17 (11.5% had stage 3, and three (1.6% had stage 4 disease. No infants had stage 5 ROP. Of all our cases with ROP, 15 (28.6% had prethreshold disease type 1 that required treatment, comprising 9.8% of all cases screened for ROP. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, all risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with the development of ROP, except for neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of ROP was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age.Conclusion: ROP occurred in 34.4% of all infants screened in the neonatal intensive

  7. Rehospitalization of preterm infants according to the discharge risk level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykanat Girgin, Burcu; Cimete, Güler

    2017-01-01

    The rehospitalization rate of preterm infants is between 22 and 52% within the first year after discharge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rehospitalization of preterm infants within 2 months following discharge, considering the level of risks originating from the infant, parents, and the social factors. The sample was composed of 238 preterm infants and their parents. The data were collected with a Descriptive Information Form, the Post-Discharge Infant Follow-up Form, and the Neonatal Discharge Assessment Tool (N-DAT). Before discharge, the preterm infants were evaluated in terms of risky discharge via N-DAT consisting of the subscales Medical, Competencies, Risk factors, Resources, and Parenting. Discharge was determined as low, moderate, and high risk according to N-DAT total score. Two months after the discharge, rehospitalization of the infants was assessed. The data were evaluated via chi-square, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Fisher's exact test. In the study, 39.9% of the preterm infants were rehospitalized within the 8 weeks following the discharge, with medical and/or surgical reasons. Medical problems such as pneumonia and acute bronchiolitis were ranked as the first cause for rehospitalization. As expected, according to the N-DAT scores, the rates of rehospitalization of infants who had been discharged with intermediate and high risk levels were found to be higher (p Nurses can help to minimize rehospitalization of infants by parental education, telephonic counseling, frequent observation, and home care support. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. ASPHYXIA AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK INFANTS

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    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.

  9. Nutritional strategies and gut microbiota composition as risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis in very-preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Lepage, Patricia; Martin-Marchand, Laetitia; Al Nabhani, Ziad; Delannoy, Johanne; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Aires, Julio; Durox, Mélanie; Darmaun, Dominique; Neu, Josef; Butel, Marie-José

    2017-09-01

    Background: The pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains poorly understood. Objective: We assessed the relation between feeding strategies, intestinal microbiota composition, and the development of NEC. Design: We performed a prospective nationwide population-based study, EPIPAGE 2 (Etude Epidémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels), including preterm infants born at Etude Epidémiologique de la flore), in 20 of the 64 NICUs, analyzed the intestinal microbiota by culture and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Results: Among the 3161 enrolled preterm infants, 106 (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.8%, 4.0%) developed NEC. Individual characteristics were significantly associated with NEC. Slower and intermediate rates of progression of enteral feeding strategies were associated with a higher risk of NEC, with an adjusted OR of 2.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 4.5; P = 0.01) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.5; P = 0.02), respectively. Less favorable and intermediate direct-breastfeeding policies were associated with higher NEC risk as well, with an adjusted OR of 2.5 (95% CI: 1.1, 5.8; P = 0.03) and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.8; P = 0.02), respectively. Microbiota analysis performed in 16 cases and 78 controls showed an association between Clostridium neonatale and Staphylococcus aureus with NEC ( P = 0.001 and P = 0.002). Conclusions: A slow rate of progression of enteral feeding and a less favorable direct-breastfeeding policy are associated with an increased risk of developing NEC. For a given level of risk assessed by propensity score, colonization by C. neonatale and/or S. aureus is significantly associated with NEC. This trial (EPIFLORE study) was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Relationship of postnatal depressive symptoms to infant temperament, maternal expectations, social support and other potential risk factors: findings from a large Australian cross-sectional study

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    Eastwood John G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 2000 a routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney. The survey included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for postnatal depressive symptoms in women living in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Methods Mothers (n=15,389 delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2–3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were EPDS >9 and >12. Logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis. Results The prevalence of EPDS >9 was 16.93 per 100 (95% CI: 16.34 to 17.52 and EPDS >12 was 7.73 per 100 (95% CI: 6.96 to 7.78. The final parsimonious logistic regression models included measures of infant behaviour, financial stress, mother’s expectation of motherhood, emotional support, sole parenthood, social support and mother’s country of birth. Conclusions Infant temperament and unmet maternal expectations have a strong association with depressive symptoms with implications for the design of both preventative and treatment strategies. The findings also support the proposition that social exclusion and social isolation are important determinants of maternal depression.

  11. Acompanhamento do desenvolvimento da linguagem de lactentes de risco para surdez Follow-up of language development in infants with risk factors for hearing loss

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    Denise Maria Zaratini Fernandes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desenvolvimento da linguagem, de acordo com o gênero, idade gestacional e peso ao nascimento, aos quatro, oito e 12 meses, de lactentes que permaneceram em UTI Neonatal e que apresentaram um ou mais indicadores de risco para perda auditiva de aparecimento tardio. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de lactentes nascidos entre agosto de 2007 e julho de 2008 que, na UTI, apresentaram resultado normal no Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico, e que necessitaram de monitoramento audiológico e de linguagem, por apresentarem indicadores de risco para perda auditiva. Os lactentes foram avaliados no 4º, 8º e 12° meses de vida por meio da Escala de Aquisições Iniciais de Linguagem. RESULTADOS: Compareceram a todas as avaliações 87 lactentes e 60 (69% apresentaram como indicador de risco a permanência na UTI associada à hipertensão pulmonar. Na Escala de Aquisições Iniciais de Linguagem, nove lactentes apresentaram alterações aos quatro meses e 11 lactentes aos oito meses de idade. Aos 12 meses, 18 (20,6% lactentes apresentaram alteração e desses, cinco tiveram atraso nos meses anteriores. Os dados estatísticos demonstraram que resultados alterados aos quatro e oito meses podem predizer dificuldades nas respostas dos lactentes aos 12 meses. Houve o aparecimento de desvios transitórios no desenvolvimento da linguagem oral, normalizados na maioria dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: Deve-se realizar a avaliação de linguagem no primeiro ano de vida a fim de monitorar possíveis atrasos em lactentes com indicador de risco para surdez.PURPOSE: To compare language development, according to gender, gestational age and birth weight, at four, eight and 12 months of life, of infants who remained in the Neonate Intensive Care Unit, who presented at least one risk factor for hearing loss with delayed onset. METHODS: Longitudinal study of infants born between August 2007 and July 2008, who, in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, showed

  12. Evaluation of a sudden unexpected death in infancy intervention programme aimed at improving parental awareness of risk factors and protective infant care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Christine; Trenholme, Adrian; Stewart, Joanna; Vogel, Alison

    2018-04-01

    Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) rates for Māori and Pacific infants remain higher than for other ethnic groups in New Zealand and bed-sharing is a major risk factor when there is smoking exposure in pregnancy. Sleep space programmes of education and Pēpi-Pod baby beds require evaluation. Two hundred and forty Māori and Pacific women and infants were randomised 1:1, to the Pēpi-Pod sleep space programme, or to a control group with 'usual care'. When infants were under 2 weeks of age, baseline interviews occurred, followed up by interviews at 2 and 4 months of age to assess safe sleep knowledge, infant care practices and Pēpi-Pod use and acceptability. All participants were offered a New Zealand Standard approved portable cot. At baseline, 25% of babies did not have a baby bed. Knowledge of smoking and bed-sharing as SUDI risks improved at follow-up in both groups. One quarter regularly bed-shared at follow-up in both groups. Intention to bed-share was a strong predictor of subsequent behaviour. Pēpi-Pods were regularly used by 46% at 2 months and 16% at 4 months follow-up. Bed-sharing and knowledge improvement were similar irrespective of group. It is likely that the impact of the intervention was reduced because the control group received better support than 'usual care' and all participants had a baby bed. New Zealand SUDI rates have declined since sleep space programmes have been available. Sleep space programmes should be prioritised for those with modifiable SUDI risk. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants at 1 year of corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Cláudia; Procianoy, Renato S; Silveira, Rita C

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia and iron deficiency at 1 year of corrected age (CA) in preterm very-low-birth-weight infants, and to identify risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia. A cohort of infants with birth weight Anemia diagnosis was based on hemoglobin infant formula); hospitalizations during the first year and weight, head circumference, body mass index and length at 12 months' CA were analyzed. Prevalence of anemia in 310 participants was 26.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.8-31.6%] and of iron deficiency was 48% (95% CI 39.0-56.9%). Increased consumption of cow's milk at 6 months [relative risk (RR) 1.687; 95% CI 1.146-2.483], lower maternal age (RR 0.953; 95% CI 0.923-0.983), high number of pregnancies (RR 1.256; 95% CI 1.122-1.406) and being born small for gestational age (RR 1.578; 95% CI 1.068-2.331) were independently associated with anemia after adjustments. Prevalence of anemia is high at 1 year of CA. Dietary and environmental education strategies may help prevent anemia after discharge.

  15. Risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and coping strategies in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rosa, Wojciech; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the potential risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit. The development of neonatal intensive care units has increased the survival rate of infants. However, one of the major parental problems is post-traumatic stress disorder. An observational study covered 125 parents (72 mothers and 53 fathers) of infants aged 3-12 months who were hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit during the neonatal period. Third-referral neonatal intensive care unit. Several standardised and self-reported research tools were used to estimate the level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact Event Scale-Revised), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and coping strategies (COPE Inventory). The respondents also completed a Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. The mothers and fathers did not differ in their parental and infant characteristics. Post-traumatic stress disorder was present in 60% of the mothers and 47% of the fathers. Compared to the fathers, the mothers felt greater stress (p = .020) and presented a higher severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (p post-traumatic stress disorder in the mothers. In the fathers, an Apgar test at 1 min after birth (p = .030) and a partner's post-traumatic stress disorder (p = .038) were related to post-traumatic stress disorder. The mothers compared to the fathers were more likely to use strategies such as: positive reinterpretation and growth, focusing on and venting of emotions, instrumental social support, religious coping and acceptance. In the fathers, the predictors included an Apgar score at 1 min after birth, a lack of congenital anomalies in the child and mental disengagement. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as coping strategies, differ in women compare to men. Knowledge of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder

  16. Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors, Sleeping Environment, for Allergic Diseases in Infant: Analysis of a Data Subset from the South Kyushu and Okinawa Study Area of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Wataru; Lu, Xi; Oda, Masako; Kuroda, Yoshiki; Aoki, Kazuo; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohba, Takashi; Katoh, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of infant allergic diseases have increased recently, and it may be caused by multiple influences of both genetic and environmental factors from the fetal stage through infancy. In this study, we analyzed a data subset from the South Kyushu and Okinawa (SKO) Study Area of Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) to determine the relationship of allergic diseases in infants with mothers' characteristics and/or infants' life habits, especially sleeping. A total of 3873 mother-infant pairs from the SKO Regional Center of JECS were included. The mothers responded to questionnaires in the first trimester of their pregnancy and the self-reported questionnaire when their infants were 1 year old. Student's t-test, chi-square test, trend test, and logistic regression analysis were carried out to analyze the associations between the infants' allergic diseases and the mothers' genetic characteristics and/or sleeping habits of infants. Maternal allergic diseases were significantly associated with increased infant allergy risk (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.63-2.27). The number of allergic diseases of mothers was also significantly associated with infant allergy, and the trend test showed an increasing risk of infant allergy (phabits, the infants who sleep in the prone position had a higher allergic disease risk than those who sleep in other positions (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.17-1.83). These significant associations were observed regardless of the presence of allergy in mothers. This study suggests that the development of allergic diseases in infants may be caused by the multiple participation of both genetic and environmental factors.

  17. Algunos factores de riesgo asociados al recién nacido con bajo peso Some risk factors associated with the low birth weight infant

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    Nora María Pérez Guirado

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y con un modelo de diseño del tipo de casos y controles de toda las mujeres pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico Docente "Bernardo Posse", en el municipio San Miguel del Padrón, que tuvieron un recién nacido con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g en el período comprendido entre los años 1995 y 2004, conformada así la muestra estudio. De forma aleatoria se conformó un grupo control de mujeres con recién nacidos con peso superior o igual a los 2 500 g. Se aplicaron test estadísticos para la determinación del riesgo relativo, el Chi cuadrado y el intervalo de confianza del riesgo relativo de cada factor. En esta investigación quedó demostrado que la edad mayor de 35 años, la anemia, la urosepsis, la hipertensión arterial y las modificaciones cervicales son, entre otros, los antecedentes y riesgos que con más frecuencia aportaron a este indicador en nuestra área de salud. Se observó también la incidencia de los problemas nutricionales relacionados con la ganancia total de peso menor de 8 kg, la valoración nutricional de bajo peso, y el antecedente de recién nacido bajo peso al nacer.An observational analytical case and control study was conducted among all women from the health area of "Bernardo Posse" Teaching Polyclinic, in the municipality of San Miguel del Padrón, that had children with a weight under 2 500 g between 1995 and 2004 (study group. A control group composed of women with newborns with a weight equal to or over 2 500 g was selected at random. Statistical tests, such as Chi square test and the confidence interval of the relative risk of every factor, were applied to determine the relative risk. It was proved in this research that age over 35, anemia, urosepsis, arterial hypertension and the cervical modifications are, among others, the antecedents and risks that influenced the most on this indicator in our health area. It was also observed the incidence of

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for low vitamin D status among breastfeeding mother–infant dyads in an environment with abundant sunshine

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    Salameh K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Khalil Salameh,1 Najah Saleh Ali Al-Janahi,2 Adriana M Reedy,3 Adekunle Dawodu3 1Division of Pediatrics, Al-Wakra Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 3Global Health Center, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA Purpose: Evaluation of vitamin D (vD status and risk factors for low vD among breastfeeding mother–infant dyads in a population at high risk for vD deficiency.Subjects and methods: We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone at 1 month postpartum in 60 consecutive exclusively breastfeeding Arab mother–infant dyads enrolled in a high dose vD supplementation study to prevent vD deficiency in Doha, Qatar, (latitude 25°N during summer months. Data were collected on demography, sun exposure, and vD supplementation. Comparison with a US cohort was evaluated. vD deficiency was defined as serum 25(OHD <50 nmol/L and severe deficiency categorized as 25(OHD <25 nmol/L in mothers and infants.Results: Mean maternal age was 29 years and 77% had college or university education. Maternal median 25(OHD was 32.5 nmol/L and 78% were vD-deficient and 20% had 25(OHD <25 nmol/L. Only 42% of mothers had reportedly taken vD supplements postpartum and median dietary vD intake (119 IU/day and calcium (490 mg/day were low. Maternal median sun index score (sun exposure [hours/week] × body surface area exposed while outdoors was 0. Maternal 25(OHD correlated with percent body surface area exposure while outdoors (rs=0.37, P=0.004. Infant median 25(OHD was 20 nmol/L and 83% were deficient, while 58% had 25(OHD <25 nmol/L. Infant 25(OHD correlated with maternal levels (rs=0.41, P=0.001. None of the infants received vD supplement at 1 month of age and median sun index score was 0. Infant’s parathyroid hormone showed negative correlations with 25(OHD (rs=-0.28, P=0.03. Sun exposure, vD supplementation

  19. Leading causes of preterm delivery as risk factors for intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants: results of the EPIPAGE 2 cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Pierrat, Veronique; Delorme, Pierre; Kayem, Gilles; Durox, Mélanie; Goffinet, François; Marret, Stephane; Ancel, Pierre Yves

    2017-05-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, few studies have investigated how pregnancy complications responsible for preterm delivery are related to intraventricular hemorrhage. We sought to investigate the association between the main causes of preterm delivery and intraventricular hemorrhage in very preterm infants born in France during 2011 between 22-31 weeks of gestation. The study included 3495 preterm infants from the national EPIPAGE 2 cohort study who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units and had at least 1 cranial ultrasound assessment. The primary outcome was grade I-IV intraventricular hemorrhage according to the Papile classification. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between risk of intraventricular hemorrhage and the leading causes of preterm delivery: vascular placental diseases, isolated intrauterine growth retardation, placental abruption, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes, with or without associated maternal inflammatory syndrome. The overall frequency of grade IV, III, II, and I intraventricular hemorrhage was 3.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.2-4.5), 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9), 12.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.0-13.3), and 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 15.7-18.4), respectively. After adjustment for gestational age, antenatal magnesium sulfate therapy, level of care in the maternity unit, antenatal corticosteroids, and chest compressions, infants born after placental abruption had a higher risk of grade IV and III intraventricular hemorrhage compared to those born under placental vascular disease conditions, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.0) and 4.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.6), respectively. Similarly, preterm labor with concurrent inflammatory syndrome was associated with an increased risk of grade IV intraventricular hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio

  20. Risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in infants and children: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusahara, Denise Miyuki; Enz, Camila da Cruz; Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2014-11-01

    The epidemiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia is well described for adults, but little information is available on risk factors for this disease in children. To identify predisposing factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in children. A cross-sectional prospective cohort study of 96 patients in a 9-bed pediatric intensive care unit was performed. Variables examined were demographic characteristics, inpatient care, medications, nutrition, invasive procedures, and characteristics of mechanical ventilation. Data were analyzed by using Pearson χ(2) analysis, Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests, odds ratios, and forward stepwise logistic regression. Occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia correlated positively with use of nasoenteral tubes (odds ratio, 5.278; P risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. The incidence and risk factors of apnea in premature infants underwent general anesthesia for cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation for treatment of retinopathy of prematurity at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachoo, Anchalee; Horatanaruang, Duenpen; Chongarunngamsang, Wanida; Lauhsattana, Suda

    2014-06-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors of postoperative apnea in premature infants who received general anesthesia for cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation for treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. A retrospective cohort study was performed by reviewing medical records of premature infants with ROP who underwent general anesthesia for cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation during January 2008 and December 2010 at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. The incidence and risk factors of postoperative apnea were analyzed. Forty of 167 (24%) premature infants had apnea after general anesthesia for treatment of ROP. The risk factors were post-conceptual age and history of apnea. The risk of apnea in patients with post-conceptual age less than 35 weeks was 5.7 times higher than in patients with post-conceptual age more than 37 weeks (95% CI 1.59-20.45). Patients with a prior history of apnea had a 6.42 times greater risk of postoperative apnea compared to patients without a prior history of apnea (95% CI 2.01-20.50). No other serious complications were reported during the study period. The incidence of apnea after general anesthesia in infants with ROP treated with cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation was 24%. The risk factors of postoperative apnea were post-conceptual age less than 35 weeks and prior history of apnea. Patients with risk factors should be closely monitored.

  2. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value education and income, and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and male gender (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  3. Prevalence of macrosomia and its risk factors in china: a multicentre survey based on birth data involving 101,723 singleton term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Kong, Lijun; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Li; Fan, Ling; Zou, Liying; Chen, Yi; Ruan, Yan; Wang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2014-07-01

    Macrosomia, defined as a birthweight at least 4000 g, is a public health problem because of its adverse influences on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Studies show that there is an increasing prevalence of macrosomia births in developing countries. However, information on the epidemiology of macrosomia is limited in China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and geographic variability of macrosomia in China and risk factors that can be targeted for intervention. A hospital-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 14 provinces in China, covering a wide range of geographic areas. The medical records of 101,723 singleton term infants born in 39 hospitals during 2011 were reviewed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between demographic characteristics and the risk of macrosomia. The total prevalence of macrosomia was 7.3%. The prevalence varied between provinces, ranging from 4.1% to 13.4%. The prevalence of macrosomia in northern China (8.5%) was significantly higher than that in southern China (5.6%). Logistic regression analyses showed that risk of macrosomia was positively associated with maternal age, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI), gravidity, parity, maternal height, gestational weight gain (GWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and male fetal sex. Maternal BMI, gestational week, and GWG were the three risk factors most strongly associated with macrosomia. The prevalence of macrosomia varied dramatically between different areas of China. High pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG represent main modifiable risk factors for macrosomia and need more attention from health care providers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury after Congenital Cardiac Surgery in Infants and Children: A Retrospective Observational Study.

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    Sun-Kyung Park

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI after pediatric cardiac surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Modifiable risk factors for postoperative AKI including perioperative anesthesia-related parameters were assessed. The authors conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 220 patients (aged 10 days to 19 years who underwent congenital cardiac surgery between January and December 2012. The incidence of AKI within 7 days postoperatively was determined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO criteria. Ninety-two patients (41.8% developed AKI and 18 (8.2% required renal replacement therapy within the first postoperative week. Among patients who developed AKI, 57 patients (25.9% were KDIGO stage 1, 27 patients (12.3% were KDIGO stage 2, and eight patients (3.6% were KDIGO stage 3. RACHS-1 (Risk-Adjusted classification for Congenital Heart Surgery category, perioperative transfusion and fluid administration as well as fluid overload were compared between patients with and without AKI. Multivariable logistic regression analyses determined the risk factors for AKI. AKI was associated with longer hospital stay or ICU stay, and frequent sternal wound infections. Younger age (3 g/dl from preoperative level on POD1 was entered into the multivariable analysis, it was independently associated with postoperative AKI (OR, 6.51; 95% CI, 2.23-19.03 compared with no increase. This association was significant after adjustment with patient demographics, medication history and RACHS-1 category (hemoglobin increase >3g/dl vs. no increase: adjusted OR, 6.94; 95% CI, 2.33-20.69, regardless of different age groups and cyanotic or non-cyanotic heart disease. Prospective trials are required to evaluate whether correction of preoperative anemia and prevention of hemoconcentration may ameliorate postoperative AKI in patients who underwent congenital cardiac surgery.

  5. Effects of lay support for pregnant women with social risk factors on infant development and maternal psychological health at 12 months postpartum.

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    Emma Popo

    Full Text Available The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year.A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW, and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed.486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03.The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.

  6. Effects of lay support for pregnant women with social risk factors on infant development and maternal psychological health at 12 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popo, Emma; Kenyon, Sara; Dann, Sophie-Anna; MacArthur, Christine; Blissett, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The ELSIPS (Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant Women with Social Risk) RCT showed that lay support for women with social risk had a positive effect on maternal mental health and mother-infant bonding. This exploratory study examined whether these observed benefits would impact infant development at 1 year. A sub-sample of women whose infants were under one year who had participated in the ELSIPS RCT which randomised women to receive either standard care or the services of a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW), and who were contactable, were eligible to participate in the follow up. At home visits, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (3rd Edition) and standardised measures of depression, self efficacy, mind-mindedness and bonding were completed. 486 women were eligible for follow up, of whom 154 agreed to participate. 61/273 were successfully followed up in the standard maternity care arm and 51/213 in the POW arm. Women who completed follow up were less depressed and had higher selfefficacy scores at 8-12 weeks postpartum than those who did not complete follow up. There were no significant differences in maternal outcomes, infant cognitive development, receptive communication, expressive communication, fine motor development or social/emotional functioning between groups at 12 month follow up. Infants of mothers who received the POW intervention had significantly better gross motor development than infants whose mothers received standard care (p<0.03). The provision of lay support to women with social risk may facilitate infant gross motor skill development at one year but there were no other demonstrable benefits. The effects of the intervention may be underestimated given that those women who completed follow up had better mental health than the original study sample. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35027323.

  7. Cryptosporidium prevalence and risk factors among mothers and infants 0 to 6 months in rural and semi-rural Northwest Tanzania: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Pedersen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium epidemiology is poorly understood, but infection is suspected of contributing to childhood malnutrition and diarrhea-related mortality worldwide.A prospective cohort of 108 women and their infants in rural/semi-rural Tanzania were followed from delivery through six months. Cryptosporidium infection was determined in feces using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Breastfeeding/infant feeding practices were queried and anthropometry measured. Maternal Cryptosporidium infection remained high throughout the study (monthly proportion = 44 to 63%. Infection did not differ during lactation or by HIV-serostatus, except that a greater proportion of HIV-positive mothers were infected at Month 1. Infant Cryptosporidium infection remained undetected until Month 2 and uncommon through Month 3 however, by Month 6, 33% of infants were infected. There were no differences in infant infection by HIV-exposure. Overall, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF was limited, but as the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed declined from 32% at Month 1 to 4% at Month 6, infant infection increased from 0% at Month 1 to 33% at Month 6. Maternal Cryptosporidium infection was associated with increased odds of infant infection (unadjusted OR = 3.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 9.99, while maternal hand washing prior to infant feeding was counterintuitively also associated with increased odds of infant infection (adjusted OR = 5.02, 95% CI = 1.11 to 22.78.Both mothers and infants living in this setting suffer a high burden of Cryptosporidium infection, and the timing of first infant infection coincides with changes in breastfeeding practices. It is unknown whether this is due to breastfeeding practices reducing pathogen exposure through avoidance of contaminated food/water consumption; and/or breast milk providing important protective immune factors. Without a Cryptosporidium vaccine, and facing considerable diagnostic challenges and ineffective treatment in

  8. Excessive infant crying: Definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  9. IgA deficiency: a risk factor for food allergy-related atopic dermatitis in infants and young children

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    Aleksandra Szczawińka-Popłonyk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The impaired immunosurveillance and dysfunctional antigen compartmentalization in primary immunodeficiencies may predispose affected children to allergic sensitization. Aim: The growing problem of allergic reactions to foods and the increase in non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal disorders prompted us to investigate the impact of hypogammaglobulinemia on the prevalence and clinical phenotypes of food allergy. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of 78 infants and young children with deficiencies of one or more immunoglobulin isotypes and of 132 age-matched patients with normal immunoglobulin production in terms of prevalence and clinical manifestation of food allergy, atopic sensitization and physical development. Results : The symptoms of allergy to foods were demonstrated with a comparable frequency in children with hypogammaglobulinemia and with normal immunoglobulin levels (51% vs. 48%. The most prominent clinical phenotype of children with hypogammaglobulinemia was atopic dermatitis, whereas in children with normal immunoglobulin production, gastrointestinal symptomatology predominated. Uniquely, IgA deficiency showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlation with food allergy and with cutaneous symptomatology. A striking predominance of non-IgE-mediated food allergy was demonstrated in both groups of the children studied, with elevated serum total IgE levels seen more commonly in children with normogammaglobulinemia than in those with hypogammaglobulinemia. Conclusions : The rate of non-IgE mediated allergic sensitization to foods in the population of infants and young children is high and clinically relevant. A selective IgA deficiency should alert physicians to assess affected children with respect to diverse phenotypes of food allergy.

  10. Developmental trajectories of attention and executive functioning in infants born preterm: The influence of perinatal risk factors and maternal interactive styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.

    2009-01-01

    Infants born preterm (born before 37 weeks of gestation) are at a heightened risk for developmental delay and learning disabilities. Even children born preterm who have intellectual abilities within the normal range at school age often require special educational services. The preterm population is

  11. Associations of biological factors and affordances in the home with infant motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia C; Pereira, Keila Rg; Müller, Alessandra B; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-04-01

    Whereas considerable work has been published regarding biological factors associated with infant health, much less is known about the associations of environmental context with infant development - the focus of the present cross-sectional study. Data were collected on 561 infants, aged newborn to 18 months. Measures included the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale, Alberta Infant Motor Scale, and selected bio/medical factors. Correlation and regression were used to analyze the data. Home environmental factors were associated with children's motor development as much as some typically high-risk biologic factors. The home environment partially explained infant development outcomes and infants at risk could possibly be helped with a home assessment for affordances. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk. SERMS may cause side effects , such as hot flashes , so they are not often used for prevention of cancer. See the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information. Finasteride has been ...

  13. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk factors ... do smoke, quit. Controlling your cholesterol through diet, exercise, and medicines . Controlling high blood pressure through diet, ...

  14. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  15. [Factors influencing infant mortality. Havana Province, 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-florit Serrate, P; Portuondo Dustet, N; Suarez Rosas, L; Ovies Garcia, A; Alvarez Fernandez, R; Lima Perez, M T

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires intended to determine the factors involved in deaths in infants under 1 year have been completed in the province of Havana, Cuba, since 1980. The questionnaires are completed by obstetricians and pediatricians of the municipal health areas and analyzed at the secondary care level. This work examines the factors present in the 133 infant deaths occurring in Havana Province in 1983. The infant mortality rate in the province in 1983 was 14.1/1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded in the province. 74 of the deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, 13 in the late neonatal, and 46 in the postneonatal period. 22 of the early neonatal deaths were due to intrapartum anoxia, 15 to hyaline membrane disease, 10 to prematurity, 7 to bronchoaspiration, 3 to sepsis, 1 to bronchial pneumonia, and 13 to malformations. In the late neonatal and postneonatal periods, 11 deaths were attributed to acute diarrheal disease, 6 to meningitis, and 5 to accidents. 8 of the mothers were under 17 years old, 30 were 18-20, 57 were 21-30, and 16 were 31 or over. Maternal age was unknown for 22. 22 of the mothers were overweight, 29 were malnourished, 55 were of normal nutritional status, and the status of 27 was unknown. 67.7% of the early neonatal deaths were in low birth weight babies. Low educational level and rural residence were social factors in infant mortality.

  16. Prognostic Factors of Developmental Outcome in Neonatal Seizures in Term Infants

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    Yin-Hsuan Lai

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: In term infants with neonatal seizures, several risk factors related to adverse outcome were recognized. Physicians should pay more attention to these factors when handling patients with neonatal seizures.

  17. Infant mortality in Pelotas, Brazil: a comparison of risk factors in two birth cohorts La mortalidad de menores de un año en Pelotas, Brasil: comparación de factores de riesgo en dos cohortes de nacimiento

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    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare two population-based birth cohorts to assess trends in infant mortality rates and the distribution of relevant risk factors, and how these changed after an 11-year period. METHODS: Data from two population-based prospective birth cohorts (1982 and 1993 were analyzed. Both studies included all children born in a hospital (> 99% of all births in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Infant mortality was monitored through surveillance of all maternity hospitals, mortality registries and cemeteries. RESULTS: There were 5 914 live-born children in 1982 and 5 249 in 1993. The infant mortality rate decreased by 41%, from 36.0 per 1 000 live births in 1982 to 21.1 per 1 000 in 1993. Socioeconomic and maternal factors tended to become more favorable during the study period, but there were unfavorable changes in birthweight and gestational age. Poverty, high parity, low birthweight, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction were the main risk factors for infant mortality in both cohorts. The 41% reduction in infant mortality between 1982 and 1993 would have been even greater had the prevalence of risk factors remained constant during the period studied here. CONCLUSIONS: There were impressive declines in infant mortality which were not due to changes in the risk factors we studied. Because no reduction was seen in the large social inequalities documented in the 1982 cohort, it is likely that the reduction in infant mortality resulted largely from improvements in health care.OBJETIVOS: Comparar dos cohortes de nacimiento tomadas de la población en general a fin de evaluar las tendencias observadas en las tasas de mortalidad de menores de un año y la distribución de los factores de riesgo asociados con ella, así como los cambios sufridos por ambas cosas al cabo de un período de 11 años. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos procedentes de dos cohortes de nacimiento prospectivas (1982 y 1993 tomadas de la población en

  18. Time trends and risk factor associated with premature birth and infants deaths due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China from 2001 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiqing; Dai, Qiong; Xu, Yusong; Gong, Zhengtao; Dai, Guohong; Ding, Ming; Duggan, Christopher; Hu, Zubin; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutrition and epidemiologic transition has been associated with an increasing incidence of preterm birth in developing countries, but data from large observational studies in China have been limited. Our study was to describe the trends and factors associated with the incidence of preterm birth and infant mortality due to prematurity in Hubei Province, China. Methods: We conducted a population-based survey through the Maternal and Child Health Care Network in Hubei Province fr...

  19. Risk factors for infant developmental problems Factores de riesgo para problemas de desarrollo infantil Fatores de risco para problemas de desenvolvimento infantil

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    Margaret Rose Santa Maria-Mengel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive-correlational study aimed to detect risks for child developmental problems in the first four years of age, to identify the protective resources in the familiar environment, and to verify the best predictive variables of the development at risk. The non-clinical sample was composed by 120 children registered in a Family Health Program. The assessment instruments for global development, expressive language and familiar environment were used. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the lower the father's educational level, the higher the risk for developmental problems. Both the history of low nutritional state at six months of age and the psychosocial risk in the family environment increased the chances of having expressive language problems. It is concluded that screening tests of risk for developmental problems and the analysis of the psychosocial factors in the familiar context should be considered as preventive intervention procedure in the Family Health Programs.El estudio descriptivo-correlacional objetiva detectar riesgos para problemas del desarrollo del niño en los cuatro primeros años, identificar recursos protectores en el ambiente familiar, verificar las mejores variables antedichas del desarrollo en riesgo, en una muestra no-clínica de 120 niños registrados en un Programa de Salud de la Familia. Fueron utilizados instrumentos de evaluación del desarrollo global, lenguaje expresivo del niño y ambiente familiar. El análisis de regresión logística indicó que cuanto menor escolaridad del padre, mayor chance de riesgo para problemas de desarrollo. El histórico del estado nutricional debajo de lo normal a los seis meses de edad y el riesgo psicosocial en el ambiente familiar aumentaba la probabilidad de problemas de lenguaje expresivo. Concluyendo, la selección de riesgos para problemas de desarrollo del niño y el análisis de factores psicosociales del contexto familiar deben incluirse como

  20. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is still ... Scientists are working diligently to understand what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does ...

  1. Infant pacifiers for reduction in risk of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaila, Kim; Foster, Jann P; Pulbrook, Neil; Jeffery, Heather E

    2017-04-05

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been most recently defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant less than one year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation, including the performance of a complete autopsy and a review of the circumstances of death and clinical history. Despite the success of several prevention campaigns, SIDS remains a leading cause of infant mortality. In 1994, a 'triple risk model' for SIDS was proposed that described SIDS as an event that results from the intersection of three factors: a vulnerable infant; a critical development period in homeostatic control (age related); and an exogenous stressor. The association between pacifier (dummy) use and reduced incidence of SIDS has been shown in epidemiological studies since the early 1990s. Pacifier use, given its low cost, might be a cost-effective intervention for SIDS prevention if it is confirmed effective in randomised controlled trials. To determine whether the use of pacifiers during sleep versus no pacifier during sleep reduces the risk of SIDS. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL to 16 March 2016. We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Published and unpublished controlled trials using random and quasi-random allocations of infants born at term and at preterm (less than 37 weeks' gestation) or with low birth weight (pacifiers for reduction in risk of SIDS. We found no randomised control trial evidence on which to support or refute the use of pacifiers for the prevention of SIDS.

  2. Infant and Maternal Factors Influencing Breastmilk Sodium Among Primiparous Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Céline; Chagnon, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study identified birth events and infant/maternal factors related to breastmilk sodium (Na+) among primiparous mothers. Subjects and Methods Data were collected in a larger study on perceived insufficient milk among 252 breastfeeding mothers at a Canadian, French-speaking university maternal care center. Birth events and infant and maternal factors were collected at 48 hours, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after birth and were analyzed with bivariate and regression analysis. Results Presence of gestational diabetes increases the risk of an elevated breastmilk Na+ level at 48 hours, and increased number of breastfeeds (mean=8.91, SD=3.77) lowers it, indicating lactogenesis II was initiated. Conclusions Breastfeeding frequency impacts initiation of lactogenesis II, which in turn influences duration of breastfeeding exclusivity. Therefore feedings should be promoted as soon as possible after birth and as frequently as eight to 12 times a day. PMID:22612625

  3. Fatores de risco para nascimento de crianças pequenas para idade gestacional Risk factors for small-for-gestational age births among infants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Krusser Zambonato

    2004-02-01

    of SGA was 13.1%. Even after adjusting for possible confounding variables, the odds ratio for SGA among those infants whose family income was ³10 minimum wage. An antenatal care of low quality was associated with an odds ratio of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.09-9.91 for SGA. Short maternal stature and maternal smoking during pregnancy were also associated with SGA births. CONCLUSIONS: Low socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal height and an antenatal care of low quality are the main risk factors for SGA births.

  4. Neurophysiologic Evaluation of Early Cognitive Development in High-Risk Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann

    2005-01-01

    New knowledge of the perceptual, discriminative, and memory capabilities of very young infants has opened the door to further evaluation of these abilities in infants who have risk factors for cognitive impairments. A neurophysiologic technique that has been very useful in this regard is the recording of event-related potentials (ERPs). The…

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome: The risk of infants in Bogotá, Colombia

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    María Luisa Latorre-Castro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The results reflect the risk to which infants are exposed because of wrong practices associated with poor knowledge, and recommendations given, in many cases, by health professionals. Likewise, risk is higher among the poorest population.

  6. Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, JS; Watts, DH; Mofenson, L; Stiehm, ER; Harris, DR; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, MJ; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, WT; Hammill, H; van Dyke, R; Maupin, R; Silio, M; Fowler, MG

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate independent contributions of maternal factors to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Risk factors for preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), and intrauterine growth retardation

  7. Infant feeding and obesity risk in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2012-07-01

    Early nutrition in infancy may influence later child health outcomes including overweight through 'programming'. Systematic reviews suggest that breastfeeding is associated with a modest reduction in the risk of later overweight and obesity. This commentary explores some of these mechanisms behind this association. Generally breastfed infants are leaner than artificially (formula)-fed infants and behavioural and hormonal mechanisms may explain this difference. The theory is that a high nutrient diet in infancy adversely programs the principal components of the metabolic syndrome in the child (body mass index, blood pressure and blood lipids) by promoting growth acceleration, whereas slower growth benefits later cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Artificial-feeding stimulates a higher postnatal growth velocity with the adiposity rebound occurring earlier in those children who have greater fatness later, whereas breastfeeding has been shown to promote slower growth. The adverse long-term effects of early growth acceleration emerge as fundamental in later overweight and obesity. The higher protein content of artificial baby milk compared to the lower protein content in breastmilk is responsible for the increased growth rate and adiposity during the influential period of infancy of formula-fed infants. Breastfeeding, on the other hand, has a protective effect on child overweight and obesity by inducing lower plasma insulin levels, thereby decreasing fat storage and preventing excessive early adipocyte development. Plausible biological mechanisms underlying the protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity are based on the unique composition of human milk and the metabolic and physiological responses to human milk.

  8. Fatores de risco para doença diarréica no lactente: um estudo caso-controle Risk factors for diarrheal disease in infants: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisélia Alves Pontes da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores de risco associados à presença de episódios diarréicos em lactentes menores de seis meses, residentes na Zona da Mata Meridional do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. O desenho do estudo foi do tipo caso-controle, aninhado numa coorte. Foi estudado um total de 397 crianças, sendo 239 casos e 158 controles (1,5:1. Foi calculado o odds ratio(OR, intervalo de confiança (IC de 95%, e realizada análise de regressão logística para identificar fatores preditores da variável a ser explicada. Na análise multivariada, a ausência de água canalizada (OR = 3,60; IC95% 1,49-8,74 e aleitamento materno por menos de 6 meses (OR = 2,06; IC95% 1,26-3,38 foram os fatores significantemente associados com a ocorrência de diarréia, após o ajuste pelas demais variáveis.This study aims to identify risk factors associated with episodes of diarrhea among infants under six months from the Southern Zona da Mata region in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This was a case-control study nested in a cohort. A total of 397 infants were studied, with 239 infants classified as cases and 158 as controls (1.5:1. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictive factors for the outcome, showing that lack of piped water in the house (OR = 3.60; 95% CI 1.49-8.74 and duration of breastfeeding less than six months (OR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.26-3.38 were the significant risk factors associated with occurrence of diarrhea, after adjusting for other variables.

  9. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ...

  10. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of getting ... disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do to ...

  11. [Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis of newborns with and without infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccon, M E; Diníz, E M; Carneiro-Sampaio, M M; Arslanian, C; Diogo, C L; Ramos, J L; Vaz, F A

    1998-01-01

    Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total Complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis between newborns with and without infection. Rev. Hosp. Clín. Fac. Med. S. Paulo, 53(6): 303-310, 1998. The objective of this study was to verify the immunological behavior of the newborn infant in front of an infection. We studied 60 newborn infants that had risk factors for early onset sepsis (premature rupture membranes, clinic amnionitis or tract urinary infection) from de immunological and infection point of view. They were classified into three gestational age groups: or = 37 weeks. Sepsis diagnosis was done through clinical and laboratorial data and we also included the followings exams: Immunological types (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) obtained from the newborn at birth and on the fifth day of life. We could verify that 15 newborns (25%) presented early sepsis. There was a statistical association between perinatal asfixia and infection in the group with gestational age < 34 weeks and this same group presented statistical association between infection and death. The serical levels of IgG and CH50 were directly related to the gestational age and there were significant statistical differences between levels of IgG, IgM and total Complement between infected and not infected newborns within the same group os gestional age. We observed that the infection was associated to low levels of IgG and CH50, at birth and on the fifth day, mainly in the group of infected newborns with gestional age < 34 weeks, being this group, therefore, the one that would mostly benefit from an immunological support in front of and infection.

  12. Factors Associated With Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants' Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Steven M; Xu, Yinghui; Jackson, Richard D; Eckert, George J; Levy, Barcey T; Fontana, Margherita

    2016-07-01

    Parents have an important role ensuring their infants receive oral and medical health care. Their decisions affect the well-being of their children. This study used data collected from a longitudinal, prospective study with the aim of developing and validating a caries risk assessment tool. The objectives of this study are to (a) compare parents' perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums versus how well they do in taking care of the infants' medical health and (b) determine factors associated with parental perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums. A total of 1323 parent/infant pairs were enrolled in the study at Duke University, Indiana University, and the University of Iowa. Through a survey, 283 (21%) of the parents perceived they did an excellent job of both taking care of both the infant's oral and medical health, while 861 (65%) perceived the care of their infant's medical health was better than their care of the teeth and/or gums. In the multivariable model, parents who perceived they provided excellent/very good/good care for the infants' teeth and/or gums were more likely to brush the infant's teeth daily, use toothpaste daily, clean inside the infant's mouth and/or gums daily, and not let the infant have something other than water after brushing and prior to bedtime. Also, those with infants having Medicaid or State Insurance, parents not eating sugary snacks frequently, and parents getting dental checkups at least annually were likely to perceive that they provided excellent/very good/good care for their infant's teeth and/or gums. Parents who provide good infant oral health care are more likely to perceive they provide good care and more likely to have better personal dental health behaviors. This agrees with previous studies concerning older children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  14. Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in a developing country Fatores de risco para síndrome da morte súbita do lactente em um país em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silveira Pinho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether previously identified risk factors for sudden death syndrome have a significant impact in a developing country. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal case-control study carried out in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Cases (N=39 were infants born between 1996 and 2000 who died suddenly and unexpectedly at home during sleep and were diagnosed with sudden death syndrome. Controls (N=117 were infants matched by age and sex who died in hospitals due to other conditions. Data were collected from postmortem examination records and questionnaires answers. A conditional logistic model was used to identify factors associated with the outcome. RESULTS: Mean age at death of cases was 3.2 months. The frequencies of infants regarding gestational age, breastfeeding and regular medical visits were similar in both groups. Sleeping position for most cases and controls was the lateral one. Supine sleeping position was found for few infants in both groups. Maternal variables, age below 20 years (OR=2, 95% CI: 1.1; 5.1 and smoking of more than 10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy (OR=3, 95% CI: 1.3; 6.4, significantly increased the risk for the syndrome. Socioeconomic characteristics were similar in both groups and did not affect risk. CONCLUSIONS: Infant-maternal and socioeconomic profiles of cases in a developing country closely resembled the profile described in the literature, and risk factors were similar as well. However, individual characteristics were identified as risks in the population studied, such as smoking during pregnancy and maternal age below 20 years.OBJETIVO: Analisar se fatores de risco previamente identificados para a síndrome da morte súbita do lactente têm impacto significativo em um país em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, longitudinal, de caso-controle pareado realizado em Porto Alegre, RS. Os casos (N=39 foram lactentes nascidos entre 1996 e 2000 que morreram subitamente e inesperadamente em

  15. Infant autonomic nervous system response and recovery: Associations with maternal risk status and infant emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurland, Jill; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Smaling, Hanneke J A; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether risk status and cumulative risk were associated with autonomic nervous system reactivity and recovery, and emotion regulation in infants. The sample included 121 6-month-old infants. Classification of risk status was based on World Health Organization criteria (e.g., presence of maternal psychopathology, substance use, and social adversity). Heart rate, parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and sympathetic preejection period were examined at baseline and across the still face paradigm. Infant emotion regulation was coded during the still face paradigm. Infants in the high-risk group showed increased heart rate, parasympathetic withdrawal, and sympathetic activation during recovery from the still face episode. Higher levels of cumulative risk were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activation. Moreover, increased heart rate during recovery in the high-risk group was mediated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, indicating mobilization of sympathetic resources when confronted with socioemotional challenge. Distinct indirect pathways were observed from maternal risk to infant emotion regulation during the still face paradigm through parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation. These findings underline the importance of specific measures of parasympathetic and sympathetic response and recovery, and indicate that maternal risk is associated with maladaptive regulation of stress early in life reflecting increased risk for later psychopathology.

  16. [The most prevalent environmental risk factors in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infants from 0 to 24 months in a seasonal study performed in two hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Carrillo, Beatriz; Baldris-Catafau, Judit; Jiménez-Martínez, Soledad

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to describe the environmental aspects of children between 0 and 24 months, who arrived in the Emergency Department of the Hospital General de Cataluña and Hospital Parc Tauli (both within Barcelona province), and were diagnosed with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis from November 2010 to February 2011. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on children of both sexes, with ages from 0 to 24 months, and diagnosed with bronchiolitits respiratory syncytial virus +. Data was obtained by completing a non-validated questionnaire, with information provided by parents and the medical history. The most common features in the study were: a mean age of 3.8 months, most were males, with siblings of school age, mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy, were in a non-smoking environment in their home, and finally, less than 5 people living together in their home. The most common risk factors n order of prevalence were, having siblings of school age, male sex, and living in smoking environment. It was observed that the majority of children had risk associated factors associated, with only 8.2% of samples not presenting any risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.I.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged <7 mo by means of a

  19. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infant weighing 4 000 g or more in a black population. Identifiable maternal risk factors included a ... of the high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, as well as maternal morbidity, are discussed. S Afr Med J 1995; 85: 43-46. Little attention has been paid to fetal macrosomia in black. African populations, despite the fact that ...

  20. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  1. Early term birth: understanding the health risks to infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Debra Vela

    2012-01-01

    Early term birth, which occurs at 37 to 38 weeks gestation, is often elective and can carry significant health risks to infants, including short-term and long-term health outcomes. Nurses and other health care providers involved in the care of pregnant women and infants need to be aware of these infants' physiologic vulnerability and potential short- term and long-term care requirements. Nurses can educate patients and raise awareness of the risks associated with early term birth. © 2012 AWHONN.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Vertical Transmission in 12-Month-Old Infants Born to HCV-Infected Women and Assessment of Maternal Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jhaveri, Ravi; Hashem, Mohamed; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Saleh, Doa'a A.; Sharaf, Sahar A.; El-Mougy, Fatma; Abdelsalam, Lobna; Ehab, Mohamed; El-Ghazaly, Hesham

    2015-01-01

    Background. ?Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an underappreciated cause of pediatric liver disease, most frequently acquired by vertical transmission (VT). Current guidelines that include the option of screening infants for HCV RNA at 1?2 months are based on data prior to current real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing. Previous studies have demonstrated VT rates of 4%?15% and an association with high maternal viral load. We evaluated HCV RNA in infants with HCV VT and assessed mate...

  3. Breastfeeding progression in preterm infants is influenced by factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones...... in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants...... based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24-36 weeks. RESULTS: Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached...

  4. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84%

  5. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  6. Risks for communication delays and disorders in infants in an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... factors associated with communication disorders in South Africa is limited. Objective. To identify and describe risk factors for communication delays in infants 0 - 12 months of age at Daspoort Polyclinic in Gauteng. Methods. A structured interview schedule was utilised to conduct an interview with the caregiver participants.

  7. Fatores de risco associados ao desmame precoce e ao período de desmame em lactentes matriculados em creches Risk factors associated to early weaning and to weaning period of infants enrolled in daycare centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Borelli Barbosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores de risco no processo de desmame de lactentes matriculados em creches. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico transversal com 56 crianças de nove a 18 meses de idade matriculadas em cinco creches de São Paulo. As mães das crinaças responderam ao questionário pré-testado que abordava questões demográficas, socioeconômicas, de gestação e nascimento, morbidade, aleitamento materno, alimentação complementar (quando/como foram introduzidos novos alimentos e atividades da criança na creche. Os fatores associados ao desmame precoce e menor período de desmame (variável definida pela diferença entre tempo de aleitamento exclusivo e tempo de aleitamento total foram avaliados em análises bivariadas. As variáveis com p25 anos (OR 4,91; IC95% 1,35-17,95; mãe morar sem companheiro (OR 6,42; IC95% 1,28-32,20 e uso de chupeta antes dos 30 dias de vida (OR 8,75; IC95% 1,90-40,23. Os fatores de risco para tempo insuficiente de desmame foram: frequentar creche pública (OR 3,20; IC95% 0,77-14,29 e início tardio do pré-natal (OR 4,13; IC95% 0,70-31,29. CONCLUSÕES: Características relacionadas à família e à instituição creche são fatores de risco para o desmame de crianças institucionalizadas. A abordagem desses determinantes para definir ações de saúde e nutrição é estratégica para favorecer a prática do aleitamento e qualificar o papel da creche como promotora de saúde e nutrição infantil.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with weaning of infants enrolled in daycare centers. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study comprising 56 children aged nine to 18 months in five daycare centers of São Paulo. A pre-tested questionnaire was applied to their mother, including questions on demographics and socioeconomic issues, gestation and birth, illness, breastfeeding, complementary feeding (when and how new foods were introduced and children activities in daycare centers. Factors associated with early

  8. [Factors predicting sensory profile of 4 to 18 month old infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Carina; Caçola, Priscila; Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins Mourão

    2015-01-01

    To identify environment factors predicting sensory profile of infants between 4 and 18 months old. This cross-sectional study evaluated 97 infants (40 females e 57 males), with a mean age of 1.05±0.32 years with the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI) and also asked 97 parents and 11 kindergarten teachers of seven daycare centers to answer the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development- Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS). The AHEMD-IS is a questionnaire that characterizes the opportunities in the home environment for infants between 3 and 18 months of age. We tested the association between affordances and the sensory profile of infants. Significant variables were entered into a regression model to determine predictors of sensory profile. The majority of infants (66%) had a normal sensory profile and 34% were at risk or deficit. Affordances in the home were classified as adequate and they were good in the studied daycare centers. The results of the regression revealed that only daily hours in daycare center and daycare outside space influenced the sensory profile of infants, in particular the Ocular-Motor Control component. The sensory profile of infants was between normal and at risk. While the family home offered adequate affordances for motor development, the daycare centers of the infants involved demonstrated a good quantity and quality of affordances. Overall, we conclude that daily hours in the daycare center and daycare outside space were predictors of the sensory profile, particular on Ocular-Motor Control component. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Late preterm infants – impact of perinatal factors on neonatal results. A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Jakiel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infants born between the 34[sup]th[/sup] – 36[sup]th[/sup] week of pregnancy account for 75% of all preterm infants. Their seemingly slight immaturity is related to serious health problems. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyse perinatal factors that influence the occurrence in infants of such problems as respiratory failure, metabolic problems and early onset sepsis (EOS. Materials and method. The material for the study included all mothers and their late preterm infants: 34+0 – 36+6 born in our hospital (a tertiary referral academic centre in 2010 and 2011. The course of pregnancy and delivery, the type of delivery, applied preventive measures and treatment, as well as demographic data and the clinical state of infants were all analysed. Data from individual documentation of each mother and infant were collected by 5 designated people and data reliability was independently monitored by a random control of the documentation conducted by the supervising person. Results. A statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome and infant immaturity, bad state after birth and sepsis in infants were confirmed. Sepsis was more common in the case of vaginal delivery, and coexisted with respiratory distress syndrome. The mother’s diseases during pregnancy, a perinatal preventive antibiotic therapy, and possible delivery complications did not influence the infection. Perinatal asphyxia in an infant positively correlated with a Caesarean section and respiratory distress syndrome after birth. Conclusions. It is necessary to thoroughly establish the type of delivery of a late preterm infant in order to prevent an infection in the newborn child. The improvement of diagnosis of intrauterine hypoxia may reduce the number of Caesarean sections. The decision about late preterm delivery should be based on indices of the mother’s state of health. Premature delivery is related to the

  10. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Trespass event risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-12

    The Volpe Center has used three sources of datathe Federal Railroad Administrations required accident reports, locomotive video, and U.S. Census datato investigate common risk factors for railroad trespassing incidents, the leading cause of ...

  12. Rates and risks of gastrostomy tubes in infants with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, Sharon R; Sidman, James D

    2011-03-01

    To review data on a cohort of infants with cleft palate to (1) determine rates of gastrostomy (G)-tube placement, (2) identify contributing comorbidities, and (3) use relative risk analyses to improve management of cleft palate in infants with feeding difficulty. Retrospective medical record review. Tertiary care children's hospital. Infants with cleft palate born between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2008, without G-tubes prior to referral were included. Comorbidities were analyzed, including syndromes and chromosomopathies (syn/chrom) and cardiac, respiratory, neurologic, and gastrointestinal diagnoses. These comorbidities were analyzed independently. Gastrostomy-tube placement. Of 214 infants with cleft palate, 34 required G-tubes. Of these, 19 had syn/chrom. Independent of these diagnoses, 17 infants had 1 system comorbidity and 12 had multisystem comorbidities. Of the 180 patients without G-tubes, 20 had syn/chrom. Independent of these diagnoses, 10 infants had 1 system comorbidity and 2 had multisystem comorbidities. Rates of G-tube placement ranged from 3% in infants without any comorbidity to 94% in infants with respiratory comorbidity. Relative risks of G-tube placement with syn/chrom, 1 system comorbidity, and multisystem comorbidities were 5.68 (95% confidence interval, 3.18-10.16), 21.79 (8.76-54.17), and 29.66 (12.18-72.21), respectively. Diagnosis of syn/chrom or major comorbidity significantly increases risk of G-tube placement. Regardless of syn/chrom association, problems affecting the heart, respiratory system, central nervous system, and lower esophageal sphincter are the most significant risk factors, implying that particular comorbidities are more influential than a simple diagnosis of syn/chrom. These data should help identify children at greatest risk for G-tubes and those expected to overcome feeding difficulties, leading to more persistent use of nonsurgical therapy before resorting to G-tubes.

  13. Linking Infant-Directed Speech and Face Preferences to Language Outcomes in Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership.…

  14. Ultrasound for Infants at Risk for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBa, Thu-Ba; Carmichael, Kelly D; Patton, Andrew G; Morris, Randal P; Swischuk, Leonard E

    2015-08-01

    The best screening method for developmental dysplasia of the hip is controversial. Ultrasonography is sensitive, but cost-effectiveness may limit its use. This study assessed whether ultrasound screening would increase in effectiveness if targeted toward infants with established risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip and normal findings on physical examination. All ultrasound scans performed at the authors' institution from January 2007 through January 2011 to screen for developmental dysplasia of the hip were reviewed. Infants with risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip and normal findings on physical examination by orthopedic faculty or a pediatrician were selected. Of the 530 cases that were reviewed, 217 had risk factors for developmental dysplasia of the hip and normal findings on physical examination. Mean age of the 217 selected patients was 6.9 weeks. Of the patients, 83% were female, 77% had breech presentation, 30% were firstborn children, 13% had intrauterine packaging abnormalities, and 3% had a family history of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Of the 217 infants, 44 had 1 risk factor, 121 had 2 risk factors, 46 had 3 risk factors, and 6 had 4 risk factors. Dynamic ultrasound evaluation showed instability in 17 patients, for a 7.8% incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip. All 17 patients were treated with a Pavlik harness. The results suggested that selective ultrasound screening may be effective in infants with risk factors and normal findings on physical examination. Selective ultrasound screening changed treatment management in almost 8% of patients and clinical follow-up in 6.5%. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of screening is needed. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Risks and realities: dyadic interaction between 6-month-old infants and their mothers in opioid maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfi, Monica; Smith, Lars; Waal, Helge; Sundet, Jon Martin

    2011-12-01

    A number of studies point to methadone exposure in utero as a possible risk factor in the developing mother-infant relationship in the first year of life. This study is part of a larger, national follow-up of 38 infants prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and 36 comparison, low-risk infants. The aim of the present paper is to assess the quality of mother-infant relationship when the infants are 6 months old. Videotaped mother-infant interactions were rated in a global scale (NICHD). Maternal and infant contributions collapsed into the variables "infant style" and "maternal style" showed that the only factor making significant contribution to the outcome measure "dyadic mutuality" was maternal style. The importance of group membership (exposed versus non-exposed), was reduced when controlling for maternal drug use prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), maternal depression and parenting stress as well as infants' developmental status and sensory-integrative functions. This suggests that prediction of dyadic mutuality should be based on individual characteristics rather than group characteristics. These results support previous research findings that methadone and buprenorphine use per se does not have direct influence on the quality of early mother-infant relationship, but tailored follow-up procedures targeting drug-free pregnancies and parenting support are beneficial for women in OMT and their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. AIMS baby movement scale application in high-risk infants early intervention analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Shi, J-P; Li, Y-H; Yang, W-H; Tian, Y-J; Gao, J; Li, S-J

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the application of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) in screening motor development delay in the follow-up of high-risk infants who were discharged from NICU, to explain the state of infants' motor development and propose early individualized intervention. The study design was a randomized, single-blind trial by selecting patients between April 2015 and November 2015 in our hospital, children nerve recovery branch clinics and 77 cases of high-risk infants. We randomly divided the patients into observation group (39 cases) and control group (38 cases). To evaluate the application with AIMS, observation group was based on evaluation results for the first time to give rehabilitation training plan making, early intervention, control group according to the growth and development milestone in order to guide parents to take family training interval of 3 months. While comparing the two groups of high-risk infants before the intervention, the months of age, gender, risk factors, it was found that the AIMS scores, each position AIMS scores did not show a significant difference in percentile (p>0.05). There was also no significant difference between two groups in the seat and stand AIMS scores before and after intervention (p>0.05). However, the comparison of two groups of high-risk infants after intervention in comparison showed that the observation group supine AIMS scores and AIMS scores were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). Prone position AIMS scores observation group was also significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). The corresponding percentile for two groups after the intervention of AIMS scores was less than 10% of cases, which was significantly lower in the observation group (p<0.01). AIMS can predict the development delay in high-risk infants, for improving the early hypernymic diagnosis and intervention.

  17. A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunston, Wendy; Franich-Ray, Candice; Tatlow, Sara

    2017-10-17

    Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child's caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties.

  18. A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Bunston

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child’s caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties.

  19. A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunston, Wendy; Franich-Ray, Candice; Tatlow, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child’s caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties. PMID:29039808

  20. Early Erythropoietin Administration does not Increase the Risk of Retinopathy in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsu Chou

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: EPO administration did not significantly increase the risk of ROP of any stage reported or Stage ≥3. Further clinical trials investigating the impact of EPO on ROP in premature infants should include all confounding factors to clarify this important issue.

  1. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Factors associated with the time to the first wheezing episode in infants : a cross-sectional study from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco-Gonzalez, Rosa M.; Mallol, Javier; Sole, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L. P.; Perez-Fernandez, Virginia; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Male gender, asthmatic heredity, perinatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory infections have been associated with wheeze in the first years of life, among other risk factors. However, information about what factors modify the time to the first episode of wheeze in infants is lacking. The

  3. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). METHODS: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Younger gestational...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal...

  4. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors | Essel | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors associated with fetal macrosomia were studied in 348 pregnancies resulting in the delivery of an infant weighing 4 000 g or more in a black population. Identifiable maternal risk factors included a mother in her 3rd decade of life, multiparity, maternal weight of 70 kg or more at the end of pregnancy, prolonged or ...

  5. Risk factors for hypospadias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roelofs, L.A.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Gier, R.P.E. de; Roeleveld, N.

    2007-01-01

    Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were

  6. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants under six months of age in peninsular malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8. In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing. Conclusions Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  7. Factors associated with father involvement in infant care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falceto, Olga G; Fernandes, Carmen L; Baratojo, Claudia; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2008-12-01

    To identify factors associated with the lack of active father involvement in infant care at four months of age. Cross-sectional study involving families of 153 infants at four months of age, interviewed in their homes by two family therapists. In addition to father involvement in infant care, sociodemographic, parental mental health (using the Self Report Questionnaire-20 scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria assessment) and quality of couple relationship characteristics (using the Assessment of Relational Functioning from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) were analyzed. Poisson regression was employed to assess the association between lack of father involvement in child care and the variables selected. Prevalence ratio was used to estimate the magnitude of associations. Fathers of 13% of infants had no contact with their children. Among families whose parents lived together (78% of all), 33% of the fathers reported not actively participating in their children's care. Problematic couple relationship and mother as a housewife were associated with lack of father involvement in infant care. High prevalence of families whose father is not actively involved with infant care, especially when couple relationship is problematic and the mother does not have a paid job.

  8. Neonatal Infection and Later Neurodevelopmental Risk in the Very Preterm Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Katherine M; Austin, Nicola C; Inder, Terrie E; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J

    2016-03-01

    To document associations between confirmed and suspected neonatal infection and motor, cognitive, educational, and mental health outcomes of very preterm (VPT)-born children at 9 years of age; to examine the potential intervening role of cerebral white matter abnormalities (WMAs) and structural development on term magnetic resonance imaging. A regional cohort of 110 infants born VPT in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied from birth to age of 9 years. Confirmed infection was defined as positive blood, cerebrospinal fluid or urine culture, and/or necrotizing enterocolitis ≥ stage 2. Suspected infection was defined as ≥ 5 days of antibiotics with evidence of clinical correlates. At term gestational equivalence, infants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. At age 9 years, neuromotor function, IQ, educational achievement, and mental health were assessed. During hospitalization, 25% of VPT infants had confirmed and 23% had suspected infection. Longer-term neurodevelopmental impairments were largely confined to infants with confirmed infection (relative risk 1.4-3.1, vs uninfected). After accounting for other neonatal factors, these infants were at increased risk of severe motor impairment (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-8), and IQ delay (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1-3.9). Cerebral WMAs contributed to associations between confirmed infection and motor and IQ impairments but not to ADHD (P = .005). Confirmed neonatal infection heightens VPT infants' risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. WMA appears to be an important intervening factor linking infection and severe motor and IQ impairments. Further analysis of the neurologic mechanism accounting for ADHD in infants with infection is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perioperative allergy: risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females.

  10. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.; Adams, V.I.; Blackbourne, B.D.; Marks, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  11. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  12. Zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratios in high-risk and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Carissa F; Zerzan, Joan C; Johnson, Donna B; Juul, Sandra E

    2012-07-01

    To refine the reference range for the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio (ZnPP/H) of preterm infants, we assessed the impact of maternal risk factors on ZnPP/H and evaluated the impact of changes in iron supplementation on iron status. The reference range for neonatal ZnPP/H was refined using prospective data from 31 reference infants ≤ 35 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) plus retrospective data from 51 infants ZnPP/H from 48 high-risk infants. The effect of changing iron supplementation guidelines was evaluated by retrospective chart review of serial ZnPP/H from 194 infants. Cord ZnPP/H was lower at 30-35 weeks' gestation than at 24-26 weeks' gestation (P = .01). Cord ZnPP/H values from insulin-dependent diabetic mothers were elevated compared with reference values. Changing the iron supplementation protocol was not associated with improved ZnPP/H measurements. Cord blood and postnatal reference ranges for ZnPP/H are defined. Iron balance depends on a complex interaction of prenatal and postnatal factors. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing gastroschisis related mortality in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfeld, Jordan C; Wren, Sherry M; Macheka, Nyasha; Mbuwayesango, Bothwell A; Bruzoni, Matias; Sylvester, Karl G; Kastenberg, Zachary J

    2015-12-01

    Survival for infants with gastroschisis in developed countries has improved dramatically in recent decades with reported mortality rates of 4-7%. Conversely, mortality rates for gastroschisis in sub-Saharan Africa remain as great as 60% in contemporary series. This study describes the burden of gastroschisis at the major pediatric hospital in Zimbabwe with the goal of identifying modifiable factors influencing gastroschisis-related infant mortality. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all cases of gastroschisis admitted to Harare Children's Hospital in 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing survival. A total of 5,585 neonatal unit admissions were identified including 95 (1.7%) infants born with gastroschisis. Gastroschisis-related mortality was 84% (n = 80). Of infants with gastroschisis, 96% (n = 91) were born outside Harare Hospital, 82% (n = 78) were born outside Harare Province, and 23% (n = 25) were home births. The unadjusted odds of survival for these neonates with gastroschisis were decreased for low birth weight infants (age; OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.50), and for those born to teenage mothers (age; OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.46). There was also a trend toward decreased odds of survival for home births (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.02-1.34) and for those born outside Harare Province (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.10-1.22). Gastroschisis-related infant mortality in Zimbabwe is associated with well-known risk factors, including low birth weight, prematurity, and teenage mothers. However, modifiable factors identified in this study signify potential opportunities for developing innovative approaches to perinatal care in such a resource-constrained environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Risk: Implications for Tracking High-Risk Infants and Making Early Service Delivery Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Kenneth G.; Gordon, Betty N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines conceptualizations of risk, methods for identifying and tracking infants and children at risk, models developed for identifying and tracking these children, the concepts of vulnerability and resiliency as they relate to risk, and implications of the ways in which risk is defined and tracking programs are developed. (Author/JDD)

  15. Risk Factors for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hau Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a complex human disease. The incidence of dementia among the elderly population is rising rapidly worldwide. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading type of dementia and was the fifth and eighth leading cause of death in women and men aged ≥ 65 years, respectively, in 2003. In Taiwan and many other counties, dementia is a hidden health issue because of its underestimation in the elderly population. In Western countries, the prevalence of AD increases from 1–3% among people aged 60–64 years to 35% among those aged > 85 years. In Taiwan, the prevalence of dementia for people aged ≥ 65 years was 2–4% by 2000. Therefore, it is important to identify protective and risk factors for dementia to prevent this disease at an early stage. Several factors are related to dementia, e.g. age, ethnicity, sex, genetic factors, physical activity, smoking, drug use, education level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, and environmental factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between these factors and the risk of dementia, especially AD and vascular dementia. We also suggest future research directions for researchers in dementia-related fields.

  16. Does Neighborhood Risk Explain Racial Disparities in Low Birth Weight among Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R; Rulison, Kelly L; Aronson, Robert E; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L; Morrison, Sharon D

    2016-04-01

    To test associations and interactions between racial identification, neighborhood risk, and low birth weight disparities between infants born to African-American and white adolescent mothers. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Birth cases were geocoded and linked to census tract information from the 2010 US Census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. A "neighborhood risk" index was created using principal component analysis, and mothers were grouped into 3 neighborhood risk levels (low, medium, high). Multilevel models with cross-level interactions were used to identify variation in racial differences in low birth weight outcomes across neighborhood risk levels when controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and pregnancy behaviors (smoking, prenatal care use). North Carolina, United States. Singleton infants (n = 7923 cases) born to non-Hispanic African American and white adolescent mothers from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2011. Low birth weight. African American mothers were significantly more likely to have infants of low birth weight than white mothers in this sample (odds ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.34). Mothers that resided in areas of high neighborhood risk were significantly more likely to have infants of low birth weight than mothers residing in areas of low neighborhood risk (odds ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.93). Even when controlling for confounding factors, racial disparities in low birth weight odds did not significantly vary according to neighborhood risk level. Racial disparities can remain in low birth weight odds among infants born to adolescent mothers when controlling for maternal characteristics, pregnancy behaviors, and neighborhood risk. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Interplay Between Early Father Involvement and Neonatal Medical Risk in the Prediction of Infant Neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines the association between early father involvement and infant neurodevelopment, and whether neonatal medical risk moderates this association. Data from approximately 6000 fathers and their children were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Hierarchical regression was employed to analyze the data. The findings reveal that the association between early father involvement and infant neurodevelopment is contingent on both the timing of involvement (i.e., prenatal/perinatal or infancy) and offspring medical status at birth. The neurodevelopment of medically at-risk neonates was enhanced when fathers were involved during the gestational period and at the time of their birth. This relationship was not detected, however, in the case of infants who did not experience medical risks as neonates. Neonatal medical risk appears to be an important moderating factor in the link between father involvement during pregnancy and childbirth and infant neurodevelopment. Practitioners should continue to make efforts to involve fathers during gestation and childbirth. The findings of the present study suggest that doing so may protect against neurodevelopmental delays in neonates with medical risks.

  18. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of neonatal dysphagia is increasing, as medical advances contribute to the survival of critically ill and preterm infants. Additional factors such as low birth weight (LBW), gastro-oesoephageal reflux disorder, failure-to-thrive (FTT), and HIV may increase the complexity of dysphagia symptoms.

  19. Concurrent validity and reliability of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale in infants at dual risk for motor delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Patricia; Eason, Jane M; Philibert, Darbi; Ridgway, Andrea; McCaughey, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Concurrent validity of scores for the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and the Peabody Developmental Gross Motor Scale-2 (PDGMS-2) was examined with a sample of 35 infants at dual risk for motor delays or disabilities. Dual risk was defined as low birthweight ( 9 months of age. Novice examiners' scores on both measures closely approximated those of experienced examiners (ICC range = .98 to .99). The results support concurrent validity of the AIMS and PDGMS-2 for infants at dual risk and have implications for using the AIMS in high-risk follow-up programs, particularly in relation to evaluating functional components of motor performance and ease of administration.

  20. Depressão pós-parto: fatores de risco e repercussões no desenvolvimento infantil Post-partum depression: risk factors and repercussions in infant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluisa Bordin Schmidt

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A depressão pós-parto é uma condição que afeta 10% a 15% das mulheres no pós-parto. Este quadro tem seu início em algum momento durante o primeiro ano do pós-parto, havendo maior incidência entre a quarta e oitava semana após o parto. Geralmente se manifesta por um conjunto de sintomas como irritabilidade, choro freqüente, sentimentos de desamparo e desesperança, falta de energia e motivação, desinteresse sexual, transtornos alimentares e do sono, ansiedade, sentimentos de incapacidade de lidar com novas solicitações. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica acerca da depressão pós-parto. São abordados aspectos conceituais, epidemiológicos, fatores de risco associados a sua ocorrência e algumas repercussões da depressão pós-parto na relação materno-infantil e no desenvolvimento da criança. O conhecimento destes aspectos reveste-se de grande importância considerando as conseqüências prejudiciais às mães bem como ao desenvolvimento cognitivo, social e emocional de suas crianças.The post-partum depression is a condition that affects 10 to 15% of the women in the post-partum period. These symptoms begin at some moment during the first year after delivery, occurring more frequently between the fourth and eighth week after parturition. It is generally expressed through a complexity of symptoms where there is a presence of irritability, frequent crying, feelings of abandonment and hopelessness, lack of energy and motivation, lack of sexual interest, disturbances in sleep and eating patterns, anxiety, and feelings of not being able to cope with new demands. The objective of this paper is to present a bibliographical revision regarding the post-partum depression. Conceptual and epidemiological aspects, risk factors associated with their occurrence as well as a few repercussions of the post-partum depression in the mother-child relation, and the development of the infant will be broached. The

  1. Formula and Scale for Body Surface Area Estimation in High-Risk Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Youngmee

    2010-01-01

    Advances in medical technology and the health sciences have lead to a rapid increase in the prevalence and morbidity of high-risk infants with chronic or permanent sequels such as the birth of early preterm infants. A suitable formula is therefore needed for body surface area (BSA) estimation for high-risk infants to more accurately devise therapeutic regimes in clinical practice. A cohort study involving 5014 high-risk infants was conducted to develop a suitable formula for estimating BSA us...

  2. Recovery of Abnormal ABR in Neonates and Infants at Risk of Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Psarommatis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study is to present the clinical experience of a single institution on the recovery of ABR thresholds in a large population of neonates and infants at risk of hearing loss. Potential prognostic factors associated with this phenomenon were also investigated. Out of 2248 high risk infants, 384 had abnormal ABR at initial hearing evaluation and 168 of them had absent ABR or a threshold ≥80 dBnHL. From this subgroup, a significant percentage showed complete or partial recovery on reexamination (32.7% and 9.3%, resp., performed 4–6 months later. The presence of normal otoacoustic emissions was associated with the ABR restoration on reexamination. Moreover, the very young age at the initial hearing screening seems to be related to higher probabilities of false positive ABR. The potential recovery of hearing in HR infants raises concerns about the very early cochlear implantation in HR infants less than one year. Such a treatment modality should be decided cautiously and only after obtaining valid and stable objective and subjective hearing thresholds. This holds especially true for infants showing an auditory neuropathy profile, as they presented a much greater probability of ABR recovery.

  3. Recovery of Abnormal ABR in Neonates and Infants at Risk of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarommatis, Ioannis; Voudouris, Charalampos; Kapetanakis, Ioannis; Athanasiadi, Faselida; Douros, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to present the clinical experience of a single institution on the recovery of ABR thresholds in a large population of neonates and infants at risk of hearing loss. Potential prognostic factors associated with this phenomenon were also investigated. Out of 2248 high risk infants, 384 had abnormal ABR at initial hearing evaluation and 168 of them had absent ABR or a threshold ≥80 dBnHL. From this subgroup, a significant percentage showed complete or partial recovery on reexamination (32.7% and 9.3%, resp.), performed 4-6 months later. The presence of normal otoacoustic emissions was associated with the ABR restoration on reexamination. Moreover, the very young age at the initial hearing screening seems to be related to higher probabilities of false positive ABR. The potential recovery of hearing in HR infants raises concerns about the very early cochlear implantation in HR infants less than one year. Such a treatment modality should be decided cautiously and only after obtaining valid and stable objective and subjective hearing thresholds. This holds especially true for infants showing an auditory neuropathy profile, as they presented a much greater probability of ABR recovery.

  4. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  5. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  6. [Recurrent wheezing: prevalence and associated factors in infants from Buenos Aires City, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulman, Gabriela Aída; Freilij, Héctor; Behrends, Ilse; Gentile, Ángela; Mallol, Javier

    The episodes of bronchial obstruction at early age constitute a frequent problem in Pediatrics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of recurrent wheezing in infants in Buenos Aires City, as well as to identify any associated factors. Cross-sectional study performed from 2011 to 2012 in the Children Hospital Ricardo Gutiérrez, Buenos Aires City, as part of the International Study of Wheezing in Infants. A validated questionnaire was applied to parents of infants aged between 12 and 15 months. The prevalence of wheezing, mostly the recurrent episodes (three or more), and their probable associated factors were evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed with χ 2 , Fisher's test, binary and logistics multiple regression analysis. The significance level was 0.05. Over 1063 infants, 58.9% (confidence interval (CI) 95% 55.9-61.9) presented at least one episode of wheezing and 26.3% (CI95% 23.8-29.9) three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Risk factors associated to wheezing were male gender (p=0.001), six or more episodes of cold during the first year of life (p <0.0001), age at first cold <4 months (p <0.0001); pneumonia (p <0.0001) and smoking during pregnancy (tobacco) (p=0.01). For recurrent wheezing, risk factors we considered as six or more episodes of cold during the first year of life (p <0.0001), early (< 4 month of age) onset wheezing (p <0.0001) and nocturnal wheezing (p <0.0001). The prevalence of recurrent wheezing among infants in Buenos Aires Ciy was high (26.3%). Some identified associated factors can be preventable. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Guiraud

    Full Text Available The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16 = 17.153, p = 0.001. The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25 = 0.09, p = 0.767, in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41 = 4.466, p = 0.041. In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

  8. Atypical audiovisual speech integration in infants at risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, Jeanne A; Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Kushnerenko, Elena; Ribeiro, Helena; Davies, Kim; Charman, Tony; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    The language difficulties often seen in individuals with autism might stem from an inability to integrate audiovisual information, a skill important for language development. We investigated whether 9-month-old siblings of older children with autism, who are at an increased risk of developing autism, are able to integrate audiovisual speech cues. We used an eye-tracker to record where infants looked when shown a screen displaying two faces of the same model, where one face is articulating/ba/and the other/ga/, with one face congruent with the syllable sound being presented simultaneously, the other face incongruent. This method was successful in showing that infants at low risk can integrate audiovisual speech: they looked for the same amount of time at the mouths in both the fusible visual/ga/- audio/ba/and the congruent visual/ba/- audio/ba/displays, indicating that the auditory and visual streams fuse into a McGurk-type of syllabic percept in the incongruent condition. It also showed that low-risk infants could perceive a mismatch between auditory and visual cues: they looked longer at the mouth in the mismatched, non-fusible visual/ba/- audio/ga/display compared with the congruent visual/ga/- audio/ga/display, demonstrating that they perceive an uncommon, and therefore interesting, speech-like percept when looking at the incongruent mouth (repeated ANOVA: displays x fusion/mismatch conditions interaction: F(1,16) = 17.153, p = 0.001). The looking behaviour of high-risk infants did not differ according to the type of display, suggesting difficulties in matching auditory and visual information (repeated ANOVA, displays x conditions interaction: F(1,25) = 0.09, p = 0.767), in contrast to low-risk infants (repeated ANOVA: displays x conditions x low/high-risk groups interaction: F(1,41) = 4.466, p = 0.041). In some cases this reduced ability might lead to the poor communication skills characteristic of autism.

  9. Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) Performance of Greek Preterm Infants: Comparisons With Full-Term Infants of the Same Nationality and Impact of Prematurity-Related Morbidity Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrengelas, Dimitrios; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Kleisiouni, Paraskevi; Manta, Vassiliki; Mellos, Stavros; Pons, Roser; Chrousos, George P; Siahanidou, Tania

    2016-07-01

    Only a few studies have been conducted with the objective of creating norms of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) for the assessment of gross motor development of preterm infants. The AIMS performance of preterm infants has been compared with that of the Canadian norms of full-term infants, but not with that of full-term infants of the same nationality. Moreover, the possible impact of prematurity-related morbidity factors on AIMS performance is unknown. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate AIMS trajectory in a large population of Greek preterm infants and create norms, (2) to compare it with the AIMS trajectory of Greek full-term infants, and (3) to examine the possible influence of neonatal morbidity on AIMS scores in the preterm sample. This was a cross-sectional study. Mean AIMS scores were compared, per month (1-19), between 403 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of age, corrected for prematurity) and 1,038 full-term infants. In preterm infants, the association of AIMS scores with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade ≤III, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and sepsis was assessed by hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores were significantly lower in preterm infants than in full-term infants. Mean AIMS scores in preterm infants were significantly associated with RDS (b=-1.93; 95% CI=-2.70, -1.16), IVH (b=-0.97; 95% CI=-1.69, -0.25), and ROP (b=-1.12; 95% CI=-1.99, -0.24) but not with BPD or sepsis in hierarchical regression analysis. Alberta Infant Motor Scale norms were created for Greek preterm infants. This study confirms that AIMS trajectories of preterm infants are below those of full-term infants of the same nationality. The influence of morbidity factors, including RDS, IVH, and ROP, should be taken into account when administering the AIMS in preterm infants. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  10. Scaffolded reaching experiences encourage grasping activity in infants at high risk for autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest impaired motor skill development during infancy in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, it remains unclear whether infants at high familial risk for ASD would benefit from early interventions targeting the motor domain. The current study investigated this issue by providing 3-month-old infants at high familial risk for ASD with training experiences aimed at facilitating independent reaching. A group of 17 high-risk (HR) infants received 2 weeks of scaffolded reaching experiences using “sticky mittens,” and was compared to 72 low-risk (LR) infants experiencing the same or alternative training procedures. Results indicate that HR infants – just like LR infants – show an increase in grasping activity following “sticky mittens” training. In contrast to LR infants, evidence that motor training encouraged a preference for faces in HR infants was inconclusive. PMID:25295021

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for infantile colic in District Mansehra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazil, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Infantile colic is a common problem among infants age 3 days to 3 months. It may affect parental feelings negatively and the parents may undertake all kinds of actions to stop excessive crying. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of infantile colic and its risk factors in infants born in District Mansehra. Methods: In this prospective study, all those newborn babies were included who were born at King Abdullah Teaching Hospital Mansehra between January 1 2008 and March 31, 2008, and those newborn babies who were brought to children OPD for routine check-up and EPI centre for vaccination of this hospital during this time period. For every infant, gender, mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, birth weight, birth order, and mother's reproductive history were collected. These babies were seen at least once in a week up to 12 weeks and history from the mothers about the duration of crying and fussiness behaviour was recorded. At the end of 3 months the infants were again assessed and additional information on infant nutritional source was obtained and any medication used for colic relief was identified. Cases of colic were identified by applying Wessel criteria to recorded data. Chi-square tests were used. Results: From total 512 infants, follow-up was completed for 426 infants. In total, 90 infants (21.77%) satisfied the Wessel criteria for infantile colic. No statistical significance was found between colicky and non-colicky infants according to sex, gestational age at birth, birth weight, type of delivery, and, infant's feeding pattern. However, firstborn infants had higher rate for developing colic (p=0.03). Conclusion: Prevalence of colic was 21.77% in this infant population of District Mansehra. Except for birth order, no other variable was significantly associated with infantile colic. (author)

  12. The Association between Infants' Attention Control and Social Inhibition Is Moderated by Genetic and Environmental Risk for Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2011-01-01

    Infant social inhibition is associated with increased risk for anxiety later in life. Although both genetic and environmental factors are associated with anxiety, little empirical work has addressed how developing regulatory abilities work with genetic and environmental risk to exacerbate or mitigate problem behaviors. The current study was aimed…

  13. Can very early music interventions promote at-risk infants' development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtala, Paula; Partanen, Eino

    2018-04-30

    Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development. Children born very preterm, in turn, have an increased likelihood of sensory, cognitive, and motor deficits. To ameliorate these deficits, we have developed early interventions focusing on music. Preliminary results of our ongoing longitudinal studies suggest that music making and parental singing promote infants' early language development and auditory neural processing. Together with previous findings in the field, the present studies highlight the role of active, social music making in supporting auditory and language development in at-risk children and infants. Once completed, the studies will illuminate both risk and protective factors in development and offer a comprehensive model of understanding the promises of music activities in promoting positive developmental outcomes during the first years of life. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... your cell phone Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting lung ...

  15. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  16. Psychosocial risk in families of infants undergoing surgery for a serious congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearps, Simone J; McCarthy, Maria C; Muscara, Frank; Hearps, Stephen J C; Burke, Kylie; Jones, Bryn; Anderson, Vicki A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acute psychosocial risk in families with infants undergoing surgery for a congenital heart disease and, secondarily, to explore the psychosocial impact of antenatal versus post-natal diagnoses. The study sample comprised 39 caregivers (28 mothers) of 29 children diagnosed with a congenital heart disease and requiring surgery within the first 4 weeks of life. Psychosocial risk was measured using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool, which was adapted to include four novel items examining infant risk factors, namely, sleeping, feeding, crying, and bonding difficulties. Parents' psychosocial risk was measured within 4 weeks after their child's surgery and stratified into a three-tiered framework: Universal, Targeted, and Clinical risk. Of the total sample, 61.5% of parents were classified as Universal, that is, at lowest risk; 35.9% as Targeted, and 2.6% as Clinical. The within-family parent total Psychosocial Assessment Tool score correlations were non-significant, and there were no differences between families of infants who received post-natal versus antenatal diagnosis or single ventricle versus biventricular repair. Linear regression found that a higher parent education significantly predicted a lower total Psychosocial Assessment Tool score. Findings indicate that, although the majority of parents adapt to the acute stress of surgery for a serious cardiac illness in their infant, the remaining 38.5% report an increased psychosocial risk associated with higher rates of emotional distress, which may impact on the parental quality of life and capacity for optimal parenting. The distribution of psychosocial risk in parents of children undergoing surgery for a congenital heart disease is consistent with that described for parents of children with other serious paediatric diagnoses.

  17. Paternal perception of infant sleep risks and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Heather M; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) results in 3400 sleep-related deaths yearly in the United States, yet caregivers' compliance with safe sleep recommendations remains less than optimal. Paternal caregiver's attitudes toward infant safe sleep messages are largely unaddressed, despite established differences between female and male caregiver perceptions. This study aimed to explore the determinants of safe sleep practices among male caregivers. Focus groups were conducted in Arkansas with male caregivers of infants ages 2-12 months to discuss infant sleep routines, parental roles, sources for safe sleep information, and messaging suggestions for safe sleep promotion. The Health Belief Model of behavior change framed a moderator guide. Transcript-based analysis was used, and data were managed using HyperRESEARCH (version 2.8.3). The transcribed data were coded to identify significant themes. Ten focus groups were conducted with 46 participants. Inconsistent adherence to safe sleep practices was reported. Participants were more likely to describe safe location (57% of participants) and supine position behaviors (42%) than an uncluttered bed environment (26%). Caregivers acknowledged the importance of recommended safe sleep behavior, but admitted to unsafe practices, such as co-sleeping and unsafe daytime sleep. Lack of perceived risk, comfort, and/or resources, and disagreement among family members about safety practices were identified as barriers. Participants voiced concerns that current advertising portrays males as incompetent caregivers. Suggestions included portraying positive images of fathers and male caregivers acting to promote safety and the incorporation of statistics about the hazards of unsafe sleep to better engage fathers. Potential distribution venues included sporting events, home improvement and/or automotive stores, and social media from trusted sites (e.g. hospitals or medical professionals). Male caregivers demonstrate some knowledge base

  18. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  19. Risk factor based investing:case: MSCI risk factor indices

    OpenAIRE

    Pieskä, J. (Jukka)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this thesis is to study risk factor based investing and test how well MSCI constructs their risk factor based indices. Risk factor based investing has gained a lot of media exposure in the recent years and “Smart Beta” products are becoming more popular. Blackrock estimated that there are more than 700 exchange traded products available and they have over $ 529 billion in assets under management. Risk fa...

  20. EVALUATION bF THE INFANT AT RISK FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of tests of infant motor development have been described. These include the Milani-Comparetti Motor. Development Screening Test,15 the Chandler Movement. Assessment of Infants Screening Test,,. the Infant Motor. Screen,17 the Infant Neurological International Battery!S and the. Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

  1. Risk Factors in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

  2. [Risk factors of birth obstetric trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía-González, Alejandrina; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Nava-Bermea, Manuel

    2013-06-01

    The proper prenatal care for pregnant women is crucial to quickly identify risk factors for birth trauma. To identify risk factors for neonatal birth trauma. Case-control study that included a patient in the case group for every two controls. The following risk factors were identified: cephalopelvic disproportion, macrosomia, use of forceps, precipitated or prolonged labor, malpresentation, and the most common types of birth trauma. We used descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Statistically significant risk factors for birth trauma were: maternal age or = 30 years (OR = 2.5), first pregnancy (OR = 4.0), cephalopelvic disproportion (OR = 8.3), forceps delivery (OR = 9.4), birth weight greater than 3,800 g (OR = 6.6), and non-cephalic presentation (OR = 8.3). Found birth trauma types were: ecchymosis (40.4%), caput succedaneum (25%), erosion (15.4%), clavicle fracture (5.9%), brachial plexus paralysis (4.7%), inter alia. The perinatal outcome of 79 infants with birth trauma were compared to 158 healthy newborns. Risk factors associated with birth injuries were: Maternal (age, pregnancy), newborn (weight), and birth care (presentation, instrumentation and pelvic sufficiency).

  3. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  4. Risk factors for poor neonatal adaptation after exposure to antidepressants in utero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieviet, N.; Hoppenbrouwers, C.J.C.; Dolman, K.M.; Berkhof, J.; Wennink, H.; Honig, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Infants exposed to antidepressants in utero are at risk of developing poor neonatal adaptation (PNA). This study identified risk factors for PNA. Methods In this cohort study, data on mothers and infants admitted to the maternity ward of a general hospital between 2007 and 2012 were analysed.

  5. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  6. Atypical Cry Acoustics in 6-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Iverson, Jana M.; Rinaldi, Melissa L.; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in acoustic characteristics of infant cries in a sample of babies at risk for autism and a low-risk comparison group. Cry samples derived from vocal recordings of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 21) and low-risk infants (n = 18) were subjected to acoustic analyses using analysis software designed for this purpose. Cries were categorized as either pain-related or non-pain-related based on videotape coding. At-risk infants produ...

  7. Retinopathy of prematurity: screening, incidence and risk factors analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C S; Chen, S J; Lee, F L; Hsu, W M; Liu, J H

    2001-12-01

    The sequela of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important cause of infant blindness. This study was designed to screen the high-risk premature infants and investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of ROP. From October 1997 to October 1998, all premature infants with birth body weight (BBW) less than 2000 gm or gestational age (GA) less than 36 weeks were enrolled and underwent ophthalmologic examination at 4 to 6 weeks of age at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. The perinatal variables were analyzed to evaluate their correlation with the development of ROP. In totally 108 premature infants, the incidence for development of ROP was 25% (27 in 108 patients). The threshold ROP occurred in 15 eyes (7%). The average BBW and GA (1267+/-341 gm and 29.7+/-2.7 weeks) were significantly lower in ROP group than in the non-ROP group (1703+/-368 gm and 32.3+/-2.2 weeks). The artificial ventilation for more than 5 days, chronic lung disease and periventricular leukomalacia were significant risk factors associated with highest rate of ROP. The respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, congenital heart disease and sepsis were significant risk factors accompanied by moderate rate of ROP. Low birth body weight and young gestational age are the most important risk factors in the development of ROP. The analysis of risk factors will be helpful in understanding and prediction of ROP formation in high-risk neonates. The timely clinical screening retina examination of high-risk premature infants is important to prevent the development of advanced ROP.

  8. The Effect of Parenting Style on Social Smiling in Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Colleen M.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Nguyen, Thanh P.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how parenting style at 9 months predicts growth in infant social engagement (i.e., social smiling) between 9 and 18 months during a free-play interaction in infants at high (HR-infants) and low (LR-infants) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that across all infants, higher levels of maternal…

  9. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  10. [Recurrent diverticulitis - risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, Z; Slováček, R; Sankot, J

    2013-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a common illness, especially in the elderly population. It may be asymptomatic and cause chronic intestinal problems, colonic diverticular bleeding or inflammatory complications with considerable morbidity and mortality. We have attempted at finding factors that would help us identify patients with a higher risk of diverticulitis recurrence as well as patients with a higher likelihood of perforated diverticulitis. This retrospective study included all patients admitted to our surgical ward for inflammatory complications of diverticular disease between 2000 and 2012: 278 patients, 88 men and 190 women. We looked up the first attack of diverticulitis in our documentation as well as the relapses, if any, their number and course, and the time from the first attack to the relapse. We analyzed the influence of age, gender, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, overweight, ischemic heart disease, chronic renal failure, gastroduodenal disease), nicotine abuse and medication (glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive drugs, acetylsalicylic acid) on diverticulitis recurrence and its complicated course. We compared the results of conservative and surgical therapy. Statistical analysis was performed using Fishers exact test and Man-Whitney U tests. We did not demonstrate any statistically significant dependence of diverticulitis recurrence on age or gender. Colectomy (both acute and elective surgery) clearly decreases the likelihood of recurrence (p=0.00007). Comorbidities, nicotine abuse and medication were not associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Steroid and immunosuppressive drugs use was significantly associated with higher perforation rates, without impacting on the likelihood of recurrence. Regular smoking of cigarettes had no impact on recurrence or on its severity. We did not find any reliable indicator of recurrent diverticulitis. Age, gender, comorbidities, smoking and medication are not significant. Immunocompromised

  11. Growth pattern in Ethiopian infants - the impact of exposure to maternal HIV infection in relation to socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Walles, John; Balcha, Taye Tolera; Winqvist, Niclas; Björkman, Per

    2017-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions. Anthropometric and socio-economic data were collected retrospectively from PMTCT registers (for HIV-EU infants), with HIV-U controls recruited at measles vaccination at public health facilities in Ethiopia. Growth was compared with regard to HIV exposure and socio-economic variables in multivariate regression analysis. The following growth measurements were found for 302 HIV-EU and 358 HIV-U infants at 9-12 months of age, respectively: mean weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) 0.04 and -0.21, p growth and higher mean WAZ than HIV-U controls. Poor growth development was associated with socio-economic factors. This suggests health benefits from PMTCT participation for infant growth. Similar interventions could be considered for Ethiopian infants, irrespective of HIV exposure, with a particular focus on children with poor socio-economic status.

  12. Vacuum assisted birth and risk for cerebral complications in term newborn infants: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on cerebral complications among newborn infants delivered by vacuum extraction (VE). The aim of this study was to determine the risk for intracranial haemorrhage and/or cerebral dysfunction in newborn infants delivered by VE and to compare this risk with that after cesarean section in labour (CS) and spontaneous vaginal delivery, respectively. Methods Data was obtained from Swedish national registers. In a population-based cohort from 1999 to 2010 including all singleton newborn infants delivered at term after onset of labour by VE (n = 87,150), CS (75,216) or spontaneous vaginal delivery (n = 851,347), we compared the odds for neonatal intracranial haemorrhage, traumatic or non-traumatic, convulsions or encephalopathy. Logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted (for major risk factors and indication) odds ratios (AOR), using spontaneous vaginal delivery as reference group. Results The rates of traumatic and non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhages were 0.8/10,000 and 3.8/1,000. VE deliveries provided 58% and 31.5% of the traumatic and non-traumatic cases, giving a ten-fold risk [AOR 10.05 (4.67-21.65)] and double risk [AOR 2.23 (1.57-3.16)], respectively. High birth weight and short mother were associated with the highest risks. Infants delivered by CS had no increased risk for intracranial hemorrhages. The risks for convulsions or encephalopathy were similar among infants delivered by VE and CS, exceeding the OR after non-assisted spontaneous vaginal delivery by two-to-three times. Conclusion Vacuum assisted delivery is associated with increased risk for neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. Although causality could not be established in this observational study, it is important to be aware of the increased risk of intracranial hemorrhages in VE deliveries, particularly in short women and large infants. The results warrant further studies in decision making and conduct of assisted vaginal delivery. PMID:24444326

  13. Low parental tolerance for infant crying: an underlying factor in infant sleep problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; Juda-Hanael, Michal; Livne-Karp, Efrat; Kahn, Michal; Tikotzky, Liat; Anders, Thomas F; Calkins, Susan; Sivan, Yakov

    2016-10-01

    Parenting behaviours play a major role in the evolution of infant sleep. Sleep problems in infancy have been associated with excessive parental involvement at night-time, and with shorter delays in response to infant night wakings and signalling. Infant crying and sleep problems are linked, yet little is known about the impact of parental responses to crying on infant sleep patterns. This study examined the hypothesis that lower parental tolerance for crying is associated with infant sleep problems. We studied 144 married couples divided into three groups: parents of infants suffering from night-waking problems (i.e. the clinical group), parents of infants without sleep problems and childless couples. Crying tolerance was assessed using questionnaires, audio recordings of crying infants and using a novel paradigm, in which participants were shown a video of a crying infant and asked when they would intervene. Parents in the clinical group demonstrated shorter intervention delays in the crying infant clip (group effect: P sleep-disturbed infants appear to have lower tolerance for infant crying, which may be a predisposition underlying their excessive involvement in soothing their infants to sleep which may lead to the development of sleep problems. These preliminary findings should be explored further to assess their clinical validity and utility. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  15. The HLA-DQ2 genotype selects for early intestinal microbiota composition in infants at high risk of developing coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, M; Neef, A; Castillejo, G; Palma, G De; Varea, V; Capilla, A; Palau, F; Nova, E; Marcos, A; Polanco, I; Ribes-Koninckx, C; Ortigosa, L; Izquierdo, L; Sanz, Y

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with coeliac disease (CD), but whether the alterations are cause or consequence of the disease is unknown. This study investigated whether the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 genotype is an independent factor influencing the early gut microbiota composition of healthy infants at family risk of CD. As part of a larger prospective study, a subset (n=22) of exclusively breastfed and vaginally delivered infants with either high genetic risk (HLA-DQ2 carriers) or low genetic risk (non-HLA-DQ2/8 carriers) of developing CD were selected from a cohort of healthy infants with at least one first-degree relative with CD. Infant faecal microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and real time quantitative PCR. Infants with a high genetic risk had significantly higher proportions of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and lower proportions of Actinobacteria compared with low-risk infants. At genus level, high-risk infants had significantly less Bifidobacterium and unclassified Bifidobacteriaceae proportions and more Corynebacterium, Gemella, Clostridium sensu stricto, unclassified Clostridiaceae, unclassified Enterobacteriaceae and Raoultella proportions. Quantitative real time PCR also revealed lower numbers of Bifidobacterium species in infants with high genetic risk than in those with low genetic risk. In high-risk infants negative correlations were identified between Bifidobacterium species and several genera of Proteobacteria (Escherichia/Shigella) and Firmicutes (Clostridium). The genotype of infants at family risk of developing CD, carrying the HLA-DQ2 haplotypes, influences the early gut microbiota composition. This finding suggests that a specific disease-biased host genotype may also select for the first gut colonisers and could contribute to determining disease risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Optimal breastfeeding durations for HIV-exposed infants: the impact of maternal ART use, infant mortality and replacement feeding risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Divya; MacLean, Rachel L; Shapiro, Roger; Dabis, Francois; Engelsmann, Barbara; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Leroy, Valeriane; Lockman, Shahin; Walensky, Rochelle; Rollins, Nigel; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. We defined "optimal" breastfeeding durations as those maximizing 24-month HFS. We varied maternal ART duration, mortality rates among breastfed infants/children, and relative risk of mortality associated with replacement feeding ("RRRF"), modelled as a multiplier on all-cause mortality for replacement-fed infants/children (range: 1 [no additional risk] to 6). The base-case simulated RRRF = 3, median infant mortality, and 24-month maternal ART duration. In the base-case, HFS ranged from 83.1% (no breastfeeding) to 90.2% (12-months breastfeeding). Optimal breastfeeding durations increased with higher RRRF values and longer maternal ART durations, but did not change substantially with variation in infant mortality rates. Optimal breastfeeding durations often exceeded the previous WHO recommendation of 12 months. In settings with high RRRF and long maternal ART durations, HFS is maximized when mothers breastfeed longer than the previously-recommended 12 months. In settings with low RRRF or short maternal ART durations, shorter breastfeeding durations optimize HFS. If mothers are supported to use ART for longer periods of time, it is possible to reduce transmission risks and gain the benefits of longer breastfeeding durations. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  17. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW) infants had cranial ...

  18. Risk factors for perinatal HIV-1 transmission in pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the infant HIV-1 transmission rate and to evaluate risk factors for transmission in pregnant women at an Eastern Cape tertiary hospital requiring lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. Pregnant women who initiated lifelong ART during pregnancy and others who conceived on lifelong ART ...

  19. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment...

  20. [Incidence and risk factor analysis of retinopathy of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong; Li, Xiao-Xin; Li, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Wei

    2005-04-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of infant blindness. This study was designed to screen the high-risk premature infants and investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of ROP. From July 1 2002 to June 30 2003, all premature infants born in Beijing Maternal and Children Healthcare Hospital with birth body weight (BBW) less than 2000 gm or gestational age (GA) less than 34 weeks were enrolled and underwent ophthalmologic examination. The perinatal variables were analyzed to evaluate their correlation with the development of ROP. In 98 premature infants, the incidence of ROP was 17.3% (17 in 98 patients). Four cases with 7 eyes (4.1%) developed threshold ROP. There was significant difference in birth body weight, gestational age, maximal oxygen tension, oxygen use for more than 5 days and sepsis between ROP and Non-ROP groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that long time use of oxygen was a significant risk factor associated with the development of ROP. GA and BBW were protective factors of ROP. Low birth body weight, young gestational age and long time oxygen usage are the most important risk factors in the development of ROP.

  1. The Impact of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on the Risk of Strabismus among Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shilpa; Andrews, Chris A.; Apkarian, Alexandra O.; Musch, David C.; Lee, Paul P.; Stein, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Strabismus causes irreversible vision loss if not detected and treated early. It is unclear whether birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) are risk factors for strabismus. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of BW and GA on the likelihood of developing strabismus among premature infants. DESIGN In this longitudinal cohort analysis, we followed a group of premature children from birth to determine the proportion which developed strabismus and the timing of first strabismus diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression analyses assessed the relationships of BW and GA and the development of strabismus. Regression models were adjusted for other known risk factors for strabismus, sociodemographic factors, and ocular comorbidities. SETTING Communities throughout the United States PARTICIPANTS 38055 otherwise healthy children born prematurely who were enrolled for >6 months in a nationwide US managed care network between 2001–2011. EXPOSURE BW strabismus with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) RESULTS Of 38055 otherwise healthy children who were born prematurely, 587 were diagnosed with strabismus later in life. Cumulative incidence of strabismus was 3.0% at 5 years. Controlling for GA and other factors, infants born with BW strabismus. Controlling for BW and other covariates, there was no significant association between strabismus and GA (HR=0.98, [CI, 0.69–1.38]). Among premature infants with BW strabismus relative to those born after 32 weeks (HR=1.27, [CI, 0.86–1.88]). In contrast, among those with GA ≤32 weeks, BW strabismus relative to BW >2000g (HR=14.4, [CI 1.99–104]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Independent of GA, very low BW conferred a large increase in strabismus risk among premature infants. In contrast, independent of BW, GA did not significantly impact the risk of strabismus. Updates to existing guidelines in the pediatric and ophthalmic literature should be considered, highlighting the importance of BW rather than GA and alerting clinicians about

  2. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-12-08

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women's lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women's health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant's intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child's health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother's lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother's mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with greater

  3. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  4. Fatores determinantes do crescimento infantil Determinant factors of infant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia de Azevedo Mello Romani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão enfoca os fatores que interferem no crescimento de crianças nos primeiros anos de vida. Foram utilizadas informações de artigos publicados em revistas científicas, teses e publicações de organizações internacionais. O crescimento infantil se constitui em um dos melhores indicadores de saúde da criança e o retardo estatural representa atualmente, a característica antropométrica mais representativa do quadro epidemiológico da desnutrição no Brasil. Ressaltando a importância do fator genético no crescimento, a revisão abrange com maior ênfase a atuação dos fatores extrínsecos, sabendo-se que o processo de crescimento resulta da interação entre a carga genética e os fatores do meio ambiente, os quais premitirão a maior ou menor expressão do potencial genético. Face a comprovada natureza multicausal do crescimento infantil, vários estudos têm sido desenvolvidos, buscando relacionar variáveis biológicas, socioeconômicas, maternas, ambientais, culturais, demográficas, nutricionais, entre outras, com a sua etiologia, seu desenvolvimento e sua manutenção. A revisão apresentada reforça o interesse em investigações sobre o crescimento na primeira infância que devem ser permanentes, devido, principalmente, às repercussões a longo prazo sobre a saúde infantil.This review focuses on factors interfering with growth during the first years of life. Information was collected from articles published in indexed scientific journals, theses, technical books and publications of international organizations. Infant growth is one of the best health indicators, and linear growth retardation is currently the most representative anthropometric characteristic of child nutrition epidemiology in Brazil. The review indicates the value of genetics in growth, focusing, however on the influence of the extrinsic factors. Growth process results from interaction between genetic and environmental factors, determining variation

  5. Is ambient temperature associated with risk of infant mortality? A multi-city study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-10-01

    Although numerous studies have shown increased risk of mortality from elevated temperatures for adults, limited studies have examined temperature's effect on mortality for infants. Our study investigated the city-specific and overall effects of ambient temperature on infant mortality in seven major cities in Korea, 2004-2007. Birth cohort using a linked birth and death records included 777,570 births with 557 all-cause deaths. We estimated city-specific hazard ratios for each city using an extended Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. Then we combined city-specific hazard ratios to generate overall hazard ratio across the seven cities using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Stratified analyses were conducted by cause of death (total and SIDS), exposure period (whole gestation, each trimester, lifetime, 1 month before death, and 2 weeks before death), sex, and maternal characteristics. Overall across the cities, we found significantly positive associations between ambient temperature during 1 month before death or 2 weeks before death and infant mortality from total or SIDS. The overall hazard ratio of infant mortality from total deaths and SIDS for a 1°C increase during 1 month before death was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.57) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.35-1.66), respectively. We also found suggestive evidence that some factors such as mother's age may modify the association. Our findings have implications for establishment of policy to reduce the risk of infant mortality from high ambient temperature under climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing Multiple Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lollis, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    ...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...

  7. Prevalence and obstetric risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that obstetric factors increase the risk of damage to the anal sphincter and subsequent development of AI.[4-6] These ... variations may impact on obstetric risk factors and AI prevalence. We therefore performed a study in our population, which .... Regulatory approvals. Institutional and hospital ethical approval were ...

  8. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  9. Triagem auditiva em hospital público de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil: deficiência auditiva e seus fatores de risco em neonatos e lactentes Hearing screening in a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: hearing impairment and risk factors in neonates and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oliveira Tiensoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar a prevalência de deficiência auditiva em crianças de hospital público de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e investigar sua associação com fatores de risco descritos na literatura. O estudo transversal, retrospectivo, analisou 798 neonatos e lactentes, avaliados no Programa de Triagem Auditiva Neonatal Universal entre junho de 2002 e dezembro de 2003. Foram pesquisados os fatores de risco estabelecidos pelo Joint Committee on Infant Hearing em 1994, e por Azevedo em 1996, além da prematuridade. A prevalência de deficiência auditiva foi de 1,8% (15 casos. Foi realizada análise multivariada por regressão logística para verificação da associação entre fatores de risco e perda auditiva, que revelou associação estatisticamente significativa (valor p The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing impairment in children in a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to investigate the association with risk factors described in the literature. This study was cross-sectional and retrospective and analyzed 798 newborns and infants evaluated in the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Program from June 2002 to December 2003. The risk factors established by the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing in 1994 and Azevedo in 1996 were studied, besides prematurity. Prevalence of hearing impairment was 1.8% (15 cases. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to verify associations between risk factors and hearing impairment, showing a significant statistical association (p < 0.05 between hearing loss and suspicion of hearing loss by relatives, hyperbilirubinemia (serum level requiring exchange transfusion, ototoxic drugs, and low birth weight. A significant prevalence of hearing impairment in neonates and infants was confirmed. Attention should thus be focused on risk factors for hearing impairment, using hearing programs that ensure prevention, early

  10. Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-11-01

    Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective.

  11. Positive Affect Processing and Joint Attention in Infants at High Risk for Autism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Alexandra P.; Ibanez, Lisa V.; Henderson, Heather A.; Warren, Zachary; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2015-01-01

    Few behavioral indices of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are present before 12 months, and potential biomarkers remain largely unexamined. This prospective study of infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 16) and low-risk comparison infants (n = 15) examined group differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing processing of…

  12. Intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants: associated risk factors and outcome in the neonatal period Hemorragia intracranianana: evolução dos recém-nascidos de baixo peso no período neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Catache Mancini

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is a severe complication in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns (NB. With the purpose of studying the incidence of IVH, the associated risk factors, and the outcomes for these neonates, we studied all the VLBW infants born in our neonatal unit. Birth weight, gestational age, presence of perinatal asphyxia, mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization, apnea crisis, hydrocephalus, and periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed. The diagnosis of IVH was based on ultrasound scan studies (Papile's classification performed until the tenth day of life and repeated weekly in the presence of abnormalities. Sixty-seven/101 neonates were studied. The mortality rate was 30.6% (31/101 and the incidence of IVH was 29.8% (20/67 : 70% grade I, 20% grade III and 10% grade IV. The incidence of IVH in NB A hemorragia intracraniana constituí uma grave complicação na evolução dos recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso (RN-MBP no período neonatal. Realizou-se este estudo, incluindo os recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso admitidos no Berçário Anexo à Maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, com o objetivo de determinar a incidência de hemorragia intracraniana (HIC, os fatores de risco associados e sua evolução no período neonatal. Foram analisados o peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, presença de asfixia neonatal, uso de ventilação mecânica, tempo de internação, presença de episódios de apnéia, hidrocefalia e leucoencefalomalácia. O diagnóstico de HIC baseou-se no exame ultra-sonográfico realizado até o décimo dia de vida, de acordo com a classificação de Papille. Foram admitidos no período 101 RN-MBP, dos quais 67 preencheram aos critérios de inclusão. A taxa de mortalidade do período foi de 30,6% (31/101 e a incidência de HIC foi de 29,8% (20/67, sendo 70% grau I, 20 grau II e 10% grau IV. A incidência de HIC em recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento menos do que 1000g foi de 53,8% (p

  13. Increased risk of severe infant anemia after exposure to maternal HAART, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Shapiro, Roger L; Hughes, Michael D; Powis, Kathleen; Ogwu, Anthony; Moffat, Claire; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

    2011-04-15

    Maternal highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission but may increase the risk for infant anemia. The incidence of first severe anemia (grade 3 or 4, Division of AIDS 2004 Toxicity Table) was assessed among HIV-uninfected infants in the Mashi and Mma Bana mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention trials in Botswana. Severe anemia rates were compared between 3 groups: infants exposed to maternal HAART in utero and during breastfeeding (BF) and 1 month of postnatal zidovudine (ZDV) (HAART-BF); infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 6 months of postnatal ZDV, and BF (ZDV-BF); and infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 1 month of postnatal ZDV, and formula-feeding (ZDV-FF). A total of 1719 infants were analyzed-691 HAART-BF, 503 ZDV-BF, and 525 ZDV-FF. Severe anemia was detected in 118 infants (7.4%). By 6 months, 12.5% of HAART-BF infants experienced severe anemia, compared with 5.3% of ZDV-BF (P infants (P infants were at greater risk of severe anemia than ZDV-BF or ZDV-FF infants (adjusted odds ratios 2.6 and 5.8, respectively; P anemias were asymptomatic and improved with iron/multivitamin supplementation and cessation of ZDV exposure. However, 11 infants (0.6% of all infants) required transfusion for symptomatic anemia. Microcytosis and hypochromia were common among infants with severe anemia. Exposure to maternal HAART starting in utero was associated with severe infant anemia. Confirmation of this finding and possible strategies to mitigate hematologic toxicity warrant further study.

  14. Breech preterm infants are at risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Teddy; Kent, Alison L; Carlisle, Hazel

    2013-08-01

    There is uncertainty about the risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in breech preterm infants and therefore uncertainty about the benefits of using ultrasound screening in this population. The aim of this study was to determine if preterm infants born in the breech position are at risk of DDH. A retrospective audit of preterm and term infants born in the breech position was performed to determine the incidence of DDH. Group 1 included breech preterm infants (positive or negative for DDH. Three out of 129 (2.3%) preterm infants screened had DDH. For term infants, 3 out of 163 (1.8%) infants screened had DDH. The odds ratio for DDH in breech preterm infants compared with breech term infants was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 0.25 to 6.40). Preterm infants born in the breech position appear to have a similar incidence of DDH to term infants and thus require similar screening guidelines. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in the Netherlands: birth prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.C. de; Korver, A.M.H.; Verkerk, P.H.; Rusman, L.; Claas, E.C.J.; Gerard, L.J.; Kroes, A.C.M.; Vossen, A.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital viral infection worldwide. The sequela encountered most frequently is hearing impairment, affecting approximately one out of five infants congenitally infected. Data on the birth prevalence and risk factors of congenital CMV

  16. Implementation of infants risk detection sensing system using IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youseok; Lee, Taeo; Lee, Yechan; Choi, Jaehyeon; Park, Eunju; Lim, Hankyu

    2017-06-01

    Infants are vulnerable to surrounding environment and they receive large influence from even a small change. As their body composition is not complete yet, infants receive huge impact from small pressure. Small change can cause disease or even death of infants. This paper designed and implemented a risk-detection system for infants. In addition to the fundamental function of safety management system, the risk-detection system implemented in this paper in corporate child-caring function by using a variety of sensors.

  17. Risk profiles of infants ≥32 weeks' gestational age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased NICU stay, increased chronological age, problematic breastfeeding and use of tube feeding showed an association with OPD. Three risk factors, namely intrauterine growth restriction, premature rupture of membranes and nutritive sucking difficulties were associated with OD. Conclusion. Risk profiles associated ...

  18. Infant toilet training in Thailand: starting and completion age and factors determining them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara

    2011-12-01

    To study the age at which Thai infants start and achieve toilet training and its associated factors. The parents of fifty infants in a research entitled "Bowel movements of normal Thai infants" were interviewed about age at which toilet training started, the process of toilet training and age at which infant successfully completed toilet training. Forty-seven infants from the 50 infants registered had data of the date of beginning toilet training. Five of them (10.6%) started toilet training at 4 months and 38 (80.9%) by 12 months. Most of the infants (73.7%) were initially trained when they showed urging signs. Only 45 infants had complete data of successful toilet training. Twenty-two cases (48.9%) were trained successfully by 12 months and most of them (16/22) succeeded within one month. The infants, who were not the first child and were taken care of by a well-educated mother, were found to start toilet training late. The youngest age at which normal Thai infants start to be toilet trained was 4 months. About 50% of the infants aged 12 months had successful toilet training. Being raised by a well-educated mother and a having a later birth order in a family were factors associated with late toilet training.

  19. The Development of Coordinated Communication in Infants at Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parladé, Meaghan V; Iverson, Jana M

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which developmental change in coordination of social communication in early infancy differentiates children eventually diagnosed with ASD from those not likely to develop the disorder. A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare nine infants at heightened risk for ASD (HR) later diagnosed with ASD, to 13 HR infants with language delay, 28 HR infants with no diagnosis, and 30 low risk infants. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that ASD infants exhibited significantly slower growth in coordinations overall and in gestures coordinated with vocalizations, even relative to HR infants with language delay. Disruption in the development of gesture-vocalization coordinations may result in negative cascading effects that adversely impact later social and linguistic development.

  20. Conflict or congruence? Maternal and infant-centric factors associated with shorter exclusive breastfeeding durations among the Tsimane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Melanie A; Garcia, Geni; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2016-12-01

    Six months of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is considered optimal for infant health, though globally most infants begin complementary feeding (CF) earlier-including among populations that practice prolonged breastfeeding. Two frameworks for understanding patterns of early CF emerge in the literature. In the first, maternal and infant needs trade-off, as "maternal-centric" factors-related to time and energy demands, reproductive investment, cultural influences, and structural barriers- favor supplanting breastfeeding with earlier and increased CF. A second framework considers that "infant-centric" factors-related to infant energetic needs-favor CF before six months to supplement breastfeeding. We apply these two frameworks in examining early CF among the Tsimane-a high-fertility, high-mortality, forager-horticulturalist population residing in the Bolivian Amazon. Data were collected from a mixed-longitudinal sample of 161 Tsimane mother-infant pairs from August 2012-April 2013. Tsimane mothers generally reported introducing CF because of perceived infant needs. However, CF is introduced with continued intensive breastfeeding, and generally coupled with premastication. Risks of earlier CF relative to the minimum hazard (estimated at 5 births) were elevated for lower and higher parity mothers, but were significantly greater only after 9 births. Seventeen percent of mothers reported introducing CF because of low milk supply. Introducing CF because of low milk was most common from 0 to 3 months of age and among higher parity mothers, which may reflect physiological constraints. Maternal reproductive trade-offs and perceived infant needs may help explain the low prevalence of EBF to six months among other populations in which breastfeeding is not structurally or culturally constrained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  2. The effect of sociodemographic factors on infant mortality according to cause of death: a birth cohort in Seoul, Korea, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status and demographic factors on infant mortality, classified by cause of death, in a group of children born in Seoul, Korea during 1999-2003. Linked infant birth and death data were collected from the Korea National Statistical Office. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors on infant mortality. The results were adjusted to take into account the infants' length of gestation and birth weight. Infant death rates from all causes tended to decrease as the parents' educational level increased. We observed a similar pattern for deaths from other specific causes. We also found higher mortality rates for mothers less than 20 years of age and over 35. Our analysis shows that socioeconomic and demographic factors affect infant mortality. In the case of postneonatal infant death, we confirmed that adequate follow-up care can reduce the risks of death from these acquired factors. This suggests that these are important factors to consider in reducing infant mortality.

  3. Exclusively breastfed overweight infants are at the same risk of childhood overweight as formula fed overweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Willik, E.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Altenburg, T.M.; Gademan, M.G.J.; van Holthe, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Several early life determinants play a role in childhood obesity. Rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy increases the risk while breast feeding seems to protect against childhood overweight. However, should we worry about exclusively breastfed overweight infants? The

  4. Factores de riesgo para el desarrollo psicomotor en lactantes nacidos en óptimas condiciones biológicas Risk factors for psychomotor development among infants born under optimal biological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidora de Andraca

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVO: Evaluar el efecto de factores de riesgo para el desarrollo infantil en niños, de nivel socioeconómico bajo, nacidos en óptimas condiciones biológicas pero expuestos a condiciones sociales adversas. METODOLOGÍA: Lactantes de ambos sexos em número de 788, fueron exhaustivamente estudiados en términos de: alimentación, crecimiento, ambiente físico y psicosocial. Se controlaron prospectivamente hasta los 12 meses de edad, momento en que se evaluó el desarrollo mental (MDI y motor (PDI a través de la escala de Bayley. A partir de las variables medidas se identificó 18 factores de riesgo, los que fueron dicotomizados (bajo y alto riesgo. RESULTADOS: Lactancia materna, temperamento del niño, inteligencia materna y estimulación en el hogar se asocian consistentemente con MDI y PDI. Luego de ajustar por covariables, la estimulación en el hogar persiste como factor significativo en la explicación de la variabilidad del MDI y PDI, en tanto que el sexo del niño se consolida como factor condicionante del desarrollo motor. El efecto acumulado de 7 o más factores de riesgo se asocia con una disminución significativa de los puntajes de desarrollo. La combinación de categorías de riesgo de temperamento infantil, inteligencia materna, rol del padre y estimulación en el hogar alcanza mejor predicción del desarrollo infantil que otras combinaciones puestas a prueba en este estudio. CONCLUSIONE: Se concluye que, aún en niños biológicamente indemnes, el desarrollo psicomotor se afecta negativamente ante la presencia de condiciones ambientales adversas que actúan simultáneamente.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito dos fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento infantil em crianças de n��vel socioeconômico baixo, nascidos em ótimas condições biológicas, mas expostos a condições sociais adversas. METODOLOGIA: Lactentes dos dois sexos, no total de 788, foram exaustivamente estudados quanto a alimentação, crescimento, ambiente f

  5. Risk factors for infant mortality in a municipality in southern Brazil: a comparison of two cohorts using hierarchical analysis Fatores de risco para mortalidade infantil em município do Sul do Brasil: comparação de duas coortes em análise hierarquizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Geremias dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compared risk factors for infant mortality in 2000-2001 and 2007-2008 in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Data on live births and infant deaths were linked in a single database, and a hierarchical regression model was used. Distal risk factors for infant mortality in 2000-2001 were maternal age Compararam-se fatores de risco para mortalidade infantil nos anos 2000/2001 e 2007/2008 em Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Dados sobre nascidos vivos e óbitos infantis foram vinculados em base de dados única, e usou-se análise de regressão em modelo hierárquico. No nível distal, foram de risco para mortalidade infantil, em 2000/2001, idade materna < 20 e ≥ 35 anos e escolaridade materna baixa. Em 2007/2008, idades maternas ≥ 35 e < 20 anos foram de risco, enquanto escolaridade baixa, protetora. Associaram-se à maior mortalidade infantil, no nível intermediário, em 2000/2001: gestação múltipla, filhos mortos e número insuficiente de consultas pré-natal, enquanto cesariana foi fator protetor. Em 2007/2008, apenas gestação múltipla foi de risco. Todos os fatores proximais associaram-se à maior mortalidade infantil em 2000/2001 e, em 2007/2008, apenas idade gestacional e Apgar no quinto minuto. Houve mudanças nos fatores de risco para a mortalidade infantil nos biênios analisados, o que pode estar relacionado à ampliação de políticas sociais e de ações básicas de saúde, e a modificações no padrão reprodutivo e social das mulheres.

  6. Variations in infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation programmes across Europe and factors influencing adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Uday

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional rickets is a growing global public health concern despite existing prevention programmes and health policies. We aimed to compare infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation policies, implementation strategies and practices across Europe and explore factors influencing adherence. Methods: European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Bone and Growth Plate Working Group members and other specialists completed a questionnaire on country-specific vitamin D supplementation policy and child health care programmes, socioeconomic factors, policy implementation strategies and adherence. Factors influencing adherence were assessed using Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficient. Results: Responses were received from 29 of 30 European countries (97%. Ninety-six per cent had national policies for infant vitamin D supplementation. Supplements are commenced on day 1–5 in 48% (14/29 of countries, day 6–21 in 48% (14/29; only the UK (1/29 starts supplements at 6 months. Duration of supplementation varied widely (6 months to lifelong in at-risk populations. Good (≥80% of infants, moderate (50–79% and low adherence (<50% to supplements was reported by 59% (17/29, 31% (9/29 and 10% (3/29 of countries, respectively. UK reported lowest adherence (5–20%. Factors significantly associated with good adherence were universal supplementation independent of feeding mode (P = 0.007, providing information at neonatal unit (NNU discharge (P = 0.02, financial family support (P = 0.005; monitoring adherence at surveillance visits (P = 0.001 and the total number of factors adopted (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Good adherence to supplementation is a multi-task operation that works best when parents are informed at birth, all babies are supplemented, and adherence monitoring is incorporated into child health surveillance visits. Implementation strategies matter for delivering efficient prevention policies.

  7. Enhanced Social Attention in Female Infant Siblings at Risk for Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne; Powell, Kelly; DiNicola, Lauren; Shic, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a well-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Females are four times less likely to be diagnosed with ASD than males and, when diagnosed, are more likely to exhibit comorbid anxiety symptoms. One of the key phenotypic features of ASD is atypical attention to socially relevant stimuli. Eye-tracking studies indicate atypical patterns of spontaneous social orienting during the prodromal and early syndromic stages of ASD. However, there have been no studies evaluating sex differences in early social orienting and their potential contribution to later outcomes. We examined sex differences in social orienting in 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old infants at high genetic risk for ASD (n = 101) and in low-risk controls (n = 61), focusing on neurobehavioral measures of function across a spectrum of autism risk. Results suggest that, between 6 and 12 months of age, a period highly consequential for the development of nonverbal social engagement competencies, high-risk females show enhanced attention to social targets, including faces, compared to both high-risk males and low-risk males and females. Greater attention to social targets in high-risk infants was associated with less severe social impairments at 2 years. The results suggest an alternative expression of autism risk in females, which manifests in infancy as increased attention toward socially relevant stimuli. This increased attention may serve as a female protective factor against ASD by providing increased access to social experiences in early development. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological and neurodevelopmental outcome of high risk newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calame, A; Reymond-Goni, I; Maherzi, M; Roulet, M; Marchand, C; Prod'hom, L S

    1976-12-01

    Among 142 high-risk-newborns, 111 could be regularly followed-up to 3 years of age. 79 (71%) are normal, 6 (5.5%) have minor neurological sequels, 9 (8.1%) have major neurological sequels, associated in 4 cases with mental deficiency, 16 (14.5%) have developmental abnormalities (speech delay, behavioral problems, perceptual-motor and praxis disturbances), and one mental deficiency without neurological sequels. Neonatal cerebral distress proved to be the most dangerous clinical situation with regard to the ultimate neurodevelopmental prognosis (73.6% of neurological sequels or developmental abnormalities). The presence of transient abnormalities of tone in the course of the first year of life was associated with ultimate developmental abnormalities in 33.3% of the cases. Social and cultural status seemed to play a role in the intellectual, linguistic and perceptual-motor performance of this group of infants. In spite of these encouraging results, the need for a systematic long term follow-up of high risk newborns is stressed, since neurological sequels and developmental abnormalities are approximately 4 times more frequent in this group than in a normal infantile population.

  9. Occupational risk factors for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, J; Heinonen, O P

    1992-01-01

    To investigate possible associations between cardiovascular malformations and maternal occupational exposure to various factors during the first trimester of pregnancy, 406 cases and 756 controls were studied retrospectively. The cases were taken from all infants diagnosed with cardiovascular malformations born in Finland during 1982 and 1983. The controls were randomly selected from all normal births in the country during the same period. All mothers were interviewed approximately 3 months after delivery by a midwife, using a structured questionnaire. Maternal overall exposure to chemicals at work was more prevalent among the case group (35.8%) than the control group (26.2%, P less than 0.01). Among the specific chemical groups, maternal exposure to dyes, lacquers, or paints was significantly associated with the risk of congenital heart disease. Exposure to organic solvents during the first trimester seemed to increase to risk of ventricular septal defect (P less than 0.05). Work at video display terminals was slightly more prevalent among the case group (6.3%) than among the control group (5.0%). The mothers' education level, regular exposure to passive smoking at work, or temperature at the workplace were not risk factors for congenital heart disease in the offspring, neither was maternal exposure to microwave ovens, disinfectants, pesticides, or anesthetic gases. It is concluded that many maternal exposures at work seem not to have a teratogenic effect on the fetal heart, although the limited power of this investigation needs to be borne in mind.

  10. Atypical cry acoustics in 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Iverson, Jana M; Rinaldi, Melissa L; Lester, Barry M

    2012-10-01

    This study examined differences in acoustic characteristics of infant cries in a sample of babies at risk for autism and a low-risk comparison group. Cry samples derived from vocal recordings of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 21) and low-risk infants (n = 18) were subjected to acoustic analyses using analysis software designed for this purpose. Cries were categorized as either pain-related or non-pain-related based on videotape coding. At-risk infants produced pain-related cries with higher and more variable fundamental frequency (F (0) ) than low-risk infants. At-risk infants later classified with ASD at 36 months had among the highest F (0) values for both types of cries and produced cries that were more poorly phonated than those of nonautistic infants, reflecting cries that were less likely to be produced in a voiced mode. These results provide preliminary evidence that disruptions in cry acoustics may be part of an atypical vocal signature of autism in early life. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Predictive Factors for Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Theophylline for Extubation in Infants with Apnea of Prematurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kondo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors involved in efficacy and safety in Japanese infants who received theophylline therapy to prevent apnea of prematurity (AOP after weaning from mechanical ventilation.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants who were administered intravenous aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine for AOP at the neonatal intensive care unit, Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, between January 2009 and June 2013.A total of 100 infants were evaluated as two separate groups in terms of efficacy and safety of theophylline. Sixty-seven (67.0% infants had effective theophylline therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age at birth was significant, with an odds ratio of 0.59 (p < 0.001. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off value was 31.1 weeks old for predicting the efficacy of theophylline (specificity, 66.7%; sensitivity, 86.6%; p < 0.001; area under the curve, 0.750; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.74. Adverse reactions were identified in 21 (21.0% infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the number of days of theophylline administration from birth was associated with an increased risk of adverse reactions after theophylline administration (p = 0.01.Physicians need to be aware of the possibility that theophylline fails to produce therapeutic effects for extubation in infants aged less than 31.1 weeks old, and adverse reactions can easily develop when theophylline is administered soon after birth.

  12. Predictive Factors for Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Theophylline for Extubation in Infants with Apnea of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoko; Kondo, Yuki; Orita, Yuji; Mitarai, Fumi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Shimodozono, Yoshihiro; Douchi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Yasuo; Irie, Tetsumi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors involved in efficacy and safety in Japanese infants who received theophylline therapy to prevent apnea of prematurity (AOP) after weaning from mechanical ventilation. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants who were administered intravenous aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine) for AOP at the neonatal intensive care unit, Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, between January 2009 and June 2013. A total of 100 infants were evaluated as two separate groups in terms of efficacy and safety of theophylline. Sixty-seven (67.0%) infants had effective theophylline therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gestational age at birth was significant, with an odds ratio of 0.59 (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off value was 31.1 weeks old for predicting the efficacy of theophylline (specificity, 66.7%; sensitivity, 86.6%; p < 0.001; area under the curve, 0.750; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.74). Adverse reactions were identified in 21 (21.0%) infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the number of days of theophylline administration from birth was associated with an increased risk of adverse reactions after theophylline administration (p = 0.01). Physicians need to be aware of the possibility that theophylline fails to produce therapeutic effects for extubation in infants aged less than 31.1 weeks old, and adverse reactions can easily develop when theophylline is administered soon after birth.

  13. Risk of cardio-respiratory abnormalities in preterm infants placed in car seats: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the factors that predispose to the occurrence and severity of cardio-respiratory symptoms during the placement of a prematurely born infant in a car seat. The impact of gestational age, weight at discharge and infant's pre-existing cardio-respiratory status (in the supine position on cardio-respiratory function during pre-discharge testing in a car seat (semi-upright position has not been investigated. Methods The cardio-respiratory function of 42 preterm neonates with gestational age 24 to 35 weeks and discharge weight 1790 to 2570 grams were monitored for 45 minutes before, during, and after placement in a car seat. The occurrence of periodic breathing, apnea, bradycardia, or decreased oxygen saturation (SaO2 was analyzed. Results Prior to the car seat testing, 15 (35.7% infants displayed one or more abnormalities of cardio-respiratory function. During the car seat testing, 25 (59.6% infants had periodic breathing, 33 (78.2% had oxygen saturation Conclusion Pre-discharge testing of the cardio-respiratory function of preterm infants during placement in a car seat is important for the prevention of cardio-respiratory symptoms during their transportation. However, the high risk for developing cardio-respiratory symptoms will require the consideration of an alternative mode of safe home transportation for preterm infants; especially those with a discharge weight less than 2,000 grams.

  14. Increased Risk of Severe Infant Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Shapiro, Roger L.; Hughes, Michael D.; Powis, Kathleen; Ogwu, Anthony; Moffat, Claire; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), but may increase the risk for infant anemia. Methods The incidence of first severe anemia (Grade 3 or 4, Division of AIDS 2004 Toxicity Table) was assessed among HIV-uninfected infants in the Mashi and Mma Bana MTCT prevention trials in Botswana. Severe anemia rates were compared between 3 groups: infants exposed to maternal HAART in utero and during breastfeeding and 1 month of postnatal zidovudine (HAART-BF); infants exposed to maternal zidovudine (ZDV) in utero, 6 months of postnatal ZDV, and breastfeeding (ZDV-BF); and infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 1 month of postnatal ZDV, and formula-feeding (ZDV-FF). Results A total of 1719 infants were analyzed— 691 HAART-BF, 503 ZDV-BF, and 525 ZDV-FF. Severe anemia was detected in 118 infants (7.4%). By 6 months, 12.5% of HAART-BF infants experienced severe anemia, compared with 5.3% of ZDV-BF (Pinfants (Pinfants were at greater risk of severe anemia than ZDV-BF or ZDV-FF infants (adjusted odds ratios 2.6 and 5.8, respectively; P anemias were asymptomatic and improved with iron/multivitamin supplementation and cessation of ZDV exposure. However, 11 infants (0.6% of all infants) required transfusion for symptomatic anemia. Microcytosis and hypochromia were common among infants with severe anemia. Conclusions Exposure to maternal HAART starting in utero was associated with severe infant anemia. Confirmation of this finding and possible strategies to mitigate hematologic toxicity warrant further study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197587 and NCT00270296. PMID:21266910

  15. Motion Tracking of Infants in Risk of Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard

    Every year 2-3 out of 1000 infants are born with cerebral cerebral palsy. Among others, the disorder often affects motor, cognitive and perceptual skills. The disorder is usually detected when the infants are old enough the crawl and walk, i.e. when the infant is 1-2 years old. However, studies......, where the first method is able to do single frame pose estimation, based on simple assumptions on the infant’s body. The second method uses an articulated model that incorporates anatomical constraints. Combining the two methods results in a robust motion tracking system for infants. The results from...

  16. [Influential factors of iron deficient anemia among infants aged 8 months based on a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Yan, Yan; Xiang, Shiting; Li, Hongyan; Tan, Shan; He, Qiong; Sha, Tingting; Liu, Shiping; Zeng, Guangyu; Yan, Qiang

    2017-02-28

    To study the status and influential factors of iron deficient anemia (IDA) among infants aged 8 months in Changsha City.
 Methods: A case-control study was performed in this research. The case group including 105 8-month-old infants definitely diagnosed as IDA based on standardized blood test. Four-times numbers of age- and genger-matched infants without IDA were selected as a control group. Chi-square test and conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the influential factors for IDA.
 Results: The incidence rate of IDA among infants aged 8 months in Changsha City was 14.7%. The risk factors were as follows: mother with anemia in late pregnancy (OR=3.540, 95% CI 1.898 to 6.601), mixed feeding within 6 months old (OR=1.682, 95% CI 1.099 to 2.574), artificial feeding within 6 months old (OR=4.162, 95% CI 1.343 to 12.896), complementary feeding before 6 months old (OR=1.423, 95% CI 1.022 to 1.982), complementary feeding at or after 7 months old (OR=4.415, 95% CI 2.150 to 9.064), recurrent respiratory tract infections within 8 months old (OR=2.878, 95% CI 1.224 to 6.764), and repeated diarrhea within 8 months old (OR=3.710, 95% CI 1.533 to 8.980).
 Conclusion: There is certain incidence rate of IDA among infants aged 8 months in Changsha City. To prevent the IDA among infants, we should treat mothers' anemia during pregnancy, advocate scientific feeding, encourage complete breastfeeding until 6 months old, add complementary food timely and reasonably, treat infants suffering from respiratory or digestive diseases actively.

  17. A risk model for congenital syphilis in infants born to mothers with syphilis treated in gestation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-Bo; Hong, Fu-Chang; Pan, Peng; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Fan; Cai, Yu-Mao; Wen, Li-Zhang; Lai, Yong-Hui; Lin, Li-Jun; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2010-08-01

    To explore the risk factors underlying congenital syphilis (CS) and to build a hazards model to assess the risk of CS in offspring born to mothers with syphilis treated in gestation. This prospective study observed 554 pregnant women with syphilis and their offspring recruited from August 2002 to May 2007 in Shenzhen Centre for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention. After treatment, all the women were followed up until the diagnosis of CS in their offspring was confirmed or denied. Comparisons were made between women bearing infants with CS and women bearing infants without CS to reveal the risk factors for CS. ORs and their 95% CI were calculated for each risk factor by using logistical regression analysis. Twenty-nine (5.2%) infants were diagnosed with CS. Univariable analyses showed that the reciprocal logarithm of the titre of non-treponemal antibodies in mothers (log (1/T); OR=11.18, pgestational week (GW) at treatment (OR=1.10, psyphilis during antenatal care may be the only effective method to decrease the risk of CS.

  18. Single-dose benzathine penicillin in infants at risk of congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... benzathine penicillin G in infants at high risk of congenital syphilis. Design. Randomised study comparing benzathine penicillin with no therapy. Setting. Peninsula Maternal and Neonatal Service, Cape. Town. Subjects. Asymptomatic infants born to mothers with untreated syphilis whose VORl titre was 32 ...

  19. Swaddling and the Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pease, A.S.; Fleming, P.J.; Hauck, F.R.; Moon, R.Y.; Horne, R.S.; Hoir, M.P. L; Ponsonby, A.L.; Blair, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Swaddling is a traditional practice of wrapping infants to promote calming and sleep. Although the benefits and risks of swaddling in general have been studied, the practice in relation to sudden infant death syndrome remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to conduct an

  20. Knee jerk responses in infants at high risk for cerebral palsy: an observational EMG study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, E.G.; Dijkstra, L.J.; Hooijsma, S.J.; Zijdewind, I.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following our clinical observation of tonic responses in response to the knee jerk in infants at very high risk for cerebral palsy (VHR infants), we systematically studied tonic responses, clonus, and reflex irradiation. We questioned (i) whether these responses occurred more often in

  1. Reduced occurrence of early atopic dermatitis because of immunoactive prebiotics among low-atopy-risk infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grueber, Christoph; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Mosca, Fabio; Moro, Guido; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Wahn, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most infants developing atopic dermatitis have a low risk for atopy. Primary prevention of atopic dermatitis is difficult. Objective: To assess the effect of supplementation of an infant and follow-on formula with prebiotic and immunoactive oligosaccharides on the occurrence of atopic

  2. Household Food Security Status Is Associated with Anemia Risk at Age 18 Months among Low-Income Infants in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Colchamiro, Rachel; Edelstein, Sari; Siu, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity and anemia are prevalent among low-income families and infants. Anemia may reflect iron deficiency anemia (IDA) risk. IDA in infancy and early childhood may have long-lasting developmental effects. Few studies have examined food security status (FSS) as a risk factor for anemia. To examine the association between household FSS, sociodemographic and health-related variables, and anemia incidence at age 18 months among low-income infants in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (MA/WIC). This was a longitudinal study using data from MA/WIC (August 2001 to November 2009) to assess the relationship between household FSS during the 12 months preceding the 1-year visit (age 9 to 15 months) and anemia at age 18 months. Infants included were not anemic at age 12 months and had complete data on household FSS and the following covariates (N=17,831): race/Hispanic ethnicity, maternal education, breastfeeding duration, household size, and child age. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between household FSS during the prior 12 months and anemia at 18 months, controlling for infant age, sex, and race/Hispanic ethnicity, breastfeeding, maternal education, and household size. A majority of infants (56%) were nonwhite, and 19.9% lived in food-insecure households (4.8% in very-low food security). Of the infants who were not anemic at age 12 months, 11.7% became anemic by age 18 months. Infants living in low-food-secure households were 42% more likely (adjusted odds ratio 1.42, 95% CI, 1.27-1.60) to develop anemia at age 18 months than were their food-secure counterparts. Nonwhite race, higher household size, and lower maternal education were also associated with an elevated risk of anemia at age 18 months. Low food security appears to be associated with a significant increased risk of anemia, as do nonwhite ethnicity, lower maternal education, and larger household size. Knowledge of

  3. Factors associated with the time to the first wheezing episode in infants: a cross-sectional study from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Gonzalez, Rosa M; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L P; Perez-Fernandez, Virginia; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2016-01-21

    Male gender, asthmatic heredity, perinatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory infections have been associated with wheeze in the first years of life, among other risk factors. However, information about what factors modify the time to the first episode of wheeze in infants is lacking. The present study analyses which factors are associated with shorter time to the first episode of wheeze in infants. Parents of 11- to 24-month-old children were surveyed when attending their health-care centres for a control visit. They answered a questionnaire including the age in months when a first wheeze episode (if any) had occurred (outcome variable). The study was performed in 14 centres in Latin America (LA) and in 8 centres in Europe (EU) (at least 1,000 infants per centre). Factors known to be associated with wheezing in the cohort were included in a survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). Summary hazard ratios adjusted for all risk factors (aHR) were calculated using the meta-analysis approach with random effects. A total of 15,067 infants had experienced wheezing at least once, out of 35,049 surveyed. Male gender in LA (aHR 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.10, P=0.047), parental asthma in LA and EU (aHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.11, P=0.037), infant eczema in EU (aHR 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.39, P<0.001) and having a cold during the first 3 months in LA and EU (aHR 1.97, 95% CI 1.90-2.04, P<0.001), in LA (aHR 1.98, 95% CI 1.90-2.06, P<0.001) and in EU (aHR 1.91, 95% CI 1.75-2.09, P<0.001) were associated with a shorter period of time to the first episode. Breast feeding for at least 3 months was associated with a longer period, only in LA (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.96, P<0.001). Cold symptoms during the first 3 months is the most consistent factor shortening the time to the first episode of wheezing; breast feeding for ⩾3 months delays it only in LA, whereas eczema shortens it only in EU. Avoiding a common cold in the first months of life could be a good

  4. Maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting poses risk for infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M; Su, Jinni; Calkins, Susan D; O'Brien, Marion; Supple, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    The extent to which indices of maternal physiological arousal (skin conductance augmentation) and regulation (vagal withdrawal) while parenting predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems directly or indirectly via maternal sensitivity was examined in a sample of 259 mothers and their infants. Two covariates, maternal self-reported emotional risk and Adult Attachment Interview attachment coherence were assessed prenatally. Mothers' physiological arousal and regulation were measured during parenting tasks when infants were 6 months old. Maternal sensitivity was observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were 6 and 14 months old, and an average sensitivity score was calculated. Attachment disorganization was observed during the Strange Situation when infants were 14 months old, and mothers reported on infants' behavior problems when infants were 27 months old. Over and above covariates, mothers' arousal and regulation while parenting interacted to predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems such that maternal arousal was associated with higher attachment disorganization and behavior problems when maternal regulation was low but not when maternal regulation was high. This effect was direct and not explained by maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting places infants at risk for psychopathology.

  5. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  6. Iron Supplements for Infants at Risk for Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna C. MacQueen MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Professional societies have published recommendations for iron dosing of preterm neonates, but differences exist between guidelines. To help develop standardized guidelines, we performed a 10-year analysis of iron dosing in groups at risk for iron deficiency: IDM (infants of diabetic mothers, SGA (small for gestational age, and VLBW premature neonates (very low birth weight, <1500 g. We analyzed iron dosing after red cell transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA. Of IDM, 11.8% received iron in the hospital; 9.8% of SGA and 27.1% of VLBW neonates received iron. Twenty percent of those who received iron had it started by day 14; 63% by 1 month. Supplemental iron was stopped after red cell transfusions in 73% of neonates receiving iron. An ESA was administered to 1677, of which 33% received iron within 3 days. This marked variation indicates that a consistent approach is needed, and using this report and a literature review, we standardized our iron-dosing guidelines.

  7. Infants Investigated by the Child Welfare System: Exploring a Distinct Profile of Risks, Service Needs, and Referrals for Support in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, Joanne; Fallon, Barbara; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Trocmé, Nico

    2017-08-12

    The science of early childhood development underscores that maltreatment and other adversities experienced during infancy heightens the risk for poor developmental and socio-emotional outcomes. Referrals to supportive services by the child welfare system are particularly critical during infancy given the rapidity of brain development and infants' sensitivity to their environment. The main objectives of the current study are to: (1) examine age-specific differences in clinical and case characteristics; (2) determine the factors associated with the service referral decision involving infants; and (3) explore the types of services families have been referred to at the conclusion of a maltreatment-related investigation. Using data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect for 2013, descriptive analyses were conducted, as was a logistic regression to identify factors associated with the decision to refer families of infants to supportive services. Overall, the findings reveal that the profile of infants and their families differs distinctly from those of older children with respect to risks, service needs, and service referrals, although this is rarely reflected in child welfare practice and policy. Investigations involving infants were most likely to have a referral made to supportive services, least likely to have an infant functioning concern identified; most likely to have a primary caregiver risk factor identified; and, the greatest likelihood of experiencing economic hardship. Multiple risks, identified for the primary caregiver of the infant are correlated to referral decisions for infants. However, the needs of the infant are likely under-identified and require cross-sectorial collaboration.

  8. Proportion of neural tube defects attributable to known risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Tinker, Sarah C; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Recognized risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs) poorly predict population-level NTD risk. However, the proportion of NTDs that can be attributed to these risk factors is uncertain. To determine the proportion of NTD cases that is attributable to known or suspected risk factors (i.e., female infant sex, family history of NTDs, and maternal Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, pregestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, low dietary folate intake, lack of folic acid supplementation, anticonvulsant use, and hot tub or sauna use), we estimated the adjusted population attributable fraction (aAF) for each factor, using the method of Eide and Geffler and data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Our analyses of these data indicate that the proportion of cases of spina bifida and anencephaly that can be attributed to known risk factors is 28% and 44%, respectively. For spina bifida, the factor with the greatest attributable fraction was maternal obesity (aAF, 10%), whereas for anencephaly it was Hispanic ethnicity (aAF, 15%). Our analyses indicate that known risk factors account for <50% of NTD cases. Hence, the majority of NTD cases are attributable to, as yet, unidentified factors. These findings highlight the need for continued research to identify genetic and additional nongenetic risk factors for NTDs. Further, these findings suggest that strategies that aim to reduce the risk of NTDs associated with maternal Hispanic ethnicity and obesity may have the greatest impact on the population prevalence of these conditions.

  9. Risk factors and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Jusufović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between risk factors and diabetic retinopathy, which is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries for patients aged 20 to 65.We compared risk factors between patients without retinopathy, with non-proliferate and with proliferate retinopathy (p< 0.05. Duration of diabetes is most important for the development of retinopathy. Hyperglycaemia and high blood pressure are important for progression. Better control of blood sugar and elevated blood pressure can reduce progression of retinopathy and riskof vision loss.

  10. Brief Report: Assessment of Early Sensory Processing in Infants at High-Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germani, Tamara; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Roncadin, Caroline; Sacrey, Lori Ann R.; Garon, Nancy; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed sensory processing differences between 24-month infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), each with an older sibling with ASD, and low-risk infants with no family history of ASD. Sensory processing differences were assessed using the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile, a parent-reported measure. Groups were compared…

  11. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, Camila de Andrade [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Stein, Airton Tetelbom [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupo Hospitalar Conceição (GHC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%), which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  12. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Andrade Brum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. Objective: To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. Methods: This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Results: Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%, which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. Conclusion: It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  13. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brum, Camila de Andrade; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%), which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality

  14. Growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high vs. low risk for abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapala, Matthew A.; Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Growth recovery lines, also known as growth arrest lines, are transverse radiodense metaphyseal bands that develop due to a temporary arrest of endochondral ossification caused by local or systemic insults. To determine if growth recovery lines are more common in infants at high risk versus low risk for abuse. Reports of American College of Radiology compliant skeletal surveys (1999-2013) were reviewed with clinical records. Infants at low risk for abuse had a skull fracture without significant intracranial injury, history of a fall and clinical determination of low risk (child protection team/social work assessment). Infants at high risk had significant intracranial injury, retinal hemorrhages, other skeletal injuries and clinical determination of high risk. There were 52 low-risk infants (mean: 4.7 months, range: 0.4-12 months) and 21 high-risk infants (mean: 4.2 months, range: 0.8-9.1 months). Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the skeletal survey radiographs of the knees/lower legs for the presence of at least one growth recovery line. When growth recovery lines are scored as probably present or definitely present, their prevalence in the low-risk group was 38% (standard deviation [SD] = 8%; reader 1 = 17/52, reader 2 = 23/52) vs. 71% (SD = 7%; reader 1 = 16/21, reader 2 = 14/21) in the high-risk group (P < 0.001; odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI: 1.7-9.5). Growth recovery lines are encountered at a significantly higher rate in infants at high risk vs. low risk for abuse. This suggests that abused infants are prone to a temporary disturbance in endochondral ossification as a result of episodic physiological stresses. (orig.)

  15. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    focusing on risk factors, catch up and neonatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of IUGR neonates with a birth weight below 70% of the expected whose mothers were admitted to the Neonatal Ward at Hvidovre Hospital during 2007-2009. Obstetrical and maternal risk...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24......%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  16. Fatores de risco e proteção à infecção respiratória aguda em lactentes Factores de riesgo y protección de la infección respiratoria aguda en lactantes Risk and protective factors of acute respiratory infections in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Cachulo Lopes

    2009-12-01

    embarazo (n=42, y el tercero la recibía en el posparto inmediato (n=45. Las infecciones presumiblemente causadas por el pneumococo en los lactantes fueron acompañadas a los tres y seis meses de vida y colectadas muestras de nasofaringe. Fueron investigados factores de riesgo como: fumadores en el domicilio, otros niños en el domicilio y amamantamiento materno exclusivo. RESULTADOS: La vacuna pneumocóccica polisacarídica no mostró protección contra infecciones causadas por pneumococo. Sin embargo, el amamantamiento materno exclusivo hasta los seis meses protegió los lactantes contra las infecciones respiratorias (OR=7,331. La colonización de la nasofaringe por pneumococo a los tres o seis meses aumentó la probabilidad de infecciones respiratorias (OR=2,792. CONCLUSIONES: Lactantes amamantados exclusivamente con leche materna hasta los seis meses son significativamente protegidos contra infecciones por pneumococos, independientemente de la vacunación pneumocóccica.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of maternal pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the risk and protective factors for acute respiratory infections in infants. METHODS: Nested cross-sectional study of a clinical trial evaluating children of 139 women selected in a public prenatal care unit in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from 2005 to 2006. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: non-immunized (n=46; immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in the last trimester of pregnancy (n=42; and immunized with the vaccine immediately after childbirth (n=45. Infants were followed up for infections presumably caused by pneumococcus at the age of three and six months and nasopharyngeal samples were collected. Risk factors such as smokers living in the same household, siblings and exclusive maternal breastfeeding were investigated. RESULTS: The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine did not provide protection against pneumococcus infections. However, exclusive maternal

  17. Can Alberta infant motor scale and milani comparetti motor development screening test be rapid alternatives to bayley scales of infant development-II at high-risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Hosbay Yildirim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main object of the present study is to assess neuromotor development of high-risk infants by using three tests, and to determine inter-test concordance and the feasibility of these tests. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and nine patients aged between 0 and 6 months and identified as "high-risk infant" according to the Kliegman′s criteria were enrolled to the study. Three different tests were used to assess neuromotor development of the patients: Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II, Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS, and Milani Comparetti Motor Development Screening Test (MCMDST. Results: Correlation analysis was performed between pure scores of BSID-II motor scale and total scores of AIMS. These two tests were highly correlated (r:0.92. Moderate concordance was found between BSID-II and AIMS (k:0.35. Slight concordance was found between BSID-II and MCMDST; and the concordance was slight again for AIMS and MCMDST (k:0.11 and k:0.16, respectively too. Conclusion: AIMS has a high correlation and consistency with BSID-II and can be used with routine neurological examination as it is based on observations, has few items, and requires less time to complete.

  18. Can Alberta infant motor scale and milani comparetti motor development screening test be rapid alternatives to bayley scales of infant development-II at high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Zeynep Hoşbay; Aydınlı, Nur; Ekici, Barış; Tatlı, Burak; Calişkan, Mine

    2012-07-01

    The main object of the present study is to assess neuromotor development of high-risk infants by using three tests, and to determine inter-test concordance and the feasibility of these tests. One-hundred and nine patients aged between 0 and 6 months and identified as "high-risk infant" according to the Kliegman's criteria were enrolled to the study. Three different tests were used to assess neuromotor development of the patients: Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II), Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS), and Milani Comparetti Motor Development Screening Test (MCMDST). Correlation analysis was performed between pure scores of BSID-II motor scale and total scores of AIMS. These two tests were highly correlated (r:0.92). Moderate concordance was found between BSID-II and AIMS (k:0.35). Slight concordance was found between BSID-II and MCMDST; and the concordance was slight again for AIMS and MCMDST (k:0.11 and k:0.16, respectively) too. AIMS has a high correlation and consistency with BSID-II and can be used with routine neurological examination as it is based on observations, has few items, and requires less time to complete.

  19. The effect of hypo-allergenic formulas in infants at risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Jacobsen, H P; Høst, A

    1995-01-01

    to tobacco smoke is found to be associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing/asthma and inhalant allergy. In infants with atopic predisposition (first-degree relatives), exclusively breastfeeding > or = four months is found associated with a significant reduction of the cumulative prevalence...... of cow's milk. Some high risk infants may benefit from maternal diet during lactation, but there is no documented beneficial effect of maternal diet during pregnancy....

  20. Infants with prenatally diagnosed kidney anomalies have an increased risk of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Andersen, René F

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study estimated the urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in a nationwide cohort of infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies compared with a comparison cohort. METHODS: A Danish population-based nationwide cohort of foetuses diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies...... prenatally diagnosed co-occurring urinary tract malformations. The corresponding risk in the 4074 controls was 1%. After two years, mortality was 2.2% in infants with prenatally diagnosed parenchymal kidney anomalies and 0.2% in the controls. CONCLUSION: Infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney...

  1. Detecting Risk Factor of Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1/2 (1995), s. 203-212 ISSN 0208-5216. [Seminar on Statistics and Clinical Practice. Warsaw, 20.06.1994-23.06.1994] Keywords : risk factors * genetics * association * epidemilogy * measures of association * screening * genetics

  2. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  3. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  4. Place of Residence Moderates the Risk of Infant Death in Kenya: Evidence from the Most Recent Census 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebner, Oliver; Lautenbach, Sven; Khan, M M H; Kipruto, Samuel; Epprecht, Michael; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in reducing childhood mortality worldwide from 1990-2015 (Millennium Development Goal, target 4). Achieving target goals on this however remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya's infant mortality rates are higher than the global average and are more pronounced in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Only limited knowledge exists about the differences in individual level risk factors for infant death among rural, non-slum urban, and slum areas in Kenya. Therefore, this paper aims at 1) assess individual and socio-ecological risk factors for infant death in Kenya, and at 2) identify whether living in rural, non-slum urban, or slum areas moderated individual or socio-ecological risk factors for infant death in Kenya. We used a cross-sectional study design based on the most recent Kenya Population and Housing Census of 2009 and extracted the records of all females who had their last child born in 12 months preceding the survey (N = 1,120,960). Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify risk factors that accounted for the risk of dying before the age of one at the individual level in Kenya. Place of residence (rural, non-slum urban, slum) was used as an interaction term to account for moderating effects in individual and socio-ecological risk factors. Individual characteristics of mothers and children (older age, less previously born children that died, better education, girl infants) and household contexts (better structural quality of housing, improved water and sanitation, married household head) were associated with lower risk for infant death in Kenya. Living in non-slum urban areas was associated with significantly lower infant death as compared to living in rural or slum areas, when all predictors were held at their reference levels. Moreover, place of residence was significantly moderating individual level predictors: As compared to rural areas, living in urban areas was a protective factor for mothers

  5. Place of Residence Moderates the Risk of Infant Death in Kenya: Evidence from the Most Recent Census 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gruebner

    Full Text Available Substantial progress has been made in reducing childhood mortality worldwide from 1990-2015 (Millennium Development Goal, target 4. Achieving target goals on this however remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya's infant mortality rates are higher than the global average and are more pronounced in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Only limited knowledge exists about the differences in individual level risk factors for infant death among rural, non-slum urban, and slum areas in Kenya. Therefore, this paper aims at 1 assess individual and socio-ecological risk factors for infant death in Kenya, and at 2 identify whether living in rural, non-slum urban, or slum areas moderated individual or socio-ecological risk factors for infant death in Kenya.We used a cross-sectional study design based on the most recent Kenya Population and Housing Census of 2009 and extracted the records of all females who had their last child born in 12 months preceding the survey (N = 1,120,960. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify risk factors that accounted for the risk of dying before the age of one at the individual level in Kenya. Place of residence (rural, non-slum urban, slum was used as an interaction term to account for moderating effects in individual and socio-ecological risk factors.Individual characteristics of mothers and children (older age, less previously born children that died, better education, girl infants and household contexts (better structural quality of housing, improved water and sanitation, married household head were associated with lower risk for infant death in Kenya. Living in non-slum urban areas was associated with significantly lower infant death as compared to living in rural or slum areas, when all predictors were held at their reference levels. Moreover, place of residence was significantly moderating individual level predictors: As compared to rural areas, living in urban areas was a protective factor

  6. Factors associated to infant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Viguera Ester

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Half of the 10 million children who die annually in the world are from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The reasons are known, but lack of will and resources avoid the development of sustainable policies. Associated factors to the high infant mortality rate (IMR in SSA have been investigated in this research. An ecological multi-group study was designed comparing rates within SSA. The dependent variable is the IMR and health services, economic and development indicators are the independent variables. Information and data sources were WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP (1997-2007. IMR mean value is 92.2 (per 1000 live births and a relationship with several of the factors could be observed. In the bi-variate analysis direct relationship was observed with maternal mortality rate and an inverse relationship was observed with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, gross national income per capita, per capita government expenditure on health, social security expenditure, adult literacy rate, net primary school enrolment rate, population with access to safe drinking water (in urban and rural areas and with population with access to basic sanitation in rural areas. In the multi-variate analysis IMR had an inverse relationship with children under 5 years with diarrhoea who receive oral re-hydration, with social security expenditure as percentage of general government expenditure on health and with per capita government expenditure on health. The situation in SSA would change if their inhabitants received education and information to demand more equitable polices and better investments from their governments.

  7. Factors associated to infant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Pablo Viguera; Torres, Alberto; Freire, José M; Hernández, Valentín; Gil, Ángel

    2011-09-05

    Half of the 10 million children who die annually in the world are from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The reasons are known, but lack of will and resources avoid the development of sustainable policies. Associated factors to the high infant mortality rate (IMR) in SSA have been investigated in this research. An ecological multi-group study was designed comparing rates within SSA. The dependent variable is the IMR and health services, economic and development indicators are the independent variables. Information and data sources were WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP (1997-2007). IMR mean value is 92.2 (per 1000 live births) and a relationship with several of the factors could be observed. In the bi-variate analysis direct relationship was observed with maternal mortality rate and an inverse relationship was observed with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, gross national income per capita, per capita government expenditure on health, social security expenditure, adult literacy rate, net primary school enrolment rate, population with access to safe drinking water (in urban and rural areas) and with population with access to basic sanitation in rural areas. In the multi-variate analysis IMR had an inverse relationship with children under 5 years with diarrhoea who receive oral re-hydration, with social security expenditure as percentage of general government expenditure on health and with per capita government expenditure on health. The situation in SSA would change if their inhabitants received education and information to demand more equitable polices and better investments from their governments.

  8. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors; risk estimationwas based on the odds ratio (95% confidence interval; a bi-variantmultivariate regression logistic analysis was applied to variables forp < 0.1. Results: Of 818 babies born during the studied period, 94(11% had jaundice prior to hospital discharge. Phototherapy was usedon 69 (73% patients. Predictive factors for severity were multiparity;prolonged rupture of membranes, dystocia, cephalohematoma, a lowApgar score, prematurity and small-for-date babies. Following birth,breastfeeding, sepsis, Rh incompatibility, and jaundice presentingbefore the third day of life were associated with an increased risk ofhyperbilirubinemia and the need for therapy. Conclusion: Other thanthose characteristics that are singly associated with phototherapy,we concluded that multiparity, presumed neonatal asphyxia, low birthweight and infection are the main predictive factors leading to moderateand severe jaundice in newborn infants in our neonatal unit.

  9. The economics of screening infants at risk of hearing impairment: an international analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Martyn J; Shenton, Ruth C; Taylor, Matthew J

    2012-02-01

    Hearing impairment in children across the world constitutes a particularly serious obstacle to their optimal development and education, including language acquisition. Around 0.5-6 in every 1000 neonates and infants have congenital or early childhood onset sensorineural deafness or severe-to-profound hearing impairment, with significant consequences. Therefore, early detection is a vitally important element in providing appropriate support for deaf and hearing-impaired babies that will help them enjoy equal opportunities in society alongside all other children. This analysis estimates the costs and effectiveness of various interventions to screen infants at risk of hearing impairment. The economic analysis used a decision tree approach to determine the cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening strategies. Two unique models were built to capture different strategic screening decisions. Firstly, the cost-effectiveness of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) was compared to selective screening of newborns with risk factors. Secondly, the cost-effectiveness of providing a one-stage screening process vs. a two-stage screening process was investigated. Two countries, the United Kingdom and India, were used as case studies to illustrate the likely cost outcomes associated with the various strategies to diagnose hearing loss in infants. In the UK, the universal strategy incurs a further cost of approximately £2.3 million but detected an extra 63 cases. An incremental cost per case detected of £36,181 was estimated. The estimated economic burden was substantially higher in India when adopting a universal strategy due to the higher baseline prevalence of hearing loss. The one-stage screening strategy accumulated an additional 13,480 and 13,432 extra cases of false-positives, in the UK and India respectively when compared to a two-stage screening strategy. This represented increased costs by approximately £1.3 million and INR 34.6 million. The cost

  10. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The clinical value of sequential cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tetsu; Takada, Satoshi [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujii, Masahiko

    1997-03-01

    Cranial MRI scans were performed in seventy-five infants determined to be at risk for neurological impairment in future. Thirty-four infants demonstrated a total of 51 lesions consistent with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), including periventricular leukomalacia with cysts (cystic PVL, n=4), PVL without cysts (linear PVL, n=15), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, n=7), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, n=4), and ventriculomegaly (n=21). Diagnoses by ultrasonography (US) were compared with those by MRI in all infants, respectively. US findings almost agreed with those of MRI except ventriculomegaly. PVL and IVH were seen most often in preterm infants, ICH occurred in full term infants. All infants of cystic PVL and 10 infants of linear PVL (67%) had developmental abnormalities. Thirty-nine infants had once or twice sequential MRI scans. In all infants with PVL, the findings of periventricular hyperintensity, volume loss of white matter and myelination delay were more evident at sequential MRI scans. These findings were correlated with the severity of developmental abnormalities. This study suggests that sequential MRI provides a more reliable prediction of neurological impairment. (author)

  12. Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors among infant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Melkamu; Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2015-01-01

    Background Inappropriate feeding practice increases risk of under nutrition, illness, and mortality amongst children less than 2 years of age. The objective of this study is to assess minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and its associated factors among infant and young children aged 6–23 months in Dangila Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Interviewer administere...

  13. Are weaning infants at risk of iodine deficiency even in countries with established iodized salt programs?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Because iodine deficiency (ID) during infancy can irreversibly impair neurodevelopment and increase mortality, it is critical that dietary iodine is adequate in this vulnerable group. Lactating mothers consuming iodized salt can transfer adequate iodine to the infant via breast milk, but during the weaning period, infants are at risk for ID for several reasons: (1) requirements per kg bodyweight for iodine and thyroid hormone during infancy are higher than at any other time in the life cycle; (2) experts recommend no extra salt (iodized or not) be given to infants during the first year; (3) cow's milk (a major source of dietary iodine in many countries) is also not recommended for infants during the first year; and (4) iron deficiency, a common disorder during infancy, can impair iodine metabolism and reduce thyroid hormone production. For many weaning infants in industrialized countries, iodine fortified into commercial infant foods becomes important. This has recently been demonstrated in Switzerland, where a long-standing iodized salt program provides adequate iodine to pregnant women and school-age children, but new national data suggest weaning infants not receiving iodine-containing commercial baby foods have inadequate iodine intakes. Thus, even in countries with effective iodized salt programs, infants may be at risk of ID during weaning and may need additional dietary and/or supplemental sources of iodine. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The Effect of Parenting Style on Social Smiling in Infants at High and Low Risk for ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Colleen M; Ibañez, Lisa V; Nguyen, Thanh P; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L

    2016-07-01

    This study examined how parenting style at 9 months predicts growth in infant social engagement (i.e., social smiling) between 9 and 18 months during a free-play interaction in infants at high (HR-infants) and low (LR-infants) familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results indicated that across all infants, higher levels of maternal responsiveness were concurrently associated with higher levels of social smiling, while higher levels of maternal directiveness predicted slower growth in social smiling. When accounting for maternal directiveness, which was higher in mothers of HR-infants, HR-infants exhibited greater growth in social smiling than LR-infants. Overall, each parenting style appears to make a unique contribution to the development of social engagement in infants at high- and low-risk for ASD.

  15. A Time-Based Analysis of Inflammation in Infants at Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sandrine; Caumette, Elsa; Waddington, Chandra; Hébert, Audrey; Brant, Rollin; Lavoie, Pascal M

    2018-01-01

    To precisely delineate the timing and contribution of inflammation to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants during the neonatal period. Longitudinal study of blood inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) measured between birth and 42 days of age, at high temporal (daily) resolution, in infants born at or below 30 weeks of gestation. Cytokine predictors of BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age were adjusted for infant-specific and time-dependent factors, using hierarchical mixed effects regressions models. A total of 1518 data points were obtained in 62 infants (mean gestational age of 27 weeks). Infants who developed BPD later on presented increased inflammation after birth compared with infants without BPD. Inflammation was sustained, with gradual attenuation over 2 weeks (IL-8: OR: 6.5 [95% CI: 1.8-24]; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: 3.3 [1.5-7.6]) and was higher in boys and in infants of lower birth weight. This inflammation preceded the clinical increased requirement in supplemental oxygen characteristic of BPD, and preceded the peak occurrence of neonatal sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis. Systemic inflammation occurs early in the neonatal period and precedes clinical symptoms in infants with BPD. These data provide a discrete vulnerability window period, supporting a role for targeted intensive care interventions during the early phase of BPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation, Optimal Threshold Determination, and Clinical Utility of the Infant Risk of Overweight Checklist for Early Prevention of Child Overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redsell, Sarah A; Weng, Stephen; Swift, Judy A; Nathan, Dilip; Glazebrook, Cris

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the predictive validity of the Infant Risk of Overweight Checklist (IROC). This study further establishes the predictive accuracy of the IROC using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and examines the optimal threshold for determining high risk of childhood overweight. Using the IROC algorithm, we calculated the risk of being overweight, based on International Obesity Task Force criteria, in the first year of life for 980 children in the ALSPAC cohort at 5 years. Discrimination was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC c-statistic). Net reclassification index (NRI) was calculated for risk thresholds ranging from 2.5% to 30%, which determine cutoffs for identifying infants at risk of becoming overweight. At 5 years of age, 12.3% of boys and 19.6% of girls were categorized overweight. Discrimination (AUC c-statistic) ranged from 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.72) when risk scores were calculated directly to 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.98) when the algorithm was recalibrated and missing values of the risk factor algorithm were imputed. The NRI showed that there were positive gains in reclassification using risk thresholds from 5% to 20%, with the maximum NRI being at 10%. This study confirms that the IROC has moderately good validity for assessing overweight risk in infants and offers an optimal threshold for determining high risk. The IROC algorithm has been imbedded into a computer program for Proactive Assessment of Obesity Risk during Infancy, which facilitates early overweight prevention through communication of risk to parents.

  17. Maternal Adverse Childhood Experience and Infant Health: Biomedical and Psychosocial Risks as Intermediary Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Maguire, Jonathon L; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the mechanisms accounting for the transfer of risk from one generation to the next, especially as they relate to maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical and emotional health outcomes. Participants were 501 community mother-infant dyads recruited shortly after the birth and followed up at 18 months. Mothers retrospectively reported on their adverse childhood experiences. The main outcome measures were parent-reported infant physical health and emotional problems. Potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission included cumulative biomedical risk (eg, prenatal and perinatal complications) and postnatal psychosocial risk (eg, maternal depression, single parenthood, marital conflict). Four or more adverse childhood experiences were related to a 2- and 5-fold increased risk of experiencing any biomedical or psychosocial risk, respectively. There was a linear association between number of adverse childhood experiences and extent of biomedical and psychosocial risk. Path analysis revealed that the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical health operated specifically through cumulative biomedical risk, while the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and infant emotional health operated specifically through cumulative psychosocial risk. This pattern was not explained by maternal childhood disadvantage or current neighborhood poverty. Maternal adverse childhood experiences confer vulnerability to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal psychosocial health. The association between adverse childhood experiences and offspring physical and emotional health operates through discrete intermediary mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation between early motor delay and later communication delay in infants at risk for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A N; Galloway, J C; Landa, R J

    2012-12-01

    Motor delays have been reported in retrospective studies of young infants who later develop Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this study, we prospectively compared the gross motor development of a cohort at risk for ASDs; infant siblings of children with ASDs (AU sibs) to low risk typically developing (LR) infants. 24 AU sibs and 24 LR infants were observed at 3 and 6 months using a standardized motor measure, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). In addition, as part of a larger study, the AU sibs also received a follow-up assessment to determine motor and communication performance at 18 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Significantly more AU sibs showed motor delays at 3 and 6 months than LR infants. The majority of the AU sibs showed both early motor delays and later communication delays. Small sample size and limited follow-up. Early motor delays are more common in AU sibs than LR infants. Communication delays later emerged in 67-73% of the AU sibs who had presented with early motor delays. Overall, early motor delays may be predictive of future communication delays in children at risk for autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants: a prospective observational study in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2010-11-01

    The WHO (2001) recommends exclusive breast-feeding and delaying the introduction of solid foods to an infant\\'s diet until 6 months postpartum. However, in many countries, this recommendation is followed by few mothers, and earlier weaning onto solids is a commonly reported global practice. Therefore, this prospective, observational study aimed to assess compliance with the WHO recommendation and examine weaning practices, including the timing of weaning of infants, and to investigate the factors that predict weaning at ≤ 12 weeks. From an initial sample of 539 pregnant women recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital, Dublin, 401 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Quantitative data were obtained on mothers\\' weaning practices using semi-structured questionnaires and a short dietary history of the infant\\'s usual diet at 6 months. Only one mother (0.2%) complied with the WHO recommendation to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months. Ninety-one (22.6%) infants were prematurely weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks with predictive factors after adjustment, including mothers\\' antenatal reporting that infants should be weaned onto solids at ≤ 12 weeks, formula feeding at 12 weeks and mothers\\' reporting of the maternal grandmother as the principal source of advice on infant feeding. Mothers who weaned their infants at ≤ 12 weeks were more likely to engage in other sub-optimal weaning practices, including the addition of non-recommended condiments to their infants\\' foods. Provision of professional advice and exploring antenatal maternal misperceptions are potential areas for targeted interventions to improve compliance with the recommended weaning practices.

  20. Development of a screening MRI for infants at risk for abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flom, Lynda; Panigrahy, Ashok; Fromkin, Janet; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth; Berger, Rachel P.

    2016-01-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of morbidity in infants. Identifying which well-appearing infants are at risk for AHT and need neuroimaging is challenging, and concern about radiation exposure limits the use of head CT. Availability of an MRI protocol that is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage would allow for AHT screening of well-appearing infants without exposing them to radiation. To develop a screening MRI protocol to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants at risk for AHT. Infants enrolled in a parent study of well-appearing infants at increased risk for AHT were eligible for the current study if they underwent both head CT and conventional brain MRI. A derivation cohort of nine infants with AHT was used to identify sequences that provided the highest sensitivity for intracranial hemorrhage. A validation cohort of 78 infants including both controls with normal neuroimaging and cases with AHT was used to evaluate the accuracy of the selected sequences. Three pulse sequences - axial T2, axial gradient recalled echo (GRE) and coronal T1-W inversion recovery - were 100% sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage in the derivation cohort. The same sequences were 100% sensitive (25/25) and 83% specific (44/53) for intracranial hemorrhage in the validation cohort. A screening MRI protocol including axial T2, axial GRE and coronal T1-W inversion recovery sequences is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage and may be useful as a screening tool to differentiate well-appearing infants at risk for AHT who should undergo head CT from those who can safely be discharged without head CT. Additional research is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in clinical practice. (orig.)

  1. Development of a screening MRI for infants at risk for abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flom, Lynda; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fromkin, Janet [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Neurosurgery, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berger, Rachel P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of morbidity in infants. Identifying which well-appearing infants are at risk for AHT and need neuroimaging is challenging, and concern about radiation exposure limits the use of head CT. Availability of an MRI protocol that is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage would allow for AHT screening of well-appearing infants without exposing them to radiation. To develop a screening MRI protocol to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants at risk for AHT. Infants enrolled in a parent study of well-appearing infants at increased risk for AHT were eligible for the current study if they underwent both head CT and conventional brain MRI. A derivation cohort of nine infants with AHT was used to identify sequences that provided the highest sensitivity for intracranial hemorrhage. A validation cohort of 78 infants including both controls with normal neuroimaging and cases with AHT was used to evaluate the accuracy of the selected sequences. Three pulse sequences - axial T2, axial gradient recalled echo (GRE) and coronal T1-W inversion recovery - were 100% sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage in the derivation cohort. The same sequences were 100% sensitive (25/25) and 83% specific (44/53) for intracranial hemorrhage in the validation cohort. A screening MRI protocol including axial T2, axial GRE and coronal T1-W inversion recovery sequences is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage and may be useful as a screening tool to differentiate well-appearing infants at risk for AHT who should undergo head CT from those who can safely be discharged without head CT. Additional research is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in clinical practice. (orig.)

  2. Effects of maternal absence due to employment on the quality of infant-mother attachment in a low-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barglow, P; Vaughn, B E; Molitor, N

    1987-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that day-care experience initiated prior to 12 months of age is associated with increased proportions of infants whose attachment to mother is classified as "insecure-avoidant." However, reviewers have questioned the generality of these findings, noting that samples in which associations between early day-care experience and avoidant attachment patterns have been reported come from high-risk populations, and/or that the infants' day-care settings may not have been of high quality. In the present study, effects of maternal absences on infant-mother attachment quality were assessed in a low-risk, middle-class sample (N = 110). In all instances, substitute care had been initiated at least 4 months prior to the infant's first birthday and was provided in the infant's home by a person unrelated to the baby. Infants were assessed using the Ainsworth Strange Situation when they were 12-13 months of age. Analyses indicated that a significantly greater proportion of infants whose mothers worked outside the home (N = 54) were assigned to the category "insecure-avoidant" as compared to infants whose mothers remained in the home (N = 56) throughout the first year of life. Analyses of demographic and psychological data available for the sample indicated that this relation is dependent upon maternal parity (primi- vs. multiparous mother). The association between attachment quality and work status was significant only for firstborn children of full-time working mothers. The results are interpreted as evidence that the repeated daily separations experienced by infants whose mothers are working full-time constitute a "risk" factor for the development of "insecure-avoidant" infant-mother attachments.

  3. Implicit association to infant faces: Genetics, early care experiences, and cultural factors influence caregiving propensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Esposito, Gianluca; Doi, Hirokazu; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-05-15

    Genetics, early experience, and culture shape caregiving, but it is still not clear how genetics, early experiences, and cultural factors might interact to influence specific caregiving propensities, such as adult responsiveness to infant cues. To address this gap, 80 Italian adults (50% M; 18-25 years) were (1) genotyped for two oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs2254298) and the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which are implicated in parenting behaviour, (2) completed the Adult Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire to evaluate their recollections of parental behaviours toward them in childhood, and (3) were administered a Single Category Implicit Association Test to evaluate their implicit responses to faces of Italian infants, Japanese infants, and Italian adults. Analysis of implicit associations revealed that Italian infant faces were evaluated as most positive; participants in the rs53576 GG group had the most positive implicit associations to Italian infant faces; the serotonin polymorphism moderated the effect of early care experiences on adults' implicit association to both Italian infant and adult female faces. Finally, 5-HTTLPR S carriers showed less positive implicit responses to Japanese infant faces. We conclude that adult in-group preference extends to in-group infant faces and that implicit responses to social cues are influenced by interactions of genetics, early care experiences, and cultural factors. These findings have implications for understanding processes that regulate adult caregiving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Giulia; Tierney, Adrienne L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants. In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD (based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not) at 6- and 12-months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds. We found that by 12-months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by 12-months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD. These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life.

  5. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  6. Use of a dummy (pacifier) during sleep and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Willinger, Marian; Petitti, Diana B; Odouli, Roxana; Liu, Liyan; Hoffman, Howard J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between use of a dummy (pacifier) during sleep and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in relation to other risk factors. Design Population based case-control study. Setting Eleven counties in California. Participants Mothers or carers of 185 infants whose deaths were attributed to SIDS and 312 randomly selected controls matched for race or ethnicity and age. Main outcome measure Use of a dummy during sleep determined through interviews. Results The adjusted odds ratio for SIDS associated with using a dummy during the last sleep was 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.21). Use was associated with a reduction in risk in every category of sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors examined. The reduced risk associated with use seemed to be greater with adverse sleep conditions (such as sleeping prone or on side and sleeping with a mother who smoked), although the observed interactions were not significant. In addition, use of a dummy may reduce the impact of other risk factors for SIDS, especially those related to adverse sleep environment. For example, infants who did not use a dummy and slept prone or on their sides (v on their back) had an increased risk of SIDS (2.61, 1.56 to 4.38). In infants who used dummies, there was no increased risk associated with sleeping position (0.66, 0.12 to 3.59). While cosleeping with a mother who smoked was also associated with increased risk of SIDS among infants who did not use a dummy (4.5, 1.3 to 15.1), there was no such association among those who did (1.1, 0.1 to 13.4). Conclusions Use of a dummy seems to reduce the risk of SIDS and possibly reduces the influence of known risk factors in the sleep environment. PMID:16339767

  7. Sobrevida e fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em uma coorte de nascidos vivos de muito baixo peso ao nascer, na Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Survival and risk factors for neonatal mortality in a cohort of very low birth weight infants in the southern region of São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Furquim de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos populacionais sobre mortalidade neonatal de nascimentos de muito baixo peso ao nascer contribuem para identificar sua complexa rede de fatores de risco. Foi estudada uma coorte de 213 recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g (112 óbitos neonatais e 101 sobreviventes na Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, em 2000/2001. Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares e obtidos dados de prontuários hospitalares. Foi realizada análise de sobrevida e empregada regressão múltipla de Cox. A elevada mortalidade na sala de parto, no primeiro dia de vida e ausência de sobreviventes Population studies can help identify the complex set of risk factors for neonatal mortality among very low birth weight infants. A cohort (2000-2001 of 213 live newborns with birth weight < 1,500g in the southern region of São Paulo city, Brazil, was studied (112 neonatal deaths and 101 survivors. Data were obtained from home interviews and hospital records. Survival analysis and multiple Cox regression were performed. The high mortality in the delivery room and in the first day of life among neonates < 1,000g and < 28 weeks gestational age and the absence of survival in neonates < 700g suggest that care was actively oriented towards newborns with better prognosis. Increased risk of neonatal mortality was associated with maternal residence in slum areas, history of previous cesarean(s, history of induced abortion(s, adolescent motherhood, vaginal bleeding, and lack of prenatal care. Cesarean section and referral of the newborn to the hospital nursery showed protective effects. Birth weight less than 1,000g and Apgar index < 7 were associated with increased risk. The high mortality was due to poor living conditions and to maternal and neonatal characteristics. Improvement in prenatal and neonatal care could reduce neonatal mortality in these infants.

  8. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  9. Are infants with torticollis at risk of a delay in early motor milestones compared with a control group of healthy infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Anna; Nilsson, Staffan; Lagerkvist, Anna-Lena; Beckung, Eva

    2009-07-01

    Recently it has been claimed that infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) are at risk of a delay in early motor milestones. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether infants with CMT are indeed at risk in comparison with a control group of healthy infants. A second aim was to investigate whether the time spent in a prone position and plagiocephaly had any influence on motor development. Eighty-two infants with CMT (35 females and 47 males) were compared with 40 healthy infants (18 females and 22 males). Motor development was assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor scale (AIMS). Multiple regression showed that infants in the CMT group had a significantly lower AIMS score than the control group at 2 months (p=0.03) and 6 months of age (p=0.05). Infants who spent at least three occasions daily in a prone position when awake had significantly higher AIMS scores than infants who spent less time prone at 2 months (p=0.001), 6 months (pmotor milestones significantly later than the control group until the age of 10 months, but the risk of delay seems to be more strongly associated with little or no time prone when awake than with CMT.

  10. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...

  11. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  12. Perinatal factors and type 1 diabetes-associated dysbiosis in Mexican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-León, María Esther; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is currently an autoimmune disease occurring more frequently and early in life. T1D development requires genetic predisposition and environmental factors, which influence the gut microbiota in early infancy and could increase the risk for T1D-associated autoimmunity. In Mexico there are no published microbiota studies in children <6 years old with T1D. We report two contrasting Mexican T1D cases of children <6 years of age and a third case of a healthy child prior to autoimmunity and T1D onset. Perinatal factors, feeding regimes in the first year of life and gut microbiota composition are discussed and related to the T1D onset. The three cases show a particular microbiota profile with decreased bacterial diversity as compared with healthy children, which could be related to environmental factors prior to the development of T1D and disease control. T1D infant cases presented a decreased bacterial diversity, which appeared before autoimmunity and T1D onset. Glycemic control could tend to correct the gut dysbiosis in T1D children. Prospective studies are needed to follow-up healthy children at high genetic risk to assess factors related to the microbiota structure. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross......-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM...... lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should...

  14. Associations Between Gross Motor and Communicative Development in At-Risk Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M.

    2016-01-01

    Infants' advances in locomotion relate to advances in communicative development. However, little is known about these relations in infants at risk for delays in these domains and whether they may extend to earlier achievements in gross motor development in infancy. We examined whether advances in sitting and prone locomotion are related to communicative development in infants who have an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are at risk for motor and communication delays (heightened-risk; HR). We conducted a longitudinal study with 37 HR infants who did not receive an ASD diagnosis at 36 months. Infants were observed monthly between the ages of 5 and 14 months. We assessed gross motor development using the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) and recorded ages of onset of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors. Results indicated increased presence of early gross motor delay from 5 to 10 months. In addition, there were positive relations between sitting and gesture and babble onset and between prone development and gesture onset. Thus, links between gross motor development and communication extend to at-risk development and provide a starting point for future research on potential cascading consequences of motor advances on communication development. PMID:27314943

  15. Evaluating iron status and the risk of anemia in young infants using erythrocyte parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsvik, Ingrid Kristin; Markestad, Trond; Ueland, Per Magne; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Oivind; Bjørke Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-02-01

    Correct evaluation of iron status is important in young infants because both iron deficiency and excess may have negative effects on development, growth, and morbidity. We evaluated iron status using erythrocyte parameters, including reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) in infants with birth weight infant characteristics were recorded at 6 wk and at 4 and 6 months. Infants with a birth weight ≤2,500 g (n = 36) were recommended for iron supplementation. Despite a significantly poorer status at 6 wk, iron-supplemented infants had significantly higher hemoglobin level (Hb): 12.2 (SD = 0.8) g/dl and CHr: 28.3 (SD = 1.4) pg at 6 mo, as compared with nonsupplemented infants, Hb: 11.7 (SD = 1.0) g/dl, P = 0.02 and CHr: 26.5 (SD = 2.5) pg, P anemia at 6 mo. Signs of an iron-restricted erythropoiesis were observed in nonsupplemented infants (birth weight 2,501-3,000 g), and CHr was a useful tool for evaluating iron status. The need for iron supplementation in certain infant risk populations should be further evaluated.

  16. Is Maternal Parity an Independent Risk Factor for Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hao T.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Case, Amy; McNeese, Melanie L.; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although associations between maternal parity and birth defects have been observed previously, few studies have focused on the possibility that parity is an independent risk factor for birth defects. We investigated the relation between levels of parity and a range of birth defects, adjusting each defect group for the same covariates. METHODS We included infants who had an estimated delivery date between 1997 and 2007 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite case-control study. Cases included infants or fetuses belonging to 38 phenotypes of birth defects (n = 17,908), and controls included infants who were unaffected by a major birth defect (n = 7173). Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 12 covariates using logistic regression. RESULTS Compared with primiparous mothers, nulliparous mothers were more likely to have infants with amniotic band sequence, hydrocephaly, esophageal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction deficiencies, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, gastroschisis, tetralogy of Fallot, and septal cardiac defects, with significant ORs (1.2 to 2.3). Compared with primiparous mothers, multiparous mothers had a significantly increased risk of omphalocele, with an OR of 1.5, but had significantly decreased risk of hypospadias and limb reduction deficiencies, with ORs of 0.77 and 0.77. CONCLUSIONS Nulliparity was associated with an increased risk of specific phenotypes of birth defects. Most of the phenotypes associated with nulliparity in this study were consistent with those identified by previous studies. Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. PMID:22371332

  17. Prolonged Exclusive Breastfeeding Duration Is Positively Associated with Risk of Anemia in Infants Aged 12 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglei; Liu, Huijuan; Wan, Yi; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Jusheng; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-09-01

    The association between exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant anemia is not clear. This study aimed to assess the association of exclusive breastfeeding duration with risk of anemia in infants at 12 mo of age and in children aged 48-71 mo in mainland China. Detailed breastfeeding information and anthropometric data were obtained for 65,256 children enrolled in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort at 1, 3, and 6 mo of age. Hemoglobin was measured in 25,549 children at 12 mo and in 32,770 children between the ages of 48 and 71 mo. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentrations anemia were assessed as adjusted ORs by using multiple logistic regression. Overall anemia prevalences at 12 and 48-71 mo were 24.9% and 9.9%, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding for ≥6 mo, but not for 3-5 mo, was significantly associated with a higher risk of anemia in infants at age 12 mo (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.29; P = 0.02) compared with exclusive breastfeeding for infants and -0.99 g/L (95% CI: -1.44, -0.55; P anemia in infants aged 12 mo and with lower hemoglobin concentrations in both infants aged 12 mo and young children aged 48-71 mo. Parents should provide infants with an adequate source of iron after 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. "Risk factors of birth asphyxia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; Afzal, Rafia; Iqbal, Umair; Saleem, Sehrish Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Waqas Abid; Shahid, Nazish

    2014-12-20

    Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each year due to birth asphyxia. Our goal was to evaluate antepartum, intrapartum, and fetal risk factors of birth asphyxia. It was a Retrospective Case control study, conducted at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of pediatric ward (I, II, III) and in Gynecology wards (I, II, III) of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. Study was conducted from January 2011-November 2012. Neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia were considered as "cases" while neonates born either with normal vaginal delivery or by cesarean section having no abnormality were considered as "control". Demographics of both the mother and neonate were noted and Questions regarding possible risk factors were asked from mother. Ethical issues were confirmed from Institutional review board of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Out of total 240 neonates, 123 were "cases" and 117 were "control". Mean maternal age in "case" group was 24.22 ± 3.38 while maternal age of control group was 24.30 ± 4.04. Significant antepartum risk factors were maternal age of 20-25 (OR 0.30 CI 95% 0.07-1.21), booking status (OR 0.20 CI 95% 0.11-0.37), pre-eclampsia (OR 0.94 CI 95% 0.90-0.98) and primigravidity (OR 2.64 CI 95% 1.56-4.46). Significant Intrapartum risk factors were breech presentation (OR 2.96 CI 95% 1.25-7.02), home delivery (OR 16.16 CI 95% 3.74-69.75) and maternal fever (OR 10.01 CI95% 3.78-26.52). Significant Fetal risk factors were resuscitation of child (OR 23 CI 95% 31.27-1720.74), pre-term babies(OR 0.34 CI 95% 0.19-0.58), fetal distress (OR 0.01 CI 95% 0.00-0.11) and baby weight (OR 0.13 CI 95% 0.05-0.32). Measures should be taken to prevent neonatal mortality with great emphasis on skilled attendance at birth

  19. Can a Risk Factor Based Approach Safely Reduce Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Friddle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current American retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening guidelines is imprecise for infants ≥ 30 weeks with birth weights between 1500 and 2000 g. Our objective was to evaluate a risk factor based approach for screening premature infants at low risk for severe ROP. Study Design. We performed a 13-year review from Intermountain Health Care (IHC data. All neonates born at ≤32 weeks were reviewed to determine ROP screening and/or development of severe ROP. Severe ROP was defined by stage ≥ 3 or need for laser therapy. Regression analysis was used to identify significant risk factors for severe ROP. Results. We identified 4607 neonates ≤ 32 weeks gestation. Following exclusion for death, with no retinal exam or incomplete data, 2791 (61% were included in the study. Overall, severe ROP occurred in 260 (9.3%, but only 11/1601 ≥ 29 weeks (0.7%. All infants with severe ROP ≥ 29 weeks had at least 2 identified ROP risk factors. Implementation of this risk based screening strategy to the IHC population over the timeline of this study would have eliminated screening in 21% (343/1601 of the screened population. Conclusions. Limiting ROP screening for infants ≥ 29 and ≤ 32 weeks to only those with clinical risk factors could significantly reduce screening exams while identifying all infants with severe ROP.

  20. Early language profiles in infants at high-risk for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Kristelle; Chandler, Susie; Bedford, Rachael; Pasco, Greg; Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark H; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Many preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present relative lack of receptive advantage over concurrent expressive language. Such profile emergence was investigated longitudinally in 54 infants at high-risk (HR) for ASD and 50 low-risk controls, with three language measures taken across four visits (around 7, 14, 24, 38 months). HR infants presented three outcome subgroups: ASD, other atypicality, and typical development. Reduced receptive vocabulary advantage was observed in HR infants by 14 months, but was maintained to 24 months only in ASD/other atypicality outcome subgroups while typically-developing HR infants regained a more normative profile. Few group differences appeared on a direct assessment of language and parent-reported functional communication. Processes of early development toward ASD outcome and in intermediate phenotypes are discussed.

  1. Spontaneous initiation of communication in infants at low and heightened risk for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Breanna M; Wozniak, Robert H; Parladé, Meaghan V; Iverson, Jana M

    2013-10-01

    Communication spontaneously initiated by infants at heightened risk (HR; n = 15) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is compared with that in low-risk (LR; n = 15) infants at 13 and 18 months of age. Infants were observed longitudinally during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with caregivers. At both ages, HR infants spontaneously produced Words, Communicative Non-Word Vocalizations, show and point Gestures, and Gesture + Non-Word Vocalization combinations at lower rates than LR peers. This difference also held for Gesture + Word combinations at 18 but not 13 months. At 36 months, all HR children were evaluated for ASD, and 3 received a diagnosis of autistic disorder. At both 13 and 18 months, these 3 children had been at or near the bottom of the distribution on all spontaneous communication variables.

  2. Factors associated with infant mortality in Nepal: a comparative analysis of Nepal demographic and health surveys (NDHS 2006 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Lamichhane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality is one of the priority public health issues in developing countries like Nepal. The infant mortality rate (IMR was 48 and 46 per 1000 live births for the year 2006 and 2011, respectively, a slight reduction during the 5 years’ period. A comprehensive analysis that has identified and compared key factors associated with infant mortality is limited in Nepal, and, therefore, this study aims to fill the gap. Methods Datasets from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS 2006 and 2011 were used to identify and compare the major factors associated with infant mortality. Both surveys used multistage stratified cluster sampling techniques. A total of 8707 and 10,826 households were interviewed in 2006 and 2011, with more than 99% response rate in both studies. The survival information of singleton live-born infants born 5 years preceding the two surveys were extracted from the ‘childbirth’ dataset. Multiple logistic regression analysis using a hierarchical modelling approach with the backward elimination method was conducted. Complex Samples Analysis was used to adjust for unequal selection probability due to the multistage stratified cluster-sampling procedure used in both NDHS. Results Based on NDHS 2006, ecological region, succeeding birth interval, breastfeeding status and type of delivery assistance were found to be significant predictors of infant mortality. Infants born in hilly region (AOR = 0.43, p = 0.013 and with professional assistance (AOR = 0.27, p = 0.039 had a lower risk of mortality. On the other hand, infants with succeeding birth interval less than 24 months (AOR = 6.66, p = 0.001 and those who were never breastfed (AOR = 1.62, p = 0.044 had a higher risk of mortality. Based on NDHS 2011, birth interval (preceding and succeeding and baby’s size at birth were identified to be significantly associated with infant mortality. Infants born with preceding

  3. Risk of Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Efficacy of Glucocorticoids: Are They the Same in the Normally Grown and Growth-Restricted Infant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillick, Erin V; Orgeig, Sandra; Williams, Marie T; Morrison, Janna L

    2016-11-01

    Administration of glucocorticoids (GCs) to women at risk of preterm delivery reduces the newborn's risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by 35% to 40%; however, not all infants respond to this treatment. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) increases the risk of prematurity, perinatal morbidity, and mortality. This review aims to synthesize current evidence reporting the difference in RDS risk between FGR and normally grown infants (Question 1) and whether antenatal GC administration reduces the risk of RDS morbidity in FGR infants (Question 2). Systematic searches were performed, and after screening, a total of 27 and 9 citations were eligible for inclusion for Questions 1 and 2, respectively. In order to answer the two questions, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all studies. The evidence was equivocal for a difference in risk of RDS in FGR compared with normally grown infants. Despite antenatal GC administration, there was evidence suggesting that the risk of RDS persists in FGR infants. The range of risk of RDS morbidity observed between studies is likely influenced by the definitions (RDS and FGR), gestational age, and small sample sizes of FGR infants evaluated. In addition, RDS morbidity may be related to the heterogeneous nature of FGR etiologies (including maternal, placental, and/or fetal factors). Further understanding of RDS morbidity and responsiveness to current treatments in FGR infants at a range of gestational ages, larger sample sizes, and stratification according to the specific etiology of FGR, may lead to improved respiratory outcomes at birth in this obstetric subpopulation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stunting level among the children was 26.5%, underweight level was 11.1% and no child was wasted. There was a significant association between marital status, children age group and stunting using ordinal regression. Conclusion: The study showed a knowledge gap on infant complementary feeding in area of quality ...

  5. Abnormalities in pulmonary function in infants with high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygl, Michal; Rounova, Petra; Sulc, Jan; Slaby, Krystof; Stranak, Zbynek; Pycha, Karel; Svobodova, Tamara; Pohunek, Petr; Skaba, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze lung growth and abnormality of infant pulmonary function tests (IPFT) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors younger than three years of age with respect to unfavorable prognostic factors. Thirty high-risk CDH survivors at the age of 1.32±0.54 years, body weight 9.76±1.25 kg were examined using IPFT: tidal breathing analysis, baby resistance/compliance, whole baby body plethysmography and rapid thoraco-abdominal compression. Gore-Tex patch was used in 13% of patients (GORE group). Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed and managed in 13% (iNO group). Standard protocols and appropriate reference values were used and obtained data were statistically analysed. High incidence of peripheral airway obstruction (70%), increased value of functional residual capacity (FRCp) 191.3±24.5 mL (126.5±36.9 % predicted; P GORE group (165.7±51.9 versus 120.4±31.2, P Gore-Tex patch, pulmonary hypertension) correlate with more severe alteration of pulmonary function in infants.

  6. Identification of pain indicators for infants at risk for neurological impairment: A Delphi consensus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camfield Carol

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of infant pain measures have been developed over the past 15 years incorporating behavioural and physiologic indicators; however, no reliable or valid measure exists for infants who are at risk for neurological impairments (NI. The objective of this study was to establish consensus about which behavioural, physiologic and contextual indicators best characterize pain in infants at high, moderate and low levels of risk for NI. Methods A 39- item, self-administered electronic survey that included infant physiologic, behavioral and contextual pain indicators was used in a two round Delphi consensus exercise. Fourteen pediatric pain experts were polled individually and anonymously on the importance and usefulness of the pain indicators for the 3 differing levels of risk for NI. Results The strength of agreement between expert raters was moderate in Round 1 and fair in Round 2. In general, pain indicators with the highest concordance for all three groups were brow bulge, facial grimace, eye squeeze, and inconsolability. Increased heart rate from baseline in the moderate and severe groups demonstrated high concordance. In the severe risk group, fluctuations in heart rate and reduced oxygen saturation were also highly rated. Conclusion These data constitute the first step in contributing to the development and validation of a pain measure for infants at risk for NI. In future research, we will integrate these findings with the opinions of (a health care providers about the importance and usefulness of infant pain indicators and (b the pain responses of infants at mild, moderate and high risk for NI.

  7. Increased Cytomegalovirus Secretion and Risks of Infant Infection by Breastfeeding Duration From Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Compared to Negative Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musonda, Kunda G; Nyonda, Mary; Filteau, Suzanne; Kasonka, Lackson; Monze, Mwaka; Gompels, Ursula A

    2016-06-01

    Breastfeeding imparts beneficial immune protection and nutrition to infants for healthy growth, but it is also a route for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. In previous studies, we showed that HCMV adversely affects infant development in Africa, particularly with maternal HIV exposure. In this study, we analyzed infants risks for acquisition of HCMV infection from breastfeeding and compared HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. Two cohorts were studied in Zambia. (1) Two hundred sixty-one HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers were compared for HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) loads and genotypes (glycoprotein gO) in milk from birth to 4 months postpartum. (2) Maternally HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants were compared for HCMV infection risk factors. The second cohort of 460 infants, from a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary-food to breastfeeding, were studied between 6 and 18 months of age. Human cytomegalovirus seroprevalence was assayed, and logistic regression was used to calculate risk factors for HCMV infection, including maternal HIV exposure and breastfeeding duration. Human cytomegalovirus was detected in breast milk from 3 days to 4 months postpartum, with significantly raised levels in HIV-positive women and independent of genotype. In infants, HCMV antibody seroprevalence was 83% by 18 months age. Longer breastfeeding duration increased infection risk in maternally HIV-unexposed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.69 for 18 months vs 6 months vs never; 95% CI, 3.71-111.70; P breastfeeding, which is common in Africa, increased risk of HCMV infection in infants. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had extended milk HCMV secretion. Women who were HIV-positive secreted higher HCMV levels, and for longer duration, with their children at increased infection risk. Human cytomegalovirus control is required to maintain health benefits of breastfeeding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  8. Development and Application of a Probabilistic Risk-Benefit Assessment Model for Infant Feeding Integrating Microbiological, Nutritional, and Chemical Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Géraldine; Cummins, Enda; Guillou, Sandrine; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-12-01

    A probabilistic and interdisciplinary risk-benefit assessment (RBA) model integrating microbiological, nutritional, and chemical components was developed for infant milk, with the objective of predicting the health impact of different scenarios of consumption. Infant feeding is a particular concern of interest in RBA as breast milk and powder infant formula have both been associated with risks and benefits related to chemicals, bacteria, and nutrients, hence the model considers these three facets. Cronobacter sakazakii, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were three risk/benefit factors selected as key issues in microbiology, chemistry, and nutrition, respectively. The present model was probabilistic with variability and uncertainty separated using a second-order Monte Carlo simulation process. In this study, advantages and limitations of undertaking probabilistic and interdisciplinary RBA are discussed. In particular, the probabilistic technique was found to be powerful in dealing with missing data and to translate assumptions into quantitative inputs while taking uncertainty into account. In addition, separation of variability and uncertainty strengthened the interpretation of the model outputs by enabling better consideration and distinction of natural heterogeneity from lack of knowledge. Interdisciplinary RBA is necessary to give more structured conclusions and avoid contradictory messages to policymakers and also to consumers, leading to more decisive food recommendations. This assessment provides a conceptual development of the RBA methodology and is a robust basis on which to build upon. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24–36 weeks. Results Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached at different PMAs for different GA groups, but preterm infants were able to initiate breastfeeding at early times, with some delay in infants less than GA 32 weeks. Very preterm infants had lowest mean PMA (35.5 weeks) at first complete breastfeed, and moderate preterm infants had lowest mean PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding (36.4 weeks). Admitting mothers to the NICU together with the infant and minimising the use of a pacifier during breastfeeding transition were associated with 1.6 (95% CI 0.4–2.8) and 1.2 days (95% CI 0.1–2.3) earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding respectively. Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1–7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting mothers together with their infants to the NICU and minimising the use of pacifiers may contribute to earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:25251690

  10. Infant Crying and Risk of Hyperactivity and Learning Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants with persistent crying (PC in the first 6 months (mean age 3.8 months were reassessed at 8 to 10 years of age and compared with 64 classroom controls for hyperactivity, conduct problems and academic difficulties in a prospective study at the University of Hertfordshire, UK.

  11. Alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and risk of infant mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønboek, Morten; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    The safety of small amounts of alcohol drinking and occasional binge-level drinking during pregnancy remains unsettled. We examined the association of maternal average alcohol intake and binge drinking (>or=5 drinks per sitting) with infant mortality, both in the neonatal and postneonatal period....

  12. Primary prevention of food allergy in infants who are at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    on primary prevention of food allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: In prospective observational controlled studies of high quality of birth cohorts, exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months combined with introduction of solid foods after 4 months of age is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy and atopic...... dermatitis, particularly in high-risk infants. When breastfeeding for 4-6 months is not possible or insufficient, randomized controlled trials have shown a significant reduction in food allergy and atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants fed a documented hypoallergenic hydrolysed formula. SUMMARY......: Breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented hypoallergenic hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusively breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months. As regards primary prevention of food allergy there is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention during...

  13. The effect of hypo-allergenic formulas in infants at risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Jacobsen, H P; Høst, A

    1995-01-01

    to tobacco smoke is found to be associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing/asthma and inhalant allergy. In infants with atopic predisposition (first-degree relatives), exclusively breastfeeding > or = four months is found associated with a significant reduction of the cumulative prevalence...... this age is empirically based. In order to reduce the costs, to minimize the risk of stigmatisation and the risk of malnutrition it is important to avoid unnecessary restrictive and prolonged diets. A diet period of 4-6 months seems sufficient in most infants. At present eHF are recommended for avoidance...... of cow's milk. Some high risk infants may benefit from maternal diet during lactation, but there is no documented beneficial effect of maternal diet during pregnancy....

  14. Milk sharing and formula feeding: Infant feeding risks in comparative perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D; Hausman, Bernice L

    2012-01-01

    The advent of Internet forums that facilitate peer-to-peer human milk sharing has resulted in health authorities stating that sharing human milk is dangerous. There are risks associated with all forms of infant feeding, including breastfeeding and the use of manufactured infant formulas. However, health authorities do not warn against using formula or breastfeeding; they provide guidance on how to manage risk. Cultural distaste for sharing human milk, not evidenced-based research, supports these official warnings. Regulating bodies should conduct research and disseminate information about how to mitigate possible risks of sharing human milk, rather than proscribe the practice outright.

  15. Antenatal risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study pregnancy and delivery characteristics in mothers who have given birth to infants with intrauterine growth restriction. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were studied in 315 mothers who had given birth to infants with intrauterine growth restriction (a study group. The studies have shown that toxemia, anemia, and preeclampsia prevent physiological pregnancy that concurrent with placental insufficiency leads to serious metabolic disturbances in the mother-placenta-fetus system and eventually lead to intrauterine growth restriction. A set of pathological factors of pregnancy required surgical delivery in mothers with fetal growth restriction.

  16. Cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-09-01

    Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at significantly increased risk. In term infants, prone sleeping is associated with reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI). However, little is known about the effects of sleeping position on TOI and MAP in preterm infants. We aimed to examine TOI and MAP in preterm infants after term-equivalent age, during the period of greatest SIDS risk. Thirty-five preterm and 17 term infants underwent daytime polysomnography, including measurement of TOI (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and MAP (Finapress Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months, and 5 to 6 months postterm age. Infants slept prone and supine in active and quiet sleep. The effects of sleep state and position were determined by using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and of preterm birth by using 2-way analysis of variance. In preterm infants, TOI was significantly lower when prone compared with supine in both sleep states at all ages (P preterm compared with term infants at 2 to 4 weeks, in both positions (P preterm infants in the prone position at 2 to 3 months (P position in preterm infants and is lower compared with age-matched term infants, predominantly in the prone position when MAP is also reduced. This may contribute to their increased SIDS risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Ambient Air Pollution and Apnea and Bradycardia in High-Risk Infants on Home Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Freed, Gary; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that increased ambient air pollution concentrations are associated with health effects, although relatively few studies have specifically examined infants. Objective: We examined associations of daily ambient air pollution concentrations with central apnea (prolonged pauses in breathing) and bradycardia (low heart rate) events among infants prescribed home cardiorespiratory monitors. Methods: The home monitors record the electrocardiogram, heart rate, and respiratory effort for detected apnea and bradycardia events in high-risk infants [primarily premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants]. From August 1998 through December 2002, 4,277 infants had 8,960 apnea event-days and 29,450 bradycardia event-days in > 179,000 days of follow-up. We assessed the occurrence of apnea and bradycardia events in relation to speciated particulate matter and gaseous air pollution levels using a 2-day average of air pollution (same day and previous day), adjusting for temporal trends, temperature, and infant age. Results: We observed associations between bradycardia and 8-hr maximum ozone [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049 per 25-ppb increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.021–1.078] and 1-hr maximum nitrogen dioxide (OR =1.025 per 20-ppb increase; 95% CI, 1.000–1.050). The association with ozone was robust to different methods of control for time trend and specified correlation structure. In secondary analyses, associations of apnea and bradycardia with pollution were generally stronger in infants who were full term and of normal birth weight than in infants who were both premature and LBW. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher air pollution concentrations may increase the occurrence of apnea and bradycardia in high-risk infants. PMID:21447453

  18. Progress on study of the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Cheng Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity(ROPis an ocular disease caused by retinal ophthalmic dysplasia in premature infants, leads to strabismus, amblyopia, cataract, glaucoma, and even blindness, which seriously affects the quality of life of preterm infants. The infant blindness ratio has climbed to 6%-18%, according to figures released by the World Health Organisation. ROP is the primary cause of blindness in children of the world in recent years. But the pathogenesis of ROP is not yet clear. Gestational age, birth weight, oxygen intake, delivery mode, multiple newborns, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, anemia, blood transfusion, sepsis, infection, hypercapnia, hyperbilirubinemia, maternal prenatal use of a drug are all the risk factors. We reviewed the risk factors and possible mechanism of ROP, in order to offer theoretical support for the study and prevention of ROP in premature infants.

  19. Psychological distress among postpartum mothers of preterm infants and associated factors: a neglected public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and stress among postpartum Arab mothers of preterm or low birth weight (LBW infants and to identify maternal characteristics that can predict psychological distress among mothers of preterm infants. Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted. A representative sample of 2,091 postpartum mothers was surveyed and 1,659 women (79.3% gave their consent to participate in the study. The study was based on a face-to-face interview with a designed questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, medical history, and maternal characteristics. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21. Results: In the study sample, 10.2% of the postpartum mothers had preterm/LBW infants. Depression (29.4 vs. 17.3% and anxiety (26.5 vs. 11.6% were significantly more common among mothers of preterm births compared to mothers of full term infants (p < 0.001. The risk of depression in mothers of preterm/LBW infants was two times the risk in mothers of full term infants, while the risk of anxiety was 2.7 times in mothers of preterm/LBW infants than in mothers of full term infants. Young mothers and those who had less than secondary education (42.0 vs. 21.7%; p = 0.007 and lower monthly household income (72.0 vs. 53.3%; p = 0.024 were more depressed and anxious after the preterm birth when compared with mothers of full term infants. Psychological distress was higher in mothers with history of preterm birth (30.0 vs. 21.7% and delivery complications (52.0 vs. 33.3%. Conclusions: We found a greater risk of depression and anxiety in mothers of preterm births than in mothers of full term infants. Our analysis revealed that depressed and anxious women of preterm infants were younger, less educated, had a lower body weight and low household income than non-depressed and non

  20. Factores de riesgo para caries dental en infantes de 6 a 36 meses atendidos en la Clínica del Niño, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Mosto, María; Maita Véliz, Luis; Romero Velarde, Mariela; Álvarez Paucar, María Angélica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for dental caries in infants treated at the Child Clinic in 2007 (oral hygiene habits, dietary habits and how microbial transmissibility (mother - child). Prior informed consent of parents, we selected 73 infants from 6 to 36 months with carious lesions in deciduous teeth, a dental record data were collected for analysis of risk factors. The clinical examination determined the presence of white spot and cavitated lesions. It was clearly noted...

  1. Factors affecting body composition in preterm infants: Assessment techniques and nutritional interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, K; Van Niekerk, E; Dhansay, M A

    2017-10-28

    Limited research has been conducted that elucidates the growth and body composition of preterm infants. It is known that these infants do not necessarily achieve extra-utero growth rates and body composition similar to those of their term counterparts. Preterm infants, who have difficulty in achieving these growth rates, could suffer from growth failure. These infants display an increased intra-abdominal adiposity and abnormal body composition when they achieve catch-up growth. These factors affect the quality of weight gain, as these infants are not only shorter and lighter than term infants, they also have more fat mass (FM) and less fat-free mass (FFM), resulting in a higher total fat percentage. This could cause metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular problems to develop later in a preterm infant's life. The methods used to determine body composition in preterm infants should be simple, quick, non-invasive and inexpensive. Available literature was reviewed and the Dauncey anthropometric model, which includes skinfold thickness at two primary sites and nine body dimensions, is considered in this review the best method to accurately determine body composition in preterm infants, especially in resource-poor countries. It is imperative to accurately assess the quality of growth and body composition of this fragile population in order to determine whether currently prescribed nutritional interventions are beneficial to the overall nutritional status and quality of life-in the short- and long-term-of the preterm infant, and to enable timely implementation of appropriate interventions, if required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  3. Prevalence, etiological factors and the treatment of infant exogenous obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of excessive weight gain during childhood, due to the fact that the development of fat tissue in this period is a determinant of adult body composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of infant obesity, to identify possible etiological factors, and to highlight treatments that have been used to reduce and/or prevent child obesity. Results have shown that obesity has increased more than any other nutritional problem in both developed and developing countries over the last decade. Etiological factors linked to childhood obesity were early weaning, introduction of inadequate nutrition, and physical inactivity. The treatment of childhood obesity requires a multidisciplinary team consisting of a doctor, nutritionist, psychologist, and physical educator. There are also some general recommendations to be followed: a balanced diet for adequate growth and weight control, and controlled physical exercise together with individual and family emotional support. Parental cooperation is important for the best results. Schools also have a fundamental role in teaching children positive attitudes and behavior towards physical activity and nutrition. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, o interesse sobre os efeitos do ganho de peso excessivo na infância tem aumentado consideravelmente, devido ao fato que o desenvolvimento da celularidade adiposa neste período ser determinante nos padrões de composição corporal de um indivíduo adulto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência da obesidade infantil, identificar os possíveis fatores etiológicos além de verifi car quais as intervenções que se destacaram nesta última década como forma de diminuir e/ou prevenir a obesidade em crianças. Os resultados encontrados foram que a obesidade é uma das enfermidades nutricionais que mais têm apresentado aumento de sua prevalência, tanto nos pa

  4. [Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM). I -- Macrosomia and growth factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Carballo, G; Fernández Cano, G; Grande Aragón, C; Méndez Alavedra, J; Hawkins Carranza, F; Gracia Bouthelier, R

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of macrosomia in infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and to analyze its possible correlation with insulin, C-peptide, growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I levels in umbilical cord blood. A prospective study of 58 IDM and 58 control newborns (33 males and 25 females in both groups) was carried out. The incidence of macrosomia was 25.8% in the IDM group and 61.5% in the IIDDM group (infant of insulin-dependent diabetic mother) compared to 5% in the control group. There was a positive correlation between maternal Hgb Alc levels in the third trimester of gestation and insulin and C-peptide levels with newborn weight in the IDM group (especially in the IIDDM group). IGF-I levels were positively correlated with newborn weight in both control and IDM groups. There was no correlation between GH and IGF-I levels in any group.

  5. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

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    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  6. Problematic parent-infant relationships in two-parent families: prevalence and risk factors in a Brazilian neighborhood Relações problemáticas entre pais e criança em famílias com pai e mãe: prevalência e fatores de risco em um bairro brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Garcia Falceto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the quality of parent-child relationships is known to be associated with the offspring's mental health, little is known about the prevalence of problematic relationships in this scenario. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of different types of early parent-infant relationships in a Brazilian population group. Methods: During 1 year, all families (n = 230 from an urban community of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, with 4-month-old infants born in public hospitals were identified, and 148 were fully investigated by two family therapists. This study describes data on the 116 infants with two-parent families. Demographic, obstetric, and relational variables were collected through questionnaires and scales (Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale, Global Assessment of Relational Functioning, and Self-Report Questionnaire. Prevalence ratios were calculated, and Poisson regression with robust variance was performed to adjust for covariates. Results: Almost 10% of mothers and 12% of fathers showed at least a significantly perturbed relationship with their 4-month-old infants. Inadequate mother-infant bonding coincided with evidence of paternal mental disorder, poor maternal social network, and discontinuation of breastfeeding at 4 months. A problematic father-infant relationship was associated with a dysfunctional couple relationship and with low infant birth weight. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of early parent-child relationship problems, suggesting a need for health system interventions. Parent-infant relational problems are prevalent very early in life and more associated with other relational problems than with socioeconomic burden.Introdução: Embora seja consenso que a qualidade das relações pais-filho influencie a saúde mental da prole, pouco se sabe sobre a prevalência de relações problemáticas nessa esfera. Este estudo transversal teve como objetivo

  7. Risk Factors and Clinical Follow-Up Features of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Anuk İnce, Deniz; Takcı, Şahin; Altıntaş, Buket

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAim: Meconium aspiration syndrome is usually seen in full-term and post-term infants and may cause complications including respiratory failure, pulmonary air leaks, and persistent pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of meconium aspiration syndrome and assess the clinical course of the disease.Material and Methods: Fourteen of 508 infants diagnosed with meconium aspiration syndrome between January 2013 and April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed...

  8. Association of surfactant protein A polymorphisms with otitis media in infants at risk for asthma

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    Bracken Michael B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media is one of the most common infections of early childhood. Surfactant protein A functions as part of the innate immune response, which plays an important role in preventing infections early in life. This prospective study utilized a candidate gene approach to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in loci encoding SP-A and risk of otitis media during the first year of life among a cohort of infants at risk for developing asthma. Methods Between September 1996 and December 1998, women were invited to participate if they had at least one other child with physician-diagnosed asthma. Each mother was given a standardized questionnaire within 4 months of her infant's birth. Infant respiratory symptoms were collected during quarterly telephone interviews at 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Genotyping was done on 355 infants for whom whole blood and complete otitis media data were available. Results Polymorphisms at codons 19, 62, and 133 in SP-A1, and 223 in SP-A2 were associated with race/ethnicity. In logistic regression models incorporating estimates of uncertainty in haplotype assignment, the 6A4/1A5haplotype was protective for otitis media among white infants in our study population (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.07,0.73. Conclusion These results indicate that polymorphisms within SP-A loci may be associated with otitis media in white infants. Larger confirmatory studies in all ethnic groups are warranted.

  9. Prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade: estudo com 450 pré-termos de muito baixo peso Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity: study with 450 very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Borges Fortes Filho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Analisar prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP entre pré-termos com peso de nascimento (PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou idade gestacional (IG d"32 semanas admitidos em uma instituição hospitalar universitária de nível terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte institucional, prospectivo e descritivo, realizado entre outubro de 2002 e julho de 2008, incluindo todos os pré-termos com PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou com IG d"32 semanas, que sobreviveram até a 42ª semana de IG corrigida. Foram determinadas a prevalência da ROP em seus vários estadiamentos evolutivos. Os principais fatores de risco para o surgimento da ROP no período pós-natal foram comparados por análises uni e multivariadas entre os pacientes que desenvolveram e os que não desenvolveram a doença. Para a análise das variáveis contínuas entre os dois grupos, foi usado o Teste t (Student para amostras independentes e para a comparação das variáveis categóricas, o Qui-Quadrado. A regressão logística incluiu as variáveis com significância após a análise univariada. RESULTADOS:Foram estudadas 450 crianças cuja média de PN e IG foram 1.213,50 gramas (± 277,4 e 30,3 semanas (± 2,2, respectivamente. A ROP, em qualquer estadiamento, afetou 24,2% das crianças. Doença limiar, necessitando de tratamento pela fotocoagulação, ocorreu em 24 pacientes (5,3%. Após análise univariada, a IG, o PN, o ganho ponderal do nascimento até a 6ª semana de vida, o uso de oxigenioterapia em ventilação mecânica e de indometacina, as ocorrências de sepse e hemorragia intraventricular e a necessidade de transfusões sanguíneas, estiveram associados com a ROP. A regressão logística confirmou a importância da IG (OR: 0,856; IC95%: 1,141-1,447; P=0,014, do baixo ganho ponderal (OR: 0,997; IC95%: 0,996-0,999; PPURPOSE: This study aims to analyze prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP among preterms with birth weight (BW d"1

  10. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  11. Transient Hypothyroidism in Premature Infants After Short-term Topical Iodine Exposure: An Avoidable Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Pinsker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies in preterm infants have shown that prolonged treatment with topical iodine (multiple doses, often over multiple days can transiently suppress thyroid function. However, it is uncertain if topical iodine exposure for very short periods of time can cause significant changes in thyroid function. We report two cases of transient hypothyroidism in preterm infants after short-term exposure to topical iodine during surgical preparation, and review their clinical and laboratory findings before and after iodine exposure. We conclude that premature infants are at risk of developing transient hypothyroidism in response to a single, short-term exposure to topical iodine, even in iodine-sufficient geographical areas. We advise monitoring of thyroid function in these infants after iodine exposure, as treatment with levothyroxine may be needed for a limited duration to prevent the sequelae of untreated hypothyroidism. Consideration of using alternative cleansing agents is also advised.

  12. Displasia broncopulmonar: incidência, fatores de risco e utilização de recursos em uma população sul-americana de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence, risk factors and resource utilization in a population of South-American very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Tapia

    2006-02-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, its risk factors and resource utilization in a large South American population of very low birth weight infants. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from infants weighing 500 to 1,500 g born at 16 NEOCOSUR Network centers from 10/2000 through 12/2003. Multivariate relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Poisson regression with robust error variance to find factors that affected the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. RESULTS: 1,825 very low birth weight infant survivors were analyzed. Mean birth weight and gestational age were 1085+279 g and 29+3 weeks respectively. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence averaged 24.4% and survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia augmented with increasing gestational age. Higher birth weight and gestational age and a female gender all decreased the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Factors that independently increased that risk were surfactant requirement, mechanical ventilation, air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia infants had more days of hospitalization (91±27 vs. 51±19, on mechanical ventilation (19±20 vs. 4±7 and oxygen therapy (72±30 vs. 8±14 in comparison with non BPD infants. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence was 24.4% in a large South American population and is related to greater resource utilization. Risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in this study were: surfactant requirement, mechanical ventilation, air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. These studies may provide information useful to the design of effective preventive perinatal strategies.

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Hand Movements in Typical Infants and Those at Risk of Developmental Disorders: An Observational Study of Kinematics during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ouss

    2018-02-01

    are significantly associated with age in cohorts of typical and at-risk infantsdiffer significantly at 5–6 months of age, depending on the context: relating either with an object or a person.Environmental and developmental factors shape the developmental trajectories of hand movements in different cohorts: environment for infants with VIMs; stage of development for premature infants and those with West syndrome; and both factors for infants with orality disorders.The curvature of hand movements specifically reflects atypical development in infants with West syndrome when developmental age is considered.We aimed to discriminate between typical and atypical developmental trajectory patterns of at-risk infants in an interactive setting in this observational and longitudinal study, with the assumption that hand movements (HM reflect preverbal communication and its disorders. We examined the developmental trajectories of HM in five cohorts of at-risk infants and one control cohort, followed from ages 2 to 10 months: 25 West syndrome (WS, 13 preterm birth (PB, 16 orality disorder (OD, 14 with visually impaired mothers (VIM, 7 early hospitalization (EH, and 19 typically developing infants (TD. Video-recorded data were collected in three different structured interactive contexts. Descriptors of the hand motion were used to examine the extent to which HM were associated with age and cohort. We obtained four principal results: (i the kinematics of HM (spatial use, curvature, acceleration, and velocity were significantly associated with age in all cohorts; (ii HM significantly differed at 5–6 months of age in TD infants, depending on the context; (iii environmental and developmental factors shaped the developmental trajectories of HM in different cohorts: environment for VIM, development for PB and WS, and both factors for OD and; (iv the curvatures of HM showed atypical development in WS infants when developmental age was considered. These findings support the importance

  14. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  15. Factors affecting growth in infants with single ventricle physiology: a report from the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard V; Zak, Victor; Ravishankar, Chitra; Altmann, Karen; Anderson, Jeffrey; Atz, Andrew M; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Ghanayem, Nancy; Lambert, Linda; Lurito, Karen; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Margossian, Renee; Pemberton, Victoria L; Russell, Jennifer; Stylianou, Mario; Hsu, Daphne

    2011-12-01

    To describe growth patterns in infants with single ventricle physiology and determine factors influencing growth. Data from 230 subjects enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Enalapril Trial were used to assess factors influencing change in weight-for-age z-score (z) from study enrollment (0.7 ± 0.4 months) to pre-superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC; 5.1 ± 1.8 months, period 1) and pre-SCPC to final study visit (14.1 ± 0.9 months, period 2). Predictor variables included patient characteristics, feeding regimen, clinical center, and medical factors during neonatal (period 1) and SCPC hospitalizations (period 2). Univariate regression analysis was performed, followed by backward stepwise regression and bootstrapping reliability to inform a final multivariable model. Weights were available for 197 of 230 subjects for period 1 and 173 of 197 subjects for period 2. For period 1, greater gestational age, younger age at study enrollment, tube feeding at neonatal hospitalization discharge, and clinical center were associated with a greater negative z (poorer growth) in multivariable modeling (adjusted R(2) = 0.39, P SCPC and greater daily caloric intake were associated with greater positive z (better growth; R(2) = 0.10, P = .002). Aggressive nutritional support and earlier SCPC are modifiable factors associated with a favorable change in weight-for-age z-score. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors Impacting Growth in Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology: A Report from Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard V.; Zak, Victor; Ravishankar, Chitra; Altmann, Karen; Anderson, Jeffrey; Atz, Andrew M.; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Ghanayem, Nancy; Lambert, Linda; Lurito, Karen; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Margossian, Renee; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Russell, Jennifer; Stylianou, Mario; Hsu, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe growth patterns in infants with single ventricle physiology and determine factors influencing growth. Study design Data from 230 subjects enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Enalapril Trial were used to assess factors influencing change in weight-for-age z-score (Δz) from study enrollment (0.7 ± 0.4 months) to pre-superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) (5.1 ± 1.8 months, period 1), and pre-SCPC to final study visit (14.1 ± 0.9 months, period 2). Predictor variables included patient characteristics, feeding regimen, clinical center, and medical factors during neonatal (period 1) and SCPC hospitalizations (period 2). Univariate regression analysis was performed, followed by backward stepwise regression and bootstrapping reliability to inform a final multivariable model. Results Weights were available for 197/230 subjects for period 1 and 173/197 for period 2. For period 1, greater gestational age, younger age at study enrollment, tube feeding at neonatal discharge, and clinical center were associated with a greater negative Δz (poorer growth) in multivariable modeling (adjusted R2 = 0.39, p SCPC and greater daily caloric intake were associated with greater positive Δz (better growth) (R2 = 0.10, p = 0.002). Conclusions Aggressive nutritional support and earlier SCPC are modifiable factors associated with a favorable change in weight-for-age z-score. PMID:21784436

  17. Estimation of the caries-related risk associated with infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, P R; McClintock, K L; Green, N; LaFleur, J

    1998-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) affects 6% of children under three years of age and is associated with inappropriate bottle use. The objective of this study was to estimate the caries-related risk associated with 26 infant formulas and whole milk. First, the plaque pH of adult volunteers was monitored before and after an oral rinse with infant formula to determine the minimum pH obtained in response to each formula. Second, Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 was cultured in each infant formula, and the increase in the number of colony forming units was measured. Third, each infant formula was incubated with powdered enamel and the solubility of enamel mineral was calculated in the absence of bacteria. Fourth, each formula was mixed with standardized concentrations of acid to determine the buffering capabilities. Finally, enamel windows were created on extracted permanent molars and exfoliated primary incisor crowns that were then colonized with mutans streptococci and incubated with infant formula. Caries was assessed visually and radiographically for 18 weeks. The length of time required for the development of enamel caries, dentinal caries and pulpal involvement was recorded. One-way or two-way ANOVA of these five assays demonstrated that 1. Plaque pH varied in response to oral rinsing with infant formula and most formulas did have the ability to reduce the pH significantly below the pH obtained after rinsing with water 2. Some infant formulas supported significant bacterial growth 3. Enamel mineral was dissolved by incubation with certain infant formula 4. The buffer capacity varied among the infant formulas tested 5. The length of time required for caries to reach dentin or pulp differed for the formulas, with some formulas causing dentinal caries by 3.4 weeks and pulpal involvement by 7.2 weeks.

  18. Arousal responses in babies at risk of sudden infant death syndrome at different postnatal ages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, K P

    1992-03-01

    Hypercarbic and hypoxic arousal responses during sleep were measured in healthy term infants, infants where a previous sibling died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infants suffering a clearly defined apparent life threatening event (ALTE) requiring vigorous or mouth to mouth resuscitation. Groups of infants were tested at approximately one, six and 13 weeks postnatally. Arousal was defined as gross body movement with eyes opening and moving or crying. Hypercarbic arousal was by step increases in F1 Co2 until arousal occurred or until endtidal (PETCO2) reached 8.7 KpA (65 mm Hg) Hypoxic arousal was by step decreases in FIO2 until arousal occurred or until an FIO2 of 0.15 had been maintained for 20 minutes. There was no difference in hypercaribic arousal threshold with age in any group. Hypercarbic arousal threshold was significantly higher in siblings (mean 53.4, 53.6, 54.7 mmHg. [7.12, 7.14, 7.29 KPA] at 0, 6, 13 postnatal weeks) compared to controls (mean 50.9, 52.3, 53.0mm Hg. [6.78, 6.97, 7.29 KPS respectively). ALTE infants differed only at 12 weeks having a significantly lower threshold (51.0mmHg. [6.80 KPA] V 53.0mm Hg. (7.06 KPA]) compared to controls. There was no difference in hypoxic arousal response with age in any group. An arousal response to hypoxia occurred in only 22% of ALTE infants and 40% of siblings compared to 67% of normal infants. Deficient sleep arousal, especially to hypoxia, is common in infants and especially those considered at increased risk from SIDS. This deficiency is present in the first postnatal week and did not vary overy the first three months of postnatal life.

  19. Factors associated with nutritional status of infants and young children in Somali Region, Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Yirgu; Mesfin, Addisalem; Haile, Demewoz; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2015-09-02

    Inadequate nutrition during the first two years of life may lead to childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as inadequate brain development. Infants are at increased risk of malnutrition by six months, when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet their nutritional requirements. However the factors associated with nutritional status of infants after 6 months of age have received little attention in pastoralist communities of Ethiopia. Therefore this study aimed to identify the factors associated with nutritional status of infants and young children (6-23 months) in Filtu town, Somali Region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted. Simple random sampling was employed to select 214 infants for the study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions models were used in the statistical analysis. The strength of association was measured by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Both the crude (COR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) are reported. The prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight among infants and young children were 17.5% (95% CI: 12.91-23.22), 22.9% (95% CI: 17.6-28.9) and 19.5% (95% CI: 14.58-25.3) respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model showed that breastfeeding was independently associated with reduced odds of wasting (AOR = 0.38(95% CI: 0.14-0.99)). Diarrhea in the past 15 days (AOR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.55-4.69)) was also associated with increased odds for wasting. The independent predictors of reduced odds for stunting were dietary diversity score ≥ 4 (AOR = 0.45(95% CI: 0.21-0.95)) and introduction of complementary feeding at 6 months (AOR = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.09-0.66)). Bottle feeding was associated with increased odds of stunting (AOR = 3.83 (95% CI: 1.69-8.67)). Breastfeeding was associated with reduced odds of underweight (AOR = 0.24 (95% CI: 0.1-0.59)), while diarrheal disease in the past 15 days was associated with increased odds of underweight (AOR = 3.54 (95% CI: 1

  20. Risk factors evaluation for urolithiasis among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Velásquez-Forero

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria were the most frequent risk factors associated with urolithiasis, followed by hypercalciuria. High PTH values were excluded. Children presented two or more risk factors for urolithiasis.

  1. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  2. Suicide During Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Orsolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.

  3. Newborn infant characteristics and risk of future rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders J; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Houen, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    and genetic factors. We investigated the association between birth weight and RA in a sample of 42 twin pairs discordant for rheumatoid arthritis in which valid information on birth weight, birth length, and order was available from midwife records. Difference plot and conditional logistic regression were...... used to investigate the relationship between RA and birth weight or birth order adjusting for birth length and sex. The intra-pairwise birth weight differences, i.e., RA twin minus co-twin, ranged from -750 to 1,100 g, mean 78 g (95 % CI -13 to 70), 146 g (95 % CI (-36 to 329) in monozygotic, 32 g (95...... % CI -90 to 154) in dizygotic, same sex and 69 g (95 % CI -122 to 260) in dizygotic, opposite sex twin pairs. The odds ratio for birth weight as risk factor for RA was 1.00 (95 % CI 0.997-1.003) when adjusting for birth length, birth order, and sex, irrespective of ACPA status. The odds ratio...

  4. Milk sharing and formula feeding: Infant feeding risks in comparative perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karleen D. Gribble

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of Internet forums that facilitate peer-to-peerhuman milk sharing has resulted in health authorities statingthat sharing human milk is dangerous. There are risksassociated with all forms of infant feeding, includingbreastfeeding and the use of manufactured infant formulas.However, health authorities do not warn against usingformula or breastfeeding; they provide guidance on how tomanage risk. Cultural distaste for sharing human milk, notevidenced-based research, supports these official warnings.Regulating bodies should conduct research and disseminateinformation about how to mitigate possible risks of sharinghuman milk, rather than proscribe the practice outright.

  5. Asma bronquial: factores de riesgo de las crisis y factores preventivos Bronchial asthma: risk factors of crises and preventive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Abdo Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, y con motivo de los avances que se realizan en el campo de la investigación del asma bronquial, los conceptos en su prevención han ido cambiando entre los especialistas que lo tratan. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo llevar el conocimiento básico necesario a los profesionales de la medicina, para que a cada paciente asmático, atendido por primera vez, se le determinen los alergenos desencadenantes, los factores agravantes y socioculturales que le rodean y que pueden estar afectándolo. Se aborda la sensibilización a alergenos desde la etapa embrionaria y lactancia en el niño atópico, cuándo debemos considerar a un niño con alto riesgo alérgico, los factores de riesgo más importantes, con experiencias prácticas en el Hospital Universitario “Calixto García”, y las recomendaciones para la prevención de las enfermedades alérgicas en lactantes e infantes de alto riesgo alérgico.En recent years and advances in research field of bronchial asthma, features in its prevention has been changing among specialists treating it. Aim of this paper is to transmit the basic and necessary knowledge to medicine professionals for that in each asthmatic patient treated for the first time, the triggering allergens, aggravating factors, and the surrounded sociocultural ones, affecting him be determined. Authors approach sensitivity to allergens from embryonic stage and the lactation in atopic child, when we must to consider the case of an allergic and in high risk child, the more significant risk factors, with practical experiences in “Calixto García” University Hospital, and recommendations for preventions of allergic diseases in infants and breast-fed child in high risk of allergy.

  6. Labor epidural analgesia is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Agakidou, Eleni; Philip Thomas, Sumesh; Murthy, Prashanth; John Lloyd, David

    2011-09-01

    To explore whether epidural analgesia (EA) in labor is independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia. Retrospective observational study of 480 consecutive term singleton infants born to mothers who received EA in labor (EA group) and 480 term infants delivered to mothers who did not receive EA (NEA group). Mothers in the EA group had significantly higher incidence of intrapartum pyrexia [54/480 (11%) vs. 4/480 (0.8%), OR = 15.1, p neonatal pyrexia [68/480 (14.2%) vs. 15/480 (3.1%), OR = 5.1, p Neonates in the EA group had a median duration of pyrexia of 1 h (maximum 5 h) with a peak temperature within 1 h. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that maternal EA was independent risk factor for neonatal pyrexia (>37.5°C) after controlling for intrapartum pyrexia (>37.9°C) and other confounders (OR = 3.44, CI = 1.9-6.3, p neonates. It is unnecessary to investigate febrile offspring of mothers who have had epidurals unless pyrexia persists for longer than 5 h or other signs or risk factors for neonatal sepsis are present.

  7. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  8. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers...... factors and neonatal growth and outcome at six weeks, five months and 12 months of age were collected. RESULTS: A total of 73 neonates and their mothers were included. Caesarean delivery was given in 78% of the cases. Maternal risk factors included gestational hypertension (33%), smoking (24......%) and placental infarction (17%). Hypoglycaemic episodes developed in 31% of the neonates. At 12 months, 90% had caught up growth and 7% had a neurologically poor outcome. No infants died. CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking and gestational hypertension are important risk factors for the development of IUGR. Special...

  10. Infant nutrition and maternal obesity influence the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T; Oddy, Wendy H; Adams, Leon A; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; de Klerk, Nicholas; Olynyk, John K

    2017-09-01

    The pathway to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents may have its origins in adiposity gains, nutrition and sedentary lifestyle established during childhood. There is inadequate knowledge regarding the associations between infant nutrition and subsequent NAFLD. We examined the association of maternal factors and infant nutrition, with the subsequent diagnosis of NAFLD in adolescents. Adolescents aged 17years in the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Cohort study had fatty liver assessment using liver ultrasound. Prospectively recorded data on maternal pregnancy and infant feeding were examined against a NAFLD outcome during late adolescence. NAFLD was diagnosed in 15.2% of the 1,170 adolescents examined. Ninety-four percent had been breastfed as infants. The duration of breastfeeding before starting supplementary milk was ⩾4months in 54.4% and ⩾6months in 40.6%. Breastfeeding without supplementary milk ⩾6months (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.94, p=0.02), maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (adjusted OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.21-4.32, p=0.01) and adolescent obesity (adjusted OR: 9.08; 95% CI: 6.26-13.17, pNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disorder in which there is too much fat in the liver of people who do not consume excessive amounts of alcohol. In this large study, we found that infants who consumed breast milk for less than 6months before starting infant formula milk, infants who were obese as teenagers or had mothers who were obese at the start of pregnancy, were much more likely to have NAFLD at 17years of age. Based on our findings we consider that reducing the risk of NAFLD in teenagers needs to start before birth, by encouraging normal body mass index before pregnancy, as well as breastfeeding without infant formula milk consumption for the first 6months of life. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Formula and scale for body surface area estimation in high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee

    2010-12-01

    Advances in medical technology and the health sciences have lead to a rapid increase in the prevalence and morbidity of high-risk infants with chronic or permanent sequels such as the birth of early preterm infants. A suitable formula is therefore needed for body surface area (BSA) estimation for high-risk infants to more accurately devise therapeutic regimes in clinical practice. A cohort study involving 5014 high-risk infants was conducted to develop a suitable formula for estimating BSA using four of the existing formulas in the literature. BSA of high-risk infants was calculated using the four BSA equations (Boyd-BSA, Dubois-BSA, Meban-BSA, Mosteller-BSA), from which a new calculation, Mean-BSA, was arithmetically derived as a reference BSA measure. Multiple-regression was performed using nonlinear least squares curve fitting corresponding to the trend line and the new equation, Neo-BSA, developed using Excel and SPSS 17.0. The Neo-BSA equation was constructed as follows: Neo-BSA = 5.520 x W(0.5526) x L(0.300). With the assumption of the least square root relation between weight and length, a BSA scale using only weight was fabricated specifically for clinical applications where weight is more available in high-risk infant populations than is length. The validity of Neo-BSA was evaluated against Meban-BSA, the best of the four equations for high-risk infants, as there is a similarity of subjects in the two studies. The other formulas revealed substantial variances in BSA compared to Neo-BSA. This study developed a new surface area equation, Neo-BSA, as the most suitable formula for BSA measurement of high-risk infants in modern-day societies, where an emerging population of newborns with shorten gestational ages are becoming more prevalent as a result of new advances in the health sciences and new development of reproductive technologies. In particular, a scale for 400-7000 g body weight babies derived from the Neo-BSA equation has the clinical advantage of

  12. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-02-03

    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Risk factors for pertussis in adults and teenagers in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, A; Hughes, G J; Campbell, H; Amirthalingam, G; Andrews, N; Young, N; Coole, L

    2017-04-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis which can be fatal in infants. Although high vaccine coverage led to prolonged disease control in England, a national outbreak of pertussis in 2011 led to the largest increase in over two decades, including a marked increase in cases aged ⩾15 years. A case-control study in four regions of England was undertaken to investigate risk factors for pertussis in adolescents and adults, specifically employment type and professional and household contact with children. Pertussis cases were laboratory-confirmed and aged ⩾15 years. Controls were recruited through general practitioner nomination. Demographic and risk factor information were collected using an online survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate independent associations with outcome. Two hundred and thirty-one cases and 190 controls were recruited. None of the four employment variables (social care, education, health sector, patient contact) were significantly associated with pertussis. Professional contact with children aged child aged 10-14 years was associated with significantly increased odds of pertussis (OR 2·61, 95% CI 1·47-4·64, P = 0·001). Occupational contact with very young children was associated with reduced odds of pertussis, probably due to immune boosting by low-level exposures to B. pertussis. Sharing a household with a young adolescent was a significant risk factor for pertussis in adults and older teenagers. The primary focus of the childhood pertussis vaccination programmes is to prevent infant disease. Although evidence is emerging that adolescent vaccination does not provide indirect protection to infants, our results highlight the importance of children aged 10-14 years in pertussis transmission to older adolescents and adults.

  14. Slow pupillary light responses in infants at high risk of cerebral palsy were associated with periventricular leukomalacia and neurological outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Dijkstra, Linze J.; Hielkema, Tjitske; Kos, Claire; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Having observed slow pupillary light responses (PLRs) in infants at high risk of cerebral palsy, we retrospectively evaluated whether these were associated with specific brain lesions or unfavourable outcomes. Methods: We carried out neurological examinations on 30 infants at very high risk of

  15. PROPHYLACTIC ADMINISTRATION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN TO HIGH-RISK INFANTS AND YOUNG-CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROOTHUIS, [No Value; SIMOES, EAF; LEVIN, MJ; HALL, CB; LONG, CE; RODRIGUEZ, WJ; ARROBIO, J; MEISSNER, HC; FULTON, DR; WELLIVER, RC; TRISTRAM, DA; SIBER, GR; PRINCE, GA; VANRADEN, M; HEMMING, VG

    1993-01-01

    Background. Infants with cardiac disease or prematurity are at risk for severe illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Immune globulin with a high titer of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus may offer infants and young children at risk protection from this serious, common

  16. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  17. Risk factors for diarrheal duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, N M; Caulfield, L E; Black, R E; Macharia, W M

    1997-11-01

    To identify child feeding behavior and household hygiene practices that are risk factors for prolonged diarrheal illness, a longitudinal community study was conducted over a 14-month period among 920 children aged 3-37 months who lived in an urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Morbidity surveillance was done by home visits every third day in the absence of diarrhea and daily during diarrheal illness until termination of the episode. In-home observations were made to characterize maternal hygiene, cooking, and child feeding practices. Overall, 1,496 episodes of diarrhea were detected. The average diarrheal incidence was 3.5 episodes/child-year, and the incidence of diarrhea > 14 days was 3 episodes/100 child-years. Cox regression was used to examine the independent effects of covariates on time to recovery from a diarrheal episode. Adjusted behavioral factors that were observed to influence recovery from diarrhea included: uncovered water containers (rate ratio (RR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.94); giving no fluids (as opposed to oral rehydration solutions (ORS)/sugar salt solutions (SSS)) (RR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77); and administration of diluted cow's milk during the first 3 days of an episode (RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.52). These associations remained significant after adjusting for diarrheal severity. The authors recommend, among other measures, improvement of water storage and promotion of continued feeding with cereal-milk mix during diarrhea.

  18. The effects of parenting interventions for at-risk parents with infants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe Lynne Boe; Rasmussen, Ida Scheel; Klest, Sihu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically...... review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent–child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0–12 months. Design This is a systematic review and meta-analyses. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016...... for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, (2) interventions with a minimum of three sessions and at least half of these delivered postnatally and (3) outcomes reported for child development or parent–child relationship. Results Sixteen studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted...

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angell Linda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased survival of extremely low birth infants due to advances in antenatal and neonatal care has resulted in a population of infants at high risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Therapeutic interventions include the use of antenatal and postnatal steroids however, their effects on the severity of ROP is in dispute. In addition, it has not been investigated whether severe ROP is due to therapeutic interventions or due to the severity of illness. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (greater than stage 2 – International classification of ROP and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, antenatal and postnatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants. Methods Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Lansing, Michigan, during 1993–2000 were followed to determine factors influencing the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmologic examinations were started at 6 weeks and followed until resolution. We used logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio associated with risk factors of ROP. Results Of the neonates with ≤ 1500 g birth weight, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 85% (616/725 survived. Severe retinopathy of prematurity was detected in 7.8% of 576 neonates who had eye examinations. Neonates of lower gestational age (≤ 25 weeks and 26–28 weeks had an increased odds ratio of 8.49 and 3.19 for the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity, respectively, compared to those 29 weeks and older. Late postnatal steroid treatment starting after 3 weeks of life showed 2.9-fold increased odds ratio, in particular administration for two weeks and more (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.52–11.03. With increasing antenatal steroids courses the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity decreased, however, it was not significant. Lower gestational age

  20. [Prenatal risk factors for neonatal asphyxia: how risk for each?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Li; He, Rui-Zhi; Peng, Qian; Guo, Ke-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qiong; Yuan, Hui-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal asphyxia is the third leading cause of neonatal death and main cause of long-term neurodevelopmental handicap throughout the world. Prevention is more important than treatment. Most previous reports are limited to retrospective investigations of the relationships between some prenatal risk factors and low Apgar scores. This study was designed to prospectively investigate the relationship between prenatal risk factors and neonatal asphyxia and the influence of single or multiple risk factors on the incidence of neonatal asphyxia, and examine significant risk factors for neonatal asphyxia. From April 2002 through October 2004, a total of 10 376 live-born newborns were enrolled. Forty-six prenatal risk factors were investigated. Neonatal asphyxia was diagnosed based on the following four items: 1. 1-min Apgar score asphyxia was analyzed. The significant risk factors were screened by single logistic regression analysis and forward stepwise conditional multiple logistic regression analysis, with enrolled threshold alphaor=0.10 and pasphyxia occurred in 117 cases (1.13%) out of the 8 530 cases. In the 1 846 cases without risk factors, none had asphyxia (x2=25.6, pasphyxia increased with increasing numbers of risk factors, from 0.23% in newborns with one risk factor to 14.29% in newborns who had nine risk factors (r=0.96, pasphyxia by systematically examining prenatal risk factors and giving interventions for the newborns with risk factors, especially those with the above significant risk factors or with multiple risk factors. Proper cesareon section according to indications might be helpful to decrease the incidence of birth asphyxia.

  1. Assessing ventilatory control in infants at high risk of sleep disordered breathing: a study of infants with cleft lip and/or palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Joanna E; Tan, Sara; Fitzgerald, Dominic A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia results in altered ventilatory response to subsequent hypoxia in animal models. The effect of similar exposure in human infants is unknown. Our objective was to determine the impact of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in early infancy on ventilatory response in infants. We recruited consecutive infants with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) to undergo ventilatory response testing using exposure to a hypoxic (15% O(2) ) gas mixture during sleep. This population is at high risk of SDB because of smaller airway caliber and abnormal palatal muscle attachments predisposing them to airway obstruction of ranging severity from birth. Ventilatory responses were compared between infants with a low apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; AHI pattern of ventilatory response to hypoxia differed between the two groups; infants with high AHI had an earlier ventilatory decline and a blunted maximal ventilatory response to hypoxia. Infants with a high AHI use a different strategy to augment ventilation in response to hypoxia; while infants with a low AHI initially increased respiratory rate, tidal volume was the first parameter to increase in infants with high AHI. These results demonstrate that SDB in infancy is associated with altered ventilatory response to hypoxia. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination during pregnancy and reduced risk of infant acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R; Conlin, Ava Marie S

    2017-10-09

    To protect infants from pertussis infection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy. Here, we assessed the association between timing of maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants <2months of age. This retrospective cohort study included 99,434 infants born to active duty military women in the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry from 2006 through 2013. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and infant ARI at <2months of age. Infants of mothers who received Tdap vaccination during pregnancy vs those who did not were 9% less likely to be diagnosed with an ARI at <2months of age (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99), and the risk was 17% lower if vaccination was received between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). Similar results were observed when comparing mothers who received Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy in addition to Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy versus mothers who only received vaccination prior to pregnancy (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98). Maternal Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy was consistently protective against infant ARI in the first 2months of life vs no vaccination during pregnancy, regardless of Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy. Our findings strongly support current ACIP guidelines recommending Tdap vaccination in late pregnancy for every pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatores de risco de anemia em lactentes matriculados em creches públicas ou filantrópicas de São Paulo Risk factors for anemia in infants enrolled in public or philanthropic day-care centers in São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Konstantyner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e quantificar os fatores de risco de anemia em lactentes matriculados em creches públicas ou filantrópicas no município de São Paulo e discutir o impacto das ações da creche no controle desta carência nutricional específica. MÉTODO: Estudo seccional compreendendo 212 lactentes de duas creches públicas e três filantrópicas. Foram realizadas entrevistas com as mães, coleta de sangue por punção digital e antropometria. Considerou-se como anemia, hemoglobina inferior a 11g/dL. Foi ajustado um modelo de regressão logística para fatores de risco entre grupos de lactentes com e sem anemia. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 51,9%. O modelo logístico final foi composto por 4 variáveis: presença de 1 ou mais irmãos menores que 5 anos (Odds Ratio=2,57; p=0,005; estar freqüentando creche de administração exclusivamente pública (Odds Ratio=2,12; p=0,020; uso de aleitamento materno exclusivo inferior a 2 meses (Odds Ratio=1,88; p=0,044, e idade inferior a 15 meses (Odds Ratio=2,32; p=0,006. CONCLUSÃO:Concluiu-se que a alta prevalência de anemia evidencia a ineficiência das creches estudadas para controlar e prevenir esta carência nutricional; portanto, cabe ao planejador de saúde considerar os riscos de anemia identificados e quantificados quando da elaboração de programas de controle e prevenção.OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify the risk factors for anemia in infants enrolled in public or philanthropic day care centers in São Paulo city and discuss the impact of the actions of day care centers in controlling this specific nutritional deficiency. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising 212 infants of two public and three philanthropic day care centers. Interviews with the mothers, collection of blood by digital puncture and anthropometry were performed. Anemia was characterized by hemoglobin levels below 11g/dL. A logistic regression model for risk factors between groups of infants with

  4. Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Heather Cody; Gu, Hongbin; Munsell, Brent C; Kim, Sun Hyung; Styner, Martin; Wolff, Jason J; Elison, Jed T; Swanson, Meghan R; Zhu, Hongtu; Botteron, Kelly N; Collins, D Louis; Constantino, John N; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Evans, Alan C; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gerig, Guido; Kostopoulos, Penelope; McKinstry, Robert C; Pandey, Juhi; Paterson, Sarah; Pruett, John R; Schultz, Robert T; Shaw, Dennis W; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2017-02-15

    Brain enlargement has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the timing of this phenomenon, and the relationship between ASD and the appearance of behavioural symptoms, are unknown. Retrospective head circumference and longitudinal brain volume studies of two-year olds followed up at four years of age have provided evidence that increased brain volume may emerge early in development. Studies of infants at high familial risk of autism can provide insight into the early development of autism and have shown that characteristic social deficits in ASD emerge during the latter part of the first and in the second year of life. These observations suggest that prospective brain-imaging studies of infants at high familial risk of ASD might identify early postnatal changes in brain volume that occur before an ASD diagnosis. In this prospective neuroimaging study of 106 infants at high familial risk of ASD and 42 low-risk infants, we show that hyperexpansion of the cortical surface area between 6 and 12 months of age precedes brain volume overgrowth observed between 12 and 24 months in 15 high-risk infants who were diagnosed with autism at 24 months. Brain volume overgrowth was linked to the emergence and severity of autistic social deficits. A deep-learning algorithm that primarily uses surface area information from magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of 6-12-month-old individuals predicted the diagnosis of autism in individual high-risk children at 24 months (with a positive predictive value of 81% and a sensitivity of 88%). These findings demonstrate that early brain changes occur during the period in which autistic behaviours are first emerging.

  5. Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

  6. Non-Adjacent Dependency Learning in Infants at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie; de Bree, Elise; de Klerk, Maartje; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical…

  7. Prognostic significance of neurological signs in high-risk infants : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the significance of specific neurological signs in infancy, in particular in infants at risk for developmental problems such as cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Embase, Web of

  8. Non-adjacent dependency learning in infants at familial risk of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, A.; de Bree, E.; de Klerk, M.; Wijnen, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder

  9. The General Movement Assessment Helps Us to Identify Preterm Infants at Risk for Cognitive Dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einspieler, Christa; Bos, Arend F.; Libertus, Melissa E.; Marschik, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Apart from motor and behavioral dysfunctions, deficits in cognitive skills are among the well-documented sequelae of preterm birth. However, early identification of infants at risk for poor cognition is still a challenge, as no clear association between pathological findings based on neuroimaging

  10. Tissue oxygenation monitoring in newborn infants at risk of circulatory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Seriously ill newborn infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at high risk of developing organ damage as a result of impaired organ blood flow and therefore impaired tissue oxygen delivery. Currently, organ tissue oxygen delivery cannot be measured continuously. Due to the

  11. Attachment and At-Risk Infants: Theoretical Perspectives and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Rick; Wallach, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the basic dimensions of Bowlby's theory of infant attachment. Provides an overview of the basic definitions and propositions of his theory, in addition to the clinical applications of his theory to the field of early education and intervention with at-risk children and their families. (EV)

  12. Low Dose Aminophylline Effectively Decreases the Risk of Post-Operative Apnea in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodneshin, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the most common reason behind surgical procedures in premature newborns. Anesthesia in these patients is life-threatening due to post-operative apnea of prematurity (POA). This study aimed to determine the predisposing factors to POA in premature infants and to explore the role of prophylactic aminophylline in decreasing the incidence of POA. Materials and Methods Fifty patients with prematurity who were candidates for elective eye surgery (less than one hour) were selected and received aminophylline (3 mg/kg) 5 minutes after the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane. Patients were kept in the recovery room for 2 hours post-operation in an incubator and were monitored for SPO2, apnea, bradycardia and other signs of desaturation and apnea. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the gestational age and weight, sex, postconceptual age and weight and other demographic characteristics between the experimental and control groups. Gestational ageapnea. Treatment with aminophylline as compared with the placebo was associated with a significantly decreased risk of post-operative apnea (OR=0.53; 95% CI 0.28–0.98; P=0.034). Conclusion Aminophylline can be used prophylactically to decrease the risk of postoperative apnea with no major adverse effects. PMID:25713589

  13. Low dose aminophylline effectively decreases the risk of post-operative apnea in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Roodneshin, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the most common reason behind surgical procedures in premature newborns. Anesthesia in these patients is life-threatening due to post-operative apnea of prematurity (POA). This study aimed to determine the predisposing factors to POA in premature infants and to explore the role of prophylactic aminophylline in decreasing the incidence of POA. Fifty patients with prematurity who were candidates for elective eye surgery (less than one hour) were selected and received aminophylline (3 mg/kg) 5 minutes after the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane. Patients were kept in the recovery room for 2 hours post-operation in an incubator and were monitored for SPO2, apnea, bradycardia and other signs of desaturation and apnea. There were no statistically significant differences in the gestational age and weight, sex, postconceptual age and weight and other demographic characteristics between the experimental and control groups. Gestational ageapnea. Treatment with aminophylline as compared with the placebo was associated with a significantly decreased risk of post-operative apnea (OR=0.53; 95% CI 0.28-0.98; P=0.034). Aminophylline can be used prophylactically to decrease the risk of postoperative apnea with no major adverse effects.

  14. The mathematical pathogenetic factors analysis of acute inflammatory diseases development of bronchopulmonary system among infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Lezhenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. To study the factor structure and to establish the associative interaction of pathogenetic links of acute diseases development of the bronchopulmonary system in infants.Materials and methods. The examination group consisted of 59 infants (average age 13.8 ± 1.4 months sick with acute inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases. Also we tested the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(ОНD, vitamin D-binding protein, hBPI, cathelicidin LL-37, ß1-defensins, lactoferrin in blood serum with the help of immunoenzymometric analysis. Selection of prognostically important pathogenetic factors of acute bronchopulmonary disease among infants was conducted using ROC-analysis. The procedure for classifying objects was carried out using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis by the method of Centroid-based clustering. Results. Based on the results of the ROC-analysis were selected 15 potential predictors of the development of acute inflammatory diseases of the bronchopulmonary system among infants. The factor analysis made it possible to determine the 6 main components . The biggest influence in the development of the disease was made by "the anemia factor", "the factor of inflammation", "the maternal factor", "the vitamin D supply factor", "the immune factor" and "the phosphorus-calcium exchange factor” with a factor load of more than 0.6. The performed procedure of hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the initial role of immuno-inflammatory components. The conclusions. The highlighted factors allowed to define a group of parameters, that must be influenced to achieve a maximum effect in carrying out preventive and therapeutic measures. First of all, it is necessary to influence the "the anemia factor" and "the calcium exchange factor", as well as the "the vitamin D supply factor". In other words, to correct vitamin D deficiency and carry out measures aimed at preventing the development of anemia. The prevention and treatment of the pathological course of

  15. Risk factors for nosocomial infections in selected neonatal intensive care units in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Mario A; Efird, Meica M; Lozano, Juan M; Bose, Carl L; Rojas, María X; Rondón, Martín A; Ruiz, Gloria; Piñeros, Juan G; Rojas, Catherine; Robayo, Guillermo; Hoyos, Angela; Gosendi, Maria H; Cruz, Hernan; O'Shea, Michael; Leon, Angela

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to identify risk factors for nosocomial infections among infants admitted into eight neonatal intensive care units in Colombia. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors could be used to guide the design of interventions to prevent the problem. Data were collected prospectively from eight neonatal units. Nosocomial infection was defined as culture-proven infection diagnosed after 72 hours of hospitalization, resulting in treatment with antibiotics for >3 days. Associations were expressed as odds ratios. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. From a total of 1504 eligible infants, 80 were treated for 127 episodes of nosocomial infection. Logistic regression analysis identified the combined exposure to postnatal steroids and H2-blockers, and use of oral gastric tubes for enteral nutrition as risk factors significantly associated with nosocomial infection. Nosocomial infections in Colombian neonatal intensive care units were associated with modifiable risk factors including use of postnatal steroids and H2-blockers.

  16. Atypical object exploration skills in infants at-risk for autism between 6 to 15 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninderjit eKaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually diagnosed after the second year of life. Early signs of ASD within the first year of life are still unclear. The main purpose of the present study was to compare object exploration skills between infants at-risk for ASD and typically developing (TD infants to determine early markers for autism within the first year of life. Sixteen at-risk infants and 16 TD infants were longitudinally followed from 6 to 15 months of age during an object exploration task involving three objects with distinct size, shape, and texture, i.e., a long rattle, a rigid circular ball, and a soft circular koosh ball. All sessions were videotaped for coding of manual, oral, and visual exploration. We also obtained follow-up outcomes using various developmental questionnaires at 18 months and email follow-up on developmental delays/ASD diagnoses after the infants’ second birthdays. Our results showed object-based differences in exploration patterns that extend across both groups. We also noticed group differences for various object exploration behaviors across objects and ages. Specifically, at 6 months, at-risk infants showed less grasping of the rigid ball as well as less mouthing and greater looking at the rattle compared to TD infants. At 9 and 12 months, at-risk infants demonstrated significantly lower levels of purposeful dropping of all objects. Lastly, at 15 months, at-risk infants looked longer at the rattle and showed persistent mouthing of the rigid ball and rattle compared to TD infants. In addition, 10 out of 16 at-risk infants developed various motor, social, and language delays or ASD diagnoses at follow-up. Taken together, early context-dependent delays/abnormalities in object exploration could be markers for future developmental delays in infants at-risk for autism. Moreover, promoting early object experiences through socially embedded object play could have implications for

  17. The Preterm Infant: A High-Risk Situation for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael; Hammerman, Cathy; Bhutani, Vinod K

    2016-06-01

    Prematurity and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The 2 conditions may interact additively or synergistically, contributing to extreme hyperbilirubinemia, with the potential for bilirubin neurotoxicity. This hyperbilirubinemia is the result of sudden, unpredictable, and acute episodes of hemolysis in combination with immaturity of bilirubin elimination, primarily of conjugation. Avoidance of contact with known triggers of hemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals will prevent some, but not all, episodes of hemolysis. All preterm infants with G6PD deficiency should be vigilantly observed for the development of jaundice both in hospital and after discharge home. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients.

  19. Polyhydramnios. Risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Mariam; Saquib, Shabnam; Rizvi, Syed G

    2008-02-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with polyhydramnios, and assess the maternal and perinatal outcome in these patients. A prospective study of all deliveries complicated with polyhydramnios in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman between January 2005 and April 2006. Polyhydramnios was divided into mild and moderate to severe based on the amniotic fluid index values. The demographic data, antenatal complications, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, postpartum complications, and perinatal outcome were studied. A total of 2648 singleton deliveries occurred during the study period. Two hundred and eight (7.8%) women with polyhydramnios formed the study group, and 2440 women with normal amniotic fluid formed the control. Polyhydramnios was mild in 179 (86.1%) and moderate to severe in 29 (13.9%) cases. Sixty-eight (32.7%) of these pregnancies were complicated with diabetes as compared with 12.4% of the controls. Preterm delivery occurred in 16 (7.7%) cases. Cesarean delivery rate was 27.9% in the study group compared with 17.3% in the control. Major congenital anomalies were found in 2.8% of newborns compared with 1% among the controls. Eighteen babies were admitted to the special care baby unit. These data demonstrates a significant positive relation with maternal age, diabetes in pregnancy, and fetal macrosomia with polyhydramnios. Anemia during pregnancy, cesarean delivery rate, and congenital anomalies were significantly higher in the study group.

  20. Nourodevelopmental follow-up in high-risk infants: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing and developing are influenced by genetic, social and environmental factors and it's most important and initial phase step is formed of the early life of the fetus and infant. According to the world health organization, the incidence of preterm birth and low birth weight are increasing in most countries that most of it related to developing countries. Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems that can affect growing and developing so that it can threaten public health. Advances in medical technology in recent decades at intensive care unit, increased survival of premature infants and high-risk specialist care is needed, but failed, to reduce the complications of premature birth but it couldn’t reduce complications of preterm birth. There is also an increased recognition of the potential disconnect between perinatal outcomes and long-term outcomes. The administration of oxygen and postnatal steroids are prime examples of interventions that may have immediate positive effects but negative long-term effects. Many premature babies will be encounter with mobility problems, cognitive, neurosensory impairments, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances in the future. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Without a doubt, one of the tragedies of the world is people with physical or mental damage caused by premature birth, many of these disorders are not early diagnosed and the prediction of long term complications of infants discharged from the NICU is difficult. Although nourodevelopmental follow-up of these babies is a necessary part of the neonatal assessment but there is no standard process

  1. Late preterm infants – impact of perinatal factors on neonatal results. A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Jakiel

    2015-09-01

    It is necessary to thoroughly establish the type of delivery of a late preterm infant in order to prevent an infection in the newborn child. The improvement of diagnosis of intrauterine hypoxia may reduce the number of Caesarean sections. The decision about late preterm delivery should be based on indices of the mother’s state of health. Premature delivery is related to the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome in a late preterm infant, although the risk is reduced by the application of an antenatal steroid therapy.

  2. Gravidez na adolescência e outros fatores de risco para mortalidade fetal e infantil no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Teenage pregnancy and other risk factors for fetal and infant mortality in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fernandes Viellas de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar o efeito da gravidez na adolescência e outros fatores de risco para a mortalidade fetal e infantil no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo foi desenvolvido em uma amostra de nascimentos do município, e as variáveis de exposição foram organizadas em níveis de hierarquia. Para óbito fetal, pré-natal adequado revelou efeito protetor, e morbidade materna aumentou seu risco. No óbito neonatal, pré-natal adequado e recém-nascido do sexo feminino foram fatores de proteção. No entanto, cor da pele da mãe preta ou parda, história prévia de nascido morto, morbidade materna e agressão física na gestação elevaram o risco. O baixo peso e a prematuridade foram corroborados como determinantes do óbito fetal e neonatal. No óbito pós-neonatal, o risco foi mais elevado na presença de maior número de gestações anteriores, morbidade na gestação e o baixo peso ao nascer. A gravidez na adolescência surgiu com um efeito direto para o óbito pós-neonatal. Os achados reafirmam a relevância das políticas sociais e de saúde voltadas para os adolescentes e a melhoria da atenção pré-natal.This article analyzes teenage pregnancy and other risk factors for fetal and infant mortality in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study included a sample of births in Rio de Janeiro, and exposure variables were organized hierarchically. For fetal death, the results showed the protective effect of adequate prenatal care, while maternal morbidity increased the risk. For neonatal death, adequate prenatal care and female gender in the newborn were protective factors, while black or brown maternal skin color, history of stillbirth, maternal morbidity, and physical aggression during the index pregnancy increased the risk. Low birth weight and prematurity were corroborated as determinants of fetal and neonatal death. Risk of post-neonatal death was highest with increased parity, intra-gestational morbidity, and low

  3. Increased Prevalence of Unusual Sensory Behaviors in Infants at Risk for, and Teens with, Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, Hannah M; Kaur, Maninderjit; Srinivasan, Sudha M; Cohen, Shereen J; Bhat, Anjana; Dobkins, Karen R

    2017-11-01

    The current study investigated the prevalence and pattern of unusual sensory behaviors (USBs) in teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and infants (3-36 months) at risk for ASD. From two different sites (UCSD and UConn), caregivers of infants at high (n = 32) and low risk (n = 33) for ASD, and teenagers with (n = 12) and without ASD (n = 11), completed age-appropriate Sensory Profile questionnaires (Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile; Dunn 2002; Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile; Brown and Dunn 2002). The results show that high-risk infants and teenagers with ASD exhibit higher-than-typical prevalence of USBs. Results of our distribution analyses investigating the direction of sensory atypicalities (greater-than-typical vs. less-than-typical) revealed a fair degree of consistency amongst teens, however, USB patterns were more varied in high-risk infants.

  4. New reference values must be established for the Alberta Infant Motor Scales for accurate identification of infants at risk for motor developmental delay in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kegel, A; Peersman, W; Onderbeke, K; Baetens, T; Dhooge, I; Van Waelvelde, H

    2013-03-01

    The Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS) is a reliable and valid assessment tool to evaluate the motor performance from birth to independent walking. This study aimed to determine whether the Canadian reference values on the AIMS from 1990-1992 are still useful tor Flemish infants, assessed in 2007-2010. Additionally, the association between motor performance and sleep and play positioning will be determined. A total of 270 Flemish infants between 0 and 18 months, recruited by formal day care services, were assessed with the AIMS by four trained physiotherapists. Information about sleep and play positioning was collected by mean of a questionnaire. Flemish infants perform significantly lower on the AIMS compared with the reference values (P motor scores seem to be related to the sleep position, the amount of play time in prone, in supine and in a sitting device. Infants who are exposed often to frequently to prone while awake showed a significant higher motor performance than infants who are exposed less to prone (6 m: P = 0.013). Infants who are placed often to frequently in a sitting device in the first 6 months of life (P = 0.010) and in supine after 6 months (P = 0.001) performed significantly lower than those who are placed less in it. Flemish infants recruited by formal day care services, show significantly lower motor scores than the Canadian norm population. New reference values should be established for the AIMS for accurate identification of infants at risk. Prevention of sudden infant death syndrome by promoting supine sleep position should go together with promotion of tummy time when awake and avoiding to spent too much time in sitting devices when awake. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  6. Fatores de risco para a doença por refluxo gastroesofágico em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso portadores de displasia broncopulmonar Risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís B. Mendes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer os fatores de risco para a doença por refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso com displasia broncopulmonar. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo caso-controle incluindo 23 casos e 23 controles com displasia broncopulmonar, sendo realizada investigação por monitorização prolongada do pH esofágico no período de janeiro de 2001 a outubro de 2005. Para cada caso, selecionou-se um controle, e foram comparados pela idade gestacional, peso ao nascimento, gênero, uso de corticóide pré-natal, tempo de ventilação assistida, tempo de oxigenoterapia, tempo de uso de sonda gástrica, uso de xantinas, idade pós-conceptual e peso durante a monitorização do pH esofágico. Realizou-se a análise por regressão logística múltipla para estabelecer o odds ratio (OR com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Os dois grupos (com e sem DRGE não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação às variáveis demográficas e de evolução pós-natal, uso de corticóide pré e pós-natal, bem como ao tempo de uso de cafeína, ventilação mecânica e oxigenoterapia. Entretanto, as variáveis intolerância alimentar (OR = 6,55; IC95% 1,05-40,8 e tempo de uso de sonda gástrica (OR = 1,67; IC95% 1,11-2,51 comportaram-se como fatores de risco para DRGE. A variável idade pós-conceptual ao exame de monitorização do pH (OR = 0,02; IC95% OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in 23 cases and 23 control subjects with bronchopulmonary dysplasia submitted to 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring between January 2001 and October 2005. Cases and controls were compared for gestational age, birth weight, gender, use of antenatal steroids, duration of assisted ventilation, duration of oxygen therapy, length of gastric tube use, administration of xanthines

  7. Process evaluation of a multiple risk factor perinatal programme for a hard-to-reach minority group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Arlette E.; Harting, Janneke

    2011-01-01

    Aim. This article is a report of an evaluation of a multiple risk factor perinatal programme tailored to ethnic Turkish women in the Netherlands. Background. The programme was directed at multiple risk factors and aimed at improving maternal lifestyle, infant care practices and psychosocial health

  8. Identification of Behavioral Risk Factors During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruţa Florina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

  9. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  10. Association of Maternal Preeclampsia With Infant Risk of Premature Birth and Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julia P; Weng, Cindy; Wilkes, Jacob; Greene, Tom; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Studies report conflicting associations between preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). This study provides explanations for the discrepancies to clarify the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP. To evaluate the association of maternal preeclampsia and risk of ROP among infants in an unrestricted birth cohort and a restricted subcohort of preterm, very low birth weight (P-VLBW) infants. A retrospective review of 290 992 live births within the Intermountain Healthcare System in Utah from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regressions with covariate adjustment were applied to relate ROP to preeclampsia among the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants born at younger than 31 weeks' gestation and weighing less than 1500 g. The occurrence of ROP was related to maternal preeclampsia in the full cohort and in a subcohort of P-VLBW infants. In the full cohort, 51% of the infants were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 38.38 (1.87) weeks. In the P-VLBW cohort, 55% were male and the mean (SD) gestational age was 26.87 (2.40) weeks. In the full cohort, preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of all ROP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% CI, 2.17-2.79; P preeclampsia was inversely associated with the development of all ROP (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92; P = .003), severe ROP (aOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.36-1.06; P = .08), and infant death (aOR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.11-0.32; P Preeclampsia was associated with an increased risk of developing ROP among an unrestricted cohort but with a reduced risk of ROP among a restricted subcohort of P-VLBW infants. Although the conflicting associations in the full and P-VLBW cohorts may reflect true differences, the association of a reduced risk of ROP among the P-VLBW subcohort also may reflect biases from restricting the cohort to prematurity, because prematurity is an outcome of preeclampsia.

  11. Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2007-05-01

    Controversial information exists on the contribution of several dietary factors for overweight development in childhood, but there is no doubt that obesity prevalence is increasing. We review the most up-to-date information in order to clarify the evidence-based dietary aspects influencing obesity development in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are the preferred method for analysing the relationship between dietary factors and obesity development. With the exception of infants, there are no conclusive associations between energy intake or diet composition and later overweight development in children. Among formula or mixed-fed infants, the increase in energy intake has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight during childhood. Breastfeeding seems to be a protective factor for later obesity development. In terms of food intake, longitudinal studies have only found a clear and positive association between obesity development and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; this is not the case with snacking, fast food or food portion sizes. Cross-sectional studies have found correlations between being overweight in childhood and buying lunch at school, eating supper while watching television or without family supervision, consuming less energy at breakfast or more at dinner, and missing breakfast. Results from longitudinal studies must be taken into account in order to design preventive strategies to counteract the increased prevalence of obesity and its consequences in children. Lack of breastfeeding, high early energy intake and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seem to be the main dietary factors contributing to obesity development.

  12. Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon

    2017-07-01

    Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery is rare and has not been extensively studied. We performed a retrospective review of cesarean deliveries with neonatal clavicle fracture during a 12-year period. Maternal and neonatal factors as well as surgical factors related to cesarean delivery for the fracture were determined and compared to the control group to analyze their significance. Among a total 89 367 deliveries during the study period, 36 286 babies were born via cesarean section. Nineteen cases of clavicle fractures in cesarean section were identified (0.05% of total live births via cesarean section). In the analysis of maternal and neonatal risk factors, birthweight, birthweight ≥ 4000  g and maternal age were significantly associated with clavicle fracture in cesarean section. However, clavicle fractures were not correlated with the selected surgical factors such as indication for cesarean section, skin incision to delivery time and incision type of skin and uterus. Logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the major risk factor for clavicle fracture. Clavicle fractures complicated 0.05% of cesarean deliveries. The main risk factor related to a clavicle fracture in cesarean section was the birthweight of an infant. As reported in previous studies associated with vaginal delivery, clavicle fracture is considered to be an unavoidable event and may not be eliminated, even in cesarean delivery.

  13. Mothers' and Clinicians' Priorities for Obesity Prevention Among Black, High-Risk Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Gruver, Rachel S; Gerdes, Marsha; Power, Thomas J; Magge, Sheela N; Shults, Justine; Faerber, Jennifer A; Kalra, Gurpreet K; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T; Suh, Andrew W; Berkowitz, Robert I; Fiks, Alexander G

    2016-07-01

    Despite many recommended strategies for obesity prevention during infancy, effectively delivering recommendations to parents in clinical settings is challenging, especially among high-risk populations. This study describes and compares mothers' and clinicians' priorities for obesity prevention during infancy, to facilitate more-effective obesity prevention messaging. A discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling was administered in 2013 and analyzed in 2013-2014. Twenty-nine low-income, obese mothers of infants and 30 pediatric clinicians from three urban primary care practices rated the relative importance of 16 items relevant to obesity prevention during infancy, in response to this question: Which topic would be most helpful [for new mothers] to learn about to prevent your [their] child from becoming overweight? Response options encompassed the domains of feeding, sleep, parenting (including physical activity and screen time), and maternal self-care. Mothers (all Medicaid-enrolled and black; mean age, 27 years; mean BMI, 35 kg/m(2)) and clinicians (97% female, 87% pediatricians, 13% nurse practitioners) both highly prioritized recognizing infant satiety and hunger cues, and appropriate feeding volume. Mothers rated infant physical activity and maintaining regular routines as 3.5 times more important than clinicians did (pobese, black mothers of infants highly prioritized learning about many effective obesity prevention strategies, including recognizing hunger and satiety cues, promoting infant activity, and maintaining regular routines. Clinicians may frame preventive guidance to be responsive to these priorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Symptomatic acquired zinc deficiency in at-risk premature infants: high dose preventive supplementation is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarot, Sébastien; Chantier, Emilie; Kuster, Alice; Hello, Muriel; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Blouin, Eric; Stalder, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in many metabolisms. Zinc deficiency induces various disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, either inherited or acquired. We report three cases of premature infants (24-31 wks gestational age) with low birthweight (650 to 940 g) and enteropathy, two of whom presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. All infants were fed by total parenteral nutrition. At a chronological age ranging from 73 to 80 days, all infants developed a periorificial dermatitis. Before the onset of the first signs, they had received zinc supplementation ranging from 146% to 195% of the recommended dose (400 microg/kg/day). Increased zinc supplementation over a course of 6-18 days induced a complete resolution of symptoms in all cases. No abnormality in the neurologic examination and no recurrence were observed at the end of the zinc treatment. Low birthweight premature infants with enteropathy on total parenteral nutrition are at risk of developing zinc deficiency. The usual recommended zinc supplementation is probably insufficient for those infants. A delay in the diagnosis of zinc deficiency may lead to severe complications.

  15. Contribution of Histologic Chorioamnionitis and Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome to Increased Risk of Brain Injury in Infants With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Lu, Jun-Ying

    2016-08-01

    To determine the association of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) and fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) with brain injuries in infants born to mothers with preterm premature rupture of membranes. A total of 103 singleton infants born to mothers with preterm premature rupture of membranes were enrolled. The placental inflammation was confirmed by HCA, and FIRS was defined in fetuses with preterm labor and an elevation of the fetal plasma interleukin-6 concentration. Examination of brain images was conducted to confirm the existence of brain injuries. Based on placental HCA and umbilical cord blood interleukin-6 level, all patients were divided into three groups: HCA(-)FIRS(+), HCA(+)FIRS(-), and HCA(+)FIRS(+). Among all infants with preterm premature rupture of membranes, 53.40% were exposed to HCA, 20.38% experienced FIRS, and the overall incidence of brain injuries was 38.83%. The incidence of brain injury in HCA(-)FIRS(+), HCA(+)FIRS(-), and HCA(+)FIRS(+) groups were 20.83%, 41.18%, and 76.19%, respectively. HCA at the advanced grades and stages was associated with increased risk of brain injury. Umbilical cord blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in premature infants with brain injuries were significantly higher than in those without brain injuries. Infants diagnosed with both HCA and FIRS showed significantly higher levels of IL-8, TNF-α, and G-CSF than those with HCA alone. Preterm infants exposed to severe chorioamnionitis had an increased risk of brain injury. IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and G-CSF in cord blood were associated with brain injuries in preterm infants and may be used as extradiagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proof of concept of microbiome-metabolome analysis and delayed gluten exposure on celiac disease autoimmunity in genetically at-risk infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sellitto

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a unique autoimmune disorder in which the genetic factors (DQ2/DQ8 and the environmental trigger (gluten are known and necessary but not sufficient for its development. Other environmental components contributing to CD are poorly understood. Studies suggest that aspects of gluten intake might influence the risk of CD occurrence and timing of its onset, i.e., the amount and quality of ingested gluten, together with the pattern of infant feeding and the age at which gluten is introduced in the diet. In this study, we hypothesize that the intestinal microbiota as a whole rather than specific infections dictates the switch from tolerance to immune response in genetically susceptible individuals. Using a sample of infants genetically at risk of CD, we characterized the longitudinal changes in the microbial communities that colonize infants from birth to 24 months and the impact of two patterns of gluten introduction (early vs. late on the gut microbiota and metabolome, and the switch from gluten tolerance to immune response, including onset of CD autoimmunity. We show that infants genetically susceptible to CD who are exposed to gluten early mount an immune response against gluten and develop CD autoimmunity more frequently than at-risk infants in which gluten exposure is delayed until 12 months of age. The data, while derived from a relatively small number of subjects, suggest differences between the developing microbiota of infants with genetic predisposition for CD and the microbiota from infants with a non-selected genetic background, with an overall lack of bacteria of the phylum Bacteriodetes along with a high abundance of Firmicutes and microbiota that do not resemble that of adults even at 2 years of age. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis reveals potential biomarkers for the prediction of CD. This study constitutes a definite proof-of-principle that these combined genomic and metabolomic approaches will be key to

  17. SOME OF THE RISK FACTORS FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Stanković – Babić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP remains the main cause of visual impairment in preterm infants. The study was aimed to assess the impact of some of the risk factors (gestational age, body weight of children at birth, associated diseases in children, maternal age at delivery, maternal smoking during pregnancy, multiple pregnancies on the occurrence of ROP in the sample of premature infants. We statistically processed the results (Student’s t test and the χ2 test of 93 preterm infants of both sexes: 39 boys and 54 girls, examined by indirect ophthalmoscope (Haine 500, Germany in mydriasis. The examination included all premature neonates with birth weight ≤ 2000g and/or gestational age ≤37 weeks, as well as neonates >37 weeks which have associated risk factors (oxygen, ventilation, sepsis, etc. Among 93 premature infants, with normal findings on the retina there were 72 children (77.42%, while in 21 (22.58% children we found ROP. Ophthalmological findings: the first stage of ROP was found in 15.05%, the second stage of ROP in 2.15% and third stage of ROP in 5.38% of the examined children. There were no patients with an aggressive form of ROP. Children with ROP were statistically of lower gestational age - 32.10 ± 2.70 compared to children without ROP - 35.37 ± 1.72 (p<0.001. Children with ROP had at birth significant lower body weight of 1741g ± 579.19 than children without ROP - 2168.75 ± 528.58 (p<0.01. Mothers of the children with ROP were, at the time of giving birth, over 29 ± 6.09 years old compared to mothers of children without ROP who were 26.42 ± 5.75 years old (p=0.0773. The presence of other diseases was significantly more prevalent in children with ROP 52.38% vs. 2.78% (p<0.001. The number of mothers of children with ROP who smoked during their pregnacy was considerable - 57.14 % vs. 37.50% (percent of non-smoking mothers, though the difference was not statistically significant. Knowing the risk factors and their

  18. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in a South African public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoline Schoeman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of neonatal dysphagia is increasing, as medical advances contribute to the survival of critically ill and preterm infants. Additional factors such as low birth weight (LBW, gastro-oesoephageal reflux disorder, failure-to-thrive (FTT, and HIV may increase the complexity of dysphagia symptoms. Knowledge of context-specific risk factors for dysphagia may lead to an effective pathway of diagnosis and management in vulnerable neonates. Objective. To describe the feeding characteristics and categories of underlying medical conditions in infants of gestational age 24 - 42 weeks. Methods. The study was a retrospective review of 231 purposively selected medical and speech-language therapy records. Participants had a mean stay of 28.5 days in a neonatal intensive care unit in a peri-urban public hospital and were referred for a swallowing and feeding assessment. An existing seven-category framework for the classification of suspected dysphagia was used. Results. Most participants (90.0% presented with multiple medical conditions. Underlying neurological conditions (48.5% and feeding difficulties secondary to systemic illness (65.8% contributed mostly to suspected dysphagia in the sample. It was found that 71.0% of infants presented with feeding difficulties secondary to other conditions such as LBW and prematurity, highlighting the need for an expanded dysphagia classification framework. Conclusion. The results concur with the outcomes of previous studies and confirm the need for a unique classification framework in South Africa. Dysphagia is a complex condition and frequently cannot be attributed to a single risk factor.

  19. [The composition of gut microbiota in infant and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Feng, J Q; Fan, A Q; Zhang, M J; Zhou, Y L; Liu, T; Xu, Y J

    2017-05-06

    Gut microbiota provide enzymes and additional biochemical metabolic pathways for the host, which together with the host genome and the external environment, influence the body function. The composition of gut microbiota in infant is closely related to health in later life. However, it is influenced by many factors, including delivery mode, feeding pattern, prenatal diet, pregnancy psychology and antepartum antibiotic treatment. Vaginal delivery and breastfeeding is beneficial for shaping gut microbiota, while cesarean section and formula feeding would reduce the amount of gut dominant bacteria. In addition, inappropriate diet during pregnancy, prenatal stress and antepartum antibiotic treatment alters bacterial colonization of the gut in infant.

  20. Study of mortality risk factors for children under age 5 in Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hosani, H A; Brebner, J; Bener, A B; Norman, J N

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the association of biological, sociocultural and economic risk factors with child mortality in Abu Dhabi from 1 January-31 December 1997. With McNemar chi-squared test, most selected biological risk factors were statistically associated with child mortality, although maternal age older than 40 years and history of fetal death were not positively correlated with neonate, infant or age under 5 mortality. Among sociocultural and economic risk factors, maternal lack of formal education and low monthly income were significantly associated with child death. Consanguinity was significantly associated with under 5 and infant but not neonatal mortality. Gestation <37 weeks was highly associated with mortality among all ages. Strengthening health care programmes and emphasizing the need to identify high risk groups should be priorities.

  1. Risk factors for admission and the role of respiratory syncytial virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Risk factors for admission of children with acute bronchiolitis have remained controversial. Technological advances in the measurements of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte. (CTL) activity, enable respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)- specific CTL activity to be studied in infants with bronchiolitis for the first time. We evaluated ...

  2. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, ... There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0/5 in reporting BW in the studied MCHs. In conclusion, a rate ...

  3. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population residing in highland areas experience lower rates of malaria transmission than in ... Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cog- nitive development, and chronic ..... College students exchange programme and Danish. International Development Agency.

  4. Do high-risk infants have a poorer outcome from primary repair of coarctation? Analysis of 192 infants over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuinness, Jonathan G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Balloon angioplasty for infant coarctation is associated with a high recurrence rate, making operative repair the gold standard for low-risk infants. Debate exists as to whether high-risk infants might be better served with primary angioplasty. We compared the outcome in high-risk versus low-risk infants over 20 years, in a center that always used surgical repair as the primary intervention. METHODS: Of 192 infants from 1986 to 2005, 56 were considered "high-risk," defined as requiring prostaglandin infusion together with either epinephrine infusion for 24 hours preoperatively, or ventilation and milrinone infusion for 24 hours preoperatively. All high-risk patients had a period of ventricular dysfunction prior to surgery, ranging from mild to severe. Outcomes were compared using Bonferroni comparison of means or the Fischer exact test as appropriate. RESULTS: Although the high-risk patients were smaller (3.3 +\\/- 0.1 vs 4.2 +\\/- 0.2 kg, p < 0.01), younger (18 +\\/- 4 vs 57 +\\/- 7 days, p < 0.01), and more often required a concomitant pulmonary artery band (25% vs 15%, p = 0.05), their cross-clamp times were the same as the low-risk patients (18.9 +\\/- 0.9 vs 18.0 +\\/- 0.4 minutes, p = 0.27) and there was no difference in postoperative morbidity (7% vs 3%, p = 0.11). However, there was a trend toward higher perioperative mortality (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). When compared with the published studies of primary angioplasty in comparable high-risk infants, the mortality rate in our surgically treated high-risk group is much lower. Additionally, only 11% of our high-risk group required reintervention, with two-thirds treated successfully with a single angioplasty at 3.8 +\\/- 2.2 years later, far lower than recurrence rates with primary angioplasty. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that primary surgical repair of coarctation in infants who are high risk should be the primary treatment, with angioplasty reserved for recurrent coarctation.

  5. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  6. The general movement assessment helps us to identify preterm infants at risk for cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa eEinspieler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from motor and behavioral dysfunctions, deficits in cognitive skills are among the well-documented sequelae of preterm birth. However, early identification of infants at risk for poor cognition is still a challenge, as no clear association between pathological findings based on neuroimaging scans and cognitive functions have been detected as yet. The Prechtl General Movement Assessment (GMA has shown its merits for the evaluation of the integrity of the young nervous system. It is a reliable tool for identifying infants at risk for neuromotor deficits. Recent studies on preterm infants demonstrate that abnormal general movements also reflect impairments of brain areas involved in cognitive development. The aim of this systematic review was to discuss studies that included (i the Prechtl GMA applied in preterm infants, and (ii cognitive outcome measures in six data bases. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and yielded the following results: (a children born preterm with consistently abnormal general movements up to 8 weeks after term had lower intelligence quotients at school age than children with an early normalization of general movements; (b from 3 to 5 months after term, several qualitative and quantitative aspects of the concurrent motor repertoire, including postural patterns, were predictive of intelligence at 7 to 10 years of age. These findings in 428 individuals born preterm suggest that normal general movements along with a normal motor repertoire during the first months after term are markers for normal cognitive development until at least age 10.

  7. Spatiotemporal analysis of infant measles using population attributable risk in Shandong province, 1999-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduction of measles incidence and mortality has been encouraging in China. However, it remains an important public health concern among infants. This study aimed to examine the space-time distribution pattern of infant measles occurrence for the period of 1999-2008 in Shandong, China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Measles cases among infants aged younger than 1 year were obtained from the national infectious diseases reporting information system. A spatiotemporal analysis using population attributable risk percent (PAR% was used to distinguish between multiple geographic clusters of potential interest. The analysis detected 29 statistically significant space-time clusters with the most likely cluster in Zaozhuang City from 2006 to 2008. Of the 28 secondary clusters, 22 were found in 2008. The map of PAR%, relative risk (RR and space-time cluster analysis indicated that the clusters were generally unchanged, and were found south-west and north-west of Shandong. The Lanshan District in Linyi had the highest PAR%, while highest RR was in the Yicheng District in Zaozhuang. CONCLUSION: There were significant space-time clusters of infant measles in Shandong over the study period. PAR% is an effective way to analyze multiple clusters from their application like RR. Interrupting measles circulation and maintaining routine coverage over 95% may be the only effective strategy to achieve measles elimination.

  8. Risk factors for neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia in southern Nepal: a prospective, community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne C C; Mullany, Luke C; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Shrestha, Shardaram R; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2008-05-01

    Our goal was to identify antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Data were collected prospectively during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial evaluating the impact of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity in Sarlahi, Nepal. A total of 23662 newborn infants were enrolled between September 2002 and January 2006. Multivariable regression modeling was performed to determine adjusted relative risk estimates of birth asphyxia mortality for antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors. Birth asphyxia deaths (9.7/1000.0 live births) accounted for 30% of neonatal mortality. Antepartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality included low paternal education, Madeshi ethnicity, and primiparity. Facility delivery; maternal fever; maternal swelling of the face, hands, or feet; and multiple births were significant intrapartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality. Premature infants (asphyxia mortality compared to term infants of afebrile mothers. Maternal infections, prematurity, and multiple births are important risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in the low-resource, community-based setting. Low socioeconomic status is highly associated with birth asphyxia, and the mechanisms leading to mortality need to be elucidated. The interaction between maternal infections and prematurity may be an important target for future community-based interventions to reduce the global impact of birth asphyxia on neonatal mortality.

  9. Non-Expert Ratings of Infant and Parent Emotion: Concordance with Expert Coding and Relevance to Early Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason K.; Haltigan, John D.; Brewster, Ryan; Jaccard, James; Messinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a novel approach to obtaining data on parent and infant emotion during the Face-to-Face/Still-Face paradigm, and examined these data in light of previous findings regarding early autism risk. One-hundred and eighty eight non-expert students rated 38 parents and infant siblings of children who did (20) or did not (18) have…

  10. REFLECTING ON THE PRACTICE OF INFANT MENTAL HEALTH AND THE REDUCTION OF RISK IN INFANCY AND EARLY PARENTHOOD: AN ESSAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherston, Deborah J

    2017-01-01

    This essay discusses infant mental health (IMH) as well as its origins and relational framework. The author then reflects, professionally and personally, on the meaning of psychological vulnerability of boys under 5 years of age, the importance of early caregiving relationships to the reduction of risk, and implications for education and training in the IMH field. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present. History of Preeclampsia/Eclampsia: Women with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia have an increased risk of future hypertension and stroke one to 30 years after delivery. Hypertension: Women with chronic primary or secondary hypertension, ...

  12. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a predictor factor for motor alteration at 6 months corrected age in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Priscila Silveira; Mello,Rosane Reis de; Silva,Kátia Silveira da

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as a predisposing factor for alteration in the psychomotor development index (PDI) in premature infants and verify the incidence of neuromotor alterations at 6 months corrected age. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor development of 152 very low birth weight premature infants, with psychomotor development index as the outcome. The study used the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 6 mo...

  13. Evaluation of the infant at risk for neurodevelopmental disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives_ To assess and compare, in terms of predicting neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year of age: (i) a perinatal risk rating (PRR); (ii) the DubQwitz Neurological ... A prospective neurodevelopmental followup study on graduates from the Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH) neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Subjects.

  14. The Study of Maternal Perception of Preterm Infants and Some Related Factors in Selected Hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafoorie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Appropriate maternal care is necessary to provide Physical growth and mental development of neonate which is related to establishing a good relationship between mother and infant. Positive perception of mothers to their neonates, creates a better relationship between them. Maternal perception of neonates is based on her understanding of biological behavior of the infant. Special features of prematurity, maternal stress and anxiety due to premature delivery are effective on maternal perceptions. The purpose of this study was to determine the maternal perception of premature infants as determining it’s related factors. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 150 mothers of preterm infants who were been admitted to Neonatal intensive care units of 2 selected hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, entered the study. Broussard questionnaire were used to measure the maternal perception. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical analysis and Kay square and Fisher's exact tests were used for analyzing the data. Results: Most of mother’s had a negative perception of their preterm infant. Based on the results, Mather’s job, fathers’ job, mothers’ age, husband’s support, desire about the pregnancy, history of miscarriage and still birth were related with perception of mothers of preterm infants. Discussion: Negative perceptions in mothers of preterm infants are prevalent and in some groups are in higher risk. As negative perception can have a role in developmental processes and cause problems in future, preparing circumstances to decrease mothers’ stress and providing facilities and interventions to increase mother-infant communications are essential. These are treatment team’s duties. The health care team can screen susceptible cases and by supportive interventions, it is possible to create better mother-baby relationship and prepare better care to prevent future developmental problems.

  15. Cost and effects of risk factor guided screening strategies for retinopathy of prematurity for different treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; van Sorge, Arlette J; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the cost and effects of risk factor guided screening strategies for retinopathy of prematurity. Clinical data from the Netherlands Retinopathy of Prematurity study (NEDROP study) that included all infants screened for ROP and born in 2009 were used to assess the cost and effects of several screening strategies for ROP using different criteria: (1) gestational age (GA), (2) birthweight (BW), (3) combined GA-BW and (4) combined GA-BW and presence of risk factors. Two treatment strategies were evaluated: the infants actually treated in the NEDROP study (n = 17) and all infants detected with severe ROP (n = 29). The most efficient screening strategy to include all infants treated for both treatment strategies is to screen all infants with a GA of 30 weeks or less and a BW of 1250 g or lower together with infants with a GA of 30-32 weeks and a BW of 1250-1500 g with at least one risk factor. The marginal cost ranged from €43 848 to € 226 914 per additional infant with improved vision. The current Dutch guideline may be improved: the same effectiveness can be obtained for lower costs. Releasing the precondition that no infants with severe ROP might be missed will lead to lower costs, but this will also lead to a lower number of infants with improved visual acuity. The costs of detecting all infants with severe ROP seem acceptable for society when the QALY gain and savings from a societal perspective resulting from improved vision are taken into account. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Do Stroke Patients Know Their Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomann, Maarja; Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Janika

    2016-03-01

    Risk factor management is the key to stroke prevention. Although several studies have assessed the awareness of different risk factors in the general public, there are limited data available on how well acute stroke patients know their own risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess stroke patients' informedness of their own stroke risk factors. All consecutive eligible acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients hospitalized at the Tartu University Hospital, Department of Neurology, during 9 months in 2010 were interviewed about different stroke risk factors within 72 hours from hospitalization. The respective information was also retrieved from medical records. Of the 341 patients admitted during the study period, 195 were eligible for the interview. Diabetes was the best known risk factor (89%) followed by hypertension (80%), atrial fibrillation (78%), previous stroke (77%), and heart failure and/or ischemic heart disease (66%). We found that acute stroke patients are best informed of their diabetes and worst informed of their ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure. There is, however, room for amelioration in the awareness of all of the studied risk factors. More attention should be addressed to explaining the risks and treatment options to patients at risk of stroke and the general population. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk Factors Affecting the Severity of Full-Term Neonatal Retinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to explore the underlying clinical factors associated with the degree of retinal hemorrhage (RH in full-term newborns. Methods. A total of 3054 full-term infants were included in this study. Eye examinations were performed with RetCamIII within one week of birth for all infants. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal parameters were compared between newborns with RH and controls. The RH group was divided into three sections (I, II, and III based on the degree of RH. Results. RH was observed in 1202 of 3054 infants (39.36% in this study. The quantity and proportion of newborns in groups I, II, and III were 408 (13.36%, 610 (19.97%, and 184 (6.03%, respectively. Spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD, prolonged duration of second stage of labor, advanced maternal age, and neonatal intracranial hemorrhage positively correlated with aggravation of the degree of RH in newborns. Conversely, cesarean section was protective against the incidence of RH. Conclusions. SVD, prolonged duration of second stage of labor, advanced maternal age, and neonatal intracranial hemorrhage were potential risk factors for aggravation of the degree of RH in full-term infants. Accordingly, infants with these risk factors may require greater attention with respect to RH development.

  18. ["Medical Texts and Jorunals," and Resources on "Prenatal Risk,""Premature and Low Birthweight Infants,""Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding"; "Effectiveness of Early Intervention." IPHA Birth-to-Three Clearinghouse Bibliographies 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Public Health Association, Springfield.

    Five separate bibliographies present citations of resources regarding prenatal risk, premature and low birthweight infants, infant nutrition and breastfeeding, and early intervention for infants with disabilities. The first bibliography lists 133 references from medical texts and journals regarding child development, disabilities, diagnosis, and…

  19. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the main cause of visual impairment in preterm newborn infants. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3 is associated with proliferative ROP and has a role in pathogenesis of the disease in premature infants. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 preterm infants born at or before 32 weeks of gestation participated in this study. Studied patients consisted of 41 neonates without vaso-proliferative findings of ROP as the control group and 30 preterm infants with evidence of severe ROP in follow up eye examination as the case group. Blood samples obtained from these infants 6-8 weeks after birth and blood levels of IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The mean gestation age and birth weight of the studied patients were 28.2±1.6 weeks and 1120.7±197 gram in the case group and 28.4±1.6 weeks and 1189.4±454 gram in the control group (P=0.25 and P=0.44 respectively. The infants in the case group had significantly lower Apgar score at first and 5 min after birth. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3 was significantly lower in the patients with proliferative ROP than the patients without ROP [592.5±472.9 vs. 995.5±422.2 ng/ml (P=0.009]. Using a cut-off point 770.45 ng/ml for the plasma IGFBP-3, we obtained a sensitivity of 65.9% and a specificity of 66.7% in the preterm infants with vasoproliferative ROP. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that the blood levels IGFBP-3 was significantly lower in the patients with ROP and it is suspected that IGFBP-3 deficiency in the premature infants may have a pathogenetic role in proliferative ROP.

  20. [Apnea of prematurity: risk factors and ambulatory treatment with caffeine citrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, S; Biran-Mucignat, V; Boelle, P-Y; Lebas, F; Baudon, J-J; Gold, F

    2006-10-01

    Apnea of prematurity develop during the first days of life and usually resolve by the time the infant reaches 36-37 weeks postmenstrual age. In a few cases, they persist beyond term, especially in infants delivered at the youngest gestational ages (24-28 GA), and require specific care. In our unit, those preterm babies are discharged home with caffeine citrate treatment. Discontinuing the treatment is performed in hospital when they achieve a postmenstrual age of at least 42 weeks. To identify predictive factors of persistent apnea in preterm babies. Retrospective study comparing a population of 41 preterm infants discharged with treatment to 123 preterm babies discharged without treatment to identify predictors of persistent apnea. Factors significantly associated were: birth weightapnea can be responsible for prolonged hospitalization. Risk factors can be identified in some children. Discharging with treatment can be an alternative to their hospitalization.

  1. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective o...

  2. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.; Wal, G. van der; Bouter, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  3. RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE AND USE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-04-04

    Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in its diagnosis. ... therapy. Several risk factors are shared between ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke and these have been well documented. Stroke has .... history, physical examination, electrocardiography or chest.

  4. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  5. Do pacifiers reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Fern R; Omojokun, Olanrewaju O; Siadaty, Mir S

    2005-11-01

    Pacifier use has been reported to be associated with a reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), but most countries around the world, including the United States, have been reluctant to recommend the use of pacifiers because of concerns about possible adverse effects. This meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify and evaluate the protective effect of pacifiers against SIDS and to make a recommendation on the use of pacifiers to prevent SIDS. We searched the Medline database (January 1966 to May 2004) to collect data on pacifier use and its association with SIDS, morbidity, or other adverse effects. The search strategy included published articles in English with the Medical Subject Headings terms "sudden infant death syndrome" and "pacifier" and the keywords "dummy" and "soother." Combining searches resulted in 384 abstracts, which were all read and evaluated for inclusion. For the meta-analysis, articles with data on the relationship between pacifier use and SIDS risk were limited to published original case-control studies, because no prospective observational reports were found; 9 articles met these criteria. Two independent reviewers evaluated each study on the basis of the 6 criteria developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Infant Positioning and SIDS; in cases of disagreement, a third reviewer evaluated the study, and a consensus opinion was reached. We developed a script to calculate the summary odds ratio (SOR) by using the reported ORs and respective confidence intervals (CI) to weight the ORs. We then pooled them together to compute the SOR. We performed the Breslow-Day test for homogeneity of ORs, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for the null hypothesis of no effect (OR = 1), and the Mantel-Haenszel common OR estimate. The consistency of findings was evaluated and the overall potential benefits of pacifier use were weighed against the potential risks. Our recommendation is based on the taxonomy of the 5-point (A-E) scale adopted

  6. Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in the First 1,000 Days: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Locks, Lindsey M; Cheng, Erika R; Blake-Lamb, Tiffany L; Perkins, Meghan E; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the origins of childhood obesity and related disparities can be found as early as the "first 1,000 days"-the period from conception to age 2 years. The main goal of this study is to systematically review existing evidence for modifiable childhood obesity risk factors present from conception to age 2 years. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies published between January 1, 1980, and December 12, 2014, of childhood obesity risk factors present during the first 1,000 days. Prospective, original human subject, English-language research with exposure occurrence during the first 1,000 days and with the outcome of childhood overweight or obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex) collected between age 6 months and 18 years were analyzed between December 13, 2014, and March 15, 2015. Of 5,952 identified citations, 282 studies met inclusion criteria. Several risk factors during the first 1,000 days were consistently associated with later childhood obesity. These included higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal excess gestational weight gain, high infant birth weight, and accelerated infant weight gain. Fewer studies also supported gestational diabetes, child care attendance, low strength of maternal-infant relationship, low SES, curtailed infant sleep, inappropriate bottle use, introduction of solid food intake before age 4 months, and infant antibiotic exposure as risk factors for childhood obesity. Modifiable risk factors in the first 1,000 days can inform future research and policy priorities and intervention efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [The relationship between socioeconomic factors and maternal and infant health programs in 13 Argentine provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, Graciela; Paganini, José María

    2007-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between maternal and infant health and socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors in Argentina; to evaluate how health program quality affects the primary health indicators for mothers and infants. This is a cross-sectional study with multiple variables. The authors studied six indicators for maternal and infant health: rates for maternal, infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality; the percentage of newborns with low birthweight; and the percentage of premature newborns. The study was conducted in 79 administrative units in 13 provinces that represent different geographic regions of Argentina. They included (1) the provinces of Salta and Jujuy in northwest Argentina; (2) the provinces of Córdoba, Santa Fe, and Buenos Aires in central Argentina; (3) the provinces of Entre Ríos and Misiones in the Mesopotamia or northeast region; (4) the provinces of San Luis, San Juan, and Mendoza in the Cuyo or northwest, Andean region; and (5) the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, and Chubut in the south. The explanatory variable in the study was the quality of health programs, controlled by socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors in 1999 and 2000. The definition of program quality ("poor," "average," "good," and "very good") was based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of selected variables such as policies, organization, and procedures as determined by the investigators. Documentation was obtained from secondary official sources. The investigators interviewed 117 health system managers (including supervisors of provincial and local health programs, administrators of maternal and child health programs, and hospital directors), who provided information on characteristics and indicators of the health programs. There were marked geographic differences in the levels of maternal and infant health, medical care, and socioeconomic, cultural, and sanitation factors. Only 10.0% of health programs were classified as "very good," 35.4% as

  8. Parent-delivered early intervention in infants at risk for ASD: Effects on electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J H; Dawson, Geraldine; Kelly, Jean; Estes, Annette; Jane Webb, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infants with older siblings with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have indicated that differences in the neurocogn