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Sample records for infant memory development

  1. Multiple Memory Systems Are Unnecessary to Account for Infant Memory Development: An Ecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Cuevas, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    How the memory of adults evolves from the memory abilities of infants is a central problem in cognitive development. The popular solution holds that the multiple memory systems of adults mature at different rates during infancy. The "early-maturing system" (implicit or nondeclarative memory) functions automatically from birth, whereas the…

  2. Development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tamami; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2017-03-08

    The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24 hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where the character would show up before it actually came out, but 6- and 12-month-old infants did not. Next, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a different video story, in which a human grabbed one of two objects to hit back at the character. In their second viewing after a 24-hour delay, 18- and 24-month-old infants increased viewing time on the objects before the character grabbed one. In this viewing, 24-month-old infants preferentially looked at the object that the human had used, but 18-month-old infants did not show such preference. Our results show that infants at 18 months of age have developed long-term event memory, an ability to encode and retrieve a one-time event and this ability is elaborated thereafter.

  3. Development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants: an eye-tracking study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Tamami; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24?hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where ...

  4. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  5. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  6. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  7. Infants' Recognition Memory for Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1976-01-01

    Fifty 4-month-old infants were habituated to one wavelength of light and then tested for recognition with the original and two new spectral lights. After short- and long-term delays with different types of retroactive interference, the results indicated that the infants' recognition memory for hue was quite resilient to interference or delay. (JMB)

  8. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  9. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  10. Commentary: Memory Development: Halfway There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Nora S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of development vacillates between a focus on change (i.e., studying how and why infants are so different from adults) and excitement about early competence and continuity (i.e., studying how capable infants are, and marveling at how similar they turn out to be to adults). The study of memory development has been no exception. This…

  11. Infants' Delayed Recognition Memory and Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joseph F., III

    1973-01-01

    Infants 21- to 25-weeks-old devoted more visual fixation to novel than familiar stimuli on immediate and delayed recognition tests. The experiments confirm the existence of long-term recognition memory for pictorial stimuli in the early months of life. (DP)

  12. The Sleeping Infant Brain Anticipates Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuela; Wilhelm, Ines; Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan; Friederici, Angela D

    2017-08-07

    From the age of 3 months, infants learn relations between objects and co-occurring words [1]. These very first representations of object-word pairings in infant memory are considered as non-symbolic proto-words comprising specific visual-auditory associations that can already be formed in the first months of life [2-5]. Genuine words that refer to semantic long-term memory have not been evidenced prior to 9 months of age [6-9]. Sleep is known to facilitate the reorganization of memories [9-14], but its impact on the perceptual-to-semantic trend in early development is unknown. Here we explored the formation of word meanings in 6- to 8-month-old infants and its reorganization during the course of sleep. Infants were exposed to new words as labels for new object categories. In the memory test about an hour later, generalization to novel category exemplars was tested. In infants who took a short nap during the retention period, a brain response of 3-month-olds [1] was observed, indicating generalizations based on early developing perceptual-associative memory. In those infants who napped longer, a semantic priming effect [15, 16] usually found later in development [17-19] revealed the formation of genuine words. The perceptual-to-semantic shift in memory was related to the duration of sleep stage 2 and to locally increased sleep spindle activity. The finding that, after the massed presentation of several labeled category exemplars, sleep enabled even 6-month-olds to create semantic long-term memory clearly challenges the notion that immature brain structures are responsible for the typically slower lexical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual Short-Term Memory for Complex Objects in 6- and 8-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' visual short-term memory (VSTM) for simple objects undergoes dramatic development: Six-month-old infants can store in VSTM information about only a simple object presented in isolation, whereas 8-month-old infants can store information about simple objects presented in multiple-item arrays. This study extended this work to examine…

  14. Greater Caregiving Risk, Better Infant Memory Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Quan, Jeffry; Richmond, Jenny; Goh, Shaun Kok Yew; Sim, Lit Wee; Chong, Yap Seng; Francois-Bureau, Jean; Chen, Helen; Qiu, Anqi

    2018-04-16

    Poor early life care often relates to cognitive difficulties. However, newer work suggests that in early-life, adversity may associate with enhanced or accelerated neurodevelopment. We examine associations between postnatal caregiving risks (i.e., higher self-reported postnatal-anxiety and lower observed maternal sensitivity) and infant relational memory (i.e. via deferred imitation and relational binding). Using subsamples of 67-181 infants (aged 433-477 post-conceptual days, or roughly five to seven months since birth) taking part in the GUSTO study, we found such postnatal caregiving risk significantly predictive of "better" performance on a relational binding task following a brief delay, after Bonferroni adjustments. Subsequent analyses suggest that the association between memory and these risks may specifically be apparent amongst infants spending at least 50% of their waking hours in the presence of their mothers. Our findings echo neuroimaging research concerning similar risk exposure and larger infant hippocampal volume, and likewise underscore the importance of considering developmental context in understanding early life experience. With this in mind, these findings caution against the use of cognitive outcomes as indices of experienced risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Infant Visual Recognition Memory: Independent Contributions of Speed and Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined contributions of cognitive processing speed, short-term memory capacity, and attention to infant visual recognition memory. Found that infants who showed better attention and faster processing had better recognition memory. Contributions of attention and processing speed were independent of one another and similar at all ages studied--5,…

  16. Timely sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Seehagen, Sabine; Konrad, Carolin; Herbert, Jane S.; Schneider, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The potential benefits of infant sleep for memory processing are largely unexplored. Here we show evidence that having an extended nap (≥30 min) within 4 h of learning helps 6- and 12-month-old infants to retain their memories for new behaviors across a 4- and 24-h delay. These results suggest that infants rely on frequent naps for the formation of long-term memories.

  17. Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Miller, Linda G.

    This book provides teachers of infants and toddlers with an in-depth guide to infant and toddler development, theories of growth and development, and best practices in early childhood education. The chapters are: (1) "Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development," looking at the underlying principles of developmental and interactional…

  18. Dissociation between Features and Feature Relations in Infant Memory: Effects of Memory Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Four experiments examined effects of the number of features and feature relations on learning and long-term memory in 3-month olds. Findings suggested that memory load size selectively constrained infants' long-term memory for relational information, suggesting that in infants, features and relations are psychologically distinct and that memory…

  19. Declarative memory in abused and neglected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Carol L; Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    adaptive to develop exceptional event memory so as to avoid the events that lead to abuse. Mechanisms of plasticity are responsible for the laying down of memories (Aimone, Wiles, & Gage, 2006). Thus, the higher performance seen in the abused group could be related to a preservation of brain plasticity that facilitates resilience in the face of poverty, stress, and/or trauma. Plasticity in the brains of the neglected children may be lost due to the lack of stimulation, leaving them more vulnerable to the stress of poverty and neglect. In conclusion, maltreated children have often been studied as a single group. However, it is becoming clear from research conducted by our group and others that the subtypes of maltreatment may have different developmental sequelae. It is important that we understand the differential pathways involved in the development of abused versus neglected children. As discussed in other chapters of this volume, the imitation paradigm has emerged as a valuable tool in the identification of at-risk infants and toddlers. With the data reported here, it is evident that data from the elicited imitation procedure utilized herein differentiates between the subtypes of maltreatment. Research must be conducted to further elucidate the correlates of resilience in toddlers who have been abused. A longitudinal investigation would enable investigation of the questions of continuity of the observed increase in imitative behavior and whether increased imitation has a detrimental social effect while exerting a bolstering cognitive effect.

  20. Infants use temporal regularities to chunk objects in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Melissa M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants, like adults, can maintain only a few items in working memory, but can overcome this limit by creating more efficient representations, or "chunks." Previous research shows that infants can form chunks using shared features or spatial proximity between objects. Here we asked whether infants also can create chunked representations using regularities that unfold over time. Thirteen-month old infants first were familiarized with four objects of different shapes and colors, presented in successive pairs. For some infants, the identities of objects in each pair varied randomly across familiarization (Experiment 1). For others, the objects within a pair always co-occurred, either in consistent relative spatial positions (Experiment 2a) or varying spatial positions (Experiment 2b). Following familiarization, infants saw all four objects hidden behind a screen and then saw the screen lifted to reveal either four objects or only three. Infants in Experiment 1, who had been familiarized with random object pairings, failed to look longer at the unexpected 3-object outcome; they showed the same inability to concurrently represent four objects as in other studies of infant working memory. In contrast, infants in Experiments 2a and 2b, who had been familiarized with regularly co-occurring pairs, looked longer at the unexpected outcome. These infants apparently used the co-occurrence between individual objects during familiarization to form chunked representations that were later deployed to track the objects as they were hidden at test. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the familiarization affected infants' ability to remember the occluded objects rather than merely establishing longer-term memory for object pairs. Following familiarization to consistent pairs, infants who were not shown a hiding event (but merely saw the same test outcomes as in Experiments 2a and b) showed no preference for arrays of three versus four objects. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, we asked

  1. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is on the changing table. Consider the following important safety tips: Be aware of poisons (household cleaners, cosmetics, ... middle of the back seat. It is very important for the driver to pay attention to driving, not playing with the infant. If you need ...

  2. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  3. Auditory context and memory retrieval in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, J; Prigot, J; Carroll, M; Pioli, L; Stein, A; Franco, A

    1997-12-01

    Three-month-old infants were trained to move an overhead crib mobile while 1 of 2 musical selections was played. Retention was assessed 1 or 7 days later in the presence of either the same music or a different musical selection. In Experiment 1, the musical selections were very different (classical versus jazz); in Experiment 2, they were much more similar (two classical pieces). Infants in both experiments displayed 1 day retention regardless of which music was played during the retention test. At 7 days, retention was seen only when the music played during the retention test matched the training music. These data are consistent with similar findings showing that 3-month-old infants' memory is disrupted at long retention intervals when the context present during retention testing does not match the learning context. As the infant's memory wanes, context appears to function as a necessary cue for the retrieval of acquired expectancies.

  4. Infants' Learning, Memory, and Generalization of Learning for Bimodal Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Lasenby, Jennifer; Lee, Naomi

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examined the impact of temporal synchrony on infants' learning of and memory for sight-sound pairs. Findings indicated that 7-month-olds had no difficulty learning auditory-visual pairs regardless of temporal synchrony, remembering them 10 minutes later and 1 week later. Three-month-olds showed poorer learning in no-synchrony than in…

  5. A Conditioning Analysis of Infant Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the long-term retention of conditioned operant footkicks by three-month-old infants. Views a conditioning analysis as a logical means by which to bridge the gap between animal and adult human models of memory. (Author/RH)

  6. Infants' Memory Processing of a Serial List: List Length Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, Michele; Sweeney, Becky; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that increasing the length of a mobile serial list impaired 6-month olds' memory for serial order. Findings indicated that the primacy effect was absent on a 24-hour delayed recognition test and was exhibited on a reactivation test, adding to growing evidence that young infants possess two functionally distinct…

  7. Red to green or fast to slow? Infants' visual working memory for "just salient differences".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 6-month-old infants' visual working memory for a static feature (color) and a dynamic feature (rotational motion) was compared. Comparing infants' use of different features can only be done properly if experimental manipulations to those features are equally salient (Kaldy & Blaser, 2009; Kaldy, Blaser, & Leslie, 2006). The interdimensional salience mapping method was used to find two objects that each were one Just Salient Difference from a common baseline object (N = 16). These calibrated stimuli were then used in a subsequent two-alternative forced-choice preferential looking memory test (N = 28). Results showed that infants noted the color change, but not the equally salient change in rotation speed. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Infant and Newborn Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During their first year, babies start to develop skills they will use for the rest of their lives. The normal growth of babies can be broken down into the following areas: Gross motor - controlling the head, sitting, crawling, maybe even starting ...

  9. Four-Month-Old Infants? Long-Term Memory for a Stressful Social Event

    OpenAIRE

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to s...

  10. Perceptual Constraints on Infant Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardstein, Peter; Liu, Jane; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined characteristics of a stimulus-cueing retrieval from long-term memory for 3-month olds. Used mobiles displaying either Qs (feature-present stimuli) or Os (feature-absent stimuli) and tested 24 hours later. Findings indicated that target-distractor similarity constraints, whether or not a feature-present stimulus, would…

  11. The Development of Attention Systems and Working Memory in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Romano, Alexandra C

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review research and theory on the development of attention and working memory in infancy using a developmental cognitive neuroscience framework. We begin with a review of studies examining the influence of attention on neural and behavioral correlates of an earlier developing and closely related form of memory (i.e., recognition memory). Findings from studies measuring attention utilizing looking measures, heart rate, and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicate significant developmental change in sustained and selective attention across the infancy period. For example, infants show gains in the magnitude of the attention related response and spend a greater proportion of time engaged in attention with increasing age (Richards and Turner, 2001). Throughout infancy, attention has a significant impact on infant performance on a variety of tasks tapping into recognition memory; however, this approach to examining the influence of infant attention on memory performance has yet to be utilized in research on working memory. In the second half of the article, we review research on working memory in infancy focusing on studies that provide insight into the developmental timing of significant gains in working memory as well as research and theory related to neural systems potentially involved in working memory in early development. We also examine issues related to measuring and distinguishing between working memory and recognition memory in infancy. To conclude, we discuss relations between the development of attention systems and working memory.

  12. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that your tone of voice communicates ideas and emotions as well. Change positions. Hold your baby facing ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-development/art-20048012 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  13. Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Harrison, Tondi; Heathcock, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (pshort-term memory (p=0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Joint Attention on Long-Term Memory in 9-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Joint attention develops during the first year of life but little is known about its effects on long-term memory. We investigated whether joint attention modulates long-term memory in 9-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high…

  15. FOOD NEGLECT AND INFANT DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J; Cross, Theodore P; Vaughn, Michael G; Gochez-Kerr, Tatiana

    2018-03-01

    The impact of food insecurity on child development in the general U.S. population is well-established, yet little is known about the harm of food neglect relative to other types of maltreatment. Due to the harmful physiological impact of inadequate nutrients and the social impact of food-related stress, it was hypothesized that food neglect would be more likely to impair infant cognitive and language development than physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of neglect. Families of infants (N = 1,951) investigated by Child Protective Services were studied using the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II; NSCAW Research Group, 2002). Results from multivariable logistic regression models that controlled for likely confounding variables showed that the odds of impairment in cognition and language were significantly greater when food neglect was the most serious form of maltreatment. Considering that both food insecurity and child neglect are associated with poverty and parental mental health problems, it will be important for child welfare and mental health professionals to work collaboratively to better the health of these vulnerable children. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Two Are Better Than One: Comparison Influences Infants' Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Lisa M.; Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; Horst, Jessica S.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a large literature on infants' memory for visually presented stimuli, the processes underlying visual memory are not well understood. Two studies with 4-month-olds (N = 60) examined the effects of providing opportunities for comparison of items on infants' memory for those items. Experiment 1 revealed that 4-month-olds failed to show…

  17. Long-term memory for pitch in six-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Judy; Trainor, Laurel J

    2003-11-01

    We examined 6-month-old infants' long-term memory representations for the pitch of familiar melodies. Infants remembered the relative pitch of the melodies, but the absolute pitch was either not remembered or not a particularly salient attribute.

  18. The influence of training views on infants' long-term memory for simple 3D shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraebel, Kimberly S; West, Rebecca N; Gerhardstein, Peter

    2007-05-01

    This investigation explored infants' ability to retrieve a memory for a simple 3D shape from a novel view following a 24-hr delay. Tests of memory for shape in infancy have typically used extremely short delay intervals between familiarization and test in examining the ability to equate between substantially different views of a 3D object. The current study used longer delays to assess the content of a long-term memory representation. Infants 3-4 months of age learned to kick to move a mobile displaying a simple 3D shape (brick or cylinder). Results of three experiments show that infants can recognize 3D shapes in a novel viewpoint across a 24-hr delay, provided that experience with a sufficiently wide range of views is available during training. The results suggest a capacity for the perception of 3D shape that enables access, across long delays, to a memory representation of sufficient detail that discrimination between two simple shapes (i.e., a cylinder and a brick) is possible. The results suggest that this representation is of a sufficiently abstract nature that perception of the 3D form of the object, independent of the changes in specific features accompanying changes in viewpoint, is also possible. This finding suggests that infants, like adults, possess a functional memory system for the distal shape of simple 3D objects, and can transfer training to a novel view using long-term memory, but that this ability is not as strong as in the mature system. These results have implications for the development of shape perception and for theories of object recognition in general. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Selective attention neutralizes the adverse effects of low socioeconomic status on memory in 9-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Ackerman, Laura K; Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima

    2016-04-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has a documented impact on brain and cognitive development. We demonstrate that engaging spatial selective attention mechanisms may counteract this negative influence of impoverished environments on early learning. We previously used a spatial cueing task to compare target object encoding in the context of basic orienting ("facilitation") versus a spatial selective attention orienting mechanism that engages distractor suppression ("IOR"). This work showed that object encoding in the context of IOR boosted 9-month-old infants' recognition memory relative to facilitation (Markant and Amso, 2013). Here we asked whether this attention-memory link further interacted with SES in infancy. Results indicated that SES was related to memory but not attention orienting efficacy. However, the correlation between SES and memory performance was moderated by the attention mechanism engaged during encoding. SES predicted memory performance when objects were encoded with basic orienting processes, with infants from low-SES environments showing poorer memory than those from high-SES environments. However, SES did not predict memory performance among infants who engaged selective attention during encoding. Spatial selective attention engagement mitigated the effects of SES on memory and may offer an effective mechanism for promoting learning among infants at risk for poor cognitive outcomes related to SES. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual short-term memory guides infants' visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsven, Samantha G; Cantrell, Lisa M; Luck, Steven J; Oakes, Lisa M

    2018-08-01

    Adults' visual attention is guided by the contents of visual short-term memory (VSTM). Here we asked whether 10-month-old infants' (N = 41) visual attention is also guided by the information stored in VSTM. In two experiments, we modified the one-shot change detection task (Oakes, Baumgartner, Barrett, Messenger, & Luck, 2013) to create a simplified cued visual search task to ask how information stored in VSTM influences where infants look. A single sample item (e.g., a colored circle) was presented at fixation for 500 ms, followed by a brief (300 ms) retention interval and then a test array consisting of two items, one on each side of fixation. One item in the test array matched the sample stimulus and the other did not. Infants were more likely to look at the non-matching item than at the matching item, demonstrating that the information stored rapidly in VSTM guided subsequent looking behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Imitation and the development of infant learning, memory, and categorisation Imitation et développement de l’apprentissage chez le nourisson, mémoire et catégorisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily JH Jones

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to copy the actions of others is present from birth in both infant humans and chimpanzees and provides a method for the social transmission of knowledge. For this type of learning to have an impact over the long-term, the infant must be able to encode, store, and retrieve the information they receive for use at a later date. Here we review the literature with the deferred imitation paradigm to demonstrate that by at least 6 months of age, human infants are capable of these comparatively advanced cognitive abilities, which are thought to involve the declarative memory system and the hippocampal formation. Across early development there are dramatic changes in the duration over which information can be retained and the ability of infants to retrieve and express their memories in a flexible manner, which enables them to solve new problems. Research with the deferred imitation paradigm therefore provides important insight into our understanding of social and cognitive development as well as brain development.La capacité à imiter les actions des autres existe dès la naissance tant chez le petit humain que chez le jeune chimpanzé, elle est un moyen de transmission sociale de la connaissance. Pour que ce type d’apprentissage ait un impact sur le long terme, le jeune doit être capable de coder, stocker et récupérer l’information qu'il reçoit pour la réutiliser ultérieurement. Nous faisons une revue de la littérature sur l’imitation différée, pour démontrer que dès l’âge de 6 mois, les jeunes humains sont capables d’exprimer ces capacités cognitives relativement avancées dont on pense qu’elles mettent en jeu les systèmes de la mémoire déclarative et la formation hippocampique. Au cours du développement précoce, il existe des variations très marquées de la durée pendant laquelle les informations peuvent être conservées et de la capacité des jeunes à retrouver et à exprimer leurs souvenirs d’une fa

  2. Using event-related potentials to study perinatal nutrition and brain development in infants of diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann; Long, Jeffrey D; Georgieff, Michael K; Nelson, Charles A

    2007-01-01

    Proper prenatal and postnatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development and function. The early use of event-related potentials enables neuroscientists to study the development of cognitive function from birth and to evaluate the role of specific nutrients in development. Perinatal iron deficiency occurs in severely affected infants of diabetic mothers. In animal models, severe perinatal iron deficiency targets the explicit memory system of the brain. Cross-sectional ERP studies have shown that infants of diabetic mothers have impairments in recognition memory from birth through 8 months of age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal development of recognition memory using ERPs in infants of diabetic mothers compared with control infants. Infants of diabetic mothers were divided into high and low risk status based upon their birth weights and iron status and compared with healthy control infants. Infants were tested in the newborn period for auditory recognition memory, at 6 months for visual recognition memory and at 8 months for cross modal memory. ERPs were evaluated for developmental changes in the slow waves that are thought to reflect memory and the Nc component that is thought to reflect attention. The results of the study showed differences in development between the IDMs and control infants in the development of the slow waves over the left anterior temporal leads and age-related patterns of development in the NC component. These results are consistent with animal models showing that perinatal iron deficiency affects the development of the memory networks of the brain. This study highlights the value of using ERPs to translate basic science information obtained from animal models to the development of the human infant.

  3. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Montirosso

    Full Text Available Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition; the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37 were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks. Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  4. Four-month-old infants' long-term memory for a stressful social event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed; Morandi, Francesco; Ciceri, Francesca; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Infants clearly show an early capacity for memory for inanimate emotionally neutral events. However, their memory for social stress events has received far less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate infants' memory for a stressful social event (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness during the Still-Face paradigm) after a 15-day recall interval using changes in behavioral responses and salivary post-stress cortisol reactivity as measures of memory. Thirty-seven infants were exposed to social stress two times (experimental condition); the first time when they were 4 months of age and second exposure after a 2 week interval. Infants in the control condition (N = 37) were exposed to social stress just one time, at the age corresponding to the second exposure for infants in the experimental condition (4 months plus 2 weeks). Given individual differences in infants' reactivity to social stress events, we categorized infants as increasers or decreasers based on their cortisol reactivity after their initial exposure to the stress of the maternal still-face. Infants in the experimental condition, both increasers and decreasers, showed a significant change in cortisol response after the second exposure to the maternal still-face, though change was different for each reactivity group. In contrast, age-matched infants with no prior exposure to the maternal still-face showed similar post-stress cortisol reactivity to the reactivity of the experimental infants at their first exposure. There were no behavioral differences between increasers and decreasers during the Still-Face paradigm and exposures to the social stress. Thus differences between the experimental and control groups' post-stress cortisol reactivity was associated with the experimental group having previous experience with the social stress. These findings indicate long-term memory for social stress in infants as young as 4 months of age.

  5. Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

    2011-01-01

    Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during…

  6. Does Echoic Memory Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Randall W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    To examine developmental aspects of auditory sensory memory, a series of experiments was conducted on the stimulus suffix effect with the primary variables being age of subject (7 and 11 years), rates of presentation, and length of list. Effects were nearly identical across age groups when a fast presentation rate was used. (Author/DB)

  7. Long-term memory, forgetting, and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Pamela J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term recall memory, as indexed by deferred imitation, was assessed in 12-month-old infants. Independent groups of infants were tested after retention intervals of 3 min, 1 week and 4 weeks. Deferred imitation was assessed using the ‘observation-only’ procedure in which infants were not allowed motor practice on the tasks before the delay was imposed. Thus, the memory could not have been based on re-accessing a motor habit, because none was formed in the first place. After the delay, memo...

  8. [Regulatory peptides and psychomotor development in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, O Iu; Kost, N V; Kurasova, O B; Dmitriev, A D; Gabaeva, M V; Zolotarev, Iu A; Mikheeva, I G; Zozulia, A A

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory peptides (RP) are an important homeostatic factor. The maternal organism and placenta are substantial sources of RP for fetus during the prenatal period. Not only endogenous, but also exogenous RP play an important role during early postnatal period. In this study, the concentration of exogenous RP (casomorphins-7) and the activity of peptidases (enkephalinases) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants were estimated. Possible interrelation between these two parameters and the psychomotor development (PMD) of infants were evaluated. Using specially developed RIA, the investigators estimated the presence of human and bovine casomorphins immunoreactivity (CMir) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants. A distinct correlation of CMir with PMD was demonstrated. The activity of RP-degrading serum enzymes also correlated with PMD level. The role of endo- and exogenous peptides in normal PMD process and in the pathogenesis of early child autism is discussed in the article.

  9. Infant media exposure and toddler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha; Fierman, Arthur H; Brockmeyer, Carolyn; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether duration and content of media exposure in 6-month-old infants are associated with development at age 14 months. Longitudinal analysis of 259 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development, from November 23, 2005, through January 14, 2008. An urban public hospital. Mothers with low socioeconomic status and their infants. Duration and content of media exposure at age 6 months. Cognitive and language development at age 14 months. Of 259 infants, 249 (96.1%) were exposed to media at age 6 months, with mean (SD) total exposure of 152.7 (124.5) min/d. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, duration of media exposure at age 6 months was associated with lower cognitive development at age 14 months (unadjusted: r = -0.17, P development (r = -0.16, P cognitive and language development at age 14 months. No significant associations were seen with exposure to young child-oriented educational or noneducational content. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to have longitudinally assessed associations between media exposure in infancy and subsequent developmental outcomes in children from families with low socioeconomic status in the United States. Findings provide strong evidence in support of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations of no media exposure prior to age 2 years, although further research is needed.

  10. Infant and Newborn Development - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List of All Topics All Infant and Newborn Development - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) ( ...

  11. Foetal trauma, body memory and early infant communication: a case illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, John

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the complex case of a male patient who started life as an unwanted pregnancy and adoptee in an era of socio-cultural shame and blame. When able to contact his birth mother later in life, he experienced a number of confronting synchronicities as well as visions which he felt were related to failed abortion attempts and to other pre- and post-natal events. The case material lends weight not only to Freud's, Ehrenwald's and FitzHerbert's assertions that the earliest form of mother-infant communications is telepathic in nature but that this mode of communication can be retained if emotional trauma inhibits normal developmental processes. Contemporary neuroscience research is presented supporting the hypothesis that emotional memory can become imbedded in the psyche/soma of the foetus. Such memory traces can later emerge into imagery and/or words if the traumatic impingement has been substantial enough and if other defensive strategies are in place. Clinical implications are then suggested regarding analysts' attention to the emotional conditions underpinning their patients' conceptions and foetal development; the connection to projective identification components of the countertransference as being aspects of the earliest telepathic mother/infant communication channel and the need for reductive analyses in analyst training programmes. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  12. Infant and Toddler Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jill Englebright

    A child's need for formal communication may be as much an emotional need as a cognitive need. Several theories attempt to explain children's language development, including the theories developed by B. F. Skinner, Noam Chomsky, and J. Bruner. Most children typically follow a standard sequence of language development: crying and cooing, babbling,…

  13. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  14. The Effects of Intersensory Redundancy on Attention and Memory: Infants' Long-Term Memory for Orientation in Audiovisual Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Bahrick, Lorraine E.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the effects of bimodal audiovisual and unimodal visual stimulation on infants' memory for the visual orientation of a moving toy hammer following a 5-min, 2-week, or 1-month retention interval. According to the intersensory redundancy hypothesis (L. E. Bahrick & R. Lickliter, 2000; L. E. Bahrick, R. Lickliter, & R. Flom,…

  15. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  16. I. WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY IN CONTEXT: MODELING DYNAMIC PROCESSES OF BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R

    2016-09-01

    Working memory is a vital cognitive skill that underlies a broad range of behaviors. Higher cognitive functions are reliably predicted by working memory measures from two domains: children's performance on complex span tasks, and infants' performance in looking paradigms. Despite the similar predictive power across these research areas, theories of working memory development have not connected these different task types and developmental periods. The current project takes a first step toward bridging this gap by presenting a process-oriented theory, focusing on two tasks designed to assess visual working memory capacity in infants (the change-preference task) versus children and adults (the change detection task). Previous studies have shown inconsistent results, with capacity estimates increasing from one to four items during infancy, but only two to three items during early childhood. A probable source of this discrepancy is the different task structures used with each age group, but prior theories were not sufficiently specific to explain how performance relates across tasks. The current theory focuses on cognitive dynamics, that is, how memory representations are formed, maintained, and used within specific task contexts over development. This theory was formalized in a computational model to generate three predictions: 1) capacity estimates in the change-preference task should continue to increase beyond infancy; 2) capacity estimates should be higher in the change-preference versus change detection task when tested within individuals; and 3) performance should correlate across tasks because both rely on the same underlying memory system. I also tested a fourth prediction, that development across tasks could be explained through increasing real-time stability, realized computationally as strengthening connectivity within the model. Results confirmed these predictions, supporting the cognitive dynamics account of performance and developmental changes in real

  17. The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of psychoanalytic parent–infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa: Adaptive responses to ... on different services currently offered in the South African parent–infant/child psychotherapy field. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Infant Development: Milestones from 4 to 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safe, secure and loved. When you hold or rock your baby, talk quietly or sing soothing songs. ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-development/art-20048178 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  19. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  20. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  1. [Role of rhythmicity in infant development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, A

    2015-09-01

    This article deals with rhythm in the experiences of infants, focusing in particular on the function of rhythmicity in the baby's sense of being and its continuity. Infants are inevitably subjected to experiences of discontinuity. These experiences are necessary to development, but they expose the child to chaotic experiences when a basic rhythmicity is not ensured. The rhythmicity of childcare experiences gives the illusion of permanence and enables anticipation. This nourishes the basic feeling of security and supports the development of thought. Interactive and intersubjective exchanges must be rhythmic and must be in keeping with the rhythm of the baby, who needs to withdraw regularly from the interaction to internalize the experience of the exchange. Without this retreat, the interaction is over-stimulating and prevents internalization. Object presence/ absence must also be rhythmic, to enable the infant to keep the object alive inside him/ herself. Observation of babies has demonstrated their ability to manage experiences of discontinuity: they are able to sustain a continuous link via their gaze, look for clues indicating the presence of a lost object, search for support in sensations, and fabricate rhythmicity to remain open to the self and the world. The author gives some examples of infant observations that provide evidence of these capacities. One observation shows how a baby defends itself against a discontinuity by actively maintaining a link via his/her gaze. Another example shows an infant holding on to "hard sensations" in order to stay away from "soft" ones, which represent the fragility of the separation experience. This example pertains to a seven-month-old's prelanguage and "prosodic tonicity". The author takes this opportunity to propose the notion of "psychic bisensuality" to describe these two sensation poles, which must be harmoniously articulated to guarantee an inner sense of security. Such repairs of discontinuity are only possible if the

  2. Reinstatement versus Reactivation Effects on Active Memory in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Scott A.; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Wilk, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether reinstatement and reactivation reminder paradigms affected memory performance of 102 three-month-olds. Results indicated that a single reinstatement protracted retention twice as long after training as a single reactivation. The novelty of the reminder stimulus also affected duration and specificity of memory in…

  3. Selective Memories: Infants' Encoding Is Enhanced in Selection via Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Amso, Dima

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that inhibitory visual selection mechanisms play a vital role in memory by limiting distractor interference during item encoding. In Experiment 1a we used a modified spatial cueing task in which 9-month-old infants encoded multiple category exemplars in the contexts of an attention orienting mechanism…

  4. Revisiting the Effect of Reminders on Infants' Media Memories: Does the Encoding Format Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel; Brito, Natalie; Simcock, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    With the present research, the authors examined whether reminders could maintain 18-month-olds' memories generated from picture books and videos. Infants (N = 98) were shown a series of target actions in a picture book or on video. Either 24 hr or 2 weeks prior to a 4-week deferred imitation test, they were exposed to a reminder, a partial…

  5. Long-Term Memory for Music: Infants Remember Tempo and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J.; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D.

    2004-01-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants…

  6. The Effect of Crying on Long-Term Memory in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohr, Phyllis S.; Fagen, Jeffrey W.

    The influence of negative affect on the retrieval of information from memory during infancy was investigated in two studies through the use of an operant conditioning paradigm. The procedure used, known as "mobile conjugate reinforcement," involves a free operant task in which an infant is reinforced for footkicking by the movement of an…

  7. Long-term memory for music: infants remember tempo and timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D

    2004-06-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants preferred to listen to a novel folk song, indicating that they remembered the familiarized melody. However, if the tempo (25% faster or slower) or instrument timbre (harp vs. piano) of the familiarized melody was changed at test, infants showed no preference, indicating that they remembered the specific tempo and timbre of the melodies. The results are consistent with an exemplar-based model of memory in infancy rather than one in which structural features are extracted and performance features forgotten.

  8. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  9. Influence of Infant Feeding Type on Gut Microbiome Development in Hospitalized Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Judge, Michelle; Xu, Wanli; Diallo, Ana; Janton, Susan; Brownell, Elizabeth A.; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Background Premature infants have a high risk for dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Mother’s own breastmilk (MOM) has been found to favorably alter gut microbiome composition in infants born at term. Evidence about the influence of feeding type on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants is limited. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of feeding types on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Thirty-three stable preterm infants were recruited at birth and followed-up for the first 30 days of life. Daily feeding information was used to classify infants into six groups (mother’s own milk [MOM], human donated milk [HDM], formula, MOM+HDM, MOM+Formula, and HDM+forumla) during postnatal days 0–10, 11–20, and 21–30 after birth. Stool samples were collected daily. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene. Exploratory data analysis was conducted with a focus on temporal changes of microbial patterns and diversities among infants from different feeding cohorts. Prediction of gut microbial diversity from feeding type was estimated using linear mixed models. Results Preterm infants fed MOM (at least 70% of the total diet) had highest abundance of Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Bacillales compared to infants in other feeding groups, whereas infants fed primarily human donor milk or formula had a high abundance of Enterobacteriales compared to infants fed MOM. After controlling for gender, postnatal age, weight and birth gestational age, the diversity of gut microbiome increased over time and was constantly higher in infants fed MOM relative to infants with other feeding types (p breast milk benefits gut microbiome development of preterm infants, including balanced microbial community pattern and increased microbial diversity in early life. PMID:28252573

  10. Infant Development in Father-Absent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Father role in infancy was examined through a comparison of the stimulus responses of 27 infants reared by their mothers in single-parent families with the stimulus responses of 28 infants in father-present families. (CM)

  11. Auditory Context and Memory Retrieval in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Trained 3-month olds to move an overhead crib mobile while one of two musical selections was played, and assessed retention one or seven days later in presence of same or different music. Found that infants displayed one-day retention regardless of musical selection. At seven days, retention was seen only when test music matched training music.…

  12. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  13. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Chana; Bik, Elisabeth M; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-07-01

    Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Infant auditory short-term memory for non-linguistic sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Newman, Rochelle S

    2015-04-01

    This research explores auditory short-term memory (STM) capacity for non-linguistic sounds in 10-month-old infants. Infants were presented with auditory streams composed of repeating sequences of either 2 or 4 unique instruments (e.g., flute, piano, cello; 350 or 700 ms in duration) followed by a 500-ms retention interval. These instrument sequences either stayed the same for every repetition (Constant) or changed by 1 instrument per sequence (Varying). Using the head-turn preference procedure, infant listening durations were recorded for each stream type (2- or 4-instrument sequences composed of 350- or 700-ms notes). Preference for the Varying stream was taken as evidence of auditory STM because detection of the novel instrument required memory for all of the instruments in a given sequence. Results demonstrate that infants listened longer to Varying streams for 2-instrument sequences, but not 4-instrument sequences, composed of 350-ms notes (Experiment 1), although this effect did not hold when note durations were increased to 700 ms (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 replicates and extends results from Experiments 1 and 2 and provides support for a duration account of capacity limits in infant auditory STM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infants' long-term memory for the sound patterns of words and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Derek M; Jusczyk, Peter W

    2003-12-01

    Infants' long-term memory for the phonological patterns of words versus the indexical properties of talkers' voices was examined in 3 experiments using the Headturn Preference Procedure (D. G. Kemler Nelson et al., 1995). Infants were familiarized with repetitions of 2 words and tested on the next day for their orientation times to 4 passages--2 of which included the familiarized words. At 7.5 months of age, infants oriented longer to passages containing familiarized words when these were produced by the original talker. At 7.5 and 10.5 months of age, infants did not recognize words in passages produced by a novel female talker. In contrast, 7.5-month-olds demonstrated word recognition in both talker conditions when presented with passages produced by both the original and the novel talker. The findings suggest that talker-specific information can prime infants' memory for words and facilitate word recognition across talkers. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

  17. Maternal pre- and postnatal mental health and infant development in war conditions: The Gaza Infant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Kuittinen, Saija; Qouta, Samir R

    2018-03-01

    Women and their infants need special protection in war context, as traumatic events can risk maternal mental and obstetric health and compromise infant development. This prospective study examined, first, how exposure to war trauma is associated with maternal mental health in pregnancy and postpartum, obstetric and newborn health, and infant development. Second, it tested the role of maternal mental health and obstetric risks in mediating between war trauma and infant development. Palestinian women (N = 511) from the Gaza strip participated during pregnancy (T1) and at 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months postpartum. They reported PTSD, depressive, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms, as well as pregnancy complications, newborn health risks such as prematurity, and infant sensorimotor and language development. First, exposure to war trauma was associated with high levels of maternal mental health and complications at pregnancy, and with increased postpartum mental health symptoms, but exposure was not directly associated with newborn health risks or problems in infant development. Second, maternal mental health both in pregnancy and postpartum, but not pregnancy complications or newborn health, mediated the negative impact of war trauma on infant sensorimotor and language development at 12 months. Interventions to protect early child development in war conditions should be tailored to support maternal mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. What Infant Memory Tells Us about Infantile Amnesia: Long-Term Recall and Deferred Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term recall memory was assessed using a nonverbal method requiring subjects to reenact a past event from memory (deferred imitation). A large sample of infants (N = 192), evenly divided between 14- and 16-months old, was tested across two experiments. A delay of 2 months was used in Experiment 1 and a delay of 4 months in Experiment 2. In both experiments two treatment groups were used, In one treatment group, motor practice (immediate imitation) was allowed before the delay was imposed;...

  19. Red to Green or Fast to Slow? Infants' Visual Working Memory for "Just Salient Differences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 6-month-old infants' visual working memory for a static feature (color) and a dynamic feature (rotational motion) was compared. Comparing infants' use of different features can only be done properly if experimental manipulations to those features are equally salient (Kaldy & Blaser, 2009; Kaldy, Blaser, & Leslie,…

  20. The development of perceptual grouping in infants with Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E. K.; Brown, J. H.; Cole, V. L.; Houston-Price, C.; Karmiloff-Smith, A.

    2007-01-01

    Perceptual grouping by luminance similarity and by proximity was investigated in infants with Williams syndrome (WS) aged between 6 and 36 months (visit 1, N=29). WS infants who were still under 36 months old, 8 months later, repeated the testing procedure (visit 2, N=15). Performance was compared to typically developing (TD) infants aged from 2 to 20 months (N=63). Consistent with the literature, TD participants showed grouping by luminance at the youngest testing age, 2 months. Grouping by ...

  1. Infant Language Development Is Related to the Acquisition of Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A.; Campos, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation explored the question of whether walking onset is related to infant language development. Study 1 used a longitudinal design (N = 44) to assess infant locomotor and language development every 2 weeks from 10 to 13.5 months of age. The acquisition of walking was associated with a significant increase in both receptive and…

  2. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL

    1999-01-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment

  3. Infant Development in Fragile X Syndrome: Cross-Syndrome Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane E.; McCary, Lindsay M.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the developmental profile of male infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its divergence from typical development and development of infants at high risk for autism associated with familial recurrence (ASIBs). Participants included 174 boys ranging in age from 5 to 28 months. Cross-sectional profiles on the Mullen Scales of…

  4. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  5. Convergence and Accommodation Development Is Preprogrammed in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether vergence and accommodation development in preterm infants is preprogrammed or is driven by experience. Thirty-two healthy infants, born at mean 34 weeks gestation (range, 31.2-36 weeks), were compared with 45 healthy full-term infants (mean 40.0 weeks) over a 6-month period, starting at 4 to 6 weeks postnatally. Simultaneous accommodation and convergence to a detailed target were measured using a Plusoptix PowerRefII infrared photorefractor as a target moved between 0.33 and 2 m. Stimulus/response gains and responses at 0.33 and 2 m were compared by both corrected (gestational) age and chronological (postnatal) age. When compared by their corrected age, preterm and full-term infants showed few significant differences in vergence and accommodation responses after 6 to 7 weeks of age. However, when compared by chronological age, preterm infants' responses were more variable, with significantly reduced vergence gains, reduced vergence response at 0.33 m, reduced accommodation gain, and increased accommodation at 2 m compared to full-term infants between 8 and 13 weeks after birth. When matched by corrected age, vergence and accommodation in preterm infants show few differences from full-term infants' responses. Maturation appears preprogrammed and is not advanced by visual experience. Longer periods of immature visual responses might leave preterm infants more at risk of development of oculomotor deficits such as strabismus.

  6. Influence of breast-feeding on the infant's intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temboury, M C; Otero, A; Polanco, I; Arribas, E

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of breast-feeding on the intellectual development of the infant, controlling for possible confounding factors. A prospective study of cohorts was carried out in a group of 229 healthy infants, studied from birth to 2 years of age. The infants were divided into two groups: group 1, 99 infants who were bottle-fed; and group 0, 130 who were breast-fed. All other characteristics in both groups were similar. Psychomotor development was measured between 18 and 29 months using the Bayley scales. Lower results on the Index of Mental Development were associated with bottle-fed infants, lower-middle and lower social class, elementary education of the mother, temper tantrums, and having siblings. Lower results on the Index of Motor Development were associated only with lower and lower-middle social class.

  7. Social cues at encoding affect memory in 4-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that infants use adults' social cues for learning by the second half of the first year of life. However, little is known about the short-term or long-term effects of joint attention interactions on learning and memory in younger infants. In the present study, 4-month-old infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high vs. low). Brain activity in response to familiar and novel objects was assessed immediately after the familiarization phase (immediate recognition), and following a 1-week delay (delayed recognition). The latency of the Nc component differentiated between recognition of old versus new objects. Pb amplitude and latency were affected by joint attention in delayed recognition. Moreover, the frequency of infant gaze to the experimenter during familiarization differed between the two experimental groups and modulated the Pb response. Results show that joint attention affects the mechanisms of long-term retention in 4-month-old infants. We conclude that joint attention helps children at this young age to recognize the relevance of learned items.

  8. The role of older siblings in infant motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings along with parent reports and standardized assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings' motor skills and the sibling relationship were also collected until the infants were 18months old. The motor skills, age, and sex of the older siblings were not significantly related to any measure of infant motor development. A significant correlation was revealed between perceived agonism between siblings and infant fine motor skills at 18months, suggesting the importance of considering reciprocal effects of motor development on sibling relationships. Overall, the suggestion that older siblings may provide a good model of motor skills for infants is not supported by the current data. In the future, it will be important to assess the dynamic interactions between different factors in predicting infant motor development, allowing early identification of motor difficulties, which could affect other areas of cognitive development and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Object Permanence in Visually Impaired Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S. J.; Puchalski, C. B.

    1988-01-01

    Development of object permanence skills was examined longitudinally in 20 visually impaired infants (ages 4-25 months). Order of skill acquisition and span of time required to master skills paralleled that of sighted infants, but the visually impaired subjects were 8-12 months older than sighted counterparts when similar skills were acquired.…

  10. Development of Infants' Attention to Faces during the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael C.; Vul, Edward; Johnson, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    In simple tests of preference, infants as young as newborns prefer faces and face-like stimuli over distractors. Little is known, however, about the development of attention to faces in complex scenes. We recorded eye-movements of 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants and adults during free-viewing of clips from "A Charlie Brown Christmas" (an animated…

  11. Influence of father-infant relationship on infant development: A father-involvement intervention in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Rempel, John K; Khuc, Toan Nang; Vui, Le Thi

    2017-10-01

    We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect involvement with their infants and work together with the mother as part of a parenting team. Fathers and mothers from 13 communes in a rural and semiurban district were recruited to the intervention group. Intervention fathers received group and individual counseling before and after birth, an interactive print resource, community messages about fathering, and the opportunity to participate in a Fathers Club. Couples from 12 comparable communes in a noncontiguous district were recruited to the control group. Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires at the prebirth recruitment and at 1-, 4-, and 9-months postbirth. Intervention fathers demonstrated greater increase in knowledge and attitudes regarding father-infant relationships. Both fathers and mothers reported that fathers engaged in more affection, care-taking, and play in the early months of their infants' lives and fathers felt more attached to their infants right from birth. A developmental assessment at 9 months showed that intervention infants demonstrated higher levels of motor, language, and personal/social development. This study demonstrated that fathers can be taught to interact more sensitively, responsively, and effectively with their newborn infants. Their increased interaction and emotional attachment appears to lay the foundation for enhanced infant development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Utility of finger maze test for learning and memory abilities in infants of cynomolgus monkeys exposed to thiamazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayumi; Arima, Akihiro; Kato, Hirohito; Ebihara, Shizufumi

    2014-11-01

    A new type of learning and memory test using a finger maze was conducted in infant cynomolgus monkeys that were exposed to thiamazole (2 and 3.5 mg/kg per day to pregnant animals orally) during the fetal period (gestational days 120 to 150). We modified Tsuchida's original finger maze test method by reducing the number of trials per day and simplifying the criteria for achievement of training, and we added a long-term memory test. In the memory test, thiamazole-exposed infants required greater time to complete the finger maze test than the control infants although no effect was noted in the training or learning test. The results suggest that an impaired long-term memory could be detected by our modified finger maze test. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  13. The Development of Infant Detection of Inauthentic Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A.; Campos, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Appreciating authentic and inauthentic emotional communication is central to the formation of trusting and intimate interpersonal relationships. However, when infants are able to discriminate and respond to inauthentic emotion has not been investigated. The present set of studies was designed to investigate infant sensitivity to three specific cues of inauthenticity: the contextual congruency of the emotion, the degree of exaggeration of the emotion, and the clarity with which the emotion is communicated. In each experiment, 16- and 19-month-old infants were presented with an emotional communication in which an inauthentic cue was present or absent. Infant behavioral responding to the emotional context was observed and coded. In all three experiments, 19-month-old infants, but not 16-month-old infants, detected inauthentic emotional communication and differentially responded to the environment accordingly. These findings demonstrate that infants do not simply take all emotional communication at face value and are sensitive to features of emotional contexts beyond what is expressively communicated by the adult. Possible developmental mechanisms that may account for the observed developmental shift in infant emotional development are proposed, and implications for the present findings on future research in emotion and emotional development are highlighted. PMID:24512249

  14. Antibody and immune memory persistence post infant hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudu SA

    2013-09-01

    booster vaccine indicates long-lasting immunity despite decreasing antibody levels; therefore, the need for hepatitis B vaccine boosters may not be of significant benefit after complete infant vaccination. Keywords: hepatitis B vaccination, persistent immunity, anamnestic response, booster vaccination

  15. Effects of joint attention on long-term memory in 9-month-old infants: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-07-01

    Joint attention develops during the first year of life but little is known about its effects on long-term memory. We investigated whether joint attention modulates long-term memory in 9-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized with visually presented objects in either of two conditions that differed in the degree of joint attention (high versus low). EEG indicators in response to old and novel objects were probed directly after the familiarization phase (immediate recognition), and following a 1-week delay (delayed recognition). In immediate recognition, the amplitude of positive slow-wave activity was modulated by joint attention. In the delayed recognition, the amplitude of the Pb component differentiated between high and low joint attention. In addition, the positive slow-wave amplitude during immediate and delayed recognition correlated with the frequency of infants' looks to the experimenter during familiarization. Under both high- and low-joint-attention conditions, the processing of unfamiliar objects was associated with an enhanced Nc component. Our results show that the degree of joint attention modulates EEG during immediate and delayed recognition. We conclude that joint attention affects long-term memory processing in 9-month-old infants by enhancing the relevance of attended items. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Autobiographical memories of childhood and sources of subjectivity in parents' perceptions of infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczak, Erika M; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; McAdams, Dan P; Wong, Maria S; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined whether autobiographical memories from parents' own childhoods, prebirth expectations, and personality traits contributed to their perceptions of their infants' temperament. It also investigated whether mothers and fathers differed in the extent to which these three sources of subjectivity predicted their perceptions. During the third trimester of pregnancy, expectant mothers and fathers in 96 families completed assessments of their personality traits and expectations for their children's temperament, as well as provided characteristic memories of their relationships with their own caregivers as children. Memories were then coded for themes of growth versus safety and compared to parents' ratings of perceived child temperament 15 months later. Analyses revealed that, for both parents, prebirth expectations predicted perceptions of positive temperament behaviors. Moreover, fathers who described childhoods characterized by exploration and opportunities for growth also perceived their children as displaying more positive temperamental behaviors, whereas those who described greater safety focus in memories and who had higher levels of negative affectivity reported more negative temperamental behaviors. These findings suggest that mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their children are differently related to psychological variables, including autobiographical memories. In turn, it is possible that these subjective perceptions may affect the parenting environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal prenatal cortisol and infant cognitive development: moderation by infant-mother attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2010-06-01

    Experimental animal studies suggest that early glucocorticoid exposure may have lasting effects on the neurodevelopment of the offspring; animal studies also suggest that this effect may be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. The relevance of these findings to humans is not known. We prospectively followed 125 mothers and their normally developing children from pregnancy through 17 months postnatal. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infants were assessed at an average age of 17 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and ratings of infant-mother attachment classification were made from the standard Ainsworth Strange Situation assessment. Prenatal cortisol exposure, indexed by amniotic fluid levels, negatively predicted cognitive ability in the infant, independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors. This association was moderated by child-mother attachment: in children with an insecure attachment, the correlation was [r(54) = -.47, p < .001]; in contrast, the association was nonexistent in children who had a secure attachment [r(70) = -.05, ns]. These findings mimic experimental animal findings and provide the first direct human evidence that increased cortisol in utero is associated with impaired cognitive development, and that its impact is dependent on the quality of the mother-infant relationship. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accelerated development of object permanence in Down's syndrome infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnak, C F; Pasnak, R

    1987-01-01

    Six infants with Down's syndrome, aged 3-19 months, were taught to solve object permanence problems. The instruction took place in the infants' homes and in a child development centre, and was conducted both by parents and by a child psychologist. Object permanence tasks ranging over stages 3-6 of the sensorimotor period of intelligence were utilized in the intervention, which lasted for up to 8 months. The infants were able to progress rather rapidly on these tasks. When the instruction was terminated most had mastered multiple visible displacements, which index the fifth stage of sensorimotor intelligence.

  19. Influence of Father-Infant Relationship on Infant Development: A Father-Involvement Intervention in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A.; Rempel, John K.; Khuc, Toan Nang; Vui, Le Thi

    2017-01-01

    We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multifaceted relationally focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect…

  20. Suppression of circulating IgD+CD27+ memory B cells in infants living in a malaria-endemic region of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asito, Amolo S; Piriou, Erwan; Jura, Walter G Z O; Ouma, Collins; Odada, Peter S; Ogola, Sidney; Fiore, Nancy; Rochford, Rosemary

    2011-12-13

    Plasmodium falciparum infection leads to alterations in B cell subset distribution. During infancy, development of peripheral B cell subsets is also occurring. However, it is unknown if infants living a malaria endemic region have alterations in B cell subsets that is independent of an age effect. To evaluate the impact of exposure to P. falciparum on B cell development in infants, flow cytometry was used to analyse the distribution and phenotypic characteristic of B cell subsets in infant cohorts prospectively followed at 12, 18 and 24 months from two geographically proximate regions in western Kenya with divergent malaria exposure i.e. Kisumu (malaria-endemic, n = 24) and Nandi (unstable malaria transmission, n = 21). There was significantly higher frequency and absolute cell numbers of CD19+ B cells in Kisumu relative to Nandi at 12(p = 0.0440), 18(p = 0.0210) and 24 months (p = 0.0493). No differences were observed between the infants from the two sites in frequencies of naïve B cells (IgD+CD27-) or classical memory B cells (IgD-CD27+). However, immature transitional B cells (CD19+CD10+CD34-) were higher in Kisumu relative to Nandi at all three ages. In contrast, the levels of non-class switched memory B cells (CD19+IgD+CD27+) were significantly lower overall in Kisumu relative to Nandi at significantly at 12 (p = 0.0144), 18 (p = 0.0013) and 24 months (p = 0.0129). These data suggest that infants living in malaria endemic regions have altered B cell subset distribution. Further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these changes and long-term impact on ability of these infants to develop antibody responses to P. falciparum and heterologous infections.

  1. Suppression of circulating IgD+CD27+ memory B cells in infants living in a malaria-endemic region of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asito Amolo S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum infection leads to alterations in B cell subset distribution. During infancy, development of peripheral B cell subsets is also occurring. However, it is unknown if infants living a malaria endemic region have alterations in B cell subsets that is independent of an age effect. Methods To evaluate the impact of exposure to P. falciparum on B cell development in infants, flow cytometry was used to analyse the distribution and phenotypic characteristic of B cell subsets in infant cohorts prospectively followed at 12, 18 and 24 months from two geographically proximate regions in western Kenya with divergent malaria exposure i.e. Kisumu (malaria-endemic, n = 24 and Nandi (unstable malaria transmission, n = 21. Results There was significantly higher frequency and absolute cell numbers of CD19+ B cells in Kisumu relative to Nandi at 12(p = 0.0440, 18(p = 0.0210 and 24 months (p = 0.0493. No differences were observed between the infants from the two sites in frequencies of naïve B cells (IgD+CD27- or classical memory B cells (IgD-CD27+. However, immature transitional B cells (CD19+CD10+CD34- were higher in Kisumu relative to Nandi at all three ages. In contrast, the levels of non-class switched memory B cells (CD19+IgD+CD27+ were significantly lower overall in Kisumu relative to Nandi at significantly at 12 (p = 0.0144, 18 (p = 0.0013 and 24 months (p = 0.0129. Conclusions These data suggest that infants living in malaria endemic regions have altered B cell subset distribution. Further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these changes and long-term impact on ability of these infants to develop antibody responses to P. falciparum and heterologous infections.

  2. The Developing Infant Creates a Curriculum for Statistical Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda B; Jayaraman, Swapnaa; Clerkin, Elizabeth; Yu, Chen

    2018-04-01

    New efforts are using head cameras and eye-trackers worn by infants to capture everyday visual environments from the point of view of the infant learner. From this vantage point, the training sets for statistical learning develop as the sensorimotor abilities of the infant develop, yielding a series of ordered datasets for visual learning that differ in content and structure between timepoints but are highly selective at each timepoint. These changing environments may constitute a developmentally ordered curriculum that optimizes learning across many domains. Future advances in computational models will be necessary to connect the developmentally changing content and statistics of infant experience to the internal machinery that does the learning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developments in long-term explicit memory late in the first year of life: behavioral and electrophysiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Wiebe, Sandra A; Carver, Leslie J; Waters, Jennie M; Nelson, Charles A

    2003-11-01

    Coincident with developments in the temporal-cortical explicit memory network, long-term recall abilities are newly emergent late in the first year of human life. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 9-month-olds as an index of the integrity of the neural substrate underlying a task thought to reflect explicit memory, namely, deferred imitation. ERP measures of recognition memory 1 week after unique laboratory experiences predicted whether and how much infants recalled of the experiences 1 month later. The findings further imply that memory storage and consolidation processes are a major source of variability in long-term recall memory late in the first year of life.

  4. Growth and development of infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ruobing; Wang, Xiaoliang; Fu, Ping

    2009-10-31

    To observe changes in audiology, intellectual development, behavior development, and physical growth during systematic follow-up of infants with asymptomatic congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Fifty-two infants diagnosed with asymptomatic congenital HCMV infection from July 2003 to July 2007 served as the infection group, and 21 healthy infants served as the control group. All infants were confirmed to have HCMV infection by Fluorescent Quantative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR). In both the infection and control groups, the neonates and infants at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year of age underwent examinations. 1) 20 items of National Black Nurses Association (NBNA) scores of neonates 12-14 days after birth in 2 groups were 38.3 +/- 1.95 and 38.5 +/- 2.29, without significant differences. 2) Auditory test: 50 ears of 25 cases in the infection group showed abnormal auditory thresholds in V waves with an abnormal rate of 14%, while no abnormalities were found in 21 cases in the control group. 3) Mental and psychomotor development index scores in the control group (107.49 +/- 11.31 and 107.19 +/- 10.98) were compared with those in 41 asymptomatically infected infants at 1 year of age (107.21 +/- 9.96 and 108.31 +/- 11.25), and no statistically significant difference was noted. 1) An elevated threshold in the V wave was present in asymptomatically infected infants, but could not be detected through otoacoustic emission (OAE) screening. 2) Either in the neonatal or infant periods, asymptomatic congenital HCMV infection did not have a significant influence on nervous behavior or on physical and intellectual development.

  5. Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the Support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L. Cheatham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to explore the relation of human milk lutein; choline; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA with recognition memory abilities of six-month-olds. Milk samples obtained three to four months postpartum were analyzed for fatty acids, lutein, and choline. At six months, participants were invited to an electrophysiology session. Recognition memory was tested with a 70–30 oddball paradigm in a high-density 128-lead event-related potential (ERP paradigm. Complete data were available for 55 participants. Data were averaged at six groupings (Frontal Right; Frontal Central; Frontal Left; Central; Midline; and Parietal for latency to peak, peak amplitude, and mean amplitude. Difference scores were calculated as familiar minus novel. Final regression models revealed the lutein X free choline interaction was significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal and central areas (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001; respectively. Higher choline levels with higher lutein levels were related to better recognition memory. The DHA X free choline interaction was also significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal, central, and midline areas (p < 0.01; p < 0.001; p < 0.05 respectively. Higher choline with higher DHA was related to better recognition memory. Interactions between human milk nutrients appear important in predicting infant cognition, and there may be a benefit to specific nutrient combinations.

  6. Infants' long-term memory for a serial list: recognition and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, M; Galluccio, L; Wilk, A; Rovee-Collier, C

    2001-04-01

    Serial lists contain information about item identity and item order. Using a task designed for nonverbal animals, we previously found that 3- and 6-month-olds exhibited a primacy effect after 24 hr, remembering both item identity and item order. Presently, we examined their memory of list information after longer delays. In Experiment 1, the serial-position curve reverted to a U-shape after 1 week at both ages, revealing that the common practice of attributing primacy and recency effects to long- and short-term memory, respectively, is flawed. In Experiment 2, a precuing procedure confirmed that 6-month-olds' memory still contained order information after 1 week, but 3-month-olds' reactivated memory contained none. Experiments 3A and 3B confirmed that increasing the complexity of information that was learned shortened the delay after which it could be retrieved. Testing infants after delays longer than have previously been used with animals or human adults sheds new light on an old phenomenon. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Revisiting the effect of reminders on infants' media memories: does the encoding format matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel; Brito, Natalie; Simcock, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    With the present research, the authors examined whether reminders could maintain 18-month-olds' memories generated from picture books and videos. Infants (N = 98) were shown a series of target actions in a picture book or on video. Either 24 hr or 2 weeks prior to a 4-week deferred imitation test, they were exposed to a reminder, a partial presentation of the original media demonstration. After both reminder delays, groups that received a video demonstration and a video reminder (video/video) performed significantly better than did the video-reminder-only control group (x/video), but groups that received a picture-book demonstration and a picture-book reminder (book/book) did not perform better than did the picture-book-reminder-only control (x/book). Additionally, if reminders did not veridically match the conditions of encoding (e.g., video demonstration and a book reminder, video/book or vice versa), infants also failed to perform better than controls. Theoretical implications for the understanding of long-term memory processing during early childhood and practical implications for early multimedia usage are discussed.

  8. Validity of the language development survey in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Poulin, Camille; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Babakissa, Hélène; Lefebvre, Francine; Luu, Thuy Mai

    2016-07-01

    Preterm infants are at greater risk of language delay. Early identification of language delay is essential to improve functional outcome in these children. To examine the concurrent validity of Rescorla's Language Development Survey and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) at 18months corrected age in preterm infants. Test accuracy study. 189 preterm infants born Language Development Survey, a parent-reported screening instrument, was administered in French concurrently with the Language Scales of the Bayley-III. Receiver-Operating-Characteristics curves were used to determine optimal cut-off score on the Language Development Survey to identify Bayley-III score language delay as per the Bayley-III. The optimal threshold was ≤10 words for both boys and girls. In girls, lowering the cut-off score decreased sensitivity (79%), but improved specificity (82%), thus lowering the number of false-positives. Our findings support using the Language Development Survey as an expressive language screener in preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Command and Control Software Development Memory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Austin Pope

    2017-01-01

    This internship was initially meant to cover the implementation of unit test automation for a NASA ground control project. As is often the case with large development projects, the scope and breadth of the internship changed. Instead, the internship focused on finding and correcting memory leaks and errors as reported by a COTS software product meant to track such issues. Memory leaks come in many different flavors and some of them are more benign than others. On the extreme end a program might be dynamically allocating memory and not correctly deallocating it when it is no longer in use. This is called a direct memory leak and in the worst case can use all the available memory and crash the program. If the leaks are small they may simply slow the program down which, in a safety critical system (a system for which a failure or design error can cause a risk to human life), is still unacceptable. The ground control system is managed in smaller sub-teams, referred to as CSCIs. The CSCI that this internship focused on is responsible for monitoring the health and status of the system. This team's software had several methods/modules that were leaking significant amounts of memory. Since most of the code in this system is safety-critical, correcting memory leaks is a necessity.

  10. Predictors of Haitian-American Infant Development at Twelve Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Susan M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Families in urban and rural settings were studied in an investigation of environmental influences on the development of Haitian-American infants. Birthweight and scores on the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment predicted mental development. Psychomotor development was related to birthweight and household crowding. (PCB)

  11. The structure of memory in infants and toddlers: an SEM study with full-terms and preterms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable dispute about the nature of infant memory. Using SEM models, we examined whether popular characterizations of the structure of adult memory, including the two-process theory of recognition, are applicable in the infant and toddler years. The participants were a cohort of preterms and full-terms assessed longitudinally--at 1, 2, and 3 years--on a battery containing tasks of immediate and delayed recognition, recall, and memory span (a measure of short-term capacity). Results were in accord with adult models which assume that short- and long-term memory are distinct, and that two processes--familiarity and recollection--underlie recognition memory, while one alone--recollection--supports recall. The finding that prematurity, which entails risk of hippocampal compromise, affected recollection, but not familiarity, accords well with adult findings that hippocampal damage selectively affects recollection. These findings reveal striking similarity between the structure and theoretical underpinnings of infant and adult memory. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Using Event-Related Potentials to Study Perinatal Nutrition and Brain Development in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    deRegnier, Raye-Ann; Long, Jeffrey D.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Proper prenatal and postnatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development and function. The early use of event-related potentials enables neuroscientists to study the development of cognitive function from birth and to evaluate the role of specific nutrients in development. Perinatal iron deficiency occurs in severely affected infants of diabetic mothers. In animal models, severe perinatal iron deficiency targets the explicit memory system of the brain. Cross-sectional ERP studies ha...

  13. The relative kicking frequency of infants born full-term and preterm during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcock, Jill C; Bhat, Anjana N; Lobo, Michele A; Galloway, James C

    2005-01-01

    Infants born preterm differ in their spontaneous kicking, as well as their learning and memory abilities in the mobile paradigm, compared with infants born full-term. In the mobile paradigm, a supine infant's ankle is tethered to a mobile so that leg kicks cause a proportional amount of mobile movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative kicking frequency of the tethered (right) and nontethered (left) legs in these 2 groups of infants. Ten infants born full-term and 10 infants born preterm (infants participated in the study. The relative kicking frequencies of the tethered and nontethered legs were analyzed during learning and short-term and long-term memory periods of the mobile paradigm. Infants born full-term showed an increase in the relative kicking frequency of the tethered leg during the learning period and the short-term memory period but not for the long-term memory period. Infants born preterm did not show a change in kicking pattern for learning or memory periods, and consistently kicked both legs in relatively equal amounts. Infants born full-term adapted their baseline kicking frequencies in a task-specific manner to move the mobile and then retained this adaptation for the short-term memory period. In contrast, infants born preterm showed no adaptation, suggesting a lack of purposeful leg control. This lack of control may reflect a general decrease in the ability of infants born preterm to use their limb movements to interact with their environment. As such, the mobile paradigm may be clinically useful in the early assessment and intervention of infants born preterm and at risk for future impairment.

  14. Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the Support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Carol L; Sheppard, Kelly Will

    2015-11-03

    The aim was to explore the relation of human milk lutein; choline; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with recognition memory abilities of six-month-olds. Milk samples obtained three to four months postpartum were analyzed for fatty acids, lutein, and choline. At six months, participants were invited to an electrophysiology session. Recognition memory was tested with a 70-30 oddball paradigm in a high-density 128-lead event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Complete data were available for 55 participants. Data were averaged at six groupings (Frontal Right; Frontal Central; Frontal Left; Central; Midline; and Parietal) for latency to peak, peak amplitude, and mean amplitude. Difference scores were calculated as familiar minus novel. Final regression models revealed the lutein X free choline interaction was significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal and central areas (p lutein levels were related to better recognition memory. The DHA X free choline interaction was also significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal, central, and midline areas (p milk nutrients appear important in predicting infant cognition, and there may be a benefit to specific nutrient combinations.

  15. Altered Amygdala Development and Fear Processing in Prematurely Born Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Anca Liliana; Gui, Laura; Vasung, Lana; Lejeune, Fleur; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Truttmann, Anita; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Prematurely born children have a high risk of developmental and behavioral disabilities. Cerebral abnormalities at term age have been clearly linked with later behavior alterations, but existing studies did not focus on the amygdala. Moreover, studies of early amygdala development after premature birth in humans are scarce. Objective: To compare amygdala volumes in very preterm infants at term equivalent age (TEA) and term born infants, and to relate premature infants’ amygdala volumes with their performance on the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB) fear episode at 12 months. Participants: Eighty one infants born between 2008 and 2014 at the University Hospitals of Geneva and Lausanne, taking part in longitudinal and functional imaging studies, who had undergone a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at TEA enabling manual amygdala delineation. Outcomes: Amygdala volumes assessed by manual segmentation of MRI scans; volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) automatically segmented in 66 infants; scores for the Lab-TAB fear episode for 42 premature infants at 12 months. Results: Amygdala volumes were smaller in preterm infants at TEA than term infants (mean difference 138.03 mm3, p amygdala volumes were larger than left amygdala volumes (mean difference 36.88 mm3, p Amygdala volumes showed significant correlation with the intensity of the escape response to a fearsome toy (rs = 0.38, p = 0.013), and were larger in infants showing an escape response compared to the infants showing no escape response (mean difference 120.97 mm3, p = 0.005). Amygdala volumes were not significantly correlated with the intensity of facial fear, distress vocalizations, bodily fear and positive motor activity in the fear episode. Conclusion: Our results indicate that premature birth is associated with a reduction in amygdala volumes and white matter volumes at TEA, suggesting that altered amygdala development

  16. The Ebb and Flow of Infant Attentional Preferences: Evidence for Long-Term Recognition Memory in 3-Month-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, Mary L.; Howe, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments used paired-comparisons to investigate 3-month olds' recognition of dynamic visual events after various retention intervals. Results indicated a changing pattern of attentional preferences over time consistent with models of infant recognition memory in which novelty, familiarity, and null preferences are considered conjointly and…

  17. Sleeping like a baby: Examining relations between habitual infant sleep, recall memory, and generalization across cues at 10 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Previous research suggests that sleep is related to cognitive functioning in infants and adults. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in infant sleep habits over the seven days prior to elicited imitation testing were associated with variability in (a) the encoding of 2-step event sequences and (b) memory for the presented information and generalization across cues after a 2-h delay in 10-month-olds. Significant correlations indicated that both daytime napping and nighttime sleep were related to encoding and generalization across cues after the 2-h delay; significant findings were not found in relation to baseline or delayed recall performance. We suggest that individual differences in infant sleep habits may be one mechanism underlying the observed variability in recall memory and generalization as these abilities are coming online late in the first year of life. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Development and adaptation to resection of infant rat gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. de Vries

    1982-01-01

    textabstractInfants with malrotation of the gut easily develop midgut volvuluse If this volvulus is not treated immediately, ischemic necrosis of the small bowel may develop rapidly. The treatment of these children requires extensive small bowel resection. Infrequently, children are born with

  19. Role of toys in the development of healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2015-04-01

    Emilia Mikołajewska Rehabilitation Clinic Military Clinical Hospital No. 10 and Polyclinic Bydgoszcz, Poland e-mail: e.mikolajewska@wp.pl, emiliam@cm.umk.pl www: http://emikolajewska.netstrefa.eu       Keywords: rehabilitation; development; gesture; toy use; parent–child interaction;       Abstract   Developmental outcomes in infants can be significantly improved thanks to promising use of approapriate toys. Objective assessment of their positive influence to functional achievements in healthy infants may completely change attitude to new generation of toys, developing motor, cognitive, and social skills. Despite advances in toys assessment their true influence remains incomplete. This study aims at assessment how current knowledge and experience influences principles of the toys selection and use in healthy infants.

  20. Sudden infant death syndrome: an unrecognized killer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu IK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna Kingsley Ndu Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant <1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. SIDS contributes to infant mortality and resulted in ~15,000 deaths globally in 2013. Most of the risk factors of SIDS are common in developing countries; yet, there has been little interest in SIDS by researchers in Africa. This review looks at the extent of the attention given to SIDS in a developing country like Nigeria, and factors responsible for the scarce data concerning this significant cause of mortality. Keywords: SIDS, mortality, Nigeria

  1. Fetal programming of infant neuromotor development: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; de Groot, Laila; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether infant neuromotor development is determined by fetal size and body symmetry in the general population. This study was embedded within the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort in Rotterdam. In 2965 fetuses, growth parameters were measured in mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy. After birth, at age 9 to 15 wks, neuromotor development was assessed with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination. Less optimal neuromotor development was defined as a score in the highest tertile. We found that higher fetal weight was beneficial to infant neurodevelopment. A fetus with a 1-SD score higher weight in mid-pregnancy had an 11% lower risk of less optimal neuromotor development (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82-0.97). Similarly, a fetus with a 1-SD score larger abdominal-to-head circumference (AC/HC) ratio had a 13% lower risk of less optimal neuromotor development (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). These associations were also present in late pregnancy. Our findings show that fetal size and body symmetry in pregnancy are associated with infant neuromotor development. These results suggest that differences in infant neuromotor development, a marker of behavioral and cognitive problems, are at least partly caused by processes occurring early in fetal life.

  2. Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin

  3. Infant Imitation After a 1-Week Delay: Long-Term Memory for Novel Acts and Multiple Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N

    1988-07-01

    Deferred imitation after a 1-week delay was examined in 14-month-old infants. Six actions, each using a different object, were demonstrated to each infant. One of the six actions was a novel behavior that had a zero probability of occurrence in spontaneous play. In the imitation condition, infants observed the demonstration but were not allowed to touch the objects, thus preventing any immediate imitation. After the 1-week delay, infants returned to the laboratory and their imitation of the adult's previous actions was scored. Infants in the imitation condition produced significantly more of the target actions than infants in control groups who were not exposed to the modeling; there was also strong evidence for the imitation of the novel act. From a cognitive perspective deferred imitation provides a means of assessing recall memory and representation in children. From a social-developmental viewpoint the findings illustrate that the behavioral repertoire of infants and their knowledge about objects can expand as a result of seeing the actions of others.

  4. Metagenomics and development of the gut microbiota in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallès, Y.; Gosalbes, M. J.; de Vries, Lisbeth Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18 (Suppl. 4): 21–26 The establishment of a balanced intestinal microbiota is essential for numerous aspects of human health, yet the microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of infants is both complex and highly variable among individuals. In addition......, the gastrointestinal tract microbiota is often exposed to antibiotics, and may be an important reservoir of resistant strains and of transferable resistance genes from early infancy. We are investigating by means of diverse metagenomic approaches several areas of microbiota development in infants, including...

  5. Face Preferences for Infant- and Adult-Directed Speakers in Infants of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers: Association with Infant Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter S; Asherin, Ryan M; Vogeli, Jo M; Fekri, Shiva M; Scheyer, Kathryn E; Everhart, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Face preferences for speakers of infant-directed and adult-directed speech (IDS and ADS) were investigated in 4- to 13.5-month-old infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers. Following 1-min of exposure to an ID or AD speaker (order counterbalanced), infants had an immediate paired-comparison test with a still, silent image of the familiarized versus a novel face. In the test phase, ID face preference ratios were significantly lower in infants of depressed than non-depressed mothers. Infants' ID face preference ratios, but not AD face preference ratios, correlated with their percentile scores on the cognitive ( Cog ) scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant & Toddler Development (3 rd Edition; BSID III), assessed concurrently. Regression analyses revealed that infant ID face preferences significantly predicted infant Cog percentiles even after demographic risk factors and maternal depression had been controlled. Infants may use IDS to select social partners who are likely to support and facilitate cognitive development.

  6. Literature Review The development of parent-infant/child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper takes the form of an account of the emergence of the field of psychoanalytically informed parent-infant/child psychotherapy in South Africa. It traces the origins and the development of the South African field by locating local practice within the international field. The influential links between international ...

  7. Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Choosing toys and activities that are suitable for infants and toddlers can challenge even the most experienced teacher. By being mindful of the basic principles of child development and the role of play, teachers can intentionally select toys to meet young children's unique needs and interests, supporting learning. It is also important to be…

  8. Fetal Programming of Infant Neuromotor Development: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; de Groot, L.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether infant neuromotor development is determined by fetal size and body symmetry in the general population. This study was embedded within the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort in Rotterdam. In 2965 fetuses, growth parameters were measured in

  9. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus infant infection adversely affects growth and development in maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompels, U A; Larke, N; Sanz-Ramos, M; Bates, M; Musonda, K; Manno, D; Siame, J; Monze, M; Filteau, S

    2012-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation [z]-score difference: -0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -.72 to -.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: -0.72 [95% CI, -1.23 to -.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: -4.1 [95% CI, -7.8 to -.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region.

  11. Potential benefits of mindfulness during pregnancy on maternal autonomic nervous system function and infant development : Mindfulness, ANS, and infant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, M.A.K.A.; Jones, Alexander; Otte, R.A.; Nyklicek, I.; Van Den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness is known to decrease psychological distress. Possible benefits in pregnancy have rarely been explored. Our aim was to examine the prospective association of mindfulness with autonomic nervous system function during pregnancy and with later infant social-emotional development. Pregnant

  12. The Development of Visual Working Memory Capacity during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.

    2012-01-01

    The change detection task has been used in dozens of studies with adults to measure visual working memory capacity. Two studies have recently tested children in this task, suggesting a gradual increase in capacity from 5 years to adulthood. These results contrast with findings from an infant looking paradigm suggesting that capacity reaches…

  13. Improved Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants with Shared Book Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Susan; Bernstein, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of shared book reading on the cognitive development of children born preterm and to determine what factors influence shared book reading in this population. Secondary analysis using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a large, nationally representative survey of children born in the United States in 2001. One thousand four hundred singleton preterm infants (22-36 weeks gestation). Cognitive development measured using the Bayley Mental Scale score from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Research Edition. Adjusting for neonatal, maternal, and socioeconomic characteristics, reading aloud more than two times a week is associated with higher cognitive development scores in two-year-old children born preterm (p book reading holds potential as an early developmental intervention for this population.

  14. Infants with Down Syndrome and Their Interactions with Objects: Development of Exploratory Actions after Reaching Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; da Costa, Carolina Souza Neves; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    During infant development, objects and their functions are learned by means of active exploration. Factors that may influence exploration include reaching and grasping ability, object properties and the presence of developmental disorders. We assessed the development of exploratory actions in 16 typically-developing (TD) infants and 9 infants with…

  15. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela L. Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. METHOD: Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb, and post-weight. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05, with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001 for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. CONCLUSIONS: The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks.

  16. Speech and Language Development after Infant Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Betsy P.; Singer, Lynn T.

    1990-01-01

    When assessed for speech/language development, 31 children (age 1-12) fitted with endotracheal tubes for more than 3 months beginning by age 13 months showed overall language functioning within normal limits and commensurate with cognitive ability. However, a pattern of expressive language disability was noted in the oldest group. (Author/JDD)

  17. Development scenarios for organizational memory information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Well-managed organizational memories have been emphasized in the recent management literature as important sources for business success. Organizational memory infonnation systems (OMIS) have been conceptualized as a framework for information technologies to support these organizational memories.

  18. Object permanence development in infants with motor handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, L

    1981-03-01

    This study was an investigation of the effects of a motor handicap on the development of object permanence in the young child. Motor abilities were evaluated for 12 infants aged 13 to 29 months. Based on this evaluation, the children were described as manipulators or nonmanipulators in reference to their upper extremity skills. Their stage of object permanence was assessed using traditional and nontraditional assessments. Heart rate and visual tracking were recorded during the nontraditional assessment. Heart rate did not significantly relate to visual fixation or search response. There was, however, a significant difference (p less than .02) between stage achievement with traditional testing and age-appropriate levels. There was no significant difference between the nontraditional assessment and the age-appropriate levels. In addition, there was no significant difference in the development of object permanence between infants described as manipulators and those described as nonmanipulators. The last two findings suggest that infants with motor handicaps may develop object permanence at the expected ages, according to a nontraditional assessment.

  19. Development of the quality of reaching in infants with cerebral palsy : a kinematic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxum, Anke G; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Dijkstra, Linze-Jaap; Hamer, Elisa G; Hielkema, Tjitske; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess development of reaching and head stability in infants at very high risk (VHR-infants) of cerebral palsy (CP) who did and did not develop CP. METHOD: This explorative longitudinal study assessed the kinematics of reaching and head sway in sitting in 37 VHR-infants (18 CP) one to four

  20. Prenatal and Postpartum Maternal Psychological Distress and Infant Development: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Tough, Suzanne; Whitfield, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Infant development plays a foundational role in optimal child development and health. Some studies have demonstrated an association between maternal psychological distress and infant outcomes, although the main emphasis has been on postpartum depression and infant-maternal attachment. Prevention and early intervention strategies would benefit from…

  1. Lexical Development during Middle Infancy: A Mutually Driven Infant-Caregiver Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Philip; Dunham, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Mothers' utterances were measured during interactions with their 13-month-old infants and correlated with measures of infants' productive lexical development at 13 and 24 months. Correlations between maternal measures and infants' lexical development were lower for employed mothers than for mothers who were full-time caregivers. (BC)

  2. Development of Infant Positive Emotionality: The Contribution of Maternal Characteristics and Effects on Subsequent Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Laake, Lauren M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Dorn, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of maternal characteristics on the development of infant smiling and laughter, a marker of early positive emotionality (PE) and how maternal characteristics and the development of infant PE contributed to subsequent maternal parenting. One hundred fifty-nine mothers with 4-month-old infants participated.…

  3. Comparison of skin-to-skin (kangaroo) and traditional care: parenting outcomes and preterm infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I; Sirota, Lea; Weller, Aron

    2002-07-01

    To examine whether the kangaroo care (KC) intervention in premature infants affects parent-child interactions and infant development. Seventy-three preterm infants who received KC in the neonatal intensive care unit were matched with 73 control infants who received standard incubator care for birth weight, gestational age (GA), medical severity, and demographics. At 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction, maternal depression, and mother perceptions were examined. At 3 months' corrected age, infant temperament, maternal and paternal sensitivity, and the home environment (with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]) were observed. At 6 months' corrected age, cognitive development was measured with the Bayley-II and mother-infant interaction was filmed. Seven clusters of outcomes were examined at 3 time periods: at 37 weeks' GA, mother-infant interaction and maternal perceptions; at 3-month, HOME mothers, HOME fathers, and infant temperament; at 6 months, cognitive development and mother-infant interaction. After KC, interactions were more positive at 37 weeks' GA: mothers showed more positive affect, touch, and adaptation to infant cues, and infants showed more alertness and less gaze aversion. Mothers reported less depression and perceived infants as less abnormal. At 3 months, mothers and fathers of KC infants were more sensitive and provided a better home environment. At 6 months, KC mothers were more sensitive and infants scored higher on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index (KC: mean: 96.39; controls: mean: 91.81) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (KC: mean: 85.47; controls: mean: 80.53). KC had a significant positive impact on the infant's perceptual-cognitive and motor development and on the parenting process. We speculate that KC has both a direct impact on infant development by contributing to neurophysiological organization and an indirect effect by improving parental mood, perceptions, and interactive behavior.

  4. Perspectives from the symposium: The role of nutrition in infant and toddler brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Francisco J; Zeisel, Steven H

    2008-06-01

    This symposium examined current trends in neuroscience and developmental psychology as they apply to assessing the effects of nutrients on brain and behavioral development of 0-6-year-olds. Although the spectrum of nutrients with brain effects has not changed much in the last 25 years, there has been an explosion in new knowledge about the genetics, structure and function of the brain. This has helped to link the brain mechanistic pathway by which these nutrients act with cognitive functions. A clear example of this is linking of brain structural changes due to hypoglycemia versus hyperglycemia with cognitive functions by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess changes in brain-region volumes in combination with cognitive test of intelligence, memory and processing speed. Another example is the use of event-related potential (ERP) studies to show that infants of diabetic mothers have impairments in memory from birth through 8 months of age that are consistent with alterations in mechanistic pathways of memory observed in animal models of perinatal iron deficiency. However, gaps remain in the understanding of how nutrients and neurotrophic factors interact with each other in optimizing brain development and function.

  5. Fluorescein angiography and retinal vascular development in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Velia; Velia, Purcaro; Baldascino, Antonio; Antonio, Baldascino; Papacci, Patrizia; Patrizia, Papacci; Giannantonio, Carmen; Carmen, Giannantonio; Molisso, Anna; Anna, Molisso; Molle, Fernando; Fernando, Molle; Lepore, Domenico; Domenico, Lepore; Romagnoli, Costantino; Costantino, Romagnoli

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the role of fluorescein angiography (FA) in the management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm newborns. An observational case series of 13 extremely low birth weight infants. From September 2009 to March 2010, 13 newborn infants with a gestational age <29 weeks end/or birth weight <1000 g underwent serial fluorescein angiography with RetCam (Clarity, Pleasanton, CA) every 2 weeks. The fluorescein angiograms were examined to optimize the timing of diagnosis of ROP and to investigate development of retinal and choroidal vascularization. There were no side effects related to FA. Variable features of retinal and choroidal circulation in preterm infants with a high risk of developing ROP were noted. FA allows vessels branching at the junction between vascular and avascular retina (V-Av junction) to be viewed easily and shows the ROP findings that sometimes cannot be seen by indirect ophthalmoscopy. Dye leakage is the most significant sign of progression to severe ROP or the need for surgery in newborn babies with ROP. RetCam-assisted intravenous FA is safe and allows a more objective assessment of the ROP stage and zone.

  6. Suggested use of sensitive measures of memory to detect functional effects of maternal iodine supplementation on hippocampal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Dugan, Jessica A

    2016-09-01

    Maternal hypothyroxinemia secondary to iodine deficiency may have neurodevelopmental effects on the specific neurocognitive domain of memory. Associated disruption of thyroid hormone-dependent protein synthesis in the hippocampus has the potential to result in compromised development of the structure with consequential impairments in memory function. Despite links between maternal iodine deficiency during gestation and lactation and abnormal hippocampal development in rat fetuses and pups, there has been little research on the specific function of memory in human infants and young children born to iodine-deficient mothers. Several candidate measures have proven to be sensitive to the effects of gestational iron deficiency on memory function in infants and young children, including habituation and dishabituation, imitation-based tasks, and event-related potentials. Such measures could be used to test the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the specific neurocognitive domain of memory in infants and young children. Furthermore, progress in understanding the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on neurocognitive development could be accelerated by the development of a nonhuman primate model to complement the rodent model. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Dissociating Long and Short-term Memory in Three-Month-Old Infants Using the Mismatch Response to Voice Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, Katharina; Thöne, Leonie; Bolinger, Elaina M; Born, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) have been successfully used in adults as well as in newborns to discriminate recall of longer-term and shorter-term memories. Specifically the Mismatch Response (MMR) to deviant stimuli of an oddball paradigm is larger if the deviant stimuli are highly familiar (i.e., retrieved from long-term memory) than if they are unfamiliar, representing an immediate change to the standard stimuli kept in short-term memory. Here, we aimed to extend previous findings indicating a differential MMR to familiar and unfamiliar deviants in newborns (Beauchemin et al., 2011), to 3-month-old infants who are starting to interact more with their social surroundings supposedly based on forming more (social) long-term representations. Using a voice discrimination paradigm, each infant was repeatedly presented with the word "baby" (400 ms, interstimulus interval: 600 ms, 10 min overall duration) pronounced by three different female speakers. One voice that was unfamiliar to the infants served as the frequently presented "standard" stimulus, whereas another unfamiliar voice served as the "unfamiliar deviant" stimulus, and the voice of the infant's mother served as the "familiar deviant." Data collection was successful for 31 infants (mean age = 100 days). The MMR was determined by the difference between the ERP to standard stimuli and the ERP to the unfamiliar and familiar deviant, respectively. The MMR to the familiar deviant (mother's voice) was larger, i.e., more positive, than that to the unfamiliar deviant between 100 and 400 ms post-stimulus over the frontal and central cortex. However, a genuine MMR differentiating, as a positive deflection, between ERPs to familiar deviants and standard stimuli was only found in the 300-400 ms interval. On the other hand, a genuine MMR differentiating, as a negative deflection, between ERPs to unfamiliar deviants from ERPs to standard stimuli was revealed for the 200-300 ms post-stimulus interval. Overall

  8. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Babett; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Ellis, Judi; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Krause, Ivonne; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task where working memory updating load was…

  9. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Development of a Memory Training Game

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kristoffer; Valente, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Megame [me-ga-me], a multiplatform game for working memory training and assessment. Megame uses letters and words to amuse, train and assess memory capacity. Based on memory research, the main parameters of the working memory have been identified and some improvement possibilities are presented. While it is not clear that the working memory in itself can be improved, other cognitive functions are identified that may be improved while playing Megame. Other uses of Megame in...

  11. The Influence of Different Maternal Microbial Communities on the Development of Infant Gut and Oral Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Drell, Tiina; Stsepetova, Jelena; Simm, Jaak; Rull, Kristiina; Aleksejeva, Aira; Antson, Anne; Tillmann, Vallo; Metsis, Madis; Sepp, Epp; Salumets, Andres; Mandar, Reet

    2017-01-01

    Very few studies have analyzed how the composition of mother?s microbiota affects the development of infant?s gut and oral microbiota during the first months of life. Here, microbiota present in the mothers? gut, vagina, breast milk, oral cavity, and mammary areola were compared with the gut and oral microbiota of their infants over the first six months following birth. Samples were collected from the aforementioned body sites from seven mothers and nine infants at three different time points...

  12. Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on the Health and Development of African American Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Jada; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Weaver, Mark A.; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Engelke, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of secondhand smoke exposure on growth, health-related illness, and child development in rural African American premature infants through 24 months corrected age. Method. 171 premature infants (72 boys, 99 girls) of African American mothers with a mean birthweight of 1114 grams. Mothers reported on household smoking and infant health at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months corrected age. Infant growth was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and developmental assessm...

  13. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frederick Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Cassasanto’s body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning.

  14. Recent psychological explanations of infant development and scales of early mental development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews early infant measures based on standardised scales of development – both traditional ones and those based on Piaget's sensory-motor theory – and assesses their validity in predicting later mental development. The extremely low predictive power of test scores based on these measures in infancy has provided additional support for discontinuity theories of mental development from infancy to childhood. Conversely, the constructs implicit in earlier measures have been thoroughly criticised, and the search for valid measures of infant development that would reflect a construct similar to mental abilities in childhood has begun. At the outset, research was mostly influenced by the information processing theory. Two broad measures of information processing have been shown to be the most relevant indicators of an infant's mental development, namely habituation and dishabituation. Recent mental scales, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, thus include items that measure the efficiency of an infant's information processing. Examples of such items are presented and interpreted, as are items reflecting the development of object permanence, the only early sensory-motor measure that shows better predictive effectiveness when compared to traditional developmental test scores. Several newly-developed indicators of infants' mental development, which utilize other measures than those derived from the information-processing approach, are surveyed (understanding causal relations, joint attention behaviours, representation of number, and their possible application within the context of potential items for early mental scales is discussed. Finally, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, currently one of the best measures of early development, and presently undergoing a standardisation procedure in Slovenia, is evaluated, with analyses of some items from the Mental scale presented within the text.

  15. Associations of biological factors and affordances in the home with infant motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Raquel; Valentini, Nadia C; Pereira, Keila Rg; Müller, Alessandra B; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-04-01

    Whereas considerable work has been published regarding biological factors associated with infant health, much less is known about the associations of environmental context with infant development - the focus of the present cross-sectional study. Data were collected on 561 infants, aged newborn to 18 months. Measures included the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale, Alberta Infant Motor Scale, and selected bio/medical factors. Correlation and regression were used to analyze the data. Home environmental factors were associated with children's motor development as much as some typically high-risk biologic factors. The home environment partially explained infant development outcomes and infants at risk could possibly be helped with a home assessment for affordances. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Motor Development of Premature Infants Born between 32 and 34 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about motor development in late preterm born infants. Our objective was to determine long-term outcome of motor skills of infants born between 32 and 34 weeks. All infants were assessed at corrected ages of 3 and 9 months, using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. At corrected ages of 4 years, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children was done. Seventy infants were seen at 4 years of age (median of 3 assessments per infant. Abnormal assessment at 3 or 9 months of age resulted in normal outcome in almost 80% at 4 years. On the other hand, a normal outcome in the first year of life resulted in an abnormal outcome at 4 years in 10% of the infants. Our results suggest that long-term followup of these late preterm born infants is necessary, as the assessments in the first year do not predict the long-term outcome.

  17. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dissociating Long and Short-term Memory in Three-Month-Old Infants Using the Mismatch Response to Voice Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Zinke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs have been successfully used in adults as well as in newborns to discriminate recall of longer-term and shorter-term memories. Specifically the Mismatch Response (MMR to deviant stimuli of an oddball paradigm is larger if the deviant stimuli are highly familiar (i.e., retrieved from long-term memory than if they are unfamiliar, representing an immediate change to the standard stimuli kept in short-term memory. Here, we aimed to extend previous findings indicating a differential MMR to familiar and unfamiliar deviants in newborns (Beauchemin et al., 2011, to 3-month-old infants who are starting to interact more with their social surroundings supposedly based on forming more (social long-term representations. Using a voice discrimination paradigm, each infant was repeatedly presented with the word “baby” (400 ms, interstimulus interval: 600 ms, 10 min overall duration pronounced by three different female speakers. One voice that was unfamiliar to the infants served as the frequently presented “standard” stimulus, whereas another unfamiliar voice served as the “unfamiliar deviant” stimulus, and the voice of the infant’s mother served as the “familiar deviant.” Data collection was successful for 31 infants (mean age = 100 days. The MMR was determined by the difference between the ERP to standard stimuli and the ERP to the unfamiliar and familiar deviant, respectively. The MMR to the familiar deviant (mother’s voice was larger, i.e., more positive, than that to the unfamiliar deviant between 100 and 400 ms post-stimulus over the frontal and central cortex. However, a genuine MMR differentiating, as a positive deflection, between ERPs to familiar deviants and standard stimuli was only found in the 300–400 ms interval. On the other hand, a genuine MMR differentiating, as a negative deflection, between ERPs to unfamiliar deviants from ERPs to standard stimuli was revealed for the 200–300 ms

  19. Working memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole, S

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between working memory, verbal short-term memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills was explored longitudinally in children growing up in a multilingual society. A sample of 121 children from Luxembourg were followed from the end of Kindergarten to 1st Grade, and completed multiple assessments of verbal short-term memory, complex working memory, phonological awareness, native and foreign vocabulary knowledge, language comprehension, and reading. Resu...

  20. Development, Construct Validity, and Reliability of the Questionnaire on Infant Feeding: A Tool for Measuring Contemporary Infant-Feeding Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth J; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2017-12-01

    The breastfeeding surveillance tool in the United States, the National Immunization Survey, considers the maternal-infant dyad to be breastfeeding for as long as the infant consumes human milk (HM). However, many infants consume at least some HM from a bottle, which can lead to health outcomes different from those for at-the-breast feeding. Our aim was to develop a construct-valid questionnaire that categorizes infants by nutrition source, that is, own mother's HM, another mother's HM, infant formula, or other and feeding mode, that is, at the breast or from a bottle, and test the reliability of this questionnaire. The Questionnaire on Infant Feeding was developed through a literature review and modified based on qualitative research. Construct validity was assessed through cognitive interviews and a test-retest reliability study was conducted among mothers who completed the questionnaire twice, 1 month apart. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten mothers from upstate New York between September and December 2014. A test-retest reliability study was conducted among 44 mothers from across the United States between March and May 2015. Equivalence of questions with continuous responses about the timing of starting and stopping various behaviors and the agreement between responses to questions with categorical responses on the two questionnaires completed 1 month apart. Reliability was assessed using paired-equivalence tests for questions about the timing of starting and stopping behaviors and weighted Cohen's κ for questions about the frequency and intensity of behaviors. Reliability of the Questionnaire on Infant Feeding was moderately high among mothers of infants aged 19 to 35 months, with most questions about the timing of starting and stopping behaviors equivalent to within 1 month. Weighted Cohen's κ for categorical questions indicated substantial agreement. The Questionnaire on Infant Feeding is a construct-valid tool to measure duration, intensity

  1. The Development of Children's Early Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haden, Catherine A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; O'Brien, Barbara S.; Elischberger, Holger B.; Tyler, Caroline S.; Burchinal, Margaret J.

    2011-01-01

    A multitask battery tapping nonverbal memory and language skills was used to assess 60 children at 18, 24, and 30 months of age. Analyses focused on the degree to which language, working memory, and deliberate memory skills were linked concurrently to children's Elicited Imitation task performance and whether the patterns of association varied…

  2. Heterogeneity of Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy Among Infants in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joann F; Hille, Darcy A; Liu, G Frank; Kaplan, Susan S; Nelson, Micki; Goveia, Michelle G; Mast, T Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea worldwide in young children. Although rotavirus vaccine efficacy is high in developed countries, efficacy is lower in developing countries. Here, we investigated heterogeneity of rotavirus vaccine efficacy by infant characteristics in developing countries. An exploratory, post hoc analysis was conducted using randomized controlled trial data of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) conducted in Africa and Asia (NCT00362648). Infants received either 3 doses of vaccine/placebo and were followed for up to 2 years. Within subgroups, vaccine efficacies and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) were estimated using Poisson regression. We assessed heterogeneity of efficacy by age at first dose, gender, breastfeeding status and nutrition status. African children receiving the first dose at efficacy (23.7%; 95% CI: -8.2%-46.3%) than those vaccinated at ≥8 weeks (59.1%; 95% CI: 34.0%-74.6%). Marginally statistically significant differences were observed by age at first dose, gender and underweight status in Ghana and gender in Asian countries. Heterogeneity of efficacy was observed for age at first dose in African countries. This was an exploratory analysis; additional studies are needed to validate these results.

  3. Specific features of physical development in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alyamovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review deals with the specilic features of physical development in extremely premature infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth. It describes the regularities of an increment in basic physical development parameters (weight, height, and head circumference within the first year of life. Genetic factors, the specific features of a neonatal period, comorbidity, and different feeding types are shown to affect the increment rates of the physical development parameters. Emphasis is placed on the early initiation of enteral feeding and on the long-term use of fortified foods in low birthweight premature babies for the correction of energy deficiency resulting from preterm birth. The review shows that there is a relationship of the long-term outcomes of physical and psychomotor developments in low birthweight premature babies.

  4. Impact of infant and preschool pertussis vaccinations on memory B-cell responses in children at 4 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H; de Rond, Lia G H; Oztürk, Kemal; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-08-05

    Whooping cough, caused by Bordetella pertussis, is reemerging in the vaccinated population. Antibody levels to pertussis antigens wane rapidly after both whole-cell (wP) and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccination and protection may largely depend on long-term B- and T-cell immunity. We studied the effect of wP and aP infant priming at 2, 3, 4 and 11 months according to the Dutch immunization program on pertussis-specific memory B-cell responses before and after a booster vaccination with either a high- or low-pertussis dose vaccine at 4 years of age. Purified B-cells were characterized by FACS-analysis and after polyclonal stimulation, memory B-cells were detected by ELISPOT-assays specific for pertussis toxin, filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin. Before and after the booster, higher memory B-cell responses were measured in aP primed children compared with wP primed children. In contrast with antibody levels, no dose-effect was observed on the numbers of memory B-cell responses. In aP primed children a fifth high-dose aP vaccination tended to induce even lower memory B-cell responses than a low-dose aP booster. In both wP and aP primed children, the number of memory B-cells increased after the booster and correlated with the pertussis-specific antibody concentrations and observed affinity maturation. This study indicates that aP vaccinations in the first year of life induce higher pertussis-specific memory B-cell responses in children 4 years of age compared with Dutch wP primary vaccinations. Since infant aP vaccinations have improved protection against whooping cough in children despite waning antibody levels, this suggests that an enhanced memory B-cell pool induction may have an important role in protection. However, the pertussis-dose of the preschool booster needs to be considered depending on the vaccine used for priming to optimize long-term protection against whooping cough. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Focused attention, heart rate deceleration, and cognitive development in preterm and full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie Thomas, Julianne H; Whitfield, Michael F; Oberlander, Tim F; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2012-05-01

    The majority of children who are born very preterm escape major impairment, yet more subtle cognitive and attention problems are very common in this population. Previous research has linked infant focused attention during exploratory play to later cognition in children born full-term and preterm. Infant focused attention can be indexed by sustained decreases in heart rate (HR). However there are no preterm studies that have jointly examined infant behavioral attention and concurrent HR response during exploratory play in relation to developing cognition. We recruited preterm infants free from neonatal conditions associated with major adverse outcomes, and further excluded infants with developmental delay (Bayley Mental Development Index [MDI attention and concurrent HR response were compared in 83 preterm infants (born 23-32 weeks gestational age [GA]) who escaped major impairment to 46 full-term infants. Focused attention and HR response were then examined in relation to Bayley MDI, after adjusting for neonatal risk. MDI did not differ by group, yet full-term infants displayed higher global focused attention ratings. Among the extremely preterm infants born attention episodes, accounted for 49% of adjusted variance in predicting concurrent MDI. There were no significant associations for later-born gestational age (29-32 weeks) or full-term infants. Among extremely preterm infants who escape major impairment, our findings suggest unique relationships between focused attention, HR deceleration, and developing cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development of a Memory Training Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer; Valente, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Megame [me-ga-me], a multiplatform game for working memory training and assessment. Megame uses letters and words to amuse, train and assess memory capacity. Based on memory research, the main parameters of the working memory have been identified and some improvement...... possibilities are presented. While it is not clear that the working memory in itself can be improved, other cognitive functions are identified that may be improved while playing Megame. Other uses of Megame include spelling and vocabulary training and learning modality assessment. Megame is written in Python...

  7. Development of microactuators from shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, M.

    2002-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have the fascinating property of shape recovery, which is associated with the generation of high energy densities. Nowadays, they are already used in several very successful applications. Within the last 10 years, SMA devices have entered also the field of microsystems technology. The present report gives an overview on the current state-of-the-art. For the examples of SMA microvalves and SMA linear actuators, the microactuator development is described from the idea to the prototype in comprehensive breadth. The breadth of research and development activities on SMA microactuators presently ranges from pure scientific topics of materials research to technological problems, e.g. of micromachining, integration and contacting. Further key aspects of development are three-dimensional models for the handling of complex SMA actuator geometries and coupled simulation routines in order to take multifunctional properties into account. For actuator design, mechanical and thermal optimization criteria are introduced, whose systematic implementation allows an optimum use of the shape memory effect. Some of the presented prototypes are already competitive components. One example are normally-open SMA microvalves driven by SMA foil actuators of 20 μm thickness, which are counted among the smallest microvalves and which still are able to control pressures and flows comparable to other valve concepts. Due to their modular design they can be combined with other microfluidic components in a flexible way for realization of fluidic microsystems. Another example are SMA microgrippers, a further development of SMA linear actuators, which presently outperform other microgrippers of comparable size with respect to gripping force and stroke. (orig.)

  8. Altered Pulmonary Lymphatic Development in Infants with Chronic Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNellis, Emily M.; Mabry, Sherry M.; Taboada, Eugenio; Ekekezie, Ikechukwu I.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphatic development in chronic lung disease (CLD) has not been investigated, and anatomy of lymphatics in human infant lungs is not well defined. Hypothesis. Pulmonary lymphatic hypoplasia is present in CLD. Method. Autopsy lung tissues of eighteen subjects gestational ages 22 to 40 weeks with and without history of respiratory morbidity were stained with monoclonal antipodoplanin and reviewed under light microscopy. Percentage of parenchyma podoplanin stained at the acinar level was determined using computerized image analysis; 9 CLD and 4 control subjects gestational ages 27 to 36 weeks were suitable for the analysis. Results. Distinct, lymphatic-specific staining with respect to other vascular structures was appreciated in all gestations. Infants with and without respiratory morbidity had comparable lymphatic distribution which extended to the alveolar ductal level. Podoplanin staining per parenchyma was increased and statistically significant in the CLD group versus controls at the alveolar ductal level (0.06% ± 0.02% versus 0.04% ± 0.01%, 95% CI −0.04% to −0.002%, P CLD. It is suggested that the findings, by expanding current knowledge of CLD pathology, may offer insight into the development of more effective therapies to tackle CLD. PMID:24527433

  9. Development of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Hannah E; Sande, Charles J

    2017-06-01

    2017 will mark the 60 th anniversary since the first isolation of RSV in children. In spite of concerted efforts over all these years, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against paediatric RSV disease has remained elusive. One of the main hurdles standing in the way of an effective vaccine is the fact that the age incidence of severe disease peaks within the first 3 months of life, providing limited opportunity for intervention. In addition to this complexity, the spectre of failed historical vaccines, which increased the risk of illness and death upon subsequent natural infection, has substantially increased the safety criteria against which modern vaccines will be assessed. This review traces the history of RSV vaccine development for young infants and analyses the potential reasons for the failure of historic vaccines. It also discusses recent breakthroughs in vaccine antigen design and the progressive evolution of platforms for the delivery of these antigens to seronegative infants. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Memory development in preschool children with disabilities in the game

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoriya Shypikova

    2013-01-01

    The scientific article "Development of memory in preschool children with disabilities in the game" reveals the relevance of the application of the game as the leading activity during the preschool years to optimize the development of the mental process of memory in children with disabilities. Work on the development of children's memory in the form of a game as the most effective form, aimed at attracting the attention of professionals working with preschool children with disabilities, a...

  11. Conditioning and Long-Term Memory in Three-Month-Old Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohr, Phyllis, S.; Fagen, Jeffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    This study of 20 3-month-old infants with Down's syndrome and 20 nondisabled infants found that both groups were successfully trained to produce movement in an overhead crib mobile by kicking, and displayed long-term retention a week later. Conditioning and retention-test performance of the two groups did not differ. (Author/JDD)

  12. Music Cognition in Early Infancy: Infants' Preferences and Long-Term Memory for Ravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Listening preferences for two pieces, Prelude and Forlane from "Le tombeau de Couperin" by Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), were assessed in two experiments conducted with 8-month-old infants, using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP). Experiment 1 showed that infants, who have never heard the pieces, could clearly make a distinction between the…

  13. The Longevity of Statistical Learning: When Infant Memory Decays, Isolated Words Come to the Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ferhat; Hay, Jessica F.

    2018-01-01

    Research over the past 2 decades has demonstrated that infants are equipped with remarkable computational abilities that allow them to find words in continuous speech. Infants can encode information about the transitional probability (TP) between syllables to segment words from artificial and natural languages. As previous research has tested…

  14. Development of emotional sweating in the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1982-09-01

    Sweating from the palm and sole occurs independently of ambient temperature but is influenced by emotional factors. It thus provides a useful objective measure of emotional state. The development of this emotional sweating in the newborn was investigated by measuring palmar water loss and relating it to the infant's state of arousal. Although 433 individual measurements were made on 124 babies of gestational age 25 to 41 weeks and postnatal age 15 hours to 9 weeks. Palmar water loss was also recorded continuously in 22 infants undergoing heel prick for routine blood sampling. In babies of 37 weeks' gestation or more, there was a clear relationship between palmar water loss and arousal from the day of birth, and by the third week levels on vigorous crying were comparable with those of an anxious adult. Less mature babies did not show emotional sweating at birth; it was first seen at the equivalent of 36 to 37 weeks' gestation regardless of maturity. Continuous recordings confirmed the cross-sectional data and illustrated the abrupt nature of the response. Emotional sweating could be a useful tool for the assessment of emotional state of the newborn.

  15. Evaluation of motor and cognitive development among infants exposed to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Kaitiana Martins; de Sá, Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso; Carvalho, Raquel

    2017-02-01

    This study of a prospective and cross-sectional nature compared the motor and cognitive development of HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in their first 18months of age. 40 infants exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy (Experimental Group - EG) and 40 unexposed infants (Control Group - CG) participated in the study. They were divided into four age groups of 4, 8, 12 and 18months old, with 10 infants from EG and 10 from CG in each group. The infants were evaluated once on motor and cognitive development by the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development. Performance category grading and comparisons among scaled score, composite score and percentile rank were held. There was significant group effect for scores in motor and cognitive domains showing lower scores for EG regardless of age. In comparison to the CG, the EG presented lower scores for cognitive domain at 8 and 18months. In the performance categories, all infants were classified at or above the average for motor and cognitive development, except of one EG-18month old infant classified as borderline for motor development. Infants exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy own adequate cognitive and motor development in the first 18months. However, the lower scores found, particularly on the 8th and 18th month for cognitive development, may indicate future problems, highlighting the need for systematic follow-up of this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Infant Exposures and Development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Brittni; Kroehl, Miranda; Lamb, Molly M.; Seifert, Jennifer; Barriga, Katherine; Eisenbarth, George S.; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing worldwide, with the most rapid increase among children younger than 5 years of age. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between perinatal and infant exposures, especially early infant diet, and the development of T1DM. DESIGN The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) is a longitudinal, observational study. SETTING Newborn screening for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was done at St. Joseph’s Hospital in Denver, Colorado. First-degree relatives of individuals with T1DM were recruited from the Denver metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1835 children at increased genetic risk for T1DM followed up from birth with complete prospective assessment of infant diet. Fifty-three children developed T1DM. EXPOSURES Early (<4 months of age) and late (≥6 months of age) first exposure to solid foods compared with first exposures at 4 to 5 months of age (referent). MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Risk for T1DM diagnosed by a physician. RESULTS Both early and late first exposure to any solid food predicted development of T1DM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04–3.51, and HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.26–7.24, respectively), adjusting for the HLA-DR genotype, first-degree relative with T1DM, maternal education, and delivery type. Specifically, early exposure to fruit and late exposure to rice/oat predicted T1DM (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.14–4.39, and HR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.36–6.11, respectively), while breastfeeding at the time of introduction to wheat/barley conferred protection (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26–0.86). Complicated vaginal delivery was also a predictor of T1DM (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.03–3.61). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results suggest the safest age to introduce solid foods in children at increased genetic risk for T1DM is between 4 and 5 months of age. Breastfeeding while introducing new foods may reduce T1DM risk. PMID:23836309

  17. The Development of Coordinated Communication in Infants at Heightened Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parladé, Meaghan V.; Iverson, Jana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which developmental change in coordination of social communication in early infancy differentiates children eventually diagnosed with ASD from those not likely to develop the disorder. A prospective longitudinal design was used to compare 9 infants at heightened risk for ASD (HR) later diagnosed with ASD, to 13 HR infants with language delay, 28 HR infants with no diagnosis, and 30 low risk infants. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that ASD infants exhibited significantly slower growth in coordinations overall and in gestures coordinated with vocalizations, even relative to HR infants with language delay. Disruption in the development of gesture-vocalization coordinations may result in negative cascading effects that negatively impact later social and linguistic development. PMID:25689930

  18. [Association between types of need, human development index, and infant mortality in Mexico, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe; López-Arellano, Oliva

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between different types of economic and social deprivation and infant mortality rates reported in 2008 in Mexico. We conducted an ecological study analyzing the correlation and relative risk between the human development index and levels of social and economic differences in State and national infant mortality rates. There was a strong correlation between higher human development and lower infant mortality. Low schooling and poor housing and crowding were associated with higher infant mortality. Although infant mortality has declined dramatically in Mexico over the last 28 years, the decrease has not been homogeneous, and there are persistent inequalities that determine mortality rates in relation to different poverty levels. Programs with a multidisciplinary approach are needed to decrease infant mortality rates through comprehensive individual and family development.

  19. The role of older siblings in infant motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Hayley; Hill, EL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings, but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling, or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings, along with parent reports and standardised assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings’ motor skills and the sibling rela...

  20. The Influence of Different Caregivers on Infant Growth and Development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinrui; Liang, Furong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Manman; Han, Ying

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of parents in China ask grandparents or babysitters to care for their children. Modern parents are often the only child in their family because of China's One-Child Policy and thus may lack interaction with siblings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to explore whether different caregivers affect the physical and development of infants in China. In total, 2,514 infants were enrolled in our study. We assessed their weight-for-age, supine length-for-age, weight-for-length, occipital-frontal circumference, and Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) results and recorded their general parental information and their primary caregivers. The weights and lengths of 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters were significantly lower than those of infants under the care of parents or grandparents ( P  motor-adaptive and language domains. Compared to 12-month-old infants under the care of parents and babysitters, infants under the care of grandparents were more likely to be overweight or obese ( P  development of the infants. Specifically, compared with infants raised by grandparents and parents, 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters had partially suppressed lengths and weights and lagged cognitively. The 12-month-old infants under the care of grandparents were more overweight than those cared for by parents and babysitters.

  1. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, B.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Ellis, J.; Schnitzspahn, K.M.; Krause, I.; Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task

  2. Associations between infant feeding practices and length, weight, and disease in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are well known, but the relative detrimental impacts of other foods on infant health are unknown. Because infants in developing countries are fed a wide range of food, quantifying the burden of these diverse feeding practices on infant health is essential for public health policy. We used data from the Demographic Health Survey from 20 developing countries over multiple years to examine the independent association of six different types of food (exclusive breastfeeding, nonexclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods with five measures of infant health (length, weight, diarrhea, fever, and cough. We estimated associations with regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors with infant, mother, and household factors and community-year fixed effects. We used these estimates in a simulation model to quantify the burden of different combinations of food on infant health. We show that for an infant younger than 6 months old, following current guidelines and exclusively breastfeeding instead of giving the infant solid foods may increase length by 0.75 centimeters and weight by 0.25 kilograms and decrease diarrhea, fever, and cough prevalence by 8%, 12%, and 11%, respectively. We found that the burden on infant health of some feeding practices is less than others. Although all other feeding practices are associated with worse health outcomes than exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding supplemented with liquids has a lower burden on infant health than solid foods and infant formula has a lower burden than milk or nonmilk liquids as measured by four of five health metrics. Providing specific quantified burden estimates of these practices can help inform public health policy related to infant feeding practices.

  3. Sensory processing and cognitive development of preterm and full term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Ribeiro Cavalcanti Buffone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current studies show the repercussion of sensory processing disorder in infant neurodevelopment. Little is known about the influence of these disorders in the infant’s cognitive development, however, it is known that they negatively interfere on daily life activities and remain during life course. Objective:To evaluate the relationship between sensory processing and cognitive development in infants and the association between prematurity and sensory processing in this population. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Childcare Outpatient Department of the Hospital das Clínicas, Federal Universidade de Pernambuco, from December 2009 to August 2010. The sample consisted of 182 infants from 8 to 15 months, of which 54 (29.7% were born preterm with the prematurity age correction made to 40 weeks of gestational age. We used the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI to evaluate the sensory processing and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III to assess cognitive development. Results: There was a significantly higher frequency of at risk and deficient sensory processing among preterm infants (37% when compared to term infants (21.9%. Cognitive delay was significantly higher (8.3% in infants with at risk and deficient sensory processing when compared to those with normal sensory processing (1.5%. Conclusion: Prematurity was a risk factor for sensory processing disorder, and infants diagnosed with this disorder showed cognitive delay more frequently. Prematurity alone was not associated with cognitive delay.

  4. Maternal Gesture Use and Language Development in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Meagan R.; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in language and communication are an early-appearing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with delays in language and gesture evident as early as the first year of life. Research with typically developing populations highlights the importance of both infant and maternal gesture use in infants' early language development.…

  5. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  6. Gestational age at birth and brain white matter development in term-born infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on infants/children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants/children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study. Using d...

  7. The Development and Temporal Dynamics of Spatial Orienting in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark H.; Tucker, Leslie A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses changes occurring in two-, four-, and six-month-old infants' visual attention span, through a series of experiments examining their ability to orient to peripheral visual stimuli. The results obtained were consistent with the hypothesis that infants get faster with age in shifting attention to a spatial location. (AA)

  8. [Quality analyses of the development of preterm infants: results of the Lower-Saxonian preterm infant follow-up project and a comparison group of term infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Gabriele; Macha, Thorsten; Petermann, Franz; Voss, Wolfgang; Sens, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Based on perinatal and neonatal quality assurance programmes, a follow-up project for the high-risk group of extremely preterm infants, unparalleled in Germany, was initiated in the federal state of Lower Saxony in 2004. Here we describe the new approach of examining a comparison group of term infants, which, for the first time, allows a valid interpretation of the collection of area-wide long-term outcome data on preterm children. The prospective long-term outcome project investigates the medical care situation for children born at less than 28 weeks of gestation up to school age. Based on the information obtained about the children's development the quality of health care will be optimised. A standardised examining concept with established development tests at defined follow-up intervals (at the age of 6 months, 2, 5 and 10 years) is used. At the age of five years 75 % of the examined premature children exhibited impairments. In order to better assess remarkable results, a comparison group of term infants (n=305) selected by a matched-pairs method was examined at the age of five using an analogous concept in kindergartens in Lower Saxony. The results were compared with the first two age cohorts of the follow-up-project (n=226) and quality analyses performed. As expected, significant differences have been found in the children's motor, cognitive and linguistic development between the preterm and term infants examined. This fact draws attention to the importance of early support for the majority of extremely premature infants. Feedback on the results given to the medical staff involved allows for the implementation of best practices and quality improvements. Identifying potential for improvement in everyday health care will help to develop specific optimisation measures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants – What do we know? Part 2: The palate of the preterm/low birthweight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehmer Ulrike

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-designed clinical studies on the palatal development in preterm and low birthweight infants are desirable because the literature is characterized by contradictory results. It could be shown that knowledge about 'normal' palatal development is still weak as well (Part 1. The objective of this review is therefore to contribute a fundamental analysis of methodologies, confounding factors, and outcomes of studies on palatal development in preterm and low birthweight infants. Methods An electronic literature search as well as hand searches were performed based on Cochrane search strategies including sources of more than a century in English, German, and French. Original data were recalculated from studies which primarily dealt with both preterm and term infants. The extracted data, especially those from non-English paper sources, were provided unfiltered for comparison. Results Seventy-eight out of 155 included articles were analyzed for palatal morphology of preterm infants. Intubation, feeding tubes, feeding mode, tube characteristics, restriction of oral functions, kind of diet, cranial form and birthweight were seen as causes contributing to altered palatal morphology. Changes associated with intubation concern length, depth, width, asymmetry, crossbite, and contour of the palate. The phenomenon 'grooving' has also been described as a complication associated with oral intubation. However, this phenomenon suffers from lack of a clear-cut definition. Head flattening, pressure from the oral tube, pathologic or impaired tongue function, and broadening of the alveolar ridges adjacent to the tube have been raised as causes of 'grooving'. Metrically, the palates of intubated preterm infants remain narrower, which has been examined up to the age of the late mixed dentition. Conclusion There is no evidence that would justify the exclusion of any of the raised causes contributing to palatal alteration. Thus, early orthodontic and

  10. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Papas, Mia A

    2016-03-01

    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n = 79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1-3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5-8.5-month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95 % CI 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95 % CI -0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants' RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95 % CI 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00994747.

  11. The development of episodic memory: items, contexts, and relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyungwook; Dennis, Simon J; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2013-11-01

    Episodic memory involves the formation of relational structures that bind information about the stimuli people experience to the contexts in which they experience them. The ability to form and retain such structures may be at the core of the development of episodic memory. In the first experiment reported here, 4- and 7-year-olds were presented with paired-associate learning tasks requiring memory structures of different complexity. A multinomial-processing tree model was applied to estimate the use of different structures in the two age groups. The use of two-way list-context-to-target structures and three-way structures was found to increase between the ages of 4 and 7. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the ability to form increasingly complex relational memory structures develops between the ages of 4 and 7 years and that this development extends well into adulthood. These results have important implications for theories of memory development.

  12. Gross motor development in full-term Greek infants assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale: reference values and socioeconomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrengelas, Dimitrios; Kalampoki, Vassiliki; Kleisiouni, Paraskevi; Konstantinou, Dimitrios; Siahanidou, Tania

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate gross motor development in Greek infants and establish AIMS percentile curves and to examine possible association of AIMS scores with socioeconomic parameters. Mean AIMS scores of 1068 healthy Greek full-term infants were compared at monthly age level with the respective mean scores of the Canadian normative sample. In a subgroup of 345 study participants, parents provided, via interview, information about family socioeconomic status. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of infant motor development with socioeconomic parameters. Mean AIMS scores did not differ significantly between Greek and Canadian infants in any of the 19 monthly levels of age. In multiple linear regression analysis, the educational level of the mother and also whether the infant was being raised by grandparents/babysitter were significantly associated with gross motor development (p=0.02 and psocioeconomic factors are associated with the infants' motor development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-cultural analysis of the motor development of Brazilian, Greek and Canadian infants assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saccani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the motor development of infants from three population samples (Brazil, Canada and Greece, to investigate differences in the percentile curves of motor development in these samples, and to investigate the prevalence of motor delays in Brazilian children. METHODS: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study with 795 Brazilian infants from zero to 18 months of age, assessed by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS at day care centers, nurseries, basic health units and at home. The Brazilian infants' motor scores were compared to the results of two population samples from Greece (424 infants and Canada (2,400 infants. Descriptive statistics was used, with one-sample t-test and binomial tests, being significant p≤0.05. RESULTS: 65.4% of Brazilian children showed typical motor development, although with lower mean scores. In the beginning of the second year of life, the differences in the motor development among Brazilian, Canadian and Greek infants were milder; at 15 months of age, the motor development became similar in the three groups. A non-linear motor development trend was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The lowest motor percentiles of the Brazilian sample emphasized the need for national norms in order to correctly categorize the infant motor development. The different ways of motor development may be a consequence of cultural differences in infant care.

  14. Infant long-term memory for associations formed during mere exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Amy; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    2011-04-01

    We previously found that young infants spontaneously associate stimuli that they merely see together. Using a sensory preconditioning paradigm with 6- and 9-month-olds, we asked how long such associations remain latent before being forgotten and what exposure conditions affect their persistence. Groups were preexposed to two puppets for 1h/day for 2 days, 1h on 1 day, or 1h on 1 day in two sessions; 1-27 days later, target actions were modeled on one puppet, and infants were tested with the other puppet 1 day later. The longest delay after which infants imitated the actions on the other puppet defined how long they remembered the association. The data revealed that the preexposure regimen determined retention. Regardless of exposure time, both ages remembered the association longer after two sessions, and younger infants remembered longer than older infants--for 4 weeks--after two 30-min sessions on 1 day. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fine Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Infants Corrected Aged 8 to 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor development between Low Birth Weight (LBW infants and Normal Birth Weight infants (NBW at the age of 8-12 months by using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2 . Methods: This was a non experimental and cross sectional study which was conducted on the 18 LBW infants and 14 normal infants. By referring to the profile of infants in NICU of Aliasghar Hospital, those with defined inclusion criteria was recognized (case group. The normal weight infants, randomly selected from Health Center of that hospital, matched with case group for date of birth. After completing the questionnaire about demographic variables, their gross motor development was assessed with PDMS-2. Finally the scores of the motor quotient were analyzed by independent t-test statistical method. Results: There was a significant difference between Fine motor quotient of groups (P=0.007. Discussion: This study showed that LBW infants are significantly lower than normal weight infants in attaining Fine motor skills. It means that the LBW infants are more prone to developmental difficulties.

  17. What Infant Memory Tells Us about Infantile Amnesia: Long-Term Recall and Deferred Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term recall memory was assessed in 14- and 16 month-olds using a nonverbal method requiring subjects to reenact a past event from memory. The results demonstrated significant deferred imitation after delays of two and four months, and that the toddlers retained and imitated multiple acts. (MDM)

  18. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Arend F; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Hitzert, Marrit M; Tanis, Jozien C; Roze, Elise

    2013-11-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed, using ['motor skills' or 'fine motor function' and 'preterm infant'] as the search string. Impaired gross and fine motor skills are among the most frequently occurring problems encountered by preterm children who do not develop cerebral palsy. The prevalence is around 40% for mild to moderate impairment and 20% for moderate impairment. Fine motor skill scores on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children are about 0.62 of a standard deviation lower compared with term children. Risk factors for fine motor impairments include moderately preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 2.0) and, among very preterm children (development of and recovery from brain injury could guide future intervention attempts aimed at improving fine motor skills of preterm children. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Memory for conversation and the development of common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Geoffrey L; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-11-01

    Efficient conversation is guided by the mutual knowledge, or common ground, that interlocutors form as a conversation progresses. Characterized from the perspective of commonly used measures of memory, efficient conversation should be closely associated with item memory-what was said-and context memory-who said what to whom. However, few studies have explicitly probed memory to evaluate what type of information is maintained following a communicative exchange. The current study examined how item and context memory relate to the development of common ground over the course of a conversation, and how these forms of memory vary as a function of one's role in a conversation as speaker or listener. The process of developing common ground was positively related to both item and context memory. In addition, content that was spoken was remembered better than content that was heard. Our findings illustrate how memory assessments can complement language measures by revealing the impact that basic conversational processes have on memory for what has been discussed. By taking this approach, we show that not only does the process of forming common ground facilitate communication in the present, but it also promotes an enduring record of that event, facilitating conversation into the future.

  20. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.

  1. On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold

    2013-01-01

    In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...

  2. Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then, I…

  3. Tone Series and the Nature of Working Memory Capacity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Katherine M.; Hardman, Kyle O.; Schachtman, Todd R.; Saults, J. Scott; Glass, Bret A.; Cowan, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding visual working memory, the limited information held in mind for use in ongoing processing, are extended here to examine auditory working memory development. Research with arrays of visual objects has shown how to distinguish the capacity, in terms of the "number" of objects retained, from the…

  4. Emergency preparedness for those who care for infants in developed country contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Karleen D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emergency management organisations recognise the vulnerability of infants in emergencies, even in developed countries. However, thus far, those who care for infants have not been provided with detailed information on what emergency preparedness entails. Emergency management authorities should provide those who care for infants with accurate and detailed information on the supplies necessary to care for them in an emergency, distinguishing between the needs of breastfed infants and the needs of formula fed infants. Those who care for formula fed infants should be provided with detailed information on the supplies necessary for an emergency preparedness kit and with information on how to prepare formula feeds in an emergency. An emergency preparedness kit for exclusively breastfed infants should include 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. The contents of an emergency preparedness for formula fed infants will vary depending upon whether ready-to-use liquid infant formula or powdered infant formula is used. If ready-to-use liquid infant formula is used, an emergency kit should include: 56 serves of ready-to-use liquid infant formula, 84 L water, storage container, metal knife, small bowl, 56 feeding bottles and teats/cups, 56 zip-lock plastic bags, 220 paper towels, detergent, 120 antiseptic wipes, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. If powdered infant formula is used, an emergency preparedness kit should include: two 900 g tins powdered infant formula, 170 L drinking water, storage container, large cooking pot with lid, kettle, gas stove, box of matches/lighter, 14 kg liquid petroleum gas, measuring container, metal knife, metal tongs, feeding cup, 300 large sheets paper towel, detergent, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. Great care with regards hygiene should be taken in the preparation of formula feeds. Child protection organisations should ensure that foster carers responsible for infants have the resources necessary to formula feed in the

  5. Development of a Quantitative Tool to Assess the Content of Physical Therapy for Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Dirks, Tineke; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The study aim was to describe and quantify physical therapy interventions for infants at high risk for developmental disorders. Methods: An observation protocol was developed based on knowledge about infant physical therapy and analysis of directly observable physiotherapeutic (PT) actions.

  6. In-Service Infant Teachers Re-Envision Their Practice through a Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Eleni; Recchia, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Most infant teachers have been prepared to be early childhood educators with minimal theoretical or practical exposure to infancy. This study highlights the outcomes of a professional development program (PDP) designed to support a group of infant teachers who lacked specific infancy preparation to re-envision their roles. Data…

  7. Sensory integration intervention and the development of the premature infant: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lecuona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Premature infants are at risk of sensory processing difficulties and developmental delays due to an immature central nervous system and possible episodes of medical instability, discomfort, pain and stress during the first weeks or months after birth.Objective. To investigate the effect of Ayres Sensory Integration (ASI on the development of premature infants in the first 12 months of life.Methods. A pre-/post-test experimental design was used to randomly divide 24 premature infants from a low socioeconomic setting in Bloemfontein, South Africa, into experimental and control groups after being matched by corrected age and gender. Developmental status was determined with the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile. The experimental group received 10 weeks of ASI intervention.Results. ASI intervention had a positive effect on the sensory processing and development of premature infants, especially in terms of cognitive, language and motor development.Conclusions. ASI intervention at an early age enhances the developmental progress of premature infants. 

  8. Developing a statewide public health initiative to reduce infant mortality in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Suzanna; Patrick, Paul; Lincoln, Alicia; Cline, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The Preparing for a Lifetime, It's Everyone's Responsibility initiative was developed to improve the health and well- being of Oklahoma's mothers and infants. The development phase included systematic data collection, extensive data analysis, and multi-disciplinary partnership development. In total, seven issues (preconception/interconception health, tobacco use, postpartum depression, breastfeeding, infant safe sleep, preterm birth, and infant injury prevention) were identified as crucial to addressing infant mortality in Oklahoma. Workgroups were created to focus on each issue. Data and media communications workgroups were added to further partner commitment and support for policy and programmatic changes across multiple agencies and programs. Leadership support, partnership, evaluation, and celebrating small successes were important factors that lead to large scale adoption and support for the state-wide initiative to reduce infant mortality.

  9. Auditory-Visual Context and Memory Retrieval in 3-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman-Wasserman, Michelle; Brennan, Barbara; Radcliffe, Fiona; Prigot, Joyce; Fagen, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 3-month-old infants were trained to move an overhead mobile by kicking 1 of their feet in the presence of a distinctive visual (crib bumpers) and auditory (music) context. In Experiment 1A, 5-day but not 1-day retention was disrupted if either or both elements of the context present during the retention test were novel. In…

  10. Human Infant Memory B Cell and CD4+ T Cell Responses to HibMenCY-TT Glyco-Conjugate Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Fuery

    Full Text Available Carrier-specific T cell and polysaccharide-specific B cell memory responses are not well characterised in infants following glyco-conjugate vaccination. We aimed to determine if the number of Meningococcal (Men C- and Y- specific memory B cells and; number and quality of Tetanus Toxoid (TT carrier-specific memory CD4+ T cells are associated with polysaccharide-specific IgG post HibMenCY-TT vaccination. Healthy infants received HibMenCY-TT vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months with a booster at 12 months. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and polysaccharide-specific memory B cells enumerated using ELISpot. TT-specific memory CD4+ T cells were detected and phenotyped based on CD154 expression and intracellular TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ expression following stimulation. Functional polysaccharide-specific IgG titres were measured using the serum bactericidal activity (SBA assay. Polysaccharide-specific Men C- but not Men Y- specific memory B cell frequencies pre-boost (12 months were significantly associated with post-boost (13 months SBA titres. Regression analysis showed no association between memory B cell frequencies post-priming (at 6 or 7 months and SBA at 12 months or 13 months. TT-specific CD4+ T cells were detected at frequencies between 0.001 and 0.112 as a percentage of CD3+ T cells, but their numbers were not associated with SBA titres. There were significant negative associations between SBA titres at M13 and cytokine expression at M7 and M12.Induction of persistent polysaccharide-specific memory B cells prior to boosting is an important determinant of secondary IgG responses in infants. However, polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses appear to be independent of the number and quality of circulating carrier-specific CD4+ T cells after priming.

  11. The Influence of Different Caregivers on Infant Growth and Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinrui Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAn increasing number of parents in China ask grandparents or babysitters to care for their children. Modern parents are often the only child in their family because of China’s One-Child Policy and thus may lack interaction with siblings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to explore whether different caregivers affect the physical and development of infants in China.MethodsIn total, 2,514 infants were enrolled in our study. We assessed their weight-for-age, supine length-for-age, weight-for-length, occipital-frontal circumference, and Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST results and recorded their general parental information and their primary caregivers.ResultsThe weights and lengths of 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters were significantly lower than those of infants under the care of parents or grandparents (P < 0.05. Additionally, 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters had the lowest DDST pass rate (75% among the three groups (χ2 = 11.819, P = 0.012, especially for the fine motor-adaptive and language domains. Compared to 12-month-old infants under the care of parents and babysitters, infants under the care of grandparents were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.001.ConclusionThe study showed that caregivers had a dominant role in the physical and cognitive development of the infants. Specifically, compared with infants raised by grandparents and parents, 12-month-old infants under the care of babysitters had partially suppressed lengths and weights and lagged cognitively. The 12-month-old infants under the care of grandparents were more overweight than those cared for by parents and babysitters.

  12. Impact of maternal depressive symptoms and infant temperament on early infant growth and motor development: results from a population based study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Hashima-E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Forsell, Yvonne; Edhborg, Maigun

    2013-04-05

    Evidence linking maternal depressive symptoms with infant's growth and development in low-income countries is inadequate and conflicting. This study investigated the independent effect of maternal perinatal depressive symptoms on infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. A cohort of 720 pregnant women was followed from the third trimester of pregnancy to 6-8 months postpartum. For growth and developmental outcomes, 652 infants at 2-3 months and 6-8 months were assessed. Explanatory variables comprised maternal depressive symptoms, socioeconomic status, and infant's health and temperament. Outcome measures included infant's underweight, stunting and motor development. Multiple linear regression analyses identified predictors of infant growth and development. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms independently predicted infant's underweight and impaired motor development, and antepartum depressive symptoms predicted infant's stunting. Infant's unadaptable temperament was inversely associated with infant's weight-for-age and motor development, and fussy and unpredictable temperament with height-for-age and motor development. Repeated measures design might threaten the internal validity of the results 8.3% of the participant does not participate in the measurements at different times. As the study was conducted in two sub-districts of rural Bangladesh, it does not represent the urban scenario and cannot be generalized even for other rural areas of the country. This study provides evidence that maternal ante- and postpartum depressive symptoms predict infant's growth and motor development in rural Bangladesh. It is recommended to integrate psychosocial components in maternal and child health interventions in order to counsel mothers with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute oxytocin improves memory and gaze following in male but not female nursery-reared infant macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F

    2017-02-01

    Exogenous oxytocin administration is widely reported to improve social cognition in human and nonhuman primate adults. Risk factors of impaired social cognition, however, emerge in infancy. Early interventions-when plasticity is greatest-are critical to reverse negative outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that oxytocin may exert similar positive effects on infant social cognition, as in adults. To test this idea, we assessed the effectiveness of acute, aerosolized oxytocin on two foundational social cognitive skills: working memory (i.e., ability to briefly hold and process information) and social gaze (i.e., tracking the direction of others' gaze) in 1-month-old nursery-reared macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We did not predict sex differences, but we included sex as a factor in our analyses to test whether our effects would be generalizable across both males and females. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we found that females were more socially skilled at baseline compared to males, and that oxytocin improved working memory and gaze following, but only in males. These sex differences, while unexpected, may be due to interactions with gonadal steroids and may be relevant to sexually dimorphic disorders of social cognition, such as male-biased autism spectrum disorder, for which oxytocin has been proposed as a potential treatment. In sum, we report the first evidence that oxytocin may influence primate infant cognitive abilities. Moreover, these behavioral effects appear sexually dimorphic, highlighting the importance of considering sex differences. Oxytocin effects observed in one sex may not be generalizable to the other sex.

  14. Feed-related Splanchnic Oxygenation in Preterm Infants With Abnormal Antenatal Doppler Developing Gut Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Beghetti, Isadora; Faldella, Giacomo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2018-05-01

    Preterm infants with antenatal absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AREDF) in umbilical arteries are at major risk for gastrointestinal (GI) complications, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal perforation and feeding intolerance. Near-infrared spectroscopy provides continuous monitoring of splanchnic oxygenation (SrSO2) and may represent a useful tool to predict GI outcomes in this high-risk population. This observational, pilot study assessed feed-related SrSO2 patterns at enteral feeding introduction and full enteral feeding (FEF) achievement in twenty AREDF infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks. Enrolled infants were divided into 2 groups according to the development versus lack of GI complications. Infants developing GI complications showed significantly lower SrSO2 and increased splanchnic oxygen extraction in response to enteral feeds at both enteral feeding introduction and FEF. The potential role of these findings in predicting GI complications in AREDF preterm infants seems promising and deserves further evaluation.

  15. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  16. Gut bacteria are rarely shared by co-hospitalized premature infants, regardless of necrotizing enterocolitis development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh-Sadka, Tali; Thomas, Brian C; Singh, Andrea; Firek, Brian; Brooks, Brandon; Castelle, Cindy J; Sharon, Itai; Baker, Robyn; Good, Misty; Morowitz, Michael J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    Premature infants are highly vulnerable to aberrant gastrointestinal tract colonization, a process that may lead to diseases like necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, spread of potential pathogens among hospitalized infants is of great concern. Here, we reconstructed hundreds of high-quality genomes of microorganisms that colonized co-hospitalized premature infants, assessed their metabolic potential, and tracked them over time to evaluate bacterial strain dispersal among infants. We compared microbial communities in infants who did and did not develop necrotizing enterocolitis. Surprisingly, while potentially pathogenic bacteria of the same species colonized many infants, our genome-resolved analysis revealed that strains colonizing each baby were typically distinct. In particular, no strain was common to all infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis. The paucity of shared gut colonizers suggests the existence of significant barriers to the spread of bacteria among infants. Importantly, we demonstrate that strain-resolved comprehensive community analysis can be accomplished on potentially medically relevant time scales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05477.001 PMID:25735037

  17. Three problems of organizational memory information systems development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; van Slooten, C.; White, D.

    2002-01-01

    Organizational memory information systems have a diversity of contents and may need a variety of information technologies. To cope with this diversity, OMIS requires specific development methodological guidelines. First the OMIS's objectives have to be stated in organizational functional

  18. The development and validation of the Memory Support Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Worrell, Frank C; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-06-01

    Patient memory for treatment information is poor, and worse memory for treatment information is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Memory support techniques have been harnessed to improve patient memory for treatment. However, a measure of memory support used by treatment providers during sessions has yet to be established. The present study reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS)-an observer-rated scale designed to measure memory support. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD; N = 42) were randomized to either cognitive therapy plus memory support (CT + MS; n = 22) or cognitive therapy as-usual (CT-as-usual; n = 20). At posttreatment, patients freely recalled treatment points via the patient recall task. Sessions (n = 171) were coded for memory support using the MSRS, 65% of which were also assessed for the quality of cognitive therapy via the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). A unidimensional scale composed of 8 items was developed using exploratory factor analysis, though a larger sample is needed to further assess the factor structure of MSRS scores. High interrater and test-retest reliabilities of MSRS scores were observed across 7 MSRS coders. MSRS scores were higher in the CT + MS condition compared with CT-as-usual, demonstrating group differentiation ability. MSRS scores were positively associated with patient recall task scores but not associated with CTRS scores, demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Results indicate that the MSRS yields reliable and valid scores for measuring treatment providers' use of memory support while delivering cognitive therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Development of a quantitative tool to assess the content of physical therapy for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H; Dirks, Tineke; Hulshof, Lily J; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to describe and quantify physical therapy interventions for infants at high risk for developmental disorders. An observation protocol was developed based on knowledge about infant physical therapy and analysis of directly observable physiotherapeutic (PT) actions. The protocol's psychometric quality was assessed. Videos of 42 infant physical therapy sessions at 4 or 6 months of corrected age were analyzed. The observation protocol classified PT actions into 8 mutually exclusive categories. Virtually all PT actions during treatment could be classified. Inter- and intrarater agreements were satisfactory (intraclass correlations, 0.68-1.00). Approximately 40% of treatment time was spent challenging the infant to produce motor behavior by themselves, whereas approximately 30% of time facilitation techniques were applied. Tradition-based sessions could be differentiated from function-oriented ones. It is possible to document PT actions during physical therapy treatment of infants at high risk for cerebral palsy in a systematic, standardized, and reliable way.

  1. Mental and psychomotor development in Indonesian infants of mothers supplemented with vitamin A in addition to iron during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, J.W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is important for fetal development, but its impact on the functional outcome of infants is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation on infant mental and psychomotor development. Mothers of infants from five

  2. The Cost of Learning: Interference Effects in Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Kevin P.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning often affects future learning and memory for previously learned information by exerting either facilitation or interference effects. Several theoretical accounts of interference effects have been proposed, each making different developmental predictions. This research examines interference effects across development, with the goal of better understanding mechanisms of interference and of memory development. Preschool-aged children and adults participated in a three-phased associative learning paradigm containing stimuli that were either unique or repeated across phases. Both age groups demonstrated interference effects, but only for repeated items. Whereas proactive interference effects were comparable across age groups, retroactive interference reached catastrophic-like levels in children. Additionally, retroactive interference increased in adults when contextual differences between phases were minimized (Experiment 2), and decreased in adults who were more successful at encoding repeated pairs of stimuli during a training phase (Experiment 3). These results are discussed with respect to theories of memory and memory development. PMID:25688907

  3. SUPPORTING PRETERM INFANT ATTACHMENT AND SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: STAFF PERCEPTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Aoife; Reulbach, Udo; Figuerdo, Ricardo; McCarthy, Anthony; McNicholas, Fiona; Molloy, Eleanor Joan

    2016-01-01

    The infant-parent relationship has been shown to be of particular significance to preterm infant socioemotional development. Supporting parents and infants in this process of developing their relationships is an integral part of neonatal intensive care; however, there is limited knowledge of NICU staff perceptions about this aspect of care. To explore NICU staff perceptions about attachment and socioemotional development of preterm infants, experience of training in this area and the emotional impact of their work. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of staff perceptions of the emotional experiences of parents and the developing parent-infant relationship in an NICU was conducted in a Level III NICU, after pilot testing, revision, and ethical approval. Fifty-seven (68%) of NICU staff responded to the survey. Respondents identified parents' emotional experiences such as "anxiety," "shock," "loss of control," and "lack of feelings of competence as parents" as highly prevalent. Infant cues of "responding to parent's voice" and "quieting-alerting" were ranked most highly; "crying" and "physiological changes" were ranked lowest. Preterm infant medical risk, maternal emotional state, and mental health are perceived to impact most highly on the developing relationship, as compared with infant state or behavior and socioeconomic factors. Fifty-three (93%) respondents felt confident, and 50 (87.8%) felt competent discussing their emotional experiences with parents. Fifty-four (95%) responded that attending to these areas was an integral part of their role; however, staff had seldom received education in this area. Respondents also perceived that specific psychological support for parents was lacking both during and after the infant's discharge. While all staff surveyed perceived the nature of their work to be emotionally stressful, there were differences among NICU staff disciplines and with years of experience in the NICU in terms of their perceptions about education in

  4. [Influence of neonatal diseases and treatments on the development of cerebral palsy in preterm infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Rong, Luo; Wang, Qiu; You, Yi; Fu, Jun-Xian; Kang, Lin-Min; Wu, Yan-Qiao

    2013-03-01

    To investigated the risk factors of cerebral palsy development in preterm infants. This study included 203 preterm infants (gestation age neonatal period, were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic analysis for the risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in neonatal period found significant differences in the occurrence of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, OR = 39.87, P neonatal (OR = 2.18, P neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (OR = 1.72, P CPAP, OR = 0.21, P neonatal jaundice may increase the risk in the development of CP in preterm infant, while CPAP may decrease the risk of cerebral palsy.

  5. Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on the Health and Development of African American Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Weaver, Mark A.; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Engelke, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of secondhand smoke exposure on growth, health-related illness, and child development in rural African American premature infants through 24 months corrected age. Method. 171 premature infants (72 boys, 99 girls) of African American mothers with a mean birthweight of 1114 grams. Mothers reported on household smoking and infant health at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months corrected age. Infant growth was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and developmental assessments were conducted at 12 and 24 months. Results. Thirty percent of infants were exposed to secondhand smoke within their first 2 years of life. Secondhand smoke exposure was associated with poorer growth of head circumference and the development of otitis media at 2 months corrected age. Height, weight, wheezing, and child development were not related to secondhand smoke exposure. Conclusion. Exposure to secondhand smoke may negatively impact health of rural African American premature infants. Interventions targeted at reducing exposure could potentially improve infant outcomes. PMID:22295181

  6. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  7. The development of rhythmic preferences by Dutch-learning infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keij, B.M.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter the early acquisition of word stress is discussed. This study is aimed at examining rhythmic preferences for either strong-weak or weak-strong stress patterns of Dutch-learning infants between 4 and 8 months of age. It is complementary to previous rhythmic preference studies

  8. The Assessment of Cognitive Development in Blind Infants and Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, M.; Troster, H.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the Bielefeld Developmental Test for Blind Infants and Preschoolers by comparing cognitive performance of blind and sighted children (ages three and four). Results indicated that even this test (with "blind-neutral" items) did not permit a fair comparative assessment, though it did prove suitable for within-group…

  9. The development of rhythmic preferences by Dutch-learning infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keij, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374786097; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    In this chapter the early acquisition of word stress is discussed. This study is aimed at examining rhythmic preferences for either strong-weak or weak-strong stress patterns of Dutch-learning infants between 4 and 8 months of age. It is complementary to previous rhythmic preference studies

  10. Directions for memory hierarchies and their components: research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1978-10-01

    The memory hierarchy is usually the largest identifiable part of a computer system and making effective use of it is critical to the operation and use of the system. The levels of such a memory hierarchy are considered and the state of the art and likely directions for both research and development are described. Algorithmic and logical features of the hierarchy not directly associated with specific components are also discussed. Among the problems believed to be the most significant are the following: (a) evaluate the effectiveness of gap filler technology as a level of storage between main memory and disk, and if it proves to be effective, determine how/where it should be used, (b) develop algorithms for the use of mass storage in a large computer system, and (c) determine how cache memories should be implemented in very large, fast multiprocessor systems

  11. Kidney development in the first year of life in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotoura, Efthalia; Giapros, Vasilios; Drougia, Aikaterini; Argyropoulou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Frederica; Nikolopoulos, Panayiotis; Andronikou, Styliani

    2005-01-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have been reported to have a significantly reduced number of nephrons that could be a risk factor for development of hypertension later in life. To evaluate kidney size prospectively in relation to other anthropometric parameters during the first year of life in SGA babies. The babies in the study were 31-36 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and were matched with control preterm infants of similar GA, but appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The SGA infants were further classified as symmetrical and asymmetrical according to the anthropometric parameters. The total number of measurements in symmetrical SGA preterm infants was 324, in asymmetrical SGA preterm infants 295, and in AGA infants 536. In symmetrical SGA preterm infants (31-36 weeks' GA) mean kidney length (± SD) of 56±4 mm was significantly different from the controls (58.9±4.6 mm) up to 6 months' chronological age (P < 0.05). In the asymmetrical SGA preterm infants, mean kidney length (45.3±4.0 mm) was significantly different from the controls (48.2±4.4 mm) up to 40 weeks' corrected age. At 1 year chronological age, all preterm infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA and AGA) had similar mean kidney length (61.6±4.6, 62.8±4.3, and 62.3±4.0 mm, respectively). The ratio of kidney length to crown-to-heel length was similar in all preterm groups. Kidney length in preterm SGA infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical) follows closely the other auxological parameters during the first year of life. (orig.)

  12. A psychometric study of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition for term and preterm Taiwanese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yen-Ting; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chen, Li-Chiou; Lee, Wang-Tso; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Wu, Ying-Chin; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2013-11-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) was updated to enhance its usefulness for contemporary child developmental assessment. However, recent data in Western countries have implicated the overestimation of child development by the new instrument. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric features of the Bayley-III for term and preterm infants in Taiwan. Forty-seven term infants and 167 preterm infants were prospectively examined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 2nd Edition (BSID-II) and the Bayley-III at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity). The psychometric properties examined included reliability, construct validity, and known-group validity. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley-III were good to excellent. The correlations between the BSID-II and Bayley-III raw scores were good to excellent for the cognitive and motor items and low to excellent for the language items. Term infants achieved higher composite scores than preterm infants on all of the Bayley-III scales (pcognitive, language, and motor delay, respectively, as defined by the BSID-II index score<70. The Bayley-III is a reliable instrument that extends its previous edition, especially in early language assessment. However, the upward adjustment of its cut-off score is recommended for the accurate identification of developmental delay in term and preterm Taiwanese infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Development of Nursing Care Services Model for Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Wanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW infants deal with various problems during transitional period from intra-uterine and extra-uterine because of immature organs’ functions. This leads to LBW as the second death cause in Indonesia, particularly in the fi rst seventh days of infants’ lifes. The problem continues to occur at home when the infants have discharged. This research was aimed to develop the nursing care services model for LBW infants and to test the model. Method: The research design was an action research using quantitative and qualitative approach. This design was chosen as it facilitated improvement in health care system, which was involving nurses and other health providers. Results: Nursing care services provided by the nursing team are hindered by several factors, such as various level of nurses’ knowledge, not optimal health education activities, incomplete standard operational procedure, ethical dilemma, paramedic functions, and documentation system. This model was developed based on conservation and becoming a mother/maternal role attainment theory, family-centered care principles, and input from the experts through focus group discussion. Discussion: The result of this research is going to increase the quality of nursing care for LBW infants by achieving nurses’ and parents’ satisfaction in giving care for their infants which can lead to lower infant death rate.Key words: Model, Low birth weight infant, Nursing services, Action research

  14. [Development and evaluation of an e-learning program for mothers of premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nae-Young; Kim, Young-Hae

    2008-02-01

    It has been attempted to support mother of premature infants by providing information of premature infant care using e-learning because premature infants need continuous care from birth to after discharge. The e-Learning Program for mother of premature was developed with Xpert, Namo web editor, Adobe Photoshop, and PowerPoint and applied for 4 weeks from 4 to 30 September 2006. 1) We found that the contents of information which premature infants' need when being in the hospital and after discharge were the definition of a premature infant, orientation of NICU, care of premature infants, care of premature infants' common diseases, the connection of healthcare resources, exchange of information, and the management of rearing stress. 2) The program content consisted of cause of premature birth, comparison to full-term baby, physiology character, orientation of NICU, common health problems, follow up care, infection control, feeding, normal development physically and mentally, weaning method, and vaccination. Considering the results, this program for mother of premature is a useful means to provide premature-care information to mothers. This information can be readily accessible and can be varied and complex enough to be able to help mothers to the information and assistance they require.

  15. Thymus development and infant and child mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J C; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Persson, Lars Å; Arifeen, Shams E; Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Data from West Africa indicate that a small thymus at birth and at 6 months of age is a strong and independent risk factor for infection-related mortality up to 24 and 36 months of age, respectively. We investigated the association between thymus size (thymic index, TI) in infancy and subsequent infant and child survival in a contemporary South Asian population. The study focused on the follow-up of a randomized trial of prenatal nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh (ISRCTN16581394), with TI measured longitudinally in infancy (at birth and weeks 8, 24 and 52 of age) and accurate recording of mortality up to 5 years of age. A total of 3267 infants were born into the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study; data on TI were available for 1168 infants at birth, increasing to 2094 infants by 52 weeks of age. TI in relation to body size was largest at birth, decreasing through infancy. For infants with at least one measure of TI available, there were a total of 99 deaths up to the age of 5 years. No association was observed between TI and subsequent mortality when TI was measured at birth. However, an association with mortality was observed with TI at 8 weeks of age [odds ratio (OR) for change in mortality risk associated with 1 standard deviation change in TI: all deaths: OR = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41, 0.98; P = 0.038; and infection-related deaths only: OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14, 0.74; P = 0.008]. For TI when measured at 24 and 52 weeks of age, the numbers of infection-related deaths were too few (3 and 1, respectively) for any meaningful association to be observed. These results confirm that thymus size in early infancy predicts subsequent survival in a lower mortality setting than West Africa. The absence of an effect at birth and its appearance at 8 weeks of age suggests early postnatal influences such as breast milk trophic factors.

  16. A Community-Based Study of Sleep and Cognitive Development in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanqi; Li, Shirley Xin; Jiang, Yanrui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Spruyt, Karen; Zhu, Qi; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Jiang, Fan

    2018-05-29

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of nighttime awakenings and to explore the association between sleep and cognitive development in a community sample of infants and toddlers. A total of 590 healthy infants (aged 2-11 months) and 512 toddlers (aged 12-30 months) from 8 provinces of China were assessed for their sleep and cognitive development. Data on sleep duration and nighttime awakenings were collected through the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Cognitive development was assessed by trained pediatricians using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Prevalence of no nighttime awakening, and nighttime awakening(s) for 1×/night, 2×/night, and ≥ 3×/night was 6.8%, 20.2%, 33.2%, and 39.3% in infants, and was 25.8%, 34.6%, 23.8%, and 15.8% in toddlers, respectively. Nighttime awakenings were generally associated with younger age, lower maternal education level, and being currently breastfed. In addition, nighttime awakenings were associated with being boys in toddlers. After controlling for potential confounders, infants with nighttime awakenings for 2×/night were found to have significantly higher Mental Development Index (MDI) score, as compared to those without and those with more frequent nighttime awakenings. However, toddlers with nighttime awakenings for ≥ 3×/night had significantly lower MDI, as compared to those with fewer nighttime awakenings. Total sleep duration was not associated with any developmental indices in both infants and toddlers. Frequent nighttime awakenings are associated with poor cognitive functions in toddlers. Meanwhile, a nonlinear association between nighttime awakenings and cognitive performance was found among infants. The findings provide a developmental context for the effect of sleep on cognitive abilities in young children. Further longitudinal studies and interventional studies on the effects of parent-based sleep-focused intervention on cognitive abilities among young children are warranted. Copyright © 2018

  17. Motherese, affect, and vocabulary development: dyadic communicative interactions in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Shruti; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Olswang, Lesley B

    2018-07-01

    Responsive parental communication during an infant's first year has been positively associated with later language outcomes. This study explores responsivity in mother-infant communication by modeling how change in guiding language between 7 and 11 months influences toddler vocabulary development. In a group of 32 mother-child dyads, change in early maternal guiding language positively predicted child language outcomes measured at 18 and 24 months. In contrast, a number of other linguistic variables - including total utterances and non-guiding language - did not correlate with toddler vocabulary development, suggesting a critical role of responsive change in infant-directed communication. We further assessed whether maternal affect during early communication influenced toddler vocabulary outcomes, finding that dominant affect during early mother-infant communications correlated to lower child language outcomes. These findings provide evidence that responsive parenting should not only be assessed longitudinally, but unique contributions of language and affect should also be concurrently considered in future study.

  18. [Associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-02-01

    To examine associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development. We also investigated whether trends in appetite, snacking, and body type continue through time. Children (n=1313) born between April 2000 and March 2004, in Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, were enrolled. Data were collected during health checkups at 18 and 36 months of age. The items used for analysis were the child's appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and gender. The mothers commented on their child's appetite as good, normal, lacking, or irregular. The good and normal responses were grouped under the category good/normal appetite, while lacking and irregular were grouped under the category lacking/irregular appetite. Body types were calculated using an obesity index and classified as underweight, normal, or overweight. Fifteen kinds of snacks at 36 months were classified using cluster analysis. Appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and body type at 18 and 36 months of age were compared using the McNemar test. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the appetite categories. There were 664 boys (50.6%) and 648 girls (49.4%) in the study (missing=1). The response rate was 56.5%. Snacks were classified by content as meal substitutes, snacks and sweet foods, or healthy snacks. There was no change in appetite at 18 and 36 months of age. By 36 months, snack content, snack-eating style had changed (e.g. solitary snacking increased.). The highest risk factor for appetite at 36 months was lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months (OR: 4.70, CI: 3.07-7.19), eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.81, CI: 1.24-2.65), followed by unsupervised snacking (OR: 2.92, CI: 1.45-5.87), and consuming few healthy snacks (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.48-1.00). The risk factors for lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months of age were eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.68, CI: 1.13-2.49), receiving snacks on-demand (OR: 1

  19. [Extremely Low Birthweight Infants in Iceland. Health and development.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgsdóttir, Ingibjœrg; Sæmundsen, Evald; Símonardóttir, Ingibjœrg; Halldórsson, Jónas G; Egilson, Snæfríður Thorn; Leósdóttir, Thornóra; Ingvarsdóttir, Brynhildur; Sindrason, Einar; Dagbjartsson, Atli

    2003-01-01

    Survival of extremely low birthweight infants (BWastma (p=0.001), convulsions (p=0.001), difficulties in swallowing (p=0.001) and weight gaining (p=0.005). At five years of age significantly more ELBW children born in 1991-95 compared to control children had abnormal general physical examination (pinfants born in 1982-90 and 1991-95 are similar regarding problems during pregnancy, birth and newborn period. The proportion of children with disabilities is similar in both periods although survival was significantly increased. When compared to matched control children, ELBW children born in 1991-95 suffer significantly more longterm health and developmental problems.

  20. Mother's Milk: A Purposeful Contribution to the Development of the Infant Microbiota and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doare, Kirsty; Holder, Beth; Bassett, Aisha; Pannaraj, Pia S

    2018-01-01

    Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution. In addition to providing a source of nutrition, breast milk contains a diverse array of microbiota and myriad biologically active components that are thought to guide the infant's developing mucosal immune system. It is believed that bacteria from the mother's intestine may translocate to breast milk and dynamically transfer to the infant. Such interplay between mother and her infant is a key to establishing a healthy infant intestinal microbiome. These intestinal bacteria protect against many respiratory and diarrheal illnesses, but are subject to environmental stresses such as antibiotic use. Orchestrating the development of the microbiota are the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), the synthesis of which are partially determined by the maternal genotype. HMOs are thought to play a role in preventing pathogenic bacterial adhesion though multiple mechanisms, while also providing nutrition for the microbiome. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, carry a diverse cargo, including mRNA, miRNA, and cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins, and are readily detectable in human breast milk. Strongly implicated in cell-cell signaling, EVs could therefore may play a further role in the development of the infant microbiome. This review considers the emerging role of breast milk microbiota, bioactive HMOs, and EVs in the establishment of the neonatal microbiome and the consequent potential for modulation of neonatal immune system development.

  1. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  2. A comparison of maternal sensitivity and verbal stimulation as unique predictors of infant social-emotional and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Melissa; Wilhelm, Mari S; Gamble, Wendy C; Card, Noel A

    2010-02-01

    Although maternal sensitivity has been shown to influence social-emotional development, the role of verbal stimulation on infant developmental outcomes has received less exploration. Recent research has focused on intentional behaviors within the context of a mother-infant interaction as a critical influence and as distinct from sensitivity. In this investigation 6377 mother-infant dyads participated in a teaching task as part of the sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Analyses focused in deciphering the role of maternal sensitivity and verbal stimulation as contributors to the infant's social-emotional (S-E) and cognitive (Cog) development. We further hypothesized that inclusion of infant age as a moderator of maternal behaviors would illuminate any differences between younger and older infants. For the infant's S-E development, our hypothesis that maternal sensitivity would be a stronger predictor than verbal stimulation was not supported; nor did we find support for our hypothesis that the association would be moderated by age. For Cog development, only verbal stimulation had a direct positive effect on the infant's cognitive ability; our findings for moderation showed that mothers spoke more to older infants than younger infants. Identification of specific maternal behaviors associated with infant outcomes informs the child development field, and also provides strategies for early intervention to assist mothers with developing or maintaining a consistent relationship that includes sensitivity and verbal stimulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Improving outcomes in infants of HIV-infected women in a developing country setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Noel

    Full Text Available Since 1999 GHESKIO, a large voluntary counseling and HIV testing center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, has had an ongoing collaboration with the Haitian Ministry of Health to reduce the rate of mother to child HIV transmission. There are limited data on the ability to administer complex regimens for reducing mother to child transmission and on risk factors for continued transmission and infant mortality within programmatic settings in developing countries.We analyzed data from 551 infants born to HIV-infected mothers seen at GHESKIO, between 1999 and 2005. HIV-infected mothers and their infants were given "short-course" monotherapy with antiretrovirals for prophylaxis; and, since 2003, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART when clinical or laboratory indications were met. Infected women seen in the pre-treatment era had 27% transmission rates, falling to 10% in this cohort of 551 infants, and to only 1.9% in infants of women on HAART. Mortality rate after HAART introduction (0.12 per year of follow-up [0.08-0.16] was significantly lower than the period before the availability of such therapy (0.23 [0.16-0.30], P<0.0001. The effects of maternal health, infant feeding, completeness of prophylaxis, and birth weight on mortality and transmission were determined using univariate and multivariate analysis. Infant HIV-1 infection and low birth weight were associated with infant mortality in less than 15 month olds in multivariate analysis.Our findings demonstrate success in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and mortality in a highly resource constrained setting. Elements contributing to programmatic success include provision of HAART in the context of a comprehensive program with pre and postnatal care for both mother and infant.

  4. Development of a screening MRI for infants at risk for abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flom, Lynda; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fromkin, Janet [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Neurosurgery, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berger, Rachel P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of morbidity in infants. Identifying which well-appearing infants are at risk for AHT and need neuroimaging is challenging, and concern about radiation exposure limits the use of head CT. Availability of an MRI protocol that is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage would allow for AHT screening of well-appearing infants without exposing them to radiation. To develop a screening MRI protocol to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants at risk for AHT. Infants enrolled in a parent study of well-appearing infants at increased risk for AHT were eligible for the current study if they underwent both head CT and conventional brain MRI. A derivation cohort of nine infants with AHT was used to identify sequences that provided the highest sensitivity for intracranial hemorrhage. A validation cohort of 78 infants including both controls with normal neuroimaging and cases with AHT was used to evaluate the accuracy of the selected sequences. Three pulse sequences - axial T2, axial gradient recalled echo (GRE) and coronal T1-W inversion recovery - were 100% sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage in the derivation cohort. The same sequences were 100% sensitive (25/25) and 83% specific (44/53) for intracranial hemorrhage in the validation cohort. A screening MRI protocol including axial T2, axial GRE and coronal T1-W inversion recovery sequences is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage and may be useful as a screening tool to differentiate well-appearing infants at risk for AHT who should undergo head CT from those who can safely be discharged without head CT. Additional research is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in clinical practice. (orig.)

  5. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant's immune system early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life.

  6. Trend in infant mortality rate in Argentina within the framework of the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Juliana Z; Duhau, Mariana; Speranza, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) is an indicator of the health status of a population and of the quality of and access to health care services. In 2000, and within the framework of the Millennium Development Goals, Argentina committed to achieve by 2015 a reduction by two thirds of its 1990 infant mortality rate, and to identify and close inter-jurisdictional gaps. The objective of this article is to describe the trend in infant mortality rate in Argentina and interjurisdictional gaps, infant mortality magnitude and causes, in compliance with the Millennium Development Goals. A descriptive study on infant mortality was conducted in Argentina in 1990 and between 2000 and 2013, based on vital statistics data published by the Health Statistics and Information Department of the Ministry of Health of Argentina. The following reductions were confirmed: 57.8% in IMR, 52.6% in neonatal mortality rate and 63.8% in post-neonatal mortality rate. The inter-provincial Gini coefficient for IMR decreased by 27%. The population attributable risk decreased by 16.6% for IMR, 38.8% for neonatal mortality rate and 51.5% for post-neonatal mortality rate in 2013 versus 1990. A significant reduction in infant mortality and its components has been shown, but not enough to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The reduction in IMR gaps reached the set goal; however, inequalities still persist. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  7. INFANT DEVELOPMENT AND PARENTS’ PERCEPTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH USE OF THE HARRIS INFANT NEUROMOTOR TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar el perfil socioeconómico, de salud y educacional de los padres de niños, evaluar la noción de los responsables sobre el desarrollo del niño en el primer año de vida. Estudio descriptivo, llevado a cabo de noviembre/2008 a febrero/2009. Participaron 50 niños y 50 padres/responsables, en Fortaleza-CE-Brasil. Se ha utilizado el Harris Infant Neuromotor Test - HINT en portugués con niños de 3 a 12 meses de edad. La edad de los niños varió de tres meses a once meses y viente dias. La mayoría, 26 (52%, sexo masculino. La edad materna presentó media de 24,5 años. De los cuidadores, 23 (46% unión estable, 16 (32% enseñanza media incompleta y 27 (54% familias con una renta entre R$ 464.72 (US$202,05 y R$ 929,44 (US$404,10. La participación de los cuidadores sobre el desarrollo del niño, fue preciso en sus propias percepciones, cuando comparado con la interpretaciones de los escores del HINT evaluados por los enfermeras capacitadas en desarrollo infantil.

  8. Prognosis of psychomotor and mental development in premature infants by early cranial ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yang; Sun, Fu-qiang; Li, Yue-qin; Que, Sheng-shun; Yang, Su-yan; Xu, Wen-jing; Yu, Wen-hong; Chen, Jun-hua; Lu, Ya-jie; Li, Xin

    2015-04-09

    It is of high incidence of brain injuries in premature infants, so it is necessary to diagnose and treat the brain injury early for neonatal clinical practice. We are aimed to investigate the relationship between early postnatal cranial ultrasonography and psychomotor and mental development in prematrue infants at the age of 12 months. Two-hundred and eight premature infants were selected and underwent follow-up from January, 2007 to November, 2012. Cranial ultrasonography was performed on them. The developmental outcomes of these premature infants at the age of 12 months were assessed by the psychomotor developmental index (PDI) scale and mental development index (MDI). The relationship between ultrasonic gray-scale value and PDI and MDI was analyzed. The worse prognosis for psychomotor and mental development was associated with the gestational age, Apgar score(1 min), gender, chorioamnionitis, duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of mechanic ventilation. The differences between the prognosis of psychomotor and mental development, and peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) and periventricular white matter damage (PWMD), were statistically significant (Ppsychomotor development and mental development (Ppsychomotor and mental development for premature infants. The higher grade of PIVH and PWMD was associated with the worse prognosis of psychomotor and mental development.

  9. Age correction in cognitive, linguistic, and motor domains for infants born preterm: an analysis of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition developmental patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsan, Valentina; Fantoni, Carlo; Tallandini, Maria Anna

    2018-03-15

    To verify whether it is appropriate to use age correction for infants born preterm in all the developmental domains (cognitive, linguistic, and motor) considered by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Seventy-three infants born preterm (26-35wks) without major neurological sequelae and 67 infants born at term were assessed at 12 months (corrected age for infants born preterm). The performance of the infants born preterm was assessed with two different evaluations: scores based on uncorrected age and scores based on corrected age. The developmental trends of infants born at term and infants born preterm differ across domains. Statistical analysis shows that age correction produces an overrated estimate of motor performance (12.5 points [95% confidence interval 9.05-16.01]) but not of cognitive performance. Given the broad use of the Bayley-III by psychologists and paediatricians, these results are important in the early diagnosis of developmental difficulties for children born preterm. Correction for gestational age should be applied for the cognitive domain only; whereas for the motor domain, chronological age should be used. No clear data emerged for language. Age correction with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) for infants born preterm should be applied differently in cognitive, language, and motor domains. Using corrected age with Bayley-III, the motor skills are overrated. Correction for preterm births adequately measures cognitive skills. No clear indication emerged about language skills. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Accounting for change in declarative memory: A cognitive neuroscience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, Jenny; Nelson, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe memory system matures relatively early and supports rudimentary declarative memory in young infants. There is considerable development, however, in the memory processes that underlie declarative memory performance during infancy. Here we consider age-related changes in encoding, retention, and retrieval in the context of current knowledge about the brain systems that may underlie these memory processes. While changes in infants’ encoding may be attributed to rapid mye...

  11. Mother-infant circadian rhythm: development of individual patterns and dyadic synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan; Lee, Jungeun; Chen, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Mutual circadian rhythm is an early and essential component in the development of maternal-infant physiological synchrony. The aim of this to examine the longitudinal pattern of maternal-infant circadian rhythm and rhythm synchrony as measured by rhythm parameters. In-home dyadic actigraphy monitoring at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Forty-three healthy mother-infant pairs. Circadian parameters derived from cosinor and non-parametric analysis including mesor, magnitude, acrophase, L5 and M10 midpoints (midpoint of lowest 5 and highest 10h of activity), amplitude, interdaily stability (IS), and intradaily variability (IV). Mothers experienced early disruption of circadian rhythm, with re-establishment of rhythm over time. Significant time effects were noted in increasing maternal magnitude, amplitude, and IS and decreasing IV (pcircadian pattern with significant time effects for increasing mesor, magnitude, amplitude, L5, IS, and IV (pcircadian rhythm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parenting stress and development of late preterm infants at 4 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad K; Ginn, Carla S; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Benzies, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    Parenting stress has been linked to child development issues in early preterm infants, but less is known about its effects on development in infants born late preterm. We examined relationships between parenting stress of 108 mothers and 108 fathers and development of late preterm infants born at 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation. At 4 months corrected age, mothers and fathers completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI-3); mothers were primary caregivers in almost all families and completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-2) on child development. Mothers reported significantly more stress than fathers on the PSI-3 Parent Domain. PSI-3 subscale scores from the Child Domain were significant predictors of mother-reported infant development as measured by the ASQ-2 in regression models: Reinforces Parent predicted Gross Motor, Mood predicted Communication, and Acceptability predicted Communication, Fine Motor, Problem Solving, and Personal -Social development scale scores. Experiences of parenting stress differed for mothers and fathers. Further research is required on specific dimensions of parenting stress related to development of late preterm infants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Early brain enlargement and elevated extra-axial fluid in infants who develop autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mark D; Nordahl, Christine W; Young, Gregory S; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Lee, Aaron; Liston, Sarah E; Harrington, Kayla R; Ozonoff, Sally; Amaral, David G

    2013-09-01

    Prospective studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder have provided important clues about the early behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, however, is not currently made until at least 18 months of age. There is substantially less research on potential brain-based differences in the period between 6 and 12 months of age. Our objective in the current study was to use magnetic resonance imaging to identify any consistently observable brain anomalies in 6-9 month old infants who would later develop autism spectrum disorder. We conducted a prospective infant sibling study with longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging scans at three time points (6-9, 12-15, and 18-24 months of age), in conjunction with intensive behavioural assessments. Fifty-five infants (33 'high-risk' infants having an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder and 22 'low-risk' infants having no relatives with autism spectrum disorder) were imaged at 6-9 months; 43 of these (27 high-risk and 16 low-risk) were imaged at 12-15 months; and 42 (26 high-risk and 16 low-risk) were imaged again at 18-24 months. Infants were classified as meeting criteria for autism spectrum disorder, other developmental delays, or typical development at 24 months or later (mean age at outcome: 32.5 months). Compared with the other two groups, infants who developed autism spectrum disorder (n = 10) had significantly greater extra-axial fluid at 6-9 months, which persisted and remained elevated at 12-15 and 18-24 months. Extra-axial fluid is characterized by excessive cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, particularly over the frontal lobes. The amount of extra-axial fluid detected as early as 6 months was predictive of more severe autism spectrum disorder symptoms at the time of outcome. Infants who developed autism spectrum disorder also had significantly larger total cerebral volumes at both 12-15 and 18-24 months of age. This is the first magnetic

  14. Motor development in 9-month-old infants in relation to cultural differences and iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M; Schapiro, Lauren; Liang, Weilang; Rodrigues, Onike; Shafir, Tal; Kaciroti, Niko; Jacobson, Sandra W; Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-03-01

    Motor development, which allows infants to explore their environment, promoting cognitive, social, and perceptual development, can be influenced by cultural practices and nutritional factors, such as iron deficiency. This study compared fine and gross motor development in 209 9-month-old infants from urban areas of China, Ghana, and USA (African-Americans) and considered effects of iron status. Iron deficiency anemia was most common in the Ghana sample (55%) followed by USA and China samples. Controlling for iron status, Ghanaian infants displayed precocity in gross motor development and most fine-motor reach-and-grasp tasks. US African-Americans performed the poorest in all tasks except bimanual coordination and the large ball. Controlling for cultural site, iron status showed linear trends for gross motor milestones and fine motor skills with small objects. Our findings add to the sparse literature on infant fine motor development across cultures. The results also indicate the need to consider nutritional factors when examining cultural differences in infant development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Overweight and obese infants present lower cognitive and motor development scores than normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Compare the cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers and investigate the correlation of body weight, body length and body mass index with cognitive and motor development. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 28 overweight/obese infants and 28 normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Both groups were evaluated with cognitive and motor scales of the Bayley-III infant development test. The t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the groups, and the Spearman correlation was used to verify the association between variables. Overweight/obese infants showed lower cognitive and motor composite scores than their normal-weight peers. A significant negative association was found of body weight and body length with cognitive development and of body mass index with motor development. This is the first study that found an effect on both cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants when compared with normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Malnutrition and cognitive development if infants in rural marginalized areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Quintero, María Del Refugio; Ortiz Hernández, Luis; Roldán Amaro, José Antonio; Chávez Villasana, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between nutritional status measured by anthropometry and the mental, psychomotor and language development of infants in marginalized rural areas of Mexico. Cross-sectional study with 576 infants aged from 7 to 26 months in four rural locations. Variables consisted of measures of anthropometric and cognitive development. Infants with short stature had a lower rate of language development, while birth weight was marginally associated with psychomotor development. Although acute malnutrition (identified by underweight) is no longer a problem in rural areas of Mexico, chronic malnutrition (expressed as stunting) is still common and is associated with alterations in mental development in the child population. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental outcome of very low birth weight infants in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballot Daynia E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in neonatal care allow survival of extremely premature infants, who are at risk of handicap. Neurodevelopmental follow up of these infants is an essential part of ongoing evaluation of neonatal care. The neonatal care in resource limited developing countries is very different to that in first world settings. Follow up data from developing countries is essential; it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from units in developed countries. This study provides follow up data on a population of very low birth weight (VLBW infants in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods The study sample included all VLBW infants born between 01/06/2006 and 28/02/2007 and discharged from the neonatal unit at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Version 111 (BSID 111 were done to assess development. Regression analysis was done to determine factors associated with poor outcome. Results 178 infants were discharged, 26 were not available for follow up, 9 of the remaining 152 (5.9% died before an assessment was done; 106 of the remaining 143 (74.1% had a BSID 111 assessment. These 106 patients form the study sample; mean birth weight and mean gestational age was 1182 grams (SD: 197.78 and 30.81 weeks (SD: 2.67 respectively. The BSID (111 was done at a median age of 16.48 months. The mean cognitive subscale was 88.6 (95% CI: 85.69 - 91.59, 9 (8.5% were Conclusion Although the neurodevelopmental outcome of this group of VLBW infants was within the normal range, with a low incidence of cerebral palsy, these results may reflect the low survival of babies with a birth weight below 900 grams. In addition, mean subscale scores were low and one third of the babies were identified as "at risk", indicating that this group of babies warrants long-term follow up into school going age.

  18. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory.......We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...

  19. Comparing single- and dual-process models of memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Dunn, John C; Joubert, Amy; Taylor, Robert

    2017-11-01

    This experiment examined single-process and dual-process accounts of the development of visual recognition memory. The participants, 6-7-year-olds, 9-10-year-olds and adults, were presented with a list of pictures which they encoded under shallow or deep conditions. They then made recognition and confidence judgments about a list containing old and new items. We replicated the main trends reported by Ghetti and Angelini () in that recognition hit rates increased from 6 to 9 years of age, with larger age changes following deep than shallow encoding. Formal versions of the dual-process high threshold signal detection model and several single-process models (equal variance signal detection, unequal variance signal detection, mixture signal detection) were fit to the developmental data. The unequal variance and mixture signal detection models gave a better account of the data than either of the other models. A state-trace analysis found evidence for only one underlying memory process across the age range tested. These results suggest that single-process memory models based on memory strength are a viable alternative to dual-process models for explaining memory development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. What Is False Memory Development the Development of? Comment on Brainerd, Reyna, and Ceci (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, assumptions about the nature and development of children's false memories as described in a recent article by C. J. Brainerd, V. F. Reyna, and S. J. Ceci (2008) are reviewed. Specifically, questions are raised about what drives the development of false memories in fuzzy-trace theory (FTT). Recent studies that challenge a core…

  1. Development of cortical morphology evaluated with longitudinal MR brain images of preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeskops, P.; Benders, M.J.N.L.; Kersbergen, K.J.; Groenendaal, F.; de Vries, L.S.; Viergever, M.A.; Išgum, I.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cerebral cortex develops rapidly in the last trimester of pregnancy. In preterm infants, brain development is very vulnerable because of their often complicated extra-uterine conditions. The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe cortical development in a cohort of 85

  2. Infant Movement Motivation Questionnaire: development of a measure evaluating infant characteristics relating to motor development in the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doralp, Samantha; Bartlett, Doreen

    2014-08-01

    This paper highlights the development and testing of the Infant Movement Motivation Questionnaire (IMMQ), an instrument designed to evaluate qualities of infant characteristics that relate specifically to early motor development. The measurement development process included three phases: item generation, pilot testing and evaluation of acceptability and feasibility for parents and exploratory factor analysis. The resultant 27-item questionnaire is designed for completion by parents and contains four factors including Activity, Exploration, Motivation and Adaptability. Overall, the internal consistency of the IMMQ is 0.89 (Cronbach's alpha), with test-retest reliability measured at 0.92 (ICC, with 95% CI 0.83-0.96). Further work could be done to strengthen the individual factors; however it is adequate for use in its full form. The IMMQ can be used for clinical or research purposes, as well as an educational tool for parents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term contextual memory in infant rats as evidenced by an ethanol conditioned tolerance procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Stefanía; Molina, Juan Carlos; Arias, Carlos

    2017-08-14

    Conditioned tolerance can be conceptualized as a particular case of Pavlovian conditioning in which contextual cues play the role of the conditioned stimulus. Although the evidence is contradictory, it is frequently assumed that long-term contextual conditioning in pre-weanling rats is weak or even absent. This hypothesis comes from and is sustained mainly by behavioral studies that explored different contextual effects in 16-18day-old rats using a fear-conditioning paradigm, but their conclusions are stated in terms of an immature (hippocampal-dependent) declarative memory system. The main goal of the present manuscript was based on a recent antecedent from our laboratory, to analyze whether context-dependent tolerance induced by ethanol during the pre-weanling period persists over time. Results showed that the context was able to modulate ethanol-induced tolerance in 2- and 3-week-old rats. Interestingly, contextual conditioned tolerance was stronger (in terms of persistence) during the third than during the second postnatal week. When subjects were tested 8days after training, when the context presumably lost its influence over tolerance, the opposite effect emerged (sensitization). These results are important for the ethanol literature, adding new evidence of long-term retention of ethanol effects acquired during infancy, whilst also showing striking ontogenetic differences in the sensitivity to ethanol between the 2nd and 3rd postnatal weeks. Importantly, contextual information modulates the expression of these ethanol effects even eight days after training, a result that is particularly relevant to the discussion of the ontogeny of contextual memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving outcomes in infants of HIV-infected women in a developing country setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Francine; Mehta, Sapna; Zhu, Yuwei; Rouzier, Patricia De Matteis; Marcelin, Abdias; Shi, Jian R; Nolte, Claudine; Severe, Linda; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Johnson, Warren D; Wright, Peter F; Pape, Jean W

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999 GHESKIO, a large voluntary counseling and HIV testing center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, has had an ongoing collaboration with the Haitian Ministry of Health to reduce the rate of mother to child HIV transmission. There are limited data on the ability to administer complex regimens for reducing mother to child transmission and on risk factors for continued transmission and infant mortality within programmatic settings in developing countries. We analyzed data from 551 infants born to HIV-infected mothers seen at GHESKIO, between 1999 and 2005. HIV-infected mothers and their infants were given "short-course" monotherapy with antiretrovirals for prophylaxis; and, since 2003, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when clinical or laboratory indications were met. Infected women seen in the pre-treatment era had 27% transmission rates, falling to 10% in this cohort of 551 infants, and to only 1.9% in infants of women on HAART. Mortality rate after HAART introduction (0.12 per year of follow-up [0.08-0.16]) was significantly lower than the period before the availability of such therapy (0.23 [0.16-0.30], Pbirth weight on mortality and transmission were determined using univariate and multivariate analysis. Infant HIV-1 infection and low birth weight were associated with infant mortality in less than 15 month olds in multivariate analysis. Our findings demonstrate success in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and mortality in a highly resource constrained setting. Elements contributing to programmatic success include provision of HAART in the context of a comprehensive program with pre and postnatal care for both mother and infant.

  5. [Standardization of the Kent Infant Development Scale: implications for primary care pediatricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tornel Florensa, S; Ruiz España, A; Reuter, J; Clow, C; Reuter, L

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was the standardization of an infant assessment protocol based on behavioral observations of Spanish parents. The Kent Infant Development (KIDS) scale was translated into Spanish and named "Escala de Desarrollo Infantil de Kent" (EDIK). The EDIK normative data were collected from the parents of 662 healthy infants (ages 1 to 15 months) in pediatric clinics. Infants born more than 2 weeks premature or who had serious physical or neurological illness were not included. EDIK raw scores of Spanish infants were converted to developmental ages by comparing them with the number of behaviors for each age group in the normative sample. We obtained the mean score and standard deviation for the full scale and different domains (cognitive, motor, social, language, and self-help). This study shows that EDIK is sensitive to differences in ages and a good instrument that allows one to make a classification between normal infants or those at risk. It should prove useful in developmental pediatric practice.

  6. Impact on infants' cognitive development of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency disorder and common mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA and common mental disorders (CMD on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. METHODS: A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb 30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

  7. Mother’s Milk: A Purposeful Contribution to the Development of the Infant Microbiota and Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doare, Kirsty; Holder, Beth; Bassett, Aisha; Pannaraj, Pia S.

    2018-01-01

    Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution. In addition to providing a source of nutrition, breast milk contains a diverse array of microbiota and myriad biologically active components that are thought to guide the infant’s developing mucosal immune system. It is believed that bacteria from the mother’s intestine may translocate to breast milk and dynamically transfer to the infant. Such interplay between mother and her infant is a key to establishing a healthy infant intestinal microbiome. These intestinal bacteria protect against many respiratory and diarrheal illnesses, but are subject to environmental stresses such as antibiotic use. Orchestrating the development of the microbiota are the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), the synthesis of which are partially determined by the maternal genotype. HMOs are thought to play a role in preventing pathogenic bacterial adhesion though multiple mechanisms, while also providing nutrition for the microbiome. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, carry a diverse cargo, including mRNA, miRNA, and cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins, and are readily detectable in human breast milk. Strongly implicated in cell–cell signaling, EVs could therefore may play a further role in the development of the infant microbiome. This review considers the emerging role of breast milk microbiota, bioactive HMOs, and EVs in the establishment of the neonatal microbiome and the consequent potential for modulation of neonatal immune system development. PMID:29599768

  8. Maternal Serum and Breast Milk Adiponectin: The Association with Infant Adiposity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhazlina Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data consisted of maternal sociodemographic details, anthropometry and clinical biochemistry analysis; and the infant’s anthropometry and feeding patterns. Maternal fasting serum and breast milk samples were analysed for adiponectin and leptin levels. Data collection was performed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and continued with follow-up visits at birth, two, six, and 12 months postpartum. Multiple linear regression (MLR analyses were performed to examine the associations between maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin and leptin and infant adiposity development. MLR models showed that, in the first year, as maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin increased, infant weight, BMI-for-age Z scores and abdominal circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Maternal serum and/or breast milk adiponectin was associated with first-year infant adiposity development.

  9. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S

    2017-04-01

    Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Relationship between Memory and Inductive Reasoning: Does It Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K.; Fritz, Kristina; Heit, Evan

    2013-01-01

    In 2 studies, the authors examined the development of the relationship between inductive reasoning and visual recognition memory. In both studies, 5- to 6-year-old children and adults were shown instances of a basic-level category (dogs) followed by a test set containing old and new category members that varied in their similarity to study items.…

  11. Trauma Films, Information Processing, and Intrusive Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A.; Brewin, Chris R.; Hennessy, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions…

  12. Emergent Bilingualism and Working Memory Development in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura Birke; Macizo, Pedro; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present research explores working memory (WM) development in monolingual as well as emergent bilingual children immersed in an L2 at school. Evidence from recent years suggests that bilingualism may boost domain-general executive control, but impair nonexecutive linguistic processing. Both are relevant for verbal WM, but different paradigms…

  13. Development of an engineering model for ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yoshiaki; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a relationship among stress, temperature and magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy. In order to derive an engineering model of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys, we have developed a measuring system of the relationship among stress, temperature and magnetic properties. The samples used in this measurement are Fe68-Ni10-Cr9-Mn7-Si6 wt% ferromagnetic shape memory alloy. They are thin ribbons made by rapid cooling in air. In the measurement, the ribbon sample is inserted into a sample holder winding consisting of the B-coil and compensation coils, and magnetized in an open solenoid coil. The ribbon is stressed with attachment weights and heated with a heating wire. The specific susceptibility was increased by applying tension, and slightly increased by heating below the Curie temperature

  14. The Efficiency of Infants' Exploratory Play Is Related to Longer-Term Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muentener, Paul; Herrig, Elise; Schulz, Laura

    2018-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined the stability of exploratory play in infancy and its relation to cognitive development in early childhood. We assessed infants' (N = 130, mean age at enrollment = 12.02 months, SD = 3.5 months; range: 5–19 months) exploratory play four times over 9 months. Exploratory play was indexed by infants' attention to novelty, inductive generalizations, efficiency of exploration, face preferences, and imitative learning. We assessed cognitive development at the fourth visit for the full sample, and again at age three for a subset of the sample (n = 38). The only measure that was stable over infancy was the efficiency of exploration. Additionally, infants' efficiency score predicted vocabulary size and distinguished at-risk infants recruited from early intervention sites from those not at risk. Follow-up analyses at age three provided additional evidence for the importance of the efficiency measure: more efficient exploration was correlated with higher IQ scores. These results suggest that the efficiency of infants' exploratory play can be informative about longer-term cognitive development. PMID:29904360

  15. Spontaneous movements of preterm infants is associated with outcome of gross motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishima, Saori; Asaka, Tadayoshi; Kamatsuka, Kaori; Kozuka, Naoki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Igarashi, Lisa; Hori, Tsukasa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-30

    We conducted a longitudinal cohort study to analyze the relationship between outcome of gross motor development in preterm infants and factors that might affect their development. Preterm infants with a birth weight of antigravity limbs movements by 3D motion capture system at 3 months corrected age. Gross motor developmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months corrected age were evaluated using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Statistical analysis was carried out by canonical correlation analysis. Eighteen preterm infants were included. In the 6 months corrected age analysis, spontaneous movement had a major effect on Prone and Sitting at 6 months corrected age of AIMS. In the 12 months corrected age analysis, spontaneous movement had a major effect on Sitting and Standing at 12 months corrected age of AIMS. In preterm infants, better antigravity spontaneous movements at 3 months corrected age were significantly correlated with better gross motor development at 6 or 12 months corrected age. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Convergence and accommodation development is pre-programmed in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated whether vergence and accommodation development in pre-term infants is pre-programmed or is driven by experience. Methods 32 healthy infants, born at mean 34 weeks gestation (range 31.2-36 weeks) were compared with 45 healthy full-term infants (mean 40.0 weeks) over a 6 month period, starting at 4-6 weeks post-natally. Simultaneous accommodation and convergence to a detailed target were measured using a Plusoptix PowerRefII infra-red photorefractor as a target moved between 0.33m and 2m. Stimulus/response gains and responses at 0.33m and 2m were compared by both corrected (gestational) age and chronological (post-natal) age. Results When compared by their corrected age, pre-term and full-term infants showed few significant differences in vergence and accommodation responses after 6-7 weeks of age. However, when compared by chronological age, pre-term infants’ responses were more variable, with significantly reduced vergence gains, reduced vergence response at 0.33m, reduced accommodation gain, and increased accommodation at 2m, compared to full-term infants between 8-13 weeks after birth. Conclusions When matched by corrected age, vergence and accommodation in pre-term infants show few differences from full-term infants’ responses. Maturation appears pre-programmed and is not advanced by visual experience. Longer periods of immature visual responses might leave pre-term infants more at risk of development of oculomotor deficits such as strabismus. PMID:26275135

  17. Parental Ethnotheories, Social Practice and the Culture-Specific Development of Social Smiling in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartner, Joscha; Holodynski, Manfred; Wormann, Viktoriya

    2013-01-01

    In this article we argue that current theories on socioemotional development during infancy need to be reconceptualized in order to account for cross-cultural variation in caregiver-infant interaction. In line with the cultural-historical internalization theory of emotional development (Holodynski & Friedlmeier, 2006) and the ecocultural model of…

  18. Social Situation of Development: Parents Perspectives on Infants-Toddlers' Concept Formation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    The social situation of development (SSD) specific to each age determines regularly the whole picture of the child's life. Therefore, we need to learn about the whole context surrounding children relevant to their development. The focus of the study is to understand parent's views on infant-toddler's science concept formation in the family…

  19. Maternal symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy affect infant neuromotor development: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; de Groot, L.; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  20. The development of object recognition memory in rhesus macaques with neonatal lesions of the perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Zeamer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the perirhinal cortex on the development of recognition measured by the visual paired-comparison (VPC task, infant monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions and sham-operated controls were tested at 1.5, 6, 18, and 48 months of age on the VPC task with color stimuli and intermixed delays of 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions showed an increase in novelty preference between 1.5 and 6 months of age similar to controls, although at these two ages, performance remained significantly poorer than that of control animals. With age, performance in animals with neonatal perirhinal lesions deteriorated as compared to that of controls. In contrast to the lack of novelty preference in monkeys with perirhinal lesions acquired in adulthood, novelty preference in the neonatally operated animals remained above chance at all delays and all ages. The data suggest that, although incidental recognition memory processes can be supported by the perirhinal cortex in early infancy, other temporal cortical areas may support these processes in the absence of a functional perirhinal cortex early in development. The neural substrates mediating incidental recognition memory processes appear to be more widespread in early infancy than in adulthood.

  1. Do Attitudes About Spoiling Children Affect Attitudes Regarding What Infants Need for Early Social-Emotional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Westover, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Secure infant attachment is important for the positive social-emotional development of children. Many parents have limited understanding of social-emotional development and the influence of appropriate responsive parenting behaviors to their infants’ cues. For example, many parents believe you can spoil an infant if you pick them up every time they cry. Researchers study the impact of positive responses to infants’ cues. Infants form a more secure attachment and learn to interpret the world a...

  2. Rhythmic neural activity indicates the contribution of attention and memory to the processing of occluded movements in 10-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Cathleen; Kopp, Franziska; Springer, Anne; Stadler, Waltraud; Lindenberger, Ulman; Werkle-Bergner, Markus

    2015-11-01

    Infants possess the remarkable capacity to perceive occluded movements as ongoing and coherent. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that enable internal representation of conspecifics' and inanimate objects' movements during visual occlusion. In this study, 10-month-old infants watched briefly occluded human and object movements. Prior to occlusion, continuous and distorted versions of the movement were shown. EEG recordings were used to assess neural activity assumed to relate to processes of attention (occipital alpha), memory (frontal theta), and sensorimotor simulation (central alpha) before, during, and after occlusion. Oscillatory activity was analyzed using an individualized data approach taking idiosyncrasies into account. Results for occipital alpha were consistent with infants' preference for attending to social stimuli. Furthermore, frontal theta activity was more pronounced when tracking distorted as opposed to continuous movement, and when maintaining object as opposed to human movement. Central alpha did not discriminate between experimental conditions. In sum, we conclude that observing occluded movements recruits processes of attention and memory which are modulated by stimulus and movement properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of 5 and 10 years old infant phantoms based on polygonal meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Vanildo Junior de Melo; Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Universidade de Pernambuco

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses the development of reference infant phantoms of 5 and 10 years old to be used in calculation of equivalent doses in the area of radiological protection. The method uses tools developed for the modelling of 3D objects. The forms and positions are available in the literature. The mass values of each organ and tissue were adjusted according to the reference data published by the International Commission Radiological Protection. The results are presented in image of organs and tissues, and in tables. Dosimetric calculations show concordance with adult and infant phantoms, considering the differences among phantoms

  4. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; r s  = 0.218, p psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills use during breastfeeding; effect on infants' health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Omar M; Abbas, Ahmed M; Mahmoud, Hanaa R; Yones, Entsar M; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Zakherah, Mahmoud S

    2018-02-20

    The current study aims to evaluate the effect of the use of single packet of levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills (LNG-ECPs) during breastfeeding on the health and development of the nursing infant. The current study was an ancillary observational cohort study carried out in a university hospital. We counseled all women delivered and planning birth-space and breastfeed for at least 1 year for participation during postpartum hospital stay. Eligible participants for inclusion in the randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929) were allocated to receive adequate Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) counseling (LAM-only group) or the LAM counseling in addition to counseling about LNG-ECPs use (LAM + emergency contraception (EC) group). These pills were to be used once if unprotected intercourse did occur after expiry of any of the LAM prerequisites and before the couples started to use a reliable method of contraception. We included the first 100 women in the LAM + EC who did use the pills and the first 100 women in the control group who completed the follow-up visits for 6 months to draw the infants' outcome. The primary outcome was the difference of anthropometric measurements of the infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Secondary outcome was the difference in the Psycho-social, fine and gross motor, and language development using Denver development screening test. There were no statistical significant differences between both the groups regarding the infants' weight, length, head circumference, chest circumference, and mid-arm circumference at each visit (p > .05). Additionally, there were no statistically significant differences regarding all items (psycho-social, fine and gross motor, and language) of Denver development screening test between the infants in LAM-only and LAM + EC groups (p = .081). The use of single packet of LNG-ECPs during breastfeeding not objectively affects health and development of nursing infants or subjectively

  6. Preterm infant gut microbiota affects intestinal epithelial development in a humanized microbiome gnotobiotic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C

    2016-09-01

    Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Developmental care does not alter sleep and development of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, R L; Thoman, E B; Boeddiker, M A; Kugener, B; Constantinou, J C; Mirmiran, M; Baldwin, R B

    1997-12-01

    The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Program (NIDCAP) for very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants has been suggested by Als et al to improve several medical outcome variables such as time on ventilator, time to nipple feed, the duration of hospital stay, better behavioral performance on Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB), and improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. We have tested the hypothesis of whether the infants who had received NIDCAP would show advanced sleep-wake pattern, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental outcome. Thirty-five VLBW infants were randomly assigned to receive NIDCAP or routine infant care. The goals for NIDCAP intervention were to enhance comfort and stability and to reduce stress and agitation for the preterm infants by: a) altering the environment by decreasing excess light and noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and by using covers over the incubators and cribs; b) use of positioning aids such as boundary supports, nests, and buntings to promote a balance of flexion and extension postures; c) modification of direct hands-on caregiving to maximize preparation of infants for, tolerance of, and facilitation of recovery from interventions; d) promotion of self-regulatory behaviors such as holding on, grasping, and sucking; e) attention to the readiness for and the ability to take oral feedings; and f) involving parents in the care of their infants as much as possible. The infants' sleep was recorded at 36 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and at 3 months corrected age (CA) using the Motility Monitoring System (MMS), an automated, nonintrusive procedure for determining sleep state from movement and respiration patterns. Behavioral and developmental outcome was assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) at 36 weeks PCA, the APIB at 42 weeks PCA, and by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 4, 12, and 24 months CA. Sleep developmental measures at 3 months CA showed a

  8. Regional hippocampal volumes and development predict learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Engvig, Andreas; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Østby, Ylva; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Fjell, Anders M

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous structure, but longitudinal studies of its regional development are scarce and it is not known whether protracted maturation of the hippocampus in adolescence is related to memory development. First, we investigated hippocampal subfield development using 170 longitudinally acquired brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 85 participants aged 8-21 years. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated by the use of automated segmentation of 7 subfields, including the cornu ammonis (CA) sectors and the dentate gyrus (DG), while longitudinal subfield volumetric change was quantified using a nonlinear registration procedure. Second, associations between subfield volumes and change and verbal learning/memory across multiple retention intervals (5 min, 30 min and 1 week) were tested. It was hypothesized that short and intermediate memory would be more closely related to CA2-3/CA4-DG and extended, remote memory to CA1. Change rates were significantly different across hippocampal subfields, but nearly all subfields showed significant volume decreases over time throughout adolescence. Several subfield volumes were larger in the right hemisphere and in males, while for change rates there were no hemisphere or sex differences. Partly in support of the hypotheses, greater volume of CA1 and CA2-3 was related to recall and retention after an extended delay, while longitudinal reduction of CA2-3 and CA4-DG was related to learning. This suggests continued regional development of the hippocampus across adolescence and that volume and volume change in specific subfields differentially predict verbal learning and memory over different retention intervals, but future high-resolution studies are called for. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Precursors to Language Development in Typically and Atypically Developing Infants and Toddlers: The Importance of Embracing Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand how language abilities emerge in typically and atypically developing infants and toddlers, it is important to embrace complexity in development. In this paper, we describe evidence that early language development is an experience-dependent process, shaped by diverse, interconnected, interdependent developmental mechanisms,…

  10. Maternal consumption of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage: relationships to infant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrand, J R; Allen, L H; Martinez, E; Pelto, G H

    2001-08-01

    To document the consumption during pregnancy of pulque, a traditional central Mexican alcoholic beverage, and its relationship to subsequent infant size, physical growth and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Prospective cohort study. Six villages in rural, central Mexico in 1984-1985. Seventy mother-infant pairs. Most women (72.9%) consumed pulque during pregnancy, and 28.6% consumed more than 150 g ethanol week(-1) from the beverage. Individuals who consumed pulque showed no compensating decrease in energy obtained from other foods. Pulque consumption possessed curvilinear relationships with both infant length (at 1 and 6 months) and Bayley mental performance (at 6 months). Heavy pulque intakes were associated with smaller infant size and poorer mental performance. In modest quantities, pulque consumption may have been beneficial due to its micronutrient content. Intakes of alcohol from pulque were common among pregnant women in these rural, central Mexican villages. Given current scientific knowledge of the adverse effects of ethanol on foetal development, public health interventions are needed to reduce heavy pulque consumption during pregnancy in some areas of rural Mexico.

  11. Evaluation of neuromotor development by means of the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Coelho Oliveira Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the neuromotor development of at-risk children between three and 12 months of life, administering the Brazilian version of the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT.Method: A longitudinal study, with 78 children and 76 parents/guardians discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit in Fortaleza-CE/Brazil. Two instruments were administered: HINT and a socioeconomic questionnaire, between July/2009 to August/2010. Data from 55 preterm and 23 term children were analyzed. Results: The final mean scores ranged from 14.6 to 25.2 and from 11.2 to 24.7, for preterm and term, respectively, showing that 91% of children demonstrated good neuromotor performance; seven premature infants showed alterations which led to the referral of three children to a specialized clinic for examination and diagnostics.Conclusion: The test allowed nurses to assess infant development, identify deviations early, and plan interventions.

  12. Can very early music interventions promote at-risk infants' development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtala, Paula; Partanen, Eino

    2018-04-30

    Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development. Children born very preterm, in turn, have an increased likelihood of sensory, cognitive, and motor deficits. To ameliorate these deficits, we have developed early interventions focusing on music. Preliminary results of our ongoing longitudinal studies suggest that music making and parental singing promote infants' early language development and auditory neural processing. Together with previous findings in the field, the present studies highlight the role of active, social music making in supporting auditory and language development in at-risk children and infants. Once completed, the studies will illuminate both risk and protective factors in development and offer a comprehensive model of understanding the promises of music activities in promoting positive developmental outcomes during the first years of life. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  14. Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Knight, Miguel A; Nduati, Eunice; Hassan, Amin S; Gambo, Faith; Odera, Dennis; Etyang, Timothy J; Hajj, Nassim J; Berkley, James Alexander; Urban, Britta C; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy

  15. Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Garcia-Knight

    Full Text Available Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42 and HU (n = 28 Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of

  16. Relationship Between Iodine Concentration in Maternal Colostrum and Neurobehavioral Development of Infants in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiqin; Wu, Deqing; Wu, Wei; Li, Hui; Cao, Lulu; Xu, Jian; Yu, Xiaodan; Bian, Xiaoyan; Yan, Chonghuai; Wang, Weiye

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that iodine plays an important role in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially the brain. However, iodine concentration in the colostrum and its association with the neurobehavioral development of infants remains unclear. Colostrums from 150 women were collected, and their iodine concentrations were measured. The median colostrum iodine level was 187.8 μg/L. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III test was performed when the infants were about 18 months. The mean cognitive, language, and motor composite scores were 105.3 ± 9.8, 105.2 ± 11.1, and 104.6 ± 6.7, respectively. And the mean scores of the 5 subtests were 11.1 ± 2.0, 9.3 ± 2.0, 12.4 ± 2.3, 11.1 ± 1.2, and 10.4 ± 1.2, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in the cognition, language, or motor development of infants across different levels of colostrum iodine. After adjusting for a range of confounding factors, colostrum iodine concentration was a predictor of motor development, specifically gross motor development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, to Assess Developmental Outcome in Infants and Young Children in an Urban Setting in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ballot, Daynia E.; Ramdin, Tanusha; Rakotsoane, David; Agaba, Faustine; Davies, Victor A.; Chirwa, Tobias; Cooper, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a tool developed in a Western setting. Aim. To evaluate the development of a group of inner city children in South Africa with no neonatal risk factors using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III), to determine an appropriate cut-off to define developmental delay, and to establish variation in scores done in the same children before and after one year of age. Methods. Cohort follow-up study. Results. 7...

  18. Effects of Early Sensory Stimulation on the Premature Infant as Measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kathy Kees; And Others

    Looking beyond the overall effectiveness of sensory stimulation, this study aimed to identify specific aspects of infant behavior most responsive to early stimulation. Subjects were 65 premature infants with a birth weight of less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces and a gestational age under 37 weeks. Experimental group members had completed a multimodal…

  19. The Development of Extremely Preterm Infants Born to Women Who Had Genitourinary Infections During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl C K; O'Shea, T Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Fichorova, Raina N; Dammann, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Gestational genitourinary infections, which have been associated with neurodevelopmental impairments among infants born near term, have not been studied among very preterm infants. The mothers of 989 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation were interviewed about urine, bladder, or kidney infections (UTIs) and cervical or vaginal infections (CVIs) during pregnancy, as well as other exposures and characteristics, and their charts were reviewed for the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGAN) Study (2002-2004). At 2 years of age, these infants underwent a neurodevelopmental assessment. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models of developmental adversities were used to adjust for potential confounders. Infants born to women who reported a UTI were less likely than were others to have a very low Mental Development Index (adjusted odds ratio = 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.3, 0.8), whereas infants born to women who reported a CVI were more likely than others to have a low Psychomotor Development Index (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 2.7). In this high-risk sample, maternal gestational CVI, but not UTI, was associated with a higher risk of impaired motor development at 2 years of age. The apparent protective effect of UTI might be spurious, reflect confounding due to untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria among women who were not given a diagnosis of UTI, or reflect preconditioning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Development of Salivary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm and Reference Intervals in Full-Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivars, Katrin; Nelson, Nina; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar; Ström, Jakob O; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in plasma display a circadian rhythm in adults and children older than one year. Earlier studies report divergent results regarding when cortisol circadian rhythm is established. The present study aims to investigate at what age infants develop a circadian rhythm, as well as the possible influences of behavioral regularity and daily life trauma on when the rhythm is established. Furthermore, we determine age-related reference intervals for cortisol concentrations in saliva during the first year of life. 130 healthy full-term infants were included in a prospective, longitudinal study with saliva sampling on two consecutive days, in the morning (07:30-09:30), noon (10:00-12:00) and evening (19:30-21:30), each month from birth until the infant was twelve months old. Information about development of behavioral regularity and potential exposure to trauma was obtained from the parents through the Baby Behavior Questionnaire and the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. A significant group-level circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion was established at one month, and remained throughout the first year of life, although there was considerable individual variability. No correlation was found between development of cortisol circadian rhythm and the results from either the Baby Behavior Questionnaire or the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. The study presents salivary cortisol reference intervals for infants during the first twelve months of life. Cortisol circadian rhythm in infants is already established by one month of age, earlier than previous studies have shown. The current study also provides first year age-related reference intervals for salivary cortisol levels in healthy, full-term infants.

  1. Disruption to the development of maternal responsiveness? The impact of prenatal depression on mother-infant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R M; Melotti, R; Heron, J; Joinson, C; Stein, A; Ramchandani, P G; Evans, J

    2012-12-01

    Both prenatal and postnatal maternal depression are independently associated with an increased risk of adverse infant development. The impact of postnatal depression on infants may be mediated through the effect of depression in reducing maternal responsiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of prenatal depression are unclear. Using longitudinal data from over 900 mother-infant pairs in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC), we found that women with high depressive symptom scores during mid pregnancy, but NOT when their infants were 8 months, had a 30% increased risk of low maternal responsiveness when the infant was 12 months compared to women with consistently low depression. This may provide a mechanism to explain the independent association between prenatal depression and poorer infant development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of alternate paragraphs for the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeri; Swier-Vosnos, Amy; Woodworth, Craig; Umfleet, Laura Glass; Czipri, Sheena; Kopald, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies included in this article was to validate an alternate form, the Morris Revision-Fourth Edition (MR-IV), to the Logical Memory paragraphs of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (LM-IV) for use when retesting of individuals is desired. Study I demonstrated high correlation with the LM-IV paragraphs. Study II was a replication that again demonstrated high correlation between the original LM-IV and the new MR-IV paragraphs. High interrater reliability also was demonstrated. Consequently, the MR-IV paragraphs can be considered an alternate form to the LM-IV paragraphs. Although other attempts have been made to develop alternate stories, these new paragraphs are the only ones that are equivalent in structure, affective tone, and number of scorable units. They have considerable clinical utility and research potential.

  3. The Influence of Different Caregivers on Infant Growth and Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qinrui Li; Furong Liang; Weilan Liang; Jing Zhang; Manman Niu; Ying Han

    2017-01-01

    Objective An increasing number of parents in China ask grandparents or babysitters to care for their children. Modern parents are often the only child in their family because of China’s One-Child Policy and thus may lack interaction with siblings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to explore whether different caregivers affect the physical and development of infants in China. Methods In total, 2,514 infants were enrolled in our study. We assessed their weight-for-age, supine length-for-age...

  4. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  5. Psychomotor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan Maarten; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2007-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were performed in 22 PWS infants, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 1.8 (1.1-3.4) y, and a body mass index SD score (BMISDS) of -0.5 (-1.3 to 1.6). We evaluated psychomotor development in relation to results of polysomnography. Median (IQR) mental and motor development was 73.1% (64.3-79.6%) and 55.2% (46.5-63.1%) of normal children, respectively. All infants had sleep-related breathing disorders, mostly of central origin. The apnea hypopnea index was not associated with psychomotor development. Only four infants had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). They had a significantly delayed mental development of 65.5% (60.0-70.3%) of normal. They had a median BMISDS of 1.4 (0.1-1.6), which tended to be higher than in those without OSAS. Our data indicate that psychomotor development in PWS infants is not related to central sleep-related breathing disorders, but infants with OSAS have more severely delayed mental development, suggesting that PWS infants should be screened for OSAS.

  6. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  7. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  8. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  9. The behavioral development of free-living chimpanzee babies and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooij, Fransiscus Xaverius

    1980-01-01

    This study aims to achieve an ontogenetically oriented understanding of behavioural phenomena during early development (first 2 years) of free-living chimpanzees. For this purpose, six chimpanzee babies and infants were observed in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. The main question which dominates

  10. Maternal history of parentification and warm responsiveness: The mediating role of knowledge of infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Wang, Lijuan; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Borkowski, John G

    2015-12-01

    Maternal history of parentification in the family of origin poses subsequent risk to parenting quality during the transition to parenthood. The present study builds on prior work by evaluating whether the association between maternal parentification history and warm responsiveness is mediated by maternal knowledge of infant development in first time mothers. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on the transition to motherhood, maternal knowledge of infant development and observational codings of warm responsiveness were examined across the first 18 months of parenthood for 374 mothers who also provided retrospective reports of their childhood parentification experiences. Results indicated that maternal retrospective reports of higher engagement in parentified roles in family of origin were associated with poorer knowledge of infant development across the first 18 months of parenthood and, in turn, less warm responsiveness with 18-month-old children. However, maternal parentification history did not significantly influence changes in maternal warm responsiveness across the transition to parenthood. These findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting maternal knowledge of infant development as early as the prenatal period may be useful for preventing poor warm responsiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The Impact of Early Social Interactions on Later Language Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; García-Sierra, Adrián; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the impact of child-directed language input on language development in Spanish-English bilingual infants (N = 25, 11- and 14-month-olds from the Seattle metropolitan area), across languages and independently for each language, controlling for socioeconomic status. Language input was characterized by social interaction variables,…

  12. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  13. Regional infant brain development: an MRI-based morphometric analysis in 3 to 13 month olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Myong-Sun; Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Makris, Nikos; Gregas, Matt; Bacic, Janine; Haehn, Daniel; Kennedy, David; Pienaar, Rudolph; Caviness, Verne S; Benasich, April A; Grant, P Ellen

    2013-09-01

    Elucidation of infant brain development is a critically important goal given the enduring impact of these early processes on various domains including later cognition and language. Although infants' whole-brain growth rates have long been available, regional growth rates have not been reported systematically. Accordingly, relatively less is known about the dynamics and organization of typically developing infant brains. Here we report global and regional volumetric growth of cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem with gender dimorphism, in 33 cross-sectional scans, over 3 to 13 months, using T1-weighted 3-dimensional spoiled gradient echo images and detailed semi-automated brain segmentation. Except for the midbrain and lateral ventricles, all absolute volumes of brain regions showed significant growth, with 6 different patterns of volumetric change. When normalized to the whole brain, the regional increase was characterized by 5 differential patterns. The putamen, cerebellar hemispheres, and total cerebellum were the only regions that showed positive growth in the normalized brain. Our results show region-specific patterns of volumetric change and contribute to the systematic understanding of infant brain development. This study greatly expands our knowledge of normal development and in future may provide a basis for identifying early deviation above and beyond normative variation that might signal higher risk for neurological disorders.

  14. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in the Expressive Communication of Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luze, Gayle J.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Walker, Dale; Leitschuh, Carol; Atwater, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in expressive communication in children from birth to 3 years of age Results from a sample of 50 infants and toddlers assessed monthly for 9 months in indicated that the measure displayed adequate psychometric properties of reliability and validity and was sensitive to…

  15. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Movement for Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Luze, Gayle J.; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan; Leitschuh, Carol

    2002-01-01

    The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in movement in children (ages birth-3) is described. Results from the use of the Movement General Outcome Measurement with 29 infants and toddlers demonstrated the feasibility of the measure. The 6-minute assessment was found reliable in terms of inter-observer agreement. (Contains…

  16. Angiogenic Factors in Cord Blood of Preterm Infants Predicts Subsequently Developing Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Cord blood level of PlGF, rather than VEGF or sFlt-1, was significantly increased in the BPD group. Consistent with our previous report, cord blood level of PlGF may be considered as a biomarker to predict subsequently developing BPD in preterm infants.

  17. Memory profiles of Down, Williams, and fragile X syndromes: implications for reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Frances A; Moore, Marie S; Loveall, Susan J; Merrill, Edward C

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand the types of memory impairments that are associated with intellectual disability (ID, formerly called mental retardation) and the implications of these impairments for reading development. Specifically, studies on working memory, delayed memory and learning, and semantic/conceptual memory in Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, and fragile X syndrome were examined. A distinct memory profile emerged for each of the 3 etiologies of ID. Memory profiles are discussed in relation to strengths and weaknesses in reading skills in these three etiologies. We suggest that reading instruction be designed to capitalize on relatively stronger memory skills while providing extra support for especially challenging aspects of reading.

  18. Impact on infants' cognitive development of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency disorder and common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12-20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of -11.62 points; 95% CI -23.01 to -0.22) and antenatal CMD (-4.80 points; 95% CI: -9.40 to -0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants' Bayley cognitive scores. These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

  19. Parallel-Architecture Simulator Development Using Hardware Transactional Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Armejach Sanosa, Adrià

    2009-01-01

    To address the need for a simpler parallel programming model, Transactional Memory (TM) has been developed and promises good parallel performance with easy-to-write parallel code. Unlike lock-based approaches, with TM, programmers do not need to explicitly specify and manage the synchronization among threads. However, programmers simply mark code segments as transactions, and the TM system manages the concurrency control for them. TM can be implemented either in software (STM) or hardware (HT...

  20. PROPERTY DATABASE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Tang , W.; CederstrÖm , J.; SandstrÖm , R.

    1991-01-01

    Important points involving the selection of shape memory alloy (SMA) application projects are discussed. The development of a property database for SMA is initiated. Both conventional data as well as characteristics which are unique for SMA are stored. As an application example of the database SMA-SELECT, important properties for Ti-Ni alloys near equi-atomic composition, such as temperature window width for superelasticity (SE), stress rate, critical yield stress, and their interaction have ...

  1. The Development of Rehearsal in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrold, Christopher; Hall, Debbora

    2013-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory, as indexed by immediate serial recall tasks (in which participants must recall several stimuli in order, immediately after presentation), develops considerably across middle childhood. One explanation for this age-related change is that children's ability to rehearse verbal material increases during this period, and one particularly influential version of this account is that only older children engage in any form of rehearsal. In this article, we critique evidence t...

  2. Rich micronutrient fortification of locally produced infant food does not improve mental and motor development of Zambian infants: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Daniela; Kowa, Priscilla K.; Bwalya, Hellen K.; Siame, Joshua; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Baisley, Kathy; De Stavola, Bianca L.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Filteau, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    It is uncertain whether multiple micronutrients benefit the mental and psychomotor development of young children in developing countries. We conducted a randomised double-blind controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a richly micronutrient-fortified v. a basal fortified porridge on mental and psychomotor development in Zambian infants. Infants (n 743) were randomised at age 6 months to receive either the richly fortified or the basal fortified infant food and were followed up until 18 months of age. All the infants were evaluated monthly for achievement of a series of developmental milestones. The Bayley scales of infant development II were administered to a subsample of 502 infants at 6, 12 and 18 months. Rich micronutrient fortification had no significant benefit on the following: (a) number of developmental milestones achieved (rate ratio at 12 months = 1·00; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·05; P=0·81, adjusted for sex, socio-economic status and maternal education, with similar results at 15 and 18 months); (b) ages of walking unsupported (hazard ratio (HR) 1·04; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·24; P=0·63, adjusted for the above covariates) and of speaking three or four clear words (HR 1·01; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·20; P=0·94, adjusted for the above covariates); (c) mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of the Bayley scales (scores difference adjusted for baseline scores, age at the assessment, sex, socio-economic status, maternal education, language, age and HIV status: MDI 0·3 (95 % CI −0·5, 1·1), P=0·43; PDI −0·1 (95 % CI −0·9, 0·7), P=0·78). In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that rich micronutrient fortification improves Zambian infants’ mental and motor development. PMID:21733297

  3. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  4. Infant Imitation after a 1-Week Delay: Long-Term Memory for Novel Acts and Multiple Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated deferred imitation ability for six actions in 14-month-old infants. After a week's delay, infants were tested on their ability to imitate the actions.Those who had been exposed to modeling produced significantly higher instances of the target actions. (SKC)

  5. Infant Long-Term Memory for a Conditioned Response and Intelligence Test Performance at 2 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    To find predictive relations between measures taken in infancy and later scores on intelligence tests, a study was made that measured in the infant those cognitive processes examined later in life. Operant conditioning tasks were employed which required 3-, 7-, and 11-month-old infants to execute some response to produce an environmental…

  6. Exploring the contribution of maternal antibiotics and breastfeeding to development of the infant microbiome and pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemas, Dominick J; Yee, Shanique; Cacho, Nicole; Miller, Darci; Cardel, Michelle; Gurka, Matthew; Janicke, David; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Pediatric obesity, a significant public health concern, has been associated with adult premature mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota is associated with pediatric obesity. Establishment of the infant gut microbiome is dependent on a dynamic maternal-infant microbiota exchange during early life. The objective of this review is to describe maternal factors such as feeding practices and antibiotic use that may influence the infant gut microbiome and risk for obesity. The complex components in human milk have many nutritional benefits to the infant; however, the microbiome in human milk may be an important factor to help regulate the infant's weight. We discuss maternal antibiotics and the effects on breast milk as critical exposures that alter the infant's gut microbiome and influence the risk of pediatric obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Joint Attention Development in Low-risk Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Around 18 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Noriko; Takada, Satoshi

    2016-10-18

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental characteristics of joint attention in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with a low risk of complications. Section B of the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) was administered to 31 VLBW and 45 normal birth weight (NBW) infants aged 18-22 months, while the sessions were recorded with a video camera. A semi-structured observation scale was developed to assess infants' joint attention from the video footage, and was shown to be reliable. VLBW, compared to NBW, infants showed significantly poorer skills in 2 of 4 items on responding to joint attention, and in 6 of 10 items on initiating joint attention. VLBW infants need more clues in order to produce joint attention. The difficulty was attributed to insufficient verbal and fine motor function skills. Continuous follow-up evaluation is essential for both high-risk and low-risk VLBW infants and their parents.

  8. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BREASTFEEDING FOR THE INFANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ursova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the literature, the review shows the real value of breast milk as the most optimal type of postnatal feeding of infants. We describe biological mechanisms that are supposed to mediate  the influence of breastfeeding on maturation of  immune response, regulation of intestinal functions, trophic effect on small and large intestinal  mucosa, its microflora and somatic growth of an  infant. In infancy, the protective properties of  breast milk against intestinal infections are largely related to its prebiotic effect. According to the  results of the studies on the structure of the milk  fat mycella envelope, their protein not only participate in bacterial adhesion, but also exert substantial anti-microbial activity due to presence of  antimicrobial components. We discuss the role  of protective nutrients, such as zinc, iron, iodine,  selenium and vitamin A and review the results of studies performed in various countries and aimed at evaluation of an association between the type of feeding of an infant in the 1  year of life and the risk of development of somatic abnormalities. A strong influence of micronutrient deficiencies in the pregnant and breastfeeding woman on delay of in utero development has been shown, as well as its contribution to formation of congenital ab- st normalities of any organ or system, connective  tissue dysplasia, initiation and development of alimentary-related conditions in infants.

  9. The development of regional functional connectivity in preterm infants into early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wayne; Morgan, Benjamin R; Shroff, Manohar M; Sled, John G; Taylor, Margot J

    2013-09-01

    Resting state networks are proposed to reflect the neuronal connectivity that underlies cognitive processes. Consequently, abnormal behaviour of these networks due to disease or altered development may predict poor cognitive outcome. To understand how very preterm birth may affect the development of resting state connectivity, we followed a cohort of very preterm-born infants from birth through to 4 years of age using resting state functional MRI. From a larger longitudinal cohort of infants born very preterm (regions and left and right temporal lobes, we investigated local and inter-region connectivity as a function of group and age. We found strong local connectivity during the preterm period, which matured into inter-hemispheric and preliminary default-mode network correlations by 4 years of age. This development is comparable to the resting state networks found in term-born infants of equivalent age. The results of this study suggest that differences in developmental trajectory between preterm-born and term-born infants are small and, if present, would require a large sample from both populations to be detected.

  10. Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiff Annie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices. Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions, self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four domains- 1 type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2 frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3 attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4 theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed the questionnaire on two occasions six days apart (to assess test-retest reliability and then participated in a semi-structured, open-ended telephone interview covering the same domains (to assess criterion validity. Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappas (for categorical variables and Spearman's correlation coefficients (for continuous variables were used to quantify reliability and validity. Internal consistency between theory-based constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention was quantified by Chronbach's alpha. Results Of the 57 questionnaire items 51 (89% had percentage agreement above 70% indicating good test-retest reliability, and the remaining 6 items had moderate or substantial levels of agreement (kappa 0.41-0.68. Comparing questionnaire with interview coding (validity, percentage agreement was above 66% for 39/57 items (68%. Of the 16 items with percentage agreement below 66%, only five had kappa values below 0.20 (two items had insufficient interview responses. Internal consistency was 0.51, 0.79 and 0.90 for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention respectively. Conclusions This questionnaire could be a useful tool in understanding the determinants of infant feeding and

  11. Early neurobehavioral development of preterm infants Desenvolvimento neurocomportamental inicial de bebês prematuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Stefaneli Ziotti Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the very early neurobehavioral development of preterm infants and to examine differences regarding sex. Two-hundred and two preterm infants were assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI, which was carried out at 32-37 weeks post-conceptional age in the hospital setting. The infants' performance was compared to a norm-referenced sample and a comparison between groups regarding sex was also done. In comparison to the NAPI norm-reference, the preterm infants showed less muscular tonicity on the scarf sign, less vigor and spontaneous movement, higher alertness and orientation, weaker cry, and more sleep state. There was no statistical difference between males and females preterm infants at NAPI performances.O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento neurocomportamental inicial de bebês prematuros e examinar as diferenças quanto ao sexo. Foram avaliados 202 bebês nascidos pré-termo pela Avaliação Neurocomportamental para Prematuros (NAPI, que foi realizada na fase de 32-37 semanas de idade pós-concepcional no contexto hospitalar. O desempenho dos bebês no NAPI foi comparado com a amostra de padronização do instrumento e também foi feita a comparação entre grupos diferenciados pelo sexo. Em relação à amostra de padronização, os bebês deste estudo apresentaram menor tonicidade muscular no sinal de cachecol, menor vigor e movimento espontâneo, mais alerta e orientação, choro mais fraco e mais estado de sono. Houve um padrão semelhante de desempenho neurocomportamental dos meninos e meninas nascidos prematuros.

  12. Evaluation of the induction of immune memory following infant immunisation with serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccines--exploratory analyses within a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khatami

    Full Text Available We measured meningococcal serogroup C (MenC-specific memory B-cell responses in infants by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot (ELISpot following different MenC conjugate vaccine schedules to investigate the impact of priming on immune memory.Infants aged 2 months were randomised to receive 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 at 3 or 3 and 4 months, 1 dose of MenC-TT at 3 months, or no primary MenC doses. All children received a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib-MenC booster at 12 months. Blood was drawn at 5, 12, 12 months +6 days and 13 months of age.Results were available for 110, 103, 76 and 44 children from each group respectively. Following primary immunisations, and prior to the 12-month booster, there were no significant differences between 1- or 2-dose primed children in the number of MenC memory B-cells detected. One month following the booster, children primed with 1 dose MenC-TT had more memory B-cells than children primed with either 1-dose (p = 0.001 or 2-dose (p<0.0001 MenC-CRM197. There were no differences in MenC memory B-cells detected in children who received 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 in infancy and un-primed children.MenC-specific memory B-cell production may be more dependent on the type of primary vaccine used than the number of doses administered. Although the mechanistic differences between MenC-CRM197 and MenC-TT priming are unclear, it is possible that structural differences, including the carrier proteins, may underlie differential interactions with B- and T-cell populations, and thus different effects on various memory B-cell subsets. A MenC-TT/Hib-MenC-TT combination for priming/boosting may offer an advantage in inducing more persistent antibody.EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-016579-31 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01129518.

  13. [Effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on growth and development of infants with very/extremely low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Hui-Fen; Wang, Jin-Xiu

    2017-08-01

    To study the effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on the growth and development in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. A total of 375 VLBW or ELBW infants were enrolled and divided into an observation group (187 infants) and a control group (188 infants) using a random number table. The infants in the observation group were given extensively hydrolyzed formula, and when the amount of extensively hydrolyzed formula reached 10 mL/time, it was changed to the standard formula for preterm infants. The infants in the control group were given standard formula for preterm infants. Both groups were fed for 4 consecutive weeks and were compared in terms of incidence rate of feeding intolerance, time to establish full enteral feeding, time to complete meconium excretion, number of spontaneous bowel movements, growth and development, motilin level at 4 and 10 days after feeding, and incidence rate of infection. Compared with the control group, the observation group had a lower rate of feeding intolerance (Pdevelopment, and reduce the incidence of infection in VLBW and ELBW infants.

  14. Preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched formula until 6 months show improved growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ga Won; Jung, Yu Jin; Koh, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Kyung Ah; Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Sung Shin; Shim, Jae Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched preterm formula to preterm infants until 6 months' corrected age (CA) on growth and development in the first 18 months of life. Very low-birthweight preterm infants were fed preterm formula until term (40 weeks CA). Infants were then assigned to one of three groups and were fed term formula until 6 months' CA (group 1, n= 29); preterm formula to 3 months' CA and then term formula to 6 months' CA (group 2, n= 30); or preterm formula until 6 months' CA (group 3, n= 31). Anthropometry was performed at term, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and at s18 months' CA. Mental and psychomotor development were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 18 months' CA. Although body weight, length, head circumference and z score for CA at term in group 3 were significantly lower than those of groups 1 and 2, growth rates of these parameters were significantly higher in group 3 up to 18 months CA', as compared to groups 1 and 2. The mental developmental index and psychomotor developmental index of the Bayley test were not significantly different between the three groups. Very low-birthweight preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched preterm formula until 6 months' CA demonstrated significantly improved growth rates for bodyweight, length and head circumference, and comparable mental and psychomotor development throughout the first 18 months of life. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  16. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in pregnancy and infant neuropsychological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Guxens, Mònica; Llop, Sabrina; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Tardón, Adonina; Riaño, Isolina; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Lertxundi, Nerea; Espada, Mercedes; Rodriguez, Agueda; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-10-01

    To investigate whether circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentration in pregnancy is associated with neuropsychological development in infants. The Spanish population-based cohort study INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project recruited pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy between November 2003 and February 2008. Completed data on 1820 mother-infant pairs were used. Maternal plasma 25(OH)D(3) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in pregnancy (mean 13.5 ± 2.1 weeks of gestation). Offspring mental and psychomotor scores were assessed by trained psychologists at age 14 months (range, 11-23) by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. β-Coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mental and psychomotor scores associated with continuous or categorical concentrations of maternal plasma 25(OH)D(3) were calculated by using linear regression analysis. The median plasma value of 25(OH)D(3) in pregnancy was 29.6 ng/mL (interquartile range, 21.8-37.3). A positive linear relationship was found between circulating concentrations of maternal 25(OH)D(3) concentrations in pregnancy and mental and psychomotor scores in the offspring. After adjustment for potential confounders, infants of mothers with 25(OH)D(3) concentrations in pregnancy >30 ng/mL showed higher mental score (β = 2.60; 95% CI 0.63-4.56) and higher psychomotor score (β = 2.32; 95% CI 0.36-4.28) in comparison with those of mothers with 25(OH)D(3) concentrations <20 ng/mL. Higher circulating concentration of maternal 25(OH)D(3) in pregnancy was associated with improved mental and psychomotor development in infants.

  17. [Effect of family integrate care on the development of preterm infants at 18 months of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Gao, X Y; Xiang, X Y; Dai, H M; Yang, L; Shoo K, M Y; Hei, Mingyan

    2016-12-02

    Objective: To study the effect of family integrated care (FIC) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to the development of preterm infants at 18 months of age. Method: This is a prospective parallel case-control study. Infants in FIC group were preterm infants enrolled in previous FIC study with gestational age (GA) 28-35 weeks. Study period was from July 2015 to July 2016. Subjects were all enrolled from Department of Child Healthcare in the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. Infants in control group were gender, birth weight (BW), BW percentile and days of life (DOL) at follow-up matched (1∶1 ratio) preterm infants who did not enter FIC in NICU. The age at follow-up was 18 months. Study parameters were maternal education year, socioeconomic status (SES) by Graffar method, home observation for measurement of the environment (HOME), mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) by mental and psychomotor Bayley scales of infant development (BSID). SPSS 20.0 of χ 2 test, t test, Pearson coefficient test and Spearman coefficient test were used for the statistical analysis. Result: Totally 67 infants were enrolled in each of FIC group and control group, with percentage of male gender 52% (35 infants) and 51% (34 infants), representatively. GA of FIC group and control group was (32.4±1.7) and (32.2±1.6) weeks, BW was (1 690±415) and (1 719±412) g. Weight at 18 months follow-up was (10±1) and (10±1) kg, maternal education year was (15±2) and (15±2) years, SES was (42±6) and (41±6) score, HOME was (31±5) and (32±5) score, representatively. There was no significant difference between FIC group and control group in the above parameters, making these 2 groups comparable. The MDI and PDI of FIC group were significantly higher than those of control group ((95±9) vs . (86±9), (87±9) vs . (80±8) score, t =5.506, 4.502, both P =0.000). The MDI and PDI of all groups were positively correlated to GA ( r =0.398 and 0

  18. How do maternal subclinical symptoms influence infant motor development during the first year of life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Piallini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An unavoidable reciprocal influence characterizes mother-infant’s dyad.Within this relationship,the presence of depression,somatization,hostility,paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity symptoms at a subclinical level and their possible input on infant motor competences has not been yet considered.Bearing in mind that motor abilities represent not only an indicator of infant’s health-status,but also the principal field to infer his/her needs, eelings and intentions,in this study the quality of infants’movements were assessed and analyzed in relationship with the maternal attitudes.The aim of this research was to investigate if/how maternal symptomatology may lead infant's motor development during his/her first year of life by observing the characteristics of motor development in infants aged 0-11months.Participants included 123 mothers and their infants (0-11months-old.Mothers’ symptomatology was screened with SymptomChecklist-90-Revised(SCL-90-R,while infants were tested with Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Second Edition.All dyads belonged to a non-clinical population, however,on the basis of SCL-90-Rscores, mothers’sample was divided into two groups: normative and subclinical.Descriptive,T-test,correlational analysis between PDMS-2scores and SCL-90-R results are reported,as well as regression models results.Both positive and negative correlations were found between maternal perceived symptomatology,Somatization(SOM,Interpersonal Sensitivity(IS,Depression(DEP,Hostility(HOSand Paranoid Ideation(PARand infants’motor abilities.These results were then further verified by applying regression models to predict the infant motor outcomes on the basis of babies’ age and maternal status.The presence of positive symptoms in SCL-90-Rquestionnaire (subclinical group predicted good visual-motor integration and stationary competences in the babies.In particular,depressive and hostility feelings in mothers seemed to induce an infant

  19. Maternal Responses and Development of Communication Skills in Extremely Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana Marie; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined maternal responses to infants' spontaneous communicative behaviors in a sample of 20 extremely-low-gestational-age (ELGA) infants and 20 full-term (FT) infants during 30 minutes of play interaction when infants were 12 months of age. Relations between maternal responses and infants' communication skills at 12 and 24…

  20. Development of the Object Permanence Concept in Cleft Lip and Palate and Noncleft Lip and Palate Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecyna, Paula M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The development of the concept of object permanence was investigated with eight infants with cleft lip/palate and four nonimpaired infants. Superior performance of the cleft lip/palate group was found, possibly due to increased environmental stimulation provided by parents. (DB)

  1. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Development of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, David O.; Young, Laura

    A study involving a sample of people selected to represent the nonimpaired American population, aged 16 to 74 years, was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised. The scale's subtests were designed to assess memory of personal and general knowledge, logical memory, verbal paired association, figural memory,…

  3. Development and validation of PediaTrac™: A web-based tool to track developing infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajiness-O'Neill, Renée; Brooks, Judith; Lukomski, Angela; Schilling, Stephen; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Warschausky, Seth; Flores, Ana-Mercedes; Swick, Casey; Nyman, Tristin; Andersen, Tiffany; Morris, Natalie; Schmitt, Thomas A; Bell-Smith, Jennifer; Moir, Barbara; Hodges, Elise K; Lyddy, James E

    2018-02-01

    PediaTrac™, a 363-item web-based tool to track infant development, administered in modules of ∼40-items per sampling period, newborn (NB), 2--, 4--, 6--, 9-- and 12--months was validated. Caregivers answered demographic, medical, and environmental questions, and questions covering the sensorimotor, feeding/eating, sleep, speech/language, cognition, social-emotional, and attachment domains. Expert Panel Reviews and Cognitive Interviews (CI) were conducted to validate the item bank. Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) methods were employed to examine the dimensionality and psychometric properties of PediaTrac with pooled longitudinal and cross-sectional cohorts (N = 132). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the Expert Panel Review revealed moderate agreement at 6 -months and good reliability at other sampling periods. ICC estimates for CI revealed moderate reliability regarding clarity of the items at NB and 4 months, good reliability at 2--, 9-- and 12--months and excellent reliability at 6 -months. CTT revealed good coefficient alpha estimates (α ≥ 0.77 for five of the six ages) for the Social-Emotional/Communication, Attachment (α ≥ 0.89 for all ages), and Sensorimotor (α ≥ 0.75 at 6-months) domains, revealing the need for better targeting of sensorimotor items. IRT modeling revealed good reliability (r = 0.85-0.95) for three distinct domains (Feeding/Eating, Social-Emotional/Communication and Attachment) and four subdomains (Feeding Breast/Formula, Feeding Solid Food, Social-Emotional Information Processing, Communication/Cognition). Convergent and discriminant construct validity were demonstrated between our IRT-modeled domains and constructs derived from existing developmental, behavioral and caregiver measures. Our Attachment domain was significantly correlated with existing measures at the NB and 2-month periods, while the Social-Emotional/Communication domain was highly correlated with

  4. Early Lexical Development in Spanish-Speaking Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…

  5. Musical Mnemonics Enhance Verbal Memory in Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Knott

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of musical mnemonics vs. spoken word in training verbal memory in children. A randomized control trial of typically-developing 9–11 year old children was conducted using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, a test measuring a participant's ability to recall a list of 15 words over multiple exposures. Members of the group who listened to words sung to them recalled an average of 20% more words after listening to and recalling an interference list than members of the control group who listened to the same words spoken. This difference persisted, though slightly smaller (17% when participants recalled words after a 15-min waiting period. Additionally, group participants who listened to words sung demonstrated a higher incidence of words recalled in correct serial order. Key findings were all statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Enhanced serial order recall points to the musical pitch/rhythm structure enhancing sequence memory as a potential mnemonic mechanism. No significant differences were found in serial position effects between groups. The findings suggest that musical mnemonic training may be more effective than rehearsal with spoken words in verbal memory learning tasks in 9–11 year olds.

  6. Development of Ethernet emulation driver for reflective memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seong-Heon

    2010-01-01

    Reflective memory (RFM) is adopted as a real time network in the KSTAR plasma control system (PCS). Since the data uploaded from any computer are automatically shared among all the computers on the RFM network, the design of a distributed control system based on RFM is easily implemented through the management of memory mapping. The data providers and consumers are logically well seperated so that, if memory mapping information is given, a new control unit can be added without any modification to the existing system except connecting a new RFM module through an optical cable. The KSTAR PCS is also connected with the Ethernet in addition to the RFM because the RFM does not support the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and many network services of the operating system such as the Network File System (NFS) and the Secure Shell (SSH) are based on the TCP/IP. Therefore we developed an Ethernet emulation driver for the RFM to eliminate the need for a separate Ethernet network. The driver was tested on the Linux kernel 2.6.31. The algorithm of the emulation driver is explained and the experimental setup is presented.

  7. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  8. Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Heather Cody; Gu, Hongbin; Munsell, Brent C; Kim, Sun Hyung; Styner, Martin; Wolff, Jason J; Elison, Jed T; Swanson, Meghan R; Zhu, Hongtu; Botteron, Kelly N; Collins, D Louis; Constantino, John N; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Evans, Alan C; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gerig, Guido; Kostopoulos, Penelope; McKinstry, Robert C; Pandey, Juhi; Paterson, Sarah; Pruett, John R; Schultz, Robert T; Shaw, Dennis W; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2017-02-15

    Brain enlargement has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the timing of this phenomenon, and the relationship between ASD and the appearance of behavioural symptoms, are unknown. Retrospective head circumference and longitudinal brain volume studies of two-year olds followed up at four years of age have provided evidence that increased brain volume may emerge early in development. Studies of infants at high familial risk of autism can provide insight into the early development of autism and have shown that characteristic social deficits in ASD emerge during the latter part of the first and in the second year of life. These observations suggest that prospective brain-imaging studies of infants at high familial risk of ASD might identify early postnatal changes in brain volume that occur before an ASD diagnosis. In this prospective neuroimaging study of 106 infants at high familial risk of ASD and 42 low-risk infants, we show that hyperexpansion of the cortical surface area between 6 and 12 months of age precedes brain volume overgrowth observed between 12 and 24 months in 15 high-risk infants who were diagnosed with autism at 24 months. Brain volume overgrowth was linked to the emergence and severity of autistic social deficits. A deep-learning algorithm that primarily uses surface area information from magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of 6-12-month-old individuals predicted the diagnosis of autism in individual high-risk children at 24 months (with a positive predictive value of 81% and a sensitivity of 88%). These findings demonstrate that early brain changes occur during the period in which autistic behaviours are first emerging.

  9. Development of auditory event-related potentials in infants prenatally exposed to methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan A; Logan, Beth A; Krishnan, Ramesh; Heller, Nicole A; Morrison, Deborah G; Pritham, Ursula A; Tisher, Paul W; Troese, Marcia; Brown, Mark S; Hayes, Marie J

    2014-07-01

    Developmental features of the P2 auditory ERP in a change detection paradigm were examined in infants prenatally exposed to methadone. Opiate dependent pregnant women maintained on methadone replacement therapy were recruited during pregnancy (N = 60). Current and historical alcohol and substance use, SES, and psychiatric status were assessed with a maternal interview during the third trimester. Medical records were used to collect information regarding maternal medications, monthly urinalysis, and breathalyzer to confirm comorbid drug and alcohol exposures. Between birth and 4 months infant ERP change detection performance was evaluated on one occasion with the oddball paradigm (.2 probability oddball) using pure-tone stimuli (standard = 1 kHz and oddball = 2 kHz frequency) at midline electrode sites, Fz, Cz, Pz. Infant groups were examined in the following developmental windows: 4-15, 16-32, or 33-120 days PNA. Older groups showed increased P2 amplitude at Fz and effective change detection performance at P2 not seen in the newborn group. Developmental maturation of amplitude and stimulus discrimination for P2 has been reported in developing infants at all of the ages tested and data reported here in the older infants are consistent with typical development. However, it has been previously reported that the P2 amplitude difference is detectable in neonates; therefore, absence of a difference in P2 amplitude between stimuli in the 4-15 days group may represent impaired ERP performance by neonatal abstinence syndrome or prenatal methadone exposure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Impact of prematurity and nutrition on the developing gut microbiome and preterm infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Alex; Qiu, Xing; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjukta; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Kessler, Haeja A; Gill, Ann L; Hamilton, Brooke; Huyck, Heidie; Misra, Sara; Mariani, Thomas J; Ryan, Rita M; Scholer, Lori; Scheible, Kristin M; Lee, Yi-Horng; Caserta, Mary T; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Gill, Steven R

    2017-12-11

    Identification of factors that influence the neonatal gut microbiome is urgently needed to guide clinical practices that support growth of healthy preterm infants. Here, we examined the influence of nutrition and common practices on the gut microbiota and growth in a cohort of preterm infants. With weekly gut microbiota samples spanning postmenstrual age (PMA) 24 to 46 weeks, we developed two models to test associations between the microbiota, nutrition and growth: a categorical model with three successive microbiota phases (P1, P2, and P3) and a model with two periods (early and late PMA) defined by microbiota composition and PMA, respectively. The more significant associations with phase led us to use a phase-based framework for the majority of our analyses. Phase transitions were characterized by rapid shifts in the microbiota, with transition out of P1 occurring nearly simultaneously with the change from meconium to normal stool. The rate of phase progression was positively associated with gestational age at birth, and delayed transition to a P3 microbiota was associated with growth failure. We found distinct bacterial metabolic functions in P1-3 and significant associations between nutrition, microbiota phase, and infant growth. The phase-dependent impact of nutrition on infant growth along with phase-specific metabolic functions suggests a pioneering potential for improving growth outcomes by tailoring nutrient intake to microbiota phase.

  11. Development of a High Resolution 3D Infant Stomach Model for Surgical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Qaiser; Raza, S. Hussain; Lee, Jeonggyu; Xu, Yan; Wulkan, Mark; Wang, May D.

    Medical surgical procedures have not changed much during the past century due to the lack of accurate low-cost workbench for testing any new improvement. The increasingly cheaper and powerful computer technologies have made computer-based surgery planning and training feasible. In our work, we have developed an accurate 3D stomach model, which aims to improve the surgical procedure that treats the infant pediatric and neonatal gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We generate the 3-D infant stomach model based on in vivo computer tomography (CT) scans of an infant. CT is a widely used clinical imaging modality that is cheap, but with low spatial resolution. To improve the model accuracy, we use the high resolution Visible Human Project (VHP) in model building. Next, we add soft muscle material properties to make the 3D model deformable. Then we use virtual reality techniques such as haptic devices to make the 3D stomach model deform upon touching force. This accurate 3D stomach model provides a workbench for testing new GERD treatment surgical procedures. It has the potential to reduce or eliminate the extensive cost associated with animal testing when improving any surgical procedure, and ultimately, to reduce the risk associated with infant GERD surgery.

  12. War trauma and maternal-fetal attachment predicting maternal mental health, infant development, and dyadic interaction in Palestinian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Diab, Safwat Y

    2017-10-01

    Optimal maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) is believed to be beneficial for infant well-being and dyadic interaction, but research is scarce in general and among risk populations. Our study involved dyads living in war conditions and examined how traumatic war trauma associates with MFA and which factors mediate that association. It also modeled the role of MFA in predicting newborn health, infant development, mother-infant interaction, and maternal postpartum mental health. Palestinian women from the Gaza Strip (N = 511) participated during their second trimester (T1), and when their infants were 4 (T2) and 12 (T3) months. Mothers reported MFA (interaction with, attributions to, and fantasies about the fetus), social support, and prenatal mental health (post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety) at T1, newborn health at T2, and the postpartum mental health, infant's sensorimotor and language development, and mother-infant interaction (emotional availability) at T3. Results revealed, first, that war trauma was not directly associated with MFA but that it was mediated through a low level of social support and high level of maternal prenatal mental health problems. Second, intensive MFA predicted optimal mother-reported infant's sensorimotor and language development and mother-infant emotional availability but not newborn health or maternal postpartum mental health.

  13. Cranial ultrasound findings in preterm infants predict the development of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Ann Lawaetz; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    record review. The cohort consisted of very preterm born children (gestational age ≤ 32 + 0) born from 2004 to 2008. For each infant, we obtained results from all cranial ultrasounds performed during hospitalisation. In 2014, patient records were evaluated for cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function...... haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI), of whom two developed cerebral palsy. Nine children were diagnosed with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), of whom six developed cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy was detected in 14 children (6.4%), and one (0.5%) child was in need of a hearing assistive device. Severe brain...... injury (GMH-IVH3, PVHI or PVL) (p = 0.000) and being of male gender (p = 0.03) were associated with cerebral palsy in childhood. Conclusion: Severe brain injuries detected by neonatal cranial ultrasound in very preterm infants is associated with development of cerebral palsy in childhood....

  14. A quantitative measure of myelination development in infants, using MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, Dennis P. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Dunn, Stanley M.; Boddie-Willis, Akiza S. [The State University of New Jersey, Rutgers, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); DeMarco, J. Kevin [Laurie Imaging Center, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Lewis, Michael [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Institute for the Study of Child Development, New Brunswick (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure myelination of frontal lobe changes in infants and young children. Twenty-four cases of infants and children (age range 12-121 months) were evaluated by a quantitative assessment of T2-weighted MR image features. Reliable quantitative changes between white and gray matter correlated with developmental age in a group of children with no neurological findings. Myelination appears to be an increasing exponential function with the greatest rate of change occurring over the first 3 years of life. The quantitative changes observed were in accordance with previous qualitative judgments of myelination development. Children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) showed delays in achieving levels of myelination when compared to normal children and adjusted for chronological age. The quantitative measure of myelination development may prove to be useful in assessing the stages of development and helpful in the quantitative descriptions of white matter disorders such as PVL. (orig.)

  15. Development of visual motion perception for prospective control: Brain and behavioural studies in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth B. Agyei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioural and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioural data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control.

  16. A quantitative measure of myelination development in infants, using MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Dunn, Stanley M.; Boddie-Willis, Akiza S.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Lewis, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure myelination of frontal lobe changes in infants and young children. Twenty-four cases of infants and children (age range 12-121 months) were evaluated by a quantitative assessment of T2-weighted MR image features. Reliable quantitative changes between white and gray matter correlated with developmental age in a group of children with no neurological findings. Myelination appears to be an increasing exponential function with the greatest rate of change occurring over the first 3 years of life. The quantitative changes observed were in accordance with previous qualitative judgments of myelination development. Children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) showed delays in achieving levels of myelination when compared to normal children and adjusted for chronological age. The quantitative measure of myelination development may prove to be useful in assessing the stages of development and helpful in the quantitative descriptions of white matter disorders such as PVL. (orig.)

  17. Neurobehavioural and cognitive development in infants born to mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona, Manuela; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Pawlby, Susan; Easter, Abigail; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2017-08-01

    Although recent research has focused on the effects of maternal eating disorders (EDs) on children, little is known about the effect of maternal EDs on neurobiological outcomes in newborns and infants. This study is the first to investigate neurobehavioural regulation and cognitive development in newborns and infants of mothers with EDs. Women with an active and past ED and healthy controls were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study during their first trimester or second trimester of pregnancy. Newborns and infants of mothers with ED were compared with newborns and infants of healthy controls on (a) neurobehavioural dysregulation using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale at 8 days postpartum (active ED, n = 15; past ED, n = 20; healthy controls, n = 28); and (b) cognitive development using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development at 1-year postpartum (active ED, n = 18; past ED, n = 19; healthy controls, n = 28). In order to maintain the largest possible sample at each time point, sample size varied across time points. Newborns of mothers with an active ED had worse autonomic stability when compared with newborns of healthy controls [B = -0.34 (-1.81, -0.26)]. Infants of mothers with a past ED had poorer language [B = -0.33 (-13.6, -1.9)] and motor development [B = -0.32 (-18.4, -1.3)] compared with healthy controls. Children of mothers with ED display neurobehavioural dysregulation early after birth and poorer language and motor development at 1 year. These characteristics suggest evidence of early neurobiological markers in children at risk. Differential outcomes in children of women with active versus past ED suggest that active symptomatology during pregnancy might have an effect on physiological reactivity while cognitive characteristics might be more stable markers of risk for ED. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Association between obesity-related biomarkers and cognitive and motor development in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina R; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Oliveira, Katherine S C; de Andrade, Camila Alves; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; da Fonseca, Sueli Ferreira; Vieira, Erica Leandro Marciano; Teixeira Júnior, Antônio Lúcio; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2017-05-15

    This study aimed to verify the association between obesity-related biomarkers and cognitive and motor development in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants and plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), chemokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serum cortisol and redox status were measured. The Bayley-III test was utilized to evaluate cognitive and motor development, and multiple linear stepwise regression models were performed to verify the association between selected biomarkers and cognitive and motor development. A significant association was found among plasma leptin and sTNFR1 levels with cognitive composite scores, and these two independents variables together explained 37% of the variability of cognitive composite scores (p=0.001). Only plasma sTNFR1 levels were associated and explained 24% of the variability of motor composite scores (p=0.003). Plasma levels of sTNFR1 were associated with the increase in cognitive and motor development scores in infants between 6 and 24 months of age through a mechanism not directly related to excess body weight. Moreover, increase in plasma levels of leptin reduced the cognitive development in this age range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. WHAT DOES THE GUSTATORY PREFERENCES DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS DEPEND ON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive development of the molecular biology, genetically engineered methods of examination and decoding of human genome rendered significant assistance to discoveries in the field of gustatory preferences and food behavior formation study in children. It was proved that gustatory preferences in children and, further, in adults are influenced by numerous factors. The main of such factors are genetic ones; peculiarities of pregnant woman and child nutrition; national food traditions. The afore-mentioned factors and possible ways of influence on them are considered in this article, which contributes to development of appropriate food behavior, playing a significant role in the formation of children’ and adults’ health. 

  20. The Effect of Cleft Lip and Palate, and the Timing of Lip Repair on Mother-Infant Interactions and Infant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Hentges, Francoise; Hill, Jonathan; Karpf, Janne; Mistry, Beejal; Kreutz, Marianne; Woodall, Peter; Moss, Tony; Goodacre, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with cleft lip and palate are at risk for psychological problems. Difficulties in mother-child interactions may be relevant, and could be affected by the timing of lip repair. Method: We assessed cognitive development, behaviour problems, and attachment in 94 infants with cleft lip (with and without cleft palate) and 96…

  1. Tractography of the corticospinal tracts in infants with focal perinatal injury: comparison with normal controls and to motor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, Elise; Harris, Polly A.; Ball, Gareth; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Allsop, Joanna M.; Counsell, Serena J.; Elorza, Leire Zubiaurre; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, A.D.; Cowan, Frances M.; Porter, Emma; Rutherford, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aims were to (1) assess the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in infants with focal injury and healthy term controls using probabilistic tractography and (2) to correlate the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography findings in infants with focal injury with their later motor function. We studied 20 infants with focal lesions and 23 controls using MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (RD) of the CSTs were determined. Asymmetry indices (AIs) were calculated by comparing ipsilateral to contralateral CSTs. Motor outcome was assessed using a standardized neurological examination. Conventional MRI was able to predict normal motor development (n = 9) or hemiplegia (n = 6). In children who developed a mild motor asymmetry (n = 5), conventional MRI predicted a hemiplegia in two and normal motor development in three infants. The AIs for tract volume, FA, ADC and RD showed a significant difference between controls and infants who developed a hemiplegia, and RD also showed a significant difference in AI between controls and infants who developed a mild asymmetry. Conventional MRI was able to predict subsequent normal motor development or hemiplegia following focal injury in newborn infants. Measures of RD obtained from diffusion tractography may offer additional information for predicting a subsequent asymmetry in motor function. (orig.)

  2. Development of navigational working memory: evidence from 6- to 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Leonzi, Marina; D'Amico, Simonetta; Marano, Assunta; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    The ability to learn complex environments may require the contribution of different types of working memory. Therefore, we investigated the development of different types of working memory (navigational, reaching, and verbal) in 129 typically developing children. We aimed to determine whether navigational working memory develops at the same rate as other types of working memory and whether the gender differences reported in adults are already present during development. We found that navigational working memory is less developed than both verbal and reaching working memory and that gender predicts performance only for navigational working memory. Our results are in line with reports that children made significantly more errors in far space than adults, showing that near space representation develops before far space representation. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Development and Initial Validation of a Parent Report Measure of the Behavioral Development of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Ward, Rebecca A.; Savona, Danielle; Regehr, Kaleigh; Parker, Kevin; Hudson, Melissa; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a new parent report instrument--Parent Observation of Early Markers Scale (POEMS)--to monitor the behavioral development of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have older affected siblings. Parents of 108 at-risk infants (74 males, 34 females) completed the POEMS from child age 1-24 months.…

  4. [A follow-up on first-year growth and development of 61 very low birth weight preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ying; Xiong, Fei; Wu, Meng-Meng; Yang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the physical growth and psychomotor development of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in the first year after birth and related influencing factors. A total of 61 VLBW preterm infants received growth and development monitoring for 12 months. Z score was used to evaluate parameters for physical growth, and Denver Development Screen Test (DDST) was used for development screening. Among the 61 VLBW preterm infants, 27 (44.3%) were small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and 34 (55.7%) were appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. During the 1-year follow-up, the median weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), head circumference-for-age Z-score (HCZ), and weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) were >-1 SD in all age groups. The peaks of body mass index-for-age Z-score (BAZ) and WHZ appeared at 1 month of corrected age. At a corrected age of 40 weeks, the incidence rates of underweight, growth retardation, emaciation, microcephalus, overweight, and obesity were 15%, 16%, 11%, 13%, 20%, and 10%, respectively. Compared with those with a corrected age of 40 weeks, the infants with a corrected age of 6 months or 9-12 months had a significantly reduced incidence rate of overweight (3%) (P<0.05). Up to 1 year after birth, 15 infants (25%) had abnormal developmental quotient (DQ). The SGA group had a significantly higher incidence rate of abnormal DQ than the AGA group (P<0.05). SGA was the independent risk factor for retarded growth in the first year after birth in VLBW preterm infants. VLBW preterm infants experience an obvious growth deviation within 3 months of corrected age. Within the first year after birth, the proportion of infants with abnormal DQ screened by DDST is high.

  5. Postural complexity influences development in infants born preterm with brain injury: relating perception-action theory to 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Stacey C; Izzo, Theresa; Thacker, Leroy R; Galloway, James Cole

    2014-10-01

    Perception-action theory suggests a cyclical relationship between movement and perceptual information. In this case series, changes in postural complexity were used to quantify an infant's action and perception during the development of early motor behaviors. Three infants born preterm with periventricular white matter injury were included. Longitudinal changes in postural complexity (approximate entropy of the center of pressure), head control, reaching, and global development, measured with the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, were assessed every 0.5 to 3 months during the first year of life. All 3 infants demonstrated altered postural complexity and developmental delays. However, the timing of the altered postural complexity and the type of delays varied among the infants. For infant 1, reduced postural complexity or limited action while learning to control her head in the midline position may have contributed to her motor delay. However, her ability to adapt her postural complexity eventually may have supported her ability to learn from her environment, as reflected in her relative cognitive strength. For infant 2, limited early postural complexity may have negatively affected his learning through action, resulting in cognitive delay. For infant 3, an increase in postural complexity above typical levels was associated with declining neurological status. Postural complexity is proposed as a measure of perception and action in the postural control system during the development of early behaviors. An optimal, intermediate level of postural complexity supports the use of a variety of postural control strategies and enhances the perception-action cycle. Either excessive or reduced postural complexity may contribute to developmental delays in infants born preterm with white matter injury. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  6. Psychosexual Development in Infants and Young Children: Implications for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Discusses preschoolers' interest in and wonder about sexual anatomical differences, and adults' responses to their questions. Presents Freudian stages of psychosexual development, the relationship between sexual identity and gender role, children's preference for single-sex play groups, sex stereotyped toy preferences, and the role of television…

  7. Development of fine motor skills in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hitzert, Marrit M.; Tanis, Jozien C.; Roze, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Fine motor skills are related to functioning in daily life and at school. We reviewed the status of knowledge, in preterm children, on the development of fine motor skills, the relation with gross motor skills, and risk factors for impaired fine motor skills. We searched the past 15 years in PubMed,

  8. Does a triplet birth pose a special risk for infant development? Assessing cognitive development in relation to intrauterine growth and mother-infant interaction across the first 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2005-02-01

    To examine whether a triplet birth per se poses a risk to the development of infants' cognitive competencies and to the mother-infant relationship. Twenty-three sets of triplets were matched with 23 sets of twins and 23 singleton infants (n = 138) with respect to gestational age, birth weight, and medical and demographic features. Infants with perinatal asphyxia, intraventricular hemorrhage of grade 3 or 4, periventricular leukomalacia, or central nervous system infection were excluded from the study. At 6, 12, and 24 months of age, mother-infant interaction was observed and infants' cognitive development was tested with the Bayley II test. Mothers of triplets displayed lower levels of sensitivity at 6, 12, and 24 months and infants were less socially involved at 6 and 24 months, compared with singletons and twins. Triplets scored lower than singletons and twins on the Bayley Mental Developmental Index at 6, 12, and 24 months. A weight discordance of >15% was found for 15 triplet sets (65.2%). The discordant triplets showed decreased cognitive skills at 12 and 24 months, compared with their siblings, and received the lowest scores for maternal sensitivity. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis revealed that greater medical risk at birth, multiple-birth status, lower maternal sensitivity, and reduced infant social involvement in the first 2 years were each predictive of lower cognitive outcomes at 2 years (R2 = 0.33). Triplets appear to be at higher risk for cognitive delays in the first 2 years of life, and discordant infants are at especially high risk. This delay is related in part to the difficulty of providing sensitive mothering to 3 infants at the same time. The findings may assist practitioners in guiding prenatal and postpartum parental care and management.

  9. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H

    2017-01-01

    Background. Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further...... evaluation and intervention. Objective. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0–24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. Methods. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, Psych......Info, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Results. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located...

  10. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  11. Structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the first 3 months of infant brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Dominic; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Curran, Megan; Buchthal, Steven D; Alicata, Daniel; Skranes, Jon; Johansen, Heather; Hernandez, Antonette; Yamakawa, Robyn; Kuperman, Joshua M; Dale, Anders M

    2014-10-01

    The very early postnatal period witnesses extraordinary rates of growth, but structural brain development in this period has largely not been explored longitudinally. Such assessment may be key in detecting and treating the earliest signs of neurodevelopmental disorders. To assess structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the whole brain and regions of interest in infants during the first 3 months after birth. Serial structural T1-weighted and/or T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained for 211 time points from 87 healthy term-born or term-equivalent preterm-born infants, aged 2 to 90 days, between October 5, 2007, and June 12, 2013. We segmented whole-brain and multiple subcortical regions of interest using a novel application of Bayesian-based methods. We modeled growth and rate of growth trajectories nonparametrically and assessed left-right asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms. Whole-brain volume at birth was approximately one-third of healthy elderly brain volume, and did not differ significantly between male and female infants (347 388 mm3 and 335 509 mm3, respectively, P = .12). The growth rate was approximately 1%/d, slowing to 0.4%/d by the end of the first 3 months, when the brain reached just more than half of elderly adult brain volume. Overall growth in the first 90 days was 64%. There was a significant age-by-sex effect leading to widening separation in brain sizes with age between male and female infants (with male infants growing faster than females by 200.4 mm3/d, SE = 67.2, P = .003). Longer gestation was associated with larger brain size (2215 mm3/d, SE = 284, P = 4×10-13). The expected brain size of an infant born one week earlier than average was 5% smaller than average; at 90 days it will not have caught up, being 2% smaller than average. The cerebellum grew at the highest rate, more than doubling in 90 days, and the hippocampus grew at the slowest rate, increasing by 47% in 90 days. There was left

  12. The mathematical pathogenetic factors analysis of acute inflammatory diseases development of bronchopulmonary system among infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Lezhenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. To study the factor structure and to establish the associative interaction of pathogenetic links of acute diseases development of the bronchopulmonary system in infants.Materials and methods. The examination group consisted of 59 infants (average age 13.8 ± 1.4 months sick with acute inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases. Also we tested the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(ОНD, vitamin D-binding protein, hBPI, cathelicidin LL-37, ß1-defensins, lactoferrin in blood serum with the help of immunoenzymometric analysis. Selection of prognostically important pathogenetic factors of acute bronchopulmonary disease among infants was conducted using ROC-analysis. The procedure for classifying objects was carried out using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis by the method of Centroid-based clustering. Results. Based on the results of the ROC-analysis were selected 15 potential predictors of the development of acute inflammatory diseases of the bronchopulmonary system among infants. The factor analysis made it possible to determine the 6 main components . The biggest influence in the development of the disease was made by "the anemia factor", "the factor of inflammation", "the maternal factor", "the vitamin D supply factor", "the immune factor" and "the phosphorus-calcium exchange factor” with a factor load of more than 0.6. The performed procedure of hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the initial role of immuno-inflammatory components. The conclusions. The highlighted factors allowed to define a group of parameters, that must be influenced to achieve a maximum effect in carrying out preventive and therapeutic measures. First of all, it is necessary to influence the "the anemia factor" and "the calcium exchange factor", as well as the "the vitamin D supply factor". In other words, to correct vitamin D deficiency and carry out measures aimed at preventing the development of anemia. The prevention and treatment of the pathological course of

  13. Applying Transformative Service Design to Develop Brand Community Service in Women, Children and Infants Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Shian Wan; Yi-Chang Wang; Yu-Chien Lin

    2016-01-01

    This research discussed the various theories of service design, the importance of service design methodology, and the development of transformative service design framework. In this study, transformative service design is applied while building a new brand community service for women, children and infants retailing business. The goal is to enhance the brand recognition and customer loyalty, effectively increase the brand community engagement by embedding the brand community in social network ...

  14. Early prenatal vitamin D concentrations and social-emotional development in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Devika; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Benjamin-Neelon, Sara E; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan; Daniels, Julie L

    2017-12-04

    Many pregnant women in the United States have suboptimal vitamin D, but the impact on infant development is unclear. Moreover, no pregnancy-specific vitamin D recommendations have been widely accepted. Given the ubiquitous expression of vitamin D receptors in the brain, we investigated the association between early prenatal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and children's social and emotional development in the Newborn Epigenetic Study, a prospective study of pregnancies from 2009 to 2011 in Durham, North Carolina. We measured 25(OH)D concentrations in first or second trimester plasma samples and categorized 25(OH)D concentrations into quartiles. Covariates were derived from maternal questionnaires. Mothers completed the Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Development Assessment when children were 12-24 months of age. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations between 25(OH)D and specific behavior scores, adjusted for season of blood draw, maternal age, education, parity, smoking, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, and infant gender. We investigated effect-measure modification by race/ethnicity. Of the 218 mother-infant pairs with complete data, Black mothers had much lower 25(OH)D concentrations as compared to White and Hispanic mothers. After adjustment, lower prenatal 25(OH)D was associated with slightly higher (less favorable) Internalizing scores among White children, but lower (more favorable) Internalizing scores among Black and Hispanic children. Lower prenatal 25(OH)D also appears to be associated with higher (less favorable) dysregulation scores, though only among White and Hispanic children. Though imprecise, preliminary results warrant further investigation regarding a role for prenatal vitamin D on children's early social and emotional development.

  15. Visual working memory continues to develop through adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif eIsbell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of visual working memory (VWM refers to the amount of visual information that can be maintained in mind at once, readily accessible for ongoing tasks. In healthy young adults, the capacity limit of VWM corresponds to about three simple objects. While some researchers argued that VWM capacity becomes adult-like in early years of life, others claimed that the capacity of VWM continues to develop beyond middle childhood. Here we assessed whether VWM capacity reaches adult levels in adolescence. Using an adaptation of the visual change detection task, we measured visual working memory capacity estimates in 13 year-olds, 16-year-olds, and young adults. We tested whether the capacity estimates observed in early or later years of adolescence were comparable to the estimates obtained from adults. Our results demonstrated that the capacity of VWM continues to develop throughout adolescence, not reaching adult levels even in 16 year-olds. These findings suggest that VWM capacity displays a prolonged development, similar to the protracted trajectories observed in various other aspects of cognition.

  16. Antenatal Dexamethasone Exposure in Preterm Infants Is Associated with Allergic Diseases and the Mental Development Index in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ning Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g. The status of antenatal exposure to steroids and allergic diseases were surveyed using a modified ISAAC questionnaire for subjects aged 2–5 years old. We analyzed Th1/Th2/Th17 expression of mRNA, cytokines (using the Magpix® my-system, and mental development index (MDI. Results: Among the 40 patients that were followed, the data showed that the antenatal dexamethasone exposure group (N = 24 had a significantly higher incidence of allergic diseases (75.0% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001 when compared to the non-dexamethasone exposure group (N = 16, especially with regard to asthma (41.7% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.003 and allergic rhinitis (58.3% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.013, but not atopic dermatitis. No statistical difference was observed in the mRNA expression levels of total white blood cell count between the dexamethasone exposure and non-exposure groups (p > 0.05. However, the asthma group had higher IL-5 levels (p = 0.009, and the MDI was shown to be significantly higher in the dexamethasone exposure group (90.38 ± 3.31 vs. 79.94 ± 3.58, p = 0.043 while no significant difference was found between the PDI of the two groups. Conclusions: Exposure to antenatal dexamethasone in preterm infants will increase their susceptibility to allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis. Preterm infants’ exposure to antenatal

  17. The Study on the Music Development and Rythmique for Infants: Through the Music Analysis and Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    今井, かんいち; 吉村, 夕里; 堀内, 詩子; Kan'ichi, IMAI; Yuri, YOSHIMURA; Utako, HORIUCHI; 京都文教大学臨床心理学部臨床心理学科; 京都文教大学臨床心理学部臨床心理学科; 京都府精神保健福祉総合センター; Kyoto Bunkyo University Department of Clinical Psychology Faculty of Clinical Psychology; Kyoto Bunkyo University Department of Clinical Psychology Faculty of Clinical Psychology /

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal how infant's music experience affects his/her development and personality growth. This study addresses the "cognition" or "feeling organ" issues on music development, and also discusses mainly the emotion and posture, in order to identify the music experience from the aspect of representation and self-awareness. Moreover, from based on Jung’s theory, we describe the developed meaning that infants express their own images. The effectiveness of eurhythmics...

  18. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Mothers, Preterm Infants, and Term Infants and Childhood Psychomotor and Visual Development: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulkin, Masha; Pimpin, Laura; Bellinger, David; Kranz, Sarah; Fawzi, Wafaie; Duggan, Christopher; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies link maternal seafood and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption with improved childhood cognitive development; trials show mixed results. We investigated effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on child cognitive and visual outcomes. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA supplementation in mothers or infants (age ≤2 y) and evaluated standardized measures of cognitive or visual development up to age 18 y. Of 6286 abstracts and 669 full-text articles, 38 trials with 53 intervention arms were included. Data were extracted independently in duplicate. Findings were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis across supplementation periods (maternal, preterm, term infant); we also explored subgroup analyses stratified by supplementation period. Heterogeneity was explored using I2, stratified analysis, and meta-regression. Cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental and psychomotor developmental indexes (MDI, PDI) and intelligence quotient (IQ); visual acuity was assessed by electrophysiological or behavioral measures. The 38 trials (mothers: n = 13; preterm infants: n = 7; term infants: n = 18) included 5541 participants. When we explored effects during different periods of supplementation, n-3 PUFA supplementation improved MDI in preterm infants (3.33; 95% CI: 0.72, 5.93), without statistically significant effects on PDI or IQ in different intervention period subgroups. Visual acuity [measured as the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR)] was improved by supplementation in preterm (-0.08 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.01 logMAR) and term infants (-0.08 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.05 logMAR), with a nonsignificant trend for maternal supplementation (-0.02 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.00 logMAR). In main analyses pooling all supplementation periods, compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA supplementation improved MDI (n = 21 trials; 0.91; 95% CI

  19. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  20. Scientific developments of liquid crystal-based optical memory: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Chandran, Achu; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2017-01-01

    The memory behavior in liquid crystals (LCs), although rarely observed, has made very significant headway over the past three decades since their discovery in nematic type LCs. It has gone from a mere scientific curiosity to application in variety of commodities. The memory element formed by numerous LCs have been protected by patents, and some commercialized, and used as compensation to non-volatile memory devices, and as memory in personal computers and digital cameras. They also have the low cost, large area, high speed, and high density memory needed for advanced computers and digital electronics. Short and long duration memory behavior for industrial applications have been obtained from several LC materials, and an LC memory with interesting features and applications has been demonstrated using numerous LCs. However, considerable challenges still exist in searching for highly efficient, stable, and long-lifespan materials and methods so that the development of useful memory devices is possible. This review focuses on the scientific and technological approach of fascinating applications of LC-based memory. We address the introduction, development status, novel design and engineering principles, and parameters of LC memory. We also address how the amalgamation of LCs could bring significant change/improvement in memory effects in the emerging field of nanotechnology, and the application of LC memory as the active component for futuristic and interesting memory devices.

  1. The Development of Working Memory from Kindergarten to First Grade in Children with Different Decoding Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of working memory ability (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components) from the end of kindergarten to the end of first grade--the first year reading is taught in school--and the relationship between working memory abilities in kindergarten and first grade and reading skills in first…

  2. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  3. Trichotomous Processes in Early Memory Development, Aging, and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Unified Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Howe, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most extensively investigated topics in the adult memory literature, dual memory processes, has had virtually no impact on the study of early memory development. The authors remove the key obstacles to such research by formulating a trichotomous theory of recall that combines the traditional dual processes of recollection and…

  4. Episodic Memory Development: Theory of Mind Is Part of Re-Experiencing Experienced Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Josef; Kloo, Daniela; Gornik, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments with 3 1/2- to 6 1/2-year-old children showed that theory-of-mind development is associated with the growth of episodic memory. Episodic memory was assessed by manipulating informational conditions such that they permit or prevent the formation of episodic memories in terms of re-experiencing the recalled event. Only experienced…

  5. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

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    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  6. Carboxyhemoglobin Formation in Preterm Infants Is Related to the Subsequent Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuriki, Shuko; Okuno, Takashi; Ohta, Genrei; Ohshima, Yusei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels as a biomarker to predict the development and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Twenty-five infants born at <33 wk of gestational age or with a birth weight of <1,500 g were enrolled. CO-Hb levels were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8, 12 and 15, 19 and 22, and 26 and 29. Urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein products, and Nε-(hexanoyl) lysine were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8 and 26 and 29. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the biomarkers' predictive values. Compared with infants in the no-or-mild BPD group, infants with moderate-to-severe BPD exhibited higher CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period and higher 8-OHdG levels between postnatal days 5 and 8. Using ROC analysis to predict the development of moderate-to-severe BPD, the area under the curve (AUC) for CO-Hb levels between postnatal days 5 and 8 was higher than AUCs for the urinary markers. CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period may serve as a practical marker for evaluating oxidative stress and the severity of subsequently developing BPD.

  7. Carboxyhemoglobin Formation in Preterm Infants Is Related to the Subsequent Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuko Tokuriki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb levels as a biomarker to predict the development and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Methods. Twenty-five infants born at <33 wk of gestational age or with a birth weight of <1,500 g were enrolled. CO-Hb levels were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8, 12 and 15, 19 and 22, and 26 and 29. Urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, advanced oxidation protein products, and Nε-(hexanoyl lysine were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8 and 26 and 29. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to compare the biomarkers’ predictive values. Results. Compared with infants in the no-or-mild BPD group, infants with moderate-to-severe BPD exhibited higher CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period and higher 8-OHdG levels between postnatal days 5 and 8. Using ROC analysis to predict the development of moderate-to-severe BPD, the area under the curve (AUC for CO-Hb levels between postnatal days 5 and 8 was higher than AUCs for the urinary markers. Conclusions. CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period may serve as a practical marker for evaluating oxidative stress and the severity of subsequently developing BPD.

  8. Differential effects of intrauterine growth restriction on brain structure and development in preterm infants: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Falcón, Carles; Sanz-Cortés, Magdalena; Figueras, Francesc; Bargallo, Núria; Crispi, Fátima; Eixarch, Elisenda; Arranz, Angela; Botet, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard

    2011-03-25

    Previous evidence suggests that preterm newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have specific neurostructural and neurodevelopmental anomalies, but it is unknown whether these effects persist in early childhood. We studied a sample of 18 preterm IUGR, 15 preterm AGA - born between 26 and 34 weeks of gestational age (GA) - and 15 healthy born-term infants. Infants were scanned at 12 months corrected age (CA), in a 3T scanner, without sedation. Analyses were made by automated lobar volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed in all subjects at 18 months CA with the Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. IUGR infants had reduced relative volumes for the insular and temporal lobes. According to VBM, IUGR infants had bilateral reduced gray matter (GM) in the temporal, parietal, frontal, and insular regions compared with the other groups. IUGR infants had increased white matter (WM) in temporal regions compared to the AGA group and in frontal, parietal, occipital, and insular regions compared to the term group. They also showed decreased WM in the cerebellum and a non-significant trend in the hippocampus compared to term infants. IUGR infants had reduced neurodevelopmental scores, which were positively correlated with GM in various regions. These data suggest that the IUGR induces a distinct brain pattern of structural changes that persist at 1 year of life and are associated with specific developmental difficulties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  10. Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in ca...

  11. Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L

    2013-12-01

    Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in cases involving adult recollections of childhood experiences.

  12. Development in the Organization of Episodic Memories in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Yan eChen; Helena Margaret McAnally; Elaine eReese

    2013-01-01

    The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use “lifetime periods” to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story – an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take a...

  13. Neural Changes Underlying the Development of Episodic Memory During Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is central to the human experience. In typically developing children, episodic memory improves rapidly during middle childhood. While the developmental cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory remains largely uncharted, recent research has begun to provide important insights. It has long been assumed that hippocampus-dependent binding mechanisms are in place by early childhood, and that improvements in episodic memory observed during middle childhood result from the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex. We revisit the notion that binding mechanisms are age-invariant, and propose that changes in the hippocampus and its projections to cortical regions also contribute to the development of episodic memory. We further review the role of developmental changes in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices in this development. Finally, we discuss changes in white matter tracts connecting brain regions that are critical for episodic memory. Overall, we argue that changes in episodic memory emerge from the concerted effort of a network of relevant brain structures. PMID:22770728

  14. Soluble L-selectin concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from infants who develop chronic lung disease of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, S; Silverman, M; Shaw, R; Klein, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To explore the changes in neutrophil adhesion molecule expression and release into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) obtained from infants who developed chronic lung disease (CLD).
METHODS—BAL fluid was obtained from 37 infants: 18 (median gestation 26 weeks, birthweight 835 g) who developed CLD, 12 (29 weeks, 1345 g) with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and seven control infants (33 weeks, 2190g).
RESULTS—Soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) in BAL fluid from the CLD and no...

  15. The Relations between Early Working Memory Abilities and Later Developing Reading Skills: A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Einat; Bar-Kochva, Irit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of early working-memory abilities (phonological and visual-spatial short-term memory [STM] and complex memory and episodic buffer memory) and later developing reading skills. Sixty Hebrew-speaking children were followed from kindergarten through Grade 5. Working memory was tested in kindergarten and reading in…

  16. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

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    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  17. Infants' development of object permanence: a refined methodology and new evidence of Piaget's hypothesized ordinality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J A; Hill, K T; Cohen, L B

    1975-03-01

    To investigate Piaget's theory of object concept development, a series of 6 tasks was administered in a combined longitudinal/cross-sectional design incorporating a number of methodological controls. The tasks spanned the entire sensorimotor period and included single versus sequential displacements combined with visible or invisible hidings. 36 infants from 5 to 32 months of age at initial testing were drawn equally from day-care and home settings. All infants received the 6 tasks during each of 3 testing sessions over a 6-month period. Clear evidence was obtained for task ordinality as proposed by Piaget, with ordinality coefficients ranging from .71 to .82 for the 3 testing sessions. Performance changes across the 3 sessions were also ordinal in 80% of the cases. Expected age, task, and session effects and accompanying interactions were also obtained.

  18. [Quantitative analysis method based on fractal theory for medical imaging of normal brain development in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heheng; Luo, Liangping; Huang, Li

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to study the fractal spectrum of the cerebral computerized tomography in 158 normal infants of different age groups, based on the calculation of chaotic theory. The distribution range of neonatal period was 1.88-1.90 (mean = 1.8913 +/- 0.0064); It reached a stable condition at the level of 1.89-1.90 during 1-12 months old (mean = 1.8927 +/- 0.0045); The normal range of 1-2 years old infants was 1.86-1.90 (mean = 1.8863 +/- 4 0.0085); It kept the invariance of the quantitative value among 1.88-1.91(mean = 1.8958 +/- 0.0083) during 2-3 years of age. ANOVA indicated there's no significant difference between boys and girls (F = 0.243, P > 0.05), but the difference of age groups was significant (F = 8.947, P development.

  19. Development of age-specific Japanese physical phantoms for dose evaluation in infant CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C.; Fujii, K.; Imai, K.; Ikeda, M.; Akahane, K.; Obara, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Narai, K.; Katsu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary to the previous development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms, the authors designed Japanese torso phantoms for dose assessment in infant computed tomography (CT) examinations and completed a Japanese 3-y-old head-torso phantom. For design of age-specific torso phantoms (0, 0.5, 1 and 3 y old), anatomical structures were measured from CT images of Japanese infant patients. From the CT morphometry, it was found that rib cages of Japanese infants were smaller than those in Europeans and Americans. Radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters were used for dose measurement of a 3-y-old head-torso phantom. To examine the validity of the developed phantom, organ and effective doses by the in-phantom dosimetry system were compared with simulation values in a web-based CT dose calculation system (WAZA-ARI). The differences in doses between the two systems were <20 % at the doses of organs within scan regions and effective doses in head, chest and abdomino-pelvic CT examinations. (authors)

  20. Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A S; O'Day, D H; Kraemer, G W

    1999-05-01

    The optimal coordination between the new mammalian mother and her young involves a sequence of behaviors on the part of each that ensures that the young will be adequately cared for and show healthy physical, emotional, and social development. This coordination is accomplished by each member of the relationship having the appropriate sensitivities and responses to cues that characterize the other. Among many mammalian species, new mothers are attracted to their infants' odors and some recognize them based on their odors; they also respond to their infants' vocalizations, thermal properties, and touch qualities. Together these cues ensure that the mother will nurse and protect the offspring and provide them with the appropriate physical and stimulus environment in which to develop. The young, in turn, orient to the mother and show a suckling pattern that reflects a sensitivity to the mothers odor, touch, and temperature characteristics. This article explores the sensory, endocrine, and neural mechanisms that underlie this early mother-young relationship, from the perspective of, first, the mother and, then, the young, noting the parallels between them. It emphasizes the importance of learning and plasticity in the formation and maintenance of the mother-young relationship and mediation of these experience effects by the brain and its neurochemistry. Finally, it discusses ways in which the infants' early experiences with their mothers (or the absence of these experiences) may come to influence how they respond to their own infants when they grow up, providing a psychobiological mechanism for the inter-generational transmission of parenting styles and responsiveness.

  1. A model for the development of mothers' perceived vulnerability of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Lilo, Emily; Leibovitz, Ann; St John, Nick; Shaw, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Some mothers of preterm infants continue to view them as vulnerable after their health has improved. These exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability lead to poor parent-child interactions and, subsequently, to adverse child outcomes. However, there is no theoretical model to explain why these exaggerated perceptions develop in only some mother-child dyads. Data for this study come from a randomized trial of an intervention to reduce distress in mothers of preterm infants. A total of 105 mothers older than 18 years of infants aged 25-34 weeks, weighing >600 g and with clinically significant anxiety, depression, or trauma symptoms, were recruited and randomized. Women were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at 6 months after birth. The outcome for these analyses was perceptions of infant vulnerability as measured by the Vulnerable Baby Scale (VBS) at 6 months after birth. A theoretical model developed from the extant literature was tested using the MacArthur Mediator-Moderator Approach. A dysfunctional coping style, high depression, anxiety, or trauma symptoms in response to the preterm birth, and low social support were related to 6-month VBS scores. Maternal response to trauma was directly related to VBS, and an important precursor of maternal response to trauma was a dysfunctional coping style. This model suggests that maternal responses to trauma are critical in the formation of exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability as are dysfunctional coping styles and low social support. Women with these characteristics should be targeted for intervention to prevent poor parenting practices that result from exaggerated perceptions of vulnerability.

  2. Desenvolvimento cerebral em recém-nascidos prematuros Cerebral development in preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peterson Zomignani

    2009-06-01

    2007 along with textbooks whose content was relevant. DATA SYNTHESIS: The development of preterm infants differs from term neonates. Studies have shown that children born prematurely have anatomical changes related to cognitive impairments in the central nervous system. Some regions seem vulnerable, such as white and gray matter, corpus callosum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, when evaluated by volumetric neuroimaging techniques. Thus, one would expect some functional and/or learning impairment in children, adolescents and adults born prematurely. When evaluated in late childhood and adolescence, they show deficits in the intelligence quotient, memory, calculations skills and in the overall cognitive function. Motor coordination, attention, planning and association deficits are also reported in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity can lead to structural and anatomical changes of the brain due to interruption of the prenatal development. These changes can cause functional deficits and children born prematurely are more vulnerable to cognitive and motor problems as well as its effects on their daily activities, even in adolescence and adulthood.

  3. Maternal avoidance, anxiety cognitions and interactive behaviour predicts infant development at 12 months in the context of anxiety disorders in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, C; Van Den Bergh, B; Tietz, A; Müller, M; Ropeter, A; Zipser, B; Pauen, S

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between anxiety disorders in the postpartum period and cognitive as well as language development in infancy. This longitudinal study investigated whether anxiety disorder in the postpartum period is linked to infant development at twelve months. A closer look was also taken at a possible link between maternal interaction and infant development. Subjects were videotaped during a Face-to-Face-Still-Face interaction with their infant (M = 4.0 months). Specific maternal anxiety symptoms were measured by self-report questionnaires (Anxiety Cognition Questionnaire (ACQ), Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ), Mobility Inventory (MI)) to check for a connection with infant development. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III) were used to assess infant language and cognitive development at one year of age. n = 34 mothers with anxiety disorder (SCID-I; DSM-IV) and n = 47 healthy mothers with their infant. Infant performance on Bayley-III language and cognitive scales. Infants of mothers with anxiety disorder yielded significantly lower language scores than infants of controls. No significant group differences were found regarding infant cognitive development. Exploratory analyses revealed the vital role of "maternal avoidance accompanied" in infant language and cognitive development. Maternal neutral engagement, which lacks positive affect and vocalisations, turned out as the strongest negative predictor of cognitive development. Maternal anxiety cognitions and joint activity in mother-infant interaction were the strongest predictors of infant language performance. Results underline the importance to also consider the interaction behaviour of women with anxiety disorders to prevent adverse infant development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, to Assess Developmental Outcome in Infants and Young Children in an Urban Setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, Daynia E; Ramdin, Tanusha; Rakotsoane, David; Agaba, Faustine; Davies, Victor A; Chirwa, Tobias; Cooper, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a tool developed in a Western setting. To evaluate the development of a group of inner city children in South Africa with no neonatal risk factors using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III), to determine an appropriate cut-off to define developmental delay, and to establish variation in scores done in the same children before and after one year of age. Cohort follow-up study. 74 children had at least one Bayley III assessment at a mean age of 19.4 months (95% CI 18.4 to 20.4). The mean composite cognitive score was 92.2 (95% CI 89.4 to 95.0), the mean composite language score was 94.8 (95% CI 92.5 to 97.1), and mean composite motor score was 98.8 (95% CI 96.8 to 101.0). No child had developmental delay using a cut-off score of 70. In paired assessments above and below one year of age, the cognitive score remained unchanged, the language score decreased significantly ( p = 0.001), and motor score increased significantly ( p = 0.004) between the two ages. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a suitable tool for assessing development in urban children in southern Africa.

  5. Effect of zinc intake on mental and motor development in infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; Doreste Alonso, Jorge; Skinner, Anna L; Medina, Marisol W; Lowe, Nicola M; Hall Moran, Victoria; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on mental and motor development in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 5 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on mental and motor development was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Indices of mental and motor development assessed were the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). Additionally we carried out a sensitivity analysis. The pooled β was -0.01 (95 %CI -0.02, 0) for MDI and 0 (95 %CI -0.03, 0.02) for PDI, with a substantial heterogeneity in both analyses. When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn supplementation on MDI changed depending on the dose of supplementation. Regarding PDI, there was a differential effect of Zn intake depending on intervention duration, dose of supplementation, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Zn supplementation showed a negative, weak and significant effect on PDI score in those studies with a length of 4 to 20 weeks (β= -0.05; CI 95 % -0.06 to -0.04). In conclusion, no association was found between Zn intake and mental and motor development in infants. Further standardized research is urgently needed to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant mental and motor development, particularly in Europe.

  6. Titanium-nickel shape memory alloys development in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S. K.; Lin, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In Taiwan, many groups engage in the development of TiNi SMAs. The two-stage martensitic transformations of B2 R-phase B19' and B2 B19 B19' have been clarified for both TiNi binary and ternary alloys. The deformation behaviours have been investigated by cold-rolling, hot-rolling and wire drawing. Both shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity can be improved by some thermo-mechanical treatments. The damping characteristics of TiNi and TiNiX SMAs have also been systematically studied. Both B19'/B19 martensite (M) and R-phase (R) have high damping capacities due to stress induced movement of twin boundaries. Meanwhile, the addition of third elements, Fe and Cu, can largely increase the damping capacity. Recently, some high temperature shape memory alloys of TiNiPd and TiNiAu SMAs and thin films of TiNi and TiNiX alloys have also been intensively studied in Taiwan. All these potential investigations on the TiNi SMAs in Taiwan have attracted much attention and their important characteristics will be applied widely in the near future. (author)

  7. Development and implementation of a multi-centre information system for paediatric and infant critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybloom, Bruce; Champion, Zahra

    2003-12-01

    With no UK collective information system, a need existed to establish an integrated information system for public and private sector hospitals providing paediatric and infant critical care services. A lack of information in the past made it difficult for those procuring, providing and monitoring services to make informed, evidence-based decisions using reliable integrated data. To develop and implement a collective multi-purpose information system for paediatric and infant critical care that was easily adaptable to any UK infant or paediatric critical care setting. Information outputs had to fulfil policy requirements and meet the needs of stakeholders. Two minimum datasets, corresponding data definitions, survey forms and a user database were developed through a process of consultation by utilising an information partnership. Design, content, development and implementation issues were identified, discussed and resolved through a co-ordinated collaborative process. Data collection was implemented in all London and Brighton National Health Service (NHS) general and cardio-thoracic paediatric intensive care (PIC) units, several private PIC units and one NHS tertiary referral neonatal unit (NNU) 24 months from project start. The development of universal integrated information systems for defined settings of care is achievable within reasonable timeframes; however, successful development and implementation requires working within an information partnership to maximise co-ordination, co-operation and collaboration. Those collecting and using data must be identified and involved in all aspects of development from project start. Financial and manpower resources must be well planned. Datasets should be as small as possible in order to make the collection of complete and valid data realistically achievable. When considering service-based information needs, considerable thought should be given to a multi-purpose; multi-use approach based on the most refined minimum dataset

  8. Dispersible formulation of artemether/lumefantrine: specifically developed for infants and young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagara Issaka

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infants and children under five years of age are the most vulnerable to malaria with over 1,700 deaths per day from malaria in this group. However, until recently, there were no WHO-endorsed paediatric anti-malarial formulations available. Artemisinin-based combination therapy is the current standard of care for patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa. Artemether/lumefantrine (AL meets WHO pre-qualification criteria for efficacy, safety and quality. Coartem®, a fixed dose combination of artemether and lumefantrine, has consistently achieved cure rates of >95% in clinical trials. However, AL tablets are inconvenient for caregivers to administer as they need to be crushed and mixed with water or food for infants and young children. Further, in common with other anti-malarials, they have a bitter taste, which may result in children spitting the medicine out and not receiving the full therapeutic dose. There was a clear unmet medical need for a formulation of AL specifically designed for children. Ahead of a call from WHO for child-friendly medicines, Novartis, working in partnership with Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV, started the development of a new formulation of AL for infants and young children: Coartem® Dispersible. The excellent efficacy, safety and tolerability already demonstrated by AL tablets were confirmed with dispersible AL in a large trial comparing the crushed tablets with dispersible tablets in 899 African children with falciparum malaria. In the evaluable population, 28-day PCR-corrected cure rates of >96% were achieved. Further, its sweet taste means that it is palatable for children, and the dispersible formulation makes it easier for caregivers to administer than bitter crushed tablets. Easing administration may foster compliance, hence improving therapeutic outcomes in infants and young children and helping to preserve the efficacy of ACT.

  9. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  10. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  11. Plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants following a primary schedule of CRM 197-conjugated serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Dominic F; Snape, Matthew D; Perrett, Kirsten P; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Lewis, Susan; Blanchard Rohner, Geraldine; Jones, Meryl; Yu, Ly-Mee; Pollard, Andrew J

    2009-05-01

    The induction of persistent protective levels of pathogen-specific antibody is an important goal of immunization against childhood infections. However, antibody persistence is poor after immunization in infancy versus later in life. Serogroup C meningococci (MenC) are an important cause of bacteraemia and meningitis in children. The use of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against MenC has been associated with a significant decline in the incidence of invasive disease. However, vaccine effectiveness is negligible by more than 1 year after a three-dose priming series in infancy and corresponds to a rapid decline in antibody following an initial immune response. The cellular mechanisms underlying the generation of persistent antibody in this age group are unclear. An essential prelude to larger studies of peripheral blood B cells is an understanding of B-cell kinetics following immunization. We measured MenC- and diphtheria-specific plasma and memory B-cell kinetics in infants receiving a CRM(197) (cross-reactive material; mutant diphtheria toxoid)-conjugated MenC vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Plasma cell responses were more delayed after the first dose when compared with the rapid appearance of plasma cells after the third dose. Memory B cells were detectable at all time-points following the third dose as opposed to the low frequency seen following a first dose. This study provides data on B-cell kinetics following a primary schedule of immunization in young infants upon which to base further studies of the underlying cellular mechanism of humoral immunity.

  12. Infant feeding and mental and motor development at 18 months of age in first born singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florey, C D; Leech, A M; Blackhall, A

    1995-01-01

    To determine the relationship between type of infant feeding and mental and psychomotor development at age 18 months. A follow-up study of children born to primigravidae living in Dundee and booked into antenatal clinics in the City of Dundee (Local Authority District) from 1 May 1985 to 30 April 1986. The study population was 846 first born singletons, of whom 592 attended for developmental assessment at age 18 months. The main outcome measures were the Bayley Scales of Infant Mental and Motor Development. Higher mental development was significantly related to breast feeding on discharge from hospital and according to the health visitors' notes at about 2 weeks after discharge after allowing for partner's social class, mother's education, height, alcohol and cigarette consumption; placental weight and the child's sex, birth weight and gestational age at birth. After adjustment for statistically significant variables, the difference in Bayley mental development index between breast and bottle fed infants was between 3.7 and 5.7 units depending on the source of feeding data. No differences were found for psychomotor development or behaviour. The study provides further evidence of a robust statistical association between type of feeding and child intelligence. However, the literature is replete with suggestions for potential confounding variables which offer alternative causal explanations. To unravel what is an important clinical and public health question, further research should concentrate on randomized trials of supplemented formula feeds for children of mothers opting for bottle feeding and on epidemiological studies designed to disentangle the relation between method of feeding, parental intelligence and social environment.

  13. Auditory, visual and auditory-visual memory and sequencing performance in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2017-09-01

    The study evaluated whether there exists a difference/relation in the way four different memory skills (memory score, sequencing score, memory span, & sequencing span) are processed through the auditory modality, visual modality and combined modalities. Four memory skills were evaluated on 30 typically developing children aged 7 years and 8 years across three modality conditions (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual). Analogous auditory and visual stimuli were presented to evaluate the three modality conditions across the two age groups. The children obtained significantly higher memory scores through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Likewise, their memory scores were significantly higher through the auditory-visual modality condition than through the visual modality. However, no effect of modality was observed on the sequencing scores as well as for the memory and the sequencing span. A good agreement was seen between the different modality conditions that were studied (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual) for the different memory skills measures (memory scores, sequencing scores, memory span, & sequencing span). A relatively lower agreement was noted only between the auditory and visual modalities as well as between the visual and auditory-visual modality conditions for the memory scores, measured using Bland-Altman plots. The study highlights the efficacy of using analogous stimuli to assess the auditory, visual as well as combined modalities. The study supports the view that the performance of children on different memory skills was better through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Tromso Infant Faces Database (TIF): Development, Validation and Application to Assess Parenting Experience on Clarity and Intensity Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maack, Jana K; Bohne, Agnes; Nordahl, Dag; Livsdatter, Lina; Lindahl, Åsne A W; Øvervoll, Morten; Wang, Catharina E A; Pfuhl, Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Newborns and infants are highly depending on successfully communicating their needs; e.g., through crying and facial expressions. Although there is a growing interest in the mechanisms of and possible influences on the recognition of facial expressions in infants, heretofore there exists no validated database of emotional infant faces. In the present article we introduce a standardized and freely available face database containing Caucasian infant face images from 18 infants 4 to 12 months old. The development and validation of the Tromsø Infant Faces (TIF) database is presented in Study 1. Over 700 adults categorized the photographs by seven emotion categories (happy, sad, disgusted, angry, afraid, surprised, neutral) and rated intensity, clarity and their valance. In order to examine the relevance of TIF, we then present its first application in Study 2, investigating differences in emotion recognition across different stages of parenthood. We found a small gender effect in terms of women giving higher intensity and clarity ratings than men. Moreover, parents of young children rated the images as clearer than all the other groups, and parents rated "neutral" expressions as more clearly and more intense. Our results suggest that caretaking experience provides an implicit advantage in the processing of emotional expressions in infant faces, especially for the more difficult, ambiguous expressions.

  15. Infant Development and Pre- and Post-partum Depression in Rural South African HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Matseke, Gladys; Cook, Ryan; Bellinger, Seanna; Weiss, Stephen M; Alcaide, Maria L; Peltzer, Karl; Patton, Doyle; Lopez, Maria; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-10-06

    HIV-exposed infants born to depressed women may be at risk for adverse developmental outcomes. Half of HIV-infected women in rural South Africa (SA) may suffer from pregnancy-related depression. This pilot study examined the impact of depression in HIV-infected women in rural SA on infant development. Mother-infant dyads (N = 69) were recruited in rural SA. Demographics, HIV disclosure, depression, male involvement, and alcohol use at baseline (18.35 ± 5.47 weeks gestation) were assessed. Male involvement, depression, infant HIV serostatus and development were assessed 12 months postnatally. Half of the women (age = 29 ± 5) reported depression prenatally and one-third reported depression postnatally. In multivariable logistic regression, not cohabiting with their male partner, nondisclosure of HIV status, and postnatal depression predicted cognitive delay; decreased prenatal male involvement predicted delayed gross motor development (ps depression among HIV-infected women and infant development and increasing male involvement may reduce negative developmental outcomes among HIV-exposed or infected infants.

  16. The development of a screening tool to evaluate gross motor function in HIV-infected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Nicole; Potterton, Joanne; Stewart, Aimee; Becker, Piet

    2011-12-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay or HIV encephalopathy is a stage four disease indicator for paediatric HIV/AIDS according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), and may be used as a criterion for initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, the only means of prevention of this condition is early initiation of HAART. Studies which have been carried out in South African clinics have revealed the high prevalence of this condition. In developing countries, commencement of HAART is based on declining virologic and immunologic status, as standardised neurodevelopmental assessment tools are not widely available. A standardised developmental screening tool which is suitable for use in a developing country is therefore necessary in order to screen for neurodevelopmental delay to allow for further assessment and referral to rehabilitation services, as well as providing an additional assessment criterion for initiation of HAART. The infant gross motor screening test (IGMST) was developed for this purpose. The standardisation sample of the IGMST consisted of 112 HIV-infected infants between six and 18 months of age. Item selection for the IGMST was based on the Gross Motor scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID)-III. Content validity was assessed by a panel of experts using a nominal group technique (NGT; agreement >80%). Concurrent validity (n=60) of the IGMST was carried out against the BSID-III, and agreement was excellent (K=0.85). The diagnostic properties of the IGMST were evaluated and revealed: sensitivity 97.4%, specificity 85.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 92.7%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 94.7%. Reliability testing (n=30) revealed inter-rater reliability as: r=1, test-retest reliability: r=0.98 and intra-rater reliability: r=0.98. The results indicate that the statistical properties of the IGMST are excellent, and the tool is suitable for use within the paediatric HIV setting.

  17. In-utero exposure to DDT and cognitive development among infants and school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Brock, John W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for control of infectious diseases in several countries. In-utero exposure to DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been associated with developmental and cognitive impairment among children. We examined this association in an historical cohort in which the level of exposure was greater than in previous studies. Methods The association of in-utero DDT and DDE exposure with infant and child neurodevelopment was examined in approximately 1100 subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective birth cohort enrolling pregnant women from 12 study centers in the U.S. from 1959 to 1965. Maternal DDT and DDE concentrations were measured in archived serum specimens. Infant mental and motor development was assessed at age 8 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and child cognitive development was assessed at age 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Although levels of both DDT and DDE were relatively high in this population (median DDT concentration, 8.9 µg/L; DDE, 24.5 µg/L), neither was related to Mental or Psychomotor Development scores on the Bayley Scales or to Full-Scale IQ at 7 years of age. Categorical analyses showed no evidence of dose-response for either maternal DDT or DDE, and estimates of the association between continuous measures of exposure and neurodevelopment were indistinguishable from 0. Conclusions Adverse associations were not observed between maternal serum DDT and DDE concentrations and offspring neurodevelopment at 8 months or 7 years of age in this cohort. PMID:22766752

  18. Prenatal and infant paracetamol exposure and development of asthma: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Karlstad, Øystein; Håberg, Siri E; Nafstad, Per; Davey Smith, George; Nystad, Wenche

    2016-04-01

    Paracetamol exposure has been positively associated with asthma development. The relative importance of prenatal vs infant exposure and confounding by indication remains elusive. We examined the association of prenatal and infant (first 6 months) paracetamol exposure with asthma development while addressing confounding by indication. We used information from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 53169 children for evaluation of current asthma at 3 years, 25394 for current asthma at 7 years and 45607 for dispensed asthma medications at 7 years in the Norwegian Prescription Database. We calculated adjusted relative risks (adj. RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using log-binomial regression. There were independent modest associations between asthma at 3 years with prenatal paracetamol exposure (adj. RR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.25) and use of paracetamol during infancy (adj. RR 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.45). The results were consistent for asthma at 7 years. The associations with prenatal paracetamol exposure were seen for different indications (pain, respiratory tract infections/influenza and fever). Maternal pain during pregnancy was the only indication that showed an association both with and without paracetamol use. Maternal paracetamol use outside pregnancy and paternal paracetamol use were not associated with asthma development. In a secondary analysis, prenatal ibuprofen exposure was positively associated with asthma at 3 years but not asthma at 7 years. This study provides evidence that prenatal and infant paracetamol exposure have independent associations with asthma development. Our findings suggest that the associations could not be fully explained by confounding by indication. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. The malleability of infant motor development: cautions based on studies of child-rearing practices in Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, H C

    1978-11-01

    Tests with the Bayley Motor Scale were given to 288 infants, equally divided by sex, in Yucatan, Mexico. These were 2 to 54 weeks in age and came from three sociocultural levels. In comparison to USA infants, early acceleration of motor development was followed by a marked downward trend. This phenomenon, if observed in a single child, may indicate progressive neurologic disease. Child-rearing practices would appear to account for the difference in pattern of test performance.

  20. The Dynamics of the Human Infant Gut Microbiome in Development and in Progression Toward Type1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Colonization of the fetal and infant gut microbiome results in dynamic changes in diversity, which can impact disease...susceptibility. To examine the relationship between human gut microbiome dynamics throughout infancy and type 1 diabetes (T1D), we examined a cohort of 33...unlimited. The dynamics of the human infant gut microbiome in development and in progression toward type 1 diabetes. The views, opinions and/or

  1. Analysis of risk factors for hydrocephalus development in newborn infants with germinal matrix hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L; Ros, B; Arráez, M A; Ríus, F; González, L; Martín, A; Carrasco, A; Segura, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of hydrocephalus in newborn infants with germinal matrix (GM) hemorrhage. The study comprised 271 patients admitted to Carlos Haya University Hospital in Malaga with GM hemorrhage. The following data were recorded: gestational age, gender, twin birth, head circumference at birth, weight at birth, and Papile grade. Severe obstetrical (abruption, chorioamnionitis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, tocolytic treatment) and neonatal disorders (respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection, coagulation disorder, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis) were also recorded. Symptomatic hydrocephalus was diagnosed in the event of a progressive increase in head circumference and ventricular indices requiring shunting. Of the 271 patients, 139 (51%) developed posthemorrhagic ventriculomegaly; 47 patients (17%) developed symptomatic hydrocephalus and needed shunt implantation. We found a significant relationship between the development of symptomatic hydrocephalus and Papile grade, lower gestational age, lower birth weight, twin birth, and neonatal infection. Awareness of risk factors for the development of hydrocephalus in newborn infants with GM hemorrhage should be emphasized in order to enable an early diagnosis of ventriculomegaly and symptomatic hydrocephalus and thus make a correct therapeutic decision.

  2. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Trolle, Ellen; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Additionally, very little is known about the effect of diet during the complementary feeding period, which is potentially important for gut microbiota development. Here, the gut microbiotas of two different cohorts of infants, born either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal obesity did not influence microbial diversity or specific taxon abundances during the complementary feeding period. Across cohorts, breastfeeding duration and composition of the complementary diet were found to be the major determinants of gut microbiota development. In both cohorts, gut microbial composition and alpha diversity were thus strongly affected by introduction of family foods with high protein and fiber contents. Specifically, intake of meats, cheeses, and Danish rye bread, rich in protein and fiber, were associated with increased alpha diversity. Our results reveal that the transition from early infant feeding to family foods is a major determinant for gut microbiota development. IMPORTANCE The potential influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota may occur either through vertically transmitted microbes or through the dietary habits of the family. Recent studies have suggested that the heritability of obesity may partly be caused by the transmission of "obesogenic" gut microbes. However, the findings presented here suggest that maternal obesity per

  3. Association of maternal depression with dietary intake, growth, and development of preterm infants: a cohort study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan; Sun, Jing

    2017-11-27

    This study aimed to explore the association of maternal depression with nutrient intake, growth, and development of preterm infants. A cohort study of 201 infants was conducted in Beijing. Based on the gestational age of an infant and status of the mother, the infants were divided into four groups: non-depression-fullterm (64), non-depression-preterm (70), depression-fullterm (36), and depression-preterm (31). Data on sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional intake, growth, and developmental status of children at 8 months (corrected ages) were collected using a quantitative questionnaire, a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, anthropometric measurements, and the Bayley-III scale. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effects of maternal depression and preterm birth on infant growth and development. The energy, protein, and carbohydrate intake in the depression group was lower than the recommended amounts. The depression preterm groups indicated the lowest Z-scores for length and weight and the lowest Bayley-III scores. Preterm infants of depressed mothers are at high risks of poor growth and development delay.

  4. The importance of a forensics investigation of sudden infant death syndrome: recommendations for developing, low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Koehler

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sudden infant deaths syndrome (SIDS, the sudden and unexpected death of a normal and healthy infant, has remained a medical and forensic mystery. Despite years of research all attempts to ascertain the exact cause and manner of death have failed. The information collected during the course of the comprehensive investigation by the various investigation agencies and analysis of the data has not been in vain. The epidemiological, demographic, and pathological data have identified distinctive features and risk factors associated with infants that died from SIDS. Epidemiological data has provided the unique characteristics of infants that died of SIDS that differentiates them from non-SIDS infants. Analysis of information from the death scene investigation has identified key risk factor behaviour associated with SIDS, namely the prone sleeping position. Pathological examination of the internal organs, specifically the brain, has shown some differences between SIDS and non-SIDS infants. However, to gain a complete picture of SIDS data, all countries around the world must provide information, even basic information, to understand this syndrome better. Developing countries must understand their role and importance in developing plans to investigate, collect, and disseminate SIDS data to the rest of the world. This paper provides general guidelines for the investigation of SIDS in developing countries.

  5. Effects of prenatal exposure to atypical antipsychotics on postnatal development and growth of infants: a case-controlled, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mei; Gao, Keming; Ding, Yiling; Ou, Jianjun; Calabrese, Joseph R; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the developmental effects of atypical antipsychotics on infants who were born to mothers taking an atypical antipsychotic throughout pregnancy. The developmental progress of 76 infants who experienced fetal exposure to atypical antipsychotics was compared to that of 76 matched control infants who had no fetal exposure to any antipsychotics. Planned assessment included Apgar score, body weight, height, and the cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behavior composite scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (BSID-III). Student's t test and Chi-square analysis were used as appropriate. Repeated measurements were evaluated by analysis of covariance. At 2 months of age, the mean composite scores of cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behavior of BSID-III were significantly lower in atypical antipsychotic-exposed infants than the controls. More atypical antipsychotic-exposed infants had delayed development in cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behavior domains as defined by the composite score of development in cognitive, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behavior, but not in language, body weight, or height.

  6. Analysis of biological tissues in infant chest for the development of an equivalent radiographic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D. R.; Souza, Rafael T. F.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Alvarez, Matheus; Miranda, Jose R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present study was to determine the amounts of different tissues in the chest of the newborn patient (age ≤1 year), with the aim of developing a homogeneous phantom chest equivalent. This type of phantom is indispensable in the development of optimization procedures for radiographic techniques, including dosimetric control, which is a crucial aspect of pediatric radiology. The authors present a systematic set of procedures, including a computational algorithm, to estimate the amounts of tissues and thicknesses of the corresponding simulator material plates used to construct the phantom. Methods: The Gaussian fit of computed tomographic (CT) analysis was applied to classify and quantify different biological tissues. The methodology is summarized with a computational algorithm, which was used to quantify tissues through automated CT analysis. The thicknesses of the equivalent homogeneous simulator material plates were determined to construct the phantom. Results: A total of 180 retrospective CT examinations with anterior-posterior diameter values ranging 8.5-13.0 cm were examined. The amounts of different tissues were evaluated. The results provided elements to construct a phantom to simulate the infant chest in the posterior-anterior or anterior-posterior (PA/AP) view. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the first demonstration of an infant chest phantom dedicated to the radiology of children younger than one year. This phantom is a key element in the development of clinical charts for optimizing radiographic technique in pediatric patients. Optimization procedures for nonstandard patients were reported previously [Pina et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N215-N226 (2004) and Pina et al., Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67, 61-69 (2009)]. The constructed phantom represents a starting point to obtain radiologic protocols for the infant patient.

  7. Disproportionate cardiac hypertrophy during early postnatal development in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Lamata, Pablo; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Ohuma, Eric O; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Wopperer, Samuel; Packham, Alice; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Leeson, Paul

    2017-07-01

    BackgroundAdults born very preterm have increased cardiac mass and reduced function. We investigated whether a hypertrophic phenomenon occurs in later preterm infants and when this occurs during early development.MethodsCardiac ultrasound was performed on 392 infants (33% preterm at mean gestation 34±2 weeks). Scans were performed during fetal development in 137, at birth and 3 months of postnatal age in 200, and during both fetal and postnatal development in 55. Cardiac morphology and function was quantified and computational models created to identify geometric changes.ResultsAt birth, preterm offspring had reduced cardiac mass and volume relative to body size with a more globular heart. By 3 months, ventricular shape had normalized but both left and right ventricular mass relative to body size were significantly higher than expected for postmenstrual age (left 57.8±41.9 vs. 27.3±29.4%, P<0.001; right 39.3±38.1 vs. 16.6±40.8, P=0.002). Greater changes were associated with lower gestational age at birth (left P<0.001; right P=0.001).ConclusionPreterm offspring, including those born in late gestation, have a disproportionate increase in ventricular mass from birth up to 3 months of postnatal age. These differences were not present before birth. Early postnatal development may provide a window for interventions relevant to long-term cardiovascular health.

  8. Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responses change quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurobehaviour between birth and 40 weeks' gestation in infants born parental psychological wellbeing: predictors of brain development and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Thompson, Deanne K; Brown, Nisha C; Treyvaud, Karli; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Lee, Katherine J; Pace, Carmen C; Olsen, Joy; Allinson, Leesa G; Morgan, Angela T; Seal, Marc; Eeles, Abbey; Judd, Fiona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-04-24

    Infants born long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes. In addition, maternal psychological wellbeing has been associated with child development. Given the high rate of psychological distress reported by parents of preterm children, it is vital we understand maternal and paternal wellbeing in the early weeks and months after preterm birth and how this influences the parent-child relationship and children's outcomes. Therefore this study aims to examine how 1) early neurobehaviour and 2) parental mental health relate to developmental outcomes for infants born preterm compared with infants born at term. This prospective cohort study will describe the neurobehaviour of 150 infants born at term equivalent age, and explore how early neurobehavioural deficits relate to brain growth or injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging, perinatal factors, parental mental health and later developmental outcomes measured using standardised assessment tools at term, one and two years' corrected age. A control group of 150 healthy term-born infants will also be recruited for comparison of outcomes. To examine the effects of parental mental health on developmental outcomes, both parents of preterm and term-born infants will complete standardised questionnaires related to symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress at regular intervals from the first week of their child's birth until their child's second birthday. The parent-child relationship will be assessed at one and two years' corrected age. Detailing the trajectory of infant neurobehaviour and parental psychological

  10. Development of False Memories in Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Gagnon, Nadine; Thouas, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The effects of within- versus between-languages (English-French) study and test on rates of bilingual children's and adults' true and false memories were examined. Children aged 6 through 12 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task using free recall and recognition. Recall results showed…

  11. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  12. The Development of Explicit Memory for Basic Perceptual Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, Michelle; Rossi-George, Alba; Hartshorn, Kristen; Vieira, Aurora; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Johnson, Marcia K.; Chalfonte, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments with 164 individuals between 4 and 80 years old examined age-related changes in explicit memory for three perceptual features: item identity, color, and location. Findings indicated that performance on explicit memory tests was not a consistent inverted U-shaped function of age across various features, but depended on the…

  13. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Chuthapisith, Jariya; Mo-suwan, Ladda; Kriweradechachai, Suntree; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Choprapawon, Chanpen

    2009-01-01

    Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), television toward their child's development. Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS), and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively). On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male) was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3). Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day) and delayed language development at the

  14. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Blocked, delayed, or obstructed: What causes poor white matter development in intrauterine growth restricted infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcos, Mary; Petratos, Steven; Hirst, Jonathan J; Wong, Flora; Spencer, Sarah J; Azhan, Aminath; Emery, Ben; Walker, David W

    2017-07-01

    Poor white matter development in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies remains a major, untreated problem in neonatology. New therapies, guided by an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie normal and abnormal oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation, are required. Much of our knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie impaired myelination come from studies in adult demyelinating disease, preterm brain injury, or experimental models of hypoxia-ischemia. However, relatively less is known for IUGR which is surprising because IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, second only to premature birth. IUGR is also a significant risk factor for the later development of cerebral palsy, and is a greater risk compared to some of the more traditionally researched antecedents - asphyxia and inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that the white matter injury and reduced myelination in the brains of some preterm babies is due to impaired maturation of oligodendrocytes thereby resulting in the reduced capacity to synthesize myelin. Therefore, it is not surprising that the hypomyelination observable in the central nervous system of IUGR infants has similarly lead to investigations identifying a delay or blockade in the progress of maturation of oligodendrocytes in these infants. This review will discuss current ideas thought to account for the poor myelination often present in the neonate's brain following IUGR, and discuss novel interventions that are promising as treatments that promote oligodendrocyte maturation, and thereby repair the myelination deficits that otherwise persist into infancy and childhood and lead to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Caregiving Behaviors and Early Cognitive Development as Related to Ordinal Position in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarale E.; Beckwith, Leila

    1977-01-01

    Naturalistic home observations of 54 preterm infants and their caregivers were made when the infants were 1, 3, and 8 months of age. Differences were found in the kinds of everyday transactions which occur with preterm infants raised with and without siblings. (Author/JMB)

  17. Longitudinal motor development of "apparently normal" high-risk infants at 18 months, 3 and 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Traci Anne; Lui, Kei

    2002-12-01

    Motor development appears to be more affected by premature birth than other developmental domains, however few studies have specifically investigated the development of gross and fine motor skills in this population. To examine longitudinal motor development in a group of "apparently normal" high-risk infants. Developmental follow-up clinic in a perinatal centre. Longitudinal observational cohort study. Fifty-eight infants born less than 29 weeks gestation and/or 1000 g and without disabilities detected at 12 months. Longitudinal gross and fine motor skills at 18 months, 3 and 5 years using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales. The HOME scale provided information of the home environment as a stimulus for development. A large proportion (54% at 18 months, 47% at 3 years and 64% at 5 years) of children continued to have fine motor deficits from 18 months to 5 years. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased over this period (14%, 33% and 81%, pmotor development was positively influenced by the quality of the home environment. A large proportion of high-risk infants continued to have fine motor deficits, reflecting an underlying problem with fine motor skills. The proportion of infants with gross motor deficits significantly increased, as test demands became more challenging. In addition, the development of gross and fine motor skills appears to be influenced differently by the home environment.

  18. Analysis the Development of Mother and Infant Health in Sampang District Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmini Rukmini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital have a strategic role in efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality. This study aimed to determine the development of maternal and infant health services carried out in Sampang District hospital between 2010 and May 2012. Methods: The quantitative study with ecology design carried out in Sampang District hospital east Java Province Indonesia in 2012. The collection of secondary data such as coverage of maternal and infant health care in the period of 2010 to May 2012, as well as qualitative data collection with in depth interview to the Head of Service, Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist Doctors and midwives. Data were analyzed descriptively. Result: In Sampang District hospital in period 2010 – May 2012 showed, an increase in maternal and child health services, where an increase in the handling of complications of pregnancy, normal delivery or Sectio Caesar and management of newborn complications and maternal and neonatal deaths are relatively increased . The coverage of family planning services was still low and the vast majority was IUD. Conclusion: The maternal and child health services in Sampang District hospital in period of 2010 – May 2012, showed an increase in the quantity of service coverage. The majority cases of delivery in hospitals were referral cases and complications. Howefer, the number of Sectio Caesar, maternal and neonatal mortality were still high. Recommendation: Sampang District Health Offi ce and Sampang District Hospital should create a policis and programs to reduce neonatal mortality in an integrated, continuous with proper implementation of standard procedures at every level of service, supported by well trained human resources, infrastructure and adequate fi nancing.

  19. The early development of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: Characteristics of sibling interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warreyn, Petra; Van der Paelt, Sara; Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Although sibling interactions play an important role in children’s early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions. PMID:29543814

  20. A Psychometric Study of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development in Persian Language Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Nadia; Soleimani, Farin; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Shahshahani, Soheila; Karimi, Hossein; Kraskian, Adis; Shahrokhi, Amin; Teymouri, Robab; Gharib, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Bayley Scales of infant & toddler development is a well-known diagnostic developmental assessment tool for children aged 1-42 months. Our aim was investigating the validity & reliability of this scale in Persian speaking children. The method was descriptive-analytic. Translation- back translation and cultural adaptation was done. Content & face validity of translated scale was determined by experts' opinions. Overall, 403 children aged 1 to 42 months were recruited from health centers of Tehran, during years of 2013-2014 for developmental assessment in cognitive, communicative (receptive & expressive) and motor (fine & gross) domains. Reliability of scale was calculated through three methods; internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, test-retest and interrater methods. Construct validity was calculated using factor analysis and comparison of the mean scores methods. Cultural and linguistic changes were made in items of all domains especially on communication subscale. Content and face validity of the test were approved by experts' opinions. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was above 0.74 in all domains. Pearson correlation coefficient in various domains, were ≥ 0.982 in test retest method, and ≥0.993 in inter-rater method. Construct validity of the test was approved by factor analysis. Moreover, the mean scores for the different age groups were compared and statistically significant differences were observed between mean scores of different age groups, that confirms validity of the test. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development is a valid and reliable tool for child developmental assessment in Persian language children.

  1. The Development of Memory Maintenance: Children's Use of Phonological Rehearsal and Attentional Refreshment in Working Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Helen; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Sabatos-DeVito, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Past research suggests that children begin to phonologically rehearse at around 7 years of age. Less is known regarding the development of refreshment, an attention-based maintenance mechanism. Therefore, the use of these two maintenance methods by 6- and 8-year-olds was assessed using memory span tasks that varied in their opportunities for…

  2. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  3. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Amidfar, Meysam; Dadgar, Hooshang; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-04-01

    Working memory has an important role in language acquisition and development of cognition skills. The ability of encoding, storage and retrieval of phonological codes, as activities of working memory, acquired by audition sense. Children with cochlear implant experience a period that they are not able to perceive sounds. In order to assess the effect of hearing on working memory, we investigated working memory as a cognition skill in children with normal development and cochlear implant. Fifty students with normal hearing and 50 students with cochlear implant aged 5-7 years participated in this study. Children educated in the preschool, the first and second grades. Children with normal development were matched based on age, gender, and grade of education with cochlear implant. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. Phonological loop assessed by nonword repetition task and forward digit span. To assess central executive component backward digit span was used. The developmental trend was studied in children with normal development and cochlear implant as well. The effect of age at implantation in children with cochlear implants on components of working memory was investigated. There are significant differences between children with normal development and cochlear implant in all tasks that assess working memory (p memory between different grades showed significant differences both in children with normal development and in children with cochlear implant (p implied that children with cochlear implant may experience difficulties in working memory. Therefore, these children have problems in encoding, practicing, and repeating phonological units. The results also suggested working memory develops when the child grows up. In cochlear implant children, with decreasing age at implantation and increasing their experience in perceiving sound, working memory skills improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  4. Development of memorial tourism as a new concept - possibilities and restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Drvenkar, Nataša; Banožić, Mario; Živić, Dražen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the meaning of dark and memorial tourism better, as well as to create basic preconditions for relatively new concept of tourism in Croatia, as dark and memorial tourism is well defined subject internationally. Design – The theoretical background of the topic is been presented, and further institutional support for the development of memorial tourism. The special focus is given to analysis of the factors that influence the implementation...

  5. The development of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence in children

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole, S; Conway, A

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence and how this relationship develops in early childhood. The major aim was to determine which aspect of the working memory system – short-term storage or executive attention – drives the relationship with fluid intelligence. A sample of 119 children was followed from kindergarten to second grade and completed multiple assessments of short-term memory, wor...

  6. Family nurture intervention in preterm infants increases early development of cortical activity and independence of regional power trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Martha G; Stark, Raymond I; Grieve, Philip G; Ludwig, Robert J; Isler, Joseph R; Barone, Joseph L; Myers, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    Premature delivery and maternal separation during hospitalisation increase infant neurodevelopmental risk. Previously, a randomised controlled trial of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) in the neonatal intensive care unit demonstrated improvement across multiple mother and infant domains including increased electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the frontal polar region at term age. New aims were to quantify developmental changes in EEG power in all brain regions and frequencies and correlate developmental changes in EEG power among regions. EEG (128 electrodes) was obtained at 34-44 weeks postmenstrual age from preterm infants born 26-34 weeks. Forty-four infants were treated with Standard Care and 53 with FNI. EEG power was computed in 10 frequency bands (1-48 Hz) in 10 brain regions and in active and quiet sleep. Percent change/week in EEG power was increased in FNI in 132/200 tests (p regional independence in those developmental rates of change. This study strengthens the conclusion that FNI promotes cerebral cortical development of preterm infants. The findings indicate that developmental changes in EEG may provide biomarkers for risk in preterm infants as well as proximal markers of effects of FNI. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Gross Motor Development of Healthy Term Infants: A Randomized Dose-Response Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Brandy; Gallo, Sina; Majnemer, Annette; Vanstone, Catherine; Comeau, Kathryn; Jones, Glenville; L'Abbe, Mary; Khamessan, Ali; Sharma, Atul; Weiler, Hope; Rodd, Celia

    2016-08-01

    In addition to benefits for bone health, vitamin D is implicated in muscle function in children and adults. To determine if vitamin D dosage positively correlated with gross motor development at 3 and 6 months of age. We hypothesized that higher doses would be associated with higher scores for gross motor skills. A consecutive sample of 55 healthy, term, and breastfed infants from Montreal, Canada were recruited from a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation between 2009 and 2012. Infants were randomized to 400 International Units (IU) (n = 19), 800 IU (n = 18) or 1,200 IU (n = 18) vitamin D3/day. Motor performance at 3 and 6 months was quantified by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. AIMS scores did not differ at 3 months. However, total AIMS scores and sitting subscores were significantly higher at 6 months in infants receiving 400 IU/day compared to 800 IU/day and 1,200 IU/day groups (p gross motor achievements were significantly higher in infants receiving 400 IU/day vitamin D. Our findings also support longer infants being slightly delayed.

  8. Mental and motor development before and during growth hormone treatment in infants and toddlers with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, D A M; Wevers, M; Lindgren, A C; Böhm, B; Otten, B J; Wit, J M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Hokken-Koelega, A C S

    2008-06-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by muscular hypotonia, psychomotor delay, feeding difficulties and failure to thrive in infancy. GH treatment improves growth velocity and body composition. Research on the effects of GH on psychomotor development in infants with PWS is limited. To evaluate psychomotor development in PWS infants and toddlers during GH treatment compared to randomized controls. Forty-three PWS infants were evaluated at baseline. Twenty-nine of them were randomized into a GH group (n = 15) receiving 1 mg/m(2)/day GH or a non-GH-treated control group (n = 14). At baseline and after 12 months of follow-up, analysis with Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) was performed. Data were converted to percentage of expected development for age (%ed), and changes during follow-up were calculated. Infants in the GH group had a median age of 2.3 years [interquartile range (IQR) 1.7-3.0] and in the control group of 1.5 years (IQR 1.2-2.7) (P = 0.17). Both mental and motor development improved significantly during the first year of study in the GH group vs. the control group: median (IQR) change was +9.3% (-5.3 to 13.3) vs.-2.9% (-8.1 to 4.9) (P development and +11.2% (-4.9 to 22.5) vs.-18.5% (-27.9 to 1.8) (P development, respectively. One year of GH treatment significantly improved mental and motor development in PWS infants compared to randomized controls.

  9. Development of Morphing Structures for Aircraft Using Shape Memory Polymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Fazeel J

    2008-01-01

    ...), aerospace structures. In particular, shape memory polymers (SMP) in filled and unfilled form have been investigated with particular emphasis on the recovery time and force as the materials undergo transformation...

  10. Development of auditory sensory memory from 2 to 6 years: an MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Elisabeth; Sachse, Steffi; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2008-08-01

    Short-term storage of auditory information is thought to be a precondition for cognitive development, and deficits in short-term memory are believed to underlie learning disabilities and specific language disorders. We examined the development of the duration of auditory sensory memory in normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years. To probe the lifetime of auditory sensory memory we elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the late auditory evoked potential, with tone stimuli of two different frequencies presented with various interstimulus intervals between 500 and 5,000 ms. Our findings suggest that memory traces for tone characteristics have a duration of 1-2 s in 2- and 3-year-old children, more than 2 s in 4-year-olds and 3-5 s in 6-year-olds. The results provide insights into the maturational processes involved in auditory sensory memory during the sensitive period of cognitive development.

  11. Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development into Word Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, Erica H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word lear...

  12. Development of Next Generation Memory Test Experiment for Deployment on a Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd; Ho, Fat D.

    2012-01-01

    The original Memory Test Experiment successfully flew on the FASTSAT satellite launched in November 2010. It contained a single Ramtron 512K ferroelectric memory. The memory device went through many thousands of read/write cycles and recorded any errors that were encountered. The original mission length was schedule to last 6 months but was extended to 18 months. New opportunities exist to launch a similar satellite and considerations for a new memory test experiment should be examined. The original experiment had to be designed and integrated in less than two months, so the experiment was a simple design using readily available parts. The follow-on experiment needs to be more sophisticated and encompass more technologies. This paper lays out the considerations for the design and development of this follow-on flight memory experiment. It also details the results from the original Memory Test Experiment that flew on board FASTSAT. Some of the design considerations for the new experiment include the number and type of memory devices to be used, the kinds of tests that will be performed, other data needed to analyze the results, and best use of limited resources on a small satellite. The memory technologies that are considered are FRAM, FLASH, SONOS, Resistive Memory, Phase Change Memory, Nano-wire Memory, Magneto-resistive Memory, Standard DRAM, and Standard SRAM. The kinds of tests that could be performed are read/write operations, non-volatile memory retention, write cycle endurance, power measurements, and testing Error Detection and Correction schemes. Other data that may help analyze the results are GPS location of recorded errors, time stamp of all data recorded, radiation measurements, temperature, and other activities being perform by the satellite. The resources of power, volume, mass, temperature, processing power, and telemetry bandwidth are extremely limited on a small satellite. Design considerations must be made to allow the experiment to not interfere

  13. Developing prediction equations and a mobile phone application to identify infants at risk of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Gillian; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Wilson, Brad; Samiei, Haider; Cameron, Noël; Johnson, William

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in knowledge of obesity aetiology and mobile phone technology have created the opportunity to develop an electronic tool to predict an infant's risk of childhood obesity. The study aims were to develop and validate equations for the prediction of childhood obesity and integrate them into a mobile phone application (App). Anthropometry and childhood obesity risk data were obtained for 1868 UK-born White or South Asian infants in the Born in Bradford cohort. Logistic regression was used to develop prediction equations (at 6 ± 1.5, 9 ± 1.5 and 12 ± 1.5 months) for risk of childhood obesity (BMI at 2 years >91(st) centile and weight gain from 0-2 years >1 centile band) incorporating sex, birth weight, and weight gain as predictors. The discrimination accuracy of the equations was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC); internal validity by comparing area under the curve to those obtained in bootstrapped samples; and external validity by applying the equations to an external sample. An App was built to incorporate six final equations (two at each age, one of which included maternal BMI). The equations had good discrimination (AUCs 86-91%), with the addition of maternal BMI marginally improving prediction. The AUCs in the bootstrapped and external validation samples were similar to those obtained in the development sample. The App is user-friendly, requires a minimum amount of information, and provides a risk assessment of low, medium, or high accompanied by advice and website links to government recommendations. Prediction equations for risk of childhood obesity have been developed and incorporated into a novel App, thereby providing proof of concept that childhood obesity prediction research can be integrated with advancements in technology.

  14. Development of visuospatial short-term memory in the second half of the 1st year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelphrey, Kevin A; Reznick, J Steven; Davis Goldman, Barbara; Sasson, Noah; Morrow, Judy; Donahoe, Andrea; Hodgson, Katharine

    2004-09-01

    Eighty 5.5- to 12.5-month-old infants participated in 4 delayed-response procedures challenging shortterm visuospatial memory (STVM), 2 that varied the time between presentation and search and 2 that varied the number of locations. Within each type of challenge, 1 task required a gaze response and 1 required a reach response. There was little improvement in STVM performance from 5.5 to 8 months and linear improvement in the percentage correct from 8 to 12 months, with overall STVM performance accounting for 66% of the variance in age. Improvement in searching multiple locations lagged behind improvement in spanning longer delays. Memory scores did not vary for the visual and manual tasks. Perseveration was greatest for reach responses, increased with challenge, and decreased with age. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved) Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  15. Variations in neutrophil count in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome who subsequently developed chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohelet, D; Arbel, E; Ballin, A; Goldberg, M

    2000-01-01

    Neutrophil counts were studied in 62 preterm infants receiving mechanical ventilation for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Exploratory analysis indicated that the severity of NRDS, as demonstrated by fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2), mean airway pressure (MAP), arterial-alveolar PO2 ratio (a/APO2) and oxygenation index (OI), was correlated with percentage change of neutrophil counts during the first 5 days of life. Further analysis demonstrated that infants with NRDS who subsequently developed chronic lung disease (CLD) (n = 21) had statistically significant differences in variation of neutrophil counts when compared with the remainder (n = 41) without CLD (-35.0% +/- 4.3 vs. -16.9% +/- 5.8, p variations in neutrophil counts during the first 5 days of life may be found in infants with NRDS who subsequently develop CLD and that these changes may have predictive value regarding the development of CLD.

  16. Developing prospects of NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Min

    1999-01-01

    The reason and information on high temperature shape memory alloy research are introduced briefly Also, referring to some experimental reports on NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy, it is pointed out that ductility and memory property of this alloy can be improved by adapting proper composition and procedure to control its microstructure. Meanwhile, the engineering details must be considered when NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy being developed so as to resolve the problems of its practical use

  17. Preterm birth enhances the contribution of mothers' mind-mindedness to infants' expressive language development: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Alessandro; Coppola, Gabrielle; Fasolo, Mirco; Cassibba, Rosalinda

    2017-11-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness has been shown to be a powerful predictor of many developmental outcomes and to buffer the impact of psychosocial risk conditions, but no study has investigated whether this parental feature might support child development in the presence of biological risk, such as preterm birth. The present study addresses this gap, by investigating whether early maternal mind-mindedness contributes to the growth of a child's linguistic abilities in the following two years of life, and if the contribution of this maternal feature might be stronger in the presence of preterm birth. Forty mother-child dyads (twenty with a preterm infant) were followed longitudinally, with maternal mind-mindedness assessed at 14 months of age and child's expressive linguistic abilities at 24 and 36 months through observational measures. Multilevel models showed that linguistic abilities increased from 24 to 36 months of age, but that this increase was stronger in full-term infants. Maternal mind-mindedness also contributed to this growth, playing a stronger role in preterm infants than in full-term infants. Altogether, these findings contribute more deeply to the understanding of language development in preterm infants and of the joint contribution made by biological risk and environmental factors; from a practical standpoint, they suggest the importance of addressing mother's mind-mindedness in order to support child's language development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infant Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... differences in rates among population groups. About Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death of an infant ...

  19. The Development of Working Memory: Further Note on the Comparability of Two Models of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ribaupierre, Anik; Bailleux, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes similarities and differences between the working memory models of Pascual-Leone and Baddeley. Debates whether each model makes a specific contribution to explanation of Kemps, De Rammelaere, and Desmet's results. Argues for necessity of theoretical task analyses. Compares a study similar to that of Kemps et al. in which different…

  20. Elements of a comprehensive theory of infant imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    Imitation is central to human development. Imitation involves mapping between the perception and production of actions. Imitation after delays implicates preverbal memory. Imitation of people informs us about infants' processing of social events. A comprehensive theory needs to account for the origins, mechanisms, and functions of imitation. Neonatal imitation illuminates how the initial state engenders and supports rapid social learning.

  1. Pathways from Prematurity and Infant Abilities to Later Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of information processing in 7-month-old preterms ([less than] 1750g at birth) and full-terms to Bayley Mental Development Indexes (MDIs) at 2 and 3 years. The infant measures were drawn from four cognitive domains: attention, speed, memory, and representational competence. Structural equation modeling showed that…

  2. Development in the Organization of Episodic Memories in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eChen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use lifetime periods to group episodic memories together into life story chapters. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take advantage of lifetime-period chapters to organize their episodic memories. The results of Study 1 with 8- to 12-year-olds revealed that the ability to provide life story chapters began to emerge as early as 8 years of age. In Study 2 with adolescents aged 12 to 21, this ability continued to develop into late adolescence among New Zealand European and New Zealand Chinese adolescents; however, cultural differences also existed in the specificity of memories. New Zealand Chinese adolescents narrated fewer life story chapters containing specific memories than New Zealand European adolescents. These findings support and extend current theories of episodic memory by specifying that pre-adolescents are starting to organize their episodic memories into lifetime periods, but this achievement is not fully realized until later in adolescence.

  3. Development in the organization of episodic memories in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena Margaret; Reese, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The basic elements of autobiographical or episodic memory are established in early childhood, although the exact age at which memories gain episodic status is still under contention. The self-memory system proposed that adults use "lifetime periods" to group episodic memories together into chapters of the life story - an evolving and internalized account of significant life events that are self-defining. Two studies examined at what point in development children or adolescents begin to take advantage of lifetime-period chapters to organize their episodic memories. The results of Study 1 with 8- to 12-year-olds revealed that the ability to provide life story chapters began to emerge as early as 8 years of age. In Study 2 with adolescents aged 12-21, this ability continued to develop into late adolescence among New Zealand European (NZE) and New Zealand Chinese (NZC) adolescents; however, cultural differences also existed in the specificity of memories. NZC adolescents narrated fewer life story chapters containing specific memories than NZE adolescents. These findings support and extend current theories of episodic memory by specifying that pre-adolescents are starting to organize their episodic memories into lifetime periods, but this achievement is not fully realized until later in adolescence.

  4. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Leventon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes. The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  5. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow-synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the preterm infant: development of a project

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    Corrado Moretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the experience of our team in developing a flow-triggered nasal respiratory support for the neonate and its related clinical applications. Although mechanical ventilation (MV via an endotracheal tube has undoubtedly led to improvement in neonatal survival in the last 40 years, the prolonged use of this technique may predispose the infant to the development of many possible complications, first of all, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Avoiding mechanical ventilation is thought to be a critical goal, and different modes of non invasive respiratory support may reduce the intubation rate: nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP, nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV and its more advantageous form, synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (SNIPPV. SNIPPV was initially performed by a capsule placed on the baby’s abdomen. To overcome the disadvantages of the abdominal capsule, our team decided to create a flow-sensor that could be interposed between the nasal prongs and the Y piece. Firstly we developed a hot-wire flow-sensor to trigger the ventilator and we showed that flow-SNIPPV can support the inspiratory effort in the post-extubation period more effectively than NCPAP. But, although accurate, the proper functioning of the hot-wire flow-sensor was easily compromised by secretions or moisture, and therefore we started to use as flow-sensor a simpler differential pressure transducer. In a following trial using the new device, we were able to demonstrate that flow-SNIPPV was more effective than conventional NCPAP in decreasing extubation failure in preterm infants who had been ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. More recently we used flow-SNIPPV as the primary mode of ventilation, after surfactant replacement, reducing MV need and favorably affecting short-term morbidities of treated premature infants. We also successfully applied SNIPPV to treat apnea of

  7. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation.Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA. Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention.Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  8. Bystander chronic infection negatively impacts development of CD8+ T cell memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelekati, Erietta; Shin, Haina; Doering, Travis A.; Dolfi, Douglas V.; Ziegler, Carly G.; Beiting, Daniel P.; Dawson, Lucas; Liboon, Jennifer; Wolski, David; Ali, Mohammed-Alkhatim A.; Katsikis, Peter D.; Shen, Hao; Roos, David S.; Haining, W. Nicholas; Lauer, Georg M.; Wherry, E. John

    2014-01-01

    Summary Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic infections impair immune responses to unrelated pathogens and vaccines. The underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear and distinguishing effects on priming versus development of immunological memory has been challenging. We investigated whether bystander chronic infections impact differentiation of memory CD8+ T cells, the hallmark of protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Chronic bystander infections impaired development of memory CD8+ T cells in several mouse models and humans. These effects were independent of initial priming and were associated with chronic inflammatory signatures. Chronic inflammation negatively impacted the number of bystander CD8+ T cells and their memory development. Distinct underlying mechanisms of altered survival and differentiation were revealed with the latter regulated by the transcription factors T-bet and Blimp-1. Thus, exposure to prolonged bystander inflammation impairs the effector to memory transition. These data have relevance for immunity and vaccination during persisting infections and chronic inflammation. PMID:24837104

  9. Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian…

  10. The Development of Strategy Use in Elementary School Children: Working Memory and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbo, Ineke; Vandierendonck, Andre

    2007-01-01

    The current study tested the development of working memory involvement in children's arithmetic strategy selection and strategy efficiency. To this end, an experiment in which the dual-task method and the choice/no-choice method were combined was administered to 10- to 12-year-olds. Working memory was needed in retrieval, transformation, and…

  11. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  12. Risk Factors for the Development of Refeeding Syndrome-Like Hypophosphatemia in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Aiko; Okuno, Takashi; Ohta, Genrei; Tokuriki, Shuko; Ohshima, Yusei

    2017-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbance including hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia upon reinstitution of nutrition in severely malnourished patients. The present study sought to identify the risk factors for the development of refeeding syndrome-like metabolic disturbance in very low birth weight infants. The correlations of severe hypophosphatemia with the serum levels of potassium and ionized calcium, daily calorie and phosphate intake, and umbilical cord blood flow on ultrasonography were analyzed in 49 very low birth weight infants. Fifteen infants (36%) presented with hypophosphatemia during the first postnatal week. Hypophosphatemia was significantly associated with birth weight z score (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.47; p = 0.034) and umbilical artery resistance index (odds ratio, 7.72 E -04; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 E -06-0.523; p = 0.031). Multiple regression analysis revealed that umbilical artery resistance index was independently associated with hypophosphatemia. Umbilical artery resistance index may serve as a useful marker for future development of refeeding syndrome-like hypophosphatemia in very low birth weight infants. Close monitoring of serum phosphorus and potassium levels and early intervention are important for the management of very low birth weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction due to placental dysfunction.

  13. Risk Factors for the Development of Refeeding Syndrome-Like Hypophosphatemia in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Aiko Igarashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Refeeding syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbance including hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia upon reinstitution of nutrition in severely malnourished patients. Objective. The present study sought to identify the risk factors for the development of refeeding syndrome-like metabolic disturbance in very low birth weight infants. Methods. The correlations of severe hypophosphatemia with the serum levels of potassium and ionized calcium, daily calorie and phosphate intake, and umbilical cord blood flow on ultrasonography were analyzed in 49 very low birth weight infants. Results. Fifteen infants (36% presented with hypophosphatemia during the first postnatal week. Hypophosphatemia was significantly associated with birth weight z score (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–2.47; p=0.034 and umbilical artery resistance index (odds ratio, 7.72E−04; 95% confidence interval, 1.14E−06–0.523; p=0.031. Multiple regression analysis revealed that umbilical artery resistance index was independently associated with hypophosphatemia. Conclusions. Umbilical artery resistance index may serve as a useful marker for future development of refeeding syndrome-like hypophosphatemia in very low birth weight infants. Close monitoring of serum phosphorus and potassium levels and early intervention are important for the management of very low birth weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction due to placental dysfunction.

  14. Infant attachment insecurity and dissociative symptomatology: findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-01-01

    Based on data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,149), the current article provides the first large-sample investigation of associations between different forms of infant attachment insecurity and dissociative symptomatology from childhood through midadolescence as measured by scales based on the mother, teacher, and youth self-report versions of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessments. Findings did not replicate the previously reported and highly cited evidence that infant attachment disorganization is associated with dissociative symptomatology. In contrast, correlations of small magnitude were observed between infant avoidance and dissociative symptomatology, as assessed by teachers and mothers (but not self-report). Results were not moderated by contextual risk. Limitations of the study included the absence of measures of maltreatment and interpersonal trauma, leaving open the possibility that infant attachment disorganization is a diathesis for later dissociation in the context of severe and/or chronic trauma. Nevertheless, the present results strongly indicate the need for additional research exploring the possible role of environmental factors in the development of dissociative symptomatology. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Postnatal Changes in Humerus Cortical Bone Thickness Reflect the Development of Metabolic Bone Disease in Preterm Infants

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    Shuko Tokuriki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To use cortical bone thickness (CBT of the humerus to identify risk factors for the development of metabolic bone disease in preterm infants. Methods. Twenty-seven infants born at <32 weeks of gestational age, with a birth weight of <1,500 g, were enrolled. Humeral CBT was measured from chest radiographs at birth and at 27-28, 31-32, and 36–44 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA. The risk factors for the development of osteomalacia were statistically analyzed. Results. The humeral CBT at 36–44 weeks of PMA was positively correlated with gestational age and birth weight and negatively correlated with the duration of mechanical ventilation. CBT increased with PMA, except in six very early preterm infants in whom it decreased. Based on logistic regression analysis, gestational age and duration of mechanical ventilation were identified as risk factors for cortical bone thinning. Conclusions. Humeral CBT may serve as a radiologic marker of metabolic bone disease at 36–44 weeks of PMA in preterm infants. Cortical bones of extremely preterm infants are fragile, even when age is corrected for term, and require extreme care to lower the risk of fractures.

  16. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-11-01

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Development of the circadian heart rate rhytm (CDR) in Asian infants

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislaus Sandarupa, Drs., M.A., Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the human fetus can follow the maternal circadian thythm, the enterained expression of the circadian clock, based in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus awaits postnatal maturation of the retinal hypothalamic tract, and melatonin neurotransmission. Objective: To test the hypothesis that term-born Asian Infants, at reduced risk to die of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) exhibit a circadian heat rate thythm (CHR) at a later age than non-Asian term infants.

  18. Adaptation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised for use in Ethiopia: Expanding cross-cultural investigation of temperament development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A; Bogale, Wolayte; Meehan, Courtney L

    2016-11-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were evaluated for Ethiopian (N=109) and U.S. (N=109) samples of infants. We anticipated that the Sidama version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R; Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003) developed for use in Ethiopia would demonstrate satisfactory psychometric properties, and hypothesized significant cross-cultural differences in levels of fine-grained temperament characteristics. Interactions between culture, infant age, and sex were also considered. Internal consistency was satisfactory for 13 of the 14 IBQ-R scales (with a somewhat low estimate observed for Duration of Orienting), and an examination of the structure indicated patterns similar to those observed in the US, and elsewhere. Differences between Ethiopia and the US were noted for Activity Level, Distress to Limitations, Fear, Smiling/Laughter, Falling Reactivity, Cuddliness/Affiliation, Sadness, Approach, and Vocal Reactivity. Parents of infants in the US reported higher levels of attributes associated with Surgency/Positive Affectivity (Activity, Smiling/Laughter, Approach Vocal Reactivity), whereas Ethiopian infants' scores were higher for Distress to Limitations and Fear, linked with the over-arching temperament factor of Negative Emotionality; however, US infants received higher ratings on Sadness, also associated with this factor. Higher Falling Reactivity, a regulation-related attribute, was reported for Ethiopian infants, with US babies receiving higher Cuddliness/Affiliation scores. Significant culture*age interactions were observed for Activity and Fear, along with a significant culture*age*sex interaction for Distress to Limitations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Infant communication and subsequent language development in children from low-income families: the role of early cognitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha B; White, Lisa J; Arevalo, Jenny A; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2012-09-01

    To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the home at 6 months was assessed using StimQ-lnfant, including provision of toys, shared reading, teaching, and verbal responsivity. Early infant communication was assessed at 6 months including the following: (1) Emotion and eye gaze (Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scale DP-CSBS DP), (2) Communicative bids (CSBS DP), and (3) Expression of emotion (Short Temperament Scale for Infants). Toddler language was assessed at 24 months using the Preschool Language Scale-4, including the following: (1) expressive language and (2) auditory comprehension. Three hundred twenty families were assessed. In structural equation models, cognitive stimulation in the home was strongly associated with early infant communication (β = 0.63, p cognitive stimulation on 24-month language was mediated through early impacts on infant communication (Indirect β = 0.28, p =.001). Reading, teaching, availability of learning materials, and other reciprocal verbal interactions were all related directly to infant communication and indirectly to language outcomes. The impact of early cognitive stimulation on toddler language is manifested through early associations with infant communication. Pediatric primary care providers should promote cognitive stimulation beginning in early infancy and support the expansion and dissemination of intervention programs such as Reach Out and Read and the Video Interaction Project.

  20. Making Memories: The Development of Long-Term Visual Knowledge in Children with Visual Agnosia

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    Tiziana Metitieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the development of visual memory when perceptual input is degraded. We assessed visual recognition and visual memory in three children with lesions to the visual cortex having occurred in early infancy. We then explored the time course of visual memory impairment in two of them at 2 years and 3.7 years from the initial assessment. All children exhibited apperceptive visual agnosia and visual memory impairment. We observed a longitudinal improvement of visual memory modulated by the structural properties of objects. Our findings indicate that processing of degraded perceptions from birth results in impoverished memories. The dynamic interaction between perception and memory during development might modulate the long-term construction of visual representations, resulting in less severe impairment.

  1. Making memories: the development of long-term visual knowledge in children with visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metitieri, Tiziana; Barba, Carmen; Pellacani, Simona; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Guerrini, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the development of visual memory when perceptual input is degraded. We assessed visual recognition and visual memory in three children with lesions to the visual cortex having occurred in early infancy. We then explored the time course of visual memory impairment in two of them at 2  years and 3.7  years from the initial assessment. All children exhibited apperceptive visual agnosia and visual memory impairment. We observed a longitudinal improvement of visual memory modulated by the structural properties of objects. Our findings indicate that processing of degraded perceptions from birth results in impoverished memories. The dynamic interaction between perception and memory during development might modulate the long-term construction of visual representations, resulting in less severe impairment.

  2. Physical growth and psychomotor development of infants exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmozhi, T; Dhanaraj, M; Rangaraj, R; Vengatesan, A

    2006-03-01

    To evaluates the physical growth and psychomotor development of infants born to women with epilepsy on regular Anti Epileptic Drugs (AEDs). Govt. Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Tertiary care referral centre, Chennai. Open prospective cohort study with a control group. Consecutive women with epilepsy who were on regular anticonvulsants were followed up from their first trimester. Their babies were examined at birth and anthropometric measurements including anterior fontanelle size were noted. They were followed up till one year and periodically evaluated at 1st, 6th and 12th month of age. Development testing using Griffith scale was done at 2nd, 6th and 12th month. An equal number of control babies were also studied using the same scale for one year at the specified intervals. The results in both the groups were compared. 30 babies were enrolled in the case and control group. The AEDs received by the mothers with epilepsy were Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, and Sodium valproate. At birth and 1st month the weight, head circumference and length of case and control babies were equal. At 6th and 12th month reduction in the above 3 parameters were noted in the case babies ( P < 0.01). Area of anterior fontanelle (AF) was larger in the study group particularly in those exposed to phenytoin in utero (P < 0.001). In the case babies reduction in the sitting, prone and erect progression of the locomotor scores was observed at 2nd month (P < 0.001). Prone progression alone improved by 12th month and other two remained less than the control (P < 0.001). No difference was observed in reaching behaviour and personal/social scores in both groups. Infants exposed to Phenytoin monotherapy had a negative impact on sitting progression. Among infants exposed to AEDs in utero physical growth was equal to that of control at birth but reduced at 6th and 12th month probably due to extraneous factors. The Locomotor scores showed reduction in all areas in 2nd, 6th and 12th month except

  3. A cross-cultural comparison of the development of the social smile: a longitudinal study of maternal and infant imitation in 6- and 12-week-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmann, Viktoriya; Holodynski, Manfred; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi

    2012-06-01

    Social smiling is universally regarded as being an infant's first facial expression of pleasure. Underlying co-constructivist emotion theories are the assumptions that the emergence of social smiling is bound to experiences of face-to-face interactions with caregivers and the impact of two developmental mechanisms--maternal and infant imitation. We analyzed mother-infant interactions from two different socio-cultural contexts and hypothesized that cross-cultural differences in face-to-face interactions determine the occurrence of both of these mechanisms and of the frequency of social smiling by 12-week-old infants. Twenty mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with many face-to-face interactions (German families, Münster) were compared with 24 mother-infant dyads from a socio-cultural community with few such interactions (rural Nso families, Cameroon) when the infants were aged 6 and 12 weeks. When infants were 6 weeks old, mothers and their infants from both cultural communities smiled at each other for similar (albeit very short) amounts of time and used imitated each other's smiling similarly rarely. In contrast, when infants were 12 weeks old, mothers and their infants from Münster smiled at and imitated each other more often than did Nso mothers and their infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  5. Case study on iron in mental development - in memory of John Beard (1947-2009)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osendarp, S.J.M.; Murray-Kolb, L.E.; Black, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) anemia is associated with poor neurocognitive development in infants and children. Depending on the stage of development at the time of deficiency, these adverse effects may be reversible. Recent investigations using sensitive measurements have confirmed that the deposition of

  6. External and Internal Impact on Soviet Memorial Landscape Development by THE World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Cherkasski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The World War II led to serious casualties and left deep scars / wounds of memory. As the victory over occupation regime was glorified, honored and starting from 1965 was widely celebrated at national level, there was a great gap between official and personal memory of war. Monuments are one of the forms of living examples of the past and thus are reliable sources for the study of different epochs and Zeitgeist / spirit of time and their changes. This article considers the development of Soviet memorial landscape by the World War II starting from the war termination to the Soviet Union collapse. Special attention is attached to internal political and international views / interpretations and development with respect to victims of war. In other words, the process of different groups of war victims exclusion and inclusion in Soviet collective memory under the influence of internal political and foreign political interests symbiosis. And, as a result, resultant attitude towards memorial places.

  7. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Structural maturation and brain activity predict future working memory capacity during childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Henrik; Almeida, Rita; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-29

    Human working memory capacity develops during childhood and is a strong predictor of future academic performance, in particular, achievements in mathematics and reading. Predicting working memory development is important for the early identification of children at risk for poor cognitive and academic development. Here we show that structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data explain variance in children's working memory capacity 2 years later, which was unique variance in addition to that predicted using cognitive tests. While current working memory capacity correlated with frontoparietal cortical activity, the future capacity could be inferred from structure and activity in basal ganglia and thalamus. This gives a novel insight into the neural mechanisms of childhood development and supports the idea that neuroimaging can have a unique role in predicting children's cognitive development.

  9. Surprise and Memory as Indices of Concrete Operational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    1973-01-01

    Normal and retarded children's use of color, number, length and continuous quantity as attributes of identification was assessed by presenting them with contrived changes in three properties. Surprise and correct memory responses for color preceded those to number, which preceded logical verbal responses to a conventional number-conservation task.…

  10. Development of visual working memory precision in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Zokaei, Nahid; van der Staaij, Irene; Bays, Paul M; Husain, Masud

    Visual working memory (VWM) is the facility to hold in mind visual information for brief periods of time. Developmental studies have suggested an increase during childhood in the maximum number of complete items that can simultaneously be stored in VWM. Here, we exploit a recent theoretical and

  11. Brain, memory and development : the imprint of Gabriel Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Brown, Malcolm W; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews is dedicated to the memory of Sir Gabriel Horn, who died on 2nd August 2012. In his impressive career that spanned more than 50 years (Bolhuis and Johnson, 2012; Brown, 2013), Horn’s contributions to cognitive neuroscience consistently

  12. How HANDy Are Baby Signs? A Commentary on a Systematic Review of the Impact of Gestural Communication on Typically Developing, Hearing Infants under the Age of 36 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lorraine E.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth

    2014-01-01

    The ethos behind provision of early intervention programmes to infants and young children with additional support needs has been established for some time (e.g. Right-from-the-Start), but targeting the development of typically developing infants has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Baby sign is one of the many intervention techniques…

  13. Concurrent validity between instruments of assessment of motor development in infants exposed to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Cristhina Bonilha Huster; Dos Santos Cardoso de Sá, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to HIV during pregnancy is a risks to development. Exposed child should have assessed its development since birth. Alberta Infant Motor Scale is a tool which assess gross motor skills, with easy application and low cost. Up to now, this scale had not proven its validity for the population exposed to HIV. It's necessary to compare its with a gold standard tool, Bayley scale, which assess gross and fine motor skills, has a high cost and longer application time required. Studies compare results of Alberta with Bayley's total motor score (gross + fine). However, it's also necessary to compare Alberta's result with only Bayley's gross motor result, because it's what both evaluate in common. to verify the concurrent validity of AIMS in infants exposed to HIV; to verify the correlation of AIMS and BSITD III for this population and to compare if these coefficients differ in the central age groups and extremities of the AIMS. 82 infants exposed to HIV evaluated in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th months, with Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Bayley Scale (motor subscale). For analysis of concurrent validity, results of raw scores of the scales were compared with the correlation analysis. First analysis: Alberta's score with Bayley's total (gross + fine) motor score. Second analysis: Alberta's score with Bayley's gross motor score. In the first correlation analysis, results were: r = 0.62 in 1 st month, r = 0.64 in 2nd month, r = 0.08 in 3rd month, r = 0.45 in 4th month; r = 0.62 in 8th month, r = 0.60 in the 12th month. In the second correlation analysis, results were: r = 0.69 in 1 st month; r = 0.58 in 2nd month; r = 0.25 in 3rd month; r = 0.45 in the 4th month; r = 0.77 in 8th month; r = 0.73 in 12th month. Analyzes of the 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th months couldn't be performed because at these ages all the children had already reached the maximum score in the AIMS. Results were

  14. Development of Spontaneous Grandparent-Infant Imitation across the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinaki, Theano; Germanakis, Ioannis; Pratikaki, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore and compare systematically the developmental patterns of certain aspects of imitation, longitudinally from 2 to 10 months, in interactions of infants with grandfathers and grandmothers. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers…

  15. Finding Words and Word Structure in Artificial Speech: The Development of Infants' Sensitivity to Morphosyntactic Regularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve language proficiency, infants must find the building blocks of speech and master the rules governing their legal combinations. However, these problems are linked: words are also built according to rules. Here, we explored early morphosyntactic sensitivity by testing when and how infants could find either words or within-word structure…

  16. The predictive value of different infant attachment measures for socioemotional development at age 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Bakel, H.J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    The predictive value of different infant attachment measures was examined in a community-based sample of 111 healthy children (59 boys, 52 girls). Two procedures to assess infant attachment, the Attachment Q-Set (applied on a relatively short observation period) and a shortened version of the

  17. Infants' Developing Sensitivity to Object Function: Attention to Features and Feature Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Heidi A.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    When learning object function, infants must detect relations among features--for example, that squeezing is associated with squeaking or that objects with wheels roll. Previously, Perone and Oakes (2006) found 10-month-old infants were sensitive to relations between object appearances and actions, but not to relations between appearances and…

  18. What's the Rush?: Slowing down Our "Hurried" Approach to Infant and Toddler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What high expectations people place on their infants and toddlers who are just beginning to understand this great big world and all of its complexities! In an attempt to ensure that growth and learning occur, the fundamental needs of infants and toddlers are often pushed aside as people rush the young child to achieve the next developmental…

  19. Neural changes underlying the development of episodic memory during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Bunge, Silvia A

    2012-10-01

    Episodic memory is central to the human experience. In typically developing children, episodic memory improves rapidly during middle childhood. While the developmental cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory remains largely uncharted, recent research has begun to provide important insights. It has long been assumed that hippocampus-dependent binding mechanisms are in place by early childhood, and that improvements in episodic memory observed during middle childhood result from the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex. We revisit the notion that binding mechanisms are age-invariant, and propose that changes in the hippocampus and its projections to cortical regions also contribute to the development of episodic memory. We further review the role of developmental changes in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices in this development. Finally, we discuss changes in white matter tracts connecting brain regions that are critical for episodic memory. Overall, we argue that changes in episodic memory emerge from the concerted effort of a network of relevant brain structures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may