WorldWideScience

Sample records for infant formula processing

  1. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  2. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  3. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  4. Altering allergenicity of cow's milk by food processing for applications in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Abdolkhalegh; Milani, Jafar M; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2018-04-16

    Cow's milk-based infant formulas have a long tradition in infant nutrition, although some infants are unable to use them due to presence of several known allergens. Various processing methods have been identified capable of reducing cow's milk protein allergenicity including thermal and non-thermal methods and their combinations. Heat treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis have been in production of hypoallergenic infant formulas. However, modulation of allergenic epitopes depends on the extent of heat treatment applied, which consequently may also reduce a nutritional value of these proteins. In addition, enzymatic hydrolysis may not target allergenic epitopes thus allergenicity may persist; however released peptides may have detrimental impact on taste and functional properties of final products. Modulation of allergenicity of milk proteins appears to require a concerted effort to minimize detrimental effects as clinical studies conducted on commercial hypoallergenic formulas demonstrated persistence of allergic symptoms. This article covers traditional and novel processing methods and their impact on reduction of cow's milk allergenicity in milk-based infant formulas.

  5. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  7. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  8. Thickened infant formula: What to know

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvatore, Silvia; Savino, Francesco; Singendonk, Maartje; Tabbers, Merit; Benninga, Marc A.; Staiano, Annamaria; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics of thickened formulas to aid health care providers manage infants with regurgitations. The indications, properties, and efficacy of different thickening agents and thickened formulas on regurgitation and gastroesophageal reflux in

  9. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  10. Infant formula and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudamini Girish More

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC is increasing worldwide. Impaired oral health could have a negative impact on the overall health of infants. ECC can continue to deteriorate the growth and development of the child in preschool stage. Feeding practices largely influence the occurrence of ECC. Infant formula is commonly used as supplements or substitutes for breast milk up to the first 2 years of age. The dietary sugars such as lactose and sucrose, present in the infant formula, could act as a favorable substrate and change the oral microflora. Infant formula constitutes of various minerals which are known to affect tooth mineralization including iron, fluoride, and calcium. A number of in vitro, animal, and human studies have been conducted to understand their effect on oral environment and microbiota. Exploring the scientific literature for different types of infant formula and their role in the etiopathogenesis of dental caries could give us an insight into the cariogenic potential of infant formula. Furthermore, this could be source of information for health practitioners as they are the ones who are first sought by parents for advice related to infant feeding.

  11. Understanding women's interpretations of infant formula advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Kathleen; Taylor, Emily; Hall-Dardess, Pam; Walker, Marsha; Labbok, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 1 year is recommended by all major health organizations. Whereas 74.6 percent of mothers initiate breastfeeding at birth, exclusivity and duration remain significantly lower than national goals. Empirical evidence suggests that exposure to infant formula marketing contributes to supplementation and premature cessation. The objective of this study was to explore how women interpret infant formula advertising to aid in an understanding of this association. Four focus groups were structured to include women with similar childbearing experience divided according to reproductive status: preconceptional, pregnant, exclusive breastfeeders, and formula feeders. Facilitators used a prepared protocol to guide discussion of infant formula advertisements. Authors conducted a thematic content analysis with special attention to women's statements about what they believed the advertisements said about how the products related to human milk (superior, inferior, similar) and how they reported reacting to these interpretations. Participants reported that the advertisements conveyed an expectation of failure with breastfeeding, and that formula is a solution to fussiness, spitting up, and other normal infant behaviors. Participants reported that the advertisements were confusing in terms of how formula-feeding is superior, inferior or the same as breastfeeding. This confusion was exacerbated by an awareness of distribution by health care practitioners and institutions, suggesting provider endorsement of infant formula. Formula marketing appears to decrease mothers' confidence in their ability to breastfeed, especially when provided by health care practitioners and institutions. Therefore, to be supportive of breastfeeding, perinatal educators and practitioners could be more effective if they did not offer infant formula advertising to mothers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors, Journal compilation © 2013

  12. Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia

    2016-03-01

    Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marunycz John D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335 were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7% was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1% was significantly different (P = 0.001. Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120

  14. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  15. Soy-based Infant Formula: A Safe Choice for Babies?

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Tien-l Karleen

    2002-01-01

    Making up about 25% of the current infant-formula market in the U.S., soy-based infant formulas are lifesaving alternatives for infants who cannot rely on traditional sources of milk for complete nutrition. While many studies have supported the effectiveness of soy-formula consumption for normal growth and development, the controversy over the potentially harmful effects of early exposure to isoflavones (phytoestrogens found in soy formulas) remains to be resolved. The plasma concentration of...

  16. WIC's promotion of infant formula in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States' Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC distributes about half the infant formula used in the United States at no cost to the families. This is a matter of concern because it is known that feeding with infant formula results in worse health outcomes for infants than breastfeeding. Discussion The evidence that is available indicates that the WIC program has the effect of promoting the use of infant formula, thus placing infants at higher risk. Moreover, the program violates the widely accepted principles that have been set out in the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and in the human right to adequate food. Summary There is no good reason for an agency of government to distribute large quantities of free infant formula. It is recommended that the large-scale distribution of free infant formula by the WIC program should be phased out.

  17. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  18. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  19. Infant Formula: A Little Knowledge Can Be Dangerous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby-LaRue, Jeannine

    1982-01-01

    Misuse of infant formula products in third-world countries is discussed with regard to the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Nestle Company's response to the code is presented and the Infant Formula Action Committee (INFACT) boycott of Nestle products is described. (CM)

  20. Effect of Time and Temperature on Thickened Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosa, Memorie M; Dodrill, Pamela

    2017-04-01

    Unlike adult populations, who primarily depend on liquids for hydration alone, infants rely on liquids to provide them with hydration and nutrition. Speech-language pathologists working within pediatric medical settings often identify dysphagia in patients and subsequently recommend thickened liquids to reduce aspiration risk. Caregivers frequently report difficulty attempting to prepare infant formula to the prescribed thickness. This study was designed to determine (1) the relationship between consistencies in modified barium swallow studies and thickened infant formulas and (2) the effects of time and temperature on the resulting thickness of infant formula. Prepackaged barium consistencies and 1 standard infant formula that was thickened with rice cereal and with 2 commercially available thickening agents were studied. Thickness was determined via a line spread test after various time and temperature conditions were met. There were significant differences between the thickened formula and barium test consistencies. Formula thickened with rice cereal separated over time into thin liquid and solid residue. Formula thickened with a starch-based thickening agent was thicker than the desired consistency immediately after mixing, and it continued to thicken over time. The data from this project suggest that nectar-thick and honey-thick infant formulas undergo significant changes in flow rates within 30 minutes of preparation or if refrigerated and then reheated after 3 hours. Additional empirical evidence is warranted to determine the most reliable methods and safest products for thickening infant formula when necessary for effective dysphagia management.

  1. Novel approaches to improve the intrinsic microbiological safety of powdered infant milk formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-02-12

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics.

  2. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Kent

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics.

  3. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  4. Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeding, Rosario; Gepanayao, Connie P; Calimon, Nerrisa; Lebumfacil, Jowena; Davis, Anne M; Stouffer, Nicole; Harris, Bruce J

    2010-05-21

    Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold) or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold+Lutein). Two hundred thirty-two (232) infantslutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.

  5. Hydrolyzed infant formula and early β-cell autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knip, Mikael; Åkerblom, Hans K; Becker, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    -associated autoantibodies out of 4 analyzed. Autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and the insulinoma-associated-2 (IA-2) molecule were analyzed using radiobinding assays and islet cell antibodies with immunofluorescence during a median observation period of 7.0 years (mean, 6.3 years). RESULTS......IMPORTANCE: The disease process leading to clinical type 1 diabetes often starts during the first years of life. Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of β-cell autoimmunity in children at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Extensively hydrolyzed formulas do not contain...... intact proteins. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula decreases the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in young children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A double-blind randomized clinical trial of 2159 infants with HLA...

  6. Semantic memory processing is enhanced in preadolescents breastfed compared to those formula-fed as infants: An ERP N400 study of sentential semantic congruity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies comparing child cognitive development and brain activity during cognitive functions between children who were fed breast milk (BF), milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF) have not been reported. We recorded event-related scalp potentials reflecting semantic processing (N400 ERP) from 20 homo...

  7. MODERN APPROACHES TO ADAPTATION OF FORMULAS FOR INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Safronova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of adaptations of formulas for infants to protein, lipid, carbohydrate, micro- and macronutrients composition of women breast milk are discussed in this article. The authors consider new functional components, used in production of modern adapted formulas: taurine, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPFA, carotenoids, including lutein, prebiotics etc.

  8. Prescribing infant formula to allergic babies | Lombard | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exclusive breastfeeding and postponement of complementary foods to four to six months of age are recommended for the prevention of food allergies. However, many infants receive formula milk for a number of reasons. Various types of formula are indicated to prevent or treat allergy and food intolerance.

  9. TOLERANCE OF MILK FORMULAS FOR INFANTS AND THE PROBLEM OF QUALITATIVE PROTEIN COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaafsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of milk formulas for infants production is complex and multistage and includes the thermal processing. There is data, that different regimens of thermal processing influence on the structure of the protein-carbohydrate complexes, which can affect the formula’s protein uptake. It was shown, that interaction between complex protein units of the formula and the cells of the Peyer’s patches increased the risk of allergic reactions development in infants with predisposition to atopy. The influence of denaturation of milk formulas on the tolerance of them is discussed in this article.

  10. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula

  11. The rediscovery of infant feeding formula with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerscovich, E.O.; McGahan, J.P.; Buonocore, M.H.; Ablin, D.S.; Lindfors, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    In six newborns, regular infant feeding formula given approximately one-half hour to four hours prior to MR examination, demonstrated a high intensity signal within the infant's stomach, small bowel, and colon. This effect was observed on both 0.5 Tesla and 1.5 Tesla magnets on T1 (SE TR/TE 433-600/20-25) and on T2 (SE TR/TE 1500/30-80) weighted images. Infant feeding formula has the potential to be used as an oral contrast agent for visualization of the newborn gastrointestinal tract. Chloral hydrate and other agents were also tested. (orig.)

  12. Bone mineral content (BMC) and serum vitamin D concentrations of infants fed partially hydrolyzed infant formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to compare the bone status of healthy, term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey formulas during the first 3 mo of life. Between 0 and 8 d of age, 89 infants were randomized to Good Start Supreme (GSS) or an experimental whey-based formula (EF) to 84 d of age. BMC was a...

  13. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on a request from the Commission related to the microbiological risks in infant formulae and follow-on formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    -15 April 2003). Contamination of powdered infant formula with E. sakazakii and with salmonellae has been the cause of infection in infants, sometimes with serious sequelae or death. Although E. sakazakii has caused illness in all age groups of neonates (up to ca 4-6 weeks of age), pre-term or low birth...... to the characteristics and physiological state of the organism, the state of the host and the food matrix. The widespread distribution of E. sakazakii suggests that consumption of low numbers in infant formula and follow-on formula by healthy infants and children does not lead to illness. Salmonella and E. sakazakii do...... not survive the pasteurization processes used during manufacture but recontamination of the powdered infant formula during handling and filling processes may occur. E. sakazakii, due to its ubiquitous character, seems to be more difficult to control in the processing environment than Salmonella. Control...

  14. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  15. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for newsletters, special programs, and deals on formula company websites. They often send out coupons and free ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  16. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12. Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9-30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3-119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1-15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

  17. Infant Formula Not Linked to Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Proteins in Formula Linked to Type 1 Diabetes? En español Send us your comments The study’s results don’t suggest ... not raise the risk of developing type 1 diabetes. “This once more shows us that there is no easy way to prevent ...

  18. Plasticizers in total diet samples, baby food and infant formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.

    2000-01-01

    The plasticizers di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) were analysed in 29 total diet samples, in 11 samples of baby food and in 11 samples of infant formulae. In all of the total diet samples the presence of one...... as in infant formulae. The calculated mean maximum intakes of the individual compounds from the total diet samples were below 10% of the restrictions proposed by the EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF), and the spread in individual intakes was considerable. DEHP was the plasticizer determined most...

  19. Reference Materials: Critical Importance to the Infant Formula Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2017-09-01

    Infant formula is one of the most regulated foods in the world. It has advanced in complexity over the years as a result of numerous research innovations. To ensure product safety and quality, analytical technologies have also had to advance to keep pace. Given the rigorous performance demands expected of these methods and the ever-growing array of complex matrixes, there is the potential for gaps to exist in current Official MethodsSM and other recognized international methods for infant formula and adult nutritionals. Food safety concerns, particularly for infants, drive the need for extensive testing by manufacturers and regulators. The net effect is the potential for an increase in time- and resource-consuming regulatory disputes. In an effort to mitigate such costly activities, AOAC INTERNATIONAL, under the direction of the Infant Formula Council of America-a trade association of manufacturers and marketers of formulated nutritional products-agreed to establish voluntary consensus Standard Method Performance Requirements, and, ultimately, to identify and publish globally recognized, fit-for-purpose standard methods. To accomplish this task, nutritional reference materials (RMs), representing all major commercially available nutritional formulations, were (and continue to be) a critical necessity. In this paper, various types of RMs will be defined, followed by review and discussion of their importance to the infant formula industry.

  20. Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Anne M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Objectives Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. Subjects/Methods This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold + Lutein. Two hundred thirty-two (232 infants ≤ 14 days postnatal age were randomized and 220 (94.8% completed the study. Weight (g, head circumference (cm, and length (cm were measured at Weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. The primary endpoint was weight gain (g/day from baseline to Week 16. Safety was assessed through monitoring of study events (SEs throughout the study and evaluation of selected blood chemistry tests performed at Week 16. Results Infants in both treatment groups demonstrated appropriate growth. No differences between treatment groups were found in any of the measures of growth at any of the measurement time points. Both study formulas were well tolerated. The mean values of all measured blood chemistry parameters fell within the modified normal ranges for infants, and the values for both groups for any measured parameter were similar. Conclusions Infants fed lutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.

  1. Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

    2013-01-01

    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of 70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein-lipid interactions in concentrated infant formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, B.O.; Richardson, T.

    1985-01-01

    Radiolabeled milk proteins ([carbon-14] β-lactoglobulin or [carbon-14] kappa-casein) were added to raw skim milk used to prepare concentrated humanized infant formula. Ultracentrifugation of the sterilized product allowed separation of three fractions: lipids and the proteins associated with them; free casein micelles and other dense particles; and the fluid phase. Distribution of radiolabeled tracer proteins or of protein measured by chemical methods among these three phases varied significantly with differences in processing conditions (time and temperature of sterilization) or amount of certain additives (potassium hydroxide or urea). In the range of 0 to 8 meq/L of potassium hydroxide added to the formula after homogenization but before sterilization, the lipid layer content of carbon-14 from [carbon-14] kappa-casein in the sterilized product decreased by 4.7% for each 1 meq/L of added potassium hydroxide. Lipid layer content of protein decreased by 2 g/L ( of a total of 32 g/L) for each 1 meq/L potassium hydroxide

  3. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Marina M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated.

  4. The Experience of Using Fermented Milk Formula Supplemented with B. lactis (BB12 in Infant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ye. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s generally known that early switching over to formula feeding leads to a number of long-term problems associated with functional disorders of the immature gastrointestinal tract and intestinal microbiota. Despite the ongoing process of compositional improvement of baby formula realized by manufacturers, it is not always possible to find the proper formula included basic functional ingredients. We have evaluated the efficacy of fermented milk formula for infants and studied its effect on the composition and formation of intestinal microbiota. The study included children under the age of 4 months being formula-fed by the studied fermented milk formula. The control group included children receiving standard infant milk formula. While taking fermented milk formula, the reduction in the incidence of intestinal colic, and normalization of defecation are stated in all children with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. It is shown that feeding by fermented milk formula leads to elimination of imbalances in intestinal microbiota (the ratio of opportunistic and bifido-/lactoflora, and helps to improve the concentration of secretory IgA in the feces.

  5. Lutein Is Differentially Deposited across Brain Regions following Formula or Breast Feeding of Infant Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Ranard, Katherine M; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Renner, Lauren; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants. We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding. From birth to 6 mo of age, male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were either breastfed (BF) (n = 8), fed a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene (237, 19.0, 74.2, and 338 nmol/kg, supplemented formula-fed; SF) (n = 8), or fed a formula with low amounts of these carotenoids (38.6, 2.3, 21.5, and 0 nmol/kg, unsupplemented formula-fed; UF) (n = 7). The concentrations of carotenoids in serum and tissues were analyzed by HPLC. At 6 mo of age, the BF group exhibited significantly higher lutein concentrations in serum, all brain regions, macular and peripheral retina, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues compared to both formula-fed groups (P Lutein concentrations were higher in the SF group than in the UF group in serum and all tissues, with the exception of macular retina. Lutein was differentially distributed across brain areas, with the highest concentrations in the occipital cortex, regardless of the diet. Zeaxanthin was present in all brain regions but only in the BF infants; it was present in both retinal regions in all groups but was significantly enhanced in BF infants compared to either formula group (P lutein concentrations compared to unsupplemented formula, concentrations were still well below those in BF infants. Regardless of diet, occipital cortex showed selectively higher lutein deposition than other brain regions, suggesting lutein's role in visual processing in early life. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  6. [Present regulation on infant and follow-on formula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo Lucena, R; Gallego Domínguez, M C; Bentabol Manzanares, A; Jodral Villarejo, M

    1995-01-01

    The commercialization of breast milk substitutes has had great economic transcendence, sometimes without considering the sanitary and nutritional consequences for the customer. The sanitary authorities have been implied in this matter both in the International and European fields, issuing standards and regulations for the commercialization of breast milk substitutes which have been adopted by the Spanish Regulation. The aim of this paper is comment the regulations that affect foods for breast-feeding and short age children. This report analyzes and comments on the contents of international, european and national regulation on infant and follow-on formula. The regulations about Infant formula and Follow-on formula, banning the term of "humanized milk" and remarking the preference for breast feeding, which could only be substituted by sanitary professionals. This regulation deals with the appropriate chemical composition of these products, qualitative and quantitative. It includes standards for correct labeling, which should contain the appropriate information without idealizing the product Drawings and pictures showing the correct preparation are allowed. It provides for distribution and sales, as well as for correct advertising, which should be under control. This regulation also bans free samples and any other donation to particular customers or sanitary institutions. The present regulation on "Infant and Follow-on formulas" pursues the adequate nutrition of breast-feeding and short age children, being the protection of this kind of customers everyone's responsibility.

  7. Evaluation of nitrite contamination in baby foods and infant formulas marketed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglu, Pinar; Baydar, Terken

    2009-05-01

    Nitrites are responsible for methemoglobinemia, to which infants younger than 6 months are thought to be the most susceptible population. This study aimed to detect whether there was any nitrite contamination in infant formulas and baby foods marketed in Turkey and to estimate possible toxicological risks in this sensitive physiological period. For this purpose, the samples were randomly collected and divided into four groups: milk-based, cereal-based, vegetable-based, and fruit-based. An easy and reliable spectrophotometric method was used by modifying the Griess method. The average nitrite contamination was found to be 204.07+/-65.80 microg/g in 42 samples, with 1,073 microg/g maximum. According to the results, baby and infant formulas include various nitrite levels; nitrite contamination might come from several sources during manufacturing, and so extreme attention must be given throughout the manufacturing process of food for infants.

  8. Prevalence of infant formula advertisements in parenting magazines over a 5-year span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Shaffer, Ellen J; Hammond, Rodney; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Marketing of infant formula contributes to a decreased likelihood to breastfeed. This study established the prevalence of infant formula advertisements in two popular US parenting magazines and explored trends in infant formula advertisement prevalence from 2007 to 2012. Advertisements were analyzed using a comprehensive coding schematic. We established a high proportion of 0.43 advertisements per page of content in both magazines and observed a significant increase in infant formula advertisement prevalence beginning in 2009. Infant formula companies use aggressive marketing in parenting magazines. Nurses who are well-trained in breastfeeding best practices can offer new mothers evidence-based information on the benefits of breastfeeding. © 2013.

  9. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011 on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475, 10 probiotics studies (N = 933 and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563 were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal

  10. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Mary N; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lombard, Martani; Young, Taryn; Blaauw, Reneé

    2012-10-04

    Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Three synbiotic studies (N = 475), 10 probiotics studies (N = 933) and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563) were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal microflora. The quality of evidence was

  11. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein is greater from human milk than from infant formula despite similar bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Banavara, Dattatreya; Shah, Bhavini; Morrow, Ardythe L; McMahon, Robert J; Jouni, Zeina E; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that the bioavailability of lutein is lower from infant formula than from human milk. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of human milk and lutein-fortified infant formula that may impact carotenoid delivery. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption were modeled by in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 human intestinal cell culture. Twelve human milk samples were assessed from 1-6 months postpartum, and 10 lutein-fortified infant formula samples from three lutein sources in both ready-to-use and reconstituted powder forms. The relative bioaccessibility of lutein was not different (p > 0.05) between human milk (29 ± 2%) and infant formula (36 ± 4%). However, lutein delivery was 4.5 times greater from human milk than infant formula when including Caco-2 accumulation efficiency. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein was increasingly efficient with decreasing concentration of lutein from milk. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 accumulation were not affected by lactation stage, total lipid content, lutein source, or form of infant formula (powder vs. liquid). These data suggest that the bioavailability of carotenoids is greater from human milk than infant formula primarily due to intestinal absorptive processes, and that absorption of lutein is potentiated by factors from human milk especially at low lutein concentration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Comparison of Growth of Healthy Term Infants Fed Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein- and Amino Acid-Based Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene W. Borschel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this narrative review was to assess published growth data for healthy, term, infants consuming extensively hydrolyzed protein-based (EHF, or amino acid-based formulas (AAF. These data may be of use to clinicians managing infants with medical conditions consuming these products. A search was conducted using key terms: amino acid-based, hydrolysate, hydrolyzed, hydrolysed, infant formula, infant formulae or formulas, baby formula, or formulae or formulas, infant, infants, infantile, and growth. Seven controlled, randomized, prospective growth trials of healthy term infants fed EHFs or AAFs at similar time points during the first four months of age met these and other criteria, including that the trial was published in a peer-reviewed journal, subjects were enrolled by ≤14 days of age and were exclusively formula-fed at entry and throughout the duration of the trial, and infants were assessed at regular intervals with weight measures available ideally at 14 days, one, two, three, and four months of age. Results suggested that healthy infants receiving commonly available EHFs and AAFs do not appear to experience accelerated growth as reported for infants fed many standard formulas. Differences in growth patterns were observed with some formulas supporting normative growth patterns during the first four months but others appearing to support markedly lower growth patterns. These observations should be confirmed in well-designed prospective randomized trials. Until that time, it is recommended that EHFs and AAFs be chosen carefully with individual patient needs considered.

  13. Manufacturers’ Bids for WIC Infant Formula Rebate Contracts, 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Victor; Davis, David

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the major purchaser of infant formula in the United States, and its mandatory rebate program saved WIC $1.9 billion in FY 2013. WIC State agencies are required by law to have competitively bid infant formula rebate contracts with infant formula manufacturers. Contracts are awarded to the manufacturer offering the WIC State agency the lowest net price (as determined by the manu...

  14. The Role of Lipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mazzocchi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of dietary lipids in infant formulae have a significant impact on health outcomes, especially when fat storing and/or absorption are limited (e.g., preterm birth and short bowel disease or when fat byproducts may help to prevent some pathologies (e.g., atopy. The lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the different fat sources used, and the potential biological effects are related to the variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. For example, since lipids are the main source of energy when the normal absorptive capacity of the digestive tract is compromised, medium-chain saturated fatty acids might cover this requirement. Instead, ruminant-derived trans fatty acids and metabolites of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with their anti-inflammatory properties can modulate immune function. Furthermore, dietary fats may influence the nutrient profile of formulae, improving the acceptance of these products and the compliance with dietary schedules.

  15. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  16. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  18. Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica K; MacMahon, Shaun

    2016-12-14

    A method was developed for the extraction of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol from infant formula, followed by quantitative analysis of the extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These process-induced chemical contaminants are found in refined vegetable oils, and studies have shown that they are potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in edible oils (and processed foods containing these oils) a potential health risk. The extraction procedure involves a liquid-liquid extraction, where powdered infant formula is dissolved in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Following shaking, centrifugation, and drying of the organic phase, the resulting fat extract is cleaned-up using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance was confirmed by verifying the percent recovery of each 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester in a homemade powdered infant formula reference material. Average ester recoveries in the reference material ranged from 84.9 to 109.0% (0.6-9.5% RSD). The method was also validated by fortifying three varieties of commercial infant formulas with a 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester solution. Average recoveries of the esters across all concentrations and varieties of infant formula ranged from 88.7 to 107.5% (1.0-9.5% RSD). Based on the validation results, this method is suitable for producing 3-MCPD and glycidyl ester occurrence data in all commercially available varieties of infant formula.

  19. Oligosaccharides in infant formula: more evidence to validate the role of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Zakharova, Irina; Dmitrieva, Yulia

    2015-05-14

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.

  20. Association of health profession and direct-to-consumer marketing with infant formula choice and switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Huang, Hui; Choiniere, Conrad J; Fein, Sara B

    2013-03-01

    Infant formula is marketed by health professionals and directly to consumers. Formula marketing has been shown to reduce breastfeeding, but the relation with switching formulas has not been studied. Willingness to switch formula can enable families to spend less on formula. Data are from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a United States national longitudinal study. Mothers were asked about media exposure to formula information during pregnancy, receiving formula samples or coupons at hospital discharge, reasons for their formula choice at infant age 1 month, and formula switching at infant ages 2, 5, 7, and 9 months. Analysis included 1,700 mothers who fed formula at infant age 1 month; it used logistic regression and longitudinal data analysis methods to evaluate the association between marketing and formula choice and switching. Most mothers were exposed to both types of formula marketing. Mothers who received a sample of formula from the hospital at birth were more likely to use the hospital formula 1 month later. Mothers who chose formula at 1 month because their doctor recommended it were less likely to switch formula than those who chose in response to direct-to-consumer marketing. Mothers who chose a formula because it was used in the hospital were less likely to switch if they had not been exposed to Internet web-based formula information when pregnant or if they received a formula sample in the mail. Marketing formula through health professionals may decrease mothers' willingness to switch formula. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Similar calcium status is present in infants fed formula with and without prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides can increase calcium absorption in adolescents and adults. Whether they affect calcium absorption in infants has not been assessed. Few data are available to compare the calcium status of infants fed modern infant formulas to that of breast fed infants. To evaluate calcium...

  2. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexø, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. METHODS: Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. RESULTS: All infant...... formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study shows...... that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated....

  4. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  5. RESEARCH OF HEAVY METALS, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES IN POWDERED INFANT FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period between october 2007 and november 2008 were collected 60 samples of powdered infant formula. The analysis for the detection of heavy metals, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides show that the environmental situation is under control and powdered infant formula satisfies this health requisite.

  6. Intestinal colonisation patterns in breastfed and formula-fed infants during the first 12 weeks of life reveal sequential microbiota signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Harro M.; Rutten, Nicole B.M.M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Saulnier, Delphine M.; Kortman, Guus A.M.; Contractor, Nikhat; Kullen, Martin; Floris, Esther; Harmsen, Hermie J.M.; Vlieger, Arine M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Rijkers, Ger T.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the infant gut microbiota is a highly dynamic process dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We characterized the faecal microbiota of 4 breastfed infants and 4 formula-fed infants at 17 consecutive time points during the first 12 weeks of life. Microbiota composition

  7. Intestinal colonisation patterns in breastfed and formula-fed infants during the first 12 weeks of life reveal sequential microbiota signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Harro M.; Rutten, Nicole B. M. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Saulnier, Delphine M.; Kortman, Guus A. M.; Contractor, Nikhat; Kullen, Martin; Floris, Esther; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Vlieger, Arine M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Rijkers, Ger T.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the infant gut microbiota is a highly dynamic process dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We characterized the faecal microbiota of 4 breastfed infants and 4 formula-fed infants at 17 consecutive time points during the first 12 weeks of life. Microbiota composition was

  8. Estimated U.S. infant exposures to 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters from consumption of infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spungen, Judith H; MacMahon, Shaun; Leigh, Jessica; Flannery, Brenna; Kim, Grace; Chirtel, Stuart; Smegal, Deborah

    2018-04-05

    A dietary exposure assessment was conducted for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) in infant formulas available for consumption in the U.S. 3-MCPDE and GE are food contaminants generated during the deodorization of refined edible oils, which are used in infant formulas and other foods. 3-MCPDE and GE are of potential toxicological concern because these compounds are metabolized to free 3-MCPD and free glycidol in rodents, and may have the same metabolic fate in humans. Free 3-MCPD and free glycidol have been found to cause adverse effects in rodents. Dietary exposures to 3-MCPDE and GE from consumption of infant formulas are of particular interest because formulas are the sole or primary food source for some infants. In this analysis, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data on 3-MCPDE and GE concentrations (as 3-MCPD and glycidol equivalents, respectively) in a small convenience sample of infant formulas were used to estimate exposures from consumption of formula by infants 0 - 6 months of age. 3-MCPDE and GE exposures based on mean concentrations in all formulas were estimated at 7 - 10 µg/kg bw/day and 2 µg/kg bw/day, respectively. Estimated mean exposures from consumption of formulas produced by individual manufacturers ranged from 1 - 14 µg/kg bw/day for 3-MCPDE, and from 1 - 3 µg/kg for GE.

  9. Comparative analysis of human milk and infant formula derived peptides following in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M-Y; Broadhurst, M; Liu, C-P; Gathercole, J; Cheng, W-L; Qi, X-Y; Clerens, S; Dyer, J M; Day, L; Haigh, B

    2017-04-15

    It has long been recognised that there are differences between human milk and infant formulas which lead to differences in health and nutrition for the neonate. In this study we examine and compare the peptide profile of human milk and an exemplar infant formula. The study identifies both similarities and differences in the endogenous and postdigestion peptide profiles of human milk and infant formula. This includes differences in the protein source of these peptides but also with the region within the protein producing the dominant proteins. Clustering of similar peptides around regions of high sequence identity and known bioactivity was also observed. Together the data may explain some of the functional differences between human milk and infant formula, while identifying some aspects of conserved function between bovine and human milks which contribute to the effectiveness of modern infant formula as a substitute for human milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…

  11. Fecal microbiota changes with the consumption of follow-up formulas containing Bifidobacterium spp. and/or galactooligosaccharides by rats and a follow-up infant formula containing Bifidobacterium spp. by human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Conesa, D.; Lopez, G.; Ros, G.H.; Abellan, P.; Hartemink, R.

    2006-01-01

    Seven groups of rats were fed during 1 mo using 1 infant formula containing Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum, 3 infant formulas containing 4-galactosyllactose at 1.2%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, and 3 infant formulas containing both ingredients. During 3 periods, corresponding to day 8 to

  12. Whey protein processing influences formula-induced gut maturation in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2013-12-01

    Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-β) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns.

  13. Analysis of Infant Milk Formula in Manado Using Perceptual Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Tielung, Maria V.J.; Mononimbar, Monica Sharen

    2014-01-01

    Positioning is a fundamental component of marketing planning and business strategies making. Product positioning is the process marketers use to determine how to best communicate their products attributes to their target customers based on customer needs, competitive pressures, available communication channels and carefully crafted key messages. Indonesia population growth rate is at one percent by 2013 est. Nutritional scientists and pediatricians recommend that infants should consume milk o...

  14. Health and nutrition content claims on websites advertising infant formula available in Australia: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nina J; Gribble, Karleen D

    2017-10-01

    The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims. The outcome measures were the presence of health claims, nutrition content claims, or references to the nutritional content of human milk. Web pages advertising 25 unique infant formula products available for purchase in Australia were identified. Every advertisement (100%) contained at least one health claim. Eighteen (72%) also contained at least one nutrition content claim. Three web pages (12%) advertising brands associated with infant formula products referenced the nutritional content of human milk. All of these claims appear in spite of national regulations prohibiting them indicating a failure of monitoring and/or enforcement. Where countries have enacted instruments to prohibit health and other claims in infant formula advertising, the marketing of infant formula must be actively monitored to be effective. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Soy protein-based infant formulas with supplemental fructooligosaccharides: gastrointestinal tolerance and hydration status in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, John; Baggs, Geraldine; Acosta, Sonja; Mackey, Amy

    2015-04-22

    Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use) containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS) and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene) as a control (CF, n = 62 infants) or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64) and EF2 (n = 62) containing scFOS (2.5 g/L) and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05) in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%), growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events). Mean USGs for study groups were normal ( CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days). In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  16. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lasekan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene as a control (CF, n = 62 infants or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64 and EF2 (n = 62 containing scFOS (2.5 g/L and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05 in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%, growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events. Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03. The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days. In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  17. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009) on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s) or prebiotic(s) to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212), 4 prebiotics studies (N=126) were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34) or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34), number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20). Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS) yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50), GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50). There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76) or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86). Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86). GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27) and (MD 0.48, 95% CI: 0

  18. Detection and determination of Melamine in infant formula by ELISA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shakerian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six samples of infant formula with different production dates and various brands were purchased from Isfahan city during 2012. The samples were assayed for the presence and quantity of melamine by ELISA screening method. According to the results, in any infant formula melamine contamination was observed above the detection limit of the kit (10 µg/L. Therefore, it was concluded that the infant formula at Isfahan retail is not considered a health hazard from the melamine contamination point of view.

  19. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  20. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to assess the tolerance (intake, incidence of spit up/vomit, and stool patterns), bone mineral status, and vitamin D status of healthy, term infants fed one of two partially hydrolyzed bovine whey protein infant formulas from birth to 56 or 84 days of age. The control ...

  1. Preparation and handling of powdered infant formula: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Axelsson, Irene; Goulet, Olivier; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim F; Puntis, John W L; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; Vandenplas, Yvan; Weaver, Lawrence T

    2004-10-01

    Powdered infant formulae are not sterile and may contain pathogenic bacteria. In addition, milk products are excellent media for bacterial proliferation. Multiplication of Enterobacter sakazakii in prepared formula feeds can cause devastating sepsis, particularly in the first 2 months of life. In approximately 50 published case reports of severe infection, there are high rates of meningitis, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis, with an overall mortality from 33% to 80%. Breast feeding provides effective protection against infection, one of the many reasons why it deserves continued promotion and support. To minimize the risk of infection in infants not fully breastfed, recommendations are made for preparation and handling of powdered formulae for children younger than 2 months of age. In the home setting, powdered infant formulae should be freshly prepared for each feed. Any milk remaining should be discarded rather than used in the following feed. Infant feeds should never be kept warm in bottle heaters or thermoses. In hospitals and other institutions written guidelines for preparation and handling of infant formulae should be established and their implementation monitored. If formula needs to be prepared in advance, it should be prepared on a daily basis and kept at 4 degrees C or below. Manufacturers of infant formulae should make every effort to minimize bacterial contamination of powdered products.

  2. Current Methods for the Analysis of Selected Novel Nutrients in Infant Formulas and Adult Nutritionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brendon D; Indyk, Harvey E; Woollard, David C

    2016-01-01

    Infant formula is designed to provide the human infant with a sole source of nutrition and it is intended to imitate breast milk. In recent years, advances in the science of infant nutrition have led to an increasing number of novel ingredients that are supplemented into infant formula. As the list of these nutritionally important nutrients is lengthy, this review summarizes contemporary analytical methods that have been applied to a representative selection (lutein, carnitine, choline, nucleotides, inositol, taurine, sialic acid, gangliosides, triacylglycerides, oligosaccharides, α-lactalbumin, and lactoferrin).

  3. Widespread usage of infant formula in China: a major public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Yang, Yuxiong; Wu, Yan; Li, Yanxia; Qiu, Liqian

    2014-12-01

    The potential health risks of infant formula feeding are well established. This study investigated the opinions and perceptions of mothers and recommendations by hospital staff with respect to infant formula usage in China. A cross-sectional survey of 726 mothers within 6 months postpartum and 241 hospital staff, using structured questionnaires, was conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Overall, 474 of 726 (65.3%) infants aged within 6 months had consumed some infant formula. About 40.0 percent of mothers chose a hybrid brand of formula (manufactured in China but owned by a foreign company), over imported (< 32.0%) and domestic brands (< 28.0%), despite their higher level of confidence on the quality of imported brands. Perceived insufficient breastmilk production (86.2%) was the most common reason for giving infant formula, followed by return to work (24.6%). Of the 241 hospital staff, 97 (40.2%) gave no recommendation about infant formula brand for infants at any age. However, 47.2 percent of the remaining staff recommended a hybrid brand in combination with an imported and/or a domestic product. Perceptions by mothers and recommendations from hospital staff appear to contribute to the widespread usage of infant formula in China. It is important to ensure breastmilk substitutes are prescribed to Chinese infants strictly for medical reasons. Maternal education programs incorporating information on food safety issues and establishment of breastfeeding-friendly workplaces could curtail the common practice of formula feeding in China. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. No difference in urinary iodine concentrations between Boston-area breastfed and formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joshua H; Leung, Angela M; Hale, Andrea R; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Belfort, Mandy B; Nelson, Sara M; Brown, Rosalind S

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal mental and physical development in infancy and childhood and is dependent on adequate iodine intake. During the first few months of life, infants are reliant on breastmilk and/or infant formula as their sole sources of dietary iodine. The iodine status of U.S. infants has not been well studied. This was a cross-sectional study of 95 breastfed and/or formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area. We measured iodine content from infants' single spot urine samples and assessed associations with infant feeding type as well as maternal demographic data, salt and multivitamin use, smoking status, and diet. The median infant urine iodine concentration was 197.5 μg/L (range 40-897.5 μg/L). Median infant urine iodine concentrations were similar between infants who were exclusively breastfed (n=39, 203.5 μg/L; range 61.5-395.5 μg/L), formula-fed (n=44, 182.5 μg/L; range 40-897.5 μg/L), and mixed (n=10, 197.8 μg/L; range 123-592.5) (p=0.88). There were no significant correlations of infant urinary iodine with maternal salt or multivitamin use (regularly or in the past 24 hours), active or secondhand cigarette smoke exposures, infant weight, infant length, or recent maternal ingestion of common iodine-containing foods, although the correlations with iodine-containing foods are difficult to accurately determine due to the small sample sizes of these variables. Both breastfed and formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area were generally iodine sufficient. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations among infants nationwide and elucidate other factors that may contribute to infant iodine nutrition.

  5. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Greibe

    Full Text Available Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12 is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow's milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12. Here we test commercially available infant formulas.Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC.All infant formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest.This pilot study shows that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated.

  6. Forms and Amounts of Vitamin B12 in Infant Formula: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greibe, Eva; Nexo, Ebba

    2016-01-01

    Infant formula is based on cow's milk and designed to mimic breast milk for substitution. Vitamin B12 (B12) is bound to proteins in both breast milk and cow's milk, and in milk from both species the vitamin occurs mainly in its natural form such as hydroxo-B12 with little or no synthetic B12 (cyano-B12). Here we test commercially available infant formulas. Eleven commercially available infant formulas were measured for content of B12 and analyzed for the presence of B12-binding proteins and forms of B12 using size exclusion chromatography and HPLC. All infant formulas contained B12 by and large in accord with the informations given on the package inserts. None of the formulas contained protein-bound B12, and cyano-B12 accounted for 19-78% of the total amount of B12 present, while hydroxo-B12 constituted more or less the rest. This pilot study shows that infant formula differs from breast milk in providing the infant with free B12, rather than protein-bound B12, and by a relative high content of cyano-B12. The consequence of supplying the infant with synthetic cyano-B12 remains to be elucidated.

  7. Iron fortification of infant formulas. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Despite the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) strong endorsement for breastfeeding, most infants in the United States are fed some infant formula by the time they are 2 months old. The AAP Committee on Nutrition has strongly advocated iron fortification of infant formulas since 1969 as a way of reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia and its attendant sequelae during the first year.1 The 1976 statement titled "Iron Supplementation for Infants" delineated the rationale for iron supplementation, proposed daily dosages of iron, and summarized potential sources of iron in the infant diet.2 In 1989, the AAP Committee on Nutrition published a statement that addressed the issue of iron-fortified infant formulas3 and concluded that there was no convincing contraindication to iron-supplemented formulas and that continued use of "low-iron" formulas posed an unacceptable risk for iron deficiency during infancy. The current statement represents a scientific update and synthesis of the 1976 and 1989 statements with recommendations about the use of iron-fortified and low-iron formulas in term infants.

  8. Webinar Presentation: Effects of Formula Supplementation on the Composition of the Infant Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Effects of Formula Supplementation on the Composition of the Infant Microbiome, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Food and Children's Health held on Dec. 9, 2015.

  9. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Papas, Mia A

    2016-03-01

    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n = 79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1-3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5-8.5-month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95 % CI 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95 % CI -0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants' RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95 % CI 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00994747.

  10. Determination of 210Po concentration in commercially available infant formulae and assessment of daily ingestion dose

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhath, Ravi K.; Sreejith, Sathyapriya R.; Nair, Madhu G.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    A study has been conducted to estimate the concentration of natural radioactive polonium in commercially available packaged infant food formulae available in Mumbai, India and the corresponding daily dose normalized based on its shelf life. Eleven most popular international brands of infant formulae were sourced from market and three aliquots from each sample were analysed for concordant results. Autodeposition method onto a silver planchet from hot dilute acid solution followed by alpha spec...

  11. True ileal amino acid digestibility of goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility

  12. Analytical standards for the measurement of nutrients in infant formula : macronutrients, minerals, carnitine, taurine and nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Alewijn, M.; Ruth, van S.M.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate methods with known performance characteristics for the assessment of the concentration of nutrients in infant and follow-on formula (referred to as "formula") are essential in the evaluation whether the composition deviates from the compositional provisions as laid down by law. Many

  13. NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the developmental toxicity of soy infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarver, Gail; Bhatia, Jatinder; Chambers, Christina; Clarke, Robert; Etzel, Ruth; Foster, Warren; Hoyer, Patricia; Leeder, J Steven; Peters, Jeffrey M; Rissman, Emilie; Rybak, Michael; Sherman, Claire; Toppari, Jorma; Turner, Katie

    2011-10-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones (phytoestrogens) that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for National Toxicology Program (NTP) evaluation because of (1) the availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as few studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2) the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3) public concern for effects on infant or child development. On October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57360), the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) announced its intention to conduct an updated review of soy infant formula to complete a previous evaluation that was initiated in 2005. Both the current and previous evaluations relied on expert panels to assist the NTP in developing its conclusions on the potential developmental effects associated with the use of soy infant formula, presented in the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula. The initial expert panel met on March 15 to 17, 2006, to reach conclusions on the potential developmental and reproductive toxicities of soy infant formula and its predominant isoflavone constituent genistein. The expert panel reports were released for public comment on May 5, 2006 (71 FR 28368). On November 8, 2006 (71 FR 65537), CERHR staff released

  14. Severe vitamin D deficiency in 6 Canadian First Nation formula-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rickets was first described in the 17th century and vitamin D deficiency was recognized as the underlying cause in the early 1900s. Despite this long history, vitamin D deficiency remains a significant health concern. Currently, vitamin D supplementation is recommended in Canada for breast fed infants. There are no recommendations for supplementation in formula-fed infants. Objective. The objective of this report is to bring attention to the risk of severe vitamin D deficiency in high risk, formula fed infants. Design. A retrospective chart review was used to create this clinical case series. Results. Severe vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in six formula-fed infants over a two-and-a-half year period. All six infants presented with seizures and they resided in First Nation communities located at latitude 54 in the province of Manitoba. While these infants had several risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, they were all receiving cow's milk based formula supplemented with 400 IU/L of vitamin D. Conclusion. This report suggests that current practice with regards to vitamin D supplementation may be inadequate, especially for high-risk infants. Health care professionals providing service to infants in a similar situation should be aware of this preventable condition. Hopefully this would contribute to its prevention, diagnosis and management.

  15. Isolation and determination antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mardaneh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacillus, from the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes disease in plants and humans (premature and immunocompromised persons of all age groups. The goal of this study was to isolate and determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula (PIF milk in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU ward. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 125 consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward were surveyed. Isolation and Identification of microorganisms was carried out according to FDA method. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the standard disc diffusion method based on CLSI (2011 recommendations. Results: Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from 2 (1.6% of 125 PIF milk samples. The results showed that isolated strains are sensitive to most antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Conclusion: Since the infant formula (PIF samples are unsterile products and contamination could occure during different steps, it is imperative to prepare the infant formula milk foods according to the manufacturer’s instruction and in an aseptic condition. Contamination of PIF only could be reduced or prevented by monitoring the critical control points and taking appropriate action during the processing.

  16. Intestinal absorption of the antiepileptic drug substance vigabatrin is altered by infant formula in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2014-01-01

    Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug substance mainly used in pediatric treatment of infantile spasms. The main source of nutrition for infants is breast milk and/or infant formula. Our hypothesis was that infant formula may affect the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The aim was therefore...... to investigate the potential effect of coadministration of infant formula with vigabatrin on the oral absorption in vitro and in vivo. The effect of vigabatrin given with an infant formula on the oral uptake and transepithelial transport was investigated in vitro in Caco-2 cells. In vivo effects of infant...... formula and selected amino acids on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin was investigated after oral coadministration to male Sprague–Dawley rats using acetaminophen as a marker for gastric emptying. The presence of infant formula significantly reduced the uptake rate and permeability of vigabatrin...

  17. The economic burden of infant formula on families with young children in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Howard L; Iellamo, Alessandro D; Raya, Rene R; Padilla, Alexander A; Sta Ana, Filomeno S; Nyunt-U, Soe

    2012-05-01

    Infant formula usage places children at risk for illness and death. Studies in the United States demonstrated high economic burden, health care costs, and absenteeism of caregivers associated with formula usage. Despite high formula usage in developing countries, no economic studies were found. This study examines the financial burden of purchasing infant formula and increased health care expenditure in the Philippines, a developing country with a per capita income of $3930. The average exchange rate of the peso to the US dollar for 2003 was $1 to P52, according to Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP). This is a secondary analysis of the 2003 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, a national cross-sectional multistage cluster survey of 42 094 households. Almost half of Philippine families with a young child and one-third of families living on less than $2 per day purchase formula. Nationally, $260 million was spent on infant formula in 2003. Formula-buying families with young children had spent an aggregate of $143.9 million on medical care compared to $56.6 million by non-formula-buying families. After adjusting for income and nonmilk family expenditures, the average formula-purchasing Philippine family spent an additional $0.30 (95% CI: 0.24 - 0.36; r(2) = 0.08) on medical expenditure for every $1 spent on formula. The economic burden from infant formula purchase and out-of-pocket medical expenditure exceeded $400 million in 2003. This cost was aside from other costs, such as absenteeism and the risk of childhood death and illness. These expenses caused an unnecessary burden on Filipino families and could instead have been invested in education and other social services.

  18. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D 10 -values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 deg. C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula

  19. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Baek [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Yeongi 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of); Woon, Jae-Ho [Livestock Products standard Division, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang 430-824 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580 185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D{sub 10}-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g{sup -1} onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 deg. C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  20. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii of dehydrated infant formula by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Jang-Ho; Woon, Jae-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as a causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 20%. The population at greatest risk is immunocompromised infants of any age. Dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The objective of this study was to investigate theirradiation effect of the inactivation on E. sakazakii (ATCC 29544) of a dehydrated infant formula. The D10-values were 0.22-0.27 and 0.76 kGy for broth and dehydrated infant formula, respectively. The irradiation at 5.0 kGy was able to completely eliminate the E. sakazakii inoculated at 8.0 to 9.0 log CFU g -1 onto a dehydrated infant formula. There was no regrowth for all samples during the time they were stored at 10 °C for 6 h after rehydration. The present results indicated that a gamma-irradiation could potentially be used to inactivate E. sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.

  1. Insulin in human milk and the use of hormones in infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Raanan; Shehadeh, Naim

    2013-01-01

    Human milk contains a substantial number of hormones and growth factors. Studies in animal models show that some of these peptides (e.g. insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, IGF-1, epidermal growth factors) have an effect on the small intestine after orogastric administration. Recently, two efforts were made to incorporate growth factors into infant formulas. One of these efforts included the incorporation of IGF-1, and the second is an ongoing effort to evaluate the safety and efficacy of incorporating insulin into infant formulas. The rational and current evidence for adding insulin to infant formulas (presence in human milk, effects of orally administrated insulin on gut maturation, intestinal permeability, systemic effects and preliminary encouraging results of supplementing insulin to a preterm infant formula) is detailed in this review. If the addition of insulin to preterm infant formulas indeed results in better growth and accelerated intestinal maturation, future studies will need to address the supplementation of insulin in term infants and assess the efficacy of such supplementation in enhancing gut maturation and prevention of later noncommunicable diseases such as allergy, autoimmune diseases and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Occurrence of 3-monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters in commercial infant formulas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica; MacMahon, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods a potential health risk. Recently, attention has focused on methodology to quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula for risk-assessment purposes. Occurrence data for 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters were produced using a procedure for extracting fat from infant formula and an LC-MS/MS method for analysing fat extracts for intact esters. Infant formulas were produced by seven manufacturers, five of which use palm oil and/or palm olein in their formulations. In formulas containing palm/palm olein, concentrations for bound 3-MCPD and glycidol ranged from 0.021 to 0.92 mg kg - 1 (ppm) and from 3-MCPD and glycidol concentrations ranged from 0.072 to 0.16 mg kg - 1 (ppm) and from 0.005 to 0.15 mg kg - 1 (ppm), respectively. Although formulas from manufacturers A and G did not contain palm/palm olein, formulas from manufacturer E (containing palm olein) had the lowest concentrations of bound 3-MCPD and glycidol, demonstrating the effectiveness of industrial mitigation strategies.

  3. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  4. Nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, G; Fahey, T; McGuire, W

    2007-10-17

    Preterm infants are often growth-restricted at hospital discharge. Feeding infants after hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk instead of human breast milk might facilitate "catch-up" growth and improve development. To determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk on growth and development of preterm infants following hospital discharge. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 - May 2007), EMBASE (1980 - May 2007), CINAHL (1982 - May 2007), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula compared with human breast milk. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. No eligible trials were identified. There are no data from randomised controlled trials to determine whether feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk affects growth and development. Mothers who wish to breast feed, and their health care advisors, would require very clear evidence that feeding with a nutrient-enriched formula milk had major advantages for their infants before electing not to feed (or to reduce feeding) with maternal breast milk. If evidence from trials that compared feeding preterm infants following hospital discharge with nutrient-enriched versus standard formula milk demonstrated an effect on growth or development, then this might strengthen the case for undertaking trials of nutrient-enriched formula milk versus human breast milk.

  5. CoQ10 plasmatic levels in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnoni, G; Giuffrè, B; Lista, G; Mosca, F; Marini, A

    2004-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 has been recognized as an important antioxidant factor besides its main role in bioenergetic metabolism. CoQ10 tissue levels depend both on exogenous dietetic intake and on endogenous biosynthesis, as this compound can be partly synthesized in human cells. Q10 plasma levels reflect the tissue content of the coenzyme and can be used to evaluate the presence of this compound in the human organism. Aim of the study was to measure CoQ10 plasmatic levels in a newborn breast-fed population and to compare them to CoQ10 levels in a newborn formula-fed population in order to verify whether changes in CoQ10 plasmatic contents could be related to a different dietetic intakes. We measured CoQ10 plasmatic levels in 25 healthy term neonates with different dietetic intakes: 15 breast-fed and 10 bottle-fed with a common infant formula. These infants were evaluated prospectively during the first month of life. The analyses were performed on the mothers' blood samples and cord blood samples at the time of delivery, then on infants at 4 and 28 days of age. Our results showed markedly reduced Q10 levels in cord blood samples compared to maternal Q10 plasmatic levels at the time of delivery, suggesting placental impermeability towards this molecule or increased fetal utilization during labor and delivery. At 4 days of age Q10 levels had increased in both groups of neonates, but significantly more in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed babies (p <0.05). At 4 weeks of age no significant changes occurred in breast-fed infants, while values increased significantly in formula-fed infants (p <0.05). The content of Q10 in breast milk samples was lower than in infant formula. The results of this study show that CoQ10 plasmatic levels are at least partly influenced by the exogenous dietetic supply.

  6. Towards infant formula biomimetic of human milk structure and digestive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourlieu Claire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids of human milk or infant formula convey most of the energy necessary to support the newborn growth. Until recently, infant formula chemical composition had been optimized but not their structure. And yet, more and more proofs of evidence have shown that lipids structure in human milk modulates digestion kinetics and is involved in metabolic programming. Indeed there is a striking difference of structure between human milk which is an emulsion based on dispersed milk fat globules (4 μm secreted by the mammary gland and submicronic neoformed lipid droplets (0.5 μm found in infant formula. These droplets result from a series of operation units. This difference of structure modifies digestion kinetics and emulsion disintegration in the intestinal tract of the newborn. This difference persists along gastric phase which is mainly dominated by acid and enzyme-induced aggregation. Lipid droplets size is thus the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis and emptying and intestinal lipolysis. This parameter also controls proteolysis since adsorbed proteins are more rapidly hydrolyzed than when in solution. In animal models, these differences of lipid structure would also impact digestive and immune systems' maturation and microbiota. Lipid structure during neonatal period would also be involved in the early programming of adipose tissues and metabolism. The supplementation of infant formulas with bovine milk fractions (milk fat globule membrane extracts, triacylglycerol or recent development of large droplets infant formula, along with new fields of innovation in neonatal nutrition, are here reviewed.

  7. Qualitative evaluation of maternal milk and commercial infant formulas via LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Al Sharnoubi, J; Harith, M A

    2013-10-15

    This study focuses on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the evaluation of the nutrients in maternal milk and some commercially available infant formulas. The results of such evaluation are vital for adequate and healthy feeding for babies during lactation period. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy offers special advantages in comparison to the other conventional analytical techniques. Specifically, LIBS is a straightforward technique that can be used in situ to provide qualitative analytical information in few minutes for the samples under investigation without preparation processes. The samples studied in the current work were maternal milk samples collected during the first 3 months of lactation (not colostrum milk) and samples from six different types of commercially available infant formulas. The samples' elemental composition has been compared with respect to the relative abundance of the elements of nutrition importance, namely Mg, Ca, Na, and Fe using their spectral emission lines in the relevant LIBS spectra. In addition, CN and C2 molecular emission bands in the same spectra have been studied as indicators of proteins content in the samples. The obtained analytical results demonstrate the higher elemental contents of the maternal milk compared with the commercial formulas samples. Similar results have been obtained as for the proteins content. It has been also shown that calcium and proteins have similar relative concentration trends in the studied samples. This work demonstrates the feasibility of adopting LIBS as a fast, safe, less costly technique evaluating qualitatively the nutrients content of both maternal and commercial milk samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 22442 - Infant Formula: The Addition of Minimum and Maximum Levels of Selenium to Infant Formula and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... brittleness and loss, gastrointestinal upsets, skin rash, garlic breath odor, fatigue, irritability, and... adult values on the basis of body weight and with a factor allowed for growth (Ref. 2). Although... infants 0 to 6 months of age is 750 milliliter (ml)/day; (2) a representative body weight for infants over...

  9. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofalo, Elizabeth A; Schanler, Richard J; Blanco, Cynthia L; Sullivan, Sandra; Trawoeger, Rudolf; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Dudell, Golde; Rechtman, David J; Lee, Martin L; Lucas, Alan; Abrams, Steven

    2013-12-01

    To compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human milk. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. The authors studied extremely preterm infants whose mothers did not provide their milk. Infants were fed either BOV or an exclusive human milk diet of pasteurized donor human milk and HUM. The major outcome was duration of parenteral nutrition. Secondary outcomes were growth, respiratory support, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Birth weight (983 vs 996 g) and gestational age (27.5 vs 27.7 wk), in BOV and HUM, respectively, were similar. There was a significant difference in median parenteral nutrition days: 36 vs 27, in BOV vs HUM, respectively (P = .04). The incidence of NEC in BOV was 21% (5 cases) vs 3% in HUM (1 case), P = .08; surgical NEC was significantly higher in BOV (4 cases) than HUM (0 cases), P = .04. In extremely preterm infants given exclusive diets of preterm formula vs human milk, there was a significantly greater duration of parenteral nutrition and higher rate of surgical NEC in infants receiving preterm formula. This trial supports the use of an exclusive human milk diet to nourish extremely preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of 64 Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added 64 Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods

  11. Effect of an ?-Lactalbumin-Enriched Infant Formula Supplemented With Oligofructose on Fecal Microbiota, Stool Characteristics, and Hydration Status

    OpenAIRE

    Wernimont, Susan; Northington, Robert; Kullen, Martin J.; Yao, Manjiang; Bettler, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the impact of oligofructose (OF)-supplemented infant formula on fecal microbiota, stool characteristics, and hydration. Methods. Ninety-five formula-fed infants were randomized to ?-lactalbumin-enriched control formula (CF) or identical formula with 3.0 g/L OF (EF) for 8 weeks; 50 infants fed human milk (HM) were included. Results. Eighty-four infants completed the study, 70 met per-protocol criteria. Over 8 weeks, bifidobacteria increased more in EF than CF group (0.70 vs 0...

  12. Medium-chain triglycerides in infant formulas and their relation to plasma ketone body concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P Y; Edmond, J; Auestad, N; Rambathla, S; Benson, J; Picone, T

    1986-04-01

    A mild ketosis is known to prevail in the mother, fetus, and newborn infant during the 3rd trimester and in the early neonatal period. It has been shown that during an equivalent period in the rat ketone bodies are readily oxidized and serve as key substrates for lipogenesis in brain. Since medium-chain triglycerides are known to be ketogenic, preterm infants may benefit from dietary medium-chain triglycerides beyond the point of enhanced fat absorption. Our objective was to determine the ketogenic response in preterm infants (gestational age: 33 +/- 0.8 wk) fed three different isocaloric formulas by measuring the concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in the plasma of these infants. At the time of entrance to the study the infants were receiving 110 kcal/kg/24 h. Study I (11 infants): the infants were fed sequentially in the order; PM 60/40 (PM), Special Care Formula (SCF), and Similac 20 (SIM). In SCF greater than 50% of the fat consists of medium-chain length fatty acids while PM and SIM contain about 25%. The concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma was significantly higher when infants were fed SCF than PM and SIM [0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.05 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively (p less than 0.01)]. Study II (12 infants); the infants were fed SCF, then SIM, or the reverse. The concentration of acetoacetate in plasma was 0.05 +/- 0.01 and 0.03 +/- 0.01 mM when infants were fed SCF and SIM, respectively (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). The concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma were similar to those measured in study I for the respective formulas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched formula until 6 months show improved growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ga Won; Jung, Yu Jin; Koh, Sun Young; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Kyung Ah; Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Sung Shin; Shim, Jae Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding nutrient-enriched preterm formula to preterm infants until 6 months' corrected age (CA) on growth and development in the first 18 months of life. Very low-birthweight preterm infants were fed preterm formula until term (40 weeks CA). Infants were then assigned to one of three groups and were fed term formula until 6 months' CA (group 1, n= 29); preterm formula to 3 months' CA and then term formula to 6 months' CA (group 2, n= 30); or preterm formula until 6 months' CA (group 3, n= 31). Anthropometry was performed at term, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and at s18 months' CA. Mental and psychomotor development were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 18 months' CA. Although body weight, length, head circumference and z score for CA at term in group 3 were significantly lower than those of groups 1 and 2, growth rates of these parameters were significantly higher in group 3 up to 18 months CA', as compared to groups 1 and 2. The mental developmental index and psychomotor developmental index of the Bayley test were not significantly different between the three groups. Very low-birthweight preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched preterm formula until 6 months' CA demonstrated significantly improved growth rates for bodyweight, length and head circumference, and comparable mental and psychomotor development throughout the first 18 months of life. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Analysis of Millennial Moms Segmentation and Perceptual Mapping of Infant Formula Milk Market in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annetta Gunawan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore factors that influenced the millennial moms in making decision to purchase infant formula productand to use these factors as a basis to determine the segmentation of millennialmoms in the formula milk industry as well as the making of perceptual in formula milk industry in Jakarta. The used method was content analysis for the exploratory study whose data were collected through in-depthinterviews, cluster analysis and cross tabulation, as well as multidimensional scaling for descriptive research which data was obtained through the questionnaire. The obtained results indicate factors that affect the millennialmoms in selecting a formula milk, are price, nutrition, word of mouth, no side effects, taste, commercials, good result, brand loyalty, the recommendation from doctors, pure ingredients, compatibility with the child’s body, random trial and error. In addition, there are four market segments of millennial moms in infant formula milk market in Jakarta. There are medical-concern moms, well-educated moms, experience-based moms and randomtrial moms. Last, the perceptual mapping of formula milk brand in Jakarta shows five groups of brand according to the dimensions of economy-class of formula milk (economic vs premium and variants of formula milk (plain vs. flavor.

  15. Human Breast Milk and Infant Formulas Differentially Modify the Intestinal Microbiota in Human Infants and Host Physiology in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenmin; Roy, Nicole C; Guo, Yanhong; Jia, Hongxin; Ryan, Leigh; Samuelsson, Linda; Thomas, Ancy; Plowman, Jeff; Clerens, Stefan; Day, Li; Young, Wayne

    2016-02-01

    In the absence of human breast milk, infant and follow-on formulas can still promote efficient growth and development. However, infant formulas can differ in their nutritional value. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of human milk (HM) and infant formulas in human infants and a weanling rat model. In a 3 wk clinical randomized controlled trial, babies (7- to 90-d-old, male-to-female ratio 1:1) were exclusively breastfed (BF), exclusively fed Synlait Pure Canterbury Stage 1 infant formula (SPCF), or fed assorted standard formulas (SFs) purchased by their parents. We also compared feeding HM or SPCF in weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats for 28 d. We examined the effects of HM and infant formulas on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial composition in human infants, and intestinal SCFAs, the microbiota, and host physiology in weanling rats. Fecal Bifidobacterium concentrations (mean log copy number ± SEM) were higher (P = 0.003) in BF (8.17 ± 0.3) and SPCF-fed infants (8.29 ± 0.3) compared with those fed the SFs (6.94 ± 0.3). Fecal acetic acid (mean ± SEM) was also higher (P = 0.007) in the BF (5.5 ± 0.2 mg/g) and SPCF (5.3 ± 2.4 mg/g) groups compared with SF-fed babies (4.3 ± 0.2 mg/g). Colonic SCFAs did not differ between HM- and SPCF-fed rats. However, cecal acetic acid concentrations were higher (P = 0.001) in rats fed HM (42.6 ± 2.6 mg/g) than in those fed SPCF (30.6 ± 0.8 mg/g). Cecal transcriptome, proteome, and plasma metabolite analyses indicated that the growth and maturation of intestinal tissue was more highly promoted by HM than SPCF. Fecal bacterial composition and SCFA concentrations were similar in babies fed SPCF or HM. However, results from the rat study showed substantial differences in host physiology between rats fed HM and SPCF. This trial was registered at Shanghai Jiào tong University School of Medicine as XHEC-C-2012-024. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS... agencies must use either a single-supplier competitive system as outlined in paragraph (c) of this section... the single-supplier competitive system? Under the single-supplier competitive system, a State agency...

  17. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...

  18. To Determine the Frequency of Bacillus cereus in Powdered Milk Infant Formula Consuming in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU in Tehran Hospitals in 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, changing the infant feeding methods and the growing trend of use powdered infant formula (PIF has raised concern about quality and health assessment among them. These products are contaminated with various pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus which the presence of this bacteria in PIF is important because of consumer age group and virulence of this bacteria in PIF. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Bacillus cereus in powdered milk infant formula consuming in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in Tehran hospitals in 2013-14. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 125 samples of powdered infant formula milk which were used in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU were surveyed during 8 month in 2014. Isolation and identification of microorganisms (including Bacillus cereus were carried out according to FDA standard protocol (FDA method on B. cereus selective agar (MYP Agar.   Results: The results of present study showed that of 125 samples from of consumable powdered infant formula milk, 84 (67.2% samples were contaminated with B.cereus and also 18 (14.4% samples were contaminated by more than one B.cereus species. Conclusion: As regards pasteurization process is not effective on the spore of B.cereus., The spores of these bacteria can remain in PIF and can cause food poisoning in infants. For this purpose, more attention to quality control of production units and imported powder milk is recommended in Iranian infant foods.

  19. Soy infant formula and seizures in children with autism: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara J Westmark

    Full Text Available Seizures are a common phenotype in many neurodevelopmental disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and autism. We hypothesized that phytoestrogens in soy-based infant formula were contributing to lower seizure threshold in these disorders. Herein, we evaluated the dependence of seizure incidence on infant formula in a population of autistic children. Medical record data were obtained on 1,949 autistic children from the SFARI Simplex Collection. An autism diagnosis was determined by scores on the ADI-R and ADOS exams. The database included data on infant formula use, seizure incidence, the specific type of seizure exhibited and IQ. Soy-based formula was utilized in 17.5% of the study population. Females comprised 13.4% of the subjects. There was a 2.6-fold higher rate of febrile seizures [4.2% versus 1.6%, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3], a 2.1-fold higher rate of epilepsy comorbidity [3.6% versus 1.7%, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7] and a 4-fold higher rate of simple partial seizures [1.2% versus 0.3%, OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.0-23] in the autistic children fed soy-based formula. No statistically significant associations were found with other outcomes including: IQ, age of seizure onset, infantile spasms and atonic, generalized tonic clonic, absence and complex partial seizures. Limitations of the study included: infant formula and seizure data were based on parental recall, there were significantly less female subjects, and there was lack of data regarding critical confounders such as the reasons the subjects used soy formula, age at which soy formula was initiated and the length of time on soy formula. Despite these limitations, our results suggest that the use of soy-based infant formula may be associated with febrile seizures in both genders and with a diagnosis of epilepsy in males in autistic children. Given the lack of data on critical confounders and the retrospective nature of the study, a prospective study is

  20. The stereospecific triacylglycerol structures and fatty acid profiles of human milk and infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Lauritzen, L.; Færk, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The stereospecific structures of the triacylglycerol molecules in human milk differ from that of cow's milk and vegetable oils, which are the fat sources used in infant formula. In human milk, palmitic acid (16:0) is predominantly esterified in the sn2 position, whereas vegetable oils...

  1. Study on viscosity modification of human and formula milk for infants with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bartha de Mattos Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the modification of the viscosity of human milk and infant formula. Methods: three studies were performed to assess the viscosity and effect of time on infant formula with a thickener, at concentrations of 2, 3, and 5%, as well as raw and pasteurized human milk at concentrations of 2, 3, 5, and 7% at 37ºC, for 60 minutes. Rice cereal was used as a thickening agent. The viscosity was evaluated using a Ford Cup-type viscometer, and the samples were analyzed at 20-minute intervals. Significant differences were assessed using the ANOVA test. Results: no significant differences in viscosity were observed over time in concentrations of 2, 3, and 5%. There was a difference in the viscosity between human milk and infant formula, in concentrations of 2% and 5%, 2% and 7%, 3% and 5%, and 3% and 7%, independently of the time intervals evaluated. Conclusion: the findings of this study demonstrate the need for different concentrations of the thickening agent for human milk and infant formula. Rice cereal is a suitable therapeutic option for newborns presented with dysphagia in concentrations of 2, 3, 5, and 7%, due to its effect on the viscosity and flow reduction, provided that the feeding time is considered.

  2. 76 FR 11788 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Infant Formula...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... those that are either structure function claims or similar to such claims. An example of the type of... regulatory, scientific, or marketing context (or none of these) of infant formula marketing in the United... participant is in. Covariate information will include, as appropriate, month of pregnancy, plans for feeding...

  3. Temperature effect on formation of advanced glycation end products in infant formula milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Cheng, Hong; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    For a standard infant formula milk powder, browning reactions were shown to become limiting for shelflife for storage at higher temperature rather than lipid oxidation. Advanced glycation end (AGE) products were found in the temperature range 65e115 C to have an energy of activation...

  4. Improved circadian sleep-wake cycle in infants fed a day/night dissociated formula milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, J; Narciso, D; Aparicio, S; Garau, C; Valero, V; Rivero, M; Esteban, S; Rial, R; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of the circadian nutritional variations present in breast milk, and of the implications for the sleep/wake cycle of the nutrients present in infant formula milks, we designed a formula milk nutritionally dissociated into a Day/Night composition. The goal was to improve the bottle-fed infant's sleep/wake circadian rhythm. A total of 21 infants aged 4-20 weeks with sleeping difficulties were enrolled in the three-week duration study. The sleep analysis was performed using an actimeter (Actiwatch) placed on an ankle of each infant to uninterruptedly record movements during the three weeks. The dissociated Day milk, designed to be administered from 06:00 to 18:00, contained low levels of tryptophan (1.5g/100g protein) and carbohydrates, high levels of proteins, and the nucleotides Cytidine 5 monophosphate, Guanosine 5 monophosphate and Inosine 5 monophosphate. The dissociated Night milk, designed to be administered from 18.00 to 06.00, contained high levels of tryptophan (3.4g/100g protein) and carbohydrates, low levels of protein, and the nucleotides Adenosine 5 monophosphate and Uridine 5 monophosphate. Three different milk-feeding experiments were performed in a double-blind procedure covering three weeks. In week 1 (control), the infants received both by day and by night a standard formula milk; in week 2 (inverse control), they received the dissociated milk inversely (Night/Day instead of Day/Night); and in week 3, they received the Day/Night dissociated formula concordant with the formula design. When the infants were receiving the Day/Night dissociated milk in concordance with their environment, they showed improvement in all the nocturnal sleep parameters analyzed: total hours of sleep, sleep efficiency, minutes of nocturnal immobility, nocturnal awakenings, and sleep latency. In conclusion, the use of a chronobiologically adjusted infant formula milk seems to be effective in improving the consolidation of the circadian sleep/wake cycle in bottle

  5. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cariogenic potential of cows', human and infant formula milks and effect of fluoride supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Regina Celia Rocha; Coppi, Luciane Cristina; Volpato, Maria Cristina; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cariogenicity of cows', human and infant formula milks, supplemented or not with fluoride, in rats. Sixty female Wistar rats were desalivated and infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715.Animals were divided into six groups: group 1, sterilised deionised distilled water (SDW; negative control); group 2, 5 % sucrose added to SDW (positive control); group 3, human milk; group 4, cows' milk; group 5, Ninho(R) formula reconstituted with SDW; group 6, Ninho(R) formula reconstituted with 10 parts per million F and SDW. At day 21 the animals were killed and their jaws removed to quantify total cultivable microbiota, Strep. sobrinus and dental caries. The concentration of carbohydrate and fluoride in the milks was analysed. The Kruskal-Wallis test (alpha = 5 %) was used to analyse the data. The caries score by the milk formula was as high as that provoked by sucrose. Regarding smooth-surface caries, human milk was statistically more cariogenic than cows' milk, which did not differ from the SDW and the Ninho(R) with fluoride (P>0.05). Groups 2-6 showed higher Strep. sobrinus counts when compared with the negative control group (P 0.05). HPLC analysis showed that infant formula had 9.3 % sucrose and 3.6 % reducing sugars. The infant formula should be considered cariogenic due to the sugars found in it, but fluoride supplementation reduced its cariogenic effect. The human milk was more cariogenic than the cows' milk but not as much as the formula milk.

  7. Effects of Infant Formula With Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Growth and Morbidity: A Randomized Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, Giuseppe; Alliet, Philippe; Cajozzo, Cinzia; Janssens, Elke; Corsello, Giovanni; Sprenger, Norbert; Wernimont, Susan; Egli, Delphine; Gosoniu, Laura; Steenhout, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance, and morbidity. Healthy infants, 0 to 14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's milk-based infant formula (control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6 to 12 months. Primary endpoint was weight gain through 4 months. Secondary endpoints included additional anthropometric measures, gastrointestinal tolerance, behavioral patterns, and morbidity through age 12 months. Weight gain was similar in both groups (mean difference [95% confidence interval] test vs control: -0.30 [-1.94, 1.34] g/day; lower bound of 95% confidence interval was above noninferiority margin [-3 g/day]). Digestive symptoms and behavioral patterns were similar between groups; exceptions included softer stool (P = 0.021) and fewer nighttime wake-ups (P = 0.036) in the test group at 2 months. Infants receiving test (vs control) had significantly fewer parental reports (P = 0.004-0.047) of bronchitis through 4 (2.3% vs 12.6%), 6 (6.8% vs 21.8%), and 12 months (10.2% vs 27.6%); lower respiratory tract infection (adverse event cluster) through 12 months (19.3% vs 34.5%); antipyretics use through 4 months (15.9% vs 29.9%); and antibiotics use through 6 (34.1% vs 49.4%) and 12 months (42.0% vs 60.9%). Infant formula with 2'FL and LNnT is safe, well-tolerated, and supports age-appropriate growth. Secondary outcome findings showing associations between consuming HMO-supplemented formula and lower parent-reported morbidity (particularly bronchitis) and medication use (antipyretics and antibiotics) warrant confirmation in future studies.

  8. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  9. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  10. [Nutritional composition of infant milk formulas. Level of compliance in their manufacture and adequacy of nutritional needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardí Piñana, C; Aranda Pons, N; Bedmar Carretero, C; Arija Val, V

    2015-12-01

    A high percentage of infants are fed with infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess compliance with the Technical and Safety Regulations in the manufacture of Spanish infant formulas, analyse their adequacy to the recommendations of nutritional composition and the Dietary References Intakes for infants. A total of 31 infant formulas were analysed, of which 18 were infant formulas, 10 follow-on formulas, and 3 growing-up milks. The European Technical and Safety Regulations, the Spanish Dietary Reference Intakes and the Institute of Medicine of the United States and Canada, were used for the assessment of compliance and adequacy. The energy and macronutrient content of analysed infant formulas is placed in the middle of the range indicated in the Technical and Safety Regulations, and meets the recommended amounts. However, most micronutrients such as phosphorus, calcium, retinol, vitamin D, E, C, B6, B12, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate are at the lower limit of the Technical and Safety Regulations. However, the recommended consumption of infant formulas exceeded the Dietary References Intakes for vitamin E, C, retinol, vitamin B and folate, and vitamin B12 for follow-on formulas. Infant formulas are within the reference values of the European Technical and Safety Regulations in energy and macronutrients, but we believe that the level of micronutrients should be reviewed, based on current scientific data on infant requirements and possible adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Randomised controlled trial of a synthetic triglyceride milk formula for preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A; Quinlan, P; Abrams, S; Ryan, S; Meah, S; Lucas, P

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To test whether use of infant formula containing synthetic structured triglycerides results in: (i) increased palmitate absorption; (ii) increased total fat absorption; (iii) reduction in calcium soap formation in the gut; and hence (iv) increased calcium absorption.
METHODS—A randomised study was made of 24 infants comparing three formulas, one containing the synthetic fat Betapol with 74% of palmitate in the 2-position, which was substantially higher than in the two comparison diets (8.4% and 28%). The hypothesised outcomes were tested using balance studies, detailed chemical analysis of stool specimens and dual calcium isotope tracers (44calcium orally and 46calcium intravenously). 
RESULTS—Three of the four hypotheses were confirmed: use of a formula rich in 2-position palmitate (i) improved palmitate (16:0) and also (18:0) absorption; (ii) reduced the formation of insoluble calcium soaps in the stool; and (iii) improved calcium absorption, determined by the dual tracer technique from 42 (SE 3)% to 57 (7)%.
CONCLUSION—Synthetic triglycerides that mimic the stereoisometric structure of those in breast milk may have a valuable role in the design of formulas used for preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units.

 PMID:9462186

  12. Enterobacteriaceae in dehydrated powdered infant formula manufactured in Indonesia and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuningsih, Sri; Kress, Claudia; Hassan, Abdulwahed A; Akineden, Omer; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald

    2006-12-01

    To determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella in infant formula from Southeast Asia, 74 packages of dehydrated powdered infant follow-on formula (recommended age, > 4 months) from five different manufacturers, four from Indonesia and one from Malaysia, were analyzed. None of the 25-g test portions yielded Salmonella or Shigella. However, further identification of colonies growing on selective media used for Salmonella and Shigella detection revealed the frequent occurrence of several other Enterobacteriaceae species. A total of 35 samples (47%) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Ten samples (13.5%) from two Indonesian manufacturers yielded Enterobacter sakazakii. Other Enterobacteriaceae isolated included Pantoea spp. (n = 12), Escherichia hermanii (n = 10), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 8), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (n = 3), Citrobacter spp. (n = 2), Serratia spp. (n = 2), and Escherichia coli (n = 2). To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the contamination of dehydrated powdered infant formula from Indonesia with E. sakazakii and several other Enterobacteriaceae that could be opportunistic pathogens. Improper preparation and conservation of these products could result in a health risk for infants in Indonesia.

  13. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  14. Variation in Formula Supplementation of Breastfed Newborn Infants in New York Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang; Dennison, Barbara A; Fan, Wei; Xu, Changning; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2017-07-01

    We examined the variation between 126 New York hospitals in formula supplementation among breastfed infants after adjusting for socioeconomic, maternal, and infant factors and stratifying by level of perinatal care. We used 2014 birth certificate data for 160 911 breastfed infants to calculate hospital-specific formula supplementation percentages by using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression models. Formula supplementation percentages varied widely among hospitals, from 2.3% to 98.3%, and was lower among level 1 hospitals (18.2%) than higher-level hospitals (50.6%-57.0%). Significant disparities in supplementation were noted for race and ethnicity (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] were 1.54-2.05 for African Americans, 1.85-2.74 for Asian Americans, and 1.25-2.16 for Hispanics, compared with whites), maternal education (aORs were 2.01-2.95 for ≤12th grade, 1.74-1.85 for high school or general education development, and 1.18-1.28 for some college or a college degree, compared with a Master's degree), and insurance coverage (aOR was 1.27-1.60 for Medicaid insurance versus other). Formula supplementation was higher among mothers who smoked, had a cesarean delivery, or diabetes. At all 4 levels of perinatal care, there were exemplar hospitals that met the HealthyPeople 2020 supplementation goal of ≤14.2%. After adjusting for individual risk factors, the hospital-specific, risk-adjusted supplemental formula percentages still revealed a wide variation. A better understanding of the exemplar hospitals could inform future efforts to improve maternity care practices and breastfeeding support to reduce unnecessary formula supplementation, reduce disparities, increase exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding duration, and improve maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations and metabolism in breast milk, infant formula, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jesica A; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Ibrahim, Yomna; Merritt, T Allen; Wan, Kim-Wah; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate and nitrite are sources of gastric NO, which modulates blood flow, mucus production, and microbial flora. However, the intake and importance of these anions in infants is largely unknown. Nitrate and nitrite levels were measured in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants, infant formulas, and parenteral nutrition. Nitrite metabolism in breast milk was measured after freeze-thawing, at different temperatures, varying oxygen tensions, and after inhibition of potential nitrite-metabolizing enzymes. Nitrite concentrations averaged 0.07 ± 0.01 μM in milk of mothers of preterm infants, less than that of term infants (0.13 ± 0.02 μM) (P milk. Concentrations in parenteral nutrition were equivalent to or lower than those of breast milk. Freeze-thawing decreased nitrite concentration ~64%, falling with a half-life of 32 minutes at 37°C. The disappearance of nitrite was oxygen-dependent and prevented by ferricyanide and 3 inhibitors of lactoperoxidase. Nitrite concentrations in breast milk decrease with storage and freeze-thawing, a decline likely mediated by lactoperoxidase. Compared to adults, infants ingest relatively little nitrite and nitrate, which may be of importance in the modulation of blood flow and the bacterial flora of the infant GI tract, especially given the protective effects of swallowed nitrite. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. [Effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on growth and development of infants with very/extremely low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Hui-Fen; Wang, Jin-Xiu

    2017-08-01

    To study the effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on the growth and development in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. A total of 375 VLBW or ELBW infants were enrolled and divided into an observation group (187 infants) and a control group (188 infants) using a random number table. The infants in the observation group were given extensively hydrolyzed formula, and when the amount of extensively hydrolyzed formula reached 10 mL/time, it was changed to the standard formula for preterm infants. The infants in the control group were given standard formula for preterm infants. Both groups were fed for 4 consecutive weeks and were compared in terms of incidence rate of feeding intolerance, time to establish full enteral feeding, time to complete meconium excretion, number of spontaneous bowel movements, growth and development, motilin level at 4 and 10 days after feeding, and incidence rate of infection. Compared with the control group, the observation group had a lower rate of feeding intolerance (Pdevelopment, and reduce the incidence of infection in VLBW and ELBW infants.

  17. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78. Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132. Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

  18. The Economic Impact of Lower Protein Infant Formula for the Children of Overweight and Obese Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marsh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of obesity is rising rapidly, highlighting the importance of understanding risk factors related to the condition. Childhood obesity, which has itself become increasingly prevalent, is an important predictor of adulthood obesity. Studies suggest that the protein content consumed in infanthood is an important predictor of weight gain in childhood, which may contribute to higher body mass index (BMI. For instance, there is evidence that a lower protein infant formula (lpIF for infants of overweight or obese mothers can offer advantages over currently-used infant formulas with regard to preventing excessive weight gain. The current study used health economic modelling to predict the long-term clinical and economic outcomes in Mexico associated with lpIF compared to a currently-used formula. A discrete event simulation was constructed to extrapolate the outcomes of trials on the use of formula in infanthood to changes in lifetime BMI, the health outcomes due to the changes in BMI and the healthcare system costs, productivity and quality of life impact associated with these outcomes. The model predicts that individuals who receive lpIF in infancy go on to have lower BMI levels throughout their lives, are less likely to be obese or develop obesity-related disease, live longer, incur fewer health system costs and have improved productivity. Simulation-based economic modelling suggests that the benefits seen in the short term, with the use of lpIF over a currently-used formula, could translate into considerable health and economic benefits in the long term. Modelling over such long timeframes is inevitably subject to uncertainty. Further research should be undertaken to improve the certainty of the model.

  19. Supplementation of milk formula with galacto-oligosaccharides improves intestinal micro-flora and fermentation in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Xiao-ming; Zhou, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Wei-hua; Yu, Wen-liang; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Wei-li; Wu, Sheng-mei; Van Beusekom, Christien M; Schaafsma, Anne

    2004-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in human milk may protect infants by improving the intestinal micro-flora and fermentation. This study was to investigate effects of infant formula milk consisting of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on intestinal microbial populations and the fermentation characteristics in term infants in comparison with that of human milk. The test formula (Frisolac H, Friesland, Netherland) was supplemented with GOS at a concentration of 0.24 g/dl. Human milk and another formula without oligosaccharides (Frisolac H, Friesland, Netherland) were used as positive and negative control respectively. Growth, stool characteristics, and side effects of the recruited infants were recorded after 3 and 6 months' follow-up, and the fecal species were collected for the analysis of intestinal micro-flora, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and pH. At the end of 3- and 6-month feeding period, intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli were significantly increased in infants fed with GOS supplemented formula and human milk when compared with infants fed with negative control formula; however, there was no statistically significant difference between GOS supplemented formula and human milk groups. Stool characteristics were influenced by the supplement and main fecal SCFA (acetic), and stool frequency were significantly increased in infants fed with GOS supplemented formula and human milk, while the fecal pH was significantly decreased as compared with that of negative control (P effects (including crying, regurgitation and vomiting). Supplementing infant formula with GOS at a concentration of 0.24 g/dl stimulates the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in the intestine and stool characteristics are similar to in term infants fed with human milk.

  20. The Relationships between Belief, Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Behavior Towards Infant Food Formula Selection: The Views of the Malaysian Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relationships between belief, attitude, subjective norm, intention, and behavior towards the choice of infant food based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA. An analysis on a sample of 108 mothers indicates that the TRA could be used in predicting choice decision of infant food formulas by explaining 57 percent of the variance in the behavioral intention. The subjective norm component had a higher predictive power than the attitudinal component. Of this normative component, parents or relatives and doctors were found to be more influential. Intention to choose an infant formula was also influenced by family income. The belief outcomes in evaluating a premium infant formula and economic infant formula were found to be different. For premium infant formula, brand trusted, closest to breast milk and nutrients content were identified as the dominant attributes. In contrast, availability, affordable, and nutrients content were identified as the prime beliefs in evaluating economic infant formula. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. An Assessment of the Cariogenicity of Commonly Used Infant Milk Formulae Using Microbiological and Biochemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Dixit Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an important dental public health problem and is the most prevalent oral disease among children in the world. The present study was undertaken to evaluate and comparatively assess the change in plaque and salivary pH after ingestion of various commercially available infant milk formulae, and also to evaluate and comparatively assess plaque and salivary samples for change in colony-forming units of Streptococcus mutans caused due to their ingestion. 36 children in the age group of 1-2 years were fed with infant milk formulae three times a day for 21 days and results quantified. The present study revealed a highly significant increase in the levels of colony-forming units of Streptococcus mutans in both the plaque and salivary samples when assessed at baseline and after a period of 21 days, with the t value being 11.92 for the plaque samples and 11.66 for the salivary samples. It was also observed that all the test samples produced significantly lower plaque pH values than pre-feed pH. Based upon this study, further evaluation of the cariogenicity of infant milk formulae is recommended.

  2. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.

  3. Inactivation of Nondesiccated and Desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in Reconstituted Infant Formula by Combination of Citral and Mild Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Zhenyu; Sun, Yi; Chen, Yifei; Guo, Du; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wen, Qiwu; Guo, Xiao; Ma, Linlin; Yang, Baowei; Baloch, Allah Bux; Xia, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of citral plus mild heat on nondesiccated and desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula. Various concentrations of citral (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%) combined with various temperatures (25, 45, 50, and 55°C) were applied to nondesiccated and desiccated cocktails of three C. sakazakii strains (approximately 6.0 log CFU mL -1 ) in reconstituted infant formula, and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically. The combined treatments had marked antimicrobial effects on C. sakazakii compared with the control. Desiccated cells were more susceptible to citral than were nondesiccated cells in reconstituted infant formula. These findings suggest there is a potential application of citral in combination with mild heat to control C. sakazakii during preparation of reconstituted infant formula.

  4. Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula (MA-mi Induced Exacerbation of Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES in a Male Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kabuki

    2007-01-01

    Discussion: MA-mi is likely to be used increasingly for allergic infants, but it is not necessarily a substitute for other hydrolyzed milk formulae in all cases, and care should be taken regarding its use and possible misuse.

  5. Infant formula and follow-up formula may contain harmful 3-MCPD fatty acid esters

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2007-01-01

    Free 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) has been identified as a contaminant for a long time in various foods like liquid seasoning or bakery goods heated to high temperatures. This substance is formed when fat-containing and salt-containing foods are processed at high temperatures during production. In animal experiments 3-MCPD has led to an increase in the cell count (hyperplasia) in renal tubules and, at higher levels, it triggered benign tumours. No genotoxic effect was observed. BfR h...

  6. Similar HIV protection from four weeks of zidovudine versus nevirapine prophylaxis among formula-fed infants in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Powis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization HIV guidelines recommend either infant zidovudine (ZDV or nevirapine (NVP prophylaxis for the prevention of intrapartum motherto-child HIV transmission (MTCT among formula-fed infants. No study has evaluated the comparative efficacy of infant prophylaxis with twice daily ZDV versus once daily NVP in exclusively formula-fed HIV-exposed infants.   Methods: Using data from the Mpepu Study, a Botswana-based clinical trial investigating whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole could improve infant survival, retrospective analyses of MTCT events and Division of AIDS (DAIDS Grade 3 or Grade 4 occurrences of anaemia or neutropenia were performed among infants born full-term (≥ 37 weeks gestation, with a birth weight ≥ 2500 g and who were formula-fed from birth. ZDV infant prophylaxis was used from Mpepu Study inception. A protocol modification mid-way through the study led to the subsequent use of NVP infant prophylaxis.   Results: Among infants qualifying for this secondary retrospective analysis, a total of 695 (52% infants received ZDV, while 646 (48% received NVP from birth for at least 25 days but no more than 35 days. Confirmed intrapartum HIV infection occurred in two (0.29% ZDV recipients and three (0.46% NVP recipients (p = 0.68. Anaemia occurred in 19 (2.7% ZDV versus 12 (1.9% NVP (p = 0.36 recipients. Neutropenia occurred in 28 (4.0% ZDV versus 21 (3.3% NVP recipients (p = 0.47.   Conclusions: Both ZDV and NVP resulted in low intrapartum transmission rates and no significant differences in severe infant haematologic toxicity (DAIDS Grade 3 or Grade 4 among formula-fed full-term infants with a birthweight ≥ 2500 g.

  7. The results of prospective multicenter study of the effectiveness of amino acid formula in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and allergy to cow’s milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Nyankovskyy

    2014-05-01

    Amino acid formula was well tolerated by children with severe AD and, if needed, it might be used as a therapeutic formula for an exclusive feeding of infants with severe allergies to CMP. Duration of the diet therapy should not be less than 4 weeks. High effectiveness of this formula in infants with AD was proved by parents and doctors.

  8. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

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    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  9. The importance of hygiene in the domestic kitchen: implications for preparation and storage of food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-03-01

    Public concerns relating to food safety remain high with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. However, previous data have suggested that the home may be the main location for cases of food-borne disease. The aim of this paper is to review the microbiological risks associated with hygiene in the domestic kitchen related to food and infant formula safety. Compared to other food sectors, research on consumer food hygiene, domestic food-handling and preparation of infant formula is relatively understudied. Behavioural and microbiological studies of consumer hygiene and the domestic kitchen have been reviewed to incorporate research relating to the safety of infant formula. Incidence data identify the home as an important location for acquiring food-borne disease. The domestic kitchen can be used for a variety of purposes and is often contaminated with potentially harmful micro-organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Consumer hygiene habits have frequently been found to be inadequate and relate both to microbial growth, survival and cross-contamination. Due to the reduced immune response of infants, the activities associated with the preparation of infant formula and associated bottles and equipment are of particular concern. Cumulatively, the data suggest that more effort should be made to educate the consumer in food hygiene, especially when the kitchen is used to reconstitute infant formula. This information needs to be provided in a form appropriate for use by consumers.

  10. Characterisation of the volatile profiles of infant formulas by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Floris, V.; Fayoux, S.

    2006-01-01

    The volatile profiles of 13 infant formulas were evaluated by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry (GC¿MS). The infant formulas varied in brand (Aptamil, Cow & Gate, SMA), type (for different infant target groups) and physical form

  11. New Methods for the Analysis of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Don

    2016-01-01

    The AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) defined fat-soluble vitamins (FSVs) to include vitamins A, D, E, and K. The levels of FSVs have been closely scrutinized because of a number of factors, including nutrition value especially in foods used to provide sole-source nutrition and the potential for health risks associated with content both below and above recommended levels. Stricter scrutiny and emphasis on nutrient-level compliance with regulatory requirements placed an increased demand on analytical methods that were fit-for-purpose, provided accurate and precise results. Over time, compendial methods have been developed and published by organizations such as AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the European Committee for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the International Organization for Standardization, among others. In general, these methods have shown adequate precision for regulatory compliance based on example food matrixes for which they were designed. However, method evaluation for infant formulas and adult nutritional products was limited to very few matrixes within these categories. As such, method applicability gaps were noted and correlated with more complicated or diverse product matrixes. AOAC undertook the task of modernizing test methods for the determination of nutrients in infant formulas and in adult nutritional products formulated specifically for both healthy adults and those requiring specific nutritional intake. Composition of products in this category continued to evolve, which in turn presented increasing and new challenges to analytical methodology. A summary of a new generation of candidate compendial methods for determination of FSVs in these matrixes, identified by SPIFAN, is presented here.

  12. Cronobacter species contamination of powdered infant formula and the implications for neonatal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam eKalyatanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter is a class of Enterobacteriaceae that cause infections in neonates, especially those born prematurely. Over 90% of these infections have been linked epidemiologically to powdered infant formula (PIF. Contamination of PIF can occur at manufacture, reconstitution, or storage of reconstituted product. Intrinsic properties that enable Cronobacter to cause disease include resistance to heat, ultraviolet radiation, oxygen radicals, stomach acids, and pasteurization; an ability to utilize sialic acid (a nutrition additive to PIF that facilitates the organism’s growth and survival; and an exceptional affinity for biofilms in enteral feeding tubes. As part of ongoing endeavors to reduce the incidence of neonatal PIF-associated Cronobacter infections, the World Health Organization (WHO and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA have established guidelines for PIF production, preparation for infant feeding, and storage of reconstituted product.

  13. Protein Digestion and Quality of Goat and Cow Milk Infant Formula and Human Milk Under Simulated Infant Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maathuis, Annet; Havenaar, Robert; He, Tao; Bellmann, Susann

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of true ileal protein digestion and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of a goat milk-based infant formula (GIF), a cow milk-based infant formula (CIF), and human milk (HM). The GIF, CIF, and HM were investigated in an in vitro gastrointestinal model simulating infant conditions. Digested compounds were dialyzed from the intestinal compartment as bioaccessible fraction. Dialysate was collected in 15 to 60-minute periods for 4 hours. True ileal protein digestibility and DIAAS were determined as bioaccessible nitrogen (N) and amino acids. N bioaccessibility from the GIF showed similar kinetics to that of HM. The CIF showed a delay in N bioaccessibility versus the GIF and HM. In the 1st hour of digestion, N bioaccessibility was 19.9% ± 3.5% and 23.3% ± 1.3% for the GIF and HM, respectively, and 11.2% ± 0.6% for CIF (P < 0.05 vs HM). In the 3rd hour of digestion, the N bioaccessibility was higher (P < 0.05) for the CIF (28.9% ± 1.2%) than for the GIF (22.5% ± 1.6%) and HM (20.6% ± 1.0%). After 4 hours, the true ileal protein digestibility of the GIF, CIF, and HM was 78.3% ± 3.7%, 73.4% ± 2.7%, and 77.9% ± 4.1%, respectively. The DIAAS for the GIF, CIF, and HM for 0- to 6-month-old infants was 83%, 75%, and 77% for aromatic AA. The protein quality is not different between the GIF, CIF, and HM, but the kinetics of protein digestion of the GIF is more comparable to that of HM than that of the CIF.

  14. Official Methods for the Determination of Minerals and Trace Elements in Infant Formula and Milk Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The minerals and trace elements that account for about 4% of total human body mass serve as materials and regulators in numerous biological activities in body structure building. Infant formula and milk products are important sources of endogenic and added minerals and trace elements and hence, must comply with regulatory as well as nutritional and safety requirements. In addition, reliable analytical data are necessary to support product content and innovation, health claims, or declaration and specific safety issues. Adequate analytical platforms and methods must be implemented to demonstrate both the compliance and safety assessment of all declared and regulated minerals and trace elements, especially trace-element contaminant surveillance. The first part of this paper presents general information on the mineral composition of infant formula and milk products and their regulatory status. In the second part, a survey describes the main techniques and related current official methods determining minerals and trace elements in infant formula and milk products applied for by various international organizations (AOAC INTERNATIONAL, the International Organization for Standardization, the International Dairy Federation, and the European Committe for Standardization). The third part summarizes method officialization activities by Stakeholder Panels on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals and Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods. The final part covers a general discussion focusing on analytical gaps and future trends in inorganic analysis that have been applied for in infant formula and milk-based products.

  15. S100B Protein concentration in milk-formulas for preterm and term infants. Correlation with industrial preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Francesco; Gagliardi, Luigi; Ciotti, Sabina; Galvano, Fabio; Pietri, Amedeo; Tina, Gabriella Lucia; Cavallaro, Daniela; La Fauci, Luca; Iacopino, Leonardo; Bognanno, Matteo; Li Volti, Giovanni; Scacco, Antonio; Michetti, Fabrizio; Gazzolo, Diego

    2008-05-01

    Human milk S100B protein possesses important neurotrophic properties. However, in some conditions human milk is substituted by milk formulas. The aims of the present study were: to assess S100B concentrations in milk formulas, to verify any differences in S100B levels between preterm and term infant formulas and to evaluate the impact of industrial preparation at predetermined phases on S100B content. Two different set of samples were tested: (i) commercial preterm (n = 36) and term (n = 36) infant milk formulas; ii) milk preterm (n = 10) and term infant (n = 10) formulas sampled at the following predetermined industrial preparation time points: skimmed cow milk (Time 0); after protein sources supplementation (Time 1); after pasteurization (Time 2); after spray-drying (Time 3). Our results showed that S100B concentration in preterm formulas were higher than in term ones (p 0.05) at Time 2, whereas a significant (p pasteurization but not spry-drying. New feeding strategies in preterm and term infants are therefore warranted in order to preserve S100B protein during industrial preparation.

  16. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; Mora, Ignacio De la Mora-De la; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; Angel, Ariadna González-Del; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-10-29

    The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin(®) and Metlos(®)) was demonstrated. This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin(®) and Metlos(®) in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin(®) and Metlos(®). Our results support the efficacy of Metlin(®) and Metlos(®) as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783.

  17. Infant Milk Formulas: Effect of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Powdered Products towards Autoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cesa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty samples of powdered infant milk formulas containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been stored at four different temperatures (20, 28, 40 and 55 °C and periodically monitored for their malondialdehyde (MDA content up to one year. MDA levels ranged between 250 and 350 ng/kg in sealed samples with a maximum of 566 ng/kg in samples stored at 28 °C for three weeks after opening of their original packages, previously maintained for ten months at 20 °C. Sample stored at 40° and 55 °C were also submitted to CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage colorimetric analysis, since color is the first sensorial property that consumers may evaluate. Overall, the results demonstrated a good stability of PUFA-enriched infant milk formulas in terms of MDA content. However, some care has to be paid when these products are not promptly consumed and stored for a long time after first opening.

  18. Determination of 210Po concentration in commercially available infant formulae and assessment of daily ingestion dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K. Prabhath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to estimate the concentration of natural radioactive polonium in commercially available packaged infant food formulae available in Mumbai, India and the corresponding daily dose normalized based on its shelf life. Eleven most popular international brands of infant formulae were sourced from market and three aliquots from each sample were analysed for concordant results. Autodeposition method onto a silver planchet from hot dilute acid solution followed by alpha spectrometry was performed for estimation of polonium. Radiochemical recovery was ascertained by the addition of 209Po tracer. Radiochemical recovery of 209Po tracer was ranged from 14.7 to 98.1 %. The 210Po concentration in the samples was in the range of 0.08–0.23 Bq kg−1 on measured date and the corresponding daily dose, calculated on normalized date which is at mid-point of the shelf life of the sample, was ranged from 0.04 to 0.89 μSv d−1 as per the recommended daily consumption. The annual committed effective dose estimated based on the average of daily dose was found to be 150 μSv.

  19. [Determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Feng, Feng; Ling, Yun; Chu, Xiaogang; Li, Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) method for the determination of lutein in the infant formula milk powder was developed. The sample was extracted with acetone and defatted using freezing centrifugation method. The U-HPLC separation was achieved using a YMC Carotenoid C30 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 microm) with the mixture of methanol/methyl tert-butyl ether (70: 30, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic elution. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 5 microL. It was detected on a photodiode array detector at a wavelength of 445 nm. The results showed that the linear range was 20-500 microg/L (r = 0.9999), and the limit of quantification was 20 microg/L. The mean recoveries of lutein varied from 97.9% to 104.4% spiked at 50, 250 and 2,000 microg/kg. The established method is simple, accurate and sensitive for the rapid determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder.

  20. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel López-Velázquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos® was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783.

  1. Sources of dietary iodine: bread, cows' milk, and infant formula in the Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Pino, Sam; He, Xuemei; Bazrafshan, Hamid R; Lee, Stephanie L; Braverman, Lewis E

    2004-07-01

    Dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Although U.S. dietary iodine is generally adequate, some groups, especially women of childbearing age, are at risk for mild iodine deficiency. Children's average urinary iodine is higher than that of adults. U.S. dietary iodine sources have not been assessed recently. A survey of iodine content in 20 brands of bread, 18 brands of cows' milk, and eight infant formulae was performed between 2001 and 2002. Three bread varieties contained more than 300 microg iodine per slice. Iodine content in other brands was far lower (mean +/- sd, 10.1 +/- 13.2 microg iodine/slice). All cows' milk samples had at least 88 microg iodine/250 ml, ranging from 88-168 microg (116.0 +/- 22.1 microg/250 ml). Infant formulae values ranged from 16.2 to 56.8 microg iodine/5 oz (23.5 +/- 13.78 microg/5 oz). The public should be aware of the need for adequate dietary iodine intake and should be aware that ingredient lists do not reflect the iodine content of foods.

  2. Occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA residues in soy-based infant formula sold in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nadia Regina; de Souza, Ana Paula Ferreira

    2018-04-01

    Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in the world, being applied in several crops, among them soybeans. Recently, glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) have been identified as possible contributors to the emergence of various diseases such as autism, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, as well as cancer. The child population-consuming cereal-based foods is the most exposed to the effects of pesticides because of their developmental phase and they have a higher food intake per kilogram of body weight than adults. The presence of glyphosate and AMPA residues in soy-based infant formulas was evaluated during the years 2012-2017, totalising 105 analyses carried out on 10 commercial brands from different batches. Glyphosate and AMPA were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after derivatisation reaction. The method was validated and showed accuracy and precision with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 mg kg -1 . Among those samples that contained levels above the LOQ, the variation of glyphosate residues was from 0.03 mg kg -1 to 1.08 mg kg -1 and for AMPA residues was from 0.02 mg kg -1 to 0.17 mg kg -1 . This is the first scientific communication about glyphosate and AMPA contamination in soy-based infant formula in Brazil, The study was conducted under good laboratory practice (GLP) and supported by good scientific practice.

  3. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurised milk and infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf S. Omar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg. Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg, the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg.

  4. Trace elements in starter infant formula: dietary intake and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Venturelli, Francesco; Casali, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Angela; Marchesi, Isabella; Borella, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of five essential (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Se) and four non-essential/toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 35 different starter infant formulas (0-6 months) sold in Italy. In addition, a safety assessment of these trace elements was carried out, by comparing the estimated daily intake (EDI) with the adequate intake (AI) and the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI), with a view to provide information on the metal distribution patterns and health risk to infants arising from the consumption of these products. The concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations expressed in geometric mean ± geometric standard deviation of Fe (6.17 ± 1.61 mg/L), Zn (6.21 ± 1.31 mg/L), Cu (416.4 ± 1.21 μg/L), Mn (121.5 ± 1.85 μg/L) and Se (13.27 ± 1.67 μg/L) were within legal limits. In spite of this, the mean EDIs of Fe (4.81 mg/day) and Mn (94.75 μg/day) were many times higher than the recommended AI, especially for Mn. Chromium, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations were not detectable in 11, 37, 57 and 66% of the samples, respectively. Considering the overall sample, the GM ± GSD of these elements were 4.80 ± 5.35 μg/L for Cr, 1.02 ± 11.65 μg/L for Ni, 0.21 ± 14.83 μg/L for Cd and 0.14 ± 17.13 μg/L for Pb. The mean EDIs were far below the respective PTDI. When the safety assessment was based on the 75° percentile level of each elements, all EDIs remained well below the PTDI, with the exception of Cd, whose EDI approached (74.7%), albeit remaining below the PTDI. In conclusion, our results and the increased awareness on the potential risks of excessive Mn and Fe for infants support that an urgent scientific-based definition of the appropriated levels of fortification in formulas is required. Moreover, regular monitoring of all the stages of production of infant formulas is essential in order to

  5. Comparison of free fatty acid content of human milk from Taiwanese mothers and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Jim, Wai-Tim; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Wang, Tuen-Jen; Huang, Sung-Fa; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Few studies on the free fatty acid (FFA) content of milk from non-Caucasian mothers have been published. We compared the FFA concentrations in human milk (HM) from Taiwanese mothers of preterm (PTHM) and full-term infants (FTHM) and in infant formula (IF). Thirty-eight HM samples were collected from 23 healthy lactating mothers and 15 mothers who gave birth prematurely (range 29-35 weeks, mean 33 weeks). The regular formula and preterm infant formula (PTIF) for three brands of powdered IF were also evaluated. Milk samples were extracted and methylated for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Reference values for individual FFAs in breast milk from Taiwanese mothers were determined. The mean total FFAs were significantly higher in IF (21,554 μmol/L) and PTIF (19,836 μmol/L) than in FTHM (8,540 μmol/L) and PTHM (9,259 μmol/L) (p milk (43.1% for FTHM, 42.8% for PTHM, 45.5% for IF and 45.3% for PTIF). Monounsaturated FAs were significantly higher in IF and PTIF (42.6% and 43.9%) than in FTHM and PTHM (37.7% and 39.5%), and polyunsaturated FAs in FTHM and PTHM (20% and 18.2%) were higher than in IF and PTIF (11.9% and 10.9%). HM had a more desirable linoleic acid/α-linolenic acid ratio than IF. No significant differences in individual FFAs in FTHM were observed among three lactating periods. FFA levels in HM from Taiwanese mothers are in agreement with results for different geographically distinct populations. Nevertheless, the FFA content in IF did not meet well with HM, particularly, the excess additives of saturated and monounsaturated FAs, and the shortage of polyunsaturated FAs. The effect of variations in FFA content in IF on future unfavorable outcomes such as obesity, atopic syndrome, and less optimal infant neurodevelopment should be further investigated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. [A cohort study of longer-term impact of melamine contaminated formula on infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-xin; Li, Hong-tian; Wang, Lin-lin; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Yu-bo; Liu, Jian-meng

    2013-10-15

    To prospectively evaluate the health status of infants with exposure to melamine-contaminated milk formula prior to September 2008. The cohort study was conducted in an area close to the manufacturer of Sanlu dairy products. There were three groups (n = 47 each). In September 2008, the exposure group I included infants with exposure to melamine and a diagnosis of renal abnormalities, the exposure group IIhad exposure to melamine but there was no diagnosis of renal abnormalities and the non-exposure group had no exposure to melamine. The exposure II and non-exposure groups were matched with those of exposure group I by birthplaces, gender and date of birth ( ± 3 months). Kidney function tests (urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, uric acid, serum albumin, β2-microglobulin and cystatin C), liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase), growth and development assessment and urinary system ultrasonography were implemented between November 2011 and June 2012. The analysis of covariance (least significant difference method) was performed to compare the differences of relevant variables among three groups. The urinary system ultrasonography showed that all abnormalities disappeared in exposure group I and all infants of another two groups had normal ultrasonography. There were statistically significant differences in serum uric acid and albumin of kidney function in exposure group I, exposure group II and non-exposure group ((344 ± 75) and (338 ± 98) and (282 ± 69) µmol/L , (47 ± 5) and (47 ± 6) and (43 ± 5) g/L, all P groups. However the differences in the remaining markers of kidney function, markers of liver function and Z scores of weight-for-age and height-for age were all statistically insignificant (all P > 0.05). Further pair-wise comparisons showed that the levels of serum uric acid and albumin in exposure group I were higher than those in non-exposure group (P = 0.001 and 0.010). And the levels of serum uric acid and albumin

  7. Effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on surface morphology, water sorption, and glass transition temperature of a model infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grace M; O'Mahony, James A; Kelly, Alan L; O'Callaghan, Donal J

    2016-09-01

    Physical properties of spray-dried dairy powders depend on their composition and physical characteristics. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on the microstructure and physical stability of dried model infant formula. Model infant formulas were produced containing either intact (DH 0) or hydrolyzed (DH 12) whey protein, where DH=degree of hydrolysis (%). Before spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 55°C) at a shear rate of 500 s(-1) were 3.02 and 3.85 mPa·s for intact and hydrolyzed infant formulas, respectively. On reconstitution, powders with hydrolyzed whey protein had a significantly higher fat globule size and lower emulsion stability than intact whey protein powder. Lactose crystallization in powders occurred at higher relative humidity for hydrolyzed formula. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation, fitted to sorption isotherms, showed increased monolayer moisture when intact protein was present. As expected, glass transition decreased significantly with increasing water content. Partial hydrolysis of whey protein in model infant formula resulted in altered powder particle surface morphology, lactose crystallization properties, and storage stability. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of Cyanuric Acid and Melamine in Infant Formula Powders by Mid-FTIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin García-Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemometric methods using mid-FTIR spectroscopy were developed in order to reduce the time of study of melamine and cyanuric acid in infant formulas. Chemometric models were constructed using the algorithms Partial Least Squares (PLS1, PLS2 and Principal Component Regression (PCR in order to correlate the IR signal with the levels of melamine or cyanuric acid in the infant formula samples. Results showed that the best correlations were obtained using PLS1 (R2: 0.9998, SEC: 0.0793, and SEP: 0.5545 for melamine and R2: 0.9997, SEC: 0.1074, and SEP: 0.5021 for cyanuric acid. Also, the SIMCA model was studied to distinguish between adulterated formulas and nonadulterated samples, giving optimum discrimination and good interclass distances between samples. Results showed that chemometric models demonstrated a good predictive ability of melamine and cyanuric acid concentrations in infant formulas, showing that this is a rapid and accurate technique to be used in the identification and quantification of these adulterants in infant formulas.

  9. Influence of the derivatization procedure on the results of the gaschromatographic fatty acid analysis of human milk and infant formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, G; van der Ploeg, P; Möbius, M; Sawatzki, G

    1996-09-01

    Many different analytical procedures for fatty acid analysis of infant formulae and human milk are described. The objective was to study possible pitfalls in the use of different acid-catalyzed procedures compared to a base-catalyzed procedure based on sodium-methoxide in methanol. The influence of the different methods on the relative fatty acid composition (wt% of total fatty acids) and the total fatty acid recovery rate (expressed as % of total lipids) was studied in two experimental LCP-containing formulae and a human milk sample. MeOH/HCl-procedures were found to result in an incomplete transesterification of triglycerides, if an additional nonpolar solvent like toluene or hexane is not added and a water-free preparation is not guaranteed. In infant formulae the low transesterification of triglycerides (up to only 37%) could result in an 100%-overestimation of the relative amount of LCP, if these fatty acids primarily derive from phospholipids. This is the case in infant formulae containing egg lipids as raw materials. In formula containing fish oils and in human milk the efficacy of esterification results in incorrect absolute amounts of fatty acids, but has no remarkable effect on the relative fatty acid distribution. This is due to the fact that in these samples LCP are primarily bound to triglycerides. Furthermore, in formulae based on butterfat the derivatization procedure should be designed in such a way that losses of short-chain fatty acids due to evaporation steps can be avoided. The procedure based on sodium methoxide was found to result in a satisfactory (about 90%) conversion of formula lipids and a reliable content of all individual fatty acids. Due to a possibly high amount of free fatty acids in human milk, which are not methylated by sodium-methoxide, caution is expressed about the use of this reagent for fatty acid analysis of mothers milk. It is concluded that accurate fatty acid analysis of infant formulae and human milk requires a careful

  10. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  11. Effect on Baby-Friendly Hospital Steps When Hospitals Implement a Policy to Pay for Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Y W; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wu, Kendra M; Lee, Irene L Y; Sham, Alice; Lam, Christine; Bai, Dorothy Li; Wong, Ka Lun; Wong, Emmy M Y; Chan, Noel P T; Dodgson, Joan E

    2016-05-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative requires hospitals to pay market price for infant formula. No studies have specifically examined the effect of hospitals paying for infant formula on breastfeeding mothers' exposure to Baby-Friendly steps. To investigate the effect of hospitals implementing a policy of paying for infant formula on new mothers' exposure to Baby-Friendly steps and examine the effect of exposure to Baby-Friendly steps on breastfeeding rates. We used a repeated prospective cohort study design. We recruited 2 cohorts of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (n = 2470) in the immediate postnatal period from 4 Hong Kong public hospitals and followed them by telephone up to 12 months postpartum. We assessed participants' exposure to 6 Baby-Friendly steps by extracting data from the medical record and by maternal self-report. After hospitals began paying for infant formula, new mothers were more likely to experience 4 out of 6 Baby-Friendly steps. Breastfeeding initiation within the first hour increased from 28.7% to 45%, and in-hospital exclusive breastfeeding rates increased from 17.9% to 41.4%. The proportion of mothers who experienced all 6 Baby-Friendly steps increased from 4.8% to 20.5%. The risk of weaning was progressively higher among participants experiencing fewer Baby-Friendly steps. Each additional step experienced by new mothers decreased the risk of breastfeeding cessation by 8% (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.95). After implementing a policy of paying for infant formula, breastfeeding mothers were exposed to more Baby-Friendly steps, and exposure to more steps was significantly associated with a lower risk of breastfeeding cessation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Quantification of trace metals in infant formula premixes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama-Moncunill, Raquel; Casado-Gavalda, Maria P.; Cama-Moncunill, Xavier; Markiewicz-Keszycka, Maria; Dixit, Yash; Cullen, Patrick J.; Sullivan, Carl

    2017-09-01

    Infant formula is a human milk substitute generally based upon fortified cow milk components. In order to mimic the composition of breast milk, trace elements such as copper, iron and zinc are usually added in a single operation using a premix. The correct addition of premixes must be verified to ensure that the target levels in infant formulae are achieved. In this study, a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was assessed as a fast validation tool for trace element premixes. LIBS is a promising emission spectroscopic technique for elemental analysis, which offers real-time analyses, little to no sample preparation and ease of use. LIBS was employed for copper and iron determinations of premix samples ranging approximately from 0 to 120 mg/kg Cu/1640 mg/kg Fe. LIBS spectra are affected by several parameters, hindering subsequent quantitative analyses. This work aimed at testing three matrix-matched calibration approaches (simple-linear regression, multi-linear regression and partial least squares regression (PLS)) as means for precision and accuracy enhancement of LIBS quantitative analysis. All calibration models were first developed using a training set and then validated with an independent test set. PLS yielded the best results. For instance, the PLS model for copper provided a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.995 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 14 mg/kg. Furthermore, LIBS was employed to penetrate through the samples by repetitively measuring the same spot. Consequently, LIBS spectra can be obtained as a function of sample layers. This information was used to explore whether measuring deeper into the sample could reduce possible surface-contaminant effects and provide better quantifications.

  13. Infant milk formulas differ regarding their allergenic activity and induction of T-cell and cytokine responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochwallner, H; Schulmeister, U; Swoboda, Ines

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several hydrolyzed cow's milk (CM) formulas are available for avoidance of allergic reactions in CM-allergic children and for prevention of allergy development in high-risk infants. Our aim was to compare CM formulas regarding the presence of immunoreactive CM components, IgE reactivity......, allergenic activity, ability to induce T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. METHODS: A blinded analysis of eight CM formulas, one nonhydrolyzed, two partially hydrolyzed (PH), four extensively hydrolyzed (EH), and one amino acid formula, using biochemical techniques and specific antibody probes...... was conducted. IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of the formulas were tested with sera from CM-allergic patients (n = 26) in RAST-based assays and with rat basophils transfected with the human FcεRI, respectively. The induction of T-cell proliferation and the secretion of cytokines in Peripheral blood...

  14. Effects of infant formula containing a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides or viable Bifidobacterium animalis on the intestinal microflora during the first 4 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.; Alles, M.S.; Knol, J.; Kok, F.J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Bindels, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Adding prebiotics or probiotics to infant formula to improve the intestinal flora of formula-fed infants is considered to be a major innovation. Several companies have brought relevant formulations onto the market. However, comparative data on the effects of pre- and probiotics on the intestinal

  15. The clinical effect of a new infant formula in term infants with constipation: a double-blind, randomized cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Marloes E. J.; de Lorijn, Fleur; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Groeneweg, Michael; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutrilon Omneo (new formula; NF) contains high concentration of sn-2 palmitic acid, a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides and partially hydrolyzed whey protein. It is hypothesized that NF positively affects stool characteristics in constipated infants. METHODS: Thirty-eight constipated

  16. A systematic review of controlled trials of lower-protein or energy-containing infant formulas for use by healthy full-term infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infant formulas have historically been developed based on providing macronutrients at intake concentrations approximately matching the composition of human milk. In most countries, targets of 1.4–1.5 g of protein/dL and 20 kcal/oz (67–68 kcal/dL) have been set as the protein and energy concentration...

  17. Longitudinal study of iodine in market milk and infant formula via epiboron neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, T.A.; Morris, J.S.; Spate, V.L.; Tharp, C.J.; Baskett, C.K.; Horsman, T.L.; Mason, M.M.; Cheng, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    Iodine is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Its primary role is expressed as a component of thyroxine (T4) and the corresponding deiodinated triiodothyronine (T3) hormones produced by the thyroid as part of the system that regulates growth, mental development and metabolism. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iodine ranges from 50 μg/day for infants to 150 μg/day for adults. Reports over the last 15 years have indicated that the U.S. diet provides 2 to 7 times the iodine RDA and that dairy products typically provide 20 to 60 percent of the dietary iodine intake. Measurements of iodine in dietary components and composites reported in FDA studies have been done calorimetrically. These studies have, according to the authors, both under reports (by up to -50%) and over reports (by up to +80%) the iodine, depending on food type, compared to a radiochemical NAA reference method. Milk is typically under reported by -20%. The objective of this study was to utilize epiboron neutron activation analysis (EBNAA) to study the iodine concentrations, and seasonal variations of iodine, and market milk and infant formula, collected 15 years apart, in comparison with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) market-basket reports. (author)

  18. Interlaboratory evaluation of a cow's milk allergy mouse model to assess the allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, B.C.A.M. van; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Jeurink, P.V.; Garssen, J.; Penninks, A.H.; Smit, J.J.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes two phases of a multi-phase project aiming to validate a mouse model for cow's milk allergy to assess the potential allergenicity of hydrolysed cow's milk based infant formulas (claim support EC-directive 2006/141/E). The transferability and the discriminatory power of this

  19. Plasma total homocysteine increases from day 20 to 40 in breastfed but not formula-fed low-birthweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Woltil, H A; van Beusekom, C M; Schaafsma, A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2002-01-01

    Homocysteine is an intermediate in the folate cycle and methionine metabolism. This study investigated whether formula-fed infants have different plasma total homocysteine to their breastfed counterparts, and during what period any difference developed. Plasma total homocysteine was determined in 53

  20. Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in dry infant formula using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Swanson, Barry G; Rasco, Barbara A; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with dry infant formula presenting a high risk to low birth weight neonates. The inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula by ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and combined with hot water treatment at temperatures of 55, 60, and 65 °C were applied in this study. UV radiation with doses in a range from 12.1 ± 0.30 kJ/m² to 72.8 ± 1.83 kJ/m² at room temperature demonstrated significant inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula (P radiation combining 60 °C hot water treatment increased inactivation of C. sakazakii cells significantly (P radiation on C. sakazakii inactivation kinetics (D value) were not observed in infant formula reconstituted in 55 and 65 °C water (P > 0.05). The inactivation mechanism was investigated using vibrational spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy detected significant stretching mode changes of macromolecules on the basis of spectral features, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Minor changes on cell membrane composition of C. sakazakii under UV radiation could be accurately and correctly monitored by infrared spectroscopy coupled with 2nd derivative transformation and principal component analysis. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Parameters of Breast Milk, Starter Infant Formulas and Commercial Cow Milks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarić Slavica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the physical properties of cow milk and infant formulas are important since they indicate the differences in physicochemical and rheological characteristics and compatibility with natural breast milk. This fact is important not only for quality control but also for the use of these commercial products as infant diet supplements or as complete breast milk substitutes. This study was undertaken to determine refractive index, surface tension, pH, electrical conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity of the UHT cow milk, starter infant formulas and breast milk of Serbian mothers in order to compare commercial milk formulations with natural human milk. The paper also presents the measured data of some physical parameters of human milk about which there is little information in the literature. It has been also demonstrated how these parameters were changed by freezing and prolonged storage of breast milk.

  2. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René L.; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother’s milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16–64 ml·kg-1·day-1) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass...... intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P colostrum supports gut maturation when mother’s milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth...

  3. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Rene L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16–64 ml·kg−1·day−1) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass......), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after...

  4. Real-time PCR detection of Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce following macrophage-based isolation and enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-01-01

    To develop a rapid detection procedure for Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce using a macrophage-based enrichment protocol and real-time PCR. A macrophage cell culture system was employed for the isolation and enrichment of L. monocytogenes from infant formula and lettuce for subsequent identification using real-time PCR. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula and lettuce contaminated with a serial dilution series of L. monocytogenes. As few as approx. 10 CFU ml(-1) or g(-1) of L. monocytogenes were detected in infant formula and lettuce after 16 h postinfection by real-time PCR. Internal positive PCR controls were utilized to eliminate the possibility of false-negative results. Co-inoculation with Listeria innocua did not reduce the L. monocytogenes detection sensitivity. Intracellular L. monocytogenes could also be isolated on Listeria selective media from infected macrophage lysates for subsequent confirmation. The detection method is highly sensitive and specific for L. monocytogenes in infant formula and lettuce and establishes a rapid identification time of 20 and 48 h for presumptive and confirmatory identification, respectively. The method is a promising alternative to many currently used q-PCR detection methods which employ traditional selective media for enrichment of contaminated food samples. Macrophage enrichment of L. monocytogenes eliminates PCR inhibitory food elements and contaminating food microflora which produce cleaner samples that increase the rapidity and sensitivity of detection. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Surveillance and molecular typing of Cronobacter spp. in commercial powdered infant formula and follow-up formula from 2011 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaning; Hou, Peibin; Lv, Hui; Chen, Yuzhen; Li, Xinpeng; Ren, Yanyan; Wang, Mei; Tan, Hailian; Bi, Zhenwang

    2017-05-01

    Infection with Cronobacter spp. leads to neonatal meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and bacteremia. Cronobacter spp. are reported to comprise an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF) and follow-up formula (FUF), although little is known about the contamination level of Cronobacter spp. in PIFs and FUFs in China. In total, 1032 samples were collected between 2011 and 2013. Forty-two samples were positive, including 1.6% in PIFs and 6.5% in FUFs. The strains were susceptible to most antibiotics except for cefoxitin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after XbaI digestion produced a total of 36 banding patterns. The 38 strains were found in 27 sequence types (STs), of which nine types (ST454 to ST462) had not been reported in other countries. The clinically relevant strains obtained from the 38 isolates in the present study comprised three ST3, two ST4, two ST8 and one ST1. The contamination rate in the PIF and FUF has stayed at a relatively high level. The contamination rate of PIF was significantly lower than FUF. The isolates had high susceptibility to the antibiotics tested, except cefoxitin. There were polymorphisms between the Cronobacter spp. as indicated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Therefore, contamination with Cronobacter spp. remains a current issue for commercial infant formulas in China. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays To Identify and Quantify Fecal Bifidobacterium Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A healthy intestinal microbiota is considered to be important for priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Breast-fed infants typically have an intestinal microbiota dominated by different Bifidobacterium species. It has been described that allergic infants have different levels of specific Bifidobacterium species than healthy infants. For the accurate quantification of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium angulatum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifid...

  7. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  8. Efficacy and immunogenicity of live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and formula-fed European infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Prymula, Roman; Schuster, Volker; Tejedor, Juan-C; Cohen, Robert; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Damaso, Silvia; Han, Htay Htay

    2012-05-01

    Rotavirus is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children less than 5 years of age. Potential impact of breast-feeding on the efficacy and immunogenicity of human rotavirus G1P[8] vaccine was examined in this exploratory analysis. Healthy infants (N = 3994) aged 6-14 weeks who received 2 doses of human rotavirus vaccine/placebo according to a 0-1 or 0-2 month schedule were followed for rotavirus gastroenteritis during 2 epidemic seasons. Rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate (anti-IgA antibody concentration ≥ 20 mIU/mL) and geometric mean concentrations were measured prevaccination and 1-2 months post-dose 2. Vaccine efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was analyzed according to the infants being breast-fed or exclusively formula-fed at the time of vaccination. Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rate was 85.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.4-88.3) in breast-fed and 89.2% (95% CI: 84.2-93) in exclusively formula-fed infants; geometric mean concentrations in the respective groups were 185.8 U/mL (95% CI: 161.4-213.9) and 231.5 U/mL (95% CI: 185.9-288.2). Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season but fell in breast-fed infants in the second rotavirus season. During the combined 2-year efficacy follow-up period, vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis was 76.2% (95% CI: 68.7-82.1) and 89.8% (95% CI: 77.6-95.9) and against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis 88.4% (95% CI: 81.6-93) and 98.1% (95% CI: 88.2-100) in the breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants, respectively. The difference in immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants was small. Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season. Breast-feeding seemed to reduce slightly the efficacy in the second season.

  9. Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Dennis; Ziegler, Ekhard; Mitmesser, Susan H; Harris, Cheryl L; Diersen-Schade, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Healthy term infants (n = 244) were randomized to receive: (1) control, soy-based formula without supplementation or (2) docosahexaenoic acid-arachidonic acid (DHA + ARA), soy-based formula supplemented with at least 17 mg DHA/100 kcal (from algal oil) and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (from fungal oil) in a double-blind, parallel group trial to evaluate safety, benefits, and growth from 14 to 120 days of age. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age and 24-h dietary and tolerance recall were recorded at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Blood samples were drawn from subsets of 25 infants in each group. Capillary column gas chromatography was used to analyze the percentages of fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) lipids and plasma phospholipids. Compared with the control group, percentages of fatty acids such as DHA and ARA in total RBC and plasma phospholipids were significantly higher in infants in the DHA + ARA group at 120 days of age (P soy-based formula supplemented with DHA and ARA from single cell oil sources at concentrations similar to human milk significantly increased circulating levels of DHA and ARA when compared with the control group. Both formulas supported normal growth and were well tolerated.

  10. Analysis of sensory processing in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thais Invenção; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Martinez, Cláudia Maria Simões; Tudella, Eloisa

    2016-12-01

    Premature birth suggests condition of biological vulnerability, predisposing to neurological injuries, requiring hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, which, while contributing to increase the survival rates, expose infants to sensory stimuli harmful to the immature organism. To evaluate the sensory processing at 4 and 6months' corrected age. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 30 infants divided into an experimental group composed of preterm infants (n=15), and a control group composed of full-term infants (n=15). The infants were assessed using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants. The preterm infants showed poor performance in the total score of the test in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and reactivity to vestibular stimulation. When groups were compared, significant differences in the total score (p=0.0113) and in the reactivity to tactile deep pressure (psensory processing. These changes were most evident in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and vestibular stimulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant formulae and in follow-on formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    On request from the European Commission following an application by Dairy Goat Co-operative (NZ) Ltd, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant and follow-on formulae....... The Panel considered compositional data of an infant and a follow-on formula made from whole goat milk that retained the natural whey-to-casein ratio of goat milk, data from a double-blind, randomised, controlled, three-centre trial, and a re-analysis of the data of the trial which formed the basis...... of a previous evaluation of the Panel. A study in 200 Australian infants, randomised to receive an infant formula with unmodified goat milk protein or a cow milk formula exclusively for at least four months and thereafter in addition to complementary food until 12 months did not show statistically significant...

  12. Non-digestible carbohydrates in infant formula as substitution for human milk oligosaccharide functions: Effects on microbiota and gut maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Renate; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2018-01-15

    Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs. These cow-milk formulas are supplemented with non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs) that have functional effects similar to that of some HMOs, since production of synthetic HMOs is challenging and still very expensive. However, NDCs cannot substitute all HMO functions. More efficacious NDCs may be developed and customized for specific groups of neonates such as pre-matures and allergy prone infants. Here current knowledge of HMO functions in the neonate in view of possible replacement of HMOs by NDCs in infant formulas is reviewed. Furthermore, methods to expedite identification of suitable NDCs and structure/function relationships are reviewed as in vivo studies in babies are impossible.

  13. Arginine appearance and nitric oxide synthesis in critically ill infants can be increased with a protein-energy–enriched enteral formula12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn TI; Joosten, Koen FM; Deutz, Nicolaas EP; Vreugdenhil, Anita CE; van Waardenburg, Dick A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arginine is considered an essential amino acid during critical illness in children, and supplementation of arginine has been proposed to improve arginine availability to facilitate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Protein-energy–enriched enteral formulas (PE-formulas) can improve nutrient intake and promote anabolism in critically ill infants. However, the effect of increased protein and energy intake on arginine metabolism is not known. Objective: We investigated the effect of a PE-formula compared with that of a standard infant formula (S-formula) on arginine kinetics in critically ill infants. Design: A 2-h stable-isotope tracer protocol was conducted in 2 groups of critically ill infants with respiratory failure because of viral bronchiolitis, who received either a PE-formula (n = 8) or S-formula (n = 10) in a randomized, blinded, controlled setting. Data were reported as means ± SDs. Results: The intake of a PE-formula in critically ill infants (aged 0.23 ± 0.14 y) resulted in an increased arginine appearance (PE-formula: 248 ± 114 μmol · kg−1 · h−1; S-formula: 130 ± 53 μmol · kg−1 · h−1; P = 0.012) and NO synthesis (PE-formula: 1.92 ± 0.99 μmol · kg−1 · h−1; S-formula: 0.84 ± 0.36 μmol · kg−1 · h−1; P = 0.003), whereas citrulline production and plasma arginine concentrations were unaffected. Conclusion: In critically ill infants with respiratory failure because of viral bronchiolitis, the intake of a PE-formula increases arginine availability by increasing arginine appearance, which leads to increased NO synthesis, independent of plasma arginine concentrations. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR515. PMID:23945723

  14. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  15. Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Retail Powdered Infant Milk Formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Begley, Máire; Clifford, Tanya; Deasy, Thérèse; Considine, Kiera; O'Connor, Paula; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the potential antimicrobial activity of ten Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from retail infant milk formulae against a range of indicator (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Listeria innocua) and clinically relevant (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Deferred antagonism assays confirmed that all B. licheniformis isolates show antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive target organisms. PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses indicated that four of the B. licheniformis isolates produce the bacteriocin lichenicidin. The remaining six isolates demonstrated a higher antimicrobial potency than lichenicidin-producing strains. Further analyses identified a peptide of ~1,422 Da as the most likely bioactive responsible for the antibacterial activity of these six isolates. N-terminal sequencing of the ~1,422 Da peptide from one strain identified it as ILPEITXIFHD. This peptide shows a high homology to the non-ribosomal peptides bacitracin and subpeptin, known to be produced by Bacillus spp. Subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that the six B. licheniformis isolates may harbor the genetic machinery needed for the synthesis of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase similar to those involved in production of subpeptin and bacitracin, which suggests that the ~1,422 Da peptide might be a variant of subpeptin and bacitracin.

  16. Scientific opinion of BIOHAZ Panel on the request from the Commission for review of the opinion on microbiological risks in infant formulae and follow-on formulae with regard to Enterobacteriaceae as indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerf, O.; Colin, P.; Collins, D.; Forsythe, S.; Noerrung, B.; Roberts, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission requested EFSA to review the former EFSA/BIOHAZ opinion on microbiological risks in infant formulae and follow-on formulae. Particularly it was requested to provide a scientific opinion on the possible correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Enterobacter sakazakii and

  17. Determination of Chloride in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Potentiometric Titration: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolong, Wu; Fengxia, Zhang; Xiaoning, Ma; Fengjuan, Zhou; Brunelle, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    A potentiometric method for determination of chloride was validated against AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2014.015. Ten AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) matrixes, including National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1849a, were tested in duplicate on 6 independent days. The repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 0.43 to 1.34%, and the intermediate reproducibility (RSDiR) ranged from 0.80 to 3.04%. All results for NIST SRM 1849a were within the range of the certified concentration (701 ± 17 mg/100 g). Recovery was demonstrated with two overspike levels, 50 and 100%, in the 10 SPIFAN matrixes. Samples were tested in duplicate on 3 different days, and all results were within the SMPR requirement of 95 to 105%. The LOQs of the method for powdered products and ready-to-feed or reconstituted products were 20 mg/100 g and 2.2 mg/100 mL, respectively. A wide analytical range from the LOQ to 99.5% chlorine content can be reached with an appropriate dilution factor, but in practice, the upper analytical value observed in routine matrix testing was approximately 1080 mg/100 g in skim milk powder. This is a rapid, simple, and reliable chlorine-testing method applicable to infant formula, adult nutritionals, and ingredients used in these dairy-based products, such as skim milk powder, desalted whey powder, whey protein powder, and whole milk powder.

  18. Selection of possible signature peptides for the detection of bovine lactoferrin in infant formulas by LC-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingmei Yuan

    Full Text Available An LC-MS/MS assay based on a signature peptide was developed and fully validated for the quantitation of bovine lactoferrin in infant formulas. Three unreported signature peptides were derived and identified from the tryptic peptides of bovine lactoferrin. The peptide ETTVFENLPEK was used for quantification based on assay performance. The blank matrix camel milk powder and bovine lactoferrin protein standards were mixed and spiked with stable isotope-labeled internal standard to establish a calibration curve. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R2 > 0.999, sensitivity (limit of quantitation, 0.16 mg/100 g, recovery (83.1-91.6%, precision (RSD < 5.4% and repeatability (RSD < 7.7%. To validate the applicability of the method, four different brands of infant formulas in China were analysed. The acquired contents of bovine lactoferrin were 52.60-150.56 mg/100 g.

  19. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: First Action 2012.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The method described below is intended for the quantification of all fatty acids, including commercially important groups of fatty acids used for labeling reasons (i.e., TFA, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, omega-3, omega-6, omega-9) and/or individual fatty acids (i.e., LA, ALA, ARA, EPA, DHA) in milk products, infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula. These products often contain milk fat and/or vegetable oils, and are supplemented or not supplemented with oils rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The determination is performed by direct transesterification of ready-to-feed liquid concentrate or powder products, without prior fat extraction. The single laboratory validation (SLV) data was submitted to the Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Expert Review Panel (ERP) for review at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL annual meeting held September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The ERP determined that the data reviewed met the Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR 2012.11) set by SPIFAN and was approved as an AOAC Official First Action. The analytical range for SPIFAN samples was between 0.001-7.94 g/100 g reconstituted product, or ready-to-feed liquid. The quantitation limit was estimated as 0.001 g/100 g, while repeatability and intermediate precision were both less than 1.8 % RSD above 0.05 g/100 g, and <3.5% RSD at 0.00 5g/100 g, respectively. Recovery values based on spiking experiments at two different levels of linoleic and linolenic acids ranged from 100.0% to 102.9% for 3 different SPIFAN products. All the parameters evaluated during the SLV were well within the values defined in SMPR 2012.011 (September 2012).

  20. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants and young children with refractory epilepsies using a formula-based powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Tavassoli, Alireza; Badv, Reza Shervin; Heidari, Morteza; Karimi, Parviz; Malamiri, Reza Azizi

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a classic 4:1 ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods. We conducted an open label trial and administered a ketogenic diet using formula-based power (Ketocal ® ). Twenty-seven infants and children aged between 12 months and 5 years were enrolled who had refractory seizures and were reluctant to eat homemade foods. Of 27 children, 5 were lost to follow-up and 22 were remained at the end of the study. After 4 months, the median frequency of seizures per week was reduced >50% in 68.2% of patients, while 9/22 children (40.9%) showed a 50-90% reduction in seizure frequency per week, and 6/22 children (27.3%) showed more than 90% reduction in seizure frequency per week. Over the study course, 6/22 (27%) children who continued to receive the diet developed constipation, one child developed gastroesophageal reflux, and one child developed hypercholesterolemia. None of these children discontinued the diet because of the complications. Thirteen children and their parents (59%) reported that the diet was palatable and tolerable enough. The ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder (Ketocal ® ) is effective, safe, and tolerable in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods according to the rules of the ketogenic diet.

  1. Exposure assessment of Bisphenol A intake from polymeric baby bottles in formula-fed infants aged less than one year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BisphenolA (BPA or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenylpropanepresent in polycarbonate baby bottles may have harmful effects for formula-fed infants. This study evaluated the risks associated with exposure to BPA among Iranian formula-fed infants in an urban society in Isfahan. New and used baby bottles (n = 7 and 8, respectively as well as BPA-free marked bottles (n = 2 were collected from a retail outlet, and leaching of BPA was examined by conducting a migration test. Concentrations of BPA released from the new and used baby bottles were in the range of 0.49–8.58 and 0.63–2.47 μg/l, respectively. Next, probabilistic exposure estimation was performed. In all, 200 mothers registered with 11 health centres in Isfahan were interviewed. Data on feeding pattern, washing and sterilization practices, bottles types and manufacturers as well as the sex and weight of the infants were collected using a questionnaire. The results showed that majority of the surveyed infants were exposed to 0.1–0.3 μg/kg body weight (bw/d of BPA, which corresponded to approximately 2–7.5% of the defined t-TDI (4 μg/kgbw/d. These results suggested that the risk of the adverse effects caused by exposure to BPA was very low in formula-fed Iranian infants even in the worst-case scenario.

  2. Non-compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes is not confined to the infant formula industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Infant feeding policy and practice continues to be a contentious area of global health care. The infant formula industry is widely considered to be the bête noire with frequent claims that they adopt marketing and sales practices that are not compliant with the WHO Code. However, failure to resolve these issues over three decades suggests that there may be wider systemic failings. Review of published papers, commentaries and reports relating to the implementation and governance of the WHO Code with specific reference to issues of non-compliance. The analysis set out in this paper indicates that there are systemic failings at all levels of the implementation and monitoring process including the failure of WHO to successfully 'urge' governments to implement the Code in its entirety; a lack of political will by Member States to implement and monitor the Code and a lack of formal and transparent governance structures. Non-compliance with the WHO Code is not confined to the infant formula industry and several actions are identified, including the need to address issues of partnership working and the establishment of governance systems that are robust, independent and transparent.

  3. Why do mothers of young infants choose to formula feed in China? Perceptions of mothers and hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-04-24

    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers' and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers' decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of "insufficient breast milk" was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers' confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law's and "confinement ladies" misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  4. Why Do Mothers of Young Infants Choose to Formula Feed in China? Perceptions of Mothers and Hospital Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers’ and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers’ decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of “insufficient breast milk” was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74% as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers’ confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law’s and “confinement ladies” misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54% lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  5. Cesarean Section, Formula Feeding, and Infant Antibiotic Exposure: Separate and Combined Impacts on Gut Microbial Changes in Later Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Yasmin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Established during infancy, our complex gut microbial community is shaped by medical interventions and societal preferences, such as cesarean section, formula feeding, and antibiotic use. We undertook this study to apply the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM method to quantify changes in gut microbial composition during later infancy following the most common birth and postnatal exposures affecting infant gut microbial composition. Gut microbiota of 166 full-term infants in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort were profiled using 16S high-throughput gene sequencing. Infants were placed into groups according to mutually exclusive combinations of birth mode (vaginal/cesarean birth, breastfeeding status (yes/no, and antibiotic use (yes/no by 3 months of age. Based on repeated permutations of data and adjustment for the false discovery rate, the SAM statistic identified statistically significant changes in gut microbial abundance between 3 months and 1 year of age within each infant group. We observed well-known patterns of microbial phyla succession in later infancy (declining Proteobacteria; increasing Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes following vaginal birth, breastfeeding, and no antibiotic exposure. Genus Lactobacillus, Roseburia, and Faecalibacterium species appeared in the top 10 increases to microbial abundance in these infants. Deviations from this pattern were evident among infants with other perinatal co-exposures; notably, the largest number of microbial species with unchanged abundance was seen in gut microbiota following early cessation of breastfeeding in infants. With and without antibiotic exposure, the absence of a breast milk diet by 3 months of age following vaginal birth yielded a higher proportion of unchanged abundance of Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in later infancy, and a higher ratio of unchanged Enterobacteriaceae to Alcaligenaceae microbiota. Gut microbiota of infants born

  6. Supplementation of infant formula with probiotics and/or prebiotics: a systematic review and comment by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braegger, Christian; Chmielewska, Anna; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis; Pieścik, Małgorzata; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Infant formulae are increasingly supplemented with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics despite uncertainties regarding their efficacy. The present article, developed by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, systematically

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formula. This opinion reviews the opinion provided by the Scientific Committee on Food...... in 2003 on the essential requirements of infant and follow-on formulae in light of more recent evidence and by considering the Panel’s opinion of October 2013 on nutrient requirements and dietary intakes of infants and young children in the European Union. The minimum content of a nutrient in formula...... proposed in this opinion is derived from the intake levels the Panel had considered adequate for the majority of infants in the first six months of life in its previous opinion and an average amount of formula consumed during this period. From a nutritional point of view, the minimum contents of nutrients...

  8. Development of isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry combined with standard addition techniques for the accurate determination of tocopherols in infant formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joonhee; Jang, Eun-Sil; Kim, Byungjoo, E-mail: byungjoo@kriss.re.kr

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •ID-LC/MS method showed biased results for tocopherols analysis in infant formula. •H/D exchange of deuterated tocopherols in sample preparation was the source of bias. •Standard addition (SA)-ID-LC/MS was developed as an alternative to ID-LC/MS. •Details of calculation and uncertainty evaluation of the SA-IDMS were described. •SA-ID-LC/MS showed a higher-order metrological quality as a reference method. -- Abstract: During the development of isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS) for tocopherol analysis in infant formula, biased measurement results were observed when deuterium-labeled tocopherols were used as internal standards. It turned out that the biases came from intermolecular H/D exchange and intramolecular H/D scrambling of internal standards in sample preparation processes. Degrees of H/D exchange and scrambling showed considerable dependence on sample matrix. Standard addition-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SA-IDMS) based on LC/MS was developed in this study to overcome the shortcomings of using deuterium-labeled internal standards while the inherent advantage of isotope dilution techniques is utilized for the accurate recovery correction in sample preparation processes. Details of experimental scheme, calculation equation, and uncertainty evaluation scheme are described in this article. The proposed SA-IDMS method was applied to several infant formula samples to test its validity. The method was proven to have a higher-order metrological quality with providing very accurate and precise measurement results.

  9. Growth, motor, and social development in breast- and formula-fed infants of metformin-treated women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Salehi, Marzieh; Sieve, Luann; Wang, Ping

    2006-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that metformin during lactation versus formula feeding would have no adverse effects on infants' growth, motor-social development, or intercurrent illness. Growth, motor-social development, and illness requiring a pediatrician visit were assessed in 61 nursing infants (21 male, 40 female) and 50 formula-fed infants (19 male, 31 female) born to 92 mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) taking a median of 2.55 g metformin per day throughout pregnancy and lactation. Within sex, at 3 and 6 months of age, weight, height, and motor-social development did not differ (p > or = .06) between breast- and formula-fed infants. No infants had retardation of growth, motor, or social development. Intercurrent illnesses did not differ. Metformin during lactation appears to be safe and effective in the first 6 months of infancy.

  10. Quantification of Whey Protein Content in Infant Formulas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-CGE): Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Fuerer, Christophe; McMahon, Adrienne

    2017-03-01

    Protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis, followed by UV absorption at 220 nm, allows for the quantification of major proteins in raw milk. In processed dairy samples such as skim milk powder (SMP) and infant formulas, signals from individual proteins are less resolved, but caseins still migrate as one family between two groups of whey proteins. In the first group, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin migrate as two distinct peaks. Lactosylated adducts show delayed migration times and interfere with peak separation, but both native and modified forms as well as other low-MW whey proteins still elute before the caseins. The second group contains high-MW whey proteins (including bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, and immunoglobulins) and elutes after the caseins. Caseins and whey proteins can thus be considered two distinct nonoverlapping families whose ratio can be established based on integrated areas without the need for a calibration curve. Because mass-to-area response factors for whey proteins and caseins are different, an area correction factor was determined from experimental measurement using SMP. Method performance assessed on five infant formulas showed RSDs of 0.2-1.2% (within day) and 0.5-1.1% (multiple days), with average recoveries between 97.4 and 106.4% of added whey protein. Forty-three different infant formulas and milk powders were analyzed. Of the 41 samples with manufacturer claims, the measured whey protein content was in close agreement with declared values, falling within 5% of the declared value in 76% of samples and within 10% in 95% of samples.

  11. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX and/or galactooligosaccharides (GOS: double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Claude

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ensure the suitability of an infant formula as the sole source of nutrition or provide benefits similar to outcomes in breastfed infants, advancements in formula composition are warranted as more research detailing the nutrient composition of human milk becomes available. This study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received one of two investigational cow’s milk-based formulas with adjustments in carbohydrate, fat, and calcium content and supplemented with a prebiotic blend of polydextrose (PDX and galactooligosaccharides (GOS or GOS alone. Methods In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 419 infants were randomized and consumed either a marketed routine cow’s milk-based infant formula (Control; Enfamil® LIPIL®, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN (n = 142 or one of two investigational formulas from 14 to 120 days of age. Investigational formulas were supplemented with 4 g/L (1:1 ratio of a prebiotic blend of PDX and GOS (PDX/GOS; n = 139 or 4 g/L of GOS alone (GOS; n = 138. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Daily recall of formula intake, tolerance, and stool characteristics was collected during study weeks 1 and 2 and 24-h recall was collected at 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Medically-confirmed adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Results There were no group differences in growth rate from 14 to 120 days of age. Discontinuation rates were not significantly different among study groups. No differences in formula intake or infant fussiness or gassiness were observed. During study weeks 1 and 2 and at 60 days of age stool consistency ratings were higher (i.e. softer stools for infants in the PDX/GOS and GOS groups versus Control and remained higher at 120 days for the PDX/GOS group (all P  Conclusions Investigational routine infant formulas

  12. Effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant formula on cognition and behaviour at 9 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special

  13. SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND GROWTH IN INFANTS WITH COWS MILK PROTEIN INTOLERANCE USING 2 DIFFERENT WHEY-PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE BASED FORMULAS IN A PRIMARY HEALTH-CARE SETTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERWIMP, JJM; BINDELS, JG; BARENTS, M; HEYMANS, HSA

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept(R) or Pepti Junior(R). The efficacy of

  14. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g)

  15. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Ostenfeldt; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    2016-01-01

    Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm...

  16. Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, Arine M.; Robroch, Afke; van Buuren, Stef; Kiers, Jeroen; Rijkers, Ger; Benninga, Marc A.; te Biesebeke, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The addition of probiotics to infant formula has been shown to be an efficient way to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestine in order to promote a gut flora resembling that of breast-fed infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of a

  17. [Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina

    2008-09-01

    Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.

  18. Content and evolution of potential furfural compounds in commercial milk-based infant formula powder after opening the packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; de la Torre Carbot, Karina; García-Gasca, Teresa; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Potential furfural compounds were examined by RP-HPLC-DAD in 20 commercial milk-based powdered infant formula (IF) brands from local markets from Paris, France; DF, Mexico; Copenhagen, Denmark; England, UK; and Barcelona, Spain. We traced the evolution of these compounds after the packets had been opened at 0, 30 and 70 days of storage at room temperature (≈25 °C; minimum 23 °C and maximum 25.5 °C). All formula brands were analysed during the first 3-5 months of their shelf life. The mean values of all IFs for potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF)+2-furaldehyde (F) were 1115.2 μg/100 g (just opened), 1157.6 μg/100 g (30 days) and 1344.5 μg/100 g of product (70 days). In general, slight increases of potential furfural contents were observed in most of the studied IFs, which suggests that the Maillard reaction increases after opening the packets. The main furfural compound found was HMF, as expected. The range of potential HMF consumed for an infant about 6 months old feeding only on formula was estimated between 0.63 mg and 3.25 mg per day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of an application for authorisation of an infant and/or follow-on formula manufactured from protein hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications for authorisation of infant and/or follow-on formula manufactured from...... protein hydrolysates. This guidance document addresses the information and data to be submitted to EFSA on infant and follow-on formulae manufactured from protein hydrolysates with respect to the safety and suitability of the specific formula and/or the formula’s efficacy in reducing the risk...

  20. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... formula is sold or available for sale, post at the point of purchase of such formula a notice of such... recall communication shall be distinctive, and the content and extent of a recall communication shall be.... The recall communication shall instruct consignees to report back quickly to the recalling firm about...

  1. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zagato

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula. We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium. Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  2. Relative cost-effectiveness of an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in managing infants with cow's milk allergy in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest JF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Julian F Guest,1,2 Monica Panca,1 Olga Ovcinnikova,1 Rita Nocerino3 1CATALYST Health Economics Consultants, Northwood, Middlesex, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College, London, UK; 3Department of Translational Medical Science, Pediatric Section, University of Naples 'Federico II', Naples, Italy Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of using an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (eHCF containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, (eHCF + LGG; Nutramigen LGG as first-line management for cow's milk allergy (CMA compared with eHCF alone, soy-based formulae (SBF, hydrolyzed rice formulae (HRF, and amino acid formulae (AAF in Italy, from the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (INHS and parents. Methods: Decision modeling was used to estimate the probability of infants developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months, based on an observational study dataset. The model also estimated the cost (at 2012/2013 prices of health care resource use funded by the INHS and formulae paid for by parents over 18 months after starting a formula, as well as the relative cost-effectiveness of each of the formulae. Results: The probability of developing tolerance to cow's milk by 18 months was higher among infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergy who were fed eHCF + LGG compared to those fed one of the other formulae. The total health care cost of initially feeding infants with eHCF + LGG was less than that of feeding infants with one of the other formulae. Hence, eHCF + LGG affords the greatest value for money to both the INHS and parents of infants with either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated CMA. Conclusion: Using eHCF + LGG instead of eHCF, SBF, HRF, or an AAF for first-line management of newly diagnosed infants with CMA in Italy affords a cost-effective use of publicly funded resources, and is cost-effective from the parents' perspective, since it improves outcome for less cost. A randomized

  3. Determination of phthalate monoesters in human milk, consumer milk, and infant formula by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Main, Katharina M; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2005-01-01

    these phthalates were present, albeit at different concentrations. Median values (microg L(-1)) obtained were 0.11 (mMP), 0.95 (mEP), 3.5 (mBP), 0.8 (mBzP), 9.5 (mEHP), and 101 (mNP). We also analysed seven samples of consumer milk and ten samples of infant formula. Only mBP and mEHP were detected in these samples......Daily exposure of humans to phthalates may be a health risk because animal experiments have shown these compounds can affect the differentiation and function of the reproductive system. Because milk is the main source of nutrition for infants, knowledge of phthalate levels is important for exposure...

  4. Alternatives to cow’s milk products in infant nutrition: Goat’s milk-based formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Hozyasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing consumer awareness of the relationship between nutrition and health. Goat milk is a food of high nutrition value, with high biological value protein, and a good source of minerals and medium chain fatty acids. Infant formula manufacturers nowdays offer a wide range of products based on cow’s milk and non-bovine milks, trying to fulfill the needs of young children. The review discusses the key factors influencing the market demand for goat’s milk products.

  5. Kinetics of Maillard reactions in model infant formula during UHT treatment using a static batch ohmic heater

    OpenAIRE

    Roux , Stéphanie; Courel , Mathilde; Ait-Ameur , Lamia; Birlouez-Aragon , Inès; Pain , Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a UHT treatment on a model infant formula was examined by assessing the advancement of Maillard reactions during a thermal treatment by ohmic heating. The heating and holding steps of the heat treatment were carried out in a static batch ohmic heater equipped with a nitrogen counter-pressure system, allowing reaching five temperature levels from 100 to 140 °C. A heat treatment was characterized by monitoring a holding time at a given temperature. Samples were taken during heatin...

  6. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  7. Effect of a probiotic infant formula on infections in child care centers: comparison of two probiotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Zvi; Asli, Ghaleb; Alsheikh, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of 2 different species of probiotics in preventing infections in infants attending child care centers. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted from December 1, 2000, to September 30, 2002, at 14 child care centers in the Beer-Sheva area of Israel in healthy term infants 4 to 10 months old. Infants were assigned randomly to formula supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis (BB-12), Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection 55730), or no probiotics. Duration of feeding, including follow-up, for each participant was 12 weeks. All infants were fed only the assigned formula and were not breastfed due to parental decision before recruitment to the study. Probiotic or prebiotic food products or supplements were not allowed. Main outcome measures were number of days and number of episodes with fever (>38 degrees C) and number of days and number of episodes with diarrhea or respiratory illness. Participants (n = 201) were similar regarding gestational age, birth weight, gender, and previous breastfeeding. The controls (n = 60), compared with those fed B lactis (n = 73) or L reuteri (n = 68), had significantly more febrile episodes (mean [95% confidence interval]: 0.41 [0.28-0.54] vs 0.27 [0.17-0.37] vs 0.11 [0.04-0.18], respectively). The controls also had more diarrhea episodes (0.31 [0.22-0.40] vs 0.13 [0.05-0.21] vs 0.02 [0.01-0.05], respectively) and episodes of longer duration (0.59 [0.34-0.84] vs 0.37 [0.08-0.66] vs 0.15 [0.12-0.18] days, respectively). The L reuteri group, compared with BB-12 or controls, had a significant decrease of number of days with fever, clinic visits, child care absences, and antibiotic prescriptions. Rate and duration of respiratory illnesses did not differ significantly between groups. Child care infants fed a formula supplemented with L reuteri or B lactis had fewer and shorter episodes of diarrhea, with no effect on respiratory illnesses. These effects were more prominent

  8. Soft gluon resummation formulae for hard proton processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Jones, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    We briefly review the treatment of leading logarithmic behaviour of the parton distributions in QCD within the Bethe-Salpeter framework by analysing directly parton hadron Green functions in the limit of parton four-momentum k 2 → - infinitely in a special light-like gauge involving a spectator vector. This technique allows us to derive the factorization of parton probabilities in leading logarithmic order in QCD in the various inclusive processes involving a single short-distance scale. The proof requires us to show that the use of planar gauges eta = psub(A) + psub(B) + ..., where psub(A), psub(B)... are the observed hadron momenta, reduces to choosing the appropriate light-like gauge for each hadron-parton BS channel, after demonstrating a Bloch-Nordsieck cancellation of the real and virtual soft left-over gluons. In the case where two large momentum scales appear, by restricting the transverse phase space into which the gluons are radiated, we derive the double logarithmic eikonal renormalization of the hard scattering formula of the type proposed recently by Parisi and Petronzio. (orig.)

  9. Average age at death in infancy and infant mortality level: Reconsidering the Coale-Demeny formulas at current levels of low mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny M. Andreev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The long-term historical decline in infant mortality has been accompanied by increasing concentration of infant deaths at the earliest stages of infancy. In the mid-1960s Coale and Demeny developed formulas describing the dependency of the average age of death in infancy on the level of infant mortality, based on data obtained up to that time. Objective: In the more developed countries a steady rise in average age of infant death began in the mid-1960s. This paper documents this phenomenon and offers alternative formulas for calculation of the average age of death, taking into account the new mortality trends. Methods: Standard statistical methodologies and a specially developed method are applied to the linked individual birth and infant death datasets available from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the initial (raw numbers of deaths from the Human Mortality Database. Results: It is demonstrated that the trend of decline in the average age of infant death becomes interrupted when the infant mortality rate attains a level around 10 per 1000, and modifications of the Coale-Demeny formulas for practical application to contemporary low levels of mortality are offered. Conclusions: The average age of death in infancy is an important characteristic of infant mortality, although it does not influence the magnitude of life expectancy. That the increase in average age of death in infancy is connected with medical advances is proposed as a possible explanation.

  10. Exclusively breastfed overweight infants are at the same risk of childhood overweight as formula fed overweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Willik, E.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Altenburg, T.M.; Gademan, M.G.J.; van Holthe, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Several early life determinants play a role in childhood obesity. Rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy increases the risk while breast feeding seems to protect against childhood overweight. However, should we worry about exclusively breastfed overweight infants? The

  11. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of hypo-allergenic formulas in infants at risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Jacobsen, H P; Høst, A

    1995-01-01

    to tobacco smoke is found to be associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing/asthma and inhalant allergy. In infants with atopic predisposition (first-degree relatives), exclusively breastfeeding > or = four months is found associated with a significant reduction of the cumulative prevalence...... of cow's milk. Some high risk infants may benefit from maternal diet during lactation, but there is no documented beneficial effect of maternal diet during pregnancy....

  13. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-07-30

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.

  14. Short communication: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolated from infant milk formula and utensils in a nursery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, B C; Moraes, M S; Costa, L E O; Nascimento, J S

    2015-04-01

    Infant milk formulas are not sterile products, and pathogenic bacteria can survive and multiply in these products. This study was performed, initially, to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. in reconstituted infant milk formula and on utensils previously sanitized used in their preparation or distribution in a nursery of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. None of the samples tested carried Salmonellaspp. However, further identification of colonies growing on the selective media revealed the presence of several other gram-negative bacteria. Seventeen isolates were identified as belonging to Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex. Fourteen isolates presented a multidrug-resistance profile, by disc diffusion assays, and one of them--JE4--was also resistant to imipenem. The detection of Acinetobacter isolates in this work demonstrates inadequate hygiene practices in the preparation or distribution of infant milk formula. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Method-Specific Extraction Variability for the Measurement of Fatty Acids in a Candidate Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Benjamin J

    2017-05-01

    To address community needs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) for infant/adult nutritional formula based on milk and whey protein concentrates with isolated soy protein called SRM 1869 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula. One major component of this candidate SRM is the fatty acid content. In this study, multiple extraction techniques were evaluated to quantify the fatty acids in this new material. Extraction methods that were based on lipid extraction followed by transesterification resulted in lower mass fraction values for all fatty acids than the values measured by methods utilizing in situ transesterification followed by fatty acid methyl ester extraction (ISTE). An ISTE method, based on the identified optimal parameters, was used to determine the fatty acid content of the new infant/adult nutritional formula reference material.

  16. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  17. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine ...

  18. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine has been identified as the predominant signal transducer of mammalian milk, which stimulates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Leucine thus functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for mTORC1-dependent neonatal β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The mTORC1 target S6K1 plays a pivotal role in stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes and to induce insulin resistance. It is of most critical concern that infant formulas provide higher amounts of leucine in comparison to human milk. Exaggerated leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1 signalling induced by infant formulas may thus explain increased adipogenesis and generation of lifelong elevated adipocyte numbers. Attenuation of mTORC1 signalling of infant formula by leucine restriction to physiologic lower levels of human milk offers a great chance for the prevention of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  19. 'The midwives aren't allowed to tell you': perceived infant feeding policy restrictions in a formula feeding culture - the Feeding Your Baby Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagan, Briege M; Symon, Andrew; Dalzell, Janet; Whitford, Heather

    2014-03-01

    to explore the expectations and experiences of postnatal mothers in relation to infant feeding, and to identify how care could be improved. this study used a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design. Data were collected through one to one in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Tayside area of Eastern Scotland. seven focus group interviews (n=38 participants) and 40 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with mothers with a range of infant feeding experiences i.e. exclusively breast fed; started breast feeding but changed to formula milk before 16 weeks; exclusively formula fed; or who concurrently breast and formula fed their infant. a principal theme of 'Mixed and missing messages' emerged, incorporating 'Conflicting advice', 'Information gaps' and 'Pressure to breast feed' with a secondary theme of 'Emotional costs'. Several problems were identified with how women were given information, how infant feeding discussions were held, and the type of support available after the infant is born. there was a strong perception that some midwives are not 'allowed' to discuss or provide information on formula feeding, and the women reported feeling pressurised to breast feed. Current interpretation of guidance from the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative may be restricting antenatal discussions about infant feeding. The combination of this partial preparation antenatally and postnatal support that was often inconsistent seems to incur a counter-productive emotional cost. at strategic, policy and practice levels the infant feeding message needs to change to encourage a more woman-centred focus including discussions about the realities of all types of infant feeding. It is important that health providers continue to promote and support breast feeding; and that effective services are provided to women who wish to breast feed to help them to do so. However provision of information about all aspects of feeding is needed as well as support for women who do not

  20. Determination of Total Selenium in Infant Formulas: Comparison of the Performance of FIA and MCFA Flow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Pistón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two flow methods, based, respectively, on flow-injection analysis (FIA and on multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA, were compared with regard to their use for the determination of total selenium in infant formulas by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The method based on multicommutation provided lower detection and quantification limits (0.08 and 0.27 μg L−1 compared to 0.59 and 1.95 μ L−1, resp., higher sampling frequency (160 versus. 70 samples per hour, and reduced reagent consumption. Linearity, precision, and accuracy were similar for the two methods compared. It was concluded that, while both methods proved to be appropriate for the purpose, the MCFA-based method exhibited a better performance.

  1. Rapid determination of vitamin D₃ in milk-based infant formulas by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Byung-Man; Jeong, In-Seek; Lee, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Jong-Su

    2014-12-15

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) was developed for emulsified dairy products such as milk-based infant formulas. A sample was mixed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube with the same amount of water and isopropyl alcohol to achieve chemical extraction. Ammonium sulfate was used to induce phase separation. No-heating saponification was performed in the sample tube by adding KOH, NaCl, and NH3. Vitamin D3 was then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results for added recovery tests were in the range 93.11-110.65%, with relative standard deviations between 2.66% and 2.93%. The results, compared to those obtained using a certified reference material (SRM 1849a), were within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labour saving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of water-soluble B vitamins in infant formula by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Winters, Doug; Crowley, Richard; Sullivan, Darryl

    2009-01-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of multiple B vitamins (i.e., B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6) in infant formulas by LC-MSIMS. The vitamins were extracted with acidic solvent, followed by protein precipitation at a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5, and filtered. This simplified procedure eliminates many of the potential sources of laboratory error and facilitates rapid and efficient analysis. As is common in most cases, isotope internal standards were added to account for variations in sample preparation, as well as changes in MS measurement. In this method, isotope-labeled internal standards of B1, B3, B5, and B6 were used. The factors affecting analytical performance were investigated and optimized. In addition, the stability of these vitamins in the extraction solution was investigated. An acidic condition (5 mM HCl) was applied to successfully stabilize B1, which had shown a decrease in signal when other solvents were used. The quantitative extraction and good stability allowed isotope standards to be added to the filtered sample solution, instead of to the extraction solvent. The addition of the isotope to the small portion of the filtered sample solution significantly reduces cost. A comprehensive evaluation of the analysis of the standard reference material and good spike recovery of the vitamins (100 +/- 6%) demonstrates the accuracy of the method. The results for commercially available infant formula samples were also compared with those obtained using the current microbiological method.

  3. Formulae and figures for basic two-body QCD processes in ep interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymieniecka, T.; Warsaw Univ.; Zarnecki, A.F.

    1992-10-01

    A compilation of some useful formulae is given for basic 2→2 processes involving quarks, gluons and photons. The formulae are illustrated by evaluation of some partonic cross sections, parton luminosities and ep cross sections at HERA and LEPxLHC energies. (orig.)

  4. Pilot study with a glutamine-supplemented enteral formula in critically ill infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Eliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seriously ill infants often display protein-calorie malnutrition due to the metabolic demands of sepsis and respiratory failure. Glutamine has been classified as a conditionally essential amino acid, with special usefulness in critical patients. Immunomodulation, gut protection, and prevention of protein depletion are mentioned among its positive effects in such circumstances. With the intent of evaluating the tolerance and clinical impact of a glutamine supplement in seriously ill infants, a prospective randomized study was done with nine patients. Anthropometric and biochemical determinations were made, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU, in the hospital, and under artificial ventilation, and septic morbidity and mortality were tabulated. Infants in the treatment group (n=5 were enterally administered 0.3 g/kg of glutamine, whereas controls received 0.3 g/kg of casein during a standard period of five days. Septic complications occurred in 75% of the controls (3/4 versus 20% of the glutamine-treated group (1/5, p<=0.10, and two patients in the control group died of bacterial infections (50% vs. 0%, p<=0.10. Days in the ICU, in the hospital, and with ventilation numerically favored glutamine therapy, although without statistical significance. The supplements were usually well tolerated, and no patient required discontinuation of the program. The conclusion was that glutamine supplementation was safe and tended to be associated with less infectious morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.

  5. Normal Growth of Healthy Infants Born from HIV+ Mothers Fed a Reduced Protein Infant Formula Containing the Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Da Costa Ribeiro Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS. Methods Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive mothers were randomized to a test ( n = 65 or control ( n = 63 formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed ( n = 79 or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65. Between 2 weeks and 4 months of age, infants were exclusively fed according to their assigned group. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Digestive tolerance was evaluated during the first 4 months. The primary outcome was mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups. Results Data from all infants ( N = 272 were used in the intention-to-treat (ITT analysis and data from 230 infants were used in the per-protocol (PP analysis. The difference in mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups was 1.257 g/day (onesided 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.705 to inf, P < 0.001 in the PP analysis, showing that the lower bound of the 95% CI was above the -3.0 g/day non-inferiority margin. Results were similar in the ITT analysis. Symptoms of digestive tolerance and frequency of adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions The formula containing 2.1 g/100 kcal protein and GOS and FOS was safe and tolerated well.

  6. Neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth until 12 mo of age in infants fed a low-energy, low-protein formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Erik; Hernell, Olle; Lönnerdal, Bo; Domellöf, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Observational studies have indicated that differences in the composition of human milk and infant formula yield benefits in cognitive development and early growth for breastfed infants. The objective was to test the hypothesis that feeding an infant formula with reduced energy and protein densities and supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) reduces differences in cognitive development and early growth between formula-fed and breastfed infants. In a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 160 infants Toddler Development, Third Edition, was significantly higher in the EF group than in the SF group (105.8 ± 9.2 compared with 101.8 ± 8.0; P = 0.008) but was not significantly different from that in the BFR group (106.4 ± 9.5; P = 0.73). The EF group ingested larger volumes of formula than did the SF group (864 ± 174 compared with 797 ± 165 mL/d; P = 0.022), fully compensating for the lower energy density. No significant differences in linear growth, weight gain, body mass index, percentage body fat, or head circumference were found between the EF and SF groups. MFGM supplementation to infant formula narrows the gap in cognitive development between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Between 2 and 6 mo of age, formula-fed term infants have the capacity to upregulate their ingested volumes when the energy density of formula is reduced from 66 to 60 kcal/100 mL.

  7. A "three-in-one" sample preparation method for simultaneous determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins in infant formula using VitaFast(®) kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Lan, Fang; Shi, Yupeng; Wan, Zhi-Gang; Yue, Zhen-Feng; Fan, Fang; Lin, Yan-Kui; Tang, Mu-Jin; Lv, Jing-Zhang; Xiao, Tan; Yi, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    VitaFast(®) test kits designed for the microbiological assay in microtiter plate format can be applied to quantitative determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B12, folic acid and biotin, et al. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, VitaFast(®) kits significantly reduce sample processing time and provide greater reliability, higher productivity and better accuracy. Recently, simultaneous determination of vitamin B12, folic acid and biotin in one sample is urgently required when evaluating the quality of infant formulae in our practical work. However, the present sample preparation protocols which are developed for individual test systems, are incompatible with simultaneous determination of several analytes. To solve this problem, a novel "three-in-one" sample preparation method is herein developed for simultaneous determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins using VitaFast(®) kits. The performance of this novel "three-in-one" sample preparation method was systematically evaluated through comparing with individual sample preparation protocols. The experimental results of the assays which employed "three-in-one" sample preparation method were in good agreement with those obtained from conventional VitaFast(®) extraction methods, indicating that the proposed "three-in-one" sample preparation method is applicable to the present three VitaFast(®) vitamin test systems, thus offering a promising alternative for the three independent sample preparation methods. The proposed new sample preparation method will significantly improve the efficiency of infant formulae inspection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of milk protein composition of a model infant formula on the physicochemical properties of in vivo gastric digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, N Rafiee; Fan, M Z; Archbold, T; Kristo, E; Guri, A; Arranz, E; Corredig, M

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of protein composition and, in particular, the presence of whey proteins or β-casein on the digestion behavior of a model infant formula using an in vivo piglet model. Three isocaloric diets optimized for piglets were prepared with the same concentrations of protein. For protein source, 1 diet contained only whey proteins and 2 contained a casein:whey protein ratio of 40:60 but differed in the amount of β-casein. To obtain the desired protein compositions, skim milk was microfiltered at 7 or 22°C, and retentates and permeates were combined with whey protein isolate. The diets were optimized to the nutritional needs of the piglets and fed to 24 newborn piglets for 18 d. Eight piglets were also fed ad libitum with sow milk and considered only as reference (not included in the statistical analysis). The study was carried out in 2 blocks, killing the animals 60 and 120 min after the last meal. All gastric contents, regardless of diet, showed a wide range of pH. Postprandial time did not affect the pH or physical properties of the gastric digesta. The digesta from whey protein-casein formulas showed significantly higher viscosity, a higher storage modulus, and a denser microstructure than digesta obtained from piglets fed whey protein formula. The β-casein:total casein ratio at the level used in this study did not significantly affect the physical and chemical properties of the stomach digestate. Although caseins showed extensive gastric hydrolysis, whey proteins remained largely intact at both postprandial times. The results indicate that the presence of different concentrations of milk proteins can be critical to the digestion properties of the food matrix and may affect the nutritional properties of the components. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W.; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either 10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children. PMID:26193309

  10. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, Jose; Grueber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic

  11. Determination of vitamin D in fortified and nonfortified milk powder and infant formula using a specific radioassay after purification by high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Boshuis, P.G.; Schreurs, W.H.P.

    1986-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive radioassay is described for the determination of vitamin D in milk powder and infant formula. After saponification of the sample interfering compounds like sterols are removed by digitonin precipitation and chromatography on small columns packed with alumina. [3H] Vitamin D

  12. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania) : targets for infant formulae close to our ancient diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, RS; Fokkema, MR; Smit, EN; van der Meulen, J; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    Current recommendations for arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in infant formulae are based on milk of Western mothers. Validity may be questioned in view of the profound dietary changes in the past 100 years, as opposed to our slowly adapting genome. Hominin evolution occurred in the

  14. Characteristics of enterotoxin distribution, hemolysis, lecithinase, and starch hydrolysis of Bacillus cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous environmental microbe implicated as a main cause of food poisoning with various symptoms, depending on the strain type and the isolation source. In this study, the potential virulence factors and biochemical properties of B. cereus isolated from infant formulas and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods were analyzed and compared. A total of 347 B. cereus strains were isolated and identified from 687 infant food formulas and RTE food samples. All the isolates had one or more enterotoxin genes, and one-half of the strains had all 3 enterotoxin genes (hbl, nhe, and cytK) that are involved in food poisoning in humans. Here, all the 3 genes were detected in 50% of the B. cereus isolates from RTE foods and only 14% of the isolates were identified from infant formulas. The latter harbored low cytK and bceT, and very low hbl genes. Most B. cereus isolates possessed the hemolysis gene, but not the ces gene. The infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis activity than the other isolates. In addition, 26% of the total isolates showed low lecithinase activities and 10% showed high lecithinase activities. A greater number of isolates from the infant formula showed high lecithinase activity than those from the RTE foods. Approximately 83% of the isolates were positive and 17% were negative for starch hydrolysis. Over 90% of the RTE food isolates and only 35% of the infant formula isolates were positive for starch hydrolysis. However, all the strains possessed nhe, but their harboring patterns of hbl and cytK were significantly different. Most starch-hydrolyzing strains possessed hbl, but only 23% nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates possessed this gene. Moreover, very low nonstarch hydrolyzing strains harbored cytK. Most nonstarch-hydrolyzing isolates showed high lecithinase and strong hemolysis activities, and very low hbl and cytK harboring. In summary, most infant formula isolates showed stronger hemolysis and higher lecithinase activities with lower

  15. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase reg-sign and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase reg-sign and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase reg-sign or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied

  16. Levels of infants' urinary arsenic metabolites related to formula feeding and weaning with rice products exceeding the EU inorganic arsenic standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J Signes-Pastor

    Full Text Available Early childhood inorganic arsenic (i-As exposure is of particular concern since it may adversely impact on lifetime health outcomes. Infants' urinary arsenic (As metabolites were analysed in 79 infants by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric detection (IC-ICP-MS to evaluate i-As exposure pre- and post-weaning. Levels of i-As in rice-based weaning and infants' foods were also determined to relate to urinary As levels. Higher As levels, especially of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, were found in urine from formula fed infants compared to those breastfed. Urine from infants post-weaning consuming rice-products resulted in higher urinary MMA and DMA compared to the paired pre-weaning urine samples. The European Union (EU has regulated i-As in rice since 1st January 2016. Comparing infants' rice-based foods before and after this date, little change was found. Nearly ¾ of the rice-based products specifically marketed for infants and young children contained i-As over the 0.1 mg/kg EU limit. Efforts should be made to provide low i-As rice and rice-based products consumed by infants and young children that do not exceed the maximum i-As level to protect this vulnerable subpopulation.

  17. [Development of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of fatty acid esters of chloropropanols in milk powder and the pollution level of infant formula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Miao, Hong; Cui, Xia; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2015-06-01

    To establish a method for determination of fatty acid esters of chloropropanols (chloropropanols esters) in milk powder by isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and to acquire the pollution level of chloropropanols esters in infant formula and evaluate the dietary exposure risk of chloropropanols esters in infant formula for infants. A total of 111 infant formula samples were collected from supermarkets in Beijing, and the infant formula with no chloropropanols esters detected was served as the blank sample. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with hexane, followed by ester-bond cleavage reaction with sodium methylate-methanol and purification by matrix solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction, then being derivatived with heptafluoro butyrylimidazol. After extracted by sodium chloride solution, the derivatives were determined by GC-MS. The concentration of chloropropanols esters were quantified using the deuterium chloropropanols esters as the internal standards. The accuracy of the method was assessed by the recoveries of the blank spiked samples, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the recoveries represent the precision of the method. The contamination level of chloropropanols esters and the intake amount of the infant formula of the 6-month infant were used to estimate the dietary exposure assessment, and x (95% CI) and P97.5 of the contamination level of chloropropanols esters were used to represent the average dietary exposure and the high-end dietary exposure. The satisfied linear correlations in the range of 0.010-0.800 mg/L was acquired for 3-MCPD esters, 2-MCPD esters, 1,3-DCP esters and 2,3-DCP esters with coefficient correlations of 0.999 9, 0.999 8, 0.999 5 and 0.999 6, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) for 3-MCPD esters, 2-MCPD esters, 1,3-DCP esters and 2,3-DCP esters were 0.005, 0.005, 0.015, 0.015 mg/kg, and 0.015, 0.015, 0.045, 0.045 mg/kg. The average

  18. The Green-Kubo formula for general Markov processes with a continuous time parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fengxia; Liu Yong; Chen Yong

    2010-01-01

    For general Markov processes, the Green-Kubo formula is shown to be valid under a mild condition. A class of stochastic evolution equations on a separable Hilbert space and three typical infinite systems of locally interacting diffusions on Z d (irreversible in most cases) are shown to satisfy the Green-Kubo formula, and the Einstein relations for these stochastic evolution equations are shown explicitly as a corollary.

  19. Toxic Metals (Pb and Cd and Their Respective Antagonists (Ca and Zn in Infant Formulas and Milk Marketed in Brasilia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Dórea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In non-ideal scenarios involving partial or non-breastfeeding, cow’s milk-based dairy products are mainstream in infant feeding. Therefore, it is important to study the concentrations of potentially neurotoxic contaminants (Pb and Cd and their respective counteracting elements (Ca and Zn in infant dairy products. Fifty-five brands of infant formulas and milk sold in Brasilia, Brazil were analyzed. The dairy products came from areas in the central-west (26%, southeast (29% and south of Brazil (36% extending as far as Argentina (7% and the Netherlands (2%. For toxic Pb and Cd, median concentrations in powdered samples were 0.109 mg/kg and 0.033 mg/kg, respectively; in fluid samples median Pb concentration was 0.084 mg/kg, but median Cd concentration was below the limit of detection and overall values were below reference safety levels. However, 62% of these samples presented higher Pb concentration values than those established by FAO/WHO. Although the inverse correlation between Cd and Zn (Spearman r = −0.116; P = 0.590 was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between Ca and Pb was (Spearman r = 0.619; P < 0.0001. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between Pb and Cd. Furthermore, the study also revealed that provision of the essential trace element Zn in infant formulas can provide adequate amounts of the recommended daily requirements. Infant formulas and milk sold for consumption by infants and children can be an efficient tool to monitor neurotoxic metal risk exposure among young children.

  20. Preventive effect of feeding high-risk infants a casein hydrolysate formula or an ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula. A prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study of a 1-year birth cohort of 158 high-risk infants the effect of feeding breastmilk, a casein hydrolysate (Nutramigen) or a new ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate (Profylac) on the development of cow milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) was assessed and compared. All...... the infants had biparental or severe single atopic predisposition, the latter combined with cord blood IgE > or = 0.5 kU/L. At birth all infants were randomized to Nutramigen or Profylac, which was used when breastfeeding was insufficient or not possible during the first 6 months of life. During the same...... period this regimen was combined with avoidance of solid foods and cow milk protein. All mothers had unrestricted diets and were encouraged to do breastfeeding only. Moreover, avoidance of daily exposure to tobacco smoking, furred pets and dust-collecting materials in the bedroom was advised. The infants...

  1. ITPI: Initial Transcription Process-Based Identification Method of Bioactive Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of bioactive components is an important area of research in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula. The reported identification methods only consider the interaction between the components and the target proteins, which is not sufficient to explain the influence of TCM on the gene expression. Here, we propose the Initial Transcription Process-based Identification (ITPI method for the discovery of bioactive components that influence transcription factors (TFs. In this method, genome-wide chip detection technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs. The TFs of DEGs were derived from GeneCards. The components influencing the TFs were derived from STITCH. The bioactive components in the formula were identified by evaluating the molecular similarity between the components in formula and the components that influence the TF of DEGs. Using the formula of Tian-Zhu-San (TZS as an example, the reliability and limitation of ITPI were examined and 16 bioactive components that influence TFs were identified.

  2. Applying PLM in a formula student racing car design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, H.J.; van Dongen, P.; Bouras, A.

    2008-01-01

    Field research on PLM application is difficult, because companies don't like scientists to play with their system or with their processes. At Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e) the University Racing Eindhoven (URE) team decided to use the Siemens PLM Teamcenter license of the university to

  3. Minerals and Trace Elements in Milk, Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula, ICP-MS Method: Collaborative Study, AOAC Final Action 2015.06, ISO/DIS 21424, IDF 243.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquette, Lawrence H; Thompson, Joseph J; Malaviole, I; Zywicki, R; Woltjes, F; Ding, Y; Mittal, A; Ikeuchi, Y; Sadipiralla, B; Kimura, S; Veltman, H; Miura, A

    2018-03-01

    AOAC Final Action Official MethodSM 2015.06 "Minerals and Trace Elements in Milk, Milk Products, Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula, ICP-MS Method" was collaboratively studied. Note that "milk, milk products" has now been added to the title of the Final Action method because whole milk and several dairy ingredients were successfully incorporated into the collaborative study for the purpose of developing an International Organization for Standardization/International Dairy Federation standard (ISO/DIS 21424; in progress). The method determines sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium, molybdenum, and selenium by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS after microwave digestion. Ten laboratories participated in the study, and data from five different model ICP-MS units were represented. Thirteen products, five placebo products, and six dairy samples were tested as blind duplicates in this study, along with a standard reference material, for a total 50 samples. The overall repeatability and reproducibility for all samples met Standard Method Performance Requirements put forth by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals, with a few exceptions. Comparisons are made to ICP-atomic emission data from a collaborative study of AOAC Official Method 2011.14 carried out concurrently on these same samples.

  4. Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression.

  5. Fatty acid composition and phospholipid types used in infant formulas modifies the establishment of human gut bacteria in germ-free mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Licht, Tine Rask; Hellgren, Lars

    2017-01-01

    -rich emulsions were characterized by high relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae, while LCFA-rich emulsions caused higher abundances of Enterobacteriaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae. Consumption of SL-emulsified lipids skewed the community towards more...... Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, while MPL increased Bacteroidaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Rikkenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. Intake of SL increased cecal concentrations of iso-valeric and iso-butyric acids. This suggests that fat-type and emulsifiers applied in infant formula may have distinct effects...

  6. Amino acid-based formula as a rescue strategy in feeding very-low-birth-weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Francesco; Spera, Anna Maria; Sellitto, Maria; Landolfo, Francesca; Capasso, Letizia

    2012-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates may develop severe intolerance to standard preterm formula especially if they are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We tested the hypothesis that these infants may tolerate an elemental, amino acid-based formula as a rescue feeding strategy. In a prospective, case-control pilot study, we enrolled VLBW IUGR infants enterally fed with standard preterm formula (SPF) at daily increments of 16 mL/kg. If gastric residuals accounted for >70% of milk feed in the previous 24 hours, then feedings were temporarily withheld and then resumed with amino acid formula (AAF) increased at the same speed. Cases on AAF were compared to controls on SPF and with cases themselves while on SPF. Primary outcome was the time to reach full enteral feedings. Secondary outcomes were time on parenteral nutrition, time on central venous catheter, and formula tolerability based on the amount of gastric residual volume. Sixty-four infants (22 cases) were enrolled. Although during the total duration of nutrition, cases had worse primary and secondary outcomes, when on AAF, cases were comparable to controls in time to full enteral feeding (14.4 vs 14 days), time on parenteral nutrition, and time on central venous catheter. Cases on AAF and controls had similar gastric residual volumes. At day 3 after AAF introduction, cases had a significantly reduced number (%) of gastric residual volume >5 mL/kg over total number of feedings (5.6 vs 1.5%; P Growth at 12 months of corrected age was also comparable. In our population of VLBW IUGR newborns with severe feeding intolerance, a short course on AAF was a safe and effective means of nutritional rescue.

  7. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel Lykke; Chatterton, Dereck Edward Winston

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM, raw bovine...

  8. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  9. Avoidance of Cow's Milk-Based Formula for At-Risk Infants Does Not Reduce Development of Celiac Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytinen, Mila; Savilahti, Erkki; Virtanen, Suvi M; Härkönen, Taina; Ilonen, Jorma; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Uibo, Raivo; Vaarala, Outi; Åkerblom, Hans K; Knip, Mikael

    2017-10-01

    Feeding during the first months of life might affect risk for celiac disease. Individuals with celiac disease or type 1 diabetes have been reported to have high titers of antibodies against cow's milk proteins. Avoidance of cow's milk-based formula for infants with genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes reduced the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies. We performed a randomized controlled trial in the same population to study whether weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula reduced the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity or celiac disease. We performed a double-blind controlled trial of 230 infants with HLA-defined predisposition to type 1 diabetes and at least 1 family member with type 1 diabetes. The infants were randomly assigned to groups fed a casein hydrolysate formula (n = 113) or a conventional formula (control, n = 117) whenever breast milk was not available during the first 6-8 months of life. Serum samples were collected over a median time period of 10 years and analyzed for antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG2A) using a radiobinding assay, to endomysium using an immunofluorescence assay, and antibodies to a deamidated gliadine peptide using an immunofluorometry assay. Duodenal biopsies were collected if levels of anti-TG2A exceeded 20 relative units. Cow's milk antibodies were measured during the first 2 years of life. Of the 189 participants analyzed for anti-TG2A, 25 (13.2%) tested positive. Of the 230 study participants observed, 10 (4.3%) were diagnosed with celiac disease. We did not find any significant differences at the cumulative incidence of anti-TG2A positivity (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-2.54) or celiac disease (hazard ratio, 4.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-21.02) between the casein hydrolysate and cow's milk groups. Children who developed celiac disease had increased titers of cow's milk antibodies before the appearance of anti-TG2A or celiac disease. In a randomized

  10. Selenium content of Argentinean infant formulae and baby foods by pseudo-cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis coupled to Compton suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, S.; Chatt, A.

    2013-01-01

    The selenium levels of Argentinean infant formulae and baby food were measured using the 162-keV gamma-ray of 77m Se (t ½ = 17.4 s) by a pseudo-cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis (PC-INAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (CSS). For comparison purposes, 5 selected infant formulae were also analyzed for selenium by a radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) method. The selenium levels for three samples agreed between ±2.8 and 6.5 % while the other two differed by 12 and 17 % which could perhaps be attributed to sample inhomogeneity. The selenium content of cow milk-based infant formulae varied from 42-146 μg kg -1 compared to 52-63 μg kg -1 for soy-based milk formulae. In the case of baby foods, the selenium levels varied from 34 to 74 μg kg -1 . The detection limits for selenium by PC-INAA-CSS for all the samples analyzed in this work were between 8.5 and 65 μg kg -1 depending on the major elements present in the samples, while it was 20 μg kg -1 for the RNAA method. The expanded uncertainty (κ = 2) of the PC-INAA-CSS method was 7.0 % at the end of cycle 4 for a sample containing 73.7 μg kg -1 selenium compared to the RNAA value of 24.2 % for a sample of 67.0 μg kg -1 selenium content. (author)

  11. Early introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight in breastfed and formula-fed infants in the Netherlands: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluymen, Linda P M; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; Smit, Henriëtte A; van Rossem, L

    2018-02-22

    To investigate whether early introduction of complementary foods (CF) is associated with an increased risk of overweight during childhood, and whether this association differs between formula-fed and breastfed infants. We included 2611 participants that were born at term from a Dutch population-based birth cohort (n = 3963) designed to investigate the development of asthma and allergies. Parents kept records of their infant's age when CF were first introduced. Weight and height were parent reported yearly from age 1 to 8 years, and at ages 11, 14 and 17 years. We used multivariate generalized estimating equations analysis to investigate the association between timing of CF introduction (before 4 months vs at or after 4 months of age) and overweight at ages 1-17 years. Children with CF introduction before 4 months had higher odds of being overweight during childhood than children with CF introduction at or after 4 months (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47). This association was observed in formula-fed infants (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.17, 1.94) and breastfed infants (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47). The duration of breastfeeding modified the association between CF introduction and overweight: children breastfed for shorter than 4 months, but not children breastfed for 4 months or longer with CF introduction before 4 months had higher odds of being overweight (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.19, 1.57 and 1.07, 95% CI 0.87, 1.32, respectively), compared to those with CF introduction at or after 4 months. In children born at term, formula-fed infants and infants who were breastfed for shorter than 4 months, but not infants who were breastfed for 4 months or longer, had a higher risk of being overweight during childhood when being introduced to CF before 4 months of age.

  12. Post discharge formula fortification of maternal human milk of very low birth weight preterm infants: an introduction of a feeding protocol in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer El Sakka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW. Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430, length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027, and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217 in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls, P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources.

  13. Found in translation: the correct interpretation of 'Secret Formula or Process' in India's tax treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the critically reviews of the Delhi High Court in Director of Income Tax v New Skies Satellite BV to interpreting the phrase "secret formula or process" in the India-Netherlands Tax Treaty 1989. It argues that the court's sole reliance on the English version of the text of the

  14. Actual distribution of Cronobacter spp. in industrial batches of powdered infant formula and consequences for performance of sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenburger, I; Reij, M W; Boer, E P J; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2011-11-15

    The actual spatial distribution of microorganisms within a batch of food influences the results of sampling for microbiological testing when this distribution is non-homogeneous. In the case of pathogens being non-homogeneously distributed, it markedly influences public health risk. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula (PIF) on industrial batch-scale for both a recalled batch as well a reference batch. Additionally, local spatial occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter cells was assessed, as well as the performance of typical sampling strategies to determine the presence of the microorganisms. The concentration of Cronobacter spp. was assessed in the course of the filling time of each batch, by taking samples of 333 g using the most probable number (MPN) enrichment technique. The occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter spp. cells was investigated by plate counting. From the recalled batch, 415 MPN samples were drawn. The expected heterogeneous distribution of Cronobacter spp. could be quantified from these samples, which showed no detectable level (detection limit of -2.52 log CFU/g) in 58% of samples, whilst in the remainder concentrations were found to be between -2.52 and 2.75 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the recalled batch was -2.78 log CFU/g and a standard deviation of 1.10 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the reference batch was -4.41 log CFU/g, with 99% of the 93 samples being below the detection limit. In the recalled batch, clusters of cells occurred sporadically in 8 out of 2290 samples of 1g taken. The two largest clusters contained 123 (2.09 log CFU/g) and 560 (2.75 log CFU/g) cells. Various sampling strategies were evaluated for the recalled batch. Taking more and smaller samples and keeping the total sampling weight constant, considerably improved the performance of the sampling plans to detect such a type of contaminated batch. Compared to random sampling

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety and suitability for use by infants of follow-on formulae with a protein content of at least 1.6 g/100 kcal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and suitability for use by infants of follow-on formulae (FOF) based on cow’s milk intact protein with a protein content...... of at least 1.6 g/100 kcal (rounded value) that meet otherwise the requirements of relevant EU legislation. If the formula under evaluation is considered to be safe and suitable for use by infants, the NDA Panel is also asked to advise on whether FOF based on goat’s milk intact protein, soy protein isolates...... legislation is safe and suitable for healthy infants living in Europe with an intake of complementary foods of a sufficient quality. This conclusion does not apply to infant formula (IF). The Panel also concludes that the safety and suitability of FOF with a protein content of at least 1.6 g/100 kcal...

  16. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Garcia, I.; Vinas, P.; Romero-Romero, R. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain)], E-mail: hcordoba@um.es

    2009-02-15

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO{sub 3} and 50% v/v H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 {mu}g Pd and 0.5 {mu}g Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 {mu}g g{sup -1}, equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate (s{sub y/x}) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 {mu}g g{sup -1} for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 {mu}g g{sup -1} for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  17. Effects of a Follow-On Formula Containing Isomaltulose (Palatinose™ on Metabolic Response, Acceptance, Tolerance and Safety in Infants: A Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fleddermann

    Full Text Available Effects of the dietary glycaemic load on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response might be of importance for fat deposition and risk of obesity. We aimed to investigate the metabolic effects, acceptance and tolerance of a follow-on formula containing the low glycaemic and low insulinaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose replacing high glycaemic maltodextrin. Healthy term infants aged 4 to 8 completed months (n = 50 were randomized to receive the intervention follow-on formula (IF, 2.1g isomaltulose (Palatinose™/100mL or an isocaloric conventional formula (CF providing 2.1g maltodextrin/100mL for four weeks. Plasma insulinaemia 60 min after start of feeding (primary outcome was not statistically different, while glycaemia adjusted for age and time for drinking/volume of meal 60 min after start of feeding was 122(105,140 mg/dL in IF (median, interquartile range and 111(100,123 in CF (p = 0.01. Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio did not differ (IF:81.5(44.7, 96.0 vs. CF:56.8(37.5, 129,p = 0.43. Urinary c-peptide:creatinine ratio was correlated total intake of energy (R = 0.31,p = 0.045, protein (R = 0.42,p = 0.006 and fat (R = 0.40,p = 0.01 but not with carbohydrate intake (R = 0.22,p = 0.16. Both formulae were well accepted without differences in time of crying, flatulence, stool characteristics and the occurrence of adverse events. The expected lower postprandial plasma insulin and blood glucose level due to replacement of high glycaemic maltodextrin by low glycaemic isomaltulose were not observed in the single time-point blood analysis. In infants aged 4 to 8 completed months fed a liquid formula, peak blood glucose might be reached earlier than 60 min after start of feeding. Non-invasive urinary c-peptide measurements may be a suitable marker of nutritional intake during the previous four days in infants.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01627015.

  18. Galacto-Oligosaccharide/Polidextrose Enriched Formula Protects against Respiratory Infections in Infants at High Risk of Atopy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusy Ranucci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early nutrition affects the risk of atopy and infections through modifications of intestinal microbiota. The Prebiotics in the Prevention of Atopy (PIPA study was a 24-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It aimed to evaluate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide/polydextrose (GOS/PDX-formula (PF on atopic dermatitis (AD and common infections in infants who were born to atopic parents and to investigate the relationship among early nutrition, gut microbiota and clinical outcomes. Methods: A total of 201 and 199 infants were randomized to receive a PF and standard formula (SF, respectively; 140 infants remained on exclusive breastfeeding (BF. Results: The cumulative incidence of AD and its intensity and duration were not statistically different among the three groups. The number of infants with at least one episode of respiratory infection (RI and the mean number of episodes until 48 weeks of age were significantly lower in the PF group than in the SF group. The number of patients with recurrent RIs and incidence of wheezing lower RIs until 96 weeks were lower in the PF group than the SF group, but similar to the BF group. Bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster I colonization increased over time in the PF group but decreased in the SF and BF groups. Bifidobacteria had a protective role in RIs, whereas Clostridium cluster I was associated with atopy protection. Conclusion: The early administration of PF protects against RIs and mediates a species-specific modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Trial registration: clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT02116452.

  19. Breastfeeding, Infant Formula, and Introduction to Complementary Foods-Comparing Data Obtained by Questionnaires and Health Visitors' Reports to Weekly Short Message Service Text Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Signe; Buhl, Susanne; Husby, Steffen; Jacobsen, Lotte Neergaard; Michaelsen, Kim F; Sørensen, Jan; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-11-01

    Studies on prevalence and effects of breastfeeding call for reliable and precise data collection to optimize infant nutrition, growth, and health. Data on breastfeeding and infant nutrition are at risk of, for example, recall bias or social desirability bias. The aim of the present analysis was to compare data on infant nutrition, that is, breastfeeding, use of infant formula, and introduction to complementary foods, obtained by four different methods. We assumed that weekly short message service (SMS) questions were the most reliable method, to which the other methods were compared. The study population was part of the Odense Child Cohort. The four methods used were: (a) self-administered questionnaire 3 months postpartum, (b) self-administered questionnaire 18 months postpartum, (c) registrations from health visitors visiting the families several times within the first year of life, and (d) weekly SMS questions introduced shortly after birth. In total, 639 singleton mothers with data from all four methods were included. The proportion of mothers initiating breastfeeding varied from 86% to 97%, the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding from 12 to 19 weeks, and the mean age when introduced to complementary foods from 19 to 21 weeks. The mean duration of any breastfeeding was 33 weeks across methods. Compared with the weekly SMS questions, the self-administered questionnaires and the health visitors' reports resulted in a greater proportion of mothers with an unknown breastfeeding status, a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and later introduction to complementary foods, while the duration of any breastfeeding did not differ.

  20. Altered Amygdala Development and Fear Processing in Prematurely Born Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Anca Liliana; Gui, Laura; Vasung, Lana; Lejeune, Fleur; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Truttmann, Anita; Borradori Tolsa, Cristina; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    might be linked to alterations in white matter connectivity reported in premature infants. Moreover, our data suggests that such alterations might affect infants’ fear-processing capabilities. PMID:27242451

  1. Functional activation of the infant cortex during object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Stubbs, Jessica; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Boas, David A

    2012-09-01

    A great deal is known about the functional organization of the neural structures that mediate visual object processing in the adult observer. These findings have contributed significantly to our conceptual models of object recognition and identification and provided unique insight into the nature of object representations extracted from visual input. In contrast, little is known about the neural basis of object processing in the infant. The current research used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a neuroimaging tool to investigate functional activation of the infant cortex during an object processing task that has been used extensively with infants. The neuroimaging data revealed that the infant cortex is functionally specialized for object processing (i.e., individuation-by-feature) early in the first year but that patterns of activation also change between 3 and 12 months. These changes may reflect functional reorganization of the immature cortex or age-related differences in the cognitive processes engaged during the task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  3. Prelinguistic Relational Concepts: Investigating Analogical Processing in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Alissa L.; Hespos, Susan J.; Gentner, Dedre

    2015-01-01

    This research asks whether analogical processing ability is present in human infants, using the simplest and most basic relation--the "same-different" relation. Experiment 1 (N = 26) tested whether 7- and 9-month-olds spontaneously detect and generalize these relations from a single example, as previous research has suggested. The…

  4. Analytical explicit formulas of average run length for long memory process with ARFIMA model on CUSUM control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilasinee Peerajit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the explicit formulas for the derivation of exact formulas from Average Run Lengths (ARLs using integral equation on CUSUM control chart when observations are long memory processes with exponential white noise. The authors compared efficiency in terms of the percentage of absolute difference to a similar method to verify the accuracy of the ARLs between the values obtained by the explicit formulas and numerical integral equation (NIE method. The explicit formulas were based on Banach fixed point theorem which was used to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the solution for ARFIMA(p,d,q. Results showed that the two methods are similar in good agreement with the percentage of absolute difference at less than 0.23%. Therefore, the explicit formulas are an efficient alternative for implementation in real applications because the computational CPU time for ARLs from the explicit formulas are 1 second preferable over the NIE method.

  5. Sensitive determination of melamine in milk and powdered infant formula samples by high-performance liquid chromatography using dabsyl chloride derivatization followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, M; Adeli, M

    2017-04-15

    A new and sensitive pre-column derivatization with dabsyl chloride followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the analysis of melamine (MEL) in raw milk and powdered infant formula samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible detection. Derivatization with dabsyl chloride leads to improving sensitivity and hydrophobicity of MEL. Under optimum conditions of derivatization and microextraction steps, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500μgL -1 with a determination coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9995. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.3μgL -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (reproducibility) at 25 and 100μgL -1 levels of MEL was less than 7.0% (n=6). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of MEL in different raw milk and powdered infant formula, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ⩾94%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Stroock formula for a certain class of Lévy processes and applications to finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eddahbi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We find a Stroock formula in the setting of generalized chaos expansion introduced by Nualart and Schoutens for a certain class of Lévy processes, using a Malliavin-type derivative based on the chaotic approach. As applications, we get the chaotic decomposition of the local time of a simple Lévy process as well as the chaotic expansion of the price of a financial asset and of the price of a European call option. We also study the behavior of the tracking error in the discrete delta neutral hedging under both the equivalent martingale measure and the historical probability.

  7. Infant feeding with soy formula milk: effects on puberty progression, reproductive function and testicular cell numbers in marmoset monkeys in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karen A L; Walker, Marion; Morris, Keith; Greig, Irene; Mason, J Ian; Sharpe, Richard M

    2006-04-01

    This marmoset study addresses concerns about feeding human male infants with soy formula milk (SFM). From age 4 to 5 days, seven male co-twin sets were fed standard formula milk (SMA) or SFM for 5-6 weeks; blood samples were subsequently collected at 10-week intervals. Testes from co-twins killed at 120-138 weeks were fixed for cell counts. SFM- and SMA-fed twins showed normal weight gain; puberty started and progressed normally, based on blood testosterone measurements. Body weight, organ weights (prostate, seminal vesicles, pituitary, thymus and spleen) and penis length were comparable in co-twins. All SMA- and 6/7 SFM-fed males were fertile. Unexpectedly, testis weight (P = 0.041), Sertoli (P = 0.025) and Leydig cell (P = 0.026) numbers per testis were consistently increased in SFM-fed co-twins; the increase in Leydig cell numbers was most marked in males with consistently low-normal testosterone levels. Seminiferous epithelium volume per tubule showed a less consistent, non-significant increase in SFM-fed males; raised germ cell numbers per testis, probably due to increased Sertoli cells, conceivably resulted in larger testes. Average lumen size, although greater in SFM-fed group, was inconsistent between co-twins and the difference was not significant. Infant feeding with SFM has no gross adverse reproductive effects in male marmosets, though it alters testis size and cell composition, and there is consistent, if indirect, evidence for possible 'compensated Leydig cell failure'. Similar and perhaps larger changes likely occur in adult men who were fed SFM as infants.

  8. Feeding an elemental diet vs a milk-based formula does not decrease intestinal mucosal growth in infant pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoll, Barbara; Price, Pamela T; Reeds, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the level of enteral nutrient intake determines the rate of intestinal growth in piglets. Our objective was to determine whether providing enteral nutrition in the form of elemental nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipid [ED]) rather than cow's milk formula...... conclude that intestinal mucosal growth and villus morphology are similar in pigs fed ED and FORM, despite higher cell proliferation and protein synthesis rates and lower lactase activity with ED. This implies that elemental diets may be as trophic as polymeric formulas to simultaneously provide nutrition...

  9. Melamine dependent fluorescence of glutathione protected gold nanoclusters and ratiometric quantification of melamine in commercial cow milk and infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasan, Gopi; K, Anusuya; Joseph, James

    2017-10-01

    Companies processing the milk for the further production of powdered infant formulation normally check the protein level through a test measuring nitrogen content. The addition of melamine which is a nitrogen-rich organic chemical in milk increases the nitrogen content and therefore enhances its apparent protein content. However, the melamine causes kidney failure and death owing to the formation of kidney stone. Thus the determination of melamine in humans and milk products have gained great significance in recent years. The gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have attracting features due to its unique electronic and optical properties like fluorescence nature. Therefore one can use AuNCs in the field of biosensor, bio-imaging, nanobiotechnology, drug delivery, diagnosis etc. We report, a new ratiometric nanosensor established for the selective and sensitive detection of melamine based optical sensing using glutathione stabilized AuNCs. The AuNCs were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), UV-visible and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic techniques. In the presence of melamine, the PL intensity at 430 nm increases owing to the (turn-on) enhancement in fluorescence, whereas PL intensity at 610 nm decreases due to the melamine-induced aggregation and subsequent aggregation-enhanced emission quenching. The observed changes were ascribed to the hydrogen bonding interaction between melamine and AuNCs, which led to the aggregation of the nanoclusters. This was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and HR-TEM measurements. The present probe showed an extreme selectivity towards the determination of 28.2 μM melamine in the presence of 100-fold excess of common interfering molecules such as Alanine, Glycine, Glucose, Cystine etc. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine melamine in cow milk.

  10. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  11. Short-term growth and substrate use in very-low-birth-weight infants fed formulas with different energy contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); E.J. Sulkers; H.N. Lafeber (Harrie); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Currently available preterm formulas with energy contents of 3350 kJ (800 kcal)/L promote weight and length gain at rates at or above intrauterine growth rates but disproportionately increase total body fat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this

  12. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  13. Electrochemical coupled immunosensing platform based on graphene oxide/gold nanocomposite for sensitive detection of Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Bajpai, Vivek K; Rengaraj, Arunkumar; Hwang, Seung Kyu; Song, Xinjie; Kim, Myunghee; Huh, Yun Suk; Han, Young-Kyu

    2018-06-30

    A sensitive electrochemical immunosensing platform for the detection of Cronobacter sakazakii was developed using a graphene oxide/gold (GO/Au) composite. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Au nanoparticles, with an average size of GCE). The electrochemical sensing performance of immunofunctionalized GCE was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, in pure culture there was a linear relationship between electrical signal and C. sakazakii levels over the range 2.0 × 10 2 -2.0 × 10 7 cfu/mL (R 2 = 0.999), with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10 1 cfu/mL. The total analytical time was 15 min per sample. The C. sakazakii electrochemical immunosensing assay was able to successfully detect 2.0 × 10 1 cfu/mL of C. sakazakii in artificially contaminated powdered infant formula without any enrichment or pre-enrichment steps. Furthermore, the recovery rates of the C. sakazakii electrochemical immunosensing assay following spiking of powdered infant formula with different concentrations of C. sakazakii (cfu/mL) were 82.58% at 2.0 × 10 1 cfu/mL, 84.86% at 2.0 × 10 2 cfu/mL, and 95.40% at 2.0 × 10 3 cfu/mL. The C. sakazakii electrochemical immunosensing assay had good selectivity, reproducibility, and reactivity compared with other Cronobacter spp. and/or pathogens belonging to other genera, indicating its significant potential in the clinical diagnosis of C. sakazakii. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using urinary solubility data to estimate the level of safety concern of low levels of melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) present simultaneously in infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Estevez, Manuel; Constable, Anne; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Renwick, Andrew G; Schilter, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) may occur simultaneously in milk products. There is no health based guidance value for the mixture of MEL+CYA. Limited toxicological data indicate that MEL+CYA toxicity occurs at levels lower than the toxic doses of the single compounds. The key adverse effect of MEL+CYA is the formation of crystals in the urinary tract, which is dependent on the solubility of the MEL+CYA complex. Urinary concentrations resulting from oral doses of MEL+CYA and MEL alone have been calculated from published data from animal studies. A human exposure scenario assuming consumption of infant formula contaminated at a level of 1 ppm of MEL and CYA each (2 ppm of MEL+CYA) was also analyzed. Margins of more than two orders or magnitude were observed between estimated urine concentrations known to be without detectable effects in rats and calculated human urine concentrations. Because the hazard is related to the physico-chemical characteristics of the mixture, there would be a negligible concern associated with crystal formation if the urinary concentration of the complex is within the solubility range. The solubility of MEL+CYA was higher in urine than in water. A strong pH-dependency was observed with the lowest solubility found at pH 5-5.5. The calculated human urinary concentration was about 30 times less than the solubility limit for MEL+CYA in adult human urine. Altogether, these data provide preliminary evidence suggesting that the presence of 1 ppm of MEL and CYA each in infant formula is unlikely to be of significant health concern. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions by online two-dimensional liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhai; Qibule, Hasi; Jin, Yan; Wang, Jia; Ma, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions has been developed using online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). First of all, C8 and polar embedded C18 columns were chosen as the first and second dimensional column respectively according to hydrophobic-subtraction model, which constituted excellent orthogonal separation system. The detection wavelengths were set at 263 nm for vitamin D3, 296 nm for vitamin E and 325 nm for vitamin A. The purification of vitamin D3 and quantifications of vitamins A and E were completed simultaneously in the first dimensional separation using the left pump of Dual Gradient LC (DGLC) with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The heart-cutting time window of vitamin D3 was confirmed according to the retention time of vitamin D3 in the first dimensional separation. The elute from the first dimensional column (1-D column) which contained vitamin D3 was collected by a 500 µL sample loop and then taken into the second dimensional column (2-D column) by the right pump of DGLC with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The quantification of vitamin D3 was performed in the second dimensional separation with vitamin D2 as internal standard. At last, this method was applied for the analysis of the three vitamins in milk powder, cheese and yogurt. The injected sample solution with no further purification was pre-treated by hot-saponification using 1. 25 kg/L KOH solution and extracted by petroleum ether solvent. The recoveries of vitamin D3 spiked in all samples were 75.50%-85.00%. There was no statistically significant difference for the results between this method and standard method through t-test. The results indicate that vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult fortified dairy can be determined rapidly and accurately with this method.

  16. Direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and solid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arlene S; Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-11-01

    The present work proposed an analytical method for the direct determination of chromium in infant formulas employing the high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry combined with the solid sample analysis (SS-HR-CS ET AAS). Sample masses up to 2.0mg were directly weighted on a solid sampling platform and introduced into the graphite tube. In order to minimize the formation of carbonaceous residues and to improve the contact of the modifier solution with the solid sample, a volume of 10 µL of a solution containing 6% (v/v) H2O2, 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1% (v/v) HNO3 was added. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures established were 1600 and 2400 °C, respectively, using magnesium as chemical modifier. The calibration technique was evaluated by comparing the slopes of calibration curves established using aqueous and solid standards. This test revealed that chromium can be determined employing the external calibration technique using aqueous standards. Under these conditions, the method developed allows the direct determination of chromium with limit of quantification of 11.5 ng g(-1), precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 4.0-17.9% (n=3) and a characteristic mass of 1.2 pg of chromium. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves furnished by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The method proposed was applied for the determination of chromium in five different infant formula samples. The chromium content found varied in the range of 33.9-58.1 ng g(-1) (n=3). These samples were also analyzed employing ICP-MS. A statistical test demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the results found by two methods. The chromium concentrations achieved are lower than the maximum limit permissible for chromium in foods by Brazilian Legislation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. SENSORY PROCESSING DURING CHILDHOOD IN PRETERM INFANTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Carolina Cabral de Paula; Oliveira, Suelen Rosa de; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a systematic search for grounded and quality evidence of sensory processing in preterm infants during childhood. The search of the available literature on the theme was held in the following electronic databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline)/PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs)/Virtual Library in Health (BVS), Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)/BVS, Scopus, and Web of Science. We included only original indexed studies with a quantitative approach, which were available in full text on digital media, published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish between 2005 and 2015, involving children aged 0-9years. 581 articles were identified and eight were included. Six studies (75%) found high frequency of dysfunction in sensory processing in preterm infants. The association of sensory processing with developmental outcomes was observed in three studies (37.5%). The association of sensory processing with neonatal characteristics was observed in five studies (62.5%), and the sensory processing results are often associated with gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions. The current literature suggests that preterm birth affects the sensory processing, negatively. Gestational age, male gender, and white matter lesions appear as risk factors for sensoryprocessing disorders in preterm infants. The impairment in the ability to receivesensory inputs, to integrateand to adapt to them seems to have a negative effect on motor, cognitive, and language development of these children. We highlight the feasibility of identifying sensory processing disorders early in life, favoring early clinical interventions.

  18. Simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins in SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula powder by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Robert J; Wolf, Wayne R

    2010-05-01

    Assessing dietary intake of vitamins from all sources, including foods, dietary supplements, and fortified foods, would be aided considerably by having analytical methodologies that are capable of simultaneous determination of several vitamins. Vitamins naturally present in foods may occur in different chemical forms, with levels ranging over several orders of magnitude. Vitamins in dietary supplements and fortified foods, however, are typically added in a single chemical form, and matrix issues are usually not as complex. These sources should thus be relatively amenable to approaches that aim for simultaneous determination of multiple vitamins. Our recent work has focused on development of liquid chromatography (LC)-UV/fluorescence and LC-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, and riboflavin) in dietary supplement tablets and fortified foods, such as formula powders and breakfast cereals. As part of the validation of our methods and collaboration in characterization of a new NIST SRM 1849 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula powder, we report data on SRM 1849 using isotope dilution mass spectrometric methods. Use of available NIST Standard Reference Materials(R) as test matrices in our method development and validation gives a benchmark for future application of these methods. We compare three chromatographic approaches and provide data on stability of vitamin standard solutions for LC-based multiple vitamin determinations.

  19. Reaction probability derived from an interpolation formula for diffusion processes with an absorptive boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, T.; Itakura, H.

    1995-01-01

    The present article focuses on a dynamical simulation of molecular motion in liquids. In the simulation involving diffusion-controlled reaction with discrete time steps, lack of information regarding the trajectory within the time step may result in a failure to count the number of reactions of the particles within the step. In order to rectify this, an interpolated diffusion process is used. The process is derived from a stochastic interpolation formula recently developed by the first author [J. Math. Phys. 34, 775 (1993)]. In this method, the probability that reaction has occurred during the time step given the initial and final positions of the particles is calculated. Some numerical examples confirm that the theoretical result corresponds to an improvement over the Clifford-Green work [Mol. Phys. 57, 123 (1986)] on the same matter

  20. THE REGULATIONS RELATING TO FOODSTUFFS FOR INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN (R 991: A FORMULA FOR THE PROMOTION OF BREASTFEEDING OR CENSORSHIP OF COMMERCIAL SPEECH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Mills

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of commercial speech in the interests of public health is an issue which recently has become the topic of numerous debates. Two examples of such governmental regulation are the subjects of discussion in this article, namely the prohibition on the advertising and promotion of tobacco products, as well as the proposed prohibition on the advertising and promotion of infant formulae and other foods and products marketed as being suitable for infants or young children. The article seek to evaluate the recently proposed regulations published in terms of the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act in the light of the reasoning by the Supreme Court of Appeal in the British American Tobacco South Africa (Pty Limited v Minister of Health 463/2011 [2012] ZASCA 107 (20 June 2012 decision, and in particular in terms of the section 36 test of reasonableness and proportionality found in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. It argues that, although the South African Department of Health must be applauded for its attempt at improving public health in the country, some of the provisions of the proposed regulations are not constitutionally sound. It will be contended that, despite the fact that the promotion of breastfeeding is a laudable goal, the introduction only of measures which restrict the right to advertise these types of products will not necessarily achieve this objective.

  1. Heavy metal content and element analysis of infant formula and milk powder samples purchased on the Tanzanian market: International branded versus black market products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, M; McCulloch, C R; Schoder, D

    2018-07-30

    Milk powder is a food for malnourished African children and for healthy infants of women with HIV/AIDS. High demand and low purchasing power has resulted in a huge informal, black market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Forty-three milk powder batches were analyzed for 43 chemical elements using ICP-MS One sample (2.3%) was contaminated at a lead concentration of 240 µg/kg dry weight exceeding the European threshold (130 µg/kg dry weight). Macroelement contents revealed a trend decreasing in concentration through skimmed, full cream products to infant formulae. Concentration ranges by dry weight differed in respect of uncertainty intervals of  ±10%. Median Ca, K and P concentrations declined from 11.14 g/kg to 3.21 g/kg, 14.11 g/kg to 4.95 g/kg and 9.12 g/kg to 2.75 g/kg dry mass, respectively. Milk powder samples obtained from the Tanzanian black market were comparable in respect of nutritional and chemical content to international branded full cream products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Infant Formula Supplementation With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Has No Effect on Bayley Developmental Scores at 18 Months of Age-IPD Meta-analysis of 4 Large Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Kennedy, Katherine; Fewtrell, Mary; Singhal, Atul; Rosenfeld, Eva; Lucas, Alan; Bouwstra, Hylco; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Ruediger

    Objectives: To find out whether supplementation of formula milk by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affects neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in term or preterm infants by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Data of 870 children from 4 large

  3. Early Benefits of a Starter Formula Enriched in Prebiotics and Probiotics on the Gut Microbiota of Healthy Infants Born to HIV+ Mothers: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cooper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota of infants is shaped by both the mode of delivery and the type of feeding. The gut of vaginally and cesarean-delivered infants is colonized at different rates and with different bacterial species, leading to differences in the gut microbial composition, which may persist up to 6 months. In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial conducted in South Africa, we tested the effect of a formula supplemented with a prebiotic (a mixture of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides [BMOS] generated from whey permeate and containing galactooligosaccharides and milk oligosaccharides such as 3′- and 6′-sialyllactose and the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis strain CNCM I-3446 on the bifidobacteria levels in the gut of infants born vaginally or via cesarean section in early life. Additionally, the safety of the new formulation was evaluated. A total of 430 healthy, full-term infants born to HIV-positive mothers who had elected to feed their child beginning from birth (≤3 days old exclusively with formula were randomized into this multicenter trial of four parallel groups. A total of 421 infants who had any study formula intake were included in the full analysis set (FAS. The first two groups consisted of cesarean-delivered infants assigned to the Test formula (n = 92 (a starter infant formula [IF] containing BMOS at a total oligosaccharide concentration of 5.8 ± 1.0 g/100 g of powder formula [8 g/L in the reconstituted formula] + B. lactis [1 × 10 7 colony-forming units {cfu}/g] or a Control IF (n = 101; the second two groups consisted of vaginally delivered infants randomized to the same Test (n = 115 or Control (n = 113 formulas from the time of enrollment to 6 months. The primary efficacy outcome was fecal bifidobacteria count at 10 days, and the primary safety outcome was daily weight gain (g/d between 10 days and 4 months. At 10 days, fecal bifidobacteria counts were significantly higher

  4. The x rescaling parameter' formula of the extended x rescaling model and the nuclear effect l-A DIS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yonghua; He Mingzhong; Duan Chungui

    2003-01-01

    The authors present an x rescaling parameters' formula for partons in the extended x rescaling model, where we have established the connection between the rescaling parameter and the mean binding energy. Using x rescaling parameters obtained by the x rescaling parameters' formula, we calculate the average nucleon structure function ratio of DIS process in l-A (Al, Ca, Pb) collision to l-C collision respectively. The result is in good agreement with experimental data

  5. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eAvril

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyse communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviours (including synchrony. This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyses highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  6. Formula inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipov Valerij Ivanovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a modern interpretation of the Fisher formula, the calculated velocity of circulation of money supply M2 in the interval 1995-2013 and forecast of its changes until 2030 when hypotheses about the rate of inflation and GDP. Points to the fallacy of its direct use to control inflation and money supply. For a more detailed understanding of the inflationary process proposes a new frequency formula and the explanation of the situation with the regulation of prices in the economy.

  7. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in beverages and powdered infant formula by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Almeida, C; Mendes, E; Fernandes, J O

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable, cost-effective, fast and simple method to quantify simultaneously both bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) in liquid food matrixes such as canned beverages (soft drinks and beers) and powdered infant formula using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with in-situ derivatisation coupled with heart-cutting gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the optimisation of the DLLME procedure different amounts of various extractive and dispersive solvents as well as different amounts of the derivative reagent were compared for their effects on extraction efficiency and yields. The optimised procedure consisted of the injection of a mixture containing tetrachloroethylene (extractant), acetonitrile (dispersant) and acetic anhydride (derivatising reagent) directly into an aliquot of beverage samples or into an aqueous extract of powdered milk samples obtained after a pretreatment of the samples. Given the compatibility of the solvents used, and the low volumes involved, the procedure was easily associated with GC-MS end-point determination, which was accomplished by means of an accurate GC dual column (heart-cutting) technique. Careful optimisation of heart-cutting GC-MS conditions, namely pressure of front and auxiliary inlets, have resulted in a good analytical performance. The linearity of the matrix-matched calibration curves was acceptable, with coefficients of determination (r2) always higher than 0.99. Average recoveries of the BPA and BPB spiked at two concentration levels into beverages and powdered infant formula ranged from 68% to 114% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was canned beverages were 5.0 and 2.0 ng l(-1) for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOD in powdered infant formula were 60.0 and 30.0 ng l(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) in canned beverages were 10.0 and 7.0 ng l-1 for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOQ in powdered infant formula were

  8. Sensory processing and cognitive development of preterm and full term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Ribeiro Cavalcanti Buffone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current studies show the repercussion of sensory processing disorder in infant neurodevelopment. Little is known about the influence of these disorders in the infant’s cognitive development, however, it is known that they negatively interfere on daily life activities and remain during life course. Objective:To evaluate the relationship between sensory processing and cognitive development in infants and the association between prematurity and sensory processing in this population. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Childcare Outpatient Department of the Hospital das Clínicas, Federal Universidade de Pernambuco, from December 2009 to August 2010. The sample consisted of 182 infants from 8 to 15 months, of which 54 (29.7% were born preterm with the prematurity age correction made to 40 weeks of gestational age. We used the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI to evaluate the sensory processing and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III to assess cognitive development. Results: There was a significantly higher frequency of at risk and deficient sensory processing among preterm infants (37% when compared to term infants (21.9%. Cognitive delay was significantly higher (8.3% in infants with at risk and deficient sensory processing when compared to those with normal sensory processing (1.5%. Conclusion: Prematurity was a risk factor for sensory processing disorder, and infants diagnosed with this disorder showed cognitive delay more frequently. Prematurity alone was not associated with cognitive delay.

  9. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, José; Grüber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Günther; Sauer, Pieter J J

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday.

  10. Determination of vitamin D in fortified and nonfortified milk powder and infant formula using a specific radioassay after purification by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Berg, H.; Boshuis, P.G.; Schreurs, W.H.P.

    1986-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive radioassay is described for the determination of vitamin D in milk powder and infant formula. After saponification of the sample interfering compounds like sterols are removed by digitonin precipitation and chromatography on small columns packed with alumina. [ 3 H] Vitamin D is added to the sample as an internal standard, to correct for losses due to previtamin D formation, as well as other procedural losses. Vitamin D is quantitated by a competitive protein binding (CPB) assay after final cleanup of the extract on a straight-phase HPLC column. Diluted sheep serum is used as the source of the binding protein, having equal affinity for both vitamins D 2 and D 3 . With this HPLC CPB method vitamin D can be determined with high specificity in concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/tube (ca. 0.01 IE/g). Recovery was between 90 and 110%. The coefficients of variation were 2.4 (within run) and 7.5 (between run), respectively

  11. Individual cell lag time distributions of Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) and impact of pooling samples on its detection in powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miled, Rabeb Bennour; Guillier, Laurent; Neves, Sandra; Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Colin, Pierre; Besse, Nathalie Gnanou

    2011-06-01

    Cells of six strains of Cronobacter were subjected to dry stress and stored for 2.5 months at ambient temperature. The individual cell lag time distributions of recovered cells were characterized at 25 °C and 37 °C in non-selective broth. The individual cell lag times were deduced from the times taken by cultures from individual cells to reach an optical density threshold. In parallel, growth curves for each strain at high contamination levels were determined in the same growth conditions. In general, the extreme value type II distribution with a shape parameter fixed to 5 (EVIIb) was the most effective at describing the 12 observed distributions of individual cell lag times. Recently, a model for characterizing individual cell lag time distribution from population growth parameters was developed for other food-borne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. We confirmed this model's applicability to Cronobacter by comparing the mean and the standard deviation of individual cell lag times to populational lag times observed with high initial concentration experiments. We also validated the model in realistic conditions by studying growth in powdered infant formula decimally diluted in Buffered Peptone Water, which represents the first enrichment step of the standard detection method for Cronobacter. Individual lag times and the pooling of samples significantly affect detection performances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Exact Matrix-Matching Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Cu and K in Infant Formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Yim, Yong-Hyeon [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Sung Woo; Han, Myung-Sub; Lim, Youngran [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, we have developed an exact matrix-matching inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) as a low-cost alternative to the isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for accurate and precise measurements of nutrient elements K and Cu in infant formula. In spite of its high precision and accuracy, ICP-OES analysis of complex samples was not reliable due to biases originating from various matrix effects. The elaborated exact matrix-matching approach tested here demonstrated its potential to minimize biases due to matrix mismatch. The exact matrix-matching ICP-OES method was successfully validated by comparing the results with those from an isotope dilution ICP-M S method. Because the model provides reliable results without significant loss of precision, it will be an excellent choice for major element analysis in a complex sample, especially when isotope dilution is not applicable due to the l ck of alternative isotopes or the high cost of enriched isotopes.

  13. Asymmetry in infants' selective attention to facial features during visual processing of infant-directed speech

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Gibilisco, Colleen R.; Meisinger, Rachel E.; Hankey, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker’s right eye for infant-directed speech stimuli. Observers continued to look more at the talker’s apparent right eye when the video stimuli were mirror flipped, suggesting that the asymmetry reflects a per...

  14. Maternal Behavior Predicts Infant Neurophysiological and Behavioral Attention Processes in the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingler, Margaret M.; Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2017-01-01

    We apply a biopsychosocial conceptualization to attention development in the 1st year and examine the role of neurophysiological and social processes on the development of early attention processes. We tested whether maternal behavior measured during 2 mother-child interaction tasks when infants (N = 388) were 5 months predicted infant medial…

  15. Modeling dyadic processes using Hidden Markov Models: A time series approach to mother-infant interactions during infant immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Rovine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at two and six months of age, used hidden Markov modeling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a 4-state model for the dyadic responses to a two-month inoculation whereas a 6-state model best described the dyadic process at six months. Two of the states at two months and three of the states at six months suggested a progression from high intensity crying to no crying with parents using vestibular and auditory soothing methods. The use of feeding and/or pacifying to soothe the infant characterized one two-month state and two six-month states. These data indicate that with maturation and experience, the mother-infant dyad is becoming more organized around the soothing interaction. Using hidden Markov modeling to describe individual differences, as well as normative processes, is also presented and discussed.

  16. Infants Understanding of Everyday Social Interactions: A Dual Process Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Melinder, Annika

    2010-01-01

    Six- and 12-month-old infant's eye movements were recorded as they observed feeding actions being performed in a rational or non-rational manner. Twelve-month-olds fixated the goal of these actions before the food arrived (anticipation); the latency of these gaze shifts being dependent (r=0.69) on infants life experience being feed. In addition,…

  17. Asymmetry in infants’ selective attention to facial features during visual processing of infant-directed speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Smith

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments used eye tracking to examine how infant and adult observers distribute their eye gaze on videos of a mother producing infant- and adult-directed speech. Both groups showed greater attention to the eyes than to the nose and mouth, as well as an asymmetrical focus on the talker’s right eye for infant-directed speech stimuli. Observers continued to look more at the talker’s apparent right eye when the video stimuli were mirror flipped, suggesting that the asymmetry reflects a perceptual processing bias rather than a stimulus artifact, which may be related to cerebral lateralization of emotion processing.

  18. Do 11-Month-Old French Infants Process Articles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Pierre A.; Durand, Catherine; de Boysson-Bardies, Benedicte

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study examined (Parisian) French-learning 11-month-old infants' recognition of the six definite and indefinite French articles: "le", "la", "les", "un", "une", and "des". The six articles were compared with pseudoarticles in the context of disyllabic or monosyllabic…

  19. Infants' Memory Processing of a Serial List: List Length Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, Michele; Sweeney, Becky; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that increasing the length of a mobile serial list impaired 6-month olds' memory for serial order. Findings indicated that the primacy effect was absent on a 24-hour delayed recognition test and was exhibited on a reactivation test, adding to growing evidence that young infants possess two functionally distinct…

  20. Identifying Cortical Lateralization of Speech Processing in Infants Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeld, Heather; Fava, Eswen; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the utility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as an alternative technique for studying infant speech processing. NIRS is an optical imaging technology that uses relative changes in total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation as an indicator of neural activation. Procedurally, NIRS has the advantage over more common methods (e.g., fMRI) in that it can be used to study the neural responses of behaviorally active infants. Older infants (aged 6–9 months) were allowed to sit on their caretakers’ laps during stimulus presentation to determine relative differences in focal activity in the temporal region of the brain during speech processing. Results revealed a dissociation of sensory-specific processing in two cortical regions, the left and right temporal lobes. These findings are consistent with those obtained using other neurophysiological methods and point to the utility of NIRS as a means of establishing neural correlates of language development in older (and more active) infants. PMID:19142766

  1. EFEK SUPLEMENTASI LAKTOFERIN PADA SUSU FORMULA TERHADAP AVAILABILITAS ZAT BESI, OKSIDASI LEMAK DAN PERTUMBUHAN Escherichia coli PADA SALURAN PENCERNAAN TIKUS [The Effects of Lactoferrin Supplementation to Infant Formula on Iron Availability, Lipid Oxidation and Escherichia coli Growth in RatsIntestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Purwati Nurlaili 1

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A research on lactoferrin supplementation to infant formula has been conducted. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of consumption of the supplemented formula on iron availability, lipid oxidation and growth of Escherichia coli in the intestine. Fifthly newly born rats and their mother (10 rats were used.They were divided into 5 groups of 10 newly born and 2 mother rats, and were given five different infant formula respectivelly i.e. FEAN (inorganic Fe supplementation, FEOR ( lactoferrin supplementation, FECAMP (inorganic and lactoferrin supplementation, Control (no Fe supplementation and Placebo. FeSO4. 7 H2O and lactoferrin were used as the source of inorganic and organic Fe respectively. During the experiment the rat baby also got regular milk from their mothers which were fed by AIN 93 diet. After 30 days of intervention, blood were withdrawn from the retro orbital plexus for Hb, Fe and TBARS determination. The rats were executed and liver was taken for Fe and TBARS analysis and large intestine were withdrawn for Escherichia coli determination. It was found that Fe supplementation of the formula have no effects on the serum total Fe, increase the total hemoglobin of the baby but was not significantly different between the sources of the Fe. Total Fe of the liver was highest in FECAMP and FEOR rats (101.3 ppm and 83.38 ppm, respectively and lowest in the Placebo groups (58.1 ppm. Inorganic Fe supplementation increase TBARS of the serum and liver of the rats. Number of total Escherichia coli was lowest in FEOR groups (1.7 10 7 cfu and was highest in FEAN rats (7.5 10 7 cfu.

  2. Determinação de bisfenol A em fórmulas infantis | Determination of bisphenol A in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Justo Bomfim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Desreguladores endócrinos, como o bisfenol A (BFA, podem representar um sério risco toxicológico e de saúde pública, principalmente pela ação em baixas doses e, por isso, tem recebido atenção da comunidade científica e de organizações relacionadas à segurança alimentar. É utilizado principalmente na produção de um tipo de plástico denominado policarbonato (PC e na formação de resinas epóxi. O PC está presente em produtos de uso diário recipientes e materiais de cozinha e garrafas de água. As resinas epóxi são utilizadas como revestimento interno de latas de alimentos e bebidas. Em contato com o alimento, a substância pode ser transferida a partir do material plástico. O objetivo do trabalho foi quantificar a presença de BFA em amostras de fórmula infantil em pó. As concentrações oscilaram entre 0,2 a 10,2 µg/kg da amostra. Os resultados obtidos atestam que as amostras analisadas estão abaixo do limite de migração específica (LME para o BFA definido pela União Europeia e pelo Brasil. Contudo, não exclui a possibilidade de ocorrência de efeitos adversos sobre a saúde humana em decorrência da exposição ao BFA mesmo em baixas doses. O cenário é complexo, envolve outras formas de exposição e ainda é alvo de preocupação de autoridades e entidades envolvidas com a prevenção de riscos e segurança alimentar. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disruptor and may present a serious toxicological and public health risk even at low doses. This problem has received widespread attention from the scientific community and food safety organizations. BPA is mainly used in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, and can be transferred from plastic materials to food. The aim of the present study was determine the amount of BPA in samples of infant formula powder. The concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 10.2 µg

  3. Musical intervention enhances infants' neural processing of temporal structure in music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-05-10

    Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test the effects of a laboratory-controlled music intervention on young infants' neural processing of music and speech. Nine-month-old infants were randomly assigned to music (intervention) or play (control) activities for 12 sessions. The intervention targeted temporal structure learning using triple meter in music (e.g., waltz), which is difficult for infants, and it incorporated key characteristics of typical infant music classes to maximize learning (e.g., multimodal, social, and repetitive experiences). Controls had similar multimodal, social, repetitive play, but without music. Upon completion, infants' neural processing of temporal structure was tested in both music (tones in triple meter) and speech (foreign syllable structure). Infants' neural processing was quantified by the mismatch response (MMR) measured with a traditional oddball paradigm using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The intervention group exhibited significantly larger MMRs in response to music temporal structure violations in both auditory and prefrontal cortical regions. Identical results were obtained for temporal structure changes in speech. The intervention thus enhanced temporal structure processing not only in music, but also in speech, at 9 mo of age. We argue that the intervention enhanced infants' ability to extract temporal structure information and to predict future events in time, a skill affecting both music and speech processing.

  4. Food matrix and cooking process affect mineral bioaccessibility of enteral nutrition formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2014-02-01

    When enteral formulas (EF) are administered orally as a supplement to the normal diet, they are often mixed with conventional foods or included in recipes in order to seek new flavors and textures and avoid monotony. The aims of this work were to study the bioaccessibility of Fe, Zn and Ca from commercial EF and the impact upon their incorporation into sweet preparations. Twenty commercial EF, before and after inclusion in sweet food (rice pudding, RP; banana smoothie, BS; tea, T; chocolate dessert, CD) were evaluated regarding Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability (%DFe , %DZn , %DCa ) as an estimator of mineral bioaccessibility. Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability from EF was variable and generally low. Heating during EF-sweet food preparation (T and CD) lowered values to 44.1 %DFe , possibly due to degradation of vitamin C, and 52.7 %DZn and 25.3 %DCa , due to the interaction with food components. EF and EF-sweet foods did not represent a good supply of Fe, Zn and Ca as recommended. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of these minerals is affected by the food matrix in which EF is included as well as heating during food preparation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Determination of phthalate diesters and monoesters in human milk and infant formula by fat extraction, size-exclusion chromatography clean-up and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bubba, Massimo; Ancillotti, Claudia; Checchini, Leonardo; Fibbi, Donatella; Rossini, Daniele; Ciofi, Lorenzo; Rivoira, Luca; Profeti, Claudio; Orlandini, Serena; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2018-01-30

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five phthalate diesters and corresponding monoesters in human milk samples and infant formulas. The method involved a liquid-liquid extraction with a CH 2 Cl 2 /CH 3 OH/NaCl 30% 2/1/0.5 (v/v/v) mixture, the clean-up of the extract by size-exclusion chromatography (swelling and elution solvent: cyclohexane/ethyl acetate 9/1v/v), the derivatization of monoesters by trimethylsilyl-diazomethane and instrumental analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Recovery was in the range of 83-115% and precision was found between 9% and 21%. For phthalate diesters, method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from hundreds of ng/kg to 4.2μg/kg on a fresh weight milk (f.w.) basis, depending on blank contribution evaluated in matrix. Lower MDLs (0.03-0.8μg/kg f.w.) were achieved for corresponding monoesters. The proposed method was applied to the determination of target compounds in nine human milk samples and four infant formulas, confirming their presence in all samples. However, a generally higher contamination was assessed in artificial milk than in breast milk samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influences on infant speech processing: toward a new synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werker, J F; Tees, R C

    1999-01-01

    To comprehend and produce language, we must be able to recognize the sound patterns of our language and the rules for how these sounds "map on" to meaning. Human infants are born with a remarkable array of perceptual sensitivities that allow them to detect the basic properties that are common to the world's languages. During the first year of life, these sensitivities undergo modification reflecting an exquisite tuning to just that phonological information that is needed to map sound to meaning in the native language. We review this transition from language-general to language-specific perceptual sensitivity that occurs during the first year of life and consider whether the changes propel the child into word learning. To account for the broad-based initial sensitivities and subsequent reorganizations, we offer an integrated transactional framework based on the notion of a specialized perceptual-motor system that has evolved to serve human speech, but which functions in concert with other developing abilities. In so doing, we highlight the links between infant speech perception, babbling, and word learning.

  7. Chaotic home environment is associated with reduced infant processing speed under high task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemysław; Marczuk, Karolina; Pisula, Ewa; Malinowska, Anna; Kawa, Rafał; Niedźwiecka, Alicja

    2017-08-01

    Early adversity has profound long-term consequences for child development across domains. The effects of early adversity on structural and functional brain development were shown for infants under 12 months of life. However, the causal mechanisms of these effects remain relatively unexplored. Using a visual habituation task we investigated whether chaotic home environment may affect processing speed in 5.5 month-old infants (n=71). We found detrimental effects of chaos on processing speed for complex but not for simple visual stimuli. No effects of socio-economic status on infant processing speed were found although the sample was predominantly middle class. Our results indicate that chaotic early environment may adversely affect processing speed in early infancy, but only when greater cognitive resources need to be deployed. The study highlights an attractive avenue for research on the mechanisms linking home environment with the development of attention control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The protective role of maternal posttraumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing among Palestinian mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-01

    War survivors use multiple cognitive and emotional processes to protect their mental health from the negative impacts of trauma. Because mothers and infants may be especially vulnerable to trauma in conditions of war, it is urgent to determine which cognitive and emotional processes are effective for preventing negative trauma impacts." This study examined whether mothers' high posttraumatic growth (PTG) and positive posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) protected (a) their own mental health and (b) their infants' stress regulation and sensorimotor and language development from the effects of war trauma. The participants were 511 Palestinian mothers and their infants living in the Gaza strip. The mothers were interviewed in their second trimester of pregnancy (T1) as well as when the infant was four months (T2) and twelve months (T3). Mothers reported posttraumatic growth (PTG; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) at T1 and posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI; Foa et al., 1999) at T2. They also reported their exposure to traumatic war events both at T1 and T3 and described their mental health conditions (e.g., PTSD and/or depressive and dissociation symptoms) at T3. The Infant Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ) was used to measure infants' stress regulation at T2 and sensorimotor and language development at T3. The results, based on regression analyses with interaction terms between trauma and PTG, showed that high levels of traumatic war events were not associated with high levels of PTSD, depressive, or dissociation symptoms among mothers showing high levels of PTG. This suggests that PTG may protect maternal mental health from the effects of trauma. In turn, positive maternal PTCs appeared to protect the infants' stress regulation from the effects of war trauma. The study concludes by discussing ways to develop and implement preventive interventions for mother-infant dyads in war conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Dyadic Processes Using Hidden Markov Models: A Time Series Approach to Mother-Infant Interactions during Infant Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Rovine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the present longitudinal study, to examine mother-infant interaction during the administration of immunizations at 2 and 6?months of age, used hidden Markov modelling, a time series approach that produces latent states to describe how mothers and infants work together to bring the infant to a soothed state. Results revealed a…

  10. Karlin–McGregor-like formula in a simple time-inhomogeneous birth–death process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Algebraic discussions are developed to derive transition probabilities for a simple time-inhomogeneous birth–death process. Algebraic probability theory and Lie algebraic treatments make it easy to treat the time-inhomogeneous cases. As a result, an expression based on the Charlier polynomials is obtained, which can be considered as an extension of a famous Karlin–McGregor representation for a time-homogeneous birth–death process. (paper)

  11. Motor cognitive processing speed estimation among the primary schoolchildren by deriving prediction formula: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vencita Priyanka Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Motor cognitive processing speed (MCPS is often reported in terms of reaction time. In spite of being a significant indicator of function, behavior, and performance, MCPS is rarely used in clinics and schools to identify kids with slowed motor cognitive processing. The reason behind this is the lack of availability of convenient formula to estimate MCPS. Thereby, the aim of this study is to estimate the MCPS in the primary schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four primary schoolchildren, aged 6–12 years, were recruited by the cluster sampling method for this cross-sectional study. MCPS was estimated by the ruler drop method (RDM. By this method, a metallic stainless steel ruler was suspended vertically such that 5 cm graduation of the lower was aligned between the web space of the child's hand, and the child was asked to catch the moving ruler as quickly as possible, once released from the examiner's hand. Distance the ruler traveled was recorded and converted into time, which is the MCPS. Multiple regression analysis of variables was performed to determine the influence of independent variables on MCPS. Results: Mean MCPS of the entire sample of 204 primary schoolchildren is 230.01 ms ± 26.5 standard deviation (95% confidence interval; 226.4–233.7 ms that ranged from 162.9 to 321.6 ms. By stepwise regression analysis, we derived the regression equation, MCPS (ms = 279.625–5.495 × age, with 41.3% (R = 0.413 predictability and 17.1% (R2 = 0.171 and adjusted R2 = 0.166 variability. Conclusion: MCPS prediction formula through RDM in the primary schoolchildren has been established.

  12. Predicting Text Comprehension, Processing, and Familiarity in Adult Readers: New Approaches to Readability Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Skalicky, Stephen; Dascalu, Mihai; McNamara, Danielle S.; Kyle, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of linguistic features that influence the reading comprehension of young readers; yet, less is known about whether and how these findings extend to adult readers. This study examines text comprehension, processing, and familiarity judgment provided by adult readers using a number of different approaches (i.e.,…

  13. Rethinking infant knowledge: toward an adaptive process account of successes and failures in object permanence tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Y; McClelland, J L; Johnson, M H; Siegler, R S

    1997-10-01

    Infants seem sensitive to hidden objects in habituation tasks at 3.5 months but fail to retrieve hidden objects until 8 months. The authors first consider principle-based accounts of these successes and failures, in which early successes imply knowledge of principles and failures are attributed to ancillary deficits. One account is that infants younger than 8 months have the object permanence principle but lack means-ends abilities. To test this, 7-month-olds were trained on means-ends behaviors and were tested on retrieval of visible and occluded toys. Means-ends demands were the same, yet infants made more toy-guided retrievals in the visible case. The authors offer an adaptive process account in which knowledge is graded and embedded in specific behavioral processes. Simulation models that learn gradually to represent occluded objects show how this approach can account for success and failure in object permanence tasks without assuming principles and ancillary deficits.

  14. Consonant and Vowel Processing in Word Form Segmentation: An Infant ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Von Holzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation skill and the preferential processing of consonants (C-bias develop during the second half of the first year of life and it has been proposed that these facilitate language acquisition. We used Event-related brain potentials (ERPs to investigate the neural bases of early word form segmentation, and of the early processing of onset consonants, medial vowels, and coda consonants, exploring how differences in these early skills might be related to later language outcomes. Our results with French-learning eight-month-old infants primarily support previous studies that found that the word familiarity effect in segmentation is developing from a positive to a negative polarity at this age. Although as a group infants exhibited an anterior-localized negative effect, inspection of individual results revealed that a majority of infants showed a negative-going response (Negative Responders, while a minority showed a positive-going response (Positive Responders. Furthermore, all infants demonstrated sensitivity to onset consonant mispronunciations, while Negative Responders demonstrated a lack of sensitivity to vowel mispronunciations, a developmental pattern similar to previous literature. Responses to coda consonant mispronunciations revealed neither sensitivity nor lack of sensitivity. We found that infants showing a more mature, negative response to newly segmented words compared to control words (evaluating segmentation skill and mispronunciations (evaluating phonological processing at test also had greater growth in word production over the second year of life than infants showing a more positive response. These results establish a relationship between early segmentation skills and phonological processing (not modulated by the type of mispronunciation and later lexical skills.

  15. [Formula: see text]Executive functions and social information processing in adolescents with severe behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Van Rest, M M; Embregts, P J C M; Vriens, A; Oostermeijer, S; Van Bokhoven, I; Matthys, W

    2017-02-01

    One tradition in research for explaining aggression and antisocial behavior has focused on social information processing (SIP). Aggression and antisocial behavior have also been studied from the perspective of executive functions (EFs), the higher-order cognitive abilities that affect other cognitive processes, such as social cognitive processes. The main goal of the present study is to provide insight into the relation between EFs and SIP in adolescents with severe behavior problems. Because of the hierarchical relation between EFs and SIP, we examined EFs as predictors of SIP. We hypothesized that, first, focused attention predicts encoding and interpretation, second, inhibition predicts interpretation, response generation, evaluation, and selection, and third, working memory predicts response generation and selection. The participants consisted of 94 respondents living in residential facilities aged 12-20 years, all showing behavior problems in the clinical range according to care staff. EFs were assessed using subtests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test battery. Focused attention was measured by the Flanker task, inhibition by the GoNoGo task, and working memory by the Visual Spatial Sequencing task. SIP was measured by video vignettes and a structured interview. The results indicate that positive evaluation of aggressive responses is predicted by impaired inhibition and selection of aggressive responses by a combination of impaired focused attention and inhibition. It is concluded that different components of EFs as higher-order cognitive abilities affect SIP.

  16. Makeham's Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...... consequences and their implications for the relation between the yield before tax and the yield after tax. We also show how Makeham's formula produces short-cut expressions for the duration and convexity of a bond and facilitates the analytical calculation of the yield in certain cases....

  17. PECULIARITIES OF THE NURSING PROCESS IN INFANTS WITH DOWN’S SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Merzlova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing process arrangement for infants with Down’s syndrome requires nonroutine solutions when nurse’s professional capacity criterion is her psychological and pedagogical preparation, personality traits favoring the real communication with children and parents, vision of the future and a desire to find a way out of the impasse. Nursing process for infants with Down’s syndrome is put into effect in an extreme stress situation with a time limit on making a decision about whether to take a child in a family or to give it up, while it is also important that the nursing process as a method of consequent systematic professional nursing in corpore. A description of all stages of the nursing process for infants with Down’s syndrome is given, a map of each nursing process stage is made, a typology of psychological adaptation of mothers having given birth to children with perinatal pathology is given, recommendations on psychological aid for mothers of the infants with Down’s syndrome on the basis of the 4 aforementioned types of adaptation to an existing situation are structured.

  18. An exact formula to describe the amplification process in a photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademacker, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    An analytical function is derived that exactly describes the amplification process due to a series of discrete, Poisson-like amplifications like those in a photo multiplier tube (PMT). A numerical recipe is provided that implements this function as a computer program. It is shown how the program can be used as the core element of a faster, simplified routine to fit PMT spectra with high efficiency. The functionality of the method is demonstrated by fitting both, Monte Carlo generated and measured PMT spectra

  19. Low serum biotin in Japanese children fed with hydrolysate formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Mimaki, Masakazu

    2016-09-01

    Given that nutritional biotin deficiency in Japanese infants has been reported, a straightforward method for estimating biotin level is needed. The biotin content in infant formula, breast milk, and the sera of infants fed with various types of formula were measured using avidin-binding assay. A commercially available ELISA kit was used for the measurement of biotin in 54 types of formula, including hydrolysate formulas for milk allergy, as well as in breast milk and in the sera of 27 infants fed with these formulas. The biotin content reached the recommended value in only five formulas. All of the hydrolysate formulas and more than half of the special formulas contained biotin biotin was low in infants fed only with the hydrolysate formulas, and one of them had alopecia related to biotin deficiency. While many were asymptomatic, infants fed with formulas lacking biotin are at risk of developing symptomatic disease. The addition of biotin to breast milk substitutes was finally approved in the middle of 2014, however pediatricians in Japan should still be vigilant with regard to nutritional biotin deficiency in infants for the time being. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Habituation, Response to Novelty, and Dishabituation in Human Infants: Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Peter S.; Werner, John S.

    1986-01-01

    Tests infants' dual-process performance (a process mediating response decrements called habituation and a state-dependent process mediating response increments called sensitization) on visual habituation-dishabituation tasks. (HOD)

  1. Makeham's Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...

  2. The Effects of Mothers' Past Infant-Holding Preferences on Their Adult Children's Face Processing Lateralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Hendriks, Angelique W.; van den Eijnde, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Face processing development is negatively affected when infants have not been exposed to faces for some time because of congenital cataract blocking all vision (Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001). It is not clear, however, whether more subtle differences in face exposure may also have an influence. The present study looked at the effect of…

  3. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A double-blinded randomized trial on growth and feeding tolerance with Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 in formula-fed preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingfen; Wang, Yun; Wang, Yang; Fu, Jianhua; Sun, Mei; Mao, Zhiqin; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics is increasingly popular in preterm neonates, as they may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis sepsis and improve growth and feeding tolerance. There is only limited literature on Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii) in preterm infants. A prospective, randomized, case-controlled trial with the probiotic S. boulardii (50mg/kg twice daily) was conducted in newborns with a gestational age of 30-37 weeks and a birth weight between 1500 and 2500g. 125 neonates were enrolled; 63 in the treatment and 62 in the control group. Weight gain (16.14±1.96 vs. 10.73±1.77g/kg/day, pboulardii were observed. Prophylactic supplementation of S. boulardii at a dose of 50mg/kg twice a day improved weight gain, improved feeding tolerance, and had no adverse effects in preterm infants >30 weeks old. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Levels-of-Processing Effects in Infant Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Scott A.; Gerhardstein, Peter; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments manipulated 3-month-olds' attention to different components of a training display and assessed the effect on retention. Results suggested that increasing or decreasing attention to an item during encoding produces a corresponding increase or decrease in memorability. Findings were consistent with a levels-of-processing account…

  8. Context effects on processing widely deviant sounds in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Péter Háden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and orienting towards sounds carrying new information is a crucial feature of the human brain that supports adaptation to the environment. Rare, acoustically widely deviant sounds presented amongst frequent tones elicit large event related brain potentials (ERPs in neonates. Here we tested whether these discriminative ERP responses reflect only the activation of fresh afferent neuronal populations (i.e., neuronal circuits not affected by the tones or they also index the processing of contextual mismatch between the rare and the frequent sounds.In two separate experiments, we presented sleeping newborns with 150 different environmental sounds and the same number of white noise bursts. Both sounds served either as deviants in an oddball paradigm with the frequent standard stimulus a tone (Novel/Noise deviant, or as the standard stimulus with the tone as deviant (Novel/Noise standard, or they were delivered alone with the same timing as the deviants in the oddball condition (Novel/Noise alone.Whereas the ERP responses to noise–deviants elicited similar responses as the same sound presented alone, the responses elicited by environmental sounds in the corresponding conditions morphologically differed from each other. Thus whereas the ERP response to the noise sounds can be explained by the different refractory state of stimulus specific neuronal populations, the ERP response to environmental sounds indicated context sensitive processing. These results provide evidence for an innate tendency of context dependent auditory processing as well as a basis for the different developmental trajectories of processing acoustical deviance and contextual novelty.

  9. A double-blinded randomized trial on growth and feeding tolerance with Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 in formula-fed preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfen Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The use of probiotics is increasingly popular in preterm neonates, as they may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis sepsis and improve growth and feeding tolerance. There is only limited literature on Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii in preterm infants. Method: A prospective, randomized, case-controlled trial with the probiotic S. boulardii (50 mg/kg twice daily was conducted in newborns with a gestational age of 30-37 weeks and a birth weight between 1500 and 2500 g. Results: 125 neonates were enrolled; 63 in the treatment and 62 in the control group. Weight gain (16.14 ± 1.96 vs. 10.73 ± 1.77 g/kg/day, p 30 weeks old.

  10. Randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover, relative bioavailability study in healthy adults, comparing the pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole granules administered using soft food or infant formula as dosing vehicle versus suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, An; Solanki, Bhavna; Treem, William

    2012-07-01

    A sprinkle capsule formulation containing enteric-coated, delayed-release rabeprazole granules is being developed for the treatment of children with gastrointestinal reflux disease. The granules are designed to be mixed with vehicles that facilitate delivery to children, who may be unable to swallow solid formulations. The primary objective of this study-conducted on the sponsor's initiative-was to compare the bioavailability of rabeprazole granules when mixed with various dosing vehicles (small amount of soft food or infant formula) with that of a rabeprazole suspension with inactive vehicle granules (reference), to determine which dosing vehicle can be used to deliver rabeprazole in children. Tolerability was also assessed. This single-center, single-dose, randomized, open-label, 5-period crossover study was conducted in 35 healthy adult subjects. In a randomized sequence, fasting subjects received a single dose of 10-mg rabeprazole granules per treatment period, mixed with small amounts of 1 of 5 dosing vehicles (a strawberry-flavored suspension of rabeprazole granules with inactive vehicle granules reconstituted with water, yogurt [1 tablespoon], applesauce [1 tablespoon], or infant formula [5 mL], or a suspension of rabeprazole granules with inactive vehicle tablet reconstituted with water). Full plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of rabeprazole and its thioether metabolite were collected; concentrations were estimated via LC-MS/MS. PK properties were estimated using noncompartmental methods; 90% CIs around least squares mean test-to-reference ratios were calculated for C(max) and AUC values. All treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded and assessed for severity (mild, moderate, or severe) and relationship to study drug. A total of 35 subjects were enrolled (mean age, 38 years; 54.3% female; 100% white; mean weight, 71.4 kg). Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Rabeprazole and rabeprazole thioether plasma PK properties were comparable

  11. Popularity of processed foodstuffs for infants and small children among parents

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Górecka; Barbara Szczepaniak; Krystyna Szymandera-Buszka; Ewa Flaczyk

    2007-01-01

    The popularity of seven groups of processed foodstuffs (soups, dinners, pulverized fruits and vegetables, desserts, dairy desserts, juices, teas) for infants and small children aged 4 months up to 3 years, available on the market and comprising a total of 154 products, was investigated in this study. A survey was carried out in the group of 100 individuals. They were mothers and fathers bringing their children to crèche as well as buying analysed products. Among 24 soups vegetable so...

  12. PRINCIPLES OF THE MILK AND SPECIAL FORMULA APPLICATION IN THE PEDIATRICS PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Gribakin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The priority of the breast feeding is undoubted, although the significant part of the infants receives the milk formulas. The constant expansion of the assortment of the adapted and specialized baby formulas requires additional knowledge of the pediatrician. The article anlyzes the peculiarities of the clinical application of the formulas with nucleotides and oligosaccharides; antireflux formulas; hydrolysates based on the serum protein and casein; products for the premature children.Key words: infants, feeding, nucleotides, antireflux formulas, hydrolysates.

  13. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  14. A double-blinded randomized trial on growth and feeding tolerance with Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 in formula-fed preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfen Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of probiotics is increasingly popular in preterm neonates, as they may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis sepsis and improve growth and feeding tolerance. There is only limited literature on Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii in preterm infants. Method: A prospective, randomized, case-controlled trial with the probiotic S. boulardii (50 mg/kg twice daily was conducted in newborns with a gestational age of 30–37 weeks and a birth weight between 1500 and 2500 g. Results: 125 neonates were enrolled; 63 in the treatment and 62 in the control group. Weight gain (16.14 ± 1.96 vs. 10.73 ± 1.77 g/kg/day, p 30 weeks old. Resumo: Objetivo: O uso de probióticos está cada vez mais popular em neonatos prematuros, já que podem prevenir a enterocolite necrosante (ECN e a sepse e aumentar o crescimento e a tolerância de alimentação. Há apenas uma literatura limitada sobre a Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii em neonatos prematuros. Método: Um ensaio de caso-controle prospectivo randomizado com o probiótico S. boulardii (50 mg/kg duas vezes por dia foi realizado com recém-nascidos com idade gestacional de 30 a 37 semanas e peso ao nascer entre 1500 e 2500 g. Resultados: Foram incluídos 125 neonatos, 63 no grupo de tratamento e 62 no de controle. O ganho de peso (16,14 ± 1,96 em comparação a 10,73 ± 1,77 g/kg/dia, p 30 semanas de idade. Keywords: Feeding (intolerance, Growth, Necrotizing enterocolitis, Preterm infant, Probiotic, Sepsis, Palavras-chave: (InTolerância de alimentação, Crescimento, Enterocolite necrosante, Neonato prematuro, Probiótico, Sepse

  15. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Rajhans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception.

  16. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhans, Purva; Jessen, Sarah; Missana, Manuela; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy) that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Process-independent radiative-correction formula for single-tag and double-tag measurements of γγ reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, S.; Kessler, P.

    1988-01-01

    A simple and process-independent formula is given for radiative corrections in single-tag and double-tag measurements of γγ reactions. Its conditions of validity are that (i) in the γγ process itself all particles produced are detected and (ii) final-state particles, including the tagged electron(s), are measured with a good resolution in energy and momentum

  18. The neuron net method for processing the clear pixels and method of the analytical formulas for processing the cloudy pixels of POLDER instrument images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, I.; Mukai, S.; Vasilyev, A.

    Data of remote measurements of reflected radiance with the POLDER instrument on board of ADEOS satellite are used for retrieval of the optical thickness, single scattering albedo and phase function parameter of cloudy and clear atmosphere. The method of perceptron neural network that from input values of multiangle radiance and Solar incident angle allows to obtain surface albedo, the optical thickness, single scattering albedo and phase function parameter in case of clear sky. Two last parameters are determined as optical average for atmospheric column. The calculation of solar radiance with using the MODTRAN-3 code with taking into account multiple scattering is accomplished for neural network learning. All mentioned parameters were randomly varied on the base of statistical models of possible measured parameters variation. Results of processing one frame of remote observation that consists from 150,000 pixels are presented. The methodology elaborated allows operative determining optical characteristics as cloudy as clear atmosphere. Further interpretation of these results gives the possibility to extract the information about total contents of atmospheric aerosols and absorbing gases in the atmosphere and create models of the real cloudiness An analytical method of interpretation that based on asymptotic formulas of multiple scattering theory is applied to remote observations of reflected radiance in case of cloudy pixel. Details of the methodology and error analysis were published and discussed earlier. Here we present results of data processing of pixel size 6x6 km In many studies the optical thickness is evaluated earlier in the assumption of the conservative scattering. But in case of true absorption in clouds the large errors in parameter obtained are possible. The simultaneous retrieval of two parameters at every wavelength independently is the advantage comparing with earlier studies. The analytical methodology is based on the transfer theory asymptotic

  19. Unique neurobiology during the sensitive period for attachment produces distinctive infant trauma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma has neurobehavioral effects when experienced at any stage of development, but trauma experienced in early life has unique neurobehavioral outcomes related to later life psychiatric sequelae. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences. Trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver child maltreatment, is particularly detrimental. Methods Using data primarily from rodent models, we review the literature on the interaction between trauma and attachment in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. We then consider how trauma with and without the caregiver produces long-term changes in emotionality and behavior, and suggest that these experiences initiate distinct pathways to pathology. Results Together these data suggest that infant trauma processing and its enduring effects are impacted by both the immaturity of brain areas for processing trauma and the unique functioning of the early-life brain, which is biased toward processing information within the attachment circuitry. Conclusion An understanding of developmental differences in trauma processing as well as the critical role of the caregiver in further altering early life brain processing of trauma is important for developing age-relevant treatment and interventions. Highlights of this article Trauma experienced in early life has been linked with life-long outcomes for mental health through a mechanism that remains unclear. Trauma experienced in the presence of a caregiver has unique consequences. The infant brain is predisposed toward processing information using attachment circuitry rather than threat circuitry. Data from rodent models suggest that repeated trauma in the presence of a caregiver prematurely engages brain areas important

  20. Personal familiarity influences the processing of upright and inverted faces in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Balas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Infant face processing becomes more selective during the first year of life as a function of varying experience with distinct face categories defined by species, race, and age. Given that any individual face belongs to many such categories (e.g. A young Caucasian man’s face we asked how the neural selectivity for one aspect of facial appearance was affected by category membership along another dimension of variability. 6-month-old infants were shown upright and inverted pictures of either their own mother or a stranger while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We found that the amplitude of the P400 (a face-sensitive ERP component was only sensitive to the orientation of the mother’s face, suggesting that “tuning” of the neural response to faces is realized jointly across multiple dimensions of face appearance. .

  1. Evaluation formulas of manpower needs for dismantling of equipment in FUGEN-3. Dismantling process of the condenser removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shintaro; Izumo, Sari; Usui, Hideo; Kawagoshi, Hiroshi; Koda, Yuya; Nanko, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the PRODIA code which supports to make decommissioning plan and has been preparing evaluation formulas. Manpower needs for the dismantling of the condenser that had conducted from 2010 to 2012 was analyzed and compared with existing evaluation formulas. Applicability of evaluation formulas for a large scale reactor facility was confirmed in dismantling of the heat insulating materials and reliability of unit productivity factor was improved. The evaluation formula of work for clearance was made in dismantling of pipes and supports. Unit productivity factor of dismantling of feed water heaters which is applicable for a large scale reactor facility was derived. For derivation of unit productivity factor, statistically meaningful data was provided from the dismantling of the condenser. Manpower needs for dismantling of the condenser has positive correlation to the weight of equipment and can be described in linear expression. Reliability of each unit productivity factor will be improved with accumulating actual dismantling data in future. (author)

  2. The effects of mothers’ past infant-holding preferences on their adult children’s face processing lateralisation

    OpenAIRE

    Vervloed, Mathijs P.J.; Hendriks, Angélique W.; van den Eijnde, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Face processing development is negatively affected when infants have not been exposed to faces for some time because of congenital cataract blocking all vision (Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001). It is not clear, however, whether more subtle differences in face exposure may also have an influence. The present study looked at the effect of the mother's preferred side of holding an infant, on her adult child's face processing lateralisation. Adults with a mother who had a left-arm pref...

  3. Development and validation of a solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of fluoroquinolone residues in powdered infant formulae. Application to the analysis of samples from the Spanish and Latin American market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E; Moreno-Bondi, M C; Marazuela, M D

    2008-10-31

    This paper describes a new method for the effective extraction, clean-up and chromatographic analysis of residues of four fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin and sarafloxacin) in powdered infant formulae and follow-on preparations. Samples were reconstituted following the manufacturer's recommendations and treated with trichloroacetic acid in methanol 10% (w/v) for deproteinization. Two solid-phase extraction cartridges have been evaluated for sample clean-up and preconcentration, Strata Screen A and Strata X and the later provided the best recoveries for all the analytes tested. Chromatographic analysis has been carried out using a polar endcapped column (AQUA C(18)) and fluorescence detection, with lomefloxacin (LOME) as internal standard. Method validation has been performed according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria, in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, specificity, decision limit (CC(alpha)) and detection capability (CC(beta)). Typical recoveries ranged between 70 and 110% at levels below and above the maximum residue limits of the target analytes in bovine milk, with an excellent intralab reproducibility (RSDsmarket, using LC-MS/MS as confirmatory technique.

  4. [Processed baby foods for infants and young children: a dietary advance? A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisolfi, J; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Siméoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2013-05-01

    Processed baby foods designed for infants (4-12 months) and toddlers (12-36 months) (excluding infant formula, follow-on formula, the so-called growing-up milks, and cereal-based foods for infants), which are referred to as baby foods, are specific products defined by a European regulation (Directive 2006/125/CE). According to this Directive, such foods have a composition adapted to the nutritional needs of children of this age and should comply with specifications related to food safety in terms of ingredients, production processes, and prevention of infectious and toxicological hazards. Hence, they differ from ordinary foods and from non-specific processed foods. This market segment includes the full range of foods that can be part of children's diet: dairy products (dairy desserts, yoghurts, and fresh cheese), sweet products (nondairy desserts, fruit, and drinks), and salty products (soups, vegetable-based foods, meat, fish, and full dishes). This market amounted to 89,666 MT in France in 2011 and 83,055 MT in 2010 (a total of 325,524 MT in the 27 countries of the European Union in 2010, including 90,438 MT in Germany, 49,144 MT in Spain, and 40,438 MT in Italy). The consumption of baby foods in France varies with infant age and parental choice. Baby foods account for 7 % of total energy intake at 4-5 months, 28 % at 6-7 months, 27 % at 8-11 months, 17 % at 1-17 months, and 11 % at 18-24 months. Among parents, 24 % never offer their children any baby foods, 13 % do so 1-3 days/week and 63 % 4-7 days/week. Among consumers, 55 % of children eat more than 250 g/day of baby foods. As baby foods only account for a minor fraction of overall food intake, their impact on the quality of young children's diet is much less than that of growing-up milks, particularly for preventing insufficient iron and vitamin D intake. Their consumption, however, has an indirect benefit on the nutritional quality of the diet and on food safety, particularly regarding toxicological hazards

  5. Aluminum Level in Infants’ Powdered Milk Based Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Hameid Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum level (Al in infant formula was determined to postulate its public health significance and suggesting recommendations to avoid such contamination. Hence, fifty random samples of infants powdered         milk based formulae were collected from different markets and pharmacies in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. These samples were digested and Al level was detected by using HR-CS (High Resolution Continum Source Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and compared with Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL. About 90% of examined infant formula samples containing Al with an average value of 0.145 mg/L and 8% of samples were above the MPL.

  6. Optimizing hippocampal segmentation in infants utilizing MRI post-acquisition processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanne K; Ahmadzai, Zohra M; Wood, Stephen J; Inder, Terrie E; Warfield, Simon K; Doyle, Lex W; Egan, Gary F

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to determine the most reliable method for infant hippocampal segmentation by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging post-acquisition processing techniques: contrast to noise ratio (CNR) enhancement, or reformatting to standard orientation. MR scans were performed with a 1.5 T GE scanner to obtain dual echo T2 and proton density (PD) images at term equivalent (38-42 weeks' gestational age). 15 hippocampi were manually traced four times on ten infant images by 2 independent raters on the original T2 image, as well as images processed by: a) combining T2 and PD images (T2-PD) to enhance CNR; then b) reformatting T2-PD images perpendicular to the long axis of the left hippocampus. CNRs and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. T2-PD images had 17% higher CNR (15.2) than T2 images (12.6). Original T2 volumes' ICC was 0.87 for rater 1 and 0.84 for rater 2, whereas T2-PD images' ICC was 0.95 for rater 1 and 0.87 for rater 2. Reliability of hippocampal segmentation on T2-PD images was not improved by reformatting images (rater 1 ICC = 0.88, rater 2 ICC = 0.66). Post-acquisition processing can improve CNR and hence reliability of hippocampal segmentation in neonate MR scans when tissue contrast is poor. These findings may be applied to enhance boundary definition in infant segmentation for various brain structures or in any volumetric study where image contrast is sub-optimal, enabling hippocampal structure-function relationships to be explored.

  7. The effect of milk formula advertisement on breast feeding and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of milk formula advertisement on breast feeding and other infant feeding practice in Lagos, Nigeria. ... This study investigated the level of impact milk formula advertisements had on mothers' choice of ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Formulas of Revised MRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bregni

    2013-04-01

    innovation to the main process functioning. As a result, the proposed algorithm copes better with demand uncertainty, lowers the system nervousness and also removes the need for continuous forecast adjustments, thereby improving the ease in managing the material flow, allowing the development of new forms of collaboration among different supply chain partners and the creation of new business networks. The algorithm is presented in formulas to describe in detail each procedure step and calculations.

  9. Osmolaridad de bebidas lácteas, leches y fórmulas infantiles Osmo osmolarity larity of lactic bever beverages ages ages, milks and inf infant ant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Flórez Gómez

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : la osmolaridad elevada de los líquidos que se administran a los niños con diarrea puede en algunos casos aumentar el volumen de ésta. Con frecuencia se recomienda utilizar productos de leche fermentada para la alimentación de los niños durante la enfermedad diarreica. Sin embargo, estos productos pueden tener alta osmolaridad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la osmolaridad de algunos de estos productos así como de fórmulas lácteas y leches. Materiales y métodos : se determinó la osmolaridad de algunos kumis, yogures, fórmulas infantiles y preparaciones basadas en leche pasterizada. Resultados: la osmolaridad promedio de 9 muestras de yogures industriales con frutas y azúcar fue 741 mOsm/L (DE 97.5; la de 8 muestras de yogures “dietéticos”, 391 mOsm/L (DE 26.4; la de 4 muestras de kumis con azúcar, 658 mOsm/L (DE 69.9; la de 3 muestras de leches “deslactosadas”, 352 mOsm/L (DE 62.6; y la de 4 muestras de leches pasteurizadas, 262 mOsm/L (DE 6.3. Discusión: en Colombia no ha existido una cultura de utilización de bebidas lácteas fermentadas de preparación casera. Se dispone de yogures y kumis comerciales azucarados, con frutas, cuyo costo es relativamente elevado y que tienen alta osmolaridad. Es pertinente analizar si sus efectos benéficos superan a los dañinos. Introduction: high osmolarity of the fluids administered during diarrhea can, in some cases, increase its volume. The use of fermented milk products for feeding children during diarrheal illness is frequently recommended. The objective of this study was to determine the osmolarity of some of these products, infant formulas and milks. Materials and methods : the osmolarity of some kumis, yogurts, infantile formulas and milk, was determined. Results: average osmolarity of 9 samples of industrial yogurts with fruits and sugar was 741 mOsm/L (SD 97.5; of 8 samples of light yogurts, 391 mOsm/L (SD 26.4; of 4 kumis samples with sugar

  10. Infant Statistical-Learning Ability Is Related to Real-Time Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Jill; Shoaib, Amber; Thompson, Abbie; Estes, Katharine Graf

    2018-01-01

    Infants are adept at learning statistical regularities in artificial language materials, suggesting that the ability to learn statistical structure may support language development. Indeed, infants who perform better on statistical learning tasks tend to be more advanced in parental reports of infants' language skills. Work with adults suggests…

  11. Lexical Development during Middle Infancy: A Mutually Driven Infant-Caregiver Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Philip; Dunham, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Mothers' utterances were measured during interactions with their 13-month-old infants and correlated with measures of infants' productive lexical development at 13 and 24 months. Correlations between maternal measures and infants' lexical development were lower for employed mothers than for mothers who were full-time caregivers. (BC)

  12. Infant Responding to Joint Attention, Executive Processes, and Self-Regulation in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Mundy, Peter; Block, Jessica J.; Delgado, Christine E. F.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; Pomares, Yuly B.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Infant joint attention is related to behavioral and social outcomes, as well as language in childhood. Recent research and theory suggests that the relations between joint attention and social-behavioral outcomes may reflect the role of executive self-regulatory processes in the development of joint attention. To test this hypothesis two- studies were conducted. The first, cross-sectional study examined the development of responding to joint attention skill (RJA) in terms of increasing executive efficiency of responding between 9 and 18 months of age. The results indicated that development of RJA was characterized by a decreased latency to shift attention in following another person’s gaze and head turn, as well as an increase in the proportion of correct RJA responses exhibited by older infants. The second study examined the longitudinal relations between 12-month measures of responding to joint attention (RJA) and 36-month attention regulation in a delay of gratification task. The results indicated that responding to joint attention at 12-months was significantly related to children’s use of three types of self-regulation behaviors while waiting for a snack reward at 36 months of age. These observations are discussed in light of a developmental theory of attention regulation and joint attention in infancy. PMID:22206892

  13. Impact of food processing and storage conditions on nitrate content in canned vegetable-based infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Meremäe, K; Kiis, A

    2009-08-01

    The nitrate and nitrite contents were determined in canned vegetable-based infant foods of five varieties. Furthermore, changes in nitrate content during industrial processing were studied. Samples were taken from raw materials, homogenized mixtures, and final products after sterilization, and then analyzed for nitrate and nitrite content by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Processing steps preceding heat treatment, such as vegetable peeling and washing, decreased the nitrate concentrations in the range of 17 to 52%. During processing, the nitrate content in canned infant foods decreased 39 to 50%, compared with nitrate concentration in the raw-vegetable mixture. The final nitrate concentration in infant foods depends mainly on the initial nitrate content of the raw-vegetable mixture. The effect of storage time (24 and 48 h) and temperature (4 to 6 degrees C and 20 to 22 degrees C) on nitrate and nitrite content in opened canned infant-food samples was studied. After 24 h of storage at refrigerated and room temperatures, the mean nitrate content increased on average by 7 and 13%, and after 48 h of storage by 15 and 29%, respectively. The nitrite content in all analyzed samples was below the quantification limit. Storage requirements of industrial manufacturers must be followed strictly. Opened can foods, stored under refrigerated conditions, have to be consumed within 2 days, as recommended by manufacturers. The infant-food producers must pay more attention to the quality of raw materials. Nitrate content analyses should be added as compulsory tests to the quality assurance programs.

  14. On optimal quadrature formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanzara Flavia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to construct quadrature formulae which are exact for solutions of linear differential equations and are optimal in the sense of Sard is discussed. We give necessary and sufficient conditions under which such formulae do exist. Several formulae obtained by applying this method are considered and compared with well known formulae.

  15. Mathematical modelling of thermoregulation processes for premature infants in closed convectively heated incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguela, Andrés; Matlalcuatzi, Francisca D; Ramos, Ángel M

    2015-02-01

    The low-weight newborns and especially the premature infants have difficulty in maintaining their temperature in the range considered to be normal. Several studies revealed the importance of thermal environment and moisture to increase the survival rate of newborns. This work models the process of heat exchange and energy balance in premature newborns during the first hours of life in a closed incubator. In addition, a control problem was proposed and solved in order to maintain thermal stability of premature newborns to increase their rate of survival and weight. For this purpose, we propose an algorithm to control the temperature inside the incubator. It takes into account the measurements of the body temperature of a premature newborn which are recorded continuously. We show that using this model the temperature of a premature newborn inside the incubator can be kept in a thermal stability range. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Perturbation of a slowly rotating black hole by a stationary axisymmetric ring of matter. II. Penrose processes, circular orbits, and differential mass formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the phenomenon of energy extraction (''Penrose'') from a slowly rotating black hole perturbed by a stationary axisymmetric ring of matter, and show that the gravitational interaction between the ring and the particles used in the Penrose process must be taken into account. For the case of a black-hole-ring configuration of ''minimum enregy'' we show that a Penrose process can extract further energy, but that by measns of their gravitational forces, the particles used in the process cause the radius of the ring to change, releasing precisely sufficient gravitational potential energy to make up for that extracted. By analyzing the properties of circular test-particle orbits in black-hole-ring spacetimes, we show quantitatively how this change in radius is produced. A ''differential mass formula'' relating the total masses of neighboring black-hole-ring configurations is also derived

  17. The Dual Nature of Early-Life Experience on Somatosensory Processing in the Human Infant Brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Maitre, N.L.; Key, A.P.; Chorna, O.D.; Slaughter, J.C.; Matusz, P.J.; Wallace, M.T.; Murray, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Every year, 15 million preterm infants are born, and most spend their first weeks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) [1]. Although essential for the support and survival of these infants, NICU sensory environments are dramatically different from those in which full-term infants mature and thus likely impact the development of functional brain organization [2]. Yet the integrity of sensory systems determines effective perception and behavior [3, 4]. In neonates, touch is a cornerstone of...

  18. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A by cow milk-based formula: a comparative study between human milk and formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haibo; Rajesan, Ratheishan; Harper, Patricia; Kim, Richard B; Lonnerdal, Bo; Yang, Mingdong; Uematsu, Satoko; Hutson, Janine; Watson-MacDonell, Jo; Ito, Shinya

    2005-09-01

    During the treatment of neonatal apnea, formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed infants, show nearly three-fold increase in clearance of caffeine, a substrate of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and in part CYP3A4. However, human milk is known to contain higher concentrations of environmental pollutants than infant formula, which are potent CYP1A inducers. To gain insight into the mechanism underlying this apparent contradiction, we characterized CYP1A and CYP3A4 induction by human milk and cow milk-based infant formula. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1/1A2 were significantly induced by cow milk-based formula, but not by human milk, in HepG2 cells. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that cow milk-based formula but not human milk activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) significantly. The cotreatment of 3,4-dimethoxyflavone, an AhR antagonist, abolished the formula-induced CYP1A expression. In addition, AhR activation by dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, a potent AhR agonist, was significantly suppressed by infant formula and even more by human milk. In contrast, CYP3A4 mRNA expression was only mildly induced by formula and human milk. Consistently, neither formula nor human milk substantially activated pregnane X receptor (PXR). Effects of whey and soy protein-based formulas on the AhR-CYP1A and the PXR-CYP3A4 pathways were similar to those of cow milk-based formula. In conclusion, infant formula, but not human milk, enhances in vitro CYP1A expression via an AhR-mediated pathway, providing a potential mechanistic basis for the increased caffeine elimination in formula-fed infants.

  19. The effects of mothers’ past infant-holding preferences on their adult children’s face processing lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloed, M.P.J.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Eijnde, E. van den

    2011-01-01

    Face processing development is negatively affected when infants have not been exposed to faces for some time because of congenital cataract blocking all vision (Le Grand, Mondloch, Maurer, & Brent, 2001). It is not clear, however, whether more subtle differences in face exposure may also have an

  20. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  1. Analysis of straightening formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devadatta M. Kulkarni

    1988-01-01

    standard bitableaux (or the set of standard monomials in minors gives a free basis for a polynomial ring in a matrix of indeterminates over a field. The straightening formula expresses a nonstandard bitableau as an integral linear cobmbination of standard bitableaux. In this paper we analyse the exchanges in the process of straightening a nonstandard pure tableau of depth two. We give precisely the number of steps required to straighten a given violation of a nonstandard tableau. We also characterise the violation which is eliminated in a single step.

  2. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-06-03

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (-47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  3. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Östman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol, or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol. A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (−47%, p = 0.0000 but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019, compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  4. Excel 2013 formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2013-01-01

    Maximize the power of Excel 2013 formulas with this must-have Excel reference John Walkenbach, known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" is a master at deciphering complex technical topics and Excel formulas are no exception. This fully updated book delivers more than 800 pages of Excel 2013 tips, tricks, and techniques for creating formulas that calculate, developing custom worksheet functions with VBA, debugging formulas, and much more. Demonstrates how to use all the latest features in Excel 2013 Shows how to create financial formulas and tap into the power of array formulas

  5. Maternal Attachment Representation and Neurophysiological Processing during the Perception of Infants' Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Leyh

    Full Text Available The perception of infant emotions is an integral part of sensitive caregiving within the mother-child relationship, a maternal ability which develops in mothers during their own attachment history. In this study we address the association between maternal attachment representation and brain activity underlying the perception of infant emotions. Event related potentials (ERPs of 32 primiparous mothers were assessed during a three stimulus oddball task presenting negative, positive and neutral emotion expressions of infants as target, deviant or standard stimuli. Attachment representation was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview during pregnancy. Securely attached mothers recognized emotions of infants more accurately than insecurely attached mothers. ERPs yielded amplified N170 amplitudes for insecure mothers when focusing on negative infant emotions. Secure mothers showed enlarged P3 amplitudes to target emotion expressions of infants compared to insecure mothers, especially within conditions with frequent negative infant emotions. In these conditions, P3 latencies were prolonged in insecure mothers. In summary, maternal attachment representation was found associated with brain activity during the perception of infant emotions. This further clarifies psychological mechanisms contributing to maternal sensitivity.

  6. PERBEDAAN TUMBUH KEMBANG ANTARA BAYI USIA 6 BULAN YANG DIBERI ASI EKSKLUSIF DAN SUSU FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfian Asfian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Differences In Growth Among Infants Aged 6 Months Who Were Breastfed Exclusively With Infants Aged 6 Months Who Were Given Formula Milk. The aims of this research were to determine differences in growth and development which include, weight, height, nutritional status, and psychosocial development among infants exclusively breastfed and formula milk. This research is an observational research with cross-sectional design, the number of samples is 60 infants (32 exclusively breastfed infants and 28 infants given formula samples taken by random sampling. Collecting data through interviews and direct observation. Data analysis using univariate analysis, the bivariate statistical tests, and chi-square test. The results showed there’s no significant difference between weight, height, and nutritional status of infants that given exclusively breastfed to infants that given formula milk. There are significant differences between the psychosocial developments of infant age 6 months old who were given exclusively breastfed and formula milk (P=0,027 Keywords: exclusively breastfed, formula milk Abstrak: Perbedaan Tumbuh Kembang Antara Bayi Usia 6 Bulan Yang Diberi ASI Eksklusif Dan Susu Formula. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan tumbuh kembang yang meliputi, berat badan, Tinggi Badan, Status Gizi, dan Perkembangan Psiko-sosial antara bayi yang diberi ASI Eksklusif dan Susu Formula. Penelitian ini bersifat observasional dengan desain Cross sectional, jumlah sampel 60 orang bayi (32 bayi ASI Eksklusif dan 28 bayi Susu Formula sampel diambil secara random sampling. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara dan observasi langsung. Analisa data menggunakan analisa  univariat, bivariat dengan uji statistik t test dan Chi-square. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak ada.  perbedaan yang bermakna antara berat badan, tinggi badan dan status gizi bayi yang diberi ASI Eksklusif dengan bayi yang diberi Susu Formula. Ada perbedaan yang bermakna

  7. Protein Concentration in Milk Formula, Growth, and Later Risk of Obesity: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patro-Gołąb, Bernadeta; Zalewski, Bartłomiej M.; Kouwenhoven, Stefanie M. P.; Karaś, Jacek; Koletzko, Berthold; van Goudoever, Johannes Bernard; Szajewska, Hania

    2016-01-01

    Background: Protein intake may influence important health outcomes in later life. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate current evidence on the effects of infant formulas and follow-on formulas with different protein concentrations on infants' and children's growth, body

  8. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  9. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A

    2013-05-16

    Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of

  10. Clinical update: understanding jaundice in the breastfed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary

    2013-06-01

    Breastfed infants are more likely to be jaundiced than infants who are formula fed. Community practitioners need to understand the physiology of jaundice and the issues associated with breastfeeding so that they can support parents. Visible jaundice is a result of hyperbilirubinaemia and, in most cases, is harmless and caused by normal physiological processes. It does, however, require detection monitoring and sometimes treatment to prevent rare but serious health complications. Although some debate remains over the association between breastfeeding and jaundice, the literature suggests that in the breastfed infant, early onset jaundice may be a result of insufficient intake of breast milk and prolonged jaundice may be related to a constituent of breast milk itself (breast milk jaundice). Early breastfeeding support to promote good positioning, attachment and baby-led feeding may help prevent early onset jaundice. Management of jaundice in the breastfed infant involves referral to local services to determine bilirubin levels and exclude pathologies.

  11. Excel2003 Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2011-01-01

    Everything you need to know about* Mastering operators, error values, naming techniques, and absolute versus relative references* Debugging formulas and using the auditing tools* Importing and exporting XML files and mapping the data to specific cells* Using Excel 2003's rights management feature* Working magic with array formulas* Developing custom formulas to produce the results you needHere's the formula for Excel excellenceFormulas are the lifeblood of spreadsheets, and no one can bring a spreadsheet to life like John Walkenbach. In this detailed reference guide, he delves deeply into unde

  12. Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Deborah L; Graff, Kristina M

    2008-07-01

    Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant's life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants' nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (approximately 85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (approximately 25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City.

  13. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying social learning in infancy: infants' neural processing of the effects of others' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-10-01

    Social transmission of knowledge is one of the reasons for human evolutionary success, and it has been suggested that already human infants possess eminent social learning abilities. However, nothing is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms that subserve infants' acquisition of novel action knowledge through the observation of other people's actions and their consequences in the physical world. In an electroencephalogram study on social learning in infancy, we demonstrate that 9-month-old infants represent the environmental effects of others' actions in their own motor system, although they never achieved these effects themselves before. The results provide first insights into the neurocognitive basis of human infants' unique ability for social learning of novel action knowledge.

  14. Characteristic Processes in Close Peer Friendships of Preterm Infants at Age 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Close friendships become important at middle-school age and are unexplored in adolescents born prematurely. The study aimed to characterize friendship behaviors of formerly preterm infants at age 12 and explore similarities and differences between preterm and full-term peers on dyadic friendship types. From the full sample of N=186, one hundred sixty-six 12-year-old adolescents (40 born full term, 126 born preterm invited a close friend to a 1.5 hour videotaped laboratory play session. Twenty adolescents were unable to participate due to scheduling conflicts or developmental disability. Characteristic friendship behaviors were identified by Q-sort followed by Q-factoring analysis. Friendship duration, age, and contact differed between the full-term and preterm groups but friendship activities, behaviors, and quality were similar despite school service use. Three Q-factors, leadership, distancing, and mutual playfulness, were most characteristic of all dyads, regardless of prematurity. These prospective, longitudinal findings demonstrate diminished prematurity effects at adolescence in peer friendship behavior and reveal interpersonal dyadic processes that are important to peer group affiliation and other areas of competence.

  15. Recovery of Fermented Spinach (Amaranthus sp. Concentrate Through Ultrafiltration Membrane Process as Source of Folic Acid for Smart Food Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspiyanto Aspiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process on spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture was done as an effort to recover naturally folic acid as bioactive components to increase smartness. The experimental activity was done by means of UF membrane (100,000 MWCO fitted in Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC at stirrer rotation speed 200 and 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 20 and 40 Psi for 30 min. Result of experimental activity showed that based on both selectivity and recovery of folic acid, process optimization of UF was reached at stirrer rotation speed 200 rpm and pressure 40 Psi. In the optimum condition, SUFC technique was able to recover folic acid in retentate 67.75% and in permeate 97.27% (63.19 µg/mL. Identification of monomer in permeate from the optimum process treatment was find out folic acid monomer with molecular weight (MW 441.39 and relative intensity 93% at mass spectra T2.32 between m/z 257–304 and glutamic acids monomer with MW 148.57 and relative intensity 0.22% at mass spectra T2.82 between m/z 415–470. Other dominant monomer were folic acid fraction.

  16. Psychotherapy process and relationship in the context of a brief attachment-based mother-infant intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Susan S; Lauer, Maria; Beeney, Julie R S; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated links between the observer-rated process of psychotherapy and 2 key psychotherapy relationship constructs (i.e., working alliance and attachment to the therapist) in the context of a brief, attachment-based, home-visiting, mother-infant intervention that aimed to promote later secure infant attachment. Additionally, links between observer ratings of intervener and mother contributions to process were examined. Participants included 85 economically stressed mothers of first-born, 5.5-month-old, temperamentally irritable infants. Therapists included 2 doctoral-level and 4 master's-level home visitors. Observer-rated therapist psychotherapy process variables (i.e., warmth, exploration, and negative attitude) were not linked to maternal ratings of working alliance. Therapist warmth, however, was positively associated with maternal ratings of security of attachment to the therapist, and therapist negative attitude was positively related to maternal ratings of preoccupied-merger attachment to the therapist. As expected, both therapist warmth and exploration were positively associated with both maternal participation and exploration. Therapist negative attitude was inversely related to maternal exploration, but not to maternal participation. Results support the idea that attention to the psychotherapy process and relationship may be important in the context of a brief home-visiting parenting intervention with a nonclinical sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  18. Neural correlates of face processing in etiologically-distinct 12-month-old infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie W. Guy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural correlates of face processing were examined in 12-month-olds at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, including 21 siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs and 15 infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS, as well as 21 low-risk (LR controls. Event-related potentials were recorded to familiar and novel face and toy stimuli. All infants demonstrated greater N290 amplitude to faces than toys. At the Nc component, LR infants showed greater amplitude to novel stimuli than to their mother’s face and own toy, whereas infants with FXS showed the opposite pattern of responses and ASIBs did not differentiate based on familiarity. These results reflect developing face specialization across high- and low-risk infants and reveal neural patterns that distinguish between groups at high-risk for ASD. Keywords: Event-related potentials, Infancy, Face processing, Autism spectrum disorders

  19. THE ROSENBLUTH FORMULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yennie, D. R.

    1963-06-15

    The Rosenbluth formula, defined as the theoretical expression for the differential cross section for electronproton scattering under one-photon- exchange, is discussed. Electron-proton amd positron-proton scattering are compared using the formula. Some possible corrections to the Rosenbluth formula are discussed. The effects of nonelectromagnetic interactions and two-photon- exchange, with the possibility of Regge pole behavior, are also discussed. (R.E.U.)

  20. [Significance of hypo-osmolar diets for oral nutrition build-up in very severe malabsorption--clinical observations exemplified by infants with subtotal small intestine resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K H; Teufel, M

    1984-01-01

    Regenerative and adaptive processes of the gut are apparently analogous to the absorption rate in small bowel diseases. These processes can be enhanced by the prolongation of passage time which, in turn, is influenced by the osmolality of the formula diet. Since infants who have undergone a subtotal bowel resection, like other children with serious diseases of the small bowel, are extraordinarily sensitive to hyperosmolar food, any preparation with special indications should be balanced and rendered hypoosmolar in full caloric concentration. Such formulas may well facilitate food supply to infants and, in case of short bowel syndrome, encourage more pronounced morphologic adaptation.

  1. Bismut Formulae and Applications for Functional SPDEs

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Jianhai; Wang, Feng-Yu; Yuan, Chenggui

    2011-01-01

    By using Malliavin calculus, explicit derivative formulae are established for a class of semi-linear functional stochastic partial differential equations with additive or multiplicative noise. As applications, gradient estimates and Harnack inequalities are derived for the semigroup of the associated segment process. Keywords: Bismut formula, Malliavin calculus, gradient estimate, Harnack inequality, functional SPDE

  2. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infant Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... differences in rates among population groups. About Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death of an infant ...

  3. Voxel-Based Morphometry and fMRI Revealed Differences in Brain Gray Matter in Breastfed and Milk Formula-Fed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, X; Andres, A; Pivik, R T; Cleves, M A; Snow, J H; Ding, Z; Badger, T M

    2016-04-01

    Infant diets may have significant impact on brain development in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain gray matter structure and function in 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed or fed cow's milk formula as infants. Forty-two healthy children (breastfed: n = 22, 10 boys and 12 girls; cow's milk formula: n = 20, 10 boys and 10 girls) were studied by using structural MR imaging (3D T1-weighted imaging) and blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI (while performing tasks involving visual perception and language functions). They were also administered standardized tests evaluating intelligence (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales) and language skills (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals). Total brain gray matter volume did not differ between the breastfed and cow's milk formula groups. However, breastfed children had significantly higher (P left inferior temporal lobe and left superior parietal lobe compared with cow's milk formula-fed children. Breastfed children showed significantly more brain activation in the right frontal and left/right temporal lobes on fMRI when processing the perception task and in the left temporal/occipital lobe when processing the visual language task than cow's milk formula-fed children. The imaging findings were associated with significantly better performance for breastfed than cow's milk formula-fed children on both tasks. Our findings indicated greater regional gray matter development and better regional gray matter function in breastfed than cow's milk formula-fed children at 8 years of age and suggested that infant diets may have long-term influences on brain development in children. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Selected Baking Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  5. Formula misasi?! / Sten Soomlais

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomlais, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Formula Student on kõrgkoolide masinaehituse ja/või autotehnika tudengite meeskondade vaheline iga-aastane tootearendusvõistlus, mis kujutab endast väikese vormelauto projekteerimist, ehitamist ja võidusõitmist ringrajal. Lisa: Formula Student Eestis

  6. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Vythilingum, Bavi; Geerts, Lut; Faure, Sheila C; Watt, Melissa H; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-03-15

    Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year. Structural equation models tested postpartum depression as a mediator between maternal experiences of childhood trauma and children's outcomes. A subset of women (N=33) also participated in a lab-based emotional Stroop paradigm, and their responses to fearful stimuli at six weeks were explored as a potential mechanism linking maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and child outcomes. Women with childhood trauma experienced greater depressive symptoms through six months postpartum, which then predicted negative child outcomes at one year. Mediating effects of postpartum depression were significant, and persisted for maternal-infant bonding and infant growth after controlling for covariates and antenatal distress. Maternal avoidance of fearful stimuli emerged as a potential affective mechanism. Limitations included modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes. Perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast-feeding, in ...

  8. Cognitive biases in processing infant emotion by women with depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in pregnancy or after birth: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca; Ayers, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal psychological problems such as post-natal depression are associated with poor mother-baby interaction, but the reason for this is not clear. One explanation is that mothers with negative mood have biased processing of infant emotion. This review aimed to synthesise research on processing of infant emotion by pregnant or post-natal women with anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Systematic searches were carried out on 11 electronic databases using terms related to negative affect, childbirth and perception of emotion. Fourteen studies were identified which looked at the effect of depression, anxiety and PTSD on interpretation of infant emotional expressions (k = 10), or reaction times when asked to ignore emotional expressions (k = 4). Results suggest mothers with depression and anxiety are more likely to identify negative emotions (i.e., sadness) and less accurate at identifying positive emotions (i.e., happiness) in infant faces. Additionally, women with depression may disengage faster from positive and negative infant emotional expressions. Very few studies examined PTSD (k = 2), but results suggest biases towards specific infant emotions may be influenced by characteristics of the traumatic event. The implications of this research for mother-infant interaction are explored.

  9. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research......The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge...... and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding...

  10. Fundamental formulas of physics

    CERN Document Server

    1960-01-01

    The republication of this book, unabridged and corrected, fills the need for a comprehensive work on fundamental formulas of mathematical physics. It ranges from simple operations to highly sophisticated ones, all presented most lucidly with terms carefully defined and formulas given completely. In addition to basic physics, pertinent areas of chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, biology, and electronics are also included.This is no mere listing of formulas, however. Mathematics is integrated into text, for the most part, so that each chapter stands as a brief summary or even short textbook of

  11. The process of developing and changing of infant-teacher attachment : A study on an infant whose attachment to the first attachment figure is insecure

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 七生

    2003-01-01

    Toward infants whose attachment to their first attachment figures (mainly their mothers) is insecure, how can we intervene in them? To reveal it, an observation was carried out regularly once a week, over a period of 9 months. The subjects were an infant who has insecure attachment and comparative one who has secure attachment. And the attachment behaviors they exhibited toward nursery school teachers, strangers, and an observer were counted. The amount of the attachment behaviors of the infa...

  12. Formulae as Scientific Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsewell, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In science lessons many students struggle to apply the principles of rearranging formulae, even after coverage in maths. A structured approach is suggested that focuses on describing a narrative linking cause and effect before explicit mathematical terms are introduced.

  13. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: definition and design (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcí A-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Sáez, Carlos; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Garcí A-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of two regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until two years old. This first paper justifies the need for such repositories and describes the design of a process to construct them from Electronic Health Records (EHR). As a result, Part 1 proposes a computational process to obtain quality-assured datasets represented by a canonical structure extracted from raw data from multiple EHR. For this, 13 steps were defined to ensure the harmonization, standardization, completion, de-duplication, and consistency of the dataset content. Moreover, the quality of the input and output data for each of these steps is controlled according to eight DQ dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability and spatial-stability. The second paper of the series will describe the application of this computational process to construct the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period aimed at the monitoring of clinical activities and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequence spaces [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with application in clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Shoaib; Alamri, Badriah As; Mursaleen, M; Lohani, Qm Danish

    2017-01-01

    Distance measures play a central role in evolving the clustering technique. Due to the rich mathematical background and natural implementation of [Formula: see text] distance measures, researchers were motivated to use them in almost every clustering process. Beside [Formula: see text] distance measures, there exist several distance measures. Sargent introduced a special type of distance measures [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] which is closely related to [Formula: see text]. In this paper, we generalized the Sargent sequence spaces through introduction of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] sequence spaces. Moreover, it is shown that both spaces are BK -spaces, and one is a dual of another. Further, we have clustered the two-moon dataset by using an induced [Formula: see text]-distance measure (induced by the Sargent sequence space [Formula: see text]) in the k-means clustering algorithm. The clustering result established the efficacy of replacing the Euclidean distance measure by the [Formula: see text]-distance measure in the k-means algorithm.

  15. Acoustic processing of temporally modulated sounds in infants: evidence from a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eTelkemeyer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception requires rapid extraction of the linguistic content from the acoustic signal. The ability to efficiently process rapid changes in auditory information is important for decoding speech and thereby crucial during language acquisition. Investigating functional networks of speech perception in infancy might elucidate neuronal ensembles supporting perceptual abilities that gate language acquisition. Interhemispheric specializations for language have been demonstrated in infants. How these asymmetries are shaped by basic temporal acoustic properties is under debate. We recently provided evidence that newborns process non-linguistic sounds sharing temporal features with language in a differential and lateralized fashion. The present study used the same material while measuring brain responses of 6 and 3 month old infants using simultaneous recordings of electroencephalography (EEG and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. NIRS reveals that the lateralization observed in newborns remains constant over the first months of life. While fast acoustic modulations elicit bilateral neuronal activations, slow modulations lead to right-lateralized responses. Additionally, auditory evoked potentials and oscillatory EEG responses show differential responses for fast and slow modulations indicating a sensitivity for temporal acoustic variations. Oscillatory responses reveal an effect of development, that is, 6 but not 3 month old infants show stronger theta-band desynchronization for slowly modulated sounds. Whether this developmental effect is due to increasing fine-grained perception for spectrotemporal sounds in general remains speculative. Our findings support the notion that a more general specialization for acoustic properties can be considered the basis for lateralization of speech perception. The results show that concurrent assessment of vascular based imaging and electrophysiological responses have great potential in the research on language

  16. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: Construction of the perinatal repository (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Sáez, Carlos; García-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2016-04-01

    This is the second in a series of two papers regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories, based on population data from Electronic Health Records (EHR), for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until the age of two. This second paper describes the application of the computational process of constructing the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period, with the aim of studying relevant questions from the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and monitoring its deployment in our hospital. The construction of the repository was carried out using 13 semi-automated procedures to assess, recover or discard clinical data. The initial information consisted of perinatal forms from EHR related to 2048 births (Facts of Study, FoS) between 2009 and 2011, with a total of 433,308 observations of 223 variables. DQ was measured before and after the procedures using metrics related to eight quality dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability, and spatial-stability. Once the predictive variables were selected and DQ was assured, the final repository consisted of 1925 births, 107,529 observations and 73 quality-assured variables. The amount of discarded observations mainly corresponds to observations of non-predictive variables (52.90%) and the impact of the de-duplication process (20.58%) with respect to the total input data. Seven out of thirteen procedures achieved 100% of valid births, observations and variables. Moreover, 89% of births and ~98% of observations were consistent according to the experts׳ criteria. A multidisciplinary approach along with the quantification of DQ has allowed us to construct the first repository about infant feeding in the perinatal period based on EHR population data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contributions to multidimensional quadrature formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, C.

    1976-11-01

    The general objective of this paper is to construct multidimensional quadrature formulas similar to the Gaussian Quadrature Formulas in one dimension. The correspondence between these formulas and orthogonal and nonnegative polynomials is established. One part of the paper considers the construction of multidimensional quadrature formulas using only methods of algebraic geometry, on the other part it is tried to obtain results on quadrature formulas with real nodes and, if possible, with positive weights. The results include the existence of quadrature formulas, information on the number resp. on the maximum possible number of points in the formulas for given polynomial degree N and the construction of formulas. (orig.) [de

  18. Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responses change quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing the absorbed dose in analogue radiography of infant chest images by improving the image quality, using image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, A.; Yazdani, S.; Askari, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiographic inspection is one of the most widely employed techniques for medical testing methods. Because of poor contrast and high un-sharpness of radiographic image quality in films, converting radiographs to a digital format and using further digital image processing is the best method of enhancing the image quality and assisting the interpreter in their evaluation. In this research work, radiographic films of 70 infant chest images with different sizes of defects were selected. To digitise the chest images and employ image processing the two algorithms (i) spatial domain and (ii) frequency domain techniques were used. The MATLAB environment was selected for processing in the digital format. Our results showed that by using these two techniques, the defects with small dimensions are detectable. Therefore, these suggested techniques may help medical specialists to diagnose the defects in the primary stages and help to prevent more repeat X-ray examination of paediatric patients. (authors)

  20. accuracy of nelson and best guess formulae in estimation of weights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment decisions including nutritional status assessment, drug ... weight estimations in infants and children aged 6-11 years. ... include: the Nelson formulae,7,8 Advanced Paediatric ... measured according to the Center for Disease Control.

  1. Recurrent gastric lactobezoar in an infant

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Leonor; Berenguer, Alberto; Pilar, Carla; Gon?alves, Rute; Nunes, Jos? L.

    2014-01-01

    Lactobezoars are a type of bezoar composed of undigested milk and mucus. The aetiology is likely multifactorial, being classically described in association with pre-term, low-birth weight infants fed with hyperconcentrated formula. The authors present a case of lactobezoar recurrence in a pre-term infant with oesophageal atresia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of recurrence of lactobezoar.

  2. Recontamination as a source of pathogens in processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Asselt-den Aantrekker, van E.D.

    2004-01-01

    Food products that have been submitted to an adequate heat-treatment during processing are free of vegetative pathogens and, depending on the treatments, of sporeformers and are generally regarded as safe. Processed products such as pate, ice cream, infant formulae and others have nevertheless been

  3. Enzymatic Preparation of Low-Phenylalanine Formula Derived from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common inborn errors of amino acids metabolism. WHO guidelines introduced in 1979 and revised 1988 for breast-feeding infants with PKU included a formula containing low amounts of phenylalanine as a part of dietary prescription. Mental retardation can be ...

  4. Prevalence of bacterial contamination of powdered infant feeds in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The study arose as part of a nutrition model regarding the introduction of ready-to-use (RTU) infant feeds in place of powdered infant feeds (PIFs) as a standard formula for infants under the age of 1 year who are unable to be breastfed. Internationally and locally there is grave concern regarding the safety and ...

  5. "It's Somebody Else's Milk": Unraveling the Tension in Mothers of Preterm Infants Who Provide Consent for Pasteurized Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerra-Zwiers, Anita; Rossman, Beverly; Meier, Paula; Engstrom, Janet; Janes, Judy; Patel, Aloka

    2016-02-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM), rather than preterm infant formula, is recommended for premature infants when mother's milk is not available. This study explored the maternal decision-making process in providing consent for DHM feedings. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 mothers of premature (mean gestational age = 27 weeks, birth weight = 942 grams) infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in this qualitative, descriptive study. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Although only 1 mother had any previous knowledge of DHM, all mothers provided consent for DHM because they "wanted what is best for my baby." Mothers trusted that DHM was better than formula when their infant's feeding requirements exceeded their own milk supply. However, most mothers described a tension between wanting their infants to receive only "their" milk and DHM being "somebody else's milk." This desire to be the only provider of human milk was more common than concerns about the quality and safety of DHM. The mothers' tension was mediated by trusting the NICU clinicians' recommendations, having adequate time to make an informed decision, observing the positive outcomes of DHM, and feeling empowered that they made the best decision for their infant. The experiences of these mothers reflect the importance of approaching mothers for consent only when DHM is needed, respecting mothers' beliefs and values about DHM, and providing help in mediating any tension with regard to their infants receiving "somebody else's milk." © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Fuel formula for lighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.

    1982-04-10

    A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.

  7. Young child formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Young child formulae (YCF) are milk-based drinks or plant protein-based formulae intended to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of young children ages 1 to 3 years. Although widely available on the market, their composition is, however, not strictly regulated and health effects have...... not been systematically studied. Therefore, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition (CoN) performed a systematic review of the literature to review the composition of YCF and consider their role in the diet of young children...... for the routine use of YCF in children from 1 to 3 years of life, but they can be used as part of a strategy to increase the intake of iron, vitamin D, and n-3 PUFA and decrease the intake of protein compared with unfortified cow's milk. Follow-on formulae can be used for the same purpose. Other strategies...

  8. Electromagnetic shielding formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, E.

    1979-02-01

    This addendum to an earlier collection of electromagnetic shielding formulae (TRITA-EPP-75-27) contains simple transfer matrices suitable for calculating the quasistatic shielding efficiency for multiple transverse-field and axial-field cylindrical and spherical shields, as well as for estimating leakage fields from long coaxial cables and the normal-incidence transmission of a plane wave through a multiple plane shield. The differences and similarities between these cases are illustrated by means of equivalent circuits and transmission line analogies. The addendum also includes a discussion of a possible heuristic improvement of some shielding formulae. (author)

  9. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.

  10. Early formula feeding practices and their potential contribution to later obesity risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-02

    Background and Aims: Early feeding practices, including early introduction to solid foods and overfeeding, are known risk factors for childhood obesity. This study aimed to assess maternal formula feeding practices and infant formula feeding patterns, factors that are known to potentially contribute to later obesity risk. \\r\

  11. Formula Manufacturers' Web Sites: Are They Really Non-Compliant Advertisements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Barrie; Dickinson, Roger; Matthews, Julian; Cole, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the UK, advertising of infant formula products direct to consumers is not permitted. These products must be used on the recommendation of suitably qualified health or medical professionals. The aim of this study is to examine formula manufacturers' web sites to ascertain whether these are used as alternative forms of advertising that…

  12. Third order trace formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560 064, India. 2Indian Institute of ... for rational functions φ with poles off R. In [5,16], Koplienko's trace formula was derived ... be a sequence of complex numbers such that ..... Again if we set the sum of the second and fourth term inside the integral in (2.3) to be. I2 ≡.

  13. The Jacobi inversion formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekoek, J.; Koekoek, R.

    1999-01-01

    We look for differential equations satisfied by the generalized Jacobi polynomials which are orthogonal on the interval [-1,1] with respect to the weight function [Enlarge Image] where >-1, ß>-1M=0 and N=0. In order to find explicit formulas for the coefficients of these differential equations we

  14. Chen's inversion formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, B.D.; Frankel, N.E.; Ninham, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    An alternative view is presented of the Chen's generalization of a formula of classic algebraic number theory, based on the Mellin transformation and Reimann's zeta function. The advantages of the Mellin transform, as a method with a primary role in asymptotic analysis, are outlined. 10 refs

  15. Observation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

  16. FEATURES OF INTENSIVE NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT OF PREMATURE INFANTS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Romanenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the modern approaches to preterm infants feeding, principles of parenteral and enteral nutrition. The importance of adequate control of deficit status in preterm infants at different periods of developmental care is marked. Arguments for using the enriched milk or specialized formulas for prematurity during the in-clinic and out-clinic periods of care are provided.Key words: premature infants, enteral nutrition, formulas for premature infants, breast milk, breast milk enriches.

  17. Xanthophylls and eye health of infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukarzel, Adib A; Bejjani, Riad A; Fares, Florence N

    2009-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids present in the eye. They cannot be synthesized de novo and are specifically concentrated in the macula. They appear to have at least two major functions: to filter out blue light and thus prevent ensuing damages to the eye and to act as antioxidants. Infants are particularly at risk from both blue light and oxidative damage to eye tissues. Lutein is present in human milk but is not currently added to infant formulas. Fortifying formulae with lutein in order to match more closely human milk might help protect the infant's sensitive eyes. In adults, the exact pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy remains unknown. Light damage, inflammation, and the disruption of cellular processes by oxidative stress may play an important role in the degenerative process. Manipulation of intake of xanthophylls has been shown to augment macular pigment, therefore it is thought that carotenoid dietary supplements could prevent, delay, or modify the course of age-related maculopathy. However, definite evidence of the effect of carotenoids, the optimal doses to use, and the supplementation duration are still under investigation.

  18. Density of states, Poisson's formula of summation and Walfisz's formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucho, P.

    1980-06-01

    Using Poisson's formula for summation, we obtain an expression for density of states of d-dimensional scalar Helmoholtz's equation under various boundary conditions. Likewise, we also obtain formulas of Walfisz's type. It becomes evident that the formulas obtained by Pathria et al. in connection with ideal bosons in a finite system are exactly the same as those obtained by utilizing the formulas for density of states. (author)

  19. Quantum Ito's formula and stochastic evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, R.L.; Parthasarathy, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Using only the Boson canonical commutation relations and the Riemann-Lebesgue integral we construct a simple theory of stochastic integrals and differentials with respect to the basic field operator processes. This leads to a noncommutative Ito product formula, a realisation of the classical Poisson process in Fock space which gives a noncommutative central limit theorem, the construction of solutions of certain noncommutative stochastic differential equations, and finally to the integration of certain irreversible equations of motion governed by semigroups of completely positive maps. The classical Ito product formula for stochastic differentials with respect to Brownian motion and the Poisson process is a special case. (orig.)

  20. Influence of Infant Feeding Type on Gut Microbiome Development in Hospitalized Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Judge, Michelle; Xu, Wanli; Diallo, Ana; Janton, Susan; Brownell, Elizabeth A.; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Background Premature infants have a high risk for dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Mother’s own breastmilk (MOM) has been found to favorably alter gut microbiome composition in infants born at term. Evidence about the influence of feeding type on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants is limited. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of feeding types on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Thirty-three stable preterm infants were recruited at birth and followed-up for the first 30 days of life. Daily feeding information was used to classify infants into six groups (mother’s own milk [MOM], human donated milk [HDM], formula, MOM+HDM, MOM+Formula, and HDM+forumla) during postnatal days 0–10, 11–20, and 21–30 after birth. Stool samples were collected daily. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene. Exploratory data analysis was conducted with a focus on temporal changes of microbial patterns and diversities among infants from different feeding cohorts. Prediction of gut microbial diversity from feeding type was estimated using linear mixed models. Results Preterm infants fed MOM (at least 70% of the total diet) had highest abundance of Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Bacillales compared to infants in other feeding groups, whereas infants fed primarily human donor milk or formula had a high abundance of Enterobacteriales compared to infants fed MOM. After controlling for gender, postnatal age, weight and birth gestational age, the diversity of gut microbiome increased over time and was constantly higher in infants fed MOM relative to infants with other feeding types (p breast milk benefits gut microbiome development of preterm infants, including balanced microbial community pattern and increased microbial diversity in early life. PMID:28252573

  1. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-17

    Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  2. Sampel Susu Formula dan Praktik Pemberian Air Susu Ibu Eksklusif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Nuraini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cakupan pemberian air susu ibu (ASI eksklusif di Kota Pagar Alam, tahun 2011 sekitar 43% tergolong rendah. Sebaliknya, pemberian susu formula meningkat tiga kali lipat dari 10,3% menjadi 32,5%. Iklan susu formula telah menyentuh bidan swasta dan puskesmas melalui pendekatan produsen susu formula dan pemberian susu formula secara gratis kepada ibu menyusui. Penelitian yang bertujuan mengetahui determinan kegagalan praktik pemberiaan ASI eksklusif di Kota Pagar Alam Provinsi Sumatera Selatan ini menggunakan desain studi unmatching kasus kontrol. Populasi adalah seluruh ibu yang mempunyai bayi berusia 7 _ 12 bulan. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode proportional random sampling. Variabel terikat praktik adalah pemberian ASI eksklusif, variabel bebas adalah pemberian sampel susu formula. Ibu yang mendapat sampel susu formula dan yang tidak mendapat dukungan tenaga kesehatan berisiko 3,67 dan 4,2 kali lebih besar untuk tidak memberikan ASI eksklusif. The coverage of exclusive breastfeeding in the City of Pagar Alam in 2011 was by 43%. Advertising of infant formula has reached privately practicing midwives or health centers. The approach from infant formula manufacturers to midwives in health centers is by providing free milk formula to nursing mothers to be distributed under the pretext of promotion. The objective of this study is to analyze the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practice failures in the City of Pagar Alam of South Sumatra Province. The population study with an unmatched case-control design was conducted in the City of Pagar Alam. The population was all breastfeeding mothers who had babies in the city of Pagar Alam of South Sumatra Province. The research subjects are breastfeeding mothers who had babies aged 7 - 12 months who selected with proportional random sampling method. The variables of the study included the dependent variable, i.e, the practice of exclusive breastfeeding, the independent variable, i.e, promotion of

  3. Emergency preparedness for those who care for infants in developed country contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Karleen D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emergency management organisations recognise the vulnerability of infants in emergencies, even in developed countries. However, thus far, those who care for infants have not been provided with detailed information on what emergency preparedness entails. Emergency management authorities should provide those who care for infants with accurate and detailed information on the supplies necessary to care for them in an emergency, distinguishing between the needs of breastfed infants and the needs of formula fed infants. Those who care for formula fed infants should be provided with detailed information on the supplies necessary for an emergency preparedness kit and with information on how to prepare formula feeds in an emergency. An emergency preparedness kit for exclusively breastfed infants should include 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. The contents of an emergency preparedness for formula fed infants will vary depending upon whether ready-to-use liquid infant formula or powdered infant formula is used. If ready-to-use liquid infant formula is used, an emergency kit should include: 56 serves of ready-to-use liquid infant formula, 84 L water, storage container, metal knife, small bowl, 56 feeding bottles and teats/cups, 56 zip-lock plastic bags, 220 paper towels, detergent, 120 antiseptic wipes, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. If powdered infant formula is used, an emergency preparedness kit should include: two 900 g tins powdered infant formula, 170 L drinking water, storage container, large cooking pot with lid, kettle, gas stove, box of matches/lighter, 14 kg liquid petroleum gas, measuring container, metal knife, metal tongs, feeding cup, 300 large sheets paper towel, detergent, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. Great care with regards hygiene should be taken in the preparation of formula feeds. Child protection organisations should ensure that foster carers responsible for infants have the resources necessary to formula feed in the

  4. Kant's universal law formula revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.

    2015-01-01

    Kantians are increasingly deserting the universal law formula in favor of the humanity formula. The former, they argue, is open to various decisive objections; the two are not equivalent; and it is only by appealing to the human- ity formula that Kant can reliably generate substantive implications

  5. Understanding the Viscosity of Liquids used in Infant Dysphagia Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Jackie; Chestnut, Amanda; Jackson, Arwen; Barbon, Carly E. A.; Steele, Catriona M.; Pickler, Laura

    2016-01-01

    When assessing swallowing in infants, it is critical to have confidence that the liquids presented during the swallow study closely replicate the viscosity of liquids in the infant's typical diet. However, we lack research on rheological properties of frequently used infant formulas or breastmilk, and various forms of barium contrast media used in swallow studies. The aim of the current study was to provide objective viscosity measurements for typical infant liquid diet options and barium contrast media. A TA-Instruments AR2000 Advanced Rheometer was used to measure the viscosity, five standard infant formulas, three barium products and two breastmilk samples. Additionally, this study measured the viscosity of infant formulas and breastmilk when mixed with powdered barium contrast in a 20% weight-to-volume (w/v) concentration. Study findings determined that standard infant formulas and the two breastmilk samples had low viscosities, at the lower end of the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) thin liquid range. Two specialty formulas tested had much thicker viscosities, close to the NDD nectar-thick liquid range lower boundary. The study showed differences in viscosity between two 60% w/v barium products (Liquid E-Z-Paque® and E-Z-Paque® powder); the powdered product had a much lower viscosity, despite identical barium concentration. When E-Z-Paque® powdered barium was mixed in a 20% w/v concentration using water, standard infant formulas or breastmilk, the resulting viscosities were at the lower end of the NDD thin range, and only slightly thicker than the non-barium comparator liquids. When E-Z-Paque® powdered barium was mixed in a 20% w/v concentration with the two thicker specialty formulas (Enfamil AR 20kcal and 24 kcal), unexpected alterations in their original viscosity occurred. These findings highlight the clinical importance of objective measures of viscosity as well as objective data on how infant formulas or breastmilk may change in consistency when mixed

  6. Prevention of Allergy: From Immunology of Pregnancy To Infant Feeding in the First Months of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey E. Ukraintsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued increase in the incidence of allergic diseases in children population generates reasonable interest of allergists. The article describes the basic mechanisms of immunological response in light of the allergy risk modulation in children. It discusses a new approach to the prescription of hypoallergenic diets for healthy pregnant and lactating women to prevent allergies in children. A separate section examines the influence of the infant feeding mode in the first months of life on the risk of formation of allergies as a child grows, as well as key mechanisms for the formation of the oral tolerance phenomenon. The results from the study of immunological processes that underlie the phenomenon of oral tolerance confirm the ability to reduce the risk of formation of cow's milk protein allergy in formula-fed infants by using formulas based on hydrolysed protein.

  7. Early life adversity during the infant sensitive period for attachment: Programming of behavioral neurobiology of threat processing and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Opendak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

  8. The protective role of maternal post-traumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing in Palestinian mothers and infants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-21

    Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences. This three-wave prospective study involved Palestinian women living in the Gaza Strip who were at the second trimester of pregnancy (T1), women with infants aged 4 months (T2), and women with children aged 12 months (T3) months. The participants reported their war experiences in a 30-item checklist of losses, destruction, and atrocities in the 2008-09, 2012, and 2014 military offensives. Post-traumatic growth was assessed by a 21-item scale and post-traumatic cognition by a 36-item scale. Maternal mental health was assessed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, anxiety, and dissociation symptoms at T1 and T3, and infants' stress regulation was assessed with the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire at T2 and T3. We included 511 women at T1, 481 women at T2, and 454 women at T3. High maternal post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition had protective roles. Post-traumatic growth had a protective effect on maternal mental health since severe exposure to traumatic war experiences was not associated with maternal PTSD, depression, and dissociation if women showed high post-traumatic growth, as indicated by the significant interaction effect between post-traumatic growth and war trauma on each of the three symptoms. Post-traumatic cognition had a protective effect on infant development since severe exposure was not associated with dysfunctional

  9. 27 CFR 20.112 - Special industrial solvents general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solvents general-use formula. 20.112 Section 20.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.112 Special industrial solvents general-use formula. (a) A special industrial solvent is any article made with any other ingredients...

  10. Bryant J. correction formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1990-03-01

    For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)

  11. Self-lubricating formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzenko, V.A.; Koltovskiy, L.V.; Koshelyov, Yu.I.; Kuzovlyev, G.F.; Lebedyev, S.I.; Sitnikov, S.A.; Telegin, V.D.

    1979-12-30

    To improve operation of scrubbers that operate in crystallizers for deparaffinization of oil products, a formula is being suggested which contains siliceous fibers, and a type of thermoactive resin - phenol-formaldehyde laquer, with the following component ration (% weight): carbon fiber 20-25, siliceous fibers 20-30, dry lubricant 10-15, phenolformaldehyde laquer up to 100. Phys.-mech. characteristics are flexure, compression, Ak of the suggested and known compositions (kgs/cm/sup 2/) 2150-2450 and 2550-2700, 32-37 and 1750, 2150 and 27 operation resource 2100:2500 and 1400.

  12. Impact of the Diagnostic Process on Parents of Infants and Preschool Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N.; Hanson, Janice L.

    In an investigation of the impact of the psychological/educational diagnostic process on the parents of young children at risk for developmental delay, 18 families completed questionnaires and were interviewed concerning their child's evaluation. Transcribed interviews conducted 1-2 weeks after the evaluation and 4 months after the evaluations…

  13. Weak interactions - formulae, results, and derivations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietschmann, H

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide experimental and theoretical physicists working in the field of weak interactions with a reference work which includes all the formulae and results needed in actual research. The derivation of these formulae is also given in detail for some typical examples to facilitate their use. New developments in unified gauge theories have been included as well as the decay processes of the new particles such as intermediate bosons and tau-lepton. In order to supply the research worker with a convenient working aid, frequently occurring mathematical formulae as well as phase space integrals and the Dirac algebra have been included. Treatment of field operators - also with respect to discrete transformations C, P, T and G - as well as products of invariant functions are provided. Particular emphasis has been placed on the Lagrangian of unified electroweak interactions. The major portion of the work is, of course, devoted to formulae for decay processes and scattering cross-sections. Useful formulae in e/sup +/e/sup -/ reactions and a small dictionary for translations into other forms for the space-time metric are collected in appendices.

  14. PLACE OF EXTENSIVELY HYDROLYZED COW’S MILK FORMULAS IN THE DIET OF CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT PATHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Lukushkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational nutrition determines optimal growth and development. Special feeding with extensively hydrolised formula is essential for infants with cow’s milk protein allergy, protein-energy malnutrition, food intolerance, chronic gastrointestinal disorders. 

  15. 4. mothers' perception of infant feeding counselling in the context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    we asked for this research was: how does the information provided in counselling ... Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, Formula feeding, Infant feeding counselling .... mothers the competitive advantages of breastfeeding and other available ...

  16. Brain activity and infant attachment history in young men during loss and reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Waters, Theodore E A; Scott, Hannah; Roisman, Glenn I; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2017-05-01

    There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan). Results indicated that individuals with a history of insecure attachment showed hyperactivity in (a) reward- and emotion-related (e.g., basal ganglia and amygdala) structures and (b) emotion regulation and self-referential processing (cortical midline structures) in response to positive and negative outcomes (and anticipation of those outcomes). Further, the neural activation of individuals with a history of disorganized attachment suggested that they had greater emotional reactivity in anticipation of reward and employed greater cognitive control when negative outcomes were encountered. Overall, results suggest that the quality of early attachments has lasting impacts on brain function and reward processing.

  17. Reference values of amino acids and of common clinical chemistry in plasma of healthy infants aged 1 and 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kainz, Alexander; Bachmann, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To compare plasma levels of amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters in healthy infants at 1 and 4 months of age and to establish corresponding reference limits. Data of three multicenter studies assessing the safety of new infant formulas were used. During these studies infants of both age-groups were either breast-fed or received formulas of low or high protein content. All samples were analyzed centrally in the same accredited laboratory. Plasma was collected from 521 infants in total, 157 boys and 135 girls aged 1 month and 121 boys and 108 girls aged 4 months. At the age of 1 month, 62 infants had received exclusively breast milk, 198 exclusively formula, and 27 both; in the 4-months age group corresponding numbers were 49, 158 and 18, respectively; for 9 infants, diet was unknown. Concentrations of most amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters differed significantly between both ages. Regardless of age, most plasma amino acid levels were comparable or lower in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants whereas at 1 month of age most clinical chemistry parameters were higher. While in breast-fed infants the plasma urea concentration decreased over 4 months of age, it increased in formula-fed infants. There were significant differences between infants fed a low and high protein formula. At both ages, high protein formulas resulted in significantly higher threonine, 2-aminobutyrate, and urea concentrations. For clinical use, age- and diet specific reference limits in infants are warranted.

  18. Semi-empirical formulas for sputtering yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasumichi

    1994-01-01

    When charged particles, electrons, light and so on are irradiated on solid surfaces, the materials are lost from the surfaces, and this phenomenon is called sputtering. In order to understand sputtering phenomenon, the bond energy of atoms on surfaces, the energy given to the vicinity of surfaces and the process of converting the given energy to the energy for releasing atoms must be known. The theories of sputtering and the semi-empirical formulas for evaluating the dependence of sputtering yield on incident energy are explained. The mechanisms of sputtering are that due to collision cascade in the case of heavy ion incidence and that due to surface atom recoil in the case of light ion incidence. The formulas for the sputtering yield of low energy heavy ion sputtering, high energy light ion sputtering and the general case between these extreme cases, and the Matsunami formula are shown. At the stage of the publication of Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables in 1984, the data up to 1983 were collected, and about 30 papers published thereafter were added. The experimental data for low Z materials, for example Be, B and C and light ion sputtering data were reported. The combination of ions and target atoms in the collected sputtering data is shown. The new semi-empirical formula by slightly adjusting the Matsunami formula was decided. (K.I.)

  19. Revisiting Kant's universal law and humanity formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This book offers new readings of Kant’s "universal law" and "humanity" formulations of the categorical imperative. It shows how, on these readings, the formulas do indeed turn out being alternative statements of the same basic moral law, and in the process responds to many of the standard objections

  20. Implementing successful strategic plans: a simple formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Whitney; Blondeau, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Strategic planning is a process. One way to think of strategic planning is to envision its development and design as a framework that will help your hospital navigate through internal and external changing environments over time. Although the process of strategic planning can feel daunting, following a simple formula involving five steps using the mnemonic B.E.G.I.N. (Begin, Evaluate, Goals & Objectives, Integration, and Next steps) will help the planning process feel more manageable, and lead you to greater success.

  1. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transfer maps and projection formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuada, Goncalo

    2010-01-01

    Transfer maps and projection formulas are undoubtedly one of the key tools in the development and computation of (co)homology theories. In this note we develop an unified treatment of transfer maps and projection formulas in the non-commutative setting of dg categories. As an application, we obtain transfer maps and projection formulas in algebraic K-theory, cyclic homology, topological cyclic homology, and other scheme invariants.

  3. Methemoglobinemia and Failure to Thrive as a Result of FPIES to Soy Formula with Resolution on Amino Acid Based Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    the hopes of improving recognition and treatment . C ase P resentation A 1 month old male infant who was born at term to a GBS-negative mother...mixing formula with bottled spring water . The parents denied sick contacts, rash, blood o r mucus in stools, delayed passage of meconium, constipation...or use of teething gels. In the ED he was grey in color and lethargic. Initial vital signs were: weight 2 .9kg, rectal temp 96.SF, pulse 132bpm

  4. Weak convergence to isotropic complex [Formula: see text] random measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunmeng; Sang, Liheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that an isotropic complex symmetric α -stable random measure ([Formula: see text]) can be approximated by a complex process constructed by integrals based on the Poisson process with random intensity.

  5. Deviasi Taksiran Berat Janin pada Metode Johnson-Toshack, Formula Sederhana dan Formula Dare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Rianti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the birth attendant to estimate the birth weight of the fetus is very important that it does not cause childbirth dystocia that may cause rip in the birth canal. The aim of this study was to compare the deviation of fetal weight estimation according to Johnson-Toshack method, simple formula and Dare formula. Thedesign used was cross sectional, the data taken primarily, involving 100 respondents at Fatmawati General Hospital Jakarta, from August to September 2015. The findings showed that the smallest deviation mean of fetal weight estimation is Johnson-Toshack method. The results of this method of measurement tend to be close to infant birth weight, especially in the client childbirth with abdominal circumference 90 - 100 cm. The conclusion of this study is that Johnson-Toshack's fetal weighing estimates are more appropriate for childbirth with 90 to 100 cm abdominal circumference size, except in childbirth with ruptured membranes, applying a fetal weight estimate based on the Dare formula would be more appropriate.

  6. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  7. Statistics Using Just One Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    2018-01-01

    This article advocates that introductory statistics be taught by basing all calculations on a single simple margin-of-error formula and deriving all of the standard introductory statistical concepts (confidence intervals, significance tests, comparisons of means and proportions, etc) from that one formula. It is argued that this approach will…

  8. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1976-03-01

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations

  9. Rhythmic neural activity indicates the contribution of attention and memory to the processing of occluded movements in 10-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Cathleen; Kopp, Franziska; Springer, Anne; Stadler, Waltraud; Lindenberger, Ulman; Werkle-Bergner, Markus

    2015-11-01

    Infants possess the remarkable capacity to perceive occluded movements as ongoing and coherent. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that enable internal representation of conspecifics' and inanimate objects' movements during visual occlusion. In this study, 10-month-old infants watched briefly occluded human and object movements. Prior to occlusion, continuous and distorted versions of the movement were shown. EEG recordings were used to assess neural activity assumed to relate to processes of attention (occipital alpha), memory (frontal theta), and sensorimotor simulation (central alpha) before, during, and after occlusion. Oscillatory activity was analyzed using an individualized data approach taking idiosyncrasies into account. Results for occipital alpha were consistent with infants' preference for attending to social stimuli. Furthermore, frontal theta activity was more pronounced when tracking distorted as opposed to continuous movement, and when maintaining object as opposed to human movement. Central alpha did not discriminate between experimental conditions. In sum, we conclude that observing occluded movements recruits processes of attention and memory which are modulated by stimulus and movement properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the simultaneous effects of processing parameters on the iron and zinc solubility of infant sorghum porridge by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayodé, A P Polycarpe; Nout, Martinus J R; Bakker, Evert J; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2006-06-14

    The purpose of this study was to improve the micronutrient quality of indigenous African infant flour using traditional techniques available in the region. Response surface methodology was used to study the effect of duration of soaking, germination, and fermentation on phytate and phenolic compounds (PC), pH, viscosity, and the in vitro solubility (IVS) of iron and zinc in infant sorghum flour. The phytate and the PC concentrations of the flour were significantly modified as a result of the duration of germination and fermentation and their mutual interaction. These modifications were accompanied by a significant increase in % IVS Zn after 24 h of sprouting. Except for the interaction of soaking and fermentation, none of the processing parameters exerted a significant effect on the % IVS Fe. The viscosity of the porridge prepared with the flour decreased significantly with the duration of germination, making it possible to produce a porridge with high energy and nutrient density. The use of germination in combination with fermentation is recommended in the processing of cereals for infant feeding in developing countries.

  11. Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J; Agostoni, Carlo; Axelsson, Irene; De Curtis, Mario; Goulet, Olivier; Hernell, Olle; Koletzko, Berthold; Lafeber, Harry N; Michaelsen, Kim F; Puntis, John W L; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; Weaver, Lawrence T

    2006-05-01

    Survival of small premature infants has markedly improved during the last few decades. These infants are discharged from hospital care with body weight below the usual birth weight of healthy term infants. Early nutrition support of preterm infants influences long-term health outcomes. Therefore, the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition has reviewed available evidence on feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge. Close monitoring of growth during hospital stay and after discharge is recommended to enable the provision of adequate nutrition support. Measurements of length and head circumference, in addition to weight, must be used to identify those preterm infants with poor growth that may need additional nutrition support. Infants with an appropriate weight for postconceptional age at discharge should be breast-fed when possible. When formula-fed, such infants should be fed regular infant formula with provision of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Infants discharged with a subnormal weight for postconceptional age are at increased risk of long-term growth failure, and the human milk they consume should be supplemented, for example, with a human milk fortifier to provide an adequate nutrient supply. If formula-fed, such infants should receive special postdischarge formula with high contents of protein, minerals and trace elements as well as an long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply, at least until a postconceptional age of 40 weeks, but possibly until about 52 weeks postconceptional age. Continued growth monitoring is required to adapt feeding choices to the needs of individual infants and to avoid underfeeding or overfeeding.

  12. infant feeding issues implications of formula feeding to reduce hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-03

    Aug 3, 2004 ... exclusive bottle-feeding is, in theory, negligible. However, .... †Independent sample t-tests; categorical variables were tested using the X2-test. TABLE I. RESULTS FOR FIT ... increase the risk of diarrhoeal events.9. Frequent ...

  13. Parents' and Teachers' Reflections on the Process of Daily Transitions in an Infant and Toddler Laboratory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Linda C.; Moran, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study considered values, beliefs, perspectives, and meanings of 7 parents and 3 teachers within the context of daily home-to-child care transitions in one infant-toddler center in an early childhood laboratory school. Sociocultural and attachment theories anchored the study and the developmental niche framework informed…

  14. Enterobacter sakazakii in infants: Novel phenomenon in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E. sakazakii has been implicated in necrotizing enterocolitis, bloodstream and central nervous system infections, with mortality rates of 40-80%. Two cases of E. sakazakii infections; one preterm very low birth weight neonate with meningitis and a two month infant with bacteraemia, are described for the first time in India. The first baby succumbed to the infection while the other responded to appropriate therapy. Powdered infant milk formulae have been implicated in causing neonatal infections and the first baby was on formula feed with classic signs of sepsis and meningitis. The second infant was on breast feed and probably developed nosocomial E. sakazakii bacteraemia.

  15. Contribution of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during the first year of life in a US prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Courtney C; Karagas, Margaret R; Punshon, Tracy; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen that can also affect the cardiac, respiratory, neurological and immune systems. Children have higher dietary arsenic exposure than adults owing to their more restricted diets and greater intake per unit body mass. We evaluated the potential contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure throughout the first year of life for 356 infants in the prospective New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using infant diets reported by telephone at 4, 8 and 12 months of age; measured household water arsenic concentrations; and literature data. Based on our central-tendency models, population-wide geometric mean (GM) estimated arsenic exposures in the NHBCS were relatively low, decreasing from 0.1 μg/kg/day at 4 months of age to 0.07 μg/kg/day at 12 months of age. At all three time points, exclusively formula-fed infants had GM arsenic exposures ~8 times higher than exclusively breastfed infants owing to arsenic in both tap water and formula powder. Estimated maximum exposures reached 9 μg/kg/day among exclusively formula-fed infants in households with high tap water arsenic (80 μg/l). Overall, modeled arsenic exposures via breast milk and formula were low throughout the first year of life, unless formula was prepared with arsenic-contaminated tap water.

  16. Trace formulae for arithmetical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.B.; Georgeot, B.; Giannoni, M.J.; Schmit, C.

    1992-09-01

    For quantum problems on the pseudo-sphere generated by arithmetic groups there exist special trace formulae, called trace formulae for Hecke operators, which permit the reconstruction of wave functions from the knowledge of periodic orbits. After a short discussion of this subject, the Hecke operators trace formulae are presented for the Dirichlet problem on the modular billiard, which is a prototype of arithmetical systems. The results of numerical computations for these semiclassical type relations are in good agreement with the directly computed eigenfunctions. (author) 23 refs.; 2 figs

  17. Review of atomic mass formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)

  18. Hospital outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants after introduction of donor milk to supplement mother's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verd, Sergio; Porta, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Ginovart, Gemma; Barbero, Ana Herranz; Ciurana, Anna; Plata, Isabel Iglesias

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an exclusive human milk diet to nourish extremely low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. This multicenter pre-post retrospective study included all inborn infants milk policy. The feeding protocol was unchanged in both periods. Collected data included maternal/infant demographics, infant clinical data, and enteral intake as mother's own milk, donor milk, and formula. Two hundred one infants were enrolled. Infant growth and other clinical outcomes were similar in both groups. Exposure to mother's own milk at discharge was not different. Median time in oxygen and duration of mechanical ventilation were significantly higher among formula-fed infants (63 versus 192 hours [p=0.046] and 24 versus 60 hours [p=0.016], respectively). Our results add evidence supporting the safety of donor milk. This study also found an association between exposure to formula in preterm infants and the requirement for respiratory support, a finding that warrants further investigation.

  19. Nuclear mass formulas and its application for astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Some nuclear mass formulae are reviewed and applied for the calculation of the rapid neutron-capture-process (r-process) nucleosynthesis. A new mass formula composed of the gross term, the even-odd term, and the shell term is also presented. The new mass formula is a revised version of the spherical basis mass formula published in 2001, that is, the even-odd term is treated more carefully, and a considerable improvement is brought about. The root-mean-square deviation of the new formula from experimental masses is 641 keV for Z ≥ 8 and N ≥ 8. Properties on systematic of the neutron-separation energy is compared with some mass formulas. The calculated abundances of the r-process from different mass formulae are compared with use of a simple reaction model, and the relation between the calculated abundances and the corresponding masses are discussed. Furthermore, fission barriers for the superheavy and neutron-rich nuclei are also applied for the endpoint of the r-process. (author)

  20. Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Luigi; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael

    2015-09-01

    We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov-Faddeev and Yang-Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1.

  1. Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantini, Luigi; Gier, Jan de; Michael Wheeler

    2015-01-01

    We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik–Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov–Faddeev and Yang–Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1. (paper)

  2. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-01-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node

  3. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  4. Benefits of human milk in preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mother’s own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding not only for term but also for preterm infants. Evidence documents short and long-term metabolic, immunologic and neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding when compared to formula. Moreover benefits of breastfeeding on psychological and relational aspects have to be considered. In order to meet the unique nutritional requirements of preterm infants and preserve the singular benefit of breastfeeding, human milk should be fortified to allow adequate growth and bone mineralization. Best fortification models are still object of research, in order to obtain a balance between the risk of undernutrition and the metabolic risks of a too rapid catch-up growth. When mother milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor milk (DM represents the second best alternative and although some nutritional elements are inactivated by the pasteurization process, it still has documented advantages compared to formula. The demonstrated benefits of human milk (HM highlight the importance of health care professional education in the support of breastfeeding.

  5. Article Commentary: The Influence of Early Infant-Feeding Practices on the Intestinal Microbiome and Body Composition in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifric O'Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite many years of widespread international recommendations to support exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, common hospital feeding and birthing practices do not coincide with the necessary steps to support exclusive breastfeeding. These common hospital practices can lead to the infant receiving formula in the first weeks of life despite mothers’ dedication to exclusively breastfeed. Consequently, these practices play a role in the alarmingly high rate of formula-feeding worldwide. Formula-feeding has been shown to alter the infant gut microbiome in favor of proinflammatory taxa and increase gut permeability and bacterial load. Furthermore, several studies have found that formula-feeding increases the risk of obesity in later childhood. While research has demonstrated differences in the intestinal microbiome and body growth between exclusively breast versus formula-fed infants, very little is known about the effects of introducing formula to breastfed infants either briefly or long term on these outcomes. Understanding the relationships between mixed-feeding practices and infant health outcomes is complicated by the lack of clarity in the definition of mixed-feeding as well as the terminology used to describe this type of feeding in the literature. In this commentary, we highlight the need for hospitals to embrace the 10 steps of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative developed by UNICEF and the WHO for successful breastfeeding. We present a paucity of studies that have focused on the effects of introducing formula to breastfed infants on the gut microbiome, gut health, growth, and body composition. We make the case for the need to conduct well-designed studies on mixed-feeding before we can truly answer the question: how does brief or long-term use of formula influence the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding?

  6. Breast milk provides better antioxidant power than does formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Selek, Sahbettin; Demirkol, Mehmet Resit

    2006-06-01

    We examined the effect of breast milk on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total peroxide (TP), and oxidative stress index (OSI), which are biomarkers of oxidative status. Fifty-four healthy term infants 3 to 6 mo of age were fed breast milk or a cow's milk modified formula. Plasma TAC, vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, and uric acid levels were measured as indexes of antioxidative markers. Plasma TP levels were measured as an oxidative stress marker. The OSI was calculated to assess oxidative status. No significant differences were observed between groups with respect to growth or anthropometric measurements. Plasma uric acid, total protein, and albumin concentrations were slightly higher in the breast-fed group than in the formula-fed group. There was a positive correlation between infant's age and serum albumin levels; between TAC and plasma uric acid, albumin, and total bilirubin; and between plasma iron and TP levels in both groups (r > 0.256, P antioxidant power than does formula.

  7. Effects of different arachidonic acid supplementation on psychomotor development in very preterm infants; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshweki, Ayham; Muñuzuri, Alejandro Pérez; Baña, Ana M; de Castro, Ma José; Andrade, Fernando; Aldamiz-Echevarría, Luís; de Pipaón, Miguel Sáenz; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2015-09-30

    Nutritional supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids is important in preterm infants neurodevelopment, but it is not known if the omega-6/omega-3 ratio affects this process. This study was designed to determine the effects of a balanced contribution of arachidonic acid in very preterm newborns fed with formula milk. This was a randomized trial, in which newborns psychomotor development was assessed using the Brunet Lézine scale at 24 months corrected age. A control group, for comparison of Brunet Lézine score, was made up of 25 newborns from the SEN1500 project, who were fed exclusively with breast milk. At 12 months, arachidonic acid values were significantly higher in group A than in group B (6.95 ± 1.55% vs. 4.55 ± 0.78%), as were polyunsaturated fatty acids (41.02 ± 2.09% vs. 38.08 ± 2.32%) achieved a higher average. Group A achieved a higher average Brunet Lézine score at 24 months than group B (99.9 ± 9 vs. 90.8 ± 11, p =0.028). The Brunet Lézine results from group A were compared with the control group results, with very similar scores registered between the two groups (99.9 ± 9 vs. 100.5 ± 7). There were no significant differences in growth or evoked potentials between the two formula groups. Very preterm infants who received formula with an ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 2/1 had higher blood levels of essential fatty acids during the first year of life, and better psychomotor development, compared with very preterm newborns who consumed formula with an ω-6/ω-3 of 1/1. Therefore, formula milk with an arachidonic acid quantity double that of docosahexaenoic acid should be considered for feeding very preterm infants. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02503020.

  8. Hyperglycemia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007228.htm Hyperglycemia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term ...

  9. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...

  10. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  11. Infant botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your infant has symptoms of botulism. Prevention In theory, the disease might be avoided by preventing exposure ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Reaction-rate formula in out of equilibrium quantum field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Niegawa, A.; Okano, K.; Ozaki, H.

    1999-01-01

    A complete derivation, from first principles, of the reaction-rate formula for a generic reaction taking place in an out of equilibrium quantum-field system is given. It is shown that the formula involves no finite-volume correction. Each term of the reaction-rate formula represents a set of physical processes that contribute to the reaction under consideration.

  13. 27 CFR 20.113 - Proprietary solvents general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proprietary solvents... Formulas and Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.113 Proprietary solvents general-use formula. (a) A proprietary solvent is any article made with any other ingredients combined with the...

  14. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  15. Lutein and preterm infants with decreased concentrations of brain carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Kuchan, Matthew J; Sen, Sarbattama; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2014-11-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that may influence visual and cognitive development. The objective of this study was to provide the first data on distribution of carotenoids in the infant brain and compare concentrations in preterm and term infants. Voluntarily donated brain tissues from 30 infants who died during the first 1.5 years of life were obtained from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Brain and Tissue Bank. Tissues (hippocampus and prefrontal, frontal, auditory, and occipital cortices) were extracted using standard lipid extraction procedures and analyzed using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were the major carotenoids found in the infant brain tissues. Lutein was the predominant carotenoid accounting for 59% of total carotenoids. Preterm infants (n = 8) had significantly lower concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin in their brain compared with term infants (n = 22) despite similarity in postmenstrual age. Among formula-fed infants, preterm infants (n = 3) had lower concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin compared with term infants (n = 5). Brain lutein concentrations were not different between breast milk-fed (n = 3) and formula-fed (n = 5) term decedents. In contrast, term decedents with measurable brain cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid that is inherently low in formula, had higher brain lutein, suggesting that the type of feeding is an important determinant of brain lutein concentrations. These data reveal preferential accumulation and maintenance of lutein in the infant brain despite underrepresentation in the typical infant diet. Further investigation on the impact of lutein on neural development in preterm infants is warranted.

  16. The history of infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antônio Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    To retrace the history of infant nutrition with the objective of better understanding breastfeeding. Bibliographic searches were run on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and the Internet. Encyclopedias, scientific textbooks and books for the general public, in addition to literature, art and history, were also used. Texts on child care from several different periods were consulted, in addition to the history of medicine and recent scientific articles on infant nutrition. During the preindustrial period, customs varied little and the likelihood of survival was linked to breastfeeding or its substitution by a wetnurse's milk. Where this was not possible, infants were given animal milk, pre-chewed foods or paps that were poor in nutrients and contaminated, which caused high mortality rates. There was nothing that could successfully substitute breastfeeding and the survival of the species was dependent on breastfeeding. Once the industrial revolution had started, women who had been accustomed to breastfeeding went to work in factories, stimulating the search for alternative infant nutrition. Consumption of animal milk and formulae (diluted, flour-based, powdered milk) and premature introduction of complementary foods compromised children's health. The feminist movement and the contraceptive pill caused a fall in birth rates. Manufacturers in search of profits developed modified formulae and invested in advertising. Society reacted with breastfeeding support movements. Nowadays, the advantages of breastmilk are recognized and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months, to be supplemented with other foods from this age on and continued until at least 2 years of age. Infant nutrition, whether natural or artificial, has always been determined and conditioned by the social value attributed to breastfeeding.

  17. Measurement of [Formula: see text] polarisation in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jezabek, M; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.

  18. Determination of essential elements in formulas commercialized at the Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Vinicius Dias; Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper intends to determine the concentration of elements, presents in the infant formulas, by using the Neutron Activation Analysis for verification if the quantity is not exceeding the toxicity limit, and if the concentration of each element is correct as presented on the label of each packaging

  19. The Deadline Flurry Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoehr, F.

    2017-09-01

    When having to deliver work to a fixed deadline people often wait until the very last minute, in part, because they procrastinate. While procrastination has been studied extensively in the psychology literature, few direct measures of human behaviour leading up to a deadline exist. Here we use metadata from the ALMA proposal submission process over the last five years and find that collective human behaviour for submitting work before a deadline can be described spectacularly well by a simple "universal" law. We also analyse this behaviour as a function of several other factors, such as gender, age, proposal size, number of co-authors and the subsequent success of a submitted proposal.

  20. Effects of soy beverage and soy-based formula on growth, weight, and fecal moisture: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa de Lima Correia Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare body growth, weight, and fecal moisture in recently weaned rats fed exclusively on infant soy formula and soy-based beverage. METHODS: Three similar groups were formed (n = 10/group consisting of weanling Wistar rats, maintained in metabolic cages. One group was fed soy protein-based beverage, another with soy-based infant formula, and another with cow's milk infant formula (control group. Water and diet were offered ad libitum. Body weight and length were measured. Stool was collected for three consecutive days. RESULTS: Weight and length were lower (p = 0.001; p = 0.001 in the groups receiving soy protein-based beverage (73.16 ± 5.74 g; 23.94 ± 1.04 cm and soy-based formula (71.11 ± 5.84 g; 24.74 ± 0.60 cm in relation to the group receiving cow's milk formula (84.88 ± 9.75 g; 26.01 ± 0.91 cm. Fresh fecal weight was greater (p < 0.001 in the soy-based beverage (3.44 ± 0.48 g than in the soy-based formula (0.79 ± 0.20 g and cow's milk-based formula (0.42 ± 0.17 g. Fecal moisture was higher (p < 0.001 in the group receiving soy protein-based beverage (47.28 ± 9.02% and soy-based formula (37.21 ± 13.20% than in the group receiving cow's milk formula (22.71 ± 10.86%. CONCLUSION: The growth of rats fed soy protein-based beverage and soy-based formula was lower than those fed cow's milk-based formula. The soy protein-based beverage resulted in significant increase in fecal weight and moisture.