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Sample records for inelastic effects dominate

  1. Coherence effects in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Loennblad, L.; Pettersson, U.

    1988-09-01

    We present a framework for deep inelastic scattering, with bound state properties in accordance with a QCD force field acting like a vortex line in a colour superconducting vacuum, which implies some simple coherence effects. Within this scheme one may describe the results of present energies very well, but one obtains an appreciable depletion of gluon radiation in the HERA energy regime. (authors)

  2. Approximate analyses of inelastic effects in pipework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation shows figures concerned with analyses of inelastic effects in pipework as follows: comparison of experimental and calculated simplified analyses results for free end rotation and for circumferential strain; interrupted stress relaxation; regenerated relaxation caused by reversed yield; buckling of straight pipe under combined bending and torsion; results of fatigues test of pipe bend

  3. Quantum effects in deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-07-01

    In the Impulse Approximation (IA), which is used to interpret deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) measurements, it is assumed both that the target system can be treated as a gas of free atoms and that the struck atom recoils freely after the collision with the neutron. Departures from the IA are generally attributed to final state effects (FSE), which are due to the inaccuracy of the latter assumption. However it is shown that even when FSE are neglected, significant departures from the IA occur at low temperatures due to inaccuracies in the former assumption. These are referred to as initial state effects (ISE) and are due to the quantum nature of the initial state. Comparison with experimental data and exactly soluble models shows that ISE largely account for observed asymmetries and peak shifts in the neutron scattering function S(q,ω), compared with the IA prediction. It is shown that when FSE are neglected, ISE can also be neglected when either the momentum transfer or the temperature is high. Finally it is shown that FSE should be negligible at high momentum transfers in systems other than quantum fluids and that therefore in this regime the IA is reached in such systems. (author)

  4. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  5. Nonadiabatic effects in inelastic collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, Andrey K

    2009-01-01

    The standard adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approach to inelastic collisional processes is revised. It is shown that the widely used standard interpretation of this approach has fundamental limitations leading to physical artefacts or to uncertainties in numerical calculations due to neglecting the electron translation problem. It is demonstrated that the Born-Oppenheimer approach itself does not have such limitations. The particular full quantum solution of the electron translation problem within the Born-Oppenheimer approach by means of the reprojection procedure is discussed in the paper together with the practical applications.

  6. Pion inelastic scattering and the pion-nucleus effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This work examines pion inelastic scattering with the primary purpose of gaining a better understanding of the properties of the pion-nucleus interaction. The main conclusion of the work is that an effective interaction which incorporates the most obvious theoretical corrections to the impulse approximation does a good job of explaining pion elastic and inelastic scattering from zero to 200 MeV without significant adjustments to the strength parameters of the force. Watson's multiple scattering theory is used to develop a theoretical interaction starting from the free pion-nucleon interaction. Elastic scattering was used to calibrate the isoscalar central interaction. It was found that the impulse approximation did poorly at low energy, while the multiple scattering corrections gave good agreement with all of the data after a few minor adjustments in the force. The distorted wave approximation for the inelastic transition matrix elements are evaluated for both natural and unnatural parity excitations. The isoscalar natural parity transitions are used to test the reaction theory, and it is found that the effective interaction calibrated by elastic scattering produces good agreement with the inelastic data. Calculations are also shown for other inelastic and charge exchange reactions. It appears that the isovector central interaction is reasonable, but the importance of medium corrections cannot be determined. The unnatural parity transitions are also reasonably described by the theoretical estimate of the spin-orbit interaction, but not enough systematic data exists to reach a firm conclusion

  7. Target mass effects in polarized deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccione, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a computation of nucleon mass corrections to nucleon structure functions for polarized deep-inelastic scattering. We perform a fit to existing data including mass corrections at first order in m 2 /Q 2 and we study the effect of these corrections on physically interesting quantities. We conclude that mass corrections are generally small, and compatible with current estimates of higher twist uncertainties, when available. (orig.)

  8. Cardiorespiratory effects of inelastic chest wall restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan D; Beck, Kenneth C; Joyner, Michael J; Brice, A Glenn; Johnson, Bruce D

    2002-06-01

    We examined the effects of chest wall restriction (CWR) on cardiorespiratory function at rest and during exercise in healthy subjects in an attempt to approximate the cardiorespiratory interactions observed in clinical conditions that result in restrictive lung and/or chest wall changes and a reduced intrathoracic space. Canvas straps were applied around the thorax and abdomen so that vital capacity was reduced by >35%. Data were acquired at rest and during cycle ergometry at 25 and 45% of peak workloads. CWR elicited significant increases in the flow-resistive work performed on the lung (160%) and the gastric pressure-time integral (>400%) at the higher workload, but it resulted in a decrease in the elastic work performed on the lung (56%) compared with control conditions. With CWR, heart rate increased and stroke volume (SV) fell, resulting in >10% fall in cardiac output at rest and during exercise at matched workloads (P < 0.05). Blood pressure and catecholamines were significantly elevated during CWR exercise conditions (P < 0.05). We conclude that CWR significantly impairs SV during exercise and that a compensatory increase in heart rate does not prevent a significant reduction in cardiac output. O(2) consumption appears to be maintained via increased extraction and a redistribution of blood flow via sympathetic activation.

  9. QCD effects to Bjorken unpolarized sum rule for νN deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S I; Kataev, A L

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of the first measurement of Bjorken unpolarized sum rule for F 1 structure function of νN deep-inelastic scattering at neutrino factories is commented. The brief summary of various theoretical contributions to this sum rule is given. Using the next-to-leading set of parton distributions functions, we simulate the expected Q 2 -behaviour and emphasize that its measurement can allow us to determine the value of the QCD strong coupling constant α s with reasonable theoretical uncertainty, dominated by the ambiguity in the existing estimates of the twist-4 non-perturbative 1/Q 2 -effect

  10. Full inelastic cross section, effective stopping and ranges of fast multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, R.A.; Arslanbekov, T.U.; Matveev, B.I.; Rakhmatov, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Inelastic processes taking place in collision of fast multiply charged ions with atoms are considered on the base of mechanism of sudden momentum transfer. The simple estimations are proposed of full inelastic cross sections, effective stopping and ion ranges in gaseous medium. (author). 10 refs

  11. Higher-twist effects in QCD, deep inelastic scattering, and the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Inclusion of specific effects associated with constituent binding in hadronic wave functions is shown to lead to important non-scaling, non-factorizing 1/Q 2 contributions to cross sections for semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, the Drell-Yan process, and other hard scattering reactions. These 1/Q 2 higher-twist terms are predicted to be dominant in well defined kinematic regions such as large x and/or large z. The provide angular distributions typical of longitudinally polarized virtual photons and W's, including sin 2 theta terms in meson induced Drell-Yan processes and in e + e - → πX, as well as unusual (1-γ) terms in deep-inelastic scattering. Calculations are also presented of the quark structure functions of the pion qsub(π)(x,Q 2 ) and for the quark to pion fragmentation function Dsub(π)(z,Q 2 ). Predictions are made for the azimuthal angle dependence of the cross sections for πN → μ anti μX and IN → l'πX. (orig.)

  12. Transverse spin effects in polarized semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappalardo, Luciano Libero

    2008-10-15

    The theoretical framework for the inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is provided in Chapters 2 and 3, respectively. While a phenomenological and historical perspective is adopted in Chapter 2 for the description of the inclusive processes, a detailed treatment of the formalism concerning the physics of the transverse degrees of freedom of the nucleon is presented in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the main components of the HERMES experimental apparatus are presented. The extraction of the Collins and Sivers moments is discussed in Chapter 5 after a brief overview of the main steps of the data analysis. A selection of systematic studies is also reported at the end of the chapter. Chapter 6 is completely devoted to the estimate of the acceptance and smearing effects on the extracted azimuthal moments. A crucial role in the studies presented is played by a newly developed Monte Carlo generator which simulates azimuthal asymmetries arising from intrinsic quark momenta. A novel approach for the estimate of the acceptance effects is presented at the end of the chapter. The extracted Collins and Sivers moments, corrected for the acceptance effects, are shown in Chapter 7. The discussion and the interpretation of the results, together with a preliminary extraction of the Sivers polarization, are also treated in Chapter 7. Final conclusions and a brief summary are reported in Chapter 8. (orig.)

  13. Transverse spin effects in polarized semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappalardo, Luciano Libero

    2008-03-01

    The theoretical framework for the inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is provided in Chapters 2 and 3, respectively. While a phenomenological and historical perspective is adopted in Chapter 2 for the description of the inclusive processes, a detailed treatment of the formalism concerning the physics of the transverse degrees of freedom of the nucleon is presented in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the main components of the HERMES experimental apparatus are presented. The extraction of the Collins and Sivers moments is discussed in Chapter 5 after a brief overview of the main steps of the data analysis. A selection of systematic studies is also reported at the end of the chapter. Chapter 6 is completely devoted to the estimate of the acceptance and smearing effects on the extracted azimuthal moments. A crucial role in the studies presented is played by a newly developed Monte Carlo generator which simulates azimuthal asymmetries arising from intrinsic quark momenta. A novel approach for the estimate of the acceptance effects is presented at the end of the chapter. The extracted Collins and Sivers moments, corrected for the acceptance effects, are shown in Chapter 7. The discussion and the interpretation of the results, together with a preliminary extraction of the Sivers polarization, are also treated in Chapter 7. Final conclusions and a brief summary are reported in Chapter 8. (orig.)

  14. Study on inelastic analysis method for structural design (1). Estimation method of loading history effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Kasahara, Naoto

    2003-05-01

    The advanced loop-type reactor system, one of the promising concepts in the Feasibility study of the FBR Cycle, adopts many innovative ideas to meet the challenging requirements for safety and economy. As a results, it seems that the structures of the reactor system would be subjected to severer loads than the predecessors. One of the countermeasures to them is the design by inelastic analysis. In the past, many studies showed that structural design by inelastic analysis is much more reasonable than one by conservative elastic analysis. However, inelastic analysis has hardly been adopted in nuclear design so far. One of the reasons is that inelastic analysis has loading history effect, that is, the analysis result would differ depending on the order of loads. It seems to be difficult to find the general solution for the loading history effect. Consequently, inelastic analysis output from the four deferent thermal load histories which consists of the thermal load cycle including the severest cold shock ('C') and the one including the severest hot shock ('H') were compared with each other. From this comparison, it was revealed that the thermal load history with evenly distributed 'H's among 'C's tend to give the most conservative damage estimation derived from inelastic analysis output. Therefore, such thermal load history pattern is proposed for the structural design by inelastic analysis. (author)

  15. Effects due to spectator interaction in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The simplest diagrams describing interaction with the spectator in the e - π→e - + hadrons deep inelastic process are considered. The contribution of the final state interaction diagram to the structure function considerable in the Feynman gauge is suppressed under the temporal gauge choice in accordance with the results of the naive parton model. The expressin for the cross section of the process when large quark momentum is transferred to the spectator is derived

  16. Effect of gravity loading on inelastic seismic response of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Rajib; Reddy, G. Rami; Roy, Raghupati; Dutta, Sekhar Chandra

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gravity loading is not considered in inelastic seismic response to avoid complexity and to reduce the number of influencing parameters. However, the possibility of considerable effect of this factor is indicated in many studies on inelastic seismic behaviour of structures. Hence, it is necessary to study the nature and extent of this effect on inelastic seismic behaviour of structures. The present paper attempts to fulfill this objective by studying the variation of energy dissipation due to presence of various level of axial load. The study is further extended to see the effect of axial force due to gravity loading on the ductility demand of hysteretic energy demand arising in structural elements of a simple one storey structures. The study shows that the presence of axial force may increase the energy dissipation capacity of structure leading to a reduction in ductility demand. (author)

  17. Search for parity-nonconservation effects in deep-inelastic μN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnin, Yu.B.; Dunaitsev, A.F.; Dzelyadin, R.I.; Zallo, A.

    1976-01-01

    The difference in the cross sections for deep inelastic scattering of muons with average momenta 21 GeV/c with right and left helicity at large angles, i.e., with large momentum transfer, has been measured. No statistically-significant dependence of cross sections on the longitudinal polarization of muons has been found, i.e., no parity-nonconservation effects in deep inelastic μN interaction have been observed. The limitations have been obtained for the constant of vector-axial interaction

  18. Coherence effects and average multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at small χ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The average hadron multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at small χ is calculated in this paper. Its relationship with the average multiplicity in e + e - annihilation is established. As shown the results do not depend on a choice of the gauge vector. The important role of coherence effects in both space-like and time-like jet evolution is clarified. (orig.)

  19. Time reversal odd effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this thesis the semi-iclusive deep inelastic scattering l+h→l'+h+X is studied in the framework of the parton model. Especially sum rules are checked which contain transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. Furthermore the influence of T-odd effects on the subleading order of a twist expansion are investigated. (HSI)

  20. Non-eikonal effects in high-energy scattering IV. Inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, S.A.; Kok, L.P.; Rinat, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Amplitudes of inelastically scattered high-energy projections were calculated. In the scattering on 12 C(Tsub(P)=1 GeV) sizeable non-eikonal corrections in diffraction extrema even for relatively small q 2 are demonstrated. At least part of the anomaly in the 3 - distribution may be due to these non-eikonal effects. (B.G.)

  1. Inelastic effects in the Sidewise dispersion relations for the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhecke, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    We present a model for the inelastic effects of the πN S-matrix in the Hilbert problem associated with the calculation of the πNN vertex and the I=1/2, J=1/2 electroproduction amplitudes. The model is applied to the calculation of the isoscalar anomalous magnetic moment of the nucleon

  2. Revisit the spin-FET: Multiple reflection, inelastic scattering, and lateral size effects

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Luting; Li, Xin-Qi; Sun, Qing-feng

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the spin-injected field effect transistor (spin-FET) by simulating a lattice model based on recursive lattice Green's function approach. In the one-dimensional case and coherent regime, the simulated results reveal noticeable differences from the celebrated Datta-Das model, which motivate thus an improved treatment and lead to analytic and generalized result. The simulation also allows us to address inelastic scattering (using B\\"uttiker's fictitious reservoir approach) and lateral...

  3. A kinetic model of droplet heating and evaporation: Effects of inelastic collisions and a non-unity evaporation coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.; Xie, Jianfei; Shishkova, Irina N.; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Heikal, Morgan Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The previously developed kinetic model for droplet heating and evaporation into a high pressure air is generalised to take into account the combined effects of inelastic collisions between molecules in the kinetic region, a non-unity evaporation

  4. Theory of inelastic effects in resonant atom-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The progress of theoretical and experimental developments in atom-surface scattering is briefly reviewed. The formal theory of atom-surface resonant scattering is reviewed and expanded, with both S and T matrix approaches being explained. The two-potential formalism is shown to be useful for dealing with the problem in question. A detailed theory based on the S-matrix and the two-potential formalism is presented. This theory takes account of interactions between the incident atoms and the surface phonons, with resonant effects being displayed explicitly. The Debye-Waller attenuation is also studied. The case in which the atom-surface potential is divided into an attractive part V/sub a/ and a repulsive part V/sub r/ is considered at length. Several techniques are presented for handling the scattering due to V/sub r/, for the case in which V/sub r/ is taken to be the hard corrugated surface potential. The theory is used to calculate the scattered intensities for the system 4 He/LiF(001). A detailed comparison with experiment is made, with polar scans, azimuthal scans, and time-of-flight measurements being considered. The theory is seen to explain the location and signature of resonant features, and to provide reasonable overall agreement with the experimental results

  5. The socialization of dominance: peer group contextual effects on homophobic and dominance attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Espelage, Dorothy L; Green, Harold D

    2007-06-01

    Using the framework of social dominance theory, the current investigation tested for the contextual effects of adolescent peer groups on individuals' homophobic and social dominance attitudes. Results from multilevel models indicated that significant differences existed across peer groups on homophobic attitudes. In addition, these differences were accounted for on the basis of the hierarchy-enhancing or -attenuating climate of the group. A group socialization effect on individuals' social dominance attitudes over time was also observed. Furthermore, the social climate of the peer group moderated the stability of individuals' social dominance attitudes. Findings support the need to examine more proximal and informal group affiliations and earlier developmental periods in efforts to build more comprehensive theoretical models explaining when and how prejudiced and dominance attitudes are formed and the way in which they are perpetuated. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Simulation of creep effects in framework of a geometrically nonlinear endochronic theory of inelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabavnikova, T. A.; Kadashevich, Yu. I.; Pomytkin, S. P.

    2018-05-01

    A geometric non-linear endochronic theory of inelasticity in tensor parametric form is considered. In the framework of this theory, the creep strains are modelled. The effect of various schemes of applying stresses and changing of material properties on the development of creep strains is studied. The constitutive equations of the model are represented by non-linear systems of ordinary differential equations which are solved in MATLAB environment by implicit difference method. Presented results demonstrate a good qualitative agreement of theoretical data and experimental observations including the description of the tertiary creep and pre-fracture of materials.

  7. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  8. Isotopic effects in elastic and inelastic 12,13C + 16,18O scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Rudchik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available New angular-distribution data of 13С + 18О elastic and inelastic scattering at the energy Elab(18O = 105 MeV were obtained for the transitions to the ground and excited states 3.088 MeV(1/2+, 3.555 MeV (1/2-, 3.854 MeV (5/2+ of 13С and 1.982 MeV (2+, 3.555 MeV (4+, 3.921 MeV (2+, 4.456 MeV (1-, 5.098 MeV (3-, 5.260 MeV (2+ of 18O. These and the 13С + 18О elastic scattering data taken from the literature at the energies Elab(18O = 15, 20, 24, 31 MeV and Elab(13С = 24 MeV were analysed within the optical model and coupled-reaction-channels methods. Sets of 13С + 18О optical potential parameters and their energy dependence were obtained. Contributions of potential scattering and transfer reactions to the elastic and inelastic channels of 13С + 18О scattering were studied. Isotopic differences (effects in 12, 13С + 16, 18О optical potential parameters were investigated.

  9. Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.

    1996-07-01

    This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the 'leading twist' are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.)

  10. Sibling rivalry: training effects, emergence of dominance and incomplete control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Brunner, Edgar; East, Marion L

    2012-09-22

    Within-brood or -litter dominance provides fitness-related benefits if dominant siblings selfishly skew access to food provided by parents in their favour. Models of facultative siblicide assume that dominants exert complete control over their subordinate sibling's access to food and that control is maintained, irrespective of the subordinate's hunger level. By contrast, a recent functional hypothesis suggests that subordinates should contest access to food when the cost of not doing so is high. Here, we show that within spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) twin litters, dominants most effectively skew access to maternal milk in their favour when their aggression prompts a highly submissive response. When hungry, subordinates were less submissive in response to aggression, thereby decreasing lost suckling time and increasing suckling time lost by dominants. In a species where adult females socially dominate adult males, juvenile females were more often dominant than males in mixed-sex litters, and subordinate sisters used more effective counter-tactics against dominant brothers than subordinate brothers against dominant sisters. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence in a mammal that dominant offspring in twin litters do not exert complete control over their sibling's access to resources (milk), and that sibling dominance relationships are influenced by sibling sex and training effects.

  11. Effective inelastic scattering cross-sections for background analysis in HAXPES of deeply buried layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risterucci, P., E-mail: paul.risterucci@gmail.com [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Zborowski, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Bertrand, D.; Torres, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rueff, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Ceolin, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Grenet, G. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • An effective approach for quantitative background analysis in HAXPES spectra of buried layer underneath complex overlayer structures is proposed. • The approach relies on using a weighted sum of inelastic scattering cross section of the pure layers. • The method is validated by the study of an advanced power transistor stack after successive annealing steps. • The depth distribution of crucial elements (Ti, Ga) is determined reliably at depths up to nearly 50 nm. - Abstract: Inelastic background analysis of HAXPES spectra was recently introduced as a powerful method to get access to the elemental distribution in deeply buried layers or interfaces, at depth up to 60 nm below the surface. However the accuracy of the analysis highly relies on suitable scattering cross-sections able to describe effectively the transport of photoelectrons through overlayer structures consisting of individual layers with potentially very different scattering properties. Here, we show that within Tougaard’s practical framework as implemented in the Quases-Analyze software, the photoelectron transport through thick (25–40 nm) multi-layer structures with widely different cross-sections can be reliably described with an effective cross-section in the form of a weighted sum of the individual cross-section of each layer. The high-resolution core-level analysis partly provides a guide for determining the nature of the individual cross-sections to be used. We illustrate this novel approach with the practical case of a top Al/Ti bilayer structure in an AlGaN/GaN power transistor device stack before and after sucessive annealing treatments. The analysis provides reliable insights on the Ti and Ga depth distributions up to nearly 50 nm below the surface.

  12. Deep inelastic scattering near the endpoint in soft-collinear effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2007-01-01

    We apply the soft-collinear effective theory to deep inelastic scattering near the endpoint region. The forward scattering amplitude and the structure functions are shown to factorize as a convolution of the Wilson coefficients, the jet functions, and the parton distribution functions. The behavior of the parton distribution functions near the endpoint region is considered. It turns out that it evolves with the Altarelli-Parisi kernel even in the endpoint region, and the parton distribution function can be factorized further into a collinear part and the soft Wilson line. The factorized form for the structure functions is obtained by the two-step matching, and the radiative corrections or the evolution for each factorized part can be computed in perturbation theory. We present the radiative corrections of each factorized part to leading order in α s , including the zero-bin subtraction for the collinear part

  13. Transverse spin effects in hadron-pair production from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Konigsmann, K.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J.Ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Wang, L.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-06-18

    First measurements of azimuthal asymmetries in hadron-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised ^6LiD (deuteron) and NH_3 (proton) targets are presented. The data were taken in the years 2002-2004 and 2007 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a muon beam of 160 GeV/c at the CERN SPS. The asymmetries provide access to the transversity distribution functions, without involving the Collins effect as in single hadron production. The sizeable asymmetries measured on the NH_ target indicate non-vanishing u-quark transversity and two-hadron interference fragmentation functions. The small asymmetries measured on the ^6LiD target can be interpreted as indication for a cancellation of u- and d-quark transversities.

  14. Search for contact interactions and graviton effects in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheins, J.J.

    2001-09-01

    Neutral current events in deep inelastic scattering at HERA taken with the H1 detector are examined with respect to standard model expectations. The measured inclusive cross section dσ/dQ 2 for Q 2 >200 GeV 2 in reactions e ± p → e ± X is analysed in terms of contact interactions or graviton effects in combination with large extra dimensions. The total amount of analysed data corresponds to an integrated luminosity of L int =115 pb -1 . The comparison of all data sets to their corresponding standard model expectation shows no evidence for new phenomena. Therefore exclusion limits are derived for the mentioned physical scenarios beyond the standard model. The combination of all data sets leads to maximum sensitivity and significantly improved limits compared to earlier results of H1. (orig.) [de

  15. Shadowing effect in inelastic electron scattering on 12C and 27Al nuclei at small four momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, S.; Heimlich, F.H.; Huber, G.; Roessle, E.; Koebberling, M.; Moritz, J.; Schmidt, K.H.; Wegener, D.; Zeller, D.; Karlsruhe Univ.; Bleckwenn, J.

    1977-08-01

    The cross section for inelastic electron scattering on 12 C and 27 Al nuclei has been measured for energy transfers of the virtual photon 2 . The influence of different sources of the radiative corrections is studied in detail. Shadowing effects, which increase with decreasing values of the scalling variable x, are observed for both nuclei. (orig.) [de

  16. Quasiparticle-phonon coupling in inelastic proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissbach, B.

    1980-01-01

    Multistep-processes in inelastic proton scattering from 89 Y are analyzed by using CCBA and DWBA on a quasiparticle phonon nuclear structure model. Indirect excitations caused by quasiparticle phonon coupling effects are found to be very important for the transition strengths and the shape of angular distributions. Core excitations are dominant for the higher order steps of the reaction. (author)

  17. Genomic Model with Correlation Between Additive and Dominance Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Vitezica, Zulma Gladis; Legarra, Andres

    2018-05-09

    Dominance genetic effects are rarely included in pedigree-based genetic evaluation. With the availability of single nucleotide polymorphism markers and the development of genomic evaluation, estimates of dominance genetic effects have become feasible using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP). Usually, studies involving additive and dominance genetic effects ignore possible relationships between them. It has been often suggested that the magnitude of functional additive and dominance effects at the quantitative trait loci are related, but there is no existing GBLUP-like approach accounting for such correlation. Wellmann and Bennewitz showed two ways of considering directional relationships between additive and dominance effects, which they estimated in a Bayesian framework. However, these relationships cannot be fitted at the level of individuals instead of loci in a mixed model and are not compatible with standard animal or plant breeding software. This comes from a fundamental ambiguity in assigning the reference allele at a given locus. We show that, if there has been selection, assigning the most frequent as the reference allele orients the correlation between functional additive and dominance effects. As a consequence, the most frequent reference allele is expected to have a positive value. We also demonstrate that selection creates negative covariance between genotypic additive and dominance genetic values. For parameter estimation, it is possible to use a combined additive and dominance relationship matrix computed from marker genotypes, and to use standard restricted maximum likelihood (REML) algorithms based on an equivalent model. Through a simulation study, we show that such correlations can easily be estimated by mixed model software and accuracy of prediction for genetic values is slightly improved if such correlations are used in GBLUP. However, a model assuming uncorrelated effects and fitting orthogonal breeding values and dominant

  18. Polarization transfer in inelastic scattering and pionic models of the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    At the 1982 Telluride Conference Magda Ericson spoke about the interest in a measurement of the sigma vector . q vector or spin-longitudinal nuclear response function. It inspired our collaboration to propose a LAMPF experiment, which was subsequently approved, and run in September 1983. In the intervening time the interest has increased dramatically in connection with the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) effect, and the exciting possibility that this ultra high-energy physics result may have to do with nuclear pions - and, hence, the isovector sigma vector . q vector nuclear response function. In this talk I will give a brief introduction to the EMC effect and its interpretation in terms of excess nuclear pions. This model establishes a connection between the vastly different scales of the EMC experiment (approx. 200 GeV deep-inelastic muon scattering) and the Los Alamos experiment (500 MeV polarized-proton quasifree scattering). Following this I will describe the Los Alamos experiment and its interpretation in terms of excess nuclear pions. Finally I will indulge in some speculation about quark effects in nuclei based on the EMC and Los Alamos experimental results. 29 refs

  19. Effective temperatures and scattering cross sections in water mixtures determined by Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawidowski, J.; Rodríguez Palomino, L.A.; Márquez Damián, J.I.; Blostein, J.J.; Cuello, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effective temperatures of atoms can be determined by the DINS technique. • This is the first time that such application of this experimental technique is made. • This technique is able to measure the known cross sections of the atoms. • No anomalous cross section was found, at variance with Dreissmann’s et al. claims. - Abstract: The present work shows a series of results of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on light and heavy water mixtures performed at the spectrometer VESUVIO (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK) employing an analysis method based on the information provided by individual detectors in forward and backward scattering positions. We investigated the effective temperatures of the different atoms composing the samples, a magnitude of considerable interest for Nuclear Engineering. The peak intensities and their relation with the bound-atom cross sections is analyzed, showing a good agreement with tabulated values which supports the use of this technique as non-destructive mass spectrometry. Previous results in the determination of scattering cross sections by this technique (known in the literature) that were at variance with the present findings are commented.

  20. Quantum inelastic electron-vibration scattering in molecular wires: Landauer-like versus Green's function approaches and temperature effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of inelastic electron transport in molecular systems in which both electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom are considered on the quantum level. The electronic transport properties of the corresponding molecular nanojunctions are obtained by means of a non-perturbative Landauer-like multi-channel inelastic scattering technique. The connections between this approach and other Green's function techniques that are useful in particular cases are studied in detail. The validity of the wide-band approximation, the effects of the lead self-energy and the dynamical polaron shift are also studied for a wide range of parameters. As a practical application of the method, we consider the effects of the temperature on the conductance properties of molecular breakjunctions in relation to recent experiments

  1. Effect of Standard No. 2800 Rules for Moment Resisting Frames on the Elastic and Inelastic Behavior of Dual Steel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Veladi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to most valid Design Codes including the Iranian Seismic Design Code (Standard No. 2800, moment resisting frames in dual systems must have the ability of resisting the 25% of the total lateral load of the dual system independently. This study is conducted to investigate the implementation of this rule for dual steel structures with two types of steel braced frame. Also, its effect on the strength of the structure and the distribution of lateral load between the frames and the bracing system is evaluated. In order to investigate the effect of that rule, structural models with 5, 10 and 15 floors are modeled. Nonlinear static analysis is employed and results are discussed. Following the Standard No. 2008 seems to increase the structure’s lateral resistance and decrease the number of elements entered into the inelastic behavior stage. In general, the structure has a more desirable inelastic behavior.

  2. A kinetic model of droplet heating and evaporation: Effects of inelastic collisions and a non-unity evaporation coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.

    2013-01-01

    The previously developed kinetic model for droplet heating and evaporation into a high pressure air is generalised to take into account the combined effects of inelastic collisions between molecules in the kinetic region, a non-unity evaporation coefficient and temperature gradient inside droplets. It is pointed out that for the parameters typical for Diesel engine-like conditions, the heat flux in the kinetic region is a linear function of the vapour temperature at the outer boundary of this region, but practically does not depend on vapour density at this boundary for all models, including and not including the effects of inelastic collisions, and including and not including the effects of a non-unity evaporation coefficient. For any given temperature at the outer boundary of the kinetic region the values of the heat flux are shown to decrease with increasing numbers of internal degrees of freedom of the molecules. The rate of this decrease is strong for small numbers of these degrees of freedom but negligible when the number of these degrees exceeds 20. This allows us to restrict the analysis to the first 20 arbitrarily chosen degrees of freedom of n-dodecane molecules when considering the effects of inelastic collisions. The mass flux at this boundary decreases almost linearly with increasing vapour density at the same location for all above-mentioned models. For any given vapour density at the outer boundary of the kinetic region the values of the mass flux are smaller for the model, taking into account the contribution of internal degrees of freedom, than for the model ignoring these degrees of freedom. It is shown that the effects of inelastic collisions lead to stronger increase in the predicted droplet evaporation time in Diesel engine-like conditions relative to the hydrodynamic model, compared with the similar increase predicted by the kinetic model considering only elastic collisions. The effects of a non-unity evaporation coefficient are shown to be

  3. Effective number of inelastically interacting nucleons in rare nucleus-nucleus production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkikh, V.L.; Lokhtin, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    A model of nucleus-nucleus interaction using one inelastic NN-interaction is suggested for the exclusive production processes with small cross-section. A-dependence nuclear coherent and incoherent production cross-section are predicted. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  4. Coupling effects of giant resonances on the elastic and inelastic scattering of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaroche, J.P.; Tornow, W.

    1983-01-01

    While the inelastic scattering of high energy hadrons is commonly used for the study of giant resonances in nuclei, it is just recently that one has thought to take into account these states in the analysis of proton scattering at low incident energies (E 0 and S 1 . (Auth.)

  5. Effects of charged Higgs bosons in the deep inelastic process ντ N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the value of the contribution of the W± exchange diagrams, provided MH± .... section rates of the charged current deep inelastic process ντ N in the frame of the ..... rates do not depend on the choice of the cuts on the momentum transfer square.

  6. Deep-inelastic electron-proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainton, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    Recent measurements by the H1 collaboration at HERA of the cross section for deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering in which the proton interacts with minimal energy transfer and limited 4-momentum transfer squared are presented in the form of the contribution F 2 D(3) to the proton structure function F 2 . By parametrising the cross section phenomenologically in terms of a leading effective Regge pole exchange and comparing the result with a similar parametrisation of hadronic pp physics, the proton interaction is demonstrated to be dominantly of a diffractive nature. The quantitative interpretation of the parametrisation in terms of the properties of an effective leading Regge pole exchange, the pomeron (IP), shows that there is no evidence for a 'harder' BFKL-motivated IP in such deep-inelastic proton diffraction. The total contribution of proton diffraction to deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering is measured to be ∝10% and to be rather insensitive to Bjorken-x and Q 2 . A first measurement of the partonic structure of diffractive exchange is presented. It is shown to be readily interpreted in terms of the exchange of gluons, and to suggest that the bulk of diffractive momentum transfer is carried by a leading gluon. (orig.)

  7. Modelling Dominance Hierarchies Under Winner and Loser Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Klodeta; Broom, Mark; Kandler, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Animals that live in groups commonly form themselves into dominance hierarchies which are used to allocate important resources such as access to mating opportunities and food. In this paper, we develop a model of dominance hierarchy formation based upon the concept of winner and loser effects using a simulation-based model and consider the linearity of our hierarchy using existing and new statistical measures. Two models are analysed: when each individual in a group does not know the real ability of their opponents to win a fight and when they can estimate their opponents' ability every time they fight. This estimation may be accurate or fall within an error bound. For both models, we investigate if we can achieve hierarchy linearity, and if so, when it is established. We are particularly interested in the question of how many fights are necessary to establish a dominance hierarchy.

  8. Elastic and inelastic surface effects on ion penetration and the resulting sputtering and backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    The computer code ITMC (Ion Transport in Materials and Compounds) has been developed to study in detail the transport of charged particles in solid materials and surface related phenomena such as sputtered atoms and backscattered ions. The code is based on Monte Carlo methods to follow the path and the damage produced by the charged particles in three dimension as they slow down in target materials. Single-element targets as well as alloys with possible different surface and bulk compositions or with layered structures of different materials can be used. Various models developed to calculate the inelastic energy losses with target electrons can be used in the code. Most known interatomic potentials can also be used to calculate the elastic energy losses. The major advantages of the code are its ability and flexibility to use and compare various models of elastic and inelastic energy losses in any target with different compounds and different surface and bulk composition

  9. Inelastic processes and interference effects during the interaction of positronium with ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eseev, M. K., E-mail: m_eseev@mail.ru; Matveev, V. I., E-mail: matveev.victor@pomorsu.ru [Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The excitation, breakup, and reradiation during the interaction of a positronium atom with ultrashort electromagnetic pulses are considered. The probabilities of inelastic processes and reradiation spectra have been obtained. The interference between the amplitudes of the photon emission by the electron and positron is shown to contribute noticeably to the reradiation spectra. The developed approach is applicable for describing the interaction of positronium with ultrashort pulses of attosecond or shorter duration.

  10. Benefits of dominance over additive models for the estimation of average effects in the presence of dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duenk, Pascal; Calus, Mario P.L.; Wientjes, Yvonne C.J.; Bijma, Piter

    2017-01-01

    In quantitative genetics, the average effect at a single locus can be estimated by an additive (A) model, or an additive plus dominance (AD) model. In the presence of dominance, the AD-model is expected to be more accurate, because the A-model falsely assumes that residuals are independent and

  11. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS IN ABUSE OF DOMINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai MĂRGINEAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of a dominant position is a threat to the functioning of the free market. This is the reason why we have proposed to highlight the impact of this particular anti-competitive practice in the European Union area. The aim of this paper is to present, from a theoretical and practical approach, the implications and the effects of this type of behavior and also to highlight the main actors in this process. In order to achieve these goals, we will use the content analysis to compress the effects of the abuse of dominant position in two categories: positive and negative effects. The historical method to emphasize the historical origins of the concepts and institutions involved. The comparative method will be used to nominate specific features, concepts or institutions that we will analyze and also it will help us to analyze the evolution that have occurred over time in terms of their development and to highlight certain advantages or disadvantages in terms of choice of competition policy on the abuse of a dominant position. In this paper we will notice that both the companies and the market itself are facing with companies that use anti-competitive since 1900. These kind of practices are harmful both for competition and for consumers, so that should not be allowed to expand. In this context, the European Commission imposed a set of rules that all operators must comply in order to protect, maintain and stimulate competition in the Single Market and to promote fair competition.

  12. Fifty Shades Flipped: Effects of Reading Erotica Depicting a Sexually Dominant Woman Compared to a Sexually Dominant Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Emily Ann; Thai, Michael; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of reading submission- and dominance-themed erotica on attitudes toward women and rape, ideal partner preferences, and subjective sexual arousal. Heterosexual male (n = 241) and female (n = 240) participants read one of three erotic stories depicting male dominance, female dominance, or no dominance, or a fourth nonerotic control story. First, we found that after reading about a sexually dominant man, women reported increased benevolent sexism compared to men, and men reported increased rape myth acceptance compared to women. Second, men and women showed a similar level of preference for partner dominance after reading about a sexually dominant woman. This was in contrast to the typical pattern revealed in all other conditions, whereby women were more likely to favor dominant partners relative to men. Finally, we found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the story describing male dominance would be the most arousing. Rather, all three erotic stories were equally sexually arousing compared to the control condition, and men and women did not differ in the extent to which the erotic stories aroused them. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. Chemical and radiation induced late dominant lethal effects in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favor, J.; Crenshaw, J.W. Jr.; Soares, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Although theoretically expected, experimental data to date have not shown dominant lethal expression to occur throughout the developmental period. Specifically, late post-implantation effects have not been demonstrated. The authors routinely use an experimental technique in which parental females mated to mutagenically treated males are allowed to give birth and wean their litter, and their uterine horns are then inspected for uterine scars indicative of live and dead embryos. In a number of experiments in which males were mutagenically treated with either chemicals or X-irradiation, a discrepancy was observed between the number of live embryos as determined by the scar technique and the number of live observed at birth, suggesting the possibility of embryonic losses at a late stage in development. Initial analyses showed that mutagenic treatment increased the percentage of these late losses. These differences were statistically significant in 2 of 3 analyses. Factors affecting statistical significance and an understanding of dominant lethal mutations are discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Benefits of Dominance over Additive Models for the Estimation of Average Effects in the Presence of Dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Duenk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In quantitative genetics, the average effect at a single locus can be estimated by an additive (A model, or an additive plus dominance (AD model. In the presence of dominance, the AD-model is expected to be more accurate, because the A-model falsely assumes that residuals are independent and identically distributed. Our objective was to investigate the accuracy of an estimated average effect (α^ in the presence of dominance, using either a single locus A-model or AD-model. Estimation was based on a finite sample from a large population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, and the root mean squared error of α^ was calculated for several broad-sense heritabilities, sample sizes, and sizes of the dominance effect. Results show that with the A-model, both sampling deviations of genotype frequencies from HWE frequencies and sampling deviations of allele frequencies contributed to the error. With the AD-model, only sampling deviations of allele frequencies contributed to the error, provided that all three genotype classes were sampled. In the presence of dominance, the root mean squared error of α^ with the AD-model was always smaller than with the A-model, even when the heritability was less than one. Remarkably, in the absence of dominance, there was no disadvantage of fitting dominance. In conclusion, the AD-model yields more accurate estimates of average effects from a finite sample, because it is more robust against sampling deviations from HWE frequencies than the A-model. Genetic models that include dominance, therefore, yield higher accuracies of estimated average effects than purely additive models when dominance is present.

  15. A multislice theory of electron scattering in crystals including backscattering and inelastic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Jakob; Rusz, Ján

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the slice transition operator technique, a general multislice theory for electron scattering in crystals is developed. To achieve this generalization, we combine the approaches for inelastic scattering derived by Yoshioka [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 6 (1957)] and backscattering based on the formalism of Chen and Van Dyck [Ultramicroscopy 70, 29-44 (1997)]. A computational realization of the obtained equations is suggested. The proposed computational scheme is tested on elastic backscattering of electrons, where we consider single backscattering in analogy to the computational scheme proposed by Chen and Van Dyck. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relativistic beaming and orientation effects in core-dominated quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubachukwu, A.A.; Chukwude, A.E.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relativistic beaming effects in a well-defined sample of core- dominated quasars using the correlation between the relative prominence of the core with respect to the extended emission (defined as the ratio of the core- to the lobe- flux density measured in the rest frame of the source) and the projected linear size as an indicator of relativistic beaming and source orientation. Based on the orientation-dependent relativistic beaming and unification paradigm for high luminosity sources in which the Fanaroff-Riley class-ll radio galaxies form the unbeamed parent population of both the lobe- and core-dominated quasars which are expected to lie at successively smaller angles to the line of sight, we find that the flows in the cores of these core-dominated quasars are highly relativistic, with optimum bulk Lorentz factor, γ opt ∼6-16, and also highly anisotropic, with an average viewing angle, ∼ 9 deg. - 16 deg. Furthermore, the largest boosting occurs within a critical cone angle of ∼ 4 deg. - 10 deg. The results suggest that relativistic bulk flow appears to extend to kilo-parsec scales in these sources. (author)

  17. Social dominance orientation moderates the effectiveness of mindset messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; B Forsyth, Rachel; Burnette, Jeni L

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we examine whether differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) moderate the effectiveness of mindsets of intelligence messages. We suggest that SDO is a foundational ideological belief system, on which individuals vary, that maintains the desire to endorse fixed beliefs about the nature of human intelligence. Thus, attempts to change individuals' mindsets should be met with resistance from those who strongly endorse the social dominance ideology - individuals high on SDO. In contrast, individuals low on SDO are less likely to use mindsets of intelligence to justify an ideological belief system, and thus, mindset manipulations should be effective for them. We test these predictions across three experimental studies (N Study1  = 271, N Study2  = 207, N Study3  = 313). Across the studies, we find that individuals who are high, relative to low, on SDO have more fixed beliefs about the nature of intelligence and show smaller effects of manipulations of mindsets. However, when comparing to a control condition, there was no evidence that high-SDO participants resisted the growth message that contradicts their ideology more than the fixed one that supports it; additionally, low-SDO participants showed heightened responsiveness to a fixed message. We discuss implications for theoretical advances in our understanding of mindsets. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Effect of inelastic energy losses on development of atom-atom collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinyuk, V.V.; Remizovich, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of influence of inelastic energy losses (ionization braking) of particles on the development of atom-atom collision cascades in infinite medium was studied theoretically. Main attention was paid to study of angular and energy distributions of primary ions and cascade atoms in the presence of braking. Analytical calculations were made in the assumption that single scattering of particles occurs by solid balls law, while the value of electron braking ability of a medium is determined by the Lindhard formula. It is shown that account of braking (directly when solving the Boltzmann transport equation) changes in principle the previously obtained angular and energy spectra of ions and cascade atoms. Moreover, it is the braking that is the determining factor responsible for anisotropy of angular distributions of low-energy primary ions and cascade atoms [ru

  19. Spin-flip measurements in the proton inelastic scattering on 12C and giant resonance effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leo, R.; D'Erasmo, G.; Ferrero, F.; Pantaleo, A.; Pignanelli, M.

    1975-01-01

    Differential cross sections and spin-flip probabilities (SFP) for the inelastic scattering of protons, exciting the 2 + state at 4.43 MeV in 12 C, have been measured at several incident energies between 15.9 and 37.6 MeV. The changes in the shape of the SFP angular distributions are rather limited, while the absolute values show a pronounced increase, resonant like, in two energy regions centered at about 20 and 29 MeV. The second resonance reproduces very closely the energy dependence of the E2 giant quadrupole strength found in a previous experiment. The resonance at 20 MeV should correspond to a substructure of the E1 giant dipole resonance. (Auth.)

  20. EFFECTS OF FISHING ON THE SIZE AND DOMINANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... waters of the Western Cape show a trend towards increasing dominance with increased effort, whereas the warm-temperate regions show decreased dominance with increased fishing pressure. These findings have important consequences for fisheries management, because not only are several stocks badly overfished, ...

  1. Measurement of partonic nuclear effects in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering using MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Minerν A Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The MINERvA Collaboration reports a novel study of neutrino-nucleus charged-current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) using the same neutrino beam incident on targets of polystyrene, graphite, iron, and lead. Results are presented as ratios of C, Fe, and Pb to CH. The ratios of total DIS cross sections as a function of neutrino energy and flux-integrated differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x are presented in the neutrino-energy range of 5-50 GeV. Based on the predictions of charged-lepton scattering ratios, good agreement is found between the data and prediction at medium x and low neutrino energy. However, the ratios appear to be below predictions in the vicinity of the nuclear shadowing region, x <0.1 . This apparent deficit, reflected in the DIS cross-section ratio at high Eν, is consistent with previous MINERvA observations [B. Tice et al. (MINERvA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 231801 (2014).] and with the predicted onset of nuclear shadowing with the axial-vector current in neutrino scattering.

  2. Effects-Based Operations: The End of Dominant Maneuver?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheek, Gary

    2002-01-01

    ... without dominant ground maneuver. The paper concludes that such thinking misreads a historical warfare lethality trend in a potentially dangerous effort to vindicate the Air Force doctrine of strategic attack...

  3. Longitudinal and transverse polarizations in the deep inelastic reactions; Polarisations longitudinale et transverse dans les reactions inelastiques profondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressan, A.

    1996-07-01

    This course is an introduction to the dominant effects of longitudinal and transverse spin in deep inelastic reactions. Only the effects present to the `leading twist` are attacked. The mass and transverse impulsion of partons are neglected. We will attach to bring out the respective specificities of longitudinal and transverse polarizations. (N.C.).

  4. Study of mass asymmetry effect in the entrance channel for deep inelastic collisions between heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The reactions ( 52 Cr+ 56 Fe) and ( 16 O+ 92 Mo) were studied extensively to learn about the influence of the mass asymmetry of the entrance channel on Deep Inelastic Collisions (DIC). These two systems have very different entrance channel asymmetry but both of them lead to the same ensemble of nucleons. The incident energies were choosen to be 265 MeV for Cr and 187 MeV for O so that the maximum angular momentum is the same in both the cases. The experimental results of the quasi-symmetric system (Cr+Fe) show that a large number of fragments have the characteristic properties of fission fragments. However, comparison of these results with those of an asymmetric system (O+Mo), forming the same compound nucleus with higher excitation energy, leads to think that these events can not be accounted for fission. It has been shown that these events could be considered as DIC products. The distributions of different multidifferential observables were reproduced with the help of a diffusion model, and with the condition of introducing a notion of half life time of the composite system. The half-life, thus calculated, seems to vary as a function of mass asymmetry of the entrance channel: 20.10 -22 S for the system Cr+Fe, 2.10 -22 S for the system O+Mo and 10.10 -22 S for a third system 20 Ca+ 64 Ni which has an intermediate mass asymmetry. Further it seems that the evaporation residue cross section in symmetric systems is far less than what we can expect from classical calculations [fr

  5. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamical correlation effects in a weakly correlated material: Inelastic x-ray scattering and photoemission spectra of beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidu, Azimatu; Marini, Andrea; Gatti, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    Beryllium is a weakly correlated simple metal. Still we find that dynamical correlation effects, beyond the independent-particle picture, are necessary to successfully interpret the electronic spectra measured by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and photoemission spectroscopies (PES). By combining ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body Green's function theory in the G W approximation (G W A ), we calculate the dynamic structure factor, the quasiparticle (QP) properties and PES spectra of bulk Be. We show that band-structure effects (i.e., due to interaction with the crystal potential) and QP lifetimes (LT) are both needed in order to explain the origin of the measured double-peak features in the IXS spectra. A quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained only when LT are supplemented to the adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA) of TDDFT. Besides the valence band, PES spectra display a satellite, a signature of dynamical correlation due to the coupling of QPs and plasmons, which we are able to reproduce thanks to the combination of the G W A for the self-energy with the cumulant expansion of the Green's function.

  7. Leading particle in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading particle effect in deep inelastic scattering is considered. The change of the characteris cs shape of the leading particle inclusive spectrum with Q 2 is estimated to be rather significant at very high Q 2

  8. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigations of higher mode effects on seismic inelastic response of reinforced concrete shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanirenani, Iman

    This thesis presents two experimental programs together with companion numerical studies that were carried out on reinforced concrete shear walls: static tests and dynamic (shake table) tests. The first series of experiments were monotonic and cyclic quasi-static testing on ductile reinforced concrete shear wall specimens designed and detailed according to the seismic provisions of NBCC 2005 and CSA-A23.3-04 standard. The tests were carried out on full-scale and 1:2.37 reduced scale wall specimens to evaluate the seismic design provisions and similitude law and determine the appropriate scaling factor that could be applied for further studies such as dynamic tests. The second series of experiments were shake table tests conducted on two identical 1:2.33 scaled, 8-storey moderately ductile reinforced concrete shear wall specimens to investigate the effects of higher modes on the inelastic response of slender walls under high frequency ground motions expected in Eastern North America. The walls were designed and detailed according to the seismic provisions of NBCC 2005 and CSA-A23.3-04 standard. The objectives were to validate and understand the inelastic response and interaction of shear, flexure and axial loads in plastic hinge zones of the walls considering the higher mode effects and to investigate the formation of second hinge in upper part of the wall due to higher mode responses. Second mode response significantly affected the response of the walls. This caused inelastic flexural response to develop at the 6th level with approximately the same rotation ductility compared to that observed at the base. Dynamic amplification of the base shear forces was also observed in both walls. Numerical modeling of these two shake table tests was performed to evaluate the test results and validate current modeling approaches. Nonlinear time history analyses were carried out by the reinforced concrete fibre element (OpenSees program) and finite element (VecTor2 program

  10. Interatomic inelastic current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim; Solomon, Gemma C.; Hansen, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In order to identify the location of an inelastic event and to distinguish between situations that are before or after this event, we derive equations for the interatomic inelastic transmission as a perturbation series in the electron-phonon interaction. This series contains both even and odd...... to second order and the 1st order correction represents the lowest order term of this new family of terms. We apply this to three model systems and are able to distinguish between situations before and after the inelastic event as steps in the 2nd order transmission. We also see that when the transmission...

  11. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  12. Inelastic scattering of fast electrons by crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Josefsson, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    Generalized fundamental equations for electron diffraction in crystals, which include the effect of inelastic scattering described by a nonlocal interaction, are derived. An expression is obtained for the cross section for any specific type of inelastic scattering (e.g. inner-shell ionization, Rutherford backscattering). This result takes into account all other (background) inelastic scattering in the crystal leading to absorption from the dynamical Bragg-reflected beams, in practice mainly due to thermal diffuse scattering. There is a contribution to the cross section from all absorbed electrons, which form a diffuse background, as well as from the dynamical electrons. The approximations involved, assuming that the interactions leading to inelastic scattering can be described by a local potential are discussed, together with the corresponding expression for the cross section. It is demonstrated by means of an example for K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy that nonlocal effects can be significant. 47 refs., 4 figs

  13. High-Resolution Mapping of Yield Curve Shape and Evolution for Porous Rock: The Effect of Inelastic Compaction on Porous Bassanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, John D.; Faulkner, Daniel R.; Leclère, Henri; Wheeler, John

    2018-02-01

    Porous rock deformation has important implications for fluid flow in a range of crustal settings as compaction can increase fluid pressure and alter permeability. The onset of inelastic strain for porous materials is typically defined by a yield curve plotted in differential stress (Q) versus effective mean stress (P) space. Empirical studies have shown that these curves are broadly elliptical in shape. Here conventional triaxial experiments are first performed to document (a) the yield curve of porous bassanite (porosity ≈ 27-28%), a material formed from the dehydration of gypsum, and (b) the postyield behavior, assuming that P and Q track along the yield surface as inelastic deformation accumulates. The data reveal that after initial yield, the yield surface cannot be perfectly elliptical and must evolve significantly as inelastic strain is accumulated. To investigate this further, a novel stress-probing methodology is developed to map precisely the yield curve shape and subsequent evolution for a single sample. These measurements confirm that the high-pressure side of the curve is partly composed of a near-vertical limb. Yield curve evolution is shown to be dependent on the nature of the loading path. Bassanite compacted under differential stress develops a heterogeneous microstructure and has a yield curve with a peak that is almost double that of an equal porosity sample that has been compacted hydrostatically. The dramatic effect of different loading histories on the strength of porous bassanite highlights the importance of understanding the associated microstructural controls on the nature of inelastic deformation in porous rock.

  14. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  15. Inelastic neutron scattering from clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudel, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic excitations in clusters of paramagnetic ions have non-vanishing cross-sections for inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Exchange splittings can be determined, the temperature dependence of exchange can be studied, intra- and intercluster effects can be separated and magnetic form factors determined. INS provides a more direct access to the molecular properties than bulk techniques. Its application is restricted to complexes with no or few (< 10%) hydrogen atoms

  16. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskin, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The new ep-collider HERA gives us the possibility to study the diffractive dissociation of virtual photon in deep inelastic ep-collision. The process of photon dissociation in deep inelastic scattering is the most direct way to measure the value of triple-pomeron vertex G 3P . It was shown that the value of the correct bare vertex G 3P may more than 4 times exceeds its effective value measuring in the triple-reggeon region and reaches the value of about 40-50% of the elastic pp-pomeron vertex. On the contrary in deep inelastic processes the perpendicular momenta q t of the secondary particles are large enough. Thus in deep inelastic reactions one can measure the absolute value of G 3P vertex in the most direct way and compare its value and q t dependence with the leading log QCD predictions

  17. Nucleon-nucleon correlations and multiquark cluster effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simula, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1994-04-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off nuclei is investigated assuming that virtual boson absorption occurs on a hadronic cluster which can be either a two-nucleon correlated pair or a six-quark bag. The differences in the energy distribution of nucleons produced in backward and forward directions are analyzed both at x<1 and x>1.

  18. The effect of seismic motion characteristics on the inelastic response reduction of cylindrical shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Akiyama, H.

    1993-01-01

    Reactor vessels of FBR are cylindrical shell structures, whose critical failure mode during earthquakes is plastic buckling in shear or bending mode. In buckling prevention of the vessels, it is of primary importance to realistically evaluate the plastic response reduction effect in the pre-buckling stage. Though the authors have already proposed a empirical formula to estimate the response reduction effect, the formula depends only on the pre-buckling ductility factor in the evaluation for the purpose of easy design practice. In this study, the effect of seismic motion characteristics on the response reduction effect was investigated both experimentally and numerically, and a improved version of the empirical expression of the reduction factor was proposed. In this new method, the response reduction effect is evaluated by an initial acceleration amplification factor in addition to the ductility of structures. (author)

  19. Dynamic plasma screening effects on semiclassical inelastic electron endash ion collisions in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In dense plasmas, dynamic plasma screening effects are investigated on 1s→2p dipole transition probabilities for electron-impact excitation of hydrogenic ions. The electron endash ion interaction potential is considered by introduction of the plasma dielectric function. A semiclassical straight-line trajectory method is applied to the path of the projectile electron in order to visualize the semiclassical transition probability as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and plasma parameters. The transition probability including the dynamic plasma screening effect is always greater than that including the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is smaller than the electron thermal velocity, the dynamic polarization screening effect becomes the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, then the interaction potential is almost unshielded. The difference between the dynamic and static plasma screening effects is more significant for low-energy projectiles. It is also found that the static plasma screening formula obtained by the Debye endash Hueckel model overestimates the plasma screening effects on the atomic excitation processes in dense plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Band-to-band tunneling in a carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is dominated by phonon-assisted tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koswatta, Siyuranga O; Lundstrom, Mark S; Nikonov, Dmitri E

    2007-05-01

    Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) devices have recently gained a lot of interest due to their potential for reducing power dissipation in integrated circuits. We have performed extensive simulations for the BTBT operation of carbon nanotube metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CNT-MOSFETs) using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism for both ballistic and dissipative quantum transport. In comparison with recently reported experimental data (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 3518-3519), we have obtained strong evidence that BTBT in CNT-MOSFETs is dominated by optical phonon assisted inelastic transport, which can have important implications on the transistor characteristics. It is shown that, under large biasing conditions, two-phonon scattering may also become important.

  1. Effects-Based Operations: The End of Dominant Maneuver?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheek, Gary

    2002-01-01

    .... Many of the recent versions of effects-based operations argue that advances in stealth, precision engagement, and sensor technology have enabled strategic bombing to produce strategic decisions...

  2. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  3. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90{sup o} (x=0.99 A{sup -1}). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z{sub eff} of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  4. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 o (x=0.99 A -1 ). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z eff ) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z eff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  5. Final-state effects on superfluid 4He in the deep inelastic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.; Polls, A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of final-state effects (FSE) on the dynamic structure function of superfluid 4 He in the Gersch-Rodriguez formalism is presented. The main ingredients needed in the calculation are the momentum distribution and the semidiagonal two-body density matrix. The influence of these ground-state quantities on the FSE is analyzed. A variational form of ρ 2 is used, even though simpler forms turn out to give accurate results if properly chosen. Comparison to the experimental response at high momentum transfer is performed. The predicted response is quite sensitive to slight variations on the value of the condensate fraction, the best agreement with experiment being obtained with n 0 =0.082. Sum rules of the FSE broadening function are also derived and commented. Finally, it is shown that Gersch-Rodriguez theory produces results as accurate as those coming from other more recent FSE theories. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A. L. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90° ( x=0.99 Å -1). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number ( Zeff) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Zeff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon ( Z=6) and oxygen ( Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  7. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Wellman, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response of the package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structure accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity or lower weight. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. The use of inelastic analysis presents several problems to the package designer. When using inelastic analysis the entire nonlinear response of the material must be known, including the effects of temperature changes and strain rate. Another problem is that there currently is not an acceptance criteria for this type of analysis that is approved by regulatory agencies. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on failure stress, failure strain , or plastic energy density could be developed. For both elastic and inelastic analyses it is also important to include other sources of stress in the analyses, such as fabrication stresses, thermal stresses, stresses from bolt preloading, and contact stresses at material interfaces. Offsetting these added difficulties is the improved knowledge of the package behavior. This allows for incorporation of a more uniform margin of safety, which can result in weight savings and a higher level of confidence in the post-accident configuration of the package. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made for a simple ring structure and for a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail (rail cask) with lead gamma shielding to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques

  8. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Deep inelastic lepton-nucleon interaction experiments are renewed. Singlet and non-singlet structure functions are measured and the consistency of the different results is checked. A detailed analysis of the scaling violation is performed in terms of the quantum chromodynamics predictions [fr

  9. Modulating effects in learned helplessness of dyadic dominance-submission relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Berciano, Cristina; de Vicente, Francisco; Fontecha, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, learned helplessness was studied from an ethological perspective by examining individual differences in social dominance and its influence on the effects of helplessness. Ninety animals were used, 30 randomly selected and 60 selected because of their clear dominance or submission. Each condition (dominant, submissive, and random) was distributed in three subgroups corresponding to the triadic design. The test consisted of an escape/avoidance task. The results showed that the animals in the uncontrollable condition performed worse than those in the controllable and no treatment conditions. Social submission and dominance reduced vulnerability of the subjects against learned helplessness. Submission had a facilitating effect on subsequent learning, independently of whether pretreatment was controllability or uncontrollability. Learned mastery was observed in the submissive condition, because submission benefited the subjects in the controllable condition in comparison with the untreated subjects, and dominance impaired the subjects in the controllable condition. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Effects of a non-standard W± magnetic moment in W± production via deep inelastic e-P scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Rosado, A.

    1989-01-01

    We calculate the production of charged bosons in deep inelastic e - P scattering in the context of an electroweak model in which the vector boson self interactions may be different from those prescribed by the electroweak standard model. We present results which show the dependence of the cross section on the anomalous magnetic dipole moment κ of the W ± . We find for energies available at HERA that even small deviations from the standard model value of κ imply observable deviations in the W ± production rates. We also show that the contributions from heavy boson exchange diagrams are very important. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear structure in deep-inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concentrates on recent deep inelastic experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory and the nuclear structure effects evident in reactions between super heavy nuclei. Experiments indicate that these reactions evolve gradually from simple transfer processes which have been studied extensively for lighter nuclei such as 16 O, suggesting a theoretical approach connecting the one-step DWBA theory to the multistep statistical models of nuclear reactions. This transition between quasi-elastic and deep inelastic reactions is achieved by a simple random walk model. Some typical examples of nuclear structure effects are shown. 24 refs., 9 figs

  12. Deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present status of the quark-parton-gluon picture of deep inelastic scattering is reviewed. The general framework is mostly theoretical and covers investigations since 1970. Predictions of the parton model and of the asymptotically free field theories are compared with experimental data available. The valence quark approximation is concluded to be valid in most cases, but fails to account for the data on the total momentum transfer. On the basis of gluon corrections introduced to the parton model certain predictions concerning both the deep inelastic structure functions and form factors are made. The contributions of gluon exchanges and gluon bremsstrahlung are highlighted. Asymptotic freedom is concluded to be very attractive and provide qualitative explanation to some experimental observations (scaling violations, breaking of the Drell-Yan-West type relations). Lepton-nuclear scattering is pointed out to be helpful in probing the nature of nuclear forces and studying the space-time picture of the parton model

  13. Sputtering and inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, I.A.; Tsepelevic, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data and models of a new type of material sputtering with ions of relatively high energies due to inelastic (electron) processes are reviewed. This area of investigations began to develop intensively during the latest years. New experimental data of the authors on differential characteristics of ultradisperse gold and americium dioxide layers with fission fragments are given as well. Practical applications of the new sputtering type are considered as well as setup of possibl experiments at heavy multiply charged ion accelerators

  14. Transmission capacity and market power: the effect on a dominant generation firm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, David M.; Carey, Janis M.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the effect of transmission on a firm's market power by analyzing the optimal dispatch for a dominant firm in a short-run regional electricity generation market. Application of our research to Colorado shows that the dominant firm can strategically congest transmission into the region to receive a maximum price 54.9% of the time. When it does not get the maximum price, the dominant firm can receive an 11.6% average markup over the competitive price. We show how the threat of entry across an enhanced transmission grid can increase competition and limit market power in Colorado. (Author)

  15. Effect of different electron elastic-scattering cross sections on inelastic mean free paths obtained from elastic-backscattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonskiz, A.; Salvatz, F.; Powellz, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) of electrons with energies between 100 eV and 5,000 eV have been frequently obtained from measurements of elastic-backscattering probabilities for different specimen materials. A calculation of these probabilities is also required to determine IMFPs. We report calculations of elastic-backscattering probabilities for gold at energies of 100 eV and 500 eV with differential elastic-scattering cross sections obtained from the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential and the more reliable Dirac-Hartree-Fock potential. For two representative experimental configurations, the average deviation between IMFPs obtained with cross sections from the two potentials was 11.4 %. (author)

  16. The effect of ocular dominance on the performance of professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laby, D M; Kirschen, D G; Rosenbaum, A L; Mellman, M F

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a performance difference exists between baseball players with "same" (right-right) and "crossed" (right-left) hand-ocular dominance. A cohort study design was used. Four hundred and ten major and minor league members of the Los Angeles Dodgers professional baseball team. Measurement of ocular dominance. Batting average and earned run average (ERA). Same/crossed dominance (with P values in parentheses) are as follows: Batting averages: major league-0.271/0.251 (0.20); minor league-0.274/0.270 (0.57); ERA: major league-3.34/3.56 (0.66); minor league-4.00/4.20 (0.54). Hand-ocular dominance patterns do not have an effect on batting average or ERA.

  17. Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population. PMID:21864407

  18. Photon diffractive dissociation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuesthoff, M.

    1995-09-01

    The cross section of the Photon Diffractive Dissociation in Deep Inelastic Scattering is calculated in the frame work of perturbative QCD. In the triple Regge region the BFKL-approximation is used to evaluate the leading contributions of the corresponding Feynman diagrams with a subsequent resummation in terms of integral equations. These equations are partly solved leading to an effective two to four gluons transition vertex. This exhibits remarkable properties like the total symmetry under the interchange of gluons, the conformal invariance and a simple colour structure. The presence of four interacting gluons in the t-channel does not support the simple triple Pomeron picture with solely a local vertex. A dimensional conservation law is found for zero momentum transfer with the consequence that a direct coupling of the three BFKL-singularities is absent. Another consequence is the dominance of small transverse momenta at the triple Pomeron vertex. Beyond the triple Regge limit a slightly different approach is used in which the diagrams are calculated with leading log(Q 2 ) accuracy. Higher twist contributions are neglected except for the longitudinal part of the cross section which dominates at small invariant masses M in accordance with QCD-predictions and measurements for the exclusive production of vector mesons. For the comparison with the recently measured Photon Diffractive Dissociation-data from H1 and ZEUS a model for the Pomeron is introduced based on the F 2 -data. In the spirit of the k t -factorization theorem this model is inserted in place of the BFKL-Pomeron. Considering the fact that this approach does not contain free parameters the agreement between the theoretical prediction and the data is found to be good. (orig.)

  19. The Effects of Gender and Dominant Mental Processes on Hypermedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Holly; Howard, W. Gary; Donofrio, Heather H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of gender and dominant mental process on learning is an area of increased interest among educators. This study was designed to explore those effects on hypermedia learning. The hypermedia module was created using a modified hierarchical structure, and a pre-test/post-test was conducted. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was…

  20. Inelastic scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, O.A.

    1984-06-01

    The paper reviews the main problems concerning the mechanism of the inelastic scatterings of neutrons by nuclei, concentrating on the different models which calculate the angular distributions. In the region of overlapping levels, both the compound nucleus mechanism and the preequilibrium Griffin (exciton) model are discussed, and their contribution relative to that of a direct mechanism is considered. The parametrization of the level density and of the nuclear moment of inertia are also discussed. The excitation functions of discrete levels are also presented, and the importance of elucidating their five structure (for practical calculations, such as for shielding) is pointed out

  1. Deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-03-01

    The report is based on an invited talk given at a conference on ''Neutron Scattering at ISIS: Recent Highlights in Condensed Matter Research'', which was held in Rome, 1988, and is intended as an introduction to the techniques of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings:- the impulse approximation I.A., scaling behaviour, kinematical consequences of energy and momentum conservation, examples of measurements, derivation of the I.A., the I.A. in a harmonic system, and validity of the I.A. in neutron scattering. (U.K.)

  2. Polarization phenomena in inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaar, B.J.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to clarify the principles of inelastic scattering using the distorted wave Born approximation, concentrating on inelastic proton scattering. The principle aspects and merits of the microscopic description and the necessity of including the N-N spin orbit force are discussed. (7 figures) (U.S.)

  3. Inelastic magnon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert de Mello Koch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the worldsheet S-matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS5×S5. The D-brane is either a giant graviton or a dual giant graviton. In the gauge theory, the operators we consider belong to the su(2|3 sector of the theory. Magnon excitations of open strings can exhibit both elastic (when magnons in the bulk of the string scatter and inelastic (when magnons at the endpoint of an open string participate scattering. Both of these S-matrices are determined (up to an overall phase by the su(2|22 global symmetry of the theory. In this note we study the S-matrix for inelastic scattering. We show that it exhibits poles corresponding to boundstates of bulk and boundary magnons. A crossing equation is derived for the overall phase. It reproduces the crossing equation for maximal giant gravitons, in the appropriate limit. Finally, scattering in the su(2 sector is computed to two loops. This two loop result, which determines the overall phase to two loops, will be useful when a unique solution to the crossing equation is to be selected.

  4. Temperate forest development during secondary succession: effects of soil, dominant species and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, A.K.; Schelhaas, M.; Mazerolle, M.J.; Bongers, F.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in abandoned agricultural lands in Western Europe, knowledge on the successional pathways of newly developing forests becomes urgent. We evaluated the effect of time, soil type and dominant species type (shade tolerant or intolerant) on the development during succession of three

  5. Fate and effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos in outdoor plankton-dominated microcosms in Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Crum, S.J.H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Nogueira, A.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The fate and effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos were studied in plankton-dominated, freshwater microcosms in Thailand. Disappearance rates of chlorpyrifos from the water column in the present study were similar to those in temperate regions. Insecticide accumulation in the sediment was

  6. The effect of target's physical attractiveness and dominance on STD-risk perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P; Buunk, BP; Blanton, H

    Utilizing a 2 x 2 design, the present study examined the effect of a female's physical attractiveness and dominance on men's sexual motivation and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk perceptions in a sample of 72 heterosexual male college students. As predicted, participants a ere more motivated

  7. Dominant Advertisement Strategies in Iranian TV Commercials and their Cognitive Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising strategies are some factors in the content and form of advertisements which are intended to have certain effects on ad viewers or potential customers. These effects could be defined as the kind of cognitive responses they are expected to elicit in their audiences. This study examined 39 Iranian TV commercials in seven product categories to identify the most dominant strategies used by the advertisers and investigated the effect of product type on the selection and use of these strategies. The results showed that Iranian TV commercials used a mixture of analytic and effective cognitive strategies among which “elaborating on the reasons to buy”, “explaining the quality appeal” are the most favorite analytic based strategies and use of emotion and mood arising words is the most dominant affective based advertising method. The results also endorse significant effect of product type on types of strategies employed in the ads.

  8. Indirect genetics effects and evolutionary constraint: an analysis of social dominance in red deer, Cervus elaphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A J; Morrissey, M B; Adams, M J; Walling, C A; Guinness, F E; Pemberton, J M; Clutton-Brock, T H; Kruuk, L E B

    2011-04-01

    By determining access to limited resources, social dominance is often an important determinant of fitness. Thus, if heritable, standard theory predicts mean dominance should evolve. However, dominance is usually inferred from the tendency to win contests, and given one winner and one loser in any dyadic contest, the mean proportion won will always equal 0.5. Here, we argue that the apparent conflict between quantitative genetic theory and common sense is resolved by recognition of indirect genetic effects (IGEs). We estimate selection on, and genetic (co)variance structures for, social dominance, in a wild population of red deer Cervus elaphus, on the Scottish island of Rum. While dominance is heritable and positively correlated with lifetime fitness, contest outcomes depend as much on the genes carried by an opponent as on the genotype of a focal individual. We show how this dependency imposes an absolute evolutionary constraint on the phenotypic mean, thus reconciling theoretical predictions with common sense. More generally, we argue that IGEs likely provide a widespread but poorly recognized source of evolutionary constraint for traits influenced by competition. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Deuteron structure in the deep inelastic regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Tarutina, T. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP/CONICET y Departamento de Fisica, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, V. [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica-IFIC, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    We study nuclear effects in the deuteron in the deep inelastic regime using the newest available data. We put special emphasis on their Q{sup 2} dependence. The study is carried out using a scheme which parameterizes, in a simple manner, these effects by changing the proton and neutron stucture functions in medium. The result of our analysis is compared with other recent proposals. We conclude that precise EMC ratios cannot be obtained without considering the nuclear effects in the deuteron. (orig.)

  10. Basilar artery angulation and vertigo due to the hemodynamic effect of dominant vertebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Murat; Yaman, Mehmet; Eser, Olcay; Songur, Ahmet; Ozen, Oguz A

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral arteries form the basilar artery at the pontobulbar junction. The vertebral artery may have dominancy in one of them. The branches of basilar arteries supply blood for the vestibular nuclei and its connections. Vertigo is seen generally in the upper middle aged patients. Vertigo can be observed in dolichoectasia of basilar artery such as angulation and elongation, because of the diminished blood supply and changed hemodynamic factors of vestibular nuclei and its connections. We hypothesized that angulation or elongation of basilar artery can be estimated according to the unilateral vertebral artery dominant hypertensive patients. The basilar artery can angulate from the dominant side of vertebral artery to the recessive side. These angulation and elongation can effect the hemodynamic factors in absence of growing collateral arteries. So, the vertigo attacks may occur in these patients.

  11. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  12. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  13. Development of inelastic design method for liquid metal reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Take, Kohji; Kaguchi, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yoshio; Uno, Tetsuro.

    1991-01-01

    Effective utilization of inelastic analysis in structural design assessment is expected to play an important role for avoiding too conservative design of liquid metal reactor plants. Studies have been conducted by the authors to develop a guideline for application of detailed inelastic analysis in design assessment. Both fundamental material characteristics tests and structural failure tests were conducted. Fundamental investigations were made on inelastic analysis method and creep-fatigue life prediction method based on the results of material characteristics tests. It was demonstrated through structural failure tests that the design method constructed based on these fundamental investigations can predict failure lives in structures subjected to cyclic thermal loadings with sufficient accuracy. (author)

  14. Inverted edge effects on carbon stocks in human-dominated landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romitelli, I.; Keller, M.; Vieira, S. A.; Metzger, J. P.; Reverberi Tambosi, L.

    2017-12-01

    Although the importance of tropical forests to regulate greenhouse gases is well documented, little is known about what factors affect the ability of these forests to store carbon in human-dominated landscapes. Among those factors, the landscape structure, particularly the amount of forest cover, the type of matrix and edge effects, can have important roles. We tested how carbon stock is influenced by a combination of factors of landscape composition (pasture and forest cover), landscape configuration (edge effect) and relief factors (slope, elevation and aspect). To test those relationships, we performed a robust carbon stock estimation with inventory and LiDAR data in human-dominated landscapes from the Brazilian Atlantic forest region. The study area showed carbon stock mean 45.49 ± 9.34 Mg ha-1. The interaction between forest cover, edge effect and slope was the best combination explanatory of carbon stock. We observed an inverted edge effect pattern where carbon stock is higher close to the edges of the studied secondary forests. This inverted edge effect observed contradicts the usual pattern reported in the literature for mature forests. We suppose this pattern is related with a positive effect that edge conditions can have stimulating forest regeneration, but the underlying processes to explain the observed pattern should still be tested. Those results suggest that Carbon stocks in human-dominated and fragmented landscapes can be highly affected by the landscape structure, and particularly that edges conditions can favor carbon sequestration in regenerating tropical forests.

  15. Inelastic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA NaI dark matter direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark matter in supersymmetric theories

  16. Deep inelastic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental situation of the deep inelastic scattering for electrons (muons) is reviewed. A brief history of experimentation highlights Mohr and Nicoll's 1932 experiment on electron-atom scattering and Hofstadter's 1950 experiment on electron-nucleus scattering. The phenomenology of electron-nucleon scattering carried out between 1960 and 1970 is described, with emphasis on the parton model, and scaling. Experiments at SLAC and FNAL since 1974 exhibit scaling violations. Three muon-nucleon scattering experiments at BFP, BCDMA, and EMA, currently producing new results in the high Q 2 domain suggest a rather flat behaviour of the structure function at fixed x as a function of Q 2 . It is seen that the structure measured in DIS can then be projected into a pure hadronic process to predict a cross section. Protonneutron difference, moment analysis, and Drell-Yan pairs are also considered

  17. Differential effects of chronic fluoxetine on the behavior of dominant and subordinate naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Daniel L; Kosyachkova, Ekaterina A; Nguyen, Tam M; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies with a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. The breeding female (referred to as the queen) and 1 to 3 breeding males are the only reproductive members of the colony. Breeders are socially dominant and all other colony members are non-reproductive subordinates. The effects of manipulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on aggression and dominance behaviors are well studied in many species, but not in eusocial rodents like the naked mole-rat. The current study investigated how the serotonergic system influences aggressive/dominant behaviors in this species. To do this, two separate but related experiments were conducted: the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) on status-specific behaviors of subordinates (Experiment 1) and dominant queens (Experiment 2) were evaluated both in-colony and in a social-pairing paradigm. In accordance with our main hypothesis, chronic treatment of FLX attenuated the frequency and duration of aggression in queens, but not subordinates, when paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Further exploration of pharmacological manipulation on status-specific behaviors of this eusocial species may elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their unique and rigid social hierarchy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington

    2009-09-01

    The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.

  19. Charm production and mass scales in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.; Scott, D.M.; Sivers, D.

    1976-07-01

    Because of their large mass, the production of charmed particles offers the possibility of new insight into fundamental dynamics. An approach to deep inelastic processes is discussed in which Generalized Vector Meson Dominance is used to extend parton model results away from the strict Bjorken scaling limit into regions where mass scales play an important role. The processes e + e - annihilation, photoproduction, deep inelastic leptoproduction, photon-photon scattering and the production of lepton pairs in hadronic collisions are discussed. The GCMD approach provides a reasonably unified framework and makes specific predictions concerning the way in which these reactions reflect an underlying flavour symmetry, broken by large mass differences. (author)

  20. Testing the effect of time pressure on asymmetric dominance and compromise decoys in choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pettibone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic, connectionist models of decision making, such as decision field theory (Roe, Busemeyer, and Townsend, 2001, propose that the effect of context on choice arises from a series of pairwise comparisons between attributes of alternatives across time. As such, they predict that limiting the amount of time to make a decision should decrease rather than increase the size of contextual effects. This prediction was tested across four levels of time pressure on both the asymmetric dominance (Huber, Payne, and Puto, 1982 and compromise (Simonson, 1989 decoy effects in choice. Overall, results supported this prediction, with both types of decoy effects found to be larger as time pressure decreased.

  1. Dominant effect of increasing forest biomass on evapotranspiration: interpretations of movement in Budyko space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Cory, Neil; Arheimer, Berit; Laudon, Hjalmar; van der Velde, Ype; Hasper, Thomas B.; Teutschbein, Claudia; Uddling, Johan

    2018-01-01

    During the last 6 decades, forest biomass has increased in Sweden mainly due to forest management, with a possible increasing effect on evapotranspiration. However, increasing global CO2 concentrations may also trigger physiological water-saving responses in broadleaf tree species, and to a lesser degree in some needleleaf conifer species, inducing an opposite effect. Additionally, changes in other forest attributes may also affect evapotranspiration. In this study, we aimed to detect the dominating effect(s) of forest change on evapotranspiration by studying changes in the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to precipitation, known as the evaporative ratio, during the period 1961-2012. We first used the Budyko framework of water and energy availability at the basin scale to study the hydroclimatic movements in Budyko space of 65 temperate and boreal basins during this period. We found that movements in Budyko space could not be explained by climatic changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration in 60 % of these basins, suggesting the existence of other dominant drivers of hydroclimatic change. In both the temperate and boreal basin groups studied, a negative climatic effect on the evaporative ratio was counteracted by a positive residual effect. The positive residual effect occurred along with increasing standing forest biomass in the temperate and boreal basin groups, increasing forest cover in the temperate basin group and no apparent changes in forest species composition in any group. From the three forest attributes, standing forest biomass was the one that could explain most of the variance of the residual effect in both basin groups. These results further suggest that the water-saving response to increasing CO2 in these forests is either negligible or overridden by the opposite effect of the increasing forest biomass. Thus, we conclude that increasing standing forest biomass is the dominant driver of long-term and large-scale evapotranspiration

  2. Dominant effect of increasing forest biomass on evapotranspiration: interpretations of movement in Budyko space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaramillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 6 decades, forest biomass has increased in Sweden mainly due to forest management, with a possible increasing effect on evapotranspiration. However, increasing global CO2 concentrations may also trigger physiological water-saving responses in broadleaf tree species, and to a lesser degree in some needleleaf conifer species, inducing an opposite effect. Additionally, changes in other forest attributes may also affect evapotranspiration. In this study, we aimed to detect the dominating effect(s of forest change on evapotranspiration by studying changes in the ratio of actual evapotranspiration to precipitation, known as the evaporative ratio, during the period 1961–2012. We first used the Budyko framework of water and energy availability at the basin scale to study the hydroclimatic movements in Budyko space of 65 temperate and boreal basins during this period. We found that movements in Budyko space could not be explained by climatic changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration in 60 % of these basins, suggesting the existence of other dominant drivers of hydroclimatic change. In both the temperate and boreal basin groups studied, a negative climatic effect on the evaporative ratio was counteracted by a positive residual effect. The positive residual effect occurred along with increasing standing forest biomass in the temperate and boreal basin groups, increasing forest cover in the temperate basin group and no apparent changes in forest species composition in any group. From the three forest attributes, standing forest biomass was the one that could explain most of the variance of the residual effect in both basin groups. These results further suggest that the water-saving response to increasing CO2 in these forests is either negligible or overridden by the opposite effect of the increasing forest biomass. Thus, we conclude that increasing standing forest biomass is the dominant driver of long-term and large

  3. Response of subsystems on inelastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.; Mahin, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary analysis are performed to obtain insight into the seismic response of subsystems supported on simple structures that yield during severe earthquake ground motions. Current design recommendations for subsystems accounting for yielding of the supporting structures are assessed and found to be unconservative. An amplification factor is defined to quantify the effects of inelastic deformations of the supporting structure on subsystem response. Design guidelines are formulated for predicting the amplification factor based on statistical evaluation of the results generated for ten earthquake ground motions. Using these values, design floor response spectra can be obtained from conventional linear elastic floor response spectra accounting for yielding of the supporting structure without having to perform inelastic analysis. The effects of non-zero subsystem mass are examined. The recommended amplification factors are found to be applicable even when the mass of subsystem approaches that of the supporting structure

  4. Inelastic scattering and deformation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive study of nuclear shape parameters by electron scattering, μ meson atomic transitions, Coulomb excitation and direct nuclear inelastic scattering. Inelastic scattering of strongly absorbed particles, e.g., alpha-particles and heavy ions, at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier probe the charge and mass distributions within the nucleus. This paper summarizes measurements in this field performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  5. Recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, KR

    1995-01-01

    This is a collection of papers dedicated to Prof T C Woo to mark his 70th birthday. The papers focus on recent advances in elasticity, viscoelasticity and inelasticity, which are related to Prof Woo's work. Prof Woo's recent work concentrates on the viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of metals and plastics when thermal effects are significant, and the papers here address open questions in these and related areas.

  6. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A. (Lebedev Physical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p{sub t} and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.).

  7. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p t and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.)

  8. Comparison study of inelastic analysis codes for high temperature structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. K.; Geon, G. P.; Lee, J. H

    2004-02-01

    LMR high temperature structures subjected to operating and transient loadings may exhibit very complex deformation behaviors due to the use of ductile material such as 316SS and the systematic analysis technology of high temperature structure for reliable safety assessment is essential. In this project, comparative study with developed inelastic analysis program NONSTA and the existing analysis codes was performed applying various types of loading including non-proportional loading. The performance of NONSTA was confirmed and the effect of inelastic constants on the analysis result was analyzed. Also, the applicability of the inelastic analysis was enlarged as a result of applying both the developed program and the existing codes to the analyses of the enhanced creep behavior and the elastic follow-up behavior of high temperature structures and the necessary items for improvements were deduced. Further studies on the improvement of NONSTA program and the decision of the proper values of inelastic constants are necessary.

  9. The effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge-dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    A particle-in-cell computer simulation code has been used to study the transverse dynamics of nonrelativistic misaligned space-charge-dominated coasting beams in an alternating gradient focusing channel. In the presence of nonlinear forces due to dodecapole or octupole imperfections of the focusing fields or to image forces, the transverse rms emittance grows in a beat pattern. Analysis indicates that this emittance dilution is due to the driving of coherent modes of the beam near their resonant frequencies by the nonlinear force. The effects of the dodecapole and images forces can be made to effectively cancel for some boundary conditions, but the mechanism is not understood at this time

  10. Dominant role of many-body effects on the carrier distribution function of quantum dot lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvast, Negin; Zhou, Kejia; Hogg, Richard A.; Childs, David T. D.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of free-carrier-induced shift and broadening on the carrier distribution function are studied considering different extreme cases for carrier statistics (Fermi-Dirac and random carrier distributions) as well as quantum dot (QD) ensemble inhomogeneity and state separation using a Monte Carlo model. Using this model, we show that the dominant factor determining the carrier distribution function is the free carrier effects and not the choice of carrier statistics. By using empirical values of the free-carrier-induced shift and broadening, good agreement is obtained with experimental data of QD materials obtained under electrical injection for both extreme cases of carrier statistics.

  11. Dominant lethal effect of gamma radiation of 60Co in Biomphalaria glabrata (SAY, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas

    2003-01-01

    Germ cell mutations are used in ecotoxicological studies as biomarkers of population effects and indicators of ecological changes. Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater mollusk, is a good experimental model for biomonitoring studies due to its biological characteristics and the ecological importance of this invertebrate group. The dominant lethal test was established in B. glabrata for the detection of germ cell mutations. Results with chemical mutagens showed that this system is efficient, specific and sensitive in the evaluation of germ cell mutations induced by reference mutagens. In this work, the dominant lethal effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co were studied. A preliminary experiment was done to establish the dose range and to estimate the chronology of spermatogenesis in B. glabrata. This estimate is possible because of the uniformity in response to ionizing radiation between germ cells at homologous stages of spermatogenesis in widely different species. In general, pre-meiotic germ cells are less sensitive to the induction of lethal dominant mutations than post-meiotic cells. This effect can be attributed to: young gametogenic cells - mitotically active - have greater repair ability from sub-lethal DNA damage and there is a selective elimination of the damaged cells. In our system: induction of lethal dominant mutations causes an increase in the frequency of malformations and, cytotoxic effect is displayed as a reduction in the crossing rates. Total duration of spermatogenesis was estimated in approximately 36 days, with the following distribution of stages: 1 to 13 days - spermatogonia, 14 to 20 days - spermatocytes, 21 to 36 days - spermatids and spermatozoa. Based on this chronology, irradiated wild-type snails with 2,5; 10 and 20Gy and crossed with non-irradiated albino snails after 7, 17, 23, 30 and 36 days. The frequencies of malformations in the heterozygous wild-type offspring of the nonirradiated albino snails were used as indicator of germ cell

  12. The effect of teaching based on dominant learning style on nursing students' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Torabizadeh, Camellia

    2018-01-01

    The recognition of learning styles and teaching based on that recognition will help lecturers use suitable methods of teaching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education based on dominant learning styles on the academic achievement of nursing students. The population of this quasi-experimental research consisted of 40 third-semester nursing students. The data were collected by using Kolb's Learning Style questionnaire. To determine the dominant learning style of the students, the researchers had them take a pre-test; then, based on the dominant learning style, the students were taught through group discussion. A formative exam and a summative exam were taken. The most and least preferred learning styles of the participants were the divergent style and the assimilative style respectively. Education based on learning styles, particularly for college students, can not only enhance students' academic achievement and teachers' professional satisfaction, but can help with training professional nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective Connectivity Reveals Right-Hemisphere Dominance in Audiospatial Perception: Implications for Models of Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Garrido, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. Neuropsychological observations in patients with spatial neglect have led to the formulation of two competing models: the orientation bias and right-hemisphere dominance models. The orientation bias model posits a symmetrical mapping between one side of the sensorium and the contralateral hemisphere, with mutual inhibition of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The right-hemisphere dominance model introduces a functional asymmetry in the brain's coding of space: the left hemisphere represents the right side, whereas the right hemisphere represents both sides of the sensorium. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity and Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between these alternative network architectures, based on human electroencephalographic data acquired during an auditory location oddball paradigm. Our results support a hemispheric asymmetry in a frontoparietal network that conforms to the right-hemisphere dominance model. We show that, within this frontoparietal network, forward connectivity increases selectively in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of sensory stimulation. We interpret this finding in light of hierarchical predictive coding as a selective increase in attentional gain, which is mediated by feedforward connections that carry precision-weighted prediction errors during perceptual inference. This finding supports the disconnection hypothesis of unilateral neglect and has implications for theories of its etiology. PMID:24695717

  14. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kauff

    Full Text Available Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO, and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753, Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948, and England (Study 5; N = 594. Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO. Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5, but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5, the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  15. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  16. Inelastic analysis of prestressed concrete secondary containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.; Chitnuyanondh, L.; Wong, C.; Rijub-Agha, K.Y.

    1978-07-01

    An elastic-plastic constitutive model for the simulation of stress-strain response of concrete under any biaxial combination of compressive and/or tensile stresses is developed. An effective tensile stress-strain curve is obtained indirectly from experimental results of a test on a large scale prestressed concrete wall segment. These concrete properties are then utilized in predicting the response of a second test and the results compared with the experiment. Modificications to the BOSOR5 program, in order to incorporate the new constitutive relation into it, are described. Techniques of modelling structures in order to perform inelastic analysis of thin shell axisymmetric prestressed concrete secondary containments are investigated. The results of inelastic BOSOR5 analyses of two different models of the University of Alberta Test Structure are presented. The predicted deterioration of the structure and the limit states associated with its behaviour are determined and discussed. It is concluded that the technique is a practical one which can be used for the inelastic analysis of Gentilly-type containment structures. (author)

  17. CFD study of dominant effect in combined DTHT by using hypothetical boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietiadi, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    KAIST MMR is a gas cooled fast reactor (GFR) using supercritical CO{sub 2} as a working fluid of reactor core and power cycle without intermediate heat exchanger which operates in higher pressure and higher temperature conditions compared to PWR. During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), MMR needs to relay on passive Decay Heat Removal (DHR) system by using natural circulation of gas since passive decay heat removal using conduction and radiation is not providing sufficient decay heat removal. Very limited researches were conducted in the regime where both occur at the same time and in the same order of magnitude. Numerical analysis is done with v''2-f turbulence model to predict the physical phenomena for the future experimental work. The effects of buoyancy and acceleration were studied with CFD for designed cases to distinguish the dominant effect in the combined DTHT regime. Numerical results of the v''2-f turbulence model show that the model can predict the buoyancy induced DTHT phenomenon even when the acceleration parameter is greater than buoyancy parameter but there is no data that shows that acceleration induced DTHT dominates the DTHT phenomena at this moment. More numerical results in the combined DTHT regime will be obtained and studied to provide clearer view on strongly heated turbulent flow and its heat transfer deteriorating mechanism. Adjustment for v''2-f turbulence model to correct the prediction of buoyancy effect will be studied in the near future.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Snowfall in Central New York - A Lake Effect Dominated Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Justin Joseph

    Central New York is located in one of the snowiest regions in the United States, with the city of Syracuse, New York the snowiest metropolis in the nation. Snowfall in the region generally begins in mid-November and lasts until late-March. Snow accumulation occurs from a multitude of conditions: frontal systems, mid-latitude cyclones, Nor'easters, and most notably lake-effect storms. Lake effect snowfall (LES) is a difficult parameter to forecast due to the isolated and highly variable nature of the storm. Consequently, studies have attempted to determine changes in snowfall for lake-effect dominated regions. Annual snowfall patterns are of particular concern as seasonal snowfall totals are vital for water resources, winter businesses, agriculture, government and state agencies, and much more. Through the use of snowfall, temperature, precipitation, and location data from the National Weather Service's Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), spatial and temporal changes in snowfall for Central New York were determined. In order to determine climatic changes in snowfall, statistical analyses were performed (i.e. least squares estimation, correlations, principal component analyses, etc.) and spatial maps analyzed. Once snowfall trends were determined, factors influencing the trends were examined. Long-term snowfall trends for CNY were positive for original stations (˜0.46 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1) and homogenously filtered stations (0.23 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1). However, snowfall trends for shorter time-increments within the long-term period were not consistent, as positive, negative, and neutral trends were calculated. Regional differences in snowfall trends were observed for CNY as typical lake-effect areas (northern counties, the Tug Hill Plateau and the Southern Hills) experienced larger snowfall trends than areas less dominated by LES. Typical lake-effect months (December - February) experienced the greatest snowfall trend in CNY compared to other winter months. The

  19. Power Moderates the Effects of Social Dominance Orientation on Punishment: An Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heering, Maria Sophia; Leone, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that experimentally manipulated levels of power would moderate the association of dispositional social dominance orientation (SDO) with preferences for harsh punishment. In particular, we expected to detect a stronger effect for dispositional SDO in the low-power condition, relying on the notion that low power enhances sensitivity to threats to the status quo, and that high SDO individuals are particularly motivated to enforce hierarchy-enhancing measures as punishment. SDO scores were measured two months prior to the experiment, and then immediately after the experimental session. As expected, preexperimental SDO interacted with the power manipulation. We found stronger preexperimental SDO effects on punishment among low-power participants. We also anticipated and found that individuals high in SDO increased further their postexperimental SDO scores if assigned to a high-power condition. The discussion focuses on the importance of SDO effects among low-status groups and on how situational roles shape dispositional self-descriptions.

  20. Wording effect leads to a controversy over the construct of the social dominance orientation scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Chi, Liping

    2010-01-01

    Most investigations of individuals' social dominance orientation (SDO) have used the 16-item SDO scale developed by F. Pratto, J. Sidanius, L. M. Stallworth, and B. F. Malle (1994). The scale's authors believed it to be a unidimensional scale, but other researchers have found the scale has 2 or more factors. The present authors proposed a new hypothesis: The controversy of the scale structure was related to the wording effect of the scale. Based on a sample of Americans, Canadians, and Chinese, the present study indicated that what the scale measured was not only 1 trait of SDO, but also a negative-wording effect factor and that the scale structure was invariant across the 3 cultural groups. The existence of a wording effect reminds us to be cautious of the construct validity of the scale and interpretations of results.

  1. Dominance of climate warming effects on recent drying trends over wet monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Eui; Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Park, Hoonyoung; Piao, Shilong; Kim, Jinwon; Feng, Song

    2017-09-01

    Understanding changes in background dryness over land is key information for adapting to climate change because of its critical socioeconomic consequences. However, causes of continental dryness changes remain uncertain because various climate parameters control dryness. Here, we verify dominant climate variables determining dryness trends over continental eastern Asia, which is characterized by diverse hydroclimate regimes ranging from arid to humid, by quantifying the relative effects of changes in precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, surface air temperature, and relative humidity on trends in the aridity index based on observed data from 189 weather stations for the period of 1961-2010. Before the early 1980s (1961-1983), change in precipitation is a primary condition for determining aridity trends. In the later period (1984-2010), the dominant climate parameter for aridity trends varies according to the hydroclimate regime. Drying trends in arid regions are mostly explained by reduced precipitation. In contrast, the increase in potential evapotranspiration due to increased atmospheric water-holding capacity, a secondary impact of warming, works to increase aridity over the humid monsoon region despite an enhanced water supply and relatively less warming. Our results show significant drying effects of warming over the humid monsoon region in recent decades; this also supports the drying trends over warm and water-sufficient regions in future climate.

  2. Dominance of climate warming effects on recent drying trends over wet monsoon regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-E. Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in background dryness over land is key information for adapting to climate change because of its critical socioeconomic consequences. However, causes of continental dryness changes remain uncertain because various climate parameters control dryness. Here, we verify dominant climate variables determining dryness trends over continental eastern Asia, which is characterized by diverse hydroclimate regimes ranging from arid to humid, by quantifying the relative effects of changes in precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, surface air temperature, and relative humidity on trends in the aridity index based on observed data from 189 weather stations for the period of 1961–2010. Before the early 1980s (1961–1983, change in precipitation is a primary condition for determining aridity trends. In the later period (1984–2010, the dominant climate parameter for aridity trends varies according to the hydroclimate regime. Drying trends in arid regions are mostly explained by reduced precipitation. In contrast, the increase in potential evapotranspiration due to increased atmospheric water-holding capacity, a secondary impact of warming, works to increase aridity over the humid monsoon region despite an enhanced water supply and relatively less warming. Our results show significant drying effects of warming over the humid monsoon region in recent decades; this also supports the drying trends over warm and water-sufficient regions in future climate.

  3. Hand dominance and age have interactive effects on motor cortical representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Bernard

    Full Text Available Older adults exhibit more bilateral motor cortical activity during unimanual task performance than young adults. Interestingly, a similar pattern is seen in young adults with reduced hand dominance. However, older adults report stronger hand dominance than young adults, making it unclear how handedness is manifested in the aging motor cortex. Here, we investigated age differences in the relationships between handedness, motor cortical organization, and interhemispheric communication speed. We hypothesized that relationships between these variables would differ for young and older adults, consistent with our recent proposal of an age-related shift in interhemispheric interactions. We mapped motor cortical representations of the right and left first dorsal interosseous muscles using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in young and older adults recruited to represent a broad range of the handedness spectrum. We also measured interhemispheric communication speed and bimanual coordination. We observed that more strongly handed older adults exhibited more ipsilateral motor activity in response to TMS; this effect was not present in young adults. Furthermore, we found opposing relationships between interhemispheric communication speed and bimanual performance in the two age groups. Thus, handedness manifests itself differently in the motor cortices of young and older adults and has interactive effects with age.

  4. Inclusive observables and hard gluon emission in neutrino deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchiat, C.; Meyer, P.; Mezard, M.

    1980-01-01

    We derive the predictions of perturbative QCD together with non-perturbative corrections for a set of inclusive observables connected with the angular distribution of light-cone energy in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. Our particular choice of observables has been made in order to meet important physical requirements besides the necessary condition of infrared regularity. Our inclusive observables receive their dominant contribution from the quark fragmentation region. The non-perturbative contribution is calculable in a rather model-independent way and stays at an acceptable level in realistic experimental conditions. The QCD perturbative contribution, which takes the simple form of a convolution product, exhibits a strongly decreasing behaviour as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x, superimposed on a constant background associated with the non-perturbative terms, allowing a rather clean separation of the two effects. The perturbative term being dominated by the process of hard-gluon emission, an experimental investigation of the observables discussed here may be a good way to detect the effect of gluon emission in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. (orig.)

  5. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu A.; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W. D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3) targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single

  6. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling In Deep Repository Under The Effect of Emplacement Media Degradation - 13285

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, S.; Jivkov, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is being actively considered and pursued in many countries, where low permeability geological formations are used to provide long term waste contaminant with minimum impact to the environment and risk to the biosphere. A multi-barrier approach that makes use of both engineered and natural barriers (i.e. geological formations) is often used to further enhance the containment performance of the repository. As the deep repository system subjects to a variety of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) effects over its long 'operational' lifespan (e.g. 0.1 to 1.0 million years, the integrity of the barrier system will decrease over time (e.g. fracturing in rock or clay)). This is broadly referred as media degradation in the present study. This modelling study examines the effects of media degradation on diffusion dominant solute transport in fractured media that are typical of deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes, while the effects of degradation is studied using a pore network model that considers the media diffusivity and network changes. Model results are presented to demonstrate the use of a 3D pore-network model, using a novel architecture, to calculate macroscopic properties of the medium such as diffusivity, subject to pore space changes as the media degrade. Results from a reactive transport model of a representative geological waste disposal package are also presented to demonstrate the effect of media property change on the solute migration behaviour, illustrating the complex interplay between kinetic biogeochemical processes and diffusion dominant transport. The initial modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of a coupled modelling approach (using pore-network model and reactive

  7. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  8. Inelastic light scattering in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchinskii, M. M.

    The papers presented in this volume are concerned with a variety of problems in optics and solid state physics, such as Raman scattering of light in crystals and disperse media, Rayleigh and inelastic scattering during phase transitions, characteristics of ferroelectrics in relation to the general soft mode concept, and inelastic spectral opalescence. A group-theory approach is used to classify the vibrational spectra of the crystal lattice and to analyze the properties of idealized crystal models. Particular attention is given to surface vibrational states and to the study of the surface layers of crystals and films by light scattering methods.

  9. Stimulus-Dominance Effects and Lateral Asymmetries for Language in Normal Subjects and in Patients with a Single Functional Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Marirosa; Marano, Elena; Viti, Marzia

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of language laterality by the dichotic fused-words test may be impaired by interference effects revealed by the dominant report of one member of the stimuli-pair. Stimulus-dominance and ear asymmetry were evaluated in normal population (48 subjects of both sex and handedness) and in 2 patients with a single functional hemisphere.…

  10. Inclusive quasielastic and deep inelastic electron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    With high electron energies a kinematic regime can be reached where it will be possible to separate quasielastic and deep inelastic scattering. We present a short description of these processes which dominate the inclusive spectrum. Using the highest momentum transfer data available to guide our estimates, we give the kinematic requirements and the cross sections expected. These results indicate that inclusive scattering at high q has a yet unfilled potential. 18 refs., 13 figs

  11. Comment on Dynamic plasma screening effects on semiclassical inelastic electron ion collisions in dense plasmas [Phys. Plasmas 4, 21 (1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Jung's analysis of dynamics screening appears to be flawed by attempting to patch many-body effects into a single-body theory and a more rigorous foundation is necessary. Jung's result and dynamical screening have been previously analyzed many times

  12. A new theoretical model for inelastic tunneling in realistic systems : comparing STM simulations with experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, E.T.R.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis has been dedicated to modeling the electron transport in tunnel junctions in order to efficiently describe and predict inelastic effects that occur when electrons pass a tunnel junction. These inelastic effects can be considered at several levels of sophistication, from very simple to

  13. Temperature effects on respiration and photosynthesis in three diatom-dominated benthic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Glud, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Short-term temperature effects on respiration and photosynthesis were investigated in intact diatom-dominated benthic communities, collected at 2 temperate and 1 high-arctic subtidal sites. Areal rates of total (TOE) and diffusive (DOE) O2 exchange were determined from O2-microsensor....... This can be ascribed to changes in physical and biological controls during resuspension. Gross photosynthesis was measured with the light-dark shift method at the 2 temperate sites. Both areal (Pgross) and volumetric (Pgross,vol) rates increased with temperature to an optimum temperature at 12 and 15°C......, with a Q10 for Pgross of 2.2 and 2.6 for the 2 sites, respectively. The gross photosynthesis response could be categorised as psychrotrophic for both sites and no temperature adaptation was observed between the 2 sites. Our measurements document that temperature stimulates heterotrophic activity more than...

  14. A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleijn, Niek F; Visser, Folkert W; Drenth, Joost P H; Gevers, Tom J G; Groen, Gerbrand J; Hogan, Marie C; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-09-01

    Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4-6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of nonuniform radial density distribution on the space charge dominated beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Beam dynamics of a space charge dominated beam during the bunch compression is studied self consistently for the case of fixed shape non-uniform bell shape and hollow shape density distributions in the transverse direction. We have used thick slices at different parts of the beam to account for variation in the beam radius in the study of the transverse dynamics. The longitudinal dynamics has been studied using the disc model. The axial variation of the radius of the slices and emittance growth arising from the phase dependence of the transverse rf forces are also included in the simulation. We have modified the beam envelope equation to take into account the longitudinal space charge effect on the transverse motion which arises due to the finite bunch size. To demonstrate the application of the theoretical formulations developed, we have studied a sinusoidal beam bunching system and presented detailed numerical results.

  16. Inelastic electron and light scattering from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wells: Zero magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most fundamental approach to an understanding of electronic, optical, and transport phenomena which the condensed matter physics (of conventional as well as nonconventional systems offers is generally founded on two experiments: the inelastic electron scattering and the inelastic light scattering. This work embarks on providing a systematic framework for the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering from the electronic excitations in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs quantum wells. To this end, we start with the Kubo's correlation function to derive the generalized nonlocal, dynamic dielectric function, and the inverse dielectric function within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. This is followed by a thorough development of the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering. The methodological part is then subjected to the analytical diagnoses which allow us to sense the subtlety of the analytical results and the importance of their applications. The general analytical results, which know no bounds regarding, e.g., the subband occupancy, are then specified so as to make them applicable to practicality. After trying and testing the eigenfunctions, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum made up of intrasubband and intersubband – single-particle and collective (plasmon – excitations, the loss functions for all the principal geometries envisioned for the inelastic electron scattering, and the Raman intensity, which provides a measure of the real transitions induced by the (laser probe, for the inelastic light scattering. It is found that the dominant contribution to both the loss peaks and the Raman peaks comes from the collective (plasmon excitations. As to the single-particle peaks, the analysis indicates a long-lasting lack of quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. It is inferred that the inelastic electron

  17. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianguang Shang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton.

  18. Ultrasound measurement of the size of the anterior tibial muscle group: the effect of exercise and leg dominance

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCreesh, Karen

    2011-09-13

    Abstract Background Knowledge of normal muscle characteristics is crucial in planning rehabilitation programmes for injured athletes. There is a high incidence of ankle and anterior tibial symptoms in football players, however little is known about the effect of limb dominance on the anterior tibial muscle group (ATMG). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of limb dominance and sports-specific activity on ATMG thickness in Gaelic footballers and non-football playing controls using ultrasound measurements, and to compare results from transverse and longitudinal scans. Methods Bilateral ultrasound scans were taken to assess the ATMG size in 10 Gaelic footballers and 10 sedentary controls (age range 18-25 yrs), using a previously published protocol. Both transverse and longitudinal images were taken. Muscle thickness measurements were carried out blind to group and side of dominance, using the Image-J programme. Results Muscle thickness on the dominant leg was significantly greater than the non-dominant leg in the footballers with a mean difference of 7.3%, while there was no significant dominance effect in the controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the measurements from transverse or longitudinal scans. Conclusions A significant dominance effect exists in ATMG size in this group of Gaelic footballers, likely attributable to the kicking action involved in the sport. This should be taken into account when rehabilitating footballers with anterior tibial pathology. Ultrasound is a reliable tool to measure ATMG thickness, and measurement may be taken in transverse or longitudinal section.

  19. Effect of dominant features on neural network performance in the classification of mammographic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhimin Huo; Giger, M.L.; Metz, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two different classifiers, an artificial neural network (Ann) and a hybrid system (one step rule-based method followed by an artificial neural network) have been investigated to merge computer-extracted features in the task of differentiating between malignant and benign masses. A database consisting of 65 cases (38 malignant and 26 benign) was used in the study. A total of four computer-extracted features - spiculation, margin sharpness and two density-related measures - was used to characterize these masses. Results from our previous study showed that the hybrid system performed better than the ANN classifier. In our current study, to understand the difference between the two classifiers, we investigated their learning and decision-making processes by studying the relationships between the input features and the outputs. A correlation study showed that the outputs from the ANN-alone method correlated strongly with one of the input features (spiculation), yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.91, whereas the correlation coefficients (absolute value) for the other features ranged from 0.19 to 0.40. This strong correlation between the ANN output and spiculation measure indicates that the learning and decision-making processes of the ANN-alone method were dominated by the spiculation measure. Three-dimensional plots of the computer output as functions of the input features demonstrate that the ANN-alone method did not learn as effectively as the hybrid system in differentiating non-spiculated malignant masses from benign masses, thus resulting in an inferior performance at the high sensitivity levels. We found that with a limited database it is detrimental for an ANN to learn the significance of other features in the presence of a dominant feature. The hybrid system, which initially applied a rule concerning the value of the spiculation measure prior to employing an ANN, prevents over-learning from the dominant feature and performed better than the ANN-alone method

  20. Effects of leg dominance on performance of ballet turns (pirouettes) by experienced and novice dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Wu, Hong-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Turns (pirouettes) are an important movement in ballet and may be affected by "lateral bias". This study investigated physiological differences exhibited by experienced and novice dancers, respectively, when performing pirouette with dominant and non-dominant leg supports, respectively. Thirteen novice and 13 experienced dancers performed turns on dominant or non-dominant legs. The maximum ankle plantarflexion, knee extension and hip extension were measured during the single-leg support phase. The inclination angle of rotation axis is the angle between instantaneous rotation axis and global vertical axis in the early single-leg support phase. Both groups exhibited a greater hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantarflexion when performing a turn on the non-dominant leg. For experienced dancers, the inclination angle of rotation axis during the pre-swing phase was generally smaller for dominant leg support than non-dominant leg. However, no significant difference was found in inclination angle of rotation axis of novice dancers. For experienced dancers, an improved performance is obtained when using the dominant leg for support. By contrast, for novice dancers, the performance is independent of choice of support leg. The significant lateral bias in experienced dancers indicates the possible influence of training. That is, repetitive rehearsal on the preferred leg strengthens the impact of side dominance in experienced dancers.

  1. Incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator–prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Schultner, Jannik; Nimmo, Dale G.; Fischer, Joern; Hanspach, Jan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kehoe, Laura; Ritchie, Euan G.

    2015-01-01

    Apex predators perform important functions that regulate ecosystems worldwide. However, little is known about how ecosystem regulation by predators is influenced by human activities. In particular, how important are top-down effects of predators relative to direct and indirect human-mediated bottom-up and top-down processes? Combining data on species' occurrence from camera traps and hunting records, we aimed to quantify the relative effects of top-down and bottom-up processes in shaping predator and prey distributions in a human-dominated landscape in Transylvania, Romania. By global standards this system is diverse, including apex predators (brown bear and wolf), mesopredators (red fox) and large herbivores (roe and red deer). Humans and free-ranging dogs represent additional predators in the system. Using structural equation modelling, we found that apex predators suppress lower trophic levels, especially herbivores. However, direct and indirect top-down effects of humans affected the ecosystem more strongly, influencing species at all trophic levels. Our study highlights the need to explicitly embed humans and their influences within trophic cascade theory. This will greatly expand our understanding of species interactions in human-modified landscapes, which compose the majority of the Earth's terrestrial surface. PMID:26336169

  2. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Y.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3) targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year 2010 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about four the overall statistics with resp...

  3. Deep inelastic scattering and asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1985-01-01

    I recall some facets of the history of the field of deep inelastic scattering. I show how there was a very fruitful interplay between phenomenology on the one side and more abstract field theoretical considerations on the other side, where Kurt Symanzik, whose memory we honour today, made important contributions. Finally I make some remarks on the most recent developments in this field which have to do with the so-called EMC-effect, where EMC stands for European Muon Collaboration. (orig./HSI)

  4. Deep inelastic scattering of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    These lectures developed path integral methods for use in the theory of heavy ion reactions. The effects of internal degrees of freedom on the relative motion were contained in an influence functional which was calculated for several simple models of the internal structure. In each model the influence functional had a simple Gaussian structure suggesting that the relative motion of the nuclei in a deep inelastic collision could be described by a Langevin equation. The form of the influence functional determines the average damping force and the correlation function of the fluctuating Langevin force. (author)

  5. Deep inelastic scattering of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    These lecture notes show how path integral methods can be used in the theory of heavy ion reactions. The effects of internal degrees of freedom on the relative motion are contained in an influence functional which is calculated for several simple models of the internal structure. In each model the influence functional has a simple Gaussian structure which suggests that the relative motion of the nuclei in a deep inelastic collision can be described by a Langevin equation. The form of the influence functional determines the average damping force and the correlation function of the fluctuating Langevin force. (author)

  6. Effects of Different Social and Environmental Conditions on Established Dominance Relationships in Crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Jens; Swierzbinski, Matthew E; Birke, Juliane M

    2016-04-01

    Like most social animals, crayfish readily form dominance relationships and linear social hierarchies when competing for limited resources. Competition often entails dyadic aggressive interactions, from which one animal emerges as the dominant and one as the subordinate. Once dominance relationships are formed, they typically remain stable for extended periods of time; thus, access to future resources is divided unequally among conspecifics. We previously showed that firmly established dominance relationships in juvenile crayfish can be disrupted by briefly adding a larger conspecific to the original pair. This finding suggested that the stability of social relationships in crayfish was highly context-dependent and more transient than previously assumed. We now report results that further identify the mechanisms underlying the destabilization of crayfish dominance relationships. We found that rank orders remained stable when conspecifics of smaller or equal size were added to the original pair, suggesting that both dominant and subordinate must be defeated by a larger crayfish in order to destabilize dominance relationships. We also found that dominance relationships remained stable when both members of the original pair were defeated by larger conspecifics in the absence of their original opponent. This showed that dominance relationships are not destabilized unless both animals experience defeat together. Lastly, we found that dominance relationships of pairs were successfully disrupted by larger intruders, although with reduced magnitude, after all chemical cues associated with earlier agonistic experiences were eliminated. These findings provide important new insights into the contextual features that regulate the stability of social dominance relationships in crayfish and probably in other species as well. © 2016 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  7. Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering

  8. Social dominance in context and in individuals: contextual moderation of robust effects of social dominance orientation in 15 languages and 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratto, F.; Cidam, A.; Stewart, E.L.; Bou Zeinedinne, F.; Aranda, M.; Aiello, M.; Chryssochoou, X.; Cichocka, A.; Cohrs, C.; Durrheim, K.; Eicher, V.; Foels, R.; Górska, P.; Lee, I-C; Licata, L.; Liu, L.; Liu, J.H.; Meyer, I.; Morselli, D.; Muldoon, O.; Muluk, H.; Petrovic, I.; Petrovic, N.; Prati, F.; Papastamou, S.; Prodromitis, G.; Rubini, M.; Saab, R.; van Stekelenburg, J.; Sweetman, J.; Zheng, W.; Henkel, K.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the internal reliability and predictive validity of a new 4-item Short Social Dominance Orientation (SSDO) scale among adults in 20 countries, using 15 languages (N = 2,130). Low scores indicate preferring group inclusion and equality to dominance. As expected, cross-nationally, the lower

  9. Poole-Frenkel-effect as dominating current mechanism in thin oxide films—An illusion?!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    In many of the publications, over 50 per year for the last five years, the Poole-Frenkel-effect (PFE) is identified or suggested as dominating current mechanism to explain measured current–electric field dependencies in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) thin film stacks. Very often, the insulating thin film is a metal oxide as this class of materials has many important applications, especially in information technology. In the overwhelming majority of the papers, the identification of the PFE as dominating current mechanism is made by the slope of the current–electric field curve in the so-called Poole-Frenkel plot, i.e., logarithm of current density, j, divided by the applied electric field, F, versus the square root of that field. This plot is suggested by the simplest current equation for the PFE, which comprises this proportionality (ln(j/F) vs. F 1/2 ) leading to a straight line in this plot. Only one other parameter (except natural constants) may influence this slope: the optical dielectric constant of the insulating film. In order to identify the importance of the PFE simulation studies of the current through MIM stacks with thin insulating films were performed and the current–electric field curves without and with implementation of the PFE were compared. For the simulation, an advanced current model has been used combining electronic carrier injection/ejection currents at the interfaces, described by thermionic emission, with the carrier transport in the dielectric, described by drift and diffusion of electrons and holes in a wide band gap semiconductor. Besides the applied electric field (or voltage), many other important parameters have been varied: the density of the traps (with donor- and acceptor-like behavior); the zero-field energy level of the traps within the energy gap, this energy level is changed by the PFE (also called internal Schottky effect); the thickness of the dielectric film; the permittivity of the dielectric film simulating different

  10. Poole-Frenkel-effect as dominating current mechanism in thin oxide films—An illusion?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Herbert

    2015-06-01

    In many of the publications, over 50 per year for the last five years, the Poole-Frenkel-effect (PFE) is identified or suggested as dominating current mechanism to explain measured current-electric field dependencies in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) thin film stacks. Very often, the insulating thin film is a metal oxide as this class of materials has many important applications, especially in information technology. In the overwhelming majority of the papers, the identification of the PFE as dominating current mechanism is made by the slope of the current-electric field curve in the so-called Poole-Frenkel plot, i.e., logarithm of current density, j, divided by the applied electric field, F, versus the square root of that field. This plot is suggested by the simplest current equation for the PFE, which comprises this proportionality (ln(j/F) vs. F1/2) leading to a straight line in this plot. Only one other parameter (except natural constants) may influence this slope: the optical dielectric constant of the insulating film. In order to identify the importance of the PFE simulation studies of the current through MIM stacks with thin insulating films were performed and the current-electric field curves without and with implementation of the PFE were compared. For the simulation, an advanced current model has been used combining electronic carrier injection/ejection currents at the interfaces, described by thermionic emission, with the carrier transport in the dielectric, described by drift and diffusion of electrons and holes in a wide band gap semiconductor. Besides the applied electric field (or voltage), many other important parameters have been varied: the density of the traps (with donor- and acceptor-like behavior); the zero-field energy level of the traps within the energy gap, this energy level is changed by the PFE (also called internal Schottky effect); the thickness of the dielectric film; the permittivity of the dielectric film simulating different oxide

  11. QCD expectations for deep inelastic scattering at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The basic QCD expectations concerning the deep inelastic scattering at low x where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the Lipatov equation which sums the leading powers of Ln(1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implications of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which will be accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 and F L based on the k T factorization theorem and discuss jet production in deep inelastic lepton scattering. The list of other topical problems relevant for the small x physics is given. (author). 46 refs, 7 figs

  12. Magnon and phonon thermometry with inelastic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Kevin S.; An, Kyongmo; Li, Xiaoqin

    2018-04-01

    Spin caloritronics investigates the interplay between the transport of spin and heat. In the spin Seebeck effect, a thermal gradient across a magnetic material generates a spin current. A temperature difference between the energy carriers of the spin and lattice subsystems, namely the magnons and phonons, is necessary for such thermal nonequilibrium generation of spin current. Inelastic light scattering is a powerful method that can resolve the individual temperatures of magnons and phonons. In this review, we discuss the thermometry capabilities of inelastic light scattering for measuring optical and acoustic phonons, as well as magnons. A scattering spectrum offers three temperature sensitive parameters: frequency shift, linewidth, and integrated intensity. We discuss the temperatures measured via each of these parameters for both phonon and magnons. Finally, we discuss inelastic light scattering experiments that have examined the magnon and phonon temperatures in thermal nonequilibrium which are particularly relevant to spin caloritronic phenomena.

  13. Inelastic Structural Control Based on MBC and FAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex structure has the characters of many degrees of freedom and intricate shape, especially inelastic behavior under strong external loadings. It is hard to apply the structural control technology to it. In this paper, a new method that combines the Market-Based Control (MBC strategy and Force Analogy Method (FAM is presented to analyze the inelastic behavior of structure with magnetorheological dampers. The MBC is used to reduce the structural vibration response, and FAM is proposed to perform the inelastic analysis. A numerical example is used to compare the control effect of the new method and LQR algorithm, which show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed computational method.

  14. Polarization transfer in inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Polarization transfer experiments are now feasible for inelastic scattering experiments on complex nuclei. Experiments thus far have dealt with the spin-flip probability; this observable is sensitive to the action of spin-spin and tensor forces in inelastic scattering. Spin-flip probabilities at E approx. 40 MeV in isoscalar transitions in 12 C(12.71 MeV) and 15 O(8.89 MeV) show considerable deviation from DWBA-shell model predictions; this deviation indicates evidence for more complex reaction mechanisms. Experiments at intermediate energies will soon be possible and will yield data of much higher precision than is possible at lower (E < 100 MeV) energies. These experiments hold exciting promise in such areas as nuclear critical opalescence. 7 figures, 1 table

  15. Effect of fuel treatments and backfiring on the recovery of an obligate seeder-dominated heathland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández Filgueira, C.; Vega Hidalgo, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate how a plant community responded to a backfire that occurred four years after application of different types of fuel-reduction treatments. Area of study: Erica umbellata Loefl. (L.)-dominated heathland in Galicia (NW Spain). Materials and Methods: Shrub cover surveys in 16 experimental plots from 2006 to 2014. Fuel reduction treatments (prescribed burning, clearing and mastication) were applied in the spring of 2006 and the area was burned by a wildfire in the summer of 2010. Main results: Shrub total cover recovered quickly after the backfire in both the treated and untreated areas, and the pre-treatment values were reached four years after the fire. Post-wildfire resprouting species cover recovery was not affected by fuel treatments. As a contrast, Erica umbellata cover reached levels similar to those in the untreated plots only in the areas treated by prescribed burning. After the wildfire, grasses cover recovery was greater in the treated than in the untreated areas and the effect lasted until the end of the study. Research highlights: Prescribed fire and backfire was favourable for Erica umbellata regeneration compared to clearing and mastication. (Author)

  16. The diversity in thermal behavior of novel catanionic cholates: The dominant effect of quaternary ammonium centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihelj, Tea; Vojta, Danijela; Tomašić, Vlasta

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quaternary ammonium cholates characterized as crystal smectics at room temperature. • The domination of quaternary ammonium center seen through diverse thermal behavior. • Thermal changes of cholates keto–enol balance results with prevalence of one form. • Polynomial regression of isotropisation temperatures vs. dodecyl chain number. • Linear descending trend of isotropisation temperatures with higher headgroup number. - Abstract: The thermal behavior of novel catanionic compounds based on cholate anion was examined. The study explains the effect of the raising dodecyl chain number, as well as of the raising headgroup number in quaternary ammonium salts on their physico-chemical properties. The examined samples are crystal smectic phases at room temperature. Their rich and diverse thermal behavior is seen through polymorphic phase transitions, thermotropic mesomorphism of smectic nature and in some cases, kinetically managed crystallization that lasts in days. The changes of the cholates keto–enol isomer balance during thermal treatment are obtained. For both groups of samples temperatures of isotropisation and the thermodynamic parameters follow polynomial regression. Introduction of the new dodecyl chain leads to more ordered structure, while implementation the new headgroup leads to advanced polymer-like structure. The obtained results demonstrate an effort for getting and controlling the regularity of the physico-chemical and thermotropic properties for new compounds by systematic changing of cationic part of the molecule. These informations could provide in the future the easiest way for selection of potentially new and targeted applicable materials

  17. The diversity in thermal behavior of novel catanionic cholates: The dominant effect of quaternary ammonium centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihelj, Tea, E-mail: tmihelj@irb.hr [Department of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Vojta, Danijela [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Tomašić, Vlasta [Department of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quaternary ammonium cholates characterized as crystal smectics at room temperature. • The domination of quaternary ammonium center seen through diverse thermal behavior. • Thermal changes of cholates keto–enol balance results with prevalence of one form. • Polynomial regression of isotropisation temperatures vs. dodecyl chain number. • Linear descending trend of isotropisation temperatures with higher headgroup number. - Abstract: The thermal behavior of novel catanionic compounds based on cholate anion was examined. The study explains the effect of the raising dodecyl chain number, as well as of the raising headgroup number in quaternary ammonium salts on their physico-chemical properties. The examined samples are crystal smectic phases at room temperature. Their rich and diverse thermal behavior is seen through polymorphic phase transitions, thermotropic mesomorphism of smectic nature and in some cases, kinetically managed crystallization that lasts in days. The changes of the cholates keto–enol isomer balance during thermal treatment are obtained. For both groups of samples temperatures of isotropisation and the thermodynamic parameters follow polynomial regression. Introduction of the new dodecyl chain leads to more ordered structure, while implementation the new headgroup leads to advanced polymer-like structure. The obtained results demonstrate an effort for getting and controlling the regularity of the physico-chemical and thermotropic properties for new compounds by systematic changing of cationic part of the molecule. These informations could provide in the future the easiest way for selection of potentially new and targeted applicable materials.

  18. Effect of fuel treatments and backfiring on the recovery of an obligate seeder-dominated heathland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fernández Filgueira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To evaluate how a plant community responded to a backfire that occurred four years after application of different types of fuel-reduction treatments. Area of study: Erica umbellata Loefl. (L.-dominated heathland in Galicia (NW Spain. Materials and Methods: Shrub cover surveys in 16 experimental plots from 2006 to 2014. Fuel reduction treatments (prescribed burning, clearing and mastication were applied in the spring of 2006 and the area was burned by a wildfire in the summer of 2010. Main results: Shrub total cover recovered quickly after the backfire in both the treated and untreated areas, and the pre-treatment values were reached four years after the fire. Post-wildfire resprouting species cover recovery was not affected by fuel treatments. As a contrast,  Erica umbellata cover reached levels similar to those in the untreated plots only in the areas treated by prescribed burning. After the wildfire, grasses cover recovery was greater in the treated than in the untreated areas and the effect lasted until the end of the study. Research highlights: Prescribed fire and backfire was favourable for Erica umbellata regeneration compared to clearing and mastication. Keywords: prescribed burning; clearing; mechanical shredding; Erica; wildfire.

  19. Spin-polarized inelastic tunneling through insulating barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Tran, M; Jaffrès, H; Seneor, P; Deranlot, C; Petroff, F; George, J-M; Lépine, B; Ababou, S; Jézéquel, G

    2009-05-01

    Spin-conserving hopping transport through chains of localized states has been evidenced by taking benefit of the high degree of spin-polarization of CoFeB-MgO-CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions. In particular, our data show that relatively thick MgO barriers doped with boron favor the activation of spin-conserving inelastic channels through a chain of three localized states and leading to reduced magnetoresistance effects. We propose an extension of the Glazman-Matveev theory to the case of ferromagnetic reservoirs to account for spin-polarized inelastic tunneling through nonmagnetic localized states embedded in an insulating barrier.

  20. EQUILIBRIUM OF TRUSS AND BEAM STRUCTURES OF INELASTIC MATERIALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    A physically based method for the determination of equilibrium for structures with inelastic response is described. The method is based on minimisation of the potential energy. For structures with inelastic response, some of the applied energy is converted to non-mechanical energy. This part...... and shrinkage, as well as plastic strains from previous load scenarios, will also change the potential energy. The method is also capable of taken these effects into account. Three examples are included in order to support the physical understanding, and to illustrate the procedure for the application...

  1. Inelastic plasmon and inter-band electron-scattering potentials for Si from dielectric matrix calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, T.W.; Smith, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of electrons in a crystalline environment may be represented by a complex non-hermitian potential. Completed generalised expressions for this inelastic electron scattering potential matrix, including virtual inelastic scattering, are derived for outer-shell electron and plasmon excitations. The relationship between these expressions and the general anisotropic dielectric response matrix of the solid is discussed. These generalised expressions necessarily include the off-diagonal terms representing effects due to departure from translational invariance in the interaction. Results are presented for the diagonal back structure dependent inelastic and virtual inelastic scattering potentials for Si, from a calculation of the inverse dielectric matrix in the random phase approximation. Good agreement is found with experiment as a function of incident energies from 10 eV to 100 keV. Anisotropy effects and hence the interaction de localisation represented by the off-diagonal scattering potential terms, are found to be significant below 1 keV. 38 refs., 2 figs

  2. Inelastic J/ψphotoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.; Steegborn, J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1994-11-01

    Inelastic photoproduction of J/ψ particles at high energies is one of the processes to determine the gluon distribution in the nucleon. We have calculated the QCD radiative corrections to the color-singlet model of this reaction. They are large at moderate photon energies, but decrease with increasing energies. The cross section and the J/ψ energy spectrum are compared with the available fixed-target photoproduction data and predictions are given for the HERA energy range. (orig.)

  3. Effect of unilateral dominance of the cerebral hemispheres on the radiographic appearance of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirout, J

    1980-10-01

    The results of dynamic radiographic studies of the cervical spine following isometric exercise of the shoulders and the upper extremities appear to indicate that the commonly seen asymmetries of the joints in the craniocervical and cervicothoracic junction are due to asymmetry in the function of the muscles. The obvious dominance of the muscles on the right side demonstrates the dominance of the left cerebral hemisphere. The clinical importance of this is pointed out.

  4. Hand Dominance and Age Have Interactive Effects on Motor Cortical Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2012-01-01

    Older adults exhibit more bilateral motor cortical activity during unimanual task performance than young adults. Interestingly, a similar pattern is seen in young adults with reduced hand dominance. However, older adults report stronger hand dominance than young adults, making it unclear how handedness is manifested in the aging motor cortex. Here, we investigated age differences in the relationships between handedness, motor cortical organization, and interhemispheric communication speed. We...

  5. Spatial Heterogeneity of Climate Change Effects on Dominant Height of Larch Plantations in Northern and Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Determining the response of dominant height growth to climate change is important for understanding adaption strategies. Based on 550 permanent plots from a national forest inventory and climate data across seven provinces and three climate zones, we developed a climate-sensitive dominant height growth model under a mixed-effects model framework. The mean temperature of the wettest quarter and precipitation of the wettest month were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables that markedly improved model performance. Generally, future climate change had a positive effect on stand dominant height in northern and northeastern China, but the effect showed high spatial variability linked to local climatic conditions. The range in dominant height difference between the current climate and three future BC-RCP scenarios would change from −0.61 m to 1.75 m (−6.9% to 13.5% during the period 2041–2060 and from −1.17 m to 3.28 m (−9.1% to 41.0% during the period 2061–2080 across provinces. The impacts of climate change on stand dominant height decreased as stand age increased. Forests in cold and warm temperate zones had a smaller decrease in dominant height, owing to climate change, compared with those in the mid temperate zone. Overall, future climate change could impact dominant height growth in northern and northeastern China. As spatial heterogeneity of climate change affects dominant height growth, locally specific mitigation measures should be considered in forest management.

  6. Cumulative Effects of Foraging Behavior and Social Dominance on Brain Development in a Facultatively Social Bee (Ceratina australensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Sandra M; Bulova, Susan J; O'Donnell, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In social insects, both task performance (foraging) and dominance are associated with increased brain investment, particularly in the mushroom bodies. Whether and how these factors interact is unknown. Here we present data on a system where task performance and social behavior can be analyzed simultaneously: the small carpenter bee Ceratina australensis. We show that foraging and dominance have separate and combined cumulative effects on mushroom body calyx investment. Female C. australensis nest solitarily and socially in the same populations at the same time. Social colonies comprise two sisters: the social primary, which monopolizes foraging and reproduction, and the social secondary, which is neither a forager nor reproductive but rather remains at the nest as a guard. We compare the brains of solitary females that forage and reproduce but do not engage in social interactions with those of social individuals while controlling for age, reproductive status, and foraging experience. Mushroom body calyx volume was positively correlated with wing wear, a proxy for foraging experience. We also found that, although total brain volume did not vary among reproductive strategies (solitary vs. social nesters), socially dominant primaries had larger mushroom body calyx volumes (corrected for both brain and body size variation) than solitary females; socially subordinate secondaries (that are neither dominant nor foragers) had the least-developed mushroom body calyces. These data demonstrate that sociality itself does not explain mushroom body volume; however, achieving and maintaining dominance status in a group was associated with mushroom body calyx enlargement. Dominance and foraging effects were cumulative; dominant social primary foragers had larger mushroom body volumes than solitary foragers, and solitary foragers had larger mushroom body volumes than nonforaging social secondary guards. This is the first evidence for cumulative effects on brain development by

  7. Inelastic photoproduction of ω and rho+-mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.A. Jr.; May, E.N.; Abramson, J.; Andrews, D.E.; Harvey, J.; Lobkowicz, F.; Singer, M.N.; Thorndike, E.H.; Nordberg, M.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    We report measurements of inelastic photoproduction of ω and rho +- mesons from hydrogen and deuterium at incident photon energies in the range 7.5-10.5 GeV. For ωΔ and rho - Δ ++ production differential cross sections dsigma/dt' and spin density matrices are presented. For higher missing masses the cross sections dsigma/dM/sub X/ 2 and invariant structure functions F(x) are also given. The data are compared to a one-pion-exchange model. We conclude that pion exchange is dominant for inelastic ω photoproduction, but unimportant for rho +- during annealing, even though the resistively determined transport scattering time increased by a factor of 7.8 during annealing. Orbital depairing was found to follow a relation zeta = zeta 0 + αH 2 and to increase with annealing in a manner expected from the change in mean free path determined from measurements of H/sub cnu/

  8. Revealing inner shell dynamics with inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck, C.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many opportunities provided by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to extend the study of intra-atomic dynamics. As a means of testing dynamic response, inelastic x-ray scattering is particularly promising since it allows us to independently vary the period of the exciting field in both space and time. As an example of this type of work, the author presents experiments performed at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) laboratory, a prototype for the APS. This was inner shell inelastic scattering with a twist: in order to explore a new distance scale an x-ray fluorescence trigger was employed. Aside for the atomic insight gained, the experiment taught them the importance of the time structure of the synchrotron beam for coincidence experiments which are dominated by accidental events

  9. Invasion of a dominant floral resource: effects on the floral community and pollination of native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Karen; Parker, Ingrid M

    2017-01-01

    Through competition for pollinators, invasive plants may suppress native flora. Community-level studies provide an integrative assessment of invasion impacts and insights into factors that influence the vulnerability of different native species. We investigated effects of the nonnative herb Lythrum salicaria on pollination of native species in 14 fens of the eastern United States. We compared visitors per flower for 122 native plant species in invaded and uninvaded fens and incorporated a landscape-scale experiment, removing L. salicaria flowers from three of the invaded fens. Total flower densities were more than three times higher in invaded than uninvaded or removal sites when L. salicaria was blooming. Despite an increase in number of visitors with number of flowers per area, visitors per native flower declined with increasing numbers of flowers. Therefore, L. salicaria invasion depressed visitation to native flowers. In removal sites, visitation to native flowers was similar to uninvaded sites, confirming the observational results and also suggesting that invasion had not generated a persistent build-up of visitor populations. To study species-level impacts, we examined effects of invasion on visitors per flower for the 36 plant species flowering in both invaded and uninvaded fens. On average, the effect of invasion represented about a 20% reduction in visits per flower. We measured the influence of plant traits on vulnerability to L. salicaria invasion using meta-analysis. Bilaterally symmetrical flowers experienced stronger impacts on visitation, and similarity in flower color to L. salicaria weakly intensified competition with the invader for visitors. Finally, we assessed the reproductive consequences of competition with the invader in a dominant flowering shrub, Dasiphora fruticosa. Despite the negative effect of invasion on pollinator visitation in this species, pollen limitation of seed production was not stronger in invaded than in uninvaded

  10. Psychometric function for NU-6 word recognition in noise: effects of first language and dominant language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Zaki, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    The present study attempted to establish psychometric function in individuals whose first language is not English. Psychometric function was obtained for one of the most commonly used clinical tests, the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 (Tillman & Carhart 1966), so that findings could be directly applied to everyday clinical practice. Five groups of 14 normal-hearing, adult listeners differing in their first language and dominant language (English monolinguals, English- and Arabic-dominant Arabic-English bilinguals, and English- and Russian-dominant Russian-English bilinguals) participated. Both forms of the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 test (8 lists of 50 monosyllabic English words) were presented. The lists were randomly assigned to eight signal-to-noise ratios (-3 to 18 dB in 3 dB steps). Listeners responded verbally and in writing. Psychometric functions were derived via logistic regression and described by two parameters: the 50% correct performance level (θ) and the slope (k). Both English-dominant bilingual groups obtained psychometric functions comparable with monolinguals. The θ and k of the functions for these three groups of participants were consistent with the literature. Compared with these three groups, non-English-dominant bilinguals' functions grew significantly more gradually (i.e., a significantly higher θ and a significantly lower k). No differences in either θ or k were found between bilinguals with the same dominant language but different first languages. Bilinguals reporting themselves to be dominant in English generate monolingual-like psychometric functions. By contrast, a different set of psychometric properties describes the function of bilinguals dominant in their first language. Because first language did not appear to be a significant factor in determining bilinguals' functions, it is concluded that English learning history and English proficiency are more important variables than first language for

  11. Phenomenology of deep-inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-03-01

    The field of heavy-ion deep-inelastic reactions is reviewed with particular attention to the experimental picture. The most important degrees of freedom involved in the process are identified and illustrated with relevant experiments. Energy dissipation and mass transfer are discussed in terms of particles and/or phonons exchanged in the process. The equilibration of the fragment neutron-to-proton ratios is inspected for evidence of giant isovector resonances. The angular momentum effects are observed in the fragment angular distributions and the angular momentum transfer is inferred from the magnitude and alignment of the fragments spins. The possible sources of light particles accompanying the deep-inelastic reactions are discussed. The use of the sequentially emitted particles as angular momentum probes is illustrated. The significance and uses of a thermalized component emitted by the dinucleus is reviewed. The possible presence of Fermi jets in the prompt component is shown to be critical to the justification of the one-body theories

  12. The phenomenology of deep-inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The field of heavy-ion deep-inelastic reactions is reviewed with particular attention to the experimental picture. The most important degrees of freedom involved in the process are identified and illustrated with relevant experiments. Energy dissipation and mass transfer are discussed in terms of particles and/or phonons exchanged in the process. The equilibration of the fragment neutron-to-proton ratios is inspected for evidence of giant isovector resonances. The angular momentum effects are observed in the fragment angular distributions and the angular momentum transfer is inferred from the magnitude and alignment of the fragments spins. The possible sources of light particles accompanying the deep-inelastic reactions are discussed. The use of the sequentially emitted particles as angular momentum probes is illustrated. The significance and uses of a thermalized component emitted by the dinucleus is reviewed. The possible presence of Fermi jets in the prompt component is shown to be critical to the justification of the one-body theories. (orig.)

  13. Studies on the value of incorporating the effect of dominance in genetic evaluations of dairy cattle, beef cattle and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tassel CP.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonadditive genetic effects are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of farm animals because of ignorance of thelevel of dominance variance for traits of interest and the difficult computational problems involved. Potential gains fromincluding the effects of dominance in genetic evaluations include “purification” of additive values and availability ofpredictions of specific combining abilities for each pair of prospective parents. This study focused on making evaluation withdominance effects feasible computationally and on ascertaining benefits of such an evaluation for dairy cattle, beef cattle,and swine. Using iteration on data, computing costs for evaluation with dominance effects included costs could be less thantwice expensive as with only an additive model. With Method Â, variance components could be estimated for problemsinvolving up to 10 millions equations. Dominance effects accounted for up to 10% of phenotypic variance; estimates werelarger for growth traits. As a percentage of additive variance, the estimate of dominance variance reached 78% for 21-d litterweight of swine and 47% for post weaning weight of beef cattle. When dominance effects are ignored, additive evaluationsare “contaminated”; effects are greatest for evaluations of dams in a single large family. These changes in ranking wereimportant for dairy cattle, especially for dams of full-sibs, but were less important for swine. Specific combining abilitiescannot be included in sire evaluations and need to be computed separately for each set of parents. The predictions of specificcombining abilities could be used in computerized mating programs via the Internet. Gains from including the dominanceeffect in genetic evaluations would be moderate but would outweigh expenditures to produce those evaluations.

  14. Deep inelastic processes and the parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.

    The lecture was intended as an elementary introduction to the physics of deep inelastic phenomena from the point of view of theory. General formulae and facts concerning inclusive deep inelastic processes in the form: l+N→l'+hadrons (electroproduction, neutrino scattering) are first recalled. The deep inelastic annihilation e + e - →hadrons is then envisaged. The light cone approach, the parton model and their relation are mainly emphasized

  15. Deep inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-07-01

    From the review of deep inelastic electron and muon scattering it is concluded that the puzzle of deep inelastic scattering versus annihilation was replaced with the challenge of the new particles, that the evidence for the simplest quark-algebra models of deep inelastic processes is weaker than a year ago. Definite evidence of scale breaking was found but the specific form of that scale breaking is difficult to extract from the data. 59 references

  16. Hadronic parity violation and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-P.; Prezeau, G.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We compute contributions to the parity-violating (PV) inelastic electron-deuteron scattering asymmetry arising from hadronic PV. While hadronic PV effects can be relatively important in PV threshold electrodisintegration, we find that they are highly suppressed at quasielastic kinematics. The interpretation of the PV quasielastic asymmetry is, thus, largely unaffected by hadronic PV

  17. Lattice dynamics of solid deuterium by inelastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1971-01-01

    The dispersion relations for phonons in solid ortho-deuterium have been measured at 5 °K by inelastic neutron scattering. The results are in good agreement with recent calculations in which quantum effects are taken into account. The data have been fitted to a third-neighbor general force model...

  18. Quantum chromodynamics and deep inelastic e - N scattering at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muta, Taizo

    1979-04-01

    An introductory survey is given on the formulation of QCD in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scatterings. Typical predictions of QCD are presented in the kinematical region of TRISTAN, including detailed descriptions of the scaling violation, QCD correction to the current algebra sum rules, problem of quark masses and higher order effects. Some suggestions for experiments at TRISTAN are made. (author)

  19. Use of inelastic analysis in cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, Douglas J.; Breivik, Nicole L.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of inelastic analysis are discussed. Example calculations and designs showing the implications and significance of factors affecting inelastic analysis are given. From the results described in this paper it can be seen that inelastic analysis provides an improved method for the design of casks. It can also be seen that additional code and standards work is needed to give designers guidance in the use of inelastic analysis. Development of these codes and standards is an area where there is a definite need for additional work. The authors hope that this paper will help to define the areas where that need is most acute

  20. Elastic and inelastic psi production by muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.C.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented on the elastic and inelastic production of psi (3.1). The elastic data are qualitative agreement with the predictions of photon-gluon fusion but have a steeper dependence on Q 2 than the model predicts. A QCD calculation accounts well for the shape of the inelastic data in inelasticity, Q 2 and E/sub γ/, but fails to account for the absolute cross section. At 209 GeV, the cross-section for elastic psi production is 0.36 +- 0.07 nb; for inelastic, 0.28 +- 0.06nb

  1. Skew scattering dominated anomalous Hall effect in Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-07-31

    We investigated the mechanism(s) of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic granular materials by fabricating 100-nm-thick thin films of Cox(MgO)100-x with a Co volume fraction of 34≤x≤100 using co-sputtering at room temperature. We measured the temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) and anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) from 5 K to 300 K in all samples. We found that when x decreases from 100 to 34, the values of ρxx and ρAHE respectively increased by about four and three orders in magnitude. By linearly fitting the data, obtained at 5 K, of anomalous Hall coefficient (Rs) and of ρxx to log(Rs)~γlog(ρxx), we found that our results perfectly fell on a straight line with a slope of γ= 0.97±0.02. This fitting value of γ in Rsρxxγ clearly suggests that skew scattering dominated the AHE in this granular system. To explore the effect of the scattering on the AHE, we performed the same measurements on annealed samples. We found that although both ρxx and ρAHE significantly reduced after annealing, the correlation between them was almost the same, which was confirmed by the fitted value, γ=0.99±0.03. These data strongly suggest that the AHE originates from the skew scattering in Co-MgO granular thin films no matter how strong the scatterings of electrons by the interfaces and defects is. This observation may be of importance to the development of spintronic devices based on MgO.

  2. Mass corrections in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Treiman, S.B.; Wilczek, F.A.

    1977-01-01

    The moment sum rules for deep-inelastic lepton scattering are expected for asymptotically free field theories to display a characteristic pattern of logarithmic departures from scaling at large enough Q 2 . In the large-Q 2 limit these patterns do not depend on hadron or quark masses m. For modest values of Q 2 one expects corrections at the level of powers of m 2 /Q 2 . We discuss the question whether these mass effects are accessible in perturbation theory, as applied to the twist-2 Wilson coefficients and more generally. Our conclusion is that some part of the mass effects must arise from a nonperturbative origin. We also discuss the corrections which arise from higher orders in perturbation theory for very large Q 2 , where mass effects can perhaps be ignored. The emphasis here is on a characterization of the Q 2 , x domain where higher-order corrections are likely to be unimportant

  3. The Effect of Social Dominance Orientation on Perceptions of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Chelsie A.; Gray, Jennifer M.; Nunez, Narina L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested the use of corporal punishment is widely endorsed in our society (Straus, 2000; Straus & Stewart, 1999). Furthermore, perceptions of what constitutes corporal punishment vary. The present study examined social dominance orientation (SDO) and age of child as potential factors that may influence perceptions of what is…

  4. Effect of anneal and quench on the nature of the dominant acceptors in ZnTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensahel, D.; Magnea, N.; Pautrat, J.L.; Pfister, J.C.; Revoil, L.

    1978-01-01

    Anneal and quench studies on high purity ZnTe have shown the dominant role of impurities and their solubilities as functions of stoichiometrical conditions. The role of 'b' acceptor, related to lithium, 'g' acceptor, related to silver, and 'a' acceptor of unknown nature is reported

  5. Limited importance of the dominant-negative effect of TP53 missense mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Liberski, Pawel P; Rieske, Piotr; Szybka, Malgorzata; Piaskowski, Sylwester; Bienkowski, Michal; Hulas-Bigoszewska, Krystyna; Banaszczyk, Mateusz; Zawlik, Izabela; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kordek, Radzislaw

    2011-01-01

    Heterozygosity of TP53 missense mutations is related to the phenomenon of the dominant-negative effect (DNE). To estimate the importance of the DNE of TP53 mutations, we analysed the percentage of cancer cases showing a single heterozygous mutation of TP53 and searched for a cell line with a single heterozygous mutation of this gene. This approach was based on the knowledge that genes with evident DNE, such as EGFR and IDH1, represent nearly 100% of single heterozygous mutations in tumour specimens and cell lines. Genetic analyses (LOH and sequencing) performed for early and late passages of several cell lines originally described as showing single heterozygous TP53 mutations (H-318, G-16, PF-382, MOLT-13, ST-486 and LS-123). Statistical analysis of IARC TP53 and SANGER databases. Genetic analyses of N-RAS, FBXW7, PTEN and STR markers to test cross-contamination and cell line identity. Cell cloning, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and SSCP performed for the PF-382 cell line. A database study revealed TP53 single heterozygous mutations in 35% of in vivo (surgical and biopsy) samples and only 10% of cultured cells (in vitro), although those numbers appeared to be overestimated. We deem that published in vivo TP53 mutation analyses are not as rigorous as studies in vitro, and we did not find any cell line showing a stable, single heterozygous mutation. G16, PF-382 and MOLT-13 cells harboured single heterozygous mutations temporarily. ST-486, H-318 and LS-123 cell lines were misclassified. Specific mutations, such as R175H, R273H, R273L or R273P, which are reported in the literature to exert a DNE, showed the lowest percentage of single heterozygous mutations in vitro (about 5%). We suggest that the currently reported percentage of TP53 single heterozygous mutations in tumour samples and cancer cell lines is overestimated. Thus, the magnitude of the DNE of TP53 mutations is questionable. This scepticism is supported by database investigations showing that retention

  6. Topics in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandzura, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Several topics in deep inelastic lepton--nucleon scattering are discussed, with emphasis on the structure functions appearing in polarized experiments. The major results are: infinite set of new sum rules reducing the number of independent spin dependent structure functions (for electroproduction) from two to one; the application of the techniques of Nachtmann to extract the coefficients appearing in the Wilson operator product expansion; and radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients of free field theory. Also discussed are the use of dimensional regularization to simplify the calculation of these radiative corrections

  7. Inelastic scattering from amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.

    1985-08-01

    The potential of inelastic neutron scattering techniques for surveying various aspects of the dynamics of amorphous solids is briefly reviewed. The recent use of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source to provide detailed information on the optical vibrations of glasses is discussed in more detail. The density of states represents an averaged quantity which gives information about the general characteristics of the structure and bonding. More extensive information can be obtained by studying the detailed wavevector dependence of the dynamic structure factor. 15 refs., 7 figs

  8. Inelastic J/ψphotoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.

    1995-04-01

    Inelastic photoproduction of J/ψ particles at high energies is one of the processes to determine the gluon distribution in the nucleon. The QCD radiative corrections to the color-singlet model of this reaction have recently been calculated. They are large at moderate photon energies, but decrease with increasing energies. I compare the cross section and the J/ψ energy spectrum with the available fixed-target photoproduction data. Predictions for the HERA energy range are given which demonstrate the sensitivity of the result to the parametrization of the gluon distribution in the small-x region. (orig.)

  9. Stereodynamics in NO(X) + Ar inelastic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouard, M., E-mail: mark.brouard@chem.ox.ac.uk; Chadwick, H.; Gordon, S. D. S.; Hornung, B.; Nichols, B. [The Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, The Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Aoiz, F. J., E-mail: aoiz@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stolte, S., E-mail: s.stolte@vu.nl [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-06-14

    The effect of orientation of the NO(X) bond axis prior to rotationally inelastic collisions with Ar has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A modification to conventional velocity-map imaging ion optics is described, which allows the orientation of hexapole state-selected NO(X) using a static electric field, followed by velocity map imaging of the resonantly ionized scattered products. Bond orientation resolved differential cross sections are measured experimentally for a series of spin-orbit conserving transitions and compared with quantum mechanical calculations. The agreement between experimental results and those from quantum mechanical calculations is generally good. Parity pairs, which have previously been observed in collisions of unpolarized NO with various rare gases, are not observed due to the coherent superposition of the two j = 1/2, Ω = 1/2 Λ-doublet levels in the orienting field. The normalized difference differential cross sections are found to depend predominantly on the final rotational state, and are not very sensitive to the final Λ-doublet level. The differential steric effect has also been investigated theoretically, by means of quantum mechanical and classical calculations. Classically, the differential steric effect can be understood by considering the steric requirement for different types of trajectories that contribute to different regions of the differential cross section. However, classical effects cannot account quantitatively for the differential steric asymmetry observed in NO(X) + Ar collisions, which reflects quantum interference from scattering at either end of the molecule. This quantum interference effect is dominated by the repulsive region of the potential.

  10. Consequences of inelastic discrete-level neutron-collision mechanics for inelastic continuum scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E. (Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands))

    1983-01-01

    From the collision mechanics of inelastic discrete-level scattering several properties are derived for the secondary-neutron energy distribution (SNED) for inelastic continuum scattering, when conceived as scattering with continuously-distributed inelastic levels. Using assumptions about the level density and neutron cross section the SNED can be calculated and some examples are shown. A formula is derived to calculate from a given inelastic continuum SNED a function, which is proportional to the level density and the neutron cross section. From this relation further conditions follow for the SNED. Representations for the inelastic continuum SNED currently in use do not, in general, satisfy most of the derived conditions.

  11. Consequences of inelastic discrete-level neutron-collision mechanics for inelastic continuum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    From the collision mechanics of inelastic discrete-level scattering several properties are derived for the secondary-neutron energy distribution (SNED) for inelastic continuum scattering, when conceived as scattering with continuously-distributed inelastic levels. Using assumptions about the level density and neutron cross section the SNED can be calculated and some examples are shown. A formula is derived to calculate from a given inelastic continuum SNED a function, which is proportional to the level density and the neutron cross section. From this relation further conditions follow for the SNED. Representations for the inelastic continuum SNED currently in use do not, in general, satisfy most of the derived conditions. (author)

  12. Computerized measures of finger tapping: effects of hand dominance, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Kerry A; Reed, Bruce; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2013-06-01

    Computerized measures of digit tapping rate were obtained over 3 successive, 10-sec. periods in the right and left index fingers, from a community sample of 1,519 participants (ages 18 to 65 years; 607 men, 912 women). Differences between the dominant and non-dominant hands were found for tapping rate, movement initiation, and button down times, and the decline in tapping rate over the successive, 10-sec. periods. Declines were found in tapping rate in older participants in association with increased intertap variability. Men had higher tapping rates than women in all age ranges. The computerized finger tapping test is an efficient and precise measure of tapping speed and kinetics of potential utility in research and clinical studies of motor performance.

  13. The effects of soil drying on the growth of a dominant peatland species, Carex lasiocarpa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Jihong; Wang, Ping; Weiner, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The drying of wetlands due to natural and anthropogenic factors has become a serious problem globally. Understanding the tolerance of the dominant hygrophytic plants to drought would help in establishing effective management for the maintenance, protection and restoration of wetlands. We conducted...

  14. Effect of bottom stress formulation on modelled flow and turbidity maxima in cross-sections of tide-dominated estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramkowski, G.P.; de Swart, H.E.; Schuttelaars, H.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model with a prognostic salinity field is used to investigate the effect of a partial slip bottom boundary condition on lateral flow and sediment distribution in a transect of a tidally dominated channel. The transect has a symmetrical Gaussian cross-channel bottom

  15. Fine-mapping additive and dominant SNP effects using group-LASSO and Fractional Resample Model Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jeremy; Nobel, Andrew B.; Valdar, William

    2014-01-01

    Genomewide association studies sometimes identify loci at which both the number and identities of the underlying causal variants are ambiguous. In such cases, statistical methods that model effects of multiple SNPs simultaneously can help disentangle the observed patterns of association and provide information about how those SNPs could be prioritized for follow-up studies. Current multi-SNP methods, however, tend to assume that SNP effects are well captured by additive genetics; yet when genetic dominance is present, this assumption translates to reduced power and faulty prioritizations. We describe a statistical procedure for prioritizing SNPs at GWAS loci that efficiently models both additive and dominance effects. Our method, LLARRMA-dawg, combines a group LASSO procedure for sparse modeling of multiple SNP effects with a resampling procedure based on fractional observation weights; it estimates for each SNP the robustness of association with the phenotype both to sampling variation and to competing explanations from other SNPs. In producing a SNP prioritization that best identifies underlying true signals, we show that: our method easily outperforms a single marker analysis; when additive-only signals are present, our joint model for additive and dominance is equivalent to or only slightly less powerful than modeling additive-only effects; and, when dominance signals are present, even in combination with substantial additive effects, our joint model is unequivocally more powerful than a model assuming additivity. We also describe how performance can be improved through calibrated randomized penalization, and discuss how dominance in ungenotyped SNPs can be incorporated through either heterozygote dosage or multiple imputation. PMID:25417853

  16. The effect of long-term isolation in the confined space on the ground dominance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Lukavský, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, Suppl. (2011), s. 148-148 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception /34./. 28.08.2011-01.09.2011, Toulouse] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/09/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : visual space perception * ground dominance * long-term isolation Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.perceptionweb.com/abstract.cgi?id=v110655

  17. Dominant lethal and ovarian effects of plutonium-239 in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, A.G.; Beechey, C.V.; Green, D.; Howells, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    (C3H x 101)F 1 female mice were injected intravenously with 239 Pu in trisodium citrate, then mated in pairs to strain CBA males, to test for dominant lethality. In the first experiment 10μCi kg -1 and in the second 20μCi kg -1 body mass was injected. Matings were after 6 days in the first experiment (estimated ovarian absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy) and after 3,6 or 12 weeks in the second (estimated ovarian doses of 1.11, 2.45 and 5.91 Gy respectively). No evidence of dominant lethal induction was found in the first experiment, but in the second there was a significant increase over controls in pre-implantation loss in all three series. Post-implantation lethality increased significantly (by 12%) only after 12 weeks' exposure. With the 6- and 12-week exposures (especially the latter) luteal counts fell, fewer females becoming pregnant than in controls. This is attributed to oocyte killing by the α-particles. Histological and autoradiographic investigations showed a marked reduction in ovarian size and follicular numbers with fission-tracks clustered mainly over the medullary stroma. The preimplantation loss may stem from lowered fertilization of oocytes because of their damage, so that the best measure of dominant lethality is that based on post-implantation death. (author)

  18. Geometric Scaling Analysis of Deep Inelastic Scattering Data Including Heavy Quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qing-Dong; Zeng Ji; Hu Yuan-Yuan; Li Quan-Bo; Xiang Wen-Chang; Zhou Dai-Cui

    2016-01-01

    An analytic massive total cross section of photon-proton scattering is derived, which has geometric scaling. A geometric scaling is used to perform a global analysis of the deep inelastic scattering data on inclusive structure function F_2 measured in lepton–hadron scattering experiments at small values of Bjorken x. It is shown that the descriptions of the inclusive structure function F_2 and longitudinal structure function F_L are improved with the massive analytic structure function, which may imply the gluon saturation effect dominating the parton evolution process at HERA. The inclusion of the heavy quarks prevent the divergence of the lepton–hadron cross section, which plays a significant role in the description of the photoproduction region. (paper)

  19. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alekseev, M G; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anosov, V; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Berlin, A; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bodlak, M; Boer, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Burtin, E; Capozza, L; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P.D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Guskov, A; Guthorl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hahne, D; Hashimoto, R; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hinterberger, F; Hoppner, Ch; Horikawa, N; d'Hose, N; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joerg, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kral, Z; Kramer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuchinski, N; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu. V; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Novy, J; Nowak, W D; Nunes, A S; Orlov, I; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Reicherz, G; Rocco, E; Rodionov, V; Rondio, E; Rychter, A; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schluter, T; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Suzuki, H; Szabeleski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wang, L; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH$_{3}$) targets are presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year $2010$ with the COMPASS spectrometer using a $160\\,\\mbox{GeV}/c$ muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about three the available statistics of the previously published data taken in the year $2007$. The measured sizeable asymmetry is in good agreement with the published data. An approximate equality of the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry is observed, suggesting a common physical mechanism in the underlying fragmentation.

  20. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon–proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3 targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year 2010 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about four the overall statistics with respect to the previously published data taken in the year 2007. The measured sizeable asymmetry is in good agreement with the published data. An approximate equality of the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry is observed, suggesting a common physical mechanism in the underlying fragmentation.

  1. Earthquake response of inelastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Vaity, K.N.; Reddy, .R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    The most commonly used method in the seismic analysis of structures is the response spectrum method. For seismic re-evaluation of existing facilities elastic response spectrum method cannot be used directly as large deformation above yield may be observed under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). The plastic deformation, i.e. hysteretic characteristics of various elements of the structure cause dissipation of energy. Hence the values of damping given by the code, which does not account hysteretic energy dissipation cannot be directly used. In this paper, appropriate damping values are evaluated for 5-storey, 10-storey and 15-storey shear beam structures, which deform beyond their yield limit. Linear elastic analysis is performed for the same structures using these damping values and the storey forces are compared with those obtained using inelastic time history analysis. A damping model, which relates ductility of the structure and damping, is developed. Using his damping model, a practical structure is analysed and results are compared with inelastic time history analysis and the comparison is found to be good

  2. Dominance genetic and maternal effects for genetic evaluation of egg production traits in dual-purpose chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasouri, M; Zamani, P; Alijani, S

    2017-10-01

    1. A study was conducted to study direct dominance genetic and maternal effects on genetic evaluation of production traits in dual-purpose chickens. The data set consisted of records of body weight and egg production of 49 749 Mazandaran fowls from 19 consecutive generations. Based on combinations of different random effects, including direct additive and dominance genetic and maternal additive genetic and environmental effects, 8 different models were compared. 2. Inclusion of a maternal genetic effect in the models noticeably improved goodness of fit for all traits. Direct dominance genetic effect did not have noticeable effects on goodness of fit but simultaneous inclusion of both direct dominance and maternal additive genetic effects improved fitting criteria and accuracies of genetic parameter estimates for hatching body weight and egg production traits. 3. Estimates of heritability (h 2 ) for body weights at hatch, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age (BW0, BW8 and BW12, respectively), age at sexual maturity (ASM), average egg weights at 28-32 weeks of laying period (AEW), egg number (EN) and egg production intensity (EI) were 0.08, 0.21, 0.22, 0.22, 0.21, 0.09 and 0.10, respectively. For BW0, BW8, BW12, ASM, AEW, EN and EI, proportion of dominance genetic to total phenotypic variance (d 2 ) were 0.06, 0.08, 0.01, 0.06, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.07 and maternal heritability estimates (m 2 ) were 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, 0.13, 0.21, 0.07 and 0.03, respectively. Negligible coefficients of maternal environmental effect (c 2 ) from 0.01 to 0.08 were estimated for all traits, other than BW0, which had an estimate of 0.30. 4. Breeding values (BVs) estimated for body weights at early ages (BW0 and BW8) were considerably affected by components of the models, but almost similar BVs were estimated by different models for higher age body weight (BW12) and egg production traits (ASM, AEW, EN and EI). Generally, it could be concluded that inclusion of maternal effects (both genetic and

  3. Elastic and inelastic photon scattering on the atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Works on investigation of elastic and inelastic scattering of photons on heavy and intermediate nuclei are briefly reviewed. Theoretical problems of nuclear and electron Tompson, Releev and Delbrueck scatterings as well as nuclear resonance scattering are briefly discussed. It is shown that differential cross section of coherent elastic scattering is expressed by means of partial amplitudes of shown processes. Experimental investigations on elastic scattering in the region of threshold energies of photonucleon reactions are described. Problems of theoretical description of elastic scattering in different variants of collective models are considered. Discussed are works, investigating channels of inelastic photon scattering with excitation of nuclear Raman effect. It is noted that to describe channels of inelastic photon scattering it is necessary to use models, that correctly regard the microscopic structure of giant resonance levels to obtain information on the nature of these levels. Investigations of processes of photon elastic and inelastic scattering connected with fundamental characteristics of atomic nucleus, permit to obtain valuable spectroscopic information on high-lying levels of nucleus. Detail investigation of photon scattering in a wide range of energies is necessary [ru

  4. Deep Inelastic Scattering in Conformal QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Penedones, Joao

    2010-01-01

    We consider the Regge limit of a CFT correlation function of two vector and two scalar operators, as appropriate to study small-x deep inelastic scattering in N=4 SYM or in QCD assuming approximate conformal symmetry. After clarifying the nature of the Regge limit for a CFT correlator, we use its conformal partial wave expansion to obtain an impact parameter representation encoding the exchange of a spin j Reggeon for any value of the coupling constant. The CFT impact parameter space is the three-dimensional hyperbolic space H3, which is the impact parameter space for high energy scattering in the dual AdS space. We determine the small-x structure functions associated to the exchange of a Reggeon. We discuss unitarization from the point of view of scattering in AdS and comment on the validity of the eikonal approximation. We then focus on the weak coupling limit of the theory where the amplitude is dominated by the exchange of the BFKL pomeron. Conformal invariance fixes the form of the vector impact factor a...

  5. Neutron Inelastic Scattering Study of Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoeld, K; Rowe, J M; Ostrowski, G [Solid State Science Div., Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (US); Randolph, P D [Nuclear Technology Div., Idaho Nuclear Corporation, Idaho Falls, Idaho (US)

    1972-02-15

    The inelastic scattering functions for liquid argon have been measured at 85.2 K. The coherent scattering function was obtained from a measurement on pure A-36 and the incoherent function was derived from the result obtained from the A-36 sample and the result obtained from a mixture of A-36 and A-40 for which the scattering is predominantly incoherent. The data, which are presented as smooth scattering functions at constant values of the wave vector transfer in the range 10 - 44/nm, are corrected for multiple scattering contributions and for resolution effects. Such corrections are shown to be essential in the derivation of reliable scattering functions from neutron scattering data. The incoherent data are compared to recent molecular dynamics results and the mean square displacement as a function of time is derived. The coherent data are compared to molecular dynamics results and also, briefly, to some recent theoretical models

  6. Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badelek, B.

    1992-01-01

    Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering is analysed using the double interaction formalism where we relate shadowing to inclusive diffractive processes. Both the vector meson and parton contributions are considered for low and high Q 2 values including QCD corrections with parton recombination for high Q 2 . These Q 2 values were chosen to correspond to existing experimental data and to the possible HERA measurements. Detailed discussion of various shadowing mechanisms is given. As expected the shadowing effects are found to be very small, less then 2% or so, in agreement with the recent precise measurements performed by the New Muon Collaboration. The contribution of shadowing term to the Gottfried sum the region x > 0.004 and for Q 2 = 4 GeV 2 is estimated to be equal to -0.025. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  7. Quark antisymmetrization and deep-inelastic scattering. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Mulders, P.J.; Spit, W.F.M.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the effects of quark antisymmetrization for nuclear structure functions. Antisymmetrizing the naive folding of nuclear wave functions in terms of nucleons and the nucleon wave function in terms of quarks, introduces additional contributions. Using the calculated results on quark three-momentum distributions, we calculate the effects on the deep-inelastic structure functions for s- and p-wave nuclei. The effects of quark antisymmetrization turn out to be small. (orig.)

  8. The effects of radiation dose-rate and quality on the induction of dominant lethals in mouse spermatids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, A.G.; Beechey, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    Hybrid male mice were given 3 Gy (300 rad) doses of X- or γ-irradiation at dose-rates of either 0.6 or 0.002 Gy/min for each radiation. Germ-cells treated as spermatids were tested for dominant lethality. Effects on spermatogonia were evaluated by studying testis-weight, sperm-count and sperm abnormalities. The rate of induction of dominant lethal mutations was 2.1 times as high after acute X-irradiation as after protracted γ-irradiation. Most of this difference resulted from the change in radiation quality, since the relative effectiveness of X- versus γ-irradiation was 1.9 at low and 1.6 at high dose rates. For each radiation, however, fewer dominant lethals were induced at low dose-rates than at high (low/high ratios of 0.8 and 0.9 respectively) although differences did not reach a significant level. There were no statistically significant effects of dose rate on testis-weight of sperm-count in the X-ray series, but there were significantly less severe effects on both with protraction of the γ-irradiation. Evidence for effects of radiation quality on these characters was conflicting. Frequencies of abnormal spermatozoa were markedly increased 7 weeks after irradiation but there were no consistent effects of radiation intensity or quality. (orig.)

  9. Inelastic Transport through Molecules: Comparing First-Principles Calculations to Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsson, Magnus; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2006-01-01

    We present calculations of the elastic and inelastic conductance through three different hydrocarbon molecules connected to gold electrodes. Our method is based on a combination of the nonequilibrium Green's function method with density functional theory. Vibrational effects in these molecular...

  10. Effect of STS space suit on astronaut dominant upper limb EVA work performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenisen, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The STS Space Suited and unsuited dominant upper limb performance was evaluated in order to quantify future EVA astronaut skeletal muscle upper limb performance expectations. Testing was performed with subjects standing in EVA STS foot restraints. Data was collected with a CYBEX Dynamometer enclosed in a waterproof container. Control data was taken in one g. During one g testing, weight of the Space Suit was relieved from the subject via an overhead crane with a special connection to the PLSS of the suit. Experimental data was acquired during simulated zero g, accomplished by neutral buoyancy in the Weightless Environment Training Facility. Unsuited subjects became neutrally buoyant via SCUBA BC vests. Actual zero g experimental data was collected during parabolic arc flights on board NASA's modified KC-135 aircraft. During all test conditions, subjects performed five EVA work tasks requiring dominant upper limb performance and ten individual joint articulation movements. Dynamometer velocities for each tested movement were 0 deg/sec, 30 or 60 deg/sec and 120 or 180 deg/sec, depending on the test, with three repetitions per test. Performance was measured in foot pounds of torque.

  11. The effect of fMRI task combinations on determining the hemispheric dominance of language functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niskanen, Eini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Applied Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Villberg, Ville; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Nissi, Mikko; Ranta-aho, Perttu; Karjalainen, Pasi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Applied Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Saeisaenen, Laura; Mervaala, Esa [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kaelviaeinen, Reetta [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish the most suitable combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language tasks for clinical use in determining language dominance and to define the variability in laterality index (LI) and activation power between different combinations of language tasks. Activation patterns of different fMRI analyses of five language tasks (word generation, responsive naming, letter task, sentence comprehension, and word pair) were defined for 20 healthy volunteers (16 right-handed). LIs and sums of T values were calculated for each task separately and for four combinations of tasks in predefined regions of interest. Variability in terms of activation power and lateralization was defined in each analysis. In addition, the visual assessment of lateralization of language functions based on the individual fMRI activation maps was conducted by an experienced neuroradiologist. A combination analysis of word generation, responsive naming, and sentence comprehension was the most suitable in terms of activation power, robustness to detect essential language areas, and scanning time. In general, combination analyses of the tasks provided higher overall activation levels than single tasks and reduced the number of outlier voxels disturbing the calculation of LI. A combination of auditory and visually presented tasks that activate different aspects of language functions with sufficient activation power may be a useful task battery for determining language dominance in patients. (orig.)

  12. The effect of fMRI task combinations on determining the hemispheric dominance of language functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niskanen, Eini; Koenoenen, Mervi; Villberg, Ville; Aeikiae, Marja; Nissi, Mikko; Ranta-aho, Perttu; Karjalainen, Pasi; Saeisaenen, Laura; Mervaala, Esa; Kaelviaeinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish the most suitable combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language tasks for clinical use in determining language dominance and to define the variability in laterality index (LI) and activation power between different combinations of language tasks. Activation patterns of different fMRI analyses of five language tasks (word generation, responsive naming, letter task, sentence comprehension, and word pair) were defined for 20 healthy volunteers (16 right-handed). LIs and sums of T values were calculated for each task separately and for four combinations of tasks in predefined regions of interest. Variability in terms of activation power and lateralization was defined in each analysis. In addition, the visual assessment of lateralization of language functions based on the individual fMRI activation maps was conducted by an experienced neuroradiologist. A combination analysis of word generation, responsive naming, and sentence comprehension was the most suitable in terms of activation power, robustness to detect essential language areas, and scanning time. In general, combination analyses of the tasks provided higher overall activation levels than single tasks and reduced the number of outlier voxels disturbing the calculation of LI. A combination of auditory and visually presented tasks that activate different aspects of language functions with sufficient activation power may be a useful task battery for determining language dominance in patients. (orig.)

  13. Forage digestibility and intake by lesser snow geese: effects of dominance and resource heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; White, Robert G.; Sedinger, James S.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1996-01-01

    We measured forage intake, digestibility, and retention time for 11 free-ranging, human-imprinted lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) as they consumed underground stembases of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium) on an arctic staging area in northeastern Alaska. Geese fed in small patches (x̄=21.5 m2) of forage that made up ≤3% of the study area and consisted of high-quality “aquatic graminoid” and intermediate-quality “wet sedge” vegetation types. Dominant geese spent more time feeding in aquatic graminoid areas (r=0.61), but less total time feeding and more time resting than subdominant geese. Subdominant geese were displaced to areas of wet sedge where cotton-grass was a smaller proportion of underground biomass. Geese metabolized an average of 48% of the organic matter in stembases and there was a positive correlation between dominance and organic matter metabolizability (r=0.61). Total mean retention time of forage was 1.37 h and dry matter intake was 14.3 g/h. Snow geese that stage on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea likely use an extensive area because they consume a large mass of forage and exploit habitats that are patchily distributed and make up a small percentage of the landscape. Individual variation in nutrient absorption may result from agonistic interactions in an environment where resources are heterogeneously distributed.

  14. The effect of fMRI task combinations on determining the hemispheric dominance of language functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Eini; Könönen, Mervi; Villberg, Ville; Nissi, Mikko; Ranta-Aho, Perttu; Säisänen, Laura; Karjalainen, Pasi; Aikiä, Marja; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Mervaala, Esa; Vanninen, Ritva

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish the most suitable combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language tasks for clinical use in determining language dominance and to define the variability in laterality index (LI) and activation power between different combinations of language tasks. Activation patterns of different fMRI analyses of five language tasks (word generation, responsive naming, letter task, sentence comprehension, and word pair) were defined for 20 healthy volunteers (16 right-handed). LIs and sums of T values were calculated for each task separately and for four combinations of tasks in predefined regions of interest. Variability in terms of activation power and lateralization was defined in each analysis. In addition, the visual assessment of lateralization of language functions based on the individual fMRI activation maps was conducted by an experienced neuroradiologist. A combination analysis of word generation, responsive naming, and sentence comprehension was the most suitable in terms of activation power, robustness to detect essential language areas, and scanning time. In general, combination analyses of the tasks provided higher overall activation levels than single tasks and reduced the number of outlier voxels disturbing the calculation of LI. A combination of auditory and visually presented tasks that activate different aspects of language functions with sufficient activation power may be a useful task battery for determining language dominance in patients.

  15. A quark-parton description of the deep inelastic scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    A consistent description of various deep inelastic processes in a quark-parton model is presented. The valence quark probability distribution and the form of core quark probability distribution is fixed from the deep inelastic electroproduction data. Langacker and Suzuki prescription is used to fix the p and n quark core distribution. The differential excitation of quark currents similar to the Harari model of e + e - annihilation process is invoked in deep inelastic electroproduction and neutrino reactions. An effective phenomenological form of the weak currents associated with new quarks and the associated nucleon structure is determined. (author)

  16. Deep-inelastic electroproduction of neutrons in the proton fragmentation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B.; Povh, B.; Potashnikova, I.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments at HERA looking for deep-inelastic electroproduction of neutrons in the proton fragmentation region are in process. They are aimed to measure the pion structure function at small Bjorken x. The important condition for such a study is to establish under what kinematical conditions the dominance of the pion-pole graph in the process is guaranteed. We analyse other sources of the leading neutron, in order to figure out the kinematical region where the one-pion exchange dominates. (orig.)

  17. Deep inelastic scattering and disquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most comprehensive and detailed analyses of the existing data on the structure function F 2 (x, Q 2 ) of free nucleons, from the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of charged leptons on hydrogen and deuterium targets, have proved beyond any doubt that higher twist, 1/Q 2 corrections are needed in order to obtain a perfect agreement between perturbative QCD predictions and the data. These higher twist corrections take into account two quark correlations inside the nucleon; it is then natural to try to model them in the quark-diquark model of the proton. In so doing all interactions between the two quarks inside the diquark, both perturbative and non perturbative, are supposed to be taken into account. (orig./HSI)

  18. Jets in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, L.

    1995-01-01

    Jet production in deep inelastic scattering provides a basis for the investigation of various phenomena related to QCD. Two-jet production at large Q 2 has been studied and the distributions with respect to the partonic scaling variables have been compared to models and to next to leading order calculations. The first observations of azimuthal asymmetries of jets produced in first order α s processes have been obtained. The gluon initiated boson-gluon fusion process permits a direct determination of the gluon density of the proton from an analysis of the jets produced in the hard scattering process. A comparison of these results with those from indirect extractions of the gluon density provides an important test of QCD. (author)

  19. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  20. Effect of Light Intensity on the Relative Dominance of Toxigenic and Nontoxigenic Strains of Microcystis aeruginosa ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc Renaud, Susan; Pick, Frances R.; Fortin, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, the factors that regulate the dominance of toxin-producing cyanobacteria over non-toxin-producing strains of the same species are largely unknown. One possible hypothesis is that limiting resources lead to the dominance of the latter because of the metabolic costs associated with toxin production. In this study, we tested the effect of light intensity on the performance of a microcystin-producing strain of Microcystis aeruginosa (UTCC 300) when grown in mixed cultures with non-microcystin-producing strains with similar intrinsic growth rates (UTCC 632 and UTCC 633). The endpoints measured included culture growth rates, microcystin concentrations and composition, and mcyD gene copy numbers determined using quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). In contrast to the predicted results, under conditions of low light intensity (20 μmol·m−2·s−1), the toxigenic strain became dominant in both of the mixed cultures based on gene copy numbers and microcystin concentrations. When grown under conditions of high light intensity (80 μmol·m−2·s−1), the toxigenic strain still appeared to dominate over nontoxigenic strain UTCC 632 but less so over strain UTCC 633. Microcystins may not be so costly to produce that toxigenic cyanobacteria are at a disadvantage in competition for limiting resources. PMID:21841026

  1. The effects of stereotypes of women's performance in male-dominated hierarchies: Stereotype threat activation and reduction through role models

    OpenAIRE

    Latu, V.; Schmid Mast, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as m...

  2. Effect of Sediment Availability in Bedload-Dominated Rivers on Fluvial Geomorphic Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Channels are known to compensate for changes in sediment supply via covariate changes in channel properties, yet the timescale for adjustment remains poorly constrained. We propose that reductions in sediment flux inhibit equilibrium re-establishment and thus impact the timescale of system adjustment. Using run-of-river dams as natural experiments, this study quantifies the geomorphic response of channels to sediment supply reduction. Channel traits that facilitate increased sediment trapping behind the dam, such as large reservoir storage capacity relative to annual inflow and low slope, were expected to inhibit a channel's ability to re-establish equilibrium following impoundment, lengthening the equilibrium establishment timescale to tens or hundreds of years. Reaches associated with increased trapping were therefore anticipated to exhibit non-equilibrium forms. Channel equilibrium was evaluated downstream of 8 ROR dams in New England with varying degrees of sediment trapping. Sites cover a range of watershed sizes (3-155 km2), channel slopes (.05-5%), 2-year discharges (1.5-60 m3/s) and storage capacity volumes. Because equilibrium channel form is just sufficient to mobilize grains under bankfull conditions in bedload-dominated rivers, the Shields parameter was used to assess equilibrium form. Unregulated, upstream Shields values and regulated, downstream values were calculated at 14 total cross-sections extending 300-450 m upstream and downstream of each dam. Sediment trapping was estimated using Brune's curve (1953). On the Charles Brown Brook (VT), a marginally significant (p=0.08) increase in Shields values from a mean of 0.14 upstream to 0.41 downstream of a 100+ year old dam was observed. In contrast, reaches downstream of the 100+ year old Pelham dam (MA) exhibit significantly lower Shields values. This suggests that trapping behind the dam inhibits the downstream channel from reaching an equilibrium state, but not always in the same way. Better

  3. Inelastic collisions of neon 22 nuclei with photoemulsion at 4.1 A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstov, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Inelastic collisions of neon-22 nuclei accelerated at the JINR synchrophasotron with BR-2 photoemulsion nuclei are investigated. Colliding nuclei fragmentation including their total disintegration, pion production, correlation ratios are studied. There are particular cases of 22 Ne-emulsion collisions, i.e. manifestation of collective effects in inelastic collisions of relativistic nuclei

  4. Sensitivity of the elastic scattering matrix elements to the range of the inelastic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitscher, G.H.; Rasoanaivo, R.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The solution to a system of coupled equations is examined with regard to the effect of the long range part of the inelastic potentials upon the elastic phase shifts. It is found that those parts of the inelastic potentials which occur beyond the range of the elastic to inelastic transition potentials affect the elastic phase shifts in only a minor way. The proof is given theoretically by means of a Green's function formulation which includes the long range part of the inelastic potentials perturbatively. When applied to the calculation of the effect of breakup on the deuteron-nucleus elastic scattering, the argument confirms the finding that errors in the long range part of the potentials in the breakup channels do not sensitively affect the elastic deuteron scattering cross section. This result explains why the elastic scattering is not very sensitive to the choice of the discretization procedure of the breakup space

  5. Role of functionally dominant species in varying environmental regimes: evidence for the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langenheder Silke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory suggests that biodiversity can act as a buffer against disturbances and environmental variability via two major mechanisms: Firstly, a stabilising effect by decreasing the temporal variance in ecosystem functioning due to compensatory processes; and secondly, a performance enhancing effect by raising the level of community response through the selection of better performing species. Empirical evidence for the stabilizing effect of biodiversity is readily available, whereas experimental confirmation of the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity is sparse. Results Here, we test the effect of different environmental regimes (constant versus fluctuating temperature on bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations. We show that positive effects of species richness on ecosystem functioning are enhanced by stronger temperature fluctuations due to the increased performance of individual species. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for the performance enhancing effect and suggest that selection towards functionally dominant species is likely to benefit the maintenance of ecosystem functioning under more variable conditions.

  6. Role of functionally dominant species in varying environmental regimes: evidence for the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheder, Silke; Bulling, Mark T; Prosser, James I; Solan, Martin

    2012-07-30

    Theory suggests that biodiversity can act as a buffer against disturbances and environmental variability via two major mechanisms: Firstly, a stabilising effect by decreasing the temporal variance in ecosystem functioning due to compensatory processes; and secondly, a performance enhancing effect by raising the level of community response through the selection of better performing species. Empirical evidence for the stabilizing effect of biodiversity is readily available, whereas experimental confirmation of the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity is sparse. Here, we test the effect of different environmental regimes (constant versus fluctuating temperature) on bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations. We show that positive effects of species richness on ecosystem functioning are enhanced by stronger temperature fluctuations due to the increased performance of individual species. Our results provide evidence for the performance enhancing effect and suggest that selection towards functionally dominant species is likely to benefit the maintenance of ecosystem functioning under more variable conditions.

  7. Inclusive measurements of pion double charge exchange and inelastic scattering on 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuly, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    A measurement was made at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) of the doubly differential cross sections for three inclusive pion reactions on 3 He: π - double charge exchange (DCX), and π + and π - inelastic scattering. The cross sections for DCX were measured at incident energies of 120, 180, 210, and 240 MeV, and at angles of 25, 50, 80, 105, and 130 degrees, while inelastic scattering cross sections were measured at 120, 180, and 240 MeV and scattering angles of 50, 80, 105, and 130 degrees. The final pion energy spectrum was measured from 10 MeV up to the kinematic limit. In the Δ resonance region, where the isospin T = 3/2 channel dominates, the inelastic π - scattering should be almost entirely from the lone neutron in 3 He. The π + inelastic scattering was expected to have significant contributions from both single and double scattering, because the T = 3/2 channel favors π + -p scattering from the two protons in 3 He. The 3 He DCX spectra are similar to those observed for DCX in 4 He. The forward angle double peaks can be understood as a consequence of sequential single charge exchange (SSCX). Calculations using the SSCX model are in rough agreement with the measured shape of the 3 He DCX spectra. The doubly differential cross sections measured for the inelastic scattering reactions exhibit a strong enhancement near the kinematics for free π - -p scattering. The ratios of π + to π - scattering cross sections may indicate multiple scattering, as well as the agreement of the low outgoing energy part of the π + inelastic scattering spectra with the corresponding properly scaled DCX spectra. A distorted-wave impulse-approximation (DWIA) calculation of the quasielastic cross sections has been performed and a comparison made with the measured inelastic cross sections

  8. Computer modeling of inelastic wave propagation in porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, J.A.; Schatz, J.F.; Snell, C.

    1979-01-01

    Computer modeling of wave propagation in porous rock has several important applications. Among them are prediction of fragmentation and permeability changes to be caused by chemical explosions used for in situ resource recovery, and the understanding of nuclear explosion effects such as seismic wave generation, containment, and site hardness. Of interest in all these applications are the distance from the source to which inelastic effects persist and the amount of porosity change within the inelastic region. In order to study phenomena related to these applications, the Cam Clay family of models developed at Cambridge University was used to develop a similar model that is applicable to wave propagation in porous rock. That model was incorporated into a finite-difference wave propagation computer code SOC. 10 figures, 1 table

  9. Differential effect of environmental risk factors on postural instability gait difficulties and tremor dominant Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, G O; Muller, B; Haugarvoll, K; Larsen, J P; Tysnes, O B

    2010-09-15

    Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have examined environmental risk factors in a Norwegian population of incident PD patients and controls, the Norwegian ParkWest study. All five neurological wards in the study area of Western Norway participated in the study. A 4-step diagnostic procedure was used to establish a representative cohort of patients with incident PD at a high level of diagnostic accuracy. 212 incident PD patients and 175 age- and gender-matched controls were included. PD patients and controls were asked for information on occupation, education, exposure to pesticides, tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Agricultural work was associated with a higher risk of PD (OR 1.75 (1.03-3.0) P = 0.009). There were no differences as to other occupations. Smoking (OR 0.63 (0.42-0.95) P = 0.016) and alcohol use (OR 0.55 P = 0.008) were associated with a lower risk for PD. Interestingly, this inverse association was only seen in postural instability gait difficulties (PIGD) PD (P = 0.046 for smoking, P = 0.07 for alcohol consumption), and not in tremor dominant (TD) PD which was similar to controls. Consumption of coffee was lower in PD patients (3.3 ± 1.8 cups per day vs. 3.8 ± 2.0 in controls P = 0.02). In the regression model including intake of alcohol, coffee, and smoke, only coffee (P = 0.007) and alcohol intake (P = 0.021) remained significant whereas smoking was no longer significant. Thus, it seems as though only coffee intake reduces the risk of PD in general while associations to alcohol and smoking differ between PIGD and TD-PD patients. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  11. Mean associative multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The associative hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic and Drell--Yan processes are studied. In particular the mean multiplicities in different hard processes in QCD are found to be determined by the mean multiplicity in parton jet [ru

  12. Multiplicity distributions in inelastic reactions on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Caneschi, L; Schwimmer, A

    1976-01-01

    The multiplicity distribution of the number of knocked-out nucleons and the correlation of the former with the multiplicity of the produced mesons, in inelastic particle-nucleus scattering, are computed.

  13. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of the Effect of Leg Dominance on Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Pereira, Chelsea; Smith, Charles P.; Soller, Babs R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of leg dominance on the symmetry of the biomechanics during cycling remains uncertain -- asymmetries have been observed in kinematics and kinetics, while symmetries were found in muscle activation. No studies have yet investigated the symmetry of muscle metabolism during cycling. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to investigate the metabolic responses of specific muscles during cycling. PURPOSE: To determine whether there was an effect of leg dominance on thigh muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during incrementally loaded submaximal cycling using NIRS. METHODS: Eight right leg dominant, untrained subjects (5 men, 3 women; 31+/-2 yrs; 168.6+/-1.0 cm; 67.2+/-1.8 kg, mean +/- SE) volunteered to participate. Spectra were collected bilaterally from the vastus lateralis (VL) during supine rest and cycling. SmO2 was calculated using previously published methods. Subjects pedaled at 65 rpm while resistance to pedaling was increased in 0.5 kp increments from 0.5 kp every 3 min until the subject reached 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. SmO2 was averaged over 3 min for each completed stage. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test for leg differences. A priori contrasts were used to compare work levels to rest. RESULTS: VL SmO2 was not different between the dominant and non-dominant legs at rest and during exercise (p=0.57). How SmO2 changed with workload was also not different between legs (p=0.32). SmO2 at 0.5 kp (60.3+/-4.0, p=0.12) and 1.0 kp (59.5+/-4.0, p=0.10) was not different from rest (69.1+/-4.0). SmO2 at 1.5 kp (55.4 4.0, p=0.02), 2.0 kp (55.7+/-5.0, p=0.04), and 2.5 kp (43.4+/-7.9, p=0.01) was significantly lower than rest. CONCLUSION: VL SmO2 during cycling is not different between dominant and non-dominant legs and decreases with moderate workload in untrained cyclists. Assuming blood flow is directed equally to both legs, similar levels of oxygen extraction (as indicated by SmO2) suggests the metabolic load of

  14. Deep inelastic inclusive weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of deep inelastic inclusive interactions is reviewed, emphasizing applications to electromagnetic and weak charged current processes. The following reactions are considered: e + N → e + X, ν + N → μ - + X, anti ν + N → μ + + X where X denotes a summation over all final state hadrons and the ν's are muon neutrinos. After a discussion of scaling, the quark-parton model is invoked to explain the principle experimental features of deep inelastic inclusive reactions

  15. Non-Markovian features of deeply inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, D.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Kar, K.

    1988-01-01

    To study the effect of memory in the diffusion processes (of charge, mass etc) observed in deeply inelastic heavy-ion reactions, we derive non-Markovian transport equations for the exponential and Gaussian memory kernels. The centroid and the variance of the distribution are expressed in terms of the memory time, drift and diffusion coefficients. The predictions based on this theory show better agreement with the experimental data than the Markovian results. (author)

  16. Long-range correlations in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicity correlations between the current and target regions of the Breit frame in deep-inelastic scattering processes are studied. It is shown that the correlations are sensitive to the first-order perturbative QCD effects and can be used to extract the behaviour of the boson-gluon fusion rates as a function of the Bjorken variable. The behaviour of the correlations is derived analytically and analyzed using a Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  17. Implications of new deep inelastic scattering data for parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    We perform a next-to-leading order structure function F 2 analysis of μN and νN deep inelastic data in an attempt to resolve the disagreement between recent EMC (European muon collaboration effect) and BCDMS measurements of F 2 for μp scattering. Equally acceptable QCD fits are obtained including either set of μN data, but a comparison with Drell-Yan data appears to favour the parton distributions derived from the BCDMS data. (author)

  18. Dominance effects estimation of TLR4 and CACNA2D1genes for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MASOUMEH BAGHERI

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... may be important in contribution of total genetic effects for production traits and CM. Therefore .... accounting for effects of herd, parity, and production level in milk yield (Bagheri et al. .... Authors thank Prof. Sven Konig and Dr ...

  19. The effect of cooling management on blood flow to the dominant follicle and estrous cycle length at heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Kaim, Moshe; Jacobi, Shamay; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran

    2016-07-15

    The use of ultrasound imaging for the examination of reproductive organs has contributed substantially to the fertility management of dairy cows around the world. This method has many advantages such as noninvasiveness and immediate availability of information. Adding Doppler index to the ultrasound imaging examination, improved the estimation of blood volume and flow rate to the ovaries in general and to the dominant follicle in particular. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the blood flow to the dominant follicle and compare them to the follicular development throughout the cycle. We further set out to examine the effects of different types of cooling management during the summer on the changes in blood flow to the dominant follicle. For this purpose, 24 Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, under heat stress, were randomly assigned one of two groups: one was exposed to five cooling sessions per day (5CS) and the other to eight cooling sessions per day (8CS). Blood flow to the dominant follicle was measured daily using Doppler index throughout the estrous cycle. No differences in the preovulatory dominant follicle diameter were detected between the two cooling management regimens during the cycle. However, the length of the first follicular wave was significantly longer, whereas the second follicular wave was nonsignificantly shorter in the 5CS group as compared to the 8CS group. In addition, no difference in blood flow was found during the first 18 days of the cycle between the two groups. However, from Day 20 until ovulation a higher rate of blood flow was measured in the ovaries of cows cooled 8 times per day as compared to the 5CS group. No differences in progesterone levels were noted. Finally, the estrous cycle length was shorter in the 8CS group as compared to the 5CS group. Our data suggest that blood flow to the dominant follicle and estrous cycle length is affected by heat stress. Using the appropriate cooling management during heat stress can

  20. A method to describe inelastic gamma field distribution in neutron gamma density logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Quanying; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Xinguang; Wu, He; Jia, Wenbao; Ti, Yongzhou; Qiu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2017-11-01

    Pulsed neutron gamma density logging (NGD) is of great significance for radioprotection and density measurement in LWD, however, the current methods have difficulty in quantitative calculation and single factor analysis for the inelastic gamma field distribution. In order to clarify the NGD mechanism, a new method is developed to describe the inelastic gamma field distribution. Based on the fast-neutron scattering and gamma attenuation, the inelastic gamma field distribution is characterized by the inelastic scattering cross section, fast-neutron scattering free path, formation density and other parameters. And the contribution of formation parameters on the field distribution is quantitatively analyzed. The results shows the contribution of density attenuation is opposite to that of inelastic scattering cross section and fast-neutron scattering free path. And as the detector-spacing increases, the density attenuation gradually plays a dominant role in the gamma field distribution, which means large detector-spacing is more favorable for the density measurement. Besides, the relationship of density sensitivity and detector spacing was studied according to this gamma field distribution, therefore, the spacing of near and far gamma ray detector is determined. The research provides theoretical guidance for the tool parameter design and density determination of pulsed neutron gamma density logging technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unified quantum theory of elastic and inelastic atomic scattering from a physisorbed monolayer solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, L. W.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Dammann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    A unified quantum theory of the elastic and inelastic scattering of low energy He atoms by a physisorbed monolayer solid in the one-phonon approximation is given. It uses a time-dependent wave packet with phonon creation and annihilation components and has a self-consistent feedback between...... the wave functions for elastic and inelastic scattered atoms. An attenuation of diffraction scattering by inelastic processes thus is inherent in the theory. The atomic motion and monolayer vibrations in the harmonic approximation are treated quantum mechanically and unitarity is preserved. The evaluation...... of specific one-phonon events includes contributions from diffuse inelastic scattering in other phonon modes. Effects of thermally excited phonons are included using a mean field approximation. The theory is applied to an incommensurate Xe/Pt(111) monolayer (incident energy Ei = 4-16 meV), a commensurate Xe...

  2. Evidence of quasi-partonic higher-twist effects in deep inelastic scattering at HERA at moderate Q{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, Leszek; Sadzikowski, Mariusz; Slominski, Wojciech [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Wichmann, Katarzyna [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    The combined HERA data for the inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) cross sections for the momentum transfer Q{sup 2} > 1 GeV{sup 2} are fitted within the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) framework at next-to-leading order (NLO) and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) accuracy, complemented by a QCD-inspired parameterisation of twist 4 corrections. A modified form of the input parton density functions is also included, motivated by parton saturation mechanism at small Bjorken x and at a low scale. These modifications lead to a significant improvement of the data description in the region of low Q{sup 2}. For the whole data sample, the new benchmark NNLO DGLAP fit yields χ{sup 2}/d.o.f. ≅ 1.19 to be compared to 1.46 resulting from the standard NNLO DGLAP fit. We discuss the results in the context of the parton saturation picture and describe the impact of the higher-twist corrections on the derived parton density functions. The resulting description of the longitudinal proton structure function F{sub L} is consistent with the HERA data. Our estimates of higher-twist contributions to the proton structure functions are comparable to the leading-twist contributions at low Q{sup 2} ≅ 2 GeV{sup 2} and x ≅ 10{sup -5}. The x-dependence of the twist 4 corrections obtained from the best fit is consistent with the leading twist 4 quasi-partonic operators, corresponding to an exchange of four interacting gluons in the t-channel. (orig.)

  3. Finite element analysis of inelastic structural behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes recent achievements in the finite element analysis of inelastic material behavior. The main purpose is to examine the interaction of three disciplines; (i) the finite element formulation of large deformation problems in the light of a systematic linearization, (ii) the constitutive modelling of inelastic processes in the rate-dependent and rate-independent response regime and (iii) the numerical solution of nonlinear rate problems via incremental iteration techniques. In the first part, alternative finite element models are developed for the idealization of large deformation problems. A systematic approach is presented to linearize the field equations locally by an incremental procedure. The finite element formulation is then examined for the description of inelastic material processes. In the second part, nonlinear and inelastic material phenomena are classified and illustrated with representative examples of concrete and metal components. In particular, rate-dependent and rate-independent material behavior is examined and representative constitutive models are assessed for their mathematical characterization. Hypoelastic, elastoplastic and endochronic models are compared for the description rate-independent material phenomena. In the third part, the numerial solution of inelastic structural behavior is discussed. In this context, several incremental techniques are developed and compared for tracing the evolution of the inelastic process. The numerical procedures are examined with regard to stability and accuracy to assess the overall efficiency. The 'optimal' incremental technique is then contrasted with the computer storage requirements to retain the data for the 'memory-characteristics' of the constitutive model

  4. Effect of Conservation on Spatial Pattern of Dominant Trees in Beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky Communities, (Case Study: Masal, Guilan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ebrahimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns are suitable tools for optimal management in many forested areas. In this research, the effect of conservation on spatial pattern of dominant trees has been studied. To achieving this purpose, protected and non- protected forests were selected in Masal region of Guilan province as the study area. Sampling methods including fixed- area plots and distance methods, such as T- square and compound sampling were used 25 circle sample plots, each with an area 1000 m2and 25 sampling points were taken. Then, tree species in plot samples and the distance of interest were identified and measured. Dispersion indices such as Green, Morisata, standardized Morisata, Hopkins, Eberhart, Johnson and Zimmer, Hines and C were used to analyze the spatial pattern in the areas. All indices related to plot samples indicated the clumped pattern for dominant species in protected and non- protected areas. The results of the distance indices have indicated that destruction changes the spatial pattern of dominant species and these species had different pattern in these areas. Among the distance indices, C and Hines indices revealed differences and they were suitable to describe the spatial pattern of both areas.

  5. Neural correlates of the eye dominance effect in human face perception: the left-visual-field superiority for faces revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wookyoung; Kang, Joong-Gu; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Shim, Miseon; Sun Kim, Ji; Leem, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2017-08-01

    Faces are processed best when they are presented in the left visual field (LVF), a phenomenon known as LVF superiority. Although one eye contributes more when perceiving faces, it is unclear how the dominant eye (DE), the eye we unconsciously use when performing a monocular task, affects face processing. Here, we examined the influence of the DE on the LVF superiority for faces using event-related potentials. Twenty left-eye-dominant (LDE group) and 23 right-eye-dominant (RDE group) participants performed the experiments. Face stimuli were randomly presented in the LVF or right visual field (RVF). The RDE group exhibited significantly larger N170 amplitudes compared with the LDE group. Faces presented in the LVF elicited N170 amplitudes that were significantly more negative in the RDE group than they were in the LDE group, whereas the amplitudes elicited by stimuli presented in the RVF were equivalent between the groups. The LVF superiority was maintained in the RDE group but not in the LDE group. Our results provide the first neural evidence of the DE's effects on the LVF superiority for faces. We propose that the RDE may be more biologically specialized for face processing. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, Steven; Hicks, Sally; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; McEllistrem, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium ( 23 Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56 Fe and 54 Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23 Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-@@energy (few MeV) fast-@@neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-@@region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., @@ 2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  7. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Steven [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hicks, Sally [Univ. of Dallas, TX (United States); Vanhoy, Jeffrey [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); McEllistrem, Marcus [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (23Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56Fe and 54Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-­energy (few MeV) fast-­neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-­region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., β2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  8. Deep inelastic processes. Phenomenology. Quark-parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Lipatov, L.N.; Khoze, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Main theoretical approaches and experimental results related to deep inelastic processes are systematically outlined: electroproduction, neutrino scattering on nucleon, electron-positron pairs annihilation into hadron γγ collisions, production of lepton pairs in hadron collisions with a large effective mass or hadrons with large transverse momenta. Kinematics and phenomenology, space-time description of deep inelastic processes, sum rules, parton and quark-parton models are considered. The experiment is briefly discussed in the book. It is performed from the stand point of comparing it with the theory, experimental data are given as of June, 1982. Since the time of accomplishing the study on the manuscript a number of new experimental results not changing however the statements made in the book appeared. Principal consists in experiments with colliding proton-antiproton beams in CERN, which resulted in discovery of intermediate W-bozon

  9. Effects of species' similarity and dominance on the functional and phylogenetic structure of a plant meta-community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmandrier, L; Münkemüller, T; Lavergne, S; Thuiller, W

    2015-01-01

    Different assembly processes drive the spatial structure of meta-communities (beta-diversity). Recently, functional and phylogenetic diversities have been suggested as indicators of these assembly processes. Assuming that diversity is a good proxy for niche overlap, high beta-diversity along environmental gradients should be the result of environmental filtering while low beta-diversity should stem from competitive interactions. So far, studies trying to disentangle the relative importance of these assembly processes have provided mixed results. One reason for this may be that these studies often rely on a single measure of diversity and thus implicitly make a choice on how they account for species relative abundances and how species similarities are captured by functional traits or phylogeny. Here, we tested the effect of gradually scaling the importance of dominance (the weight given to dominant vs. rare species) and species similarity (the weight given to small vs. large similarities) on resulting beta-diversity patterns of an alpine plant meta-community. To this end, we combined recent extensions of the Hill numbers framework with Pagel's phylogenetic tree transformation approach. We included functional (based on the leaf-height-seed spectrum) and phylogenetic facets of beta-diversity in our analysis and explicitly accounted for effects of environmental and spatial covariates. We found that functional beta-diversity, was high when the same weight was given to dominant vs. rare species and to large vs. small species' similarities. In contrast, phylogenetic beta-diversity was low when greater weight was given to dominant species and small species' similarities. Those results suggested that different environments along the gradients filtered different species according to their functional traits, while, the same competitive lineages dominated communities across the gradients. Our results highlight that functional vs. phylogenetic facets, presence-absence vs

  10. Non-Mendelian Dominant Maternal Effects Caused by CRISPR/Cas9 Transgenic Components in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genomic editing. The Cas9 endonuclease targets DNA via an experimentally determined guide RNA (gRNA. This results in a double-strand break at the target site . We generated transgenic Drosophila melanogaster in which the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to target a GAL4 transgene in vivo. To our surprise, progeny whose genomes did not contain CRISPR/Cas9 components were still capable of mutating GAL4 sequences. We demonstrate this effect was caused by maternal deposition of Cas9 and gRNAs into the embryo, leading to extensive GAL4 mutations in both somatic and germline tissues. This serves as a cautionary observation on the effects of maternal contributions when conducting experiments using genomically encoded CRISPR/Cas9 components. These results also highlight a mode of artificial inheritance in which maternal contributions of DNA editing components lead to transmissible mutant defects even in animals whose genomes lack the editing components. We suggest calling this a dominant maternal effect to reflect it is caused by the gain of maternally contributed products. Models of CRISPR-mediated gene drive will need to incorporate dominant maternal effects in order to accurately predict the efficiency and dynamics of gene drive in a population.

  11. Dominant two-loop corrections to the MSSM finite temperature effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    We show that two-loop corrections to the finite temperature effective potential in the MSSM can have a dramatic effect on the strength of the electroweak phase transition, making it more strongly first order. The change in the order parameter v/Tc can be as large as 75% of the one-loop daisy improved result. This effect can be decisive to widen the region in parameter space where erasure of the created baryons by sphaleron processes after the transition is suppressed and hence, where electroweak baryogenesis might be successful. We find an allowed region with tan β< or∼4.5 and a Higgs boson with standard couplings and mass below 80 GeV within the reach of LEP II. (orig.)

  12. Sensitivity of peak positions to flight-path parameters in a deep-inelastic scattering neutron TOF spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.MacA.; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C.A.; Blach, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of small changes in flight-path parameters (primary and secondary flight paths, detector angles), and of displacement of the sample along the beam axis away from its ideal position, are examined for an inelastic time-of-flight (TOF) neutron spectrometer, emphasising the deep-inelastic regime. The aim was to develop a rational basis for deciding what measured shifts in the positions of spectral peaks could be regarded as reliable in the light of the uncertainties in the calibrated flight-path parameters. Uncertainty in the length of the primary or secondary flight path has the least effect on the positions of the peaks of H, D and He, which are dominated by the accuracy of the calibration of the detector angles. This aspect of the calibration of a TOF spectrometer therefore demands close attention to achieve reliable outcomes where the position of the peaks is of significant scientific interest and is discussed in detail. The corresponding sensitivities of the position of peak of the Compton profile, J(y), to flight-path parameters and sample position are also examined, focusing on the comparability across experiments of results for H, D and He. We show that positioning the sample to within a few mm of the ideal position is required to ensure good comparability between experiments if data from detectors at high forward angles are to be reliably interpreted.

  13. Detailed inelastic analysis of an LMFBR pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbitt, H.D.; Leung, E.K.; Ohalla, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes detailed inelastic analyses of a large diameter, thin walled pipeline configuration typical of liquid metal cooled reactor primary piping, subject to thermal shock, with intermediate periods of creep hold time. Three such analyses are compared. Two of these analyses are performed with recently developed elements based on a combination of Fourier and polynomial interpolation to describe the deformation of the pipe. One of these two analyses includes continuous deformation of the pipe wall between each elbow and the adjacent straight pipe segments, while the other neglects such ''end effects'' on the elbow deformation. The third analysis is based on a modified axi-symmetric shell element for modeling the elbows (neglecting and effects). The results thus provide an assessment of the relative cost and importance of including consideration of end effects in modeling a realistic piping system, as well as providing a similar comparison between the two basic deforming section pipe models (Fourier/polynomial versus modified axi-symmetric shells)

  14. Exotic or not, leaf trait dissimilarity modulates the effect of dominant species on mixed litter decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Finerty, G. E.; de Bello, Francesco; Bílá, Karolína; Berg, M. P.; Dias, A. T. C.; Pezzatti, G. B.; Moretti, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 5 (2016), s. 1400-1409 ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : exotic species * invasion ecology * biodiversity effects on ecosystem s Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.813, year: 2016

  15. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of

  16. Inelastic scattering at the B K edge of hexagonal BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, J.J.; Callcott, T.A.; Zhou, L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Many recent soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) studies have shown that inelastic scattering processes make important contributions to the observed spectra for excitation near the x-ray threshold. These effects are all attributed to a process, usually called an electronic Raman scattering (ERS) process, in which energy is lost to an electronic excitation. The theory has been described using second order perturbation theory by Tulkki and Aberg. In different materials, the detailed nature of the electronic excitation producing the energy loss may be very different. In crystalline Si, diamond and graphite, changes in spectral shape and dispersion of spectral features with variation of the excitation energy are observed, which are attributed to k conservation between the photoelectron generated in the excitation process and the valence hole remaining after the coupled emission process. Hence the process is strongly localized in k-space. In haxagonal boron nitride, which has a lattice and band structure very similar to graphite, inelastic scattering produces very different effects on the observed spectra. Here, the inelastic losses are coupled to a strong resonant elastic scattering process, in which the intermediate state is a localized core exciton and the final state is a localized valence exciton, so that the electronic excitation is strongly localized in real rather than reciprocal space.

  17. An ABCA1 truncation shows no dominant negative effect in a familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia pedigree with three ABCA1 mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenson, Brie; Suetani, Rachel J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bickley, Vivienne M.; George, Peter M. [Clinical Biochemistry, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch (New Zealand); Williams, Michael J.A. [Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Scott, Russell S. [Lipid and Diabetes Research Group, Christchurch Hospital (New Zealand); McCormick, Sally P.A., E-mail: sally.mccormick@otago.ac.nz [Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Characterisation of an ABCA1 truncation mutant, C978fsX988, in a pedigree with three ABCA1 mutations. {yields} Functional analysis of C978fsX988 in patient fibroblasts and HEK 293 cells shows no cholesterol efflux function. {yields} Allele-specific quantification shows C978fsX988 not expressed at mRNA level in fibroblasts. {yields} Unlike other ABCA1 truncations, C978fsX988 mutant shows no dominant negative effect at mRNA or protein level. -- Abstract: The ATP binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) A1 is a key determinant of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Mutations in ABCA1 are a major genetic contributor to low HDL-C levels within the general population. Following the finding of three different ABCA1 mutations, p.C978fsX988, p.T1512M and p.N1800H in a subject with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, we aimed to establish whether the p.C978fsX988 truncation exerted a dominant negative effect on the full-length ABCA1 alleles within family members as has been reported for other ABCA1 truncations. Characterisation of the p.C978fsX988 mutant in transfected HEK 293 cells showed it to be expressed as a GFP fusion protein but lacking in cholesterol efflux function. This was in keeping with results from cholesterol efflux assays in the fibroblasts of p.C978fsX988 carriers which also showed impaired efflux. Allele- specific quantification of p.C978fsX988 mRNA and analysis of ABCA1 protein levels in the fibroblasts of p.C978fsX988 heterozygotes showed negligible levels of mRNA and protein expression. There was no evidence of a dominant negative effect on wildtype or p.N1800H protein levels. We conclude that in the case of the p.C978fsX988 truncated mutant a lack of expression precludes it from having a dominant negative effect.

  18. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs. Michael A Henning, Sinclair A Marcon. Abstract. A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, ...

  19. Magnetoacoustic Waves and Instabilities in a Hall-Effect-Dominated Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, S

    1970-05-15

    The dispersion equation is studied for small-amplitude plane harmonic waves in a compressible plasma moving perpendicular to a magnetic field with a constant fractional ionization. The modes of propagation are analysed mainly from a qualitative point of view and one of them is shown to be unstable due to the Hall effect. This mode has been previously analysed by other authors in connection with MHD power generators but in a more restricted and isolated sense. The present work not only generalizes and modifies their results on this special mode, but also makes it possible to picture the whole spectrum of propagation modes in a simple and physically intelligible way.

  20. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoshan Xu

    Full Text Available This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  1. Inelastic behaviour of collagen networks in cell–matrix interactions and mechanosensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hamid; Arora, Pamma D.; Simmons, Craig A.; Janmey, Paul A.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix proteins strongly influence cell-induced tension in the matrix, which in turn influences cell function. Despite progress on the impact of elastic behaviour of matrix proteins on cell–matrix interactions, little is known about the influence of inelastic behaviour, especially at the large and slow deformations that characterize cell-induced matrix remodelling. We found that collagen matrices exhibit deformation rate-dependent behaviour, which leads to a transition from pronounced elastic behaviour at fast deformations to substantially inelastic behaviour at slow deformations (1 μm min−1, similar to cell-mediated deformation). With slow deformations, the inelastic behaviour of floating gels was sensitive to collagen concentration, whereas attached gels exhibited similar inelastic behaviour independent of collagen concentration. The presence of an underlying rigid support had a similar effect on cell–matrix interactions: cell-induced deformation and remodelling were similar on 1 or 3 mg ml−1 attached collagen gels while deformations were two- to fourfold smaller in floating gels of high compared with low collagen concentration. In cross-linked collagen matrices, which did not exhibit inelastic behaviour, cells did not respond to the presence of the underlying rigid foundation. These data indicate that at the slow rates of collagen compaction generated by fibroblasts, the inelastic responses of collagen gels, which are influenced by collagen concentration and the presence of an underlying rigid foundation, are important determinants of cell–matrix interactions and mechanosensation. PMID:25392399

  2. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  3. The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Daniel L.; Ross, D. Keith; Gale, Julian D.; Taylor, Jon W.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332

  4. Endochronic theory for inelasticity and failure analysis of concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Bhat, P.D.; Shieh, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    A gradual accumulation of inelastic strain can be most conveniently described in terms of the so-called intrinsic time, whose increment depends on the time increment as well as the strain increments. This approach, which gives a particularly simple description of irreversibility of strain at unloading and cyclic loading, was previously developed for metals and is extended herein to concrete by introducing the hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of inelastic strain, the inelastic dilatancy produced by deviator strains, and the strain-softening tendency at high stress. Failure envelopes are obtained as a collection of the peaks of stress-strain diagrams. By comparison with experimental data from the literature, it is demonstrated that the proposed model predicts quite closely: stress-strain diagrams for concretes of different strength; uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial stress-strain diagrams and failure envelopes; failure envelopes for combined torsion and compression, lateral strains and volume expansion in uniaxial and biaxial tests; the behavior of spirally confined concrete; hysteresis loops or repeated high compression; cyclic creep up to 10/sup 6/ cycles; the strain rate effect; the decrease of long time strength; and the increase of short-time strength due to low stress creep.

  5. Endochronic theory for inelasticity and failure analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Bhat, P.D.; Shieh, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    A gradual accumulation of inelastic strain can be most conveniently described in terms of the so-called intrinsic time, whose increment depends on the time increment as well as the strain increments. This approach, which gives a particularly simple description of irreversibility of strain at unloading and cyclic loading, was previously developed for metals and is extended herein to concrete by introducing the hydrostatic pressure sensitivity of inelastic strain, the inelastic dilatancy produced by deviator strains, and the strain-softening tendency at high stress. Failure envelopes are obtained as a collection of the peaks of stress-strain diagrams. By comparison with experimental data from the literature, it is demonstrated that the proposed model predicts quite closely: stress-strain diagrams for concretes of different strength; uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial stress-strain diagrams and failure envelopes; failure envelopes for combined torsion and compression, lateral strains and volume expansion in uniaxial and biaxial tests; the behavior of spirally confined concrete; hysteresis loops or repeated high compression; cyclic creep up to 10 6 cycles; the strain rate effect; the decrease of long time strength; and the increase of short-time strength due to low stress creep

  6. The effect of elevated carbon dioxide on a Sierra-Nevadan dominant species: Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushnik, J.C.; Demaree, R.S.; Flory, W.B.; Bauer, S.M. [California State Univ. at Chico, Chico, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Houpis, J.L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Anderson, P.D. [Forest Service Lab., Rhinelander, WI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The impact of increasing atmospheric C0{sub 2} has not been fully evaluated on western coniferous forest species. Two year old seedlings of Pinusponderosa were grown in environmentally controlled chambers under increased C0{sub 2} conditions for 6 months. These trees exhibit morphological, physiological, and biochemical alterations when compared to our controls. Analysis of whole plant biomass distribution has shown no significant effect to the root to shoot ratios, however needles subjected to elevated C0{sub 2} exhibited an increased overall specific needle mass and a decreased total needle area. Morphological changes at the needle level included decreased mesophyll to vascular tissue 91 ratio and variations in starch storage in chloroplasts. The elevated CO{sub 2} increased internal CO{sub 2} concentrations and assimilation of carbon. Biochemical assays revealed that ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase specific activities increased on per unit area basis with C0{sub 2} treatment levels. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities exhibited an increase of 55% in the 700 uL L{sup {minus}1} treatment. These results indicate that the sink-source relationships of these trees have shifted carbon allocation toward above ground growth, possibly due to transport limitations.

  7. The effect of elevated carbon dioxide on a Sierra-Nevadan dominant species: Pinus ponderosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushnik, J.C.; Demaree, R.S.; Flory, W.B.; Bauer, S.M.; Anderson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of increasing atmospheric C0 2 has not been fully evaluated on western coniferous forest species. Two year old seedlings of Pinusponderosa were grown in environmentally controlled chambers under increased C0 2 conditions for 6 months. These trees exhibit morphological, physiological, and biochemical alterations when compared to our controls. Analysis of whole plant biomass distribution has shown no significant effect to the root to shoot ratios, however needles subjected to elevated C0 2 exhibited an increased overall specific needle mass and a decreased total needle area. Morphological changes at the needle level included decreased mesophyll to vascular tissue 91 ratio and variations in starch storage in chloroplasts. The elevated CO 2 increased internal CO 2 concentrations and assimilation of carbon. Biochemical assays revealed that ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase specific activities increased on per unit area basis with C0 2 treatment levels. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activities exhibited an increase of 55% in the 700 uL L -1 treatment. These results indicate that the sink-source relationships of these trees have shifted carbon allocation toward above ground growth, possibly due to transport limitations

  8. Implications of stress range for inelastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabin, M.E.; Dhalla, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    The elastic stress range over a complete load cycle is routinely used to formulate simplified rules regarding the inelastic behavior of structures operating at elevated temperature. For example, a 300 series stainless steel structure operating at elevated temperature, in all probability, would satisfy the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria if the linearized elastic stress range is less than three times the material yield strength. However, at higher elastic stress ranges it is difficult to judge, a priori, that a structural component would comply with inelastic Code criteria after a detailed inelastic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that it is not the elastic stress range but the stress intensities at specific times during a thermal transient which provide a better insight into the inelastic response of the structure. The specific example of the CRBRP flued head design demonstrates that the temperature differential between various parts of the structure can be changed by modifying the insulation pattern and heat flow path in the structure, without significantly altering the elastic stress range over a complete load cycle. However, the modified design did reduce the stress intensity during steady state elevated temperature operation. This modified design satisfied the inelastic Code criteria whereas the initial design failed to comply with the strain accumulation criterion

  9. Regime shift from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance in a large river: Top-down versus bottom-up effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Carles, E-mail: carles.ibanez@irta.cat [IRTA Aquatic Ecosystems, Carretera Poble Nou, Km 5.5, 43540 St. Carles de la Rapita, Catalonia (Spain); Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Trobajo, Rosa [IRTA Aquatic Ecosystems, Carretera Poble Nou, Km 5.5, 43540 St. Carles de la Rapita, Catalonia (Spain); Alonso, Miguel [United Research Services S.L., Urgell 143, 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Duran, Concha [Confederacion Hidrografica del Ebro, Sagasta 24-26, 50071 Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain); Jimenez, Pere J. [Grup Natura Freixe, Major 56, 43750 Flix, Catalonia (Spain); Munne, Antoni [Agencia Catalana de l' Aigua, Provenca 204-208, 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Prat, Narcis [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona Catalonia (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton-dominated to a macrophyte-dominated system. This shift is well known in shallow lakes but apparently it has never been documented in rivers. Two initial hypotheses to explain the collapse of the phytoplankton were considered: a) the diminution of nutrients (bottom-up); b) the filtering effect due to the colonization of the zebra mussel (top-down). Data on water quality, hydrology and biological communities (phytoplankton, macrophytes and zebra mussel) was obtained both from existing data sets and new surveys. Results clearly indicate that the decrease in phosphorus is the main cause of a dramatic decrease in chlorophyll and large increase in water transparency, triggering the subsequent colonization of macrophytes in the river bed. A Generalized Linear Model analysis showed that the decrease in dissolved phosphorus had a relative importance 14 times higher than the increase in zebra mussel density to explain the variation of total chlorophyll. We suggest that the described changes in the lower Ebro River can be considered a novel ecosystem shift. This shift is triggering remarkable changes in the biological communities beyond the decrease of phytoplankton and the proliferation of macrophytes, such as massive colonization of Simulidae (black fly) and other changes in the benthic invertebrate communities that are currently investigated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show a regime shift in a large river from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two main hypotheses are considered: nutrient decrease and zebra mussel grazing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorus depletion is found to be the main cause of the phytoplankton decline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We conclude that oligotrophication triggered the colonization of macrophytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This new regime shift in a river is similar to that described

  10. Regime shift from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance in a large river: Top-down versus bottom-up effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibáñez, Carles; Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Trobajo, Rosa; Alonso, Miguel; Duran, Concha; Jiménez, Pere J.; Munné, Antoni; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton-dominated to a macrophyte-dominated system. This shift is well known in shallow lakes but apparently it has never been documented in rivers. Two initial hypotheses to explain the collapse of the phytoplankton were considered: a) the diminution of nutrients (bottom-up); b) the filtering effect due to the colonization of the zebra mussel (top-down). Data on water quality, hydrology and biological communities (phytoplankton, macrophytes and zebra mussel) was obtained both from existing data sets and new surveys. Results clearly indicate that the decrease in phosphorus is the main cause of a dramatic decrease in chlorophyll and large increase in water transparency, triggering the subsequent colonization of macrophytes in the river bed. A Generalized Linear Model analysis showed that the decrease in dissolved phosphorus had a relative importance 14 times higher than the increase in zebra mussel density to explain the variation of total chlorophyll. We suggest that the described changes in the lower Ebro River can be considered a novel ecosystem shift. This shift is triggering remarkable changes in the biological communities beyond the decrease of phytoplankton and the proliferation of macrophytes, such as massive colonization of Simulidae (black fly) and other changes in the benthic invertebrate communities that are currently investigated. - Highlights: ► We show a regime shift in a large river from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance. ► Two main hypotheses are considered: nutrient decrease and zebra mussel grazing. ► Phosphorus depletion is found to be the main cause of the phytoplankton decline. ► We conclude that oligotrophication triggered the colonization of macrophytes. ► This new regime shift in a river is similar to that described in shallow lakes.

  11. The persistence of a visual dominance effect in a telemanipulator task: A comparison between visual and electrotactile feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility to use an electrotactile stimulation in teleoperation and to observe the interpretation of such information as a feedback to the operator was investigated. It is proposed that visual feedback is more informative than an electrotactile one; and that complex electrotactile feedback slows down both the motor decision and motor response processes, is processed as an all or nothing signal, and bypasses the receptive structure and accesses directly in a working memory where information is sequentially processed and where memory is limited in treatment capacity. The electrotactile stimulation is used as an alerting signal. It is suggested that the visual dominance effect is the result of the advantage of both a transfer function and a sensory memory register where information is pretreated and memorized for a short time. It is found that dividing attention has an effect on the acquisition of the information but not on the subsequent decision processes.

  12. Dominant effects of the diet on the microbiome and the local and systemic immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jot Hui Ooi

    Full Text Available Outside the nutrition community the effects of diet on immune-mediated diseases and experimental outcomes have not been appreciated. Investigators that study immune-mediated diseases and/or the microbiome have overlooked the potential of diet to impact disease phenotype. We aimed to determine the effects of diet on the bacterial microbiota and immune-mediated diseases. Three different laboratory diets were fed to wild-type mice for 2 weeks and resulted in three distinct susceptibilities to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. Examination of the fecal microbiota demonstrated a diet-mediated effect on the bacteria found there. Broad-spectrum antibiotics disturbed the gut microbiome and partially eliminated the diet-mediated changes in DSS susceptibility. Dietary changes 2 days after DSS treatment were protective and suggested that the diet-mediated effect occurred quickly. There were no diet-mediated effects on DSS susceptibility in germ-free mice. In addition, the diet-mediated effects were evident in a gastrointestinal infection model (Citrobacter rodentium and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Taken together, our study demonstrates a dominant effect of diet on immune-mediated diseases that act rapidly by changing the microbiota. These findings highlight the potential of using dietary manipulation to control the microbiome and prevent/treat immune-mediated disease.

  13. A Phenomenological Study on Inelastic Torsion Caused By Nonlinear Behavior Changes during Earthquake Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Bahram Beheshti-Aval

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of many symmetric structures, which were designed based on the seismic codes, is due to their asymmetricity induced during inelastic behavior. Although the structure was designed symmetrically assuming elastic based criteria, different factors such as material inconsistency in structure, construction details discrepancy and construction errors may result in asymmetric behavior in inelastic deformation range. So far, these considerations have been rarely contemplated in previous published investigations and should be studied regarding the importance of irregularity in increase of seismic demand of structures in the inelastic range. In this paper, as the first step, the asymmetry and irregularity in plan due to non-similar inelastic characteristics with respect to axis passing through center of gravity as well as the effect and importance of each irregularity factors are studied by changing the excitation properties applying to one-storey one-bay steel structures. This simplified structure is chosen due to studying and illustrating the absolute effect of this kind of irregularity in which higher mode effect is eliminated. The results show that the behavior of a structure with inelastic asymmetry is completely different from the structure with elastic asymmetry. As for inelastic asymmetry structure, although the translational and rotational oscillations before yielding were uncouple, these DOFs after yielding become coupled until reaching the terminal rotation point (rotation reaches a constant value and then become uncoupled, i.e., again oscillated symmetrically. This behavior is different from the structures with elastic asymmetricity, in which the translational and rotational movements being coupled during all the excitation time. This effect has not been recognized in previews studies on inelastic behavior of initially elastic symmetry buildings. The study of these behaviors aids the designer to choose the appropriate rehabilitation

  14. Preferences for group dominance track and mediate the effects of macro-level social inequality and violence across societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Jonas R; Fischer, Ronald; Sidanius, Jim; Thomsen, Lotte

    2017-05-23

    Whether and how societal structures shape individual psychology is a foundational question of the social sciences. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, economy, and the political and psychological sciences, we identify a central psychological process that functions to sustain group-based hierarchies in human societies. In study 1, we demonstrate that macrolevel structural inequality, impaired population outcomes, socio-political instability, and the risk of violence are reflected in the endorsement of group hegemony at the aggregate population level across 27 countries ( n = 41,824): The greater the national inequality, the greater is the endorsement of between-group hierarchy within the population. Using multilevel analyses in study 2, we demonstrate that these psychological group-dominance motives mediate the effects of macrolevel functioning on individual-level attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, across 30 US states ( n = 4,613), macrolevel inequality and violence were associated with greater individual-level support of group hegemony. Crucially, this individual-level support, rather than cultural-societal norms, was in turn uniquely associated with greater racism, sexism, welfare opposition, and even willingness to enforce group hegemony violently by participating in ethnic persecution of subordinate out-groups. These findings suggest that societal inequality is reflected in people's minds as dominance motives that underpin ideologies and actions that ultimately sustain group-based hierarchy.

  15. Preferences for group dominance track and mediate the effects of macro-level social inequality and violence across societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Jonas R.; Sidanius, Jim; Thomsen, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Whether and how societal structures shape individual psychology is a foundational question of the social sciences. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, economy, and the political and psychological sciences, we identify a central psychological process that functions to sustain group-based hierarchies in human societies. In study 1, we demonstrate that macrolevel structural inequality, impaired population outcomes, socio-political instability, and the risk of violence are reflected in the endorsement of group hegemony at the aggregate population level across 27 countries (n = 41,824): The greater the national inequality, the greater is the endorsement of between-group hierarchy within the population. Using multilevel analyses in study 2, we demonstrate that these psychological group-dominance motives mediate the effects of macrolevel functioning on individual-level attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, across 30 US states (n = 4,613), macrolevel inequality and violence were associated with greater individual-level support of group hegemony. Crucially, this individual-level support, rather than cultural-societal norms, was in turn uniquely associated with greater racism, sexism, welfare opposition, and even willingness to enforce group hegemony violently by participating in ethnic persecution of subordinate out-groups. These findings suggest that societal inequality is reflected in people’s minds as dominance motives that underpin ideologies and actions that ultimately sustain group-based hierarchy. PMID:28484013

  16. The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier Moreira Alves, Daniele; Behbahani, Siavosh R.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Schuster, Philip; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Composite dark matter is a natural setting for implementing inelastic dark matter - the O(100 keV) mass splitting arises from spin-spin interactions of constituent fermions. In models where the constituents are charged under an axial U(1) gauge symmetry that also couples to the Standard Model quarks, dark matter scatters inelastically off Standard Model nuclei and can explain the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. This article describes the early Universe cosmology of a minimal implementation of a composite inelastic dark matter model where the dark matter is a meson composed of a light and a heavy quark. The synthesis of the constituent quarks into dark hadrons results in several qualitatively different configurations of the resulting dark matter composition depending on the relative mass scales in the system.

  17. Inelastic instruments at the ISIS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    This summarises the status of the inelastic spectrometers at the ISIS facility and gives some highlights from their scientific programme. The inelastic spectrometers HET, TFXA and IRIS are now being used routinely by UK and International research groups and have produced notable scientific results. Work has progressed steadily on eVS. The PRISMA spectrometer, the product of a collaboration between CNR, Italy and RAL, was installed this summer. Earlier this year an agreement was reached in principle between the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the University of Wurzburg (West Germany) to build a second spectrometer (ROTAX) for the study of coherent inelastic excitations. A more sophisticated technical concept than that of PRISMA, based on a nonuniformly rotating analyser, it will allow a greater flexibility in the choice of dynamic scans. Substantial progress has also been made on the design of MARI, the sister spectrometer to HET, which is being built as part of the UK-Japan collaboration on pulsed neutron scattering. (author)

  18. Nonperturbative Series Expansion of Green's Functions: The Anatomy of Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering in the Doped Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Haverkort, Maurits W.

    2017-12-01

    We present a nonperturbative, divergence-free series expansion of Green's functions using effective operators. The method is especially suited for computing correlators of complex operators as a series of correlation functions of simpler forms. We apply the method to study low-energy excitations in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) in doped one- and two-dimensional single-band Hubbard models. The RIXS operator is expanded into polynomials of spin, density, and current operators weighted by fundamental x-ray spectral functions. These operators couple to different polarization channels resulting in simple selection rules. The incident photon energy dependent coefficients help to pinpoint main RIXS contributions from different degrees of freedom. We show in particular that, with parameters pertaining to cuprate superconductors, local spin excitation dominates the RIXS spectral weight over a wide doping range in the cross-polarization channel.

  19. Inelastic electron holography: First results with surface plasmons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Roeder; Hannes, Lichte [Triebenberg Labor, Institute for Structure Physics, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Inelastic interaction and wave optics seem to be incompatible in that inelastic processes destroy coherence, which is the fundamental requirement for holography. In special experiments it is shown that energy transfer larger than some undoubtedly destroys coherence of the inelastic electron with the elastic remainder. Consequently, the usual inelastic processes, such as phonon-, plasmon- or inner shell-excitations with energy transfer of several out to several, certainly produce incoherence with the elastic ones. However, it turned out that within the inelastic wave, *newborn* by the inelastic process, there is a sufficiently wide area of coherence for generating *inelastic holograms*. This is exploited to create holograms with electrons scattered at surface-plasmons, which opens up quantum mechanical investigation of these inelastic processes.

  20. Inelastic analysis methods for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.T.; Spence, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of pipework systems which operate in an environment where local inelastic strains are evident is one of the most demanding problems facing the stress analyst in the nuclear field. The spatial complexity of even the most modest system makes a detailed analysis using finite element techniques beyond the scope of current computer technology. For this reason the emphasis has been on simplified methods. It is the aim of this paper to provide a reasonably complete, state-of-the-art review of inelastic pipework analysis methods and to attempt to highlight areas where reliable information is lacking and further work is needed. (orig.)

  1. Inelastic neutron scattering from glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchenau, U.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron spectra below and above the glass transition temperature show a pronounced difference between strong and fragile glass formers in Angell's fragility scheme. The strong anharmonic increase of the inelastic scattering with increasing temperature in fragile substances is absent in the strongest glass former SiO 2 . That difference is reflected in the temperature dependence of Brillouin sound velocities above the glass transition. Coherent inelastic neutron scattering data indicate a mixture of sound waves and local modes at the low frequency boson peak. A relation between the fragility and the temperature dependence of the transverse hypersound velocity at the glass temperature is derived. (author)

  2. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    The γ-rays associated with deep inelastic collisions can give information about the magnitude and orientation of the angular momentum transferred in these events. In this review, special emphasis is placed on understanding the origin and nature of these γ-rays in order to avoid some of the ambiguities that can arise. The experimental information coming from these γ-ray studies is reviewed, and compared briefly with that obtained by other methods and also with the expectations from current models for deep inelastic collisions. 15 figures

  3. Interactive effects of warming and increased precipitation on community structure and composition in an annual forb dominated desert steppe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Hou

    Full Text Available To better understand how warming, increased precipitation and their interactions influence community structure and composition, a field experiment simulating hydrothermal interactions was conducted at an annual forb dominated desert steppe in northern China over 2 years. Increased precipitation increased species richness while warming significantly decreased species richness, and their effects were additive rather than interactive. Although interannual variations in weather conditions may have a major affect on plant community composition on short term experiments, warming and precipitation treatments affected individual species and functional group composition. Warming caused C4 grasses such as Cleistogenes squarrosa to increase while increased precipitation caused the proportions of non-perennial C3 plants like Artemisia capillaris to decrease and perennial C4 plants to increase.

  4. Inelastic Branch of the Stellar Reaction $^{14}$O$(\\alpha,p)^{17}$F

    CERN Multimedia

    Hass, M; Van duppen, P L E

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the upgraded REX-ISOLDE beam energy to study the astrophysically important $^{14}$O($\\alpha$, p)$^{17}$F reaction in time reverse kinematics. In particular, we will use the highly efficient miniball + CD detection system to measure the previously undetermined inelastic proton branch of the 1$^-$ state at 6.15 MeV in $^{18}$Ne. This state dominates the reaction rate under X-ray burster conditions.

  5. Departures from the impulse approximation in deep inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new formulation of the impulse approximation (IA) in deep inelastic neutron scattering is developed. It is shown that observed departures from the IA at intermediate momentum transfers are caused by the quantum nature of the initial state rather than final state effects, as has previously been assumed and that these effects become small at high temperatures. It is also argued that final state broadening is significant for He liquids in all feasible experiments, but that in other systems the IA is approached at high momentum transfers. (author)

  6. Meson exchange corrections in deep inelastic scattering on deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptari, L.P.; Titov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Starting with the general equations of motion of the nucleons interacting with the mesons the one-particle Schroedinger-like equation for the nucleon wave function and the deep inelastic scattering amplitude with the meson-exchange currents are obtained. Effective pion-, sigma-, and omega-meson exchanges are considered. It is found that the mesonic corrections only partially (about 60%) restore the energy sum rule breaking because of the nucleon off-mass-shell effects in nuclei. This results contradicts with the prediction based on the calculation of the energy sum rule limited by the second order of the nucleon-meson vertex and static approximation. 17 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Interactive effects of moss-dominated crusts and Artemisia ordosica on wind erosion and soil moisture in Mu Us sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion.

  8. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  9. The Effectiveness of Clomiphene Citrate and Letrozole for Ovulation Induction Related to Endometrial Thickness and Number of Dominant Follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wiweko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to know the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate and letrozole for ovulationrelated to endometrial thickness and number of dominant follicle. Study design was cross sectional basedon medical records of women who underwent ovulation induction from January 2011-May 2015. A numberof 143 anovulation women were divided into clomiphene citrate 50mg, clomiphene citrate 100 mg, letrozole2.5mg and letrozole 5mg. Each group received the agent daily on 3rd-7th day of menstrual cycle. On 12thday of menstrual cycle, the transvaginal ultrasound was performed to measure endometrial thickness anddominant follicle number. From all subjects, 45 subjects (31.5% were in 50mg clomiphene citrate groups, 29subjects (20.3% in 100mg clomiphene citrate group, 23 subjects (16.1% in 2,5mg letrozole group, and 46subjects (32.2% in 5mg letrozole group. Subjects who received letrozole had thicker endometrium comparedto clomiphene citrate (p<0.05. Different doses were not associated with endometrial thickness betweensubjects who received either letrozole or clomiphene citrate. In addition, subjects receiving letrozole hadhigher proportion of having trilaminar endometrium morphology. We did not observe the difference in totalnumber of dominant follicle between groups. It is concluded that letrozole is more effective than clomiphenecitrate in terms of endometrial thickness but not for number of dominant follicles. Keywords: clomiphene citrate, letrozole, ovulation induction, endometrial thickness, dominant follicle   Efektivitas Induksi Ovulasi Klomifen Sitrat dan Letrozol dalam Hal KetebalanEndometrium dan Jumlah Folikel Dominan Abstrak Studi ini bertujuan untuk menilai efektivitas induksi ovulasi klomifen sitrat dan letrozol dalam halketebalan endometrium dan jumlah folikel dominan pada perempuan yang tidak berovulasi. Desain studiadalah potong lintang menggunakan rekam medik pasien yang menjalani induksi ovulasi pada bulan Januari2011-Mei 2015

  10. Effects of hemisphere speech dominance and seizure focus on patterns of behavioral response errors for three types of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R; MacDonald, K

    1997-03-01

    We used a protocol consisting of a continuous presentation of stimuli with associated response requests during an intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (IAP) to study the effects of hemisphere injected (speech dominant vs. nondominant) and seizure focus (left temporal lobe vs. right temporal lobe) on the pattern of behavioral response errors for three types of visual stimuli (pictures of common objects, words, and abstract forms). Injection of the left speech dominant hemisphere compared to the right nondominant hemisphere increased overall errors and affected the pattern of behavioral errors. The presence of a seizure focus in the contralateral hemisphere increased overall errors, particularly for the right temporal lobe seizure patients, but did not affect the pattern of behavioral errors. Left hemisphere injections disrupted both naming and reading responses at a rate similar to that of matching-to-sample performance. Also, a short-term memory deficit was observed with all three stimuli. Long-term memory testing following the left hemisphere injection indicated that only for pictures of common objects were there fewer errors during the early postinjection period than for the later long-term memory testing. Therefore, despite the inability to respond to picture stimuli, picture items, but not words or forms, could be sufficiently encoded for later recall. In contrast, right hemisphere injections resulted in few errors, with a pattern suggesting a mild general cognitive decrease. A selective weakness in learning unfamiliar forms was found. Our findings indicate that different patterns of behavioral deficits occur following the left vs. right hemisphere injections, with selective patterns specific to stimulus type.

  11. Dominant spin-flip effects for the hadronic-produced J/ψ polarization at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xinggang; Fang Zhenyun

    2009-01-01

    Dominant spin-flip effects for the direct and prompt J/ψ polarizations at Tevatron run II with collision energy 1.96 TeV and rapidity cut |y J/ψ | 8 [ 3 S 1 ] into J/ψ is especially discussed with care. It is found that the spin-flip effect shall always dilute the J/ψ polarization, and with a suitable choice of the parameters a 0,1 and c 0,1,2 , the J/ψ polarization puzzle can be solved to a certain degree. At large transverse momentum p t , α for the prompt J/ψ is reduced by ∼50% for f 0 =v 2 and by ∼80% for f 0 =1. We also study the indirect J/ψ polarization from the b decays, which however is slightly affected by the same spin-flip effect and then shall provide a better platform to determine the color-octet matrix elements.

  12. Mechanical Energy Changes in Perfectly Inelastic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Suppose a block of mass "m"[subscript 1] traveling at speed "v"[subscript 1] makes a one-dimensional perfectly inelastic collision with another block of mass "m"[subscript 2]. What else does one need to know to calculate the fraction of the mechanical energy that is dissipated in the collision? (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. Parity violation in deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souder, P. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    AA beam of polarized electrons at CEBAF with an energy of 8 GeV or more will be useful for performing precision measurements of parity violation in deep inelastic scattering. Possible applications include precision tests of the Standard Model, model-independent measurements of parton distribution functions, and studies of quark correlations.

  14. Some applications of polarized inelastic neutron scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief account of applications of polarized inelastic neutron scattering in condensed matter research is given. ... the itinerant antiferromagnet chromium we demonstrate that the dynamics of the longitudinal and transverse excitations are very different, resolving a long standing puzzle concerning the slope of their dispersion.

  15. Developments in inelastic instrumentation at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.D.; Bowden, Z.A.; Carlile, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors summarize developments on the three scheduled inelastic spectrometers HET, TFXA and IRIS and illustrate their scientific program with some recent highlights. They give details of commissioning experiments on PRISMA and discuss the status of the eVS and polarization programs. The status of the MARI project is reviewed. 15 refs., 22 figs

  16. Particle Production in Deep Inelastic Muon Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, John James [MIT

    1991-01-01

    The E665 spectrometer at Fermila.b measured Deep-Inelastic Scattering of 490 GeV /c muons off several targets: Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Xenon. Events were selected from the Xenon and Deuterium targets, with a range of energy exchange, $\

  17. Influence functionals in deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the concept of influence functionals introduced by Feynman and Vernon could be applied to the study of deep inelastic reactions among heavy ions if the coupling between the relative motion and the internal degrees of freedom has a separable form as suggested by Hofmann and Siemens. (Auth.)

  18. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...

  19. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    My objective in this talk is to consider the question: 'What can be learned about deep inelastic collisions (DIC) from studying the associated gamma-rays'. First, I discuss the origin and nature of the gamma-rays from DIC, then the kinds of information gamma-ray spectra contain, and finally come to the combination of these two subjects. (orig./HSI)

  20. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K.

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems 124,112 Sn + 58,64 Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system 136 Xe + 64 Ni and currently measured the system 124 Xe + 58 Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring

  1. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean hadron multiplicity in the target fragmentation range of deep inelastic scattering processes. It is shown that in the high-x region the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current fragmentation region and in the target fragmentation region tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity for the Drell-Yan process is considered

  2. Elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of experiments in the field of elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering is discussed. The talk is divided into discussions of the single arm inclusive experiments at SLAC and Fermilab; the multiparticle inclusive experiments at SLAC, Fermilab und Cornell, and a description of selected results from exclusive channel measurements on electroproduced final states. (orig.) [de

  3. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.

  4. A unified inelastic constitutive equation in terms of anisotropic yield function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Imatani, S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to describe the material behavior under complicated loading conditions, inelastic constitutive equations accounting for the plasticity-creep interaction have been proposed by several researchers. However, these models are developed to predict the hardening and/or softening phenomena during the inelastic deformation processes, and two important features still remain to be considered; material anisotropy induced by the prior deformation history and inelastic flow or, in another word, directionality of the inelastic strain rate. This paper deals with a unified constitutive model capable of expressing both the deformation-induced anisotropy and the anisotropic flow. In the first part of the paper, an anisotropic yield function which can simulate both the Bauschinger effect and the cross effect is proposed. Then, the excess stress theory is applied to a viscoplastic constitutive relationship so as to describe the plasticity-creep interaction behavior. The experimental verification is carried out for SUS304 stainless steel at 650 degrees C in a biaxial stress state. Moreover, a generalized flow rule of the inelastic strain rate is also developed, by which the description of the ratcheting process can be improved

  5. Impact parameter analysis of proton-proton elastic and inelastic interactions at 360 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Ragavan, R.; Bailly, J

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained with the European Hybrid Spectrometer on the proton-proton elastic scattering at 360 GeV/c are presented. The differential cross sections of elastic and inelastic pp-interactions are studied as a function of the impact parameter. The results are compared to those obtained at other energies. They are interpreted in the framework of a simple geometrical Monte-Carlo model of inelastic collisions considering protons as composite particles having a definite effective radius with valence quarks inside. The shape of the inelastic overlap function is well reproduced for both pp- and π + p-interactions. The effective radii of the proton and pion as well as of the valence quarks are estimated for inelastic interactions. The model calculations indicate an increase of the effective radii both of protons and valence quarks and an increase of the proton opacity with increasing energy

  6. Folding models for elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The most widely used models are the optical model potential (OMP) for elastic scattering, and its generalization to non-spherical shapes, the deformed optical model potential (DOMP) for inelastic scattering. These models are simple and phenomenological; their parameters are adjusted so as to reproduce empirical data. Nonetheless, there are certain, not always well-defined, constraints to be imposed. The potential shapes and their parameter values must be reasonable and should vary in a smooth and systematic way with the masses of the colliding nuclei and their energy. One way of satisfying these constraints, without going back to a much more fundamental theory, is through the use of folding models. The basic justification for using potentials of the Woods-Saxon shape for nucleon-nucleus scattering, for example, is our knowledge that a nuclear density distribution is more-or-less constant in the nuclear interior with a diffuse surface. When this is folded with a short-range nucleon-nucleon interaction, the result is a similar shape with a more diffuse surface. Folding procedures allow us to incorporate many aspects of nuclear structure (although the nuclear size is one of the most important), as well as theoretical ideas about the effective interaction of two nucleons within nuclear matter. It also provides us with a means of linking information obtained from nuclear (hadronic) interactions with that from other sources, as well as correlating that from the use of different hadronic probes. Folding model potentials, single-folded potentials, and the double-folding model including applications to heavy-ion scattering are discussed

  7. Deep inelastic collisions between very heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sann, H.; Olmi, A.; Civelekoglu, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic survey of deep inelastic reactions was performed for colliding nuclei of masses between 80 and 240 amu. The application of large surface detectors and, particularly, of a position sensitive ionization chamber, has proved to be very effective and appropriate for this type of investigation. The Wilczynski diagrams describing the relative motion between the colliding objects shows a gradual trend as a function of growing masses of target and projectile where the trajectories lead the particles not toward negative scattering angles but increasingly into the direction around and above the grazing angle. This behavior is attributed to a delicate balance between Coulomb and nuclear forces. The energy dumping as a function of the mass transfer strength matches a general law between total kinetic energy loss and the variance of the proton number distribution. For the partly damped component this relation seems to hold independently from the choice of ingoing channel and bombarding energy. The dissipation of the kinetic energy does not depend only on the relative velocity of the impinging nuclei, and the simple friction model is not appropriate to describe these processes. The γ-multiplicity measurement displays a rapid increase as a function of scattering angle and total kinetic energy loss, which give new insights to the process and indicate the necessity of microscopic quantum mechanical calculations of the interaction. In the U-U collision large mass transfers are present which possibly populate with relatively large cross sections the transuranic elements. In the Pb-Pb reaction the mass transfer is more restricted. The decay probability by fission of the primary masses increases strongly for growing masses and excitation energies

  8. A 'cost-effective' probabilistic model to select the dominant factors affecting the variation of the component failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    1992-11-01

    Within the framework of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the component failure rate λ is a key parameter in the sense that the study of its behavior gives the essential information for estimating the current values as well as the trends in the failure probabilities of interest. Since there is an infinite variety of possible underlying factors which might cause changes in λ (e.g. operating time, maintenance practices, component environment, etc.), an 'importance ranking' process of these factors is considered most desirable to prioritize research efforts. To be 'cost-effective', the modeling effort must be small, i.e. essentially involving no estimation of additional parameters other than λ. In this paper, using a multivariate data analysis technique and various statistical measures, such a 'cost-effective' screening process has been developed. Dominant factors affecting the failure rate of any components of interest can easily be identified and the appropriateness of current research plans (e.g. on the necessity of performing aging studies) can be validated. (author)

  9. Junction region of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein has a dominant negative effect in Ewing's sarcoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jully, Babu; Vijayalakshmi, Ramshankar; Gopal, Gopisetty; Sabitha, Kesavan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2012-11-12

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignancy characterized by a specific 11:22 chromosomal translocation which generates a novel EWS-FLI1 fusion protein functioning as an aberrant transcription factor. In the present study, we have further characterized the junction region of the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. In-silico model of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein was analysed for ligand binding sites, and a putative region (amino acid (aa) 251-343 of the type 1 fusion protein) in the vicinity of the fusion junction was cloned and expressed using bacterial expression. The recombinant protein was characterized by Circular Dichroism (CD). We then expressed aa 251-280 ectopically in Ewing's sarcoma cell-line and its effect on cell proliferation, tumorigenicity and expression of EWS-FLI1 target genes were analysed. Our modelling analysis indicated that Junction region (aa 251-343) encompasses potential ligand biding sites in the EWS-FLI1 protein and when expressed in bacteria was present as soluble form. Ectopically expressing this region in Ewing's sarcoma cells inhibited tumorigenicity, and EWS-FLI1 target genes indicating a dominant negative biological effect. Junction region can be exploited further as target for drug development in future to specifically target EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's Sarcoma.

  10. Inelastic neutron scattering for materials science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The neutron is the ideal probe for studying the positions and motions of atoms in condensed matter. The main advantage of the neutron in inelastic scattering results from its heavy mass when compared to other particles which are used to probe materials such as the photon (light, x-rays, or γ-rays) or the electron. The author discusses the application of neutron scattering to study a number of different materials related problems, including, hard magnets, shape memory effects, and hydrogen distribution in metals

  11. Elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensky, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we are studying elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few-body systems within the framework of chiral effective theory. We consider two specific reactions involving pions on few-nucleon systems, namely pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, and incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron. These two reactions are closely related to the issue of dispersive and absorptive corrections to the pion-deuteron scattering length, which we also consider in our analysis. The incoherent pion photoproduction is also considered as the possible source for a high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length. (orig.)

  12. Probing lumps of wee partons in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.

    1994-06-01

    Recently, the ZEUS collaboration has reported on several remarkable properties of events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering. We suggest that the mechanism underlying these events is the scattering of electrons off lumps of wee partons inside the proton. Based on an effective lagrangian approach the Q 2 -, x- and W-distributions are evaluated. For sufficiently small invariant mass of the detected hadronic system, the mechanism implies leading twist behaviour. The x- and W-distributions are determined by the Lipatov exponent which governs the behaviour of parton densities at small x. (orig.)

  13. Elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensky, V.

    2007-09-29

    In the present work, we are studying elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few-body systems within the framework of chiral effective theory. We consider two specific reactions involving pions on few-nucleon systems, namely pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, and incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron. These two reactions are closely related to the issue of dispersive and absorptive corrections to the pion-deuteron scattering length, which we also consider in our analysis. The incoherent pion photoproduction is also considered as the possible source for a high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length. (orig.)

  14. Inclusive and exclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, J.

    1985-11-01

    In this talk, I will present some deep inelastic electron scattering experiments done recently at Saclay with the purpose of studying high momentum components in the nucleus, many body effects as correlations, exchange currents, and the electron-nucleon interaction inside the nuclear medium. For that purpose we have performed (e,e') and (ee'p) experiments. When we detect only the scattered electron, we get some average properties less sensitive to final state interaction; in ee'p measurements we are more specific

  15. Nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering using a relativistic impulse approximation with exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, E.; Shepard, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    We formulate a microscopic relativistic treatment of nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering in a distorted wave impulse approximation. The interaction is taken from a Lorentz invariant formulation with explicit direct and exchange terms constrained by fitting to experimental NN amplitudes. This procedure allows us to apply the theory in the lower range of intermediate energies (100--400 MeV) where exchange effects are likely to be important. Application to inelastic scattering uses this interaction for both the distorting potentials and the transition interaction. Effects of explicit exchange are studied and a preliminary analysis of /sup 12/C(p,p') data is presented

  16. Failure of inelastic N/D equations to generate the rho resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryon, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The effective left cut of the ππ P wave is rigorously determined by comparing the usual partial-wave dispersion relation with a new dispersion relation of the kind derived by Roskies and Roy. A recent experimental result for the inelasticity below M/sub ππ/ = 1.9 GeV is inserted into the Frye-Warnock N/D equations. The solutions are nonresonant, even when the inelasticity is increased by 50% over the experimental value. Because of the rigorous basis for the effective left cut, I conclude that the rho resonance is not generated by forces in the ππ channel

  17. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-01-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation

  18. A study of inelastic electron-phonon interactions on tunneling magnetoresistance of a nano-scale device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarresi, M.; Roknabadi, M.R.; Shahtahmasbi, N.; Vahedi Fakhrabad, D.; Arabshahi, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have studied the effect of inelastic electron-phonon interactions on current-voltage characteristic and tunneling magnetoresistance of a polythiophene molecule that is sandwiched between two cobalt electrodes using modified Green's function method as proposed by Walczak. The molecule is described with a modified Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian. The ground state of the molecule is obtained by Hellman-Feynman theorem. Electrodes are described in the wide-band approximation and spin-flip is neglected during conduction. Our calculation results show that with increase in voltage the currents increase and tunneling magnetoresistance decreases. Change in tunneling magnetoresistance due to inelastic interactions is limited in a small bias voltage interval and can be neglected in the other bias voltages. -- Research Highlights: →We investigate the effect of inelastic interaction on transport properties. →Due to inelastic interactions tunneling magnetoresistance decreases. →Decrease in TMR is restricted in a small voltage interval.

  19. Comparison of the inelastic response of steel building frames to strong earthquake and underground nuclear explosion ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytic studies were made of the adequacy of simulating earthquake effects at the Nevada Test Site for structural testing purposes. It is concluded that underground nuclear explosion ground motion will produce inelastic behavior and damage comparable to that produced by strong earthquakes. The generally longer duration of earthquakes compared with underground nuclear explosions does not appear to significantly affect the structural behavior of the building frames considered. A comparison of maximum ductility ratios, maximum story drifts, and maximum displacement indicate similar structural behavior for both types of ground motion. Low yield (10 - kt) underground nuclear explosions are capable of producing inelastic behavior in large structures. Ground motion produced by underground nuclear explosions can produce inelastic earthquake-like effects in large structures and could be used for testing large structures in the inelastic response regime. The Nevada Test Site is a feasible earthquake simulator for testing large structures

  20. Estimating the effects of potential climate and land use changes on hydrologic processes of a large agriculture dominated watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-10-01

    Land use and climate are two major components that directly influence catchment hydrologic processes, and therefore better understanding of their effects is crucial for future land use planning and water resources management. We applied Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess the effects of potential land use change and climate variability on hydrologic processes of large agriculture dominated Big Sioux River (BSR) watershed located in North Central region of USA. Future climate change scenarios were simulated using average output of temperature and precipitation data derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B, and A2) for end-21st century. Land use change was modeled spatially based on historic long-term pattern of agricultural transformation in the basin, and included the expansion of corn (Zea mays L.) cultivation by 2, 5, and 10%. We estimated higher surface runoff in all land use scenarios with maximum increase of 4% while expanding 10% corn cultivation in the basin. Annual stream discharge was estimated higher with maximum increase of 72% in SRES-B1 attributed from higher groundwater contribution of 152% in the same scenario. We assessed increased precipitation during spring season but the summer precipitation decreased substantially in all climate change scenarios. Similar to decreased summer precipitation, discharge of the BSR also decreased potentially affecting agricultural production due to reduced future water availability during crop growing season in the basin. However, combined effects of potential land use change with climate variability enhanced for higher annual discharge of the BSR. Therefore, these estimations can be crucial for implications of future land use planning and water resources management of the basin.

  1. Vapor pressure lowering effects due to salinity and suction pressure in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, A. [Aquater S.p.A., Pisa (Italy); Calore, C. [Istituto Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche-CNR, Pisa (Italy); Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The equation-of-state module able to handle saline brines with non-condensible gas, developed for the TOUGH2 simulator, has been improved to include vapor pressure lowering (VPL) due to suction pressure as represented by Kelvin`s equation. In this equation the effects of salt are considered whereas those of non-condensible gas have currently been neglected. Numerical simulations of fluid production from tight matrix blocks have been performed to evaluate the impact of VPL effects due to salinity and suction pressure on the depletion behaviour of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Previous studies performed neglected VPL due to suction pressure showed that for initial NaCl mass fractions above threshold values, {open_quotes}sealing{close_quotes} of the block occurs and large amounts of liquid fluid may not be recovered. On the other hand, below the threshold value the matrix block dries out due to fluid production. The inclusion of VPL due to suction pressure does not allow complete vaporization of the liquid phase. As a result, the threshold NaCl concentration above which sealing of the matrix block occurs is increased. Above the {open_quotes}critical{close_quotes} NaCl concentration, block depletion behaviour with and without the VPL due to suction pressure is almost identical, as liquid phase saturation remains high even after long production times. As the VPL due to suction pressure depends mainly on capillary pressure, the shape of capillary pressure functions used in numerical simulations is important in determining VPL effects on block depletion.

  2. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F.; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2016-01-01

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a "5"9Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16–24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11–15 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350–470 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. - Highlights: • We report that peat-bogs are sources of bio-available iron to marine algae. • This iron is effectively chelated with aquatic humic acids. • The radiocarbon age of the iron-carrying aquatic humic acids was up to 550 years. • Analysis was focused on mixing experiments of iron-rich creek water with seawater. • Drained peatlands with

  3. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krachler, Regina, E-mail: regina.krachler@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Rudolf F.; Wallner, Gabriele [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Steier, Peter [Isotope Research and Nuclear Physics, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); University of Johannesburg, Department of Zoology, P. O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstraße 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a {sup 59}Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16–24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11–15 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350–470 μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. - Highlights: • We report that peat-bogs are sources of bio-available iron to marine algae. • This iron is effectively chelated with aquatic humic acids. • The radiocarbon age of the iron-carrying aquatic humic acids was up to 550 years. • Analysis was focused on mixing experiments of iron-rich creek water with seawater. • Drained

  4. Statistical Analysis of Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of the Distribution of Air Quality and Dominant Air Pollutants and the Effect Factors in Qingdao Urban Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has impacted people’s lives in urban China, and the analysis of the distribution and driving factors behind air quality has become a current research focus. In this study, the temporal heterogeneity of air quality (AQ and the dominant air pollutants across the four seasons were analyzed based on the Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test method. Then, the spatial heterogeneity of AQ and the dominant air pollutants across four sites were analyzed based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test method. Finally, the copula model was introduced to analyze the effect of relative factors on dominant air pollutants. The results show that AQ and dominant air pollutants present significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the study area. AQ is worst in winter and best in summer. PM10, O3, and PM2.5 are the dominant air pollutants in spring, summer, and winter, respectively. The average concentration of dominant air pollutants presents significant and diverse daily peaks and troughs across the four sites. The main driving factors are pollutants such as SO2, NO2, and CO, so pollutant emission reduction is the key to improving air quality. Corresponding pollution control measures should account for this heterogeneity in terms of AQ and the dominant air pollutants among different urban zones.

  5. The effect of unilateral dominance of the cerebral hemispheres on the radiographic appearance of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirout, J.

    1980-01-01

    The results of dynamic radiographic studies of the cervical spine following isometric exercise of the shoulders and the upper extremities appear to indicate that the commonly seen asymmetries of the joints in the craniocervical and cervicothoracic junction are due to asymmetry in the function of the muscles. The obvious dominance of the muscles on the right side demonstrates the dominance of the left cerebral hemisphere. The clinical importance of this is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  6. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

    2001-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of

  7. Evaluation of systematic uncertainties caused by radiative corrections in experiments on deep inelastic νsub(l)N-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardin, D.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    Basing on the simple quark-parton model of strong interaction and on the Weinberg-Salam theory compact formulae are derived for the radiative correction to the charged current induced deep inelastic scattering of neutrinos on nucleons. The radiative correction is found to be around 20-30%, i.e., the value typical for deep inelastic lN-scattering. The results obtained are rather different from the presently available estimations of the effect under consideration

  8. Distorted spin dependent spectral function of {sup 3}He and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptari, Leonya P. [University of Perugia (Italy); INFN-Perugia (Italy); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Del Dotto, Alessio [University of Rome, Rome (Italy); INFN-Roma (Italy); Pace, Emanuele [University of Rome (Italy); INFN-Tor Vergata (Italy); Salme, Giovanni [INFN-Roma (Italy); Scopetta, Sergio [University of Perugia (Italy); INFN-Perugia (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    The spin dependent spectral function, relevant to describe polarized electron scattering off polarized {sup 3}He, is studied, within the Plane Wave Impulse Approximation and taking into account final state interaction effects (FSI). In particular, the case of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SiDIS) is considered, evaluating the FSI of the hadronizing quark with the nuclear remnants. It is shown that particular kinematical regions can be selected to minimize the latter effects, so that parton distributions in the neutron can be accessed. On the other side, in the regions where FSI dominates, the considered reactions can elucidate the mechanism of hadronization of quarks during the propagation in the nuclear medium. It is shown that the obtained spin dependent spectral function can be directly applied to investigate the SiDIS reaction e-vector + {sup 3}He-vector to h+X, where the hadron h originates from the current fragmentation. Experiments of this type are being performed at JLab to extract neutron transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. As a case study, a different SiDIS process, with detection of slow (A-1) systems in the final state, is considered in more details, in order to establish when nuclear structure effects and FSI can be distinguished from elementary reactions on quasi-free nucleons. It is argued that, by a proper choice of kinematics, the origin of nuclear effects in polarized DIS phenomena and the details of the interaction between the hadronizing quark and the nuclear medium can be investigated at a level which is not reachable in inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  9. Selected topics of deep inelastic scattering from the sixties to HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayler, J.

    1995-07-01

    This talk reports on important steps in deep inelastic scattering, starting in the sixties before scaling violations were observed, and ending with most recent results from HERA. The selection is rather subjective and no systematic review was attempted. The emphasis is on structure functions, QCD effects in the hadronic final states and electroweak effects in electron scattering. (orig.)

  10. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  11. On some constitutive equations for inelastic materials and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeva, V.V.; Karagiozova, D.D.; Baltov, A.A.; Hadjikov, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of the mechano-mathematical modelling of the behaviour of materials under irradiation become more topical with development of atomic energetics. Many protective and technological structures could be subjected to irradiation in case of operation or average. The irradiation affects the process of deformation by causing inelastic swelling of materials, it affects their physico-mechanical properties, i.e. it changes their elastic, plastic, viscous, thermal, etc. properties. This effect varies depending on the material. Due to this reason it is very important to indicate exactly the class of materials for which a mechano-mathematical model is created. Grounding on the analysis of experimental data about the behaviour of different types of steel used in nuclear reactors and on the existing models, the present paper proposes constitutive equations for inelastic materials which account temperature, strain rate and radiation effects. The thermodynamic theory of systems with internal state parameters is utilized and for the description of the radiation effects two scalar parameters are introduced - dose φ r and temperature θ r of irradiation. Problem of the behaviour of irradiated structure element in stress concentrator zone is solved on the basis of these constitutive equations and of Boundary Element Method (BEM). (orig.)

  12. Diffraction and absorption of inelastically scattered electrons for K-shell ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, T.W.; Allen, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    An expression for the nonlocal inelastic scattering cross section for fast electrons in a crystalline environment, which explicitly includes diffraction as well as absorption for the inelastically scattered electrons, is used to carry out realistic calculations of K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis cross sections. The calculations demonstrate quantitatively why, in EDX spectroscopy, integration over the dynamical states of the inelastically scattered electron averages in such a way that an effective plane wave representation of the scattered electrons is a good approximation. This is only the case for large enough acceptance angles of the detector in an EELS experiment. For EELS with smaller detector apertures, explicit integration over the dynamical final states is necessary and inclusion of absorption for the scattered electrons is important, particularly for thicker crystals. 50 refs., 7 figs

  13. QCD expectations for deep inelastic scattering at small x and their phenomenological implications for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1994-05-01

    The basic QCD expectations concerning the deep inelastic scattering at low x where x is the Bjorken scaling variable are reviewed. This includes discussion of the BFKL equation which sums the leading powers of ln (1/x) and the shadowing effects. Phenomenological implications of the theoretical expectations for the deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the small x region which has become accessible at the HERA ep collider are described. We give predictions for structure functions F 2 which are based on the BFKL equation and the high energy k T factorization theorem. These predictions are compared with the results of structure function analysis based on Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations and confronted with the recent data from HERA. We discuss jet production and transverse energy flow in deep inelastic lepton scattering as the measurements which may be particularly suitable for revealing the QCD dynamics at small x. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs

  14. Gate-controlled current and inelastic electron tunneling spectrum of benzene: a self-consistent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y Y; Chen, H; Mizuseki, H; Kawazoe, Y

    2011-04-14

    We use density functional theory based nonequilibrium Green's function to self-consistently study the current through the 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). The elastic and inelastic tunneling properties through this Au-BDT-Au molecular junction are simulated, respectively. For the elastic tunneling case, it is found that the current through the tilted molecule can be modulated effectively by the external gate field, which is perpendicular to the phenyl ring. The gate voltage amplification comes from the modulation of the interaction between the electrodes and the molecules in the junctions. For the inelastic case, the electron tunneling scattered by the molecular vibrational modes is considered within the self-consistent Born approximation scheme, and the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum is calculated.

  15. An orthogonality condition model treatment of elastic and inelastic (α, 12C) scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Imanishi, B.

    1981-02-01

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles on the deformed nucleus 12 C are investigated in the range of incident α-particle energies of 9 to 11 MeV by using the coupled-channel method with orthogonality condition. A doubly folded potential generated by the shell model wave functions of the α-particle and the deformed nucleus 12 C is employed for the relative motion between the α-particle and 12 C. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for the elastic and inelastic angular distributions and the resonance structures. It is found, from the Born series expansion of the T-matrix, that the orthogonality constraint stresses the effects of the channel-coupling between the elastic and inelastic processes, and it indicates that the DWBA does not work well in this system. (author)

  16. Social dominance in prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in continuous competitive dyads: Effects on body growth, metabolic status, and reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C; Carriquiry, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the body weight (BW) and size, metabolic status, and reproductive development of dominant and subordinate prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in competitive dyads. Sixteen Holstein and Jersey × Holstein prepubertal heifers (means ± SEM; 250.8 ± 9.8 d; 208.5 ± 13.9 kg of BW) were assigned to 8 homogeneous dyads according to breed, age, and BW. Dyads were housed in pens separated 1 m from each other during 120 d, receiving a total mixed ration on a 5% restriction of their potential dry matter intake, and had access to the same feeder (60 cm) throughout the experiment. Dominant and subordinate heifers were defined based on the winning agonistic interactions in each dyad. Body development was recorded every 20 d in all heifers, and blood samples were collected on the same days to determine endocrine and metabolic status. The maximum follicle diameter, number of follicles >6 mm, and the presence of corpus luteum were observed weekly by ultrasound. Heifer BW (269.3 vs. 265.3 ± 1.5 kg) and average daily gains (0.858 vs. 0.770 ± 0.02 kg/d) were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers. On d 30, 37, and 53, dominant heifers had more follicles than subordinate heifers, and maximum follicle diameter was greater in dominant than in subordinate heifers (10.0 vs. 9.0 ± 0.3 mm). Dominant heifers achieved puberty earlier than subordinate heifers (313.9 ± 4.9 vs. 329.6 ± 5.7 d) with similar BW (279.4 ± 2.6 vs. 277.4 ± 5.8 kg). Glucose concentrations were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers (89.2 vs. 86.8 ± 1.2 mg/dL), but cholesterol concentrations were greater in subordinate than dominant heifers (86.1 vs. 90.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL). We concluded that, under continuous competitive situations, dominant heifers were more precocious than subordinate ones, achieving an earlier puberty. Dominant heifers had greater body growth and glucose concentrations than subordinate heifers, which may be responsible, at least in part, for

  17. Charge retention in deep inelastic electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Cohen, I.; Messing, F.; Nordberg, E.; Siemann, R.; Smith-Kintner, J.; Stein, P.; Drews, G.; Gebert, W.; Janata, F.

    1978-11-01

    We have measured the net charge of the forward hadrons electroproduced from a proton target and have observed a rise with increasing x (=Q 2 /2Mv). This effect is expected in the quark-parton model as the electroproduction of hadrons becomes dominated by the fragmentation of u quarks. The data are also consistent with jet models in which a high momentum leading hadron is more likely to be carrying the parent quark than is a slower hadron. (orig.) [de

  18. Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Griffioen, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).

  19. Review of inelastic proton-proton reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston

    1973-01-01

    The most important new results on inelastic proton-proton scattering obtained with the new machines, I.S.R. and N.A.L., are: (1) The inelastic cross-section increases monotonically with energy from threshold to 1500 GeV/c. Above 6 GeV/c the energy variation has a s /sup +0.04/ behaviour. (2) Scaling is observed at I.S.R. energies in pion production. Confirmation is obtained of the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. (3) The results are in general, consistent with the two-component model-one class of events being produced by diffraction dissociation and the other by a short-range-order process (e.g. the multiperipheral model). (4) There are indications that the protons have a granular structure; this from observation of secondaries of large transverse momenta. (33 refs).

  20. Parity violation in deep inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1979-11-01

    Neutral currents in electron scattering and the Weinberg-Salam model are reviewed. This generally accepted model is consistent with experimental results from neutrino interactions; an appropriate deep inelastic electron scattering experiment would measure couplings that don't involve neutrinos to see if they are also correctly described by the theory. The SLAC-Yale experiment measures a difference in the e-d inelastic cross section for right- and left-handed electrons. The polarized source, beam monitors, scattering experiment, checks of helicity dependence, and results are described. It is concluded that the data obtained are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model, and that the best value of sin 2 theta/sub W/ for these data is in excellent agreement with the average values of that parameter deduced from neutrino experiments. Future experiments with polarized electrons are discussed. 12 figures, 2 tables

  1. On a simplified inelastic analysis of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarka, J.; Engel, J.J.; Inglebert, G.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper two main problems are considered: the derivation of cyclic constitutive relations during inelastic regime where hardening, softening and creep can occur, and the development of the eventual periodical state in the structure during cyclic thermodynamical loadings. We give a very simple and practical framework to solve these problems in one unique manner. Its essential feature consits in the introduction of a family of internal parameters which characterize local inelastic mechanisms and the family of transformed internal parameters which are linearly linked to the previous ones through a symmetrical non-negative matrix and are indeed the opposite of the associated residual stresses. Thanks to that, the treatment of the local plastic or viscoplastic yield conditions can be easily made from only the classical simple purely elastic (or viscoelastic) analysis. This property allows important results during cyclic loadings: conditions for elastic shakedown, plastic shakedown, ratcheting and bounds for the limiting state. Several examples are given in the text. (orig.)

  2. Inelastic analysis of solids and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kojic, M; Bathe, K J; Koji?, Milo

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic Analysis of Solids and Structures presents in a unified manner the physical and theoretical background of inelastic material models and computational methods, and illustrates the behavior of the models in typical engineering conditions.It is based on experimental observations and principles of mechanics, thus describing computational algorithms for stress calculation and presenting solved examples.The theoretical background is given to an extent necessary to describe the commonly employed material models in metal isotropic and orthotropic plasticity, thermoplasticity and viscoplasticity, and the plasticity of geological materials.The computational algorithms are developed in a unified manner with some detailed derivations of the algorithmic relations.The solved examples are designed to give insight into the material behavior in various engineering conditions, and to demonstrate the application of the computational algorithms.

  3. On deep inelastic lepton-nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garsevanishvili, V.R.; Darbaidze, Ya.Z.; Menteshashvili, Z.R.; Ehsakiya, Sh.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of building relativistic theory of nuclear reactions by way of involving relativistic methods, developed in the elementary particle theory, becomes rather actual at the time being. The paper presents some results of investigations into deep inelastic lepton-nuclear processes lA → l'(A-1)x, with the spectator nucleus-fragment in the finite state. To describe the reactions lA → l'(A-1)x (where l=an electron, muan, neutrino, antineutrino), the use is made of the self-similarity principle and multiparticle quasipotential formalism in the ''light front'' variables. The expressions are obtained for the differential cross-sections of lepton-nuclear processes and for the structure functions of deep inelastic scattering of neutrinos (antineutrinos) and charged leptons by nuclei

  4. Potential phytotoxic and shading effects of invasive Fallopia (Polygonaceae taxa on the germination of native dominant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Moravcová

    2011-08-01

    riparian-like habitats where it often encounters U. dioica populations, while F. ×bohemica tends to occur more often in ruderal sites with a high representation of C. epigejos; this might imply that each of the knotweed species exhibits a stronger effect on native species that are dominant in habitats they typically invade. The weakest phytotoxic effect of F. japonica corresponds to the results of previous studies that found this species to be generally a weaker competitor than its two congeners. Although the results of our experiments cannot be taken as a direct evidence for allelopathic effects acting in the field, the demonstrated potential phytotoxic effect of invasive Fallopia species on the germination of native species suggests that allelopathy may play a role in the strong impact of knotweed invasion on species diversity of invaded communities observed in the field.

  5. In situ measurement of inelastic light scattering in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin

    Variation in the shape of solar absorption (Fraunhofer) lines are used to study the inelastic scattering in natural waters. In addition, oxygen absorption lines near 689nm are used to study the solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. The prototype Oceanic Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (OFLD) has been further developed and improved by using a well protected fiber optic - wire conductor cable and underwater electronic housing. A Monte-Carlo code and a simple code have been modified to simulate the Raman scattering, DOM fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence. A series of in situ measurements have been conducted in clear ocean waters in the Florida Straits, in the turbid waters of Florida Bay, and in the vicinity of a coral reef in the Dry Tortugas. By comparing the reduced data with the model simulation results, the Raman scattering coefficient, b r with an excitation wavelength at 488nm, has been verified to be 2.6 × 10-4m-1 (Marshall and Smith, 1990), as opposed to 14.4 × 10- 4m-1 (Slusher and Derr, 1975). The wavelength dependence of b r cannot be accurately determined from the data set as the reported values (λ m-4 to λ m- 5) have an insignificant effect in the natural underwater light field. Generally, in clear water, the percentage of inelastic scattered light in the total light field at /lambda 510nm. At low concentrations (a y(/lambda = 380nm) less than 0.1m-1), DOM fluorescence plays a small role in the inelastic light field. However, chlorophyll fluorescence is much stronger than Raman scattering at 685nm. In shallow waters where a sea bottom affects the ambient light field, inelastic light is negligible for the whole visible band. Since Raman scattering is now well characterized, the new OFLD can be used to measure the solar stimulated in situ fluorescence. As a result, the fluorescence signals of various bottom surfaces, from coral to macrophytes, have been measured and have been found to vary with time possibly due to nonphotochemical quenching

  6. Medium energy inelastic proton-nucleus scattering with spin dependent NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Auger, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    The previously proposed effective profile expansion method for the Glauber multiple scattering model calculation has been extended to the case of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering with spin dependent NN interaction. Using the method which turns out to be computationally simple and of relatively wider applicability, a study of sensitivity of proton-nucleus inelastic scattering calculation to the sometimes neglected momentum transfer dependence of the NN scattering amplitude has been made. We find that the calculated polarization is particularly sensitive in this respect. (author)

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering from superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the differential cross section for the inelastic magnetic neutron scattering by superconducting rings is derived taking account of the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic field generated by the superconducting current. Calculations of the scattering cross section are carried out for cold neutrons and thin film rings from type-II superconductors with the magnetic fields not exceeding the first critical field.

  8. Deep inelastic collisions viewed as Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.H.E.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1980-01-01

    Non-equilibrium transport processes like Brownian motion, are studied since perhaps 100 years and one should ask why does one not use these theories to explain deep inelastic collision data. These theories have reached a high standard of sophistication, experience, and precision that I believe them to be very usefull for our problem. I will try to sketch a possible form of an advanced theory of Brownian motion that seems to be suitable for low energy heavy ion collisions. (orig./FKS)

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering from cerium under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainford, B.D.; Buras, B.; Lebech, B.

    1976-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering from Ce metal at 300K was studied both below and above the first order γ-α phase transition, using a triple axis spectrometer. It was found that (a) there is no indication of any residual magnetic scattering in the collapsed α phase and (b) the energy width of the paramagnetic scattering in the γ-phase increases with pressure. (Auth.)

  10. Deep Inelastic Scattering at the Amplitude Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    The deep inelastic lepton scattering and deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections can be interpreted in terms of the fundamental wavefunctions defined by the light-front Fock expansion, thus allowing tests of QCD at the amplitude level. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gauge theory and string theory provides remarkable new insights into QCD, including a model for hadronic wavefunctions which display conformal scaling at short distances and color confinement at large distances

  11. Mean associated multiplicities in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.S.; Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A formula is derived for the mean multiplicity of hadrons in the target-fragmentation region in the process of deep inelastic scattering. It is shown that in the region of large x the ratio of the mean multiplicities in the current- and target-fragmentation regions tends to unity at high energies. The mean multiplicity in the Drell-Yan process is also discussed

  12. The role transverse momentum and spin in unpolarised semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, Francesca

    2008-10-15

    The azimuthal modulations of hadron production has been measured in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering processes at HERMES, and the results, compatible between different data taking periods, have been presented. Several systematic checks were performed in order to estimate possible biases, and finally the results are corrected for acceptance and QED higher order contributions. The corrected cosine moments are provided in 500 independent kinematical bins providing for the first time a full differential description of the cross-section azimuthal dependent terms. Their projections in the relevant kinematical variables have been presented for comparison with expectations. The results extracted for hydrogen and deuterium data do not show significative discrepancies, and this can be explained taking into account the u-dominance hypothesis in deep inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  13. The role transverse momentum and spin in unpolarised semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Francesca

    2008-10-01

    The azimuthal modulations of hadron production has been measured in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering processes at HERMES, and the results, compatible between different data taking periods, have been presented. Several systematic checks were performed in order to estimate possible biases, and finally the results are corrected for acceptance and QED higher order contributions. The corrected cosine moments are provided in 500 independent kinematical bins providing for the first time a full differential description of the cross-section azimuthal dependent terms. Their projections in the relevant kinematical variables have been presented for comparison with expectations. The results extracted for hydrogen and deuterium data do not show significative discrepancies, and this can be explained taking into account the u-dominance hypothesis in deep inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  14. Observation of events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1993-07-01

    In deep inelastic, neutral current scattering of electrons and protons at √s=296 GeV, we observe in the ZEUS detector events with a large rapidity gap in the hadronic final state. They occur in the region of small Bjorken x and are observed up to Q 2 of 100 GeV 2 . They account for about 5% of the events with Q 2 ≥10 GeV 2 . Their general properties are inconsistent with the dominant mechanism of deep inelastic scattering, where color is transferred between the scattered quark and the proton remnant, and suggest that the underlying production mechanism is the diffractive dissociation of the virtual photon. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of leading neutron production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Olsson, J.E.; Pahl, P.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Sunar, D.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Brinkmann, M.; Habib, S.; List, B.; Toll, T.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Murin, P.; Tomasz, F.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Liptaj, A.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Petrukhin, A.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cerny, K.; Pejchal, O.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cozzika, G.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Rahmat, A.J.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Trinh, T.N.; Vallee, C.; Dodonov, V.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Glushkov, I.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Piec, S.; Grab, C.; Zimmermann, T.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Kapichine, M.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Tchoulakov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Radescu, V.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Stella, B.; Tsakov, I.

    2010-01-01

    The production of leading neutrons, where the neutron carries a large fraction x L of the incoming proton's longitudinal momentum, is studied in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA. The data were taken with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 122 pb -1 . The semi-inclusive cross section is measured in the phase space defined by the photon virtuality 6 2 2 , Bjorken scaling variable 1.5 .10 -4 -2 , longitudinal momentum fraction 0.32 L T 2 LN(3) (Q 2 ,x,x L ), and the fraction of deep-inelastic scattering events containing a leading neutron are studied as a function of Q 2 , x and x L . Assuming that the pion exchange mechanism dominates leading neutron production, the data provide constraints on the shape of the pion structure function. (orig.)

  16. Space use of a dominant Arctic vertebrate: Effects of prey, sea ice, and land on Pacific walrus resource selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William; Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Taylor, Rebecca L.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Jewett, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Sea ice dominates marine ecosystems in the Arctic, and recent reductions in sea ice may alter food webs throughout the region. Sea ice loss may also stress Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), which feed on benthic macroinvertebrates in the Bering and Chukchi seas. However, no studies have examined the effects of sea ice on foraging Pacific walrus space use patterns. We tested a series of hypotheses that examined walrus foraging resource selection as a function of proximity to resting substrates and prey biomass. We quantified walrus prey biomass with 17 benthic invertebrate families, which included bivalves, polychaetes, amphipods, tunicates, and sipunculids. We included covariates for distance to sea ice and distance to land, and systematically developed a series of candidate models to examine interactions among benthic prey biomass and resting substrates. We ranked candidate models with Bayesian Information Criterion and made inferences on walrus resource selection based on the top-ranked model. Based on the top model, biomass of the bivalve family Tellinidae, distance to ice, distance to land, and the interaction of distances to ice and land all positively influenced walrus foraging resource selection. Standardized model coefficients indicated that distance to ice explained the most variation in walrus foraging resource selection followed by Tellinidae biomass. Distance to land and the interaction of distances to ice and land accounted for similar levels of variation. Tellinidae biomass likely represented an index of overall bivalve biomass, indicating walruses focused foraging in areas with elevated levels of bivalve and tellinid biomass. Our results also emphasize the importance of sea ice to walruses. Projected sea ice loss will increase the duration of the open water season in the Chukchi Sea, altering the spatial distribution of resting sites relative to current foraging areas and possibly affecting the spatial structure of benthic communities.

  17. In vivo Modeling Implicates APOL1 in Nephropathy: Evidence for Dominant Negative Effects and Epistasis under Anemic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair R Anderson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available African Americans have a disproportionate risk for developing nephropathy. This disparity has been attributed to coding variants (G1 and G2 in apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1; however, there is little functional evidence supporting the role of this protein in renal function. Here, we combined genetics and in vivo modeling to examine the role of apol1 in glomerular development and pronephric filtration and to test the pathogenic potential of APOL1 G1 and G2. Translational suppression or CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing of apol1 in zebrafish embryos results in podocyte loss and glomerular filtration defects. Complementation of apol1 morphants with wild-type human APOL1 mRNA rescues these defects. However, the APOL1 G1 risk allele does not ameliorate defects caused by apol1 suppression and the pathogenicity is conferred by the cis effect of both individual variants of the G1 risk haplotype (I384M/S342G. In vivo complementation studies of the G2 risk allele also indicate that the variant is deleterious to protein function. Moreover, APOL1 G2, but not G1, expression alone promotes developmental kidney defects, suggesting a possible dominant-negative effect of the altered protein. In sickle cell disease (SCD patients, we reported previously a genetic interaction between APOL1 and MYH9. Testing this interaction in vivo by co-suppressing both transcripts yielded no additive effects. However, upon genetic or chemical induction of anemia, we observed a significantly exacerbated nephropathy phenotype. Furthermore, concordant with the genetic interaction observed in SCD patients, APOL1 G2 reduces myh9 expression in vivo, suggesting a possible interaction between the altered APOL1 and myh9. Our data indicate a critical role for APOL1 in renal function that is compromised by nephropathy-risk encoding variants. Moreover, our interaction studies indicate that the MYH9 locus is also relevant to the phenotype in a stressed microenvironment and suggest that consideration of

  18. Collective chain dynamics in lipid bilayers by inelastic x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, T.M.; Chen, P.-J.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E.E.; Chen, S.-H.; Hwang, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the application of inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) to lipid bilayers. This technique directly measures the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) which is the space-time Fourier transform of the electron density correlation function of the measured system. For a multiatomic system, the analysis of S(q,ω) is usually complicated. But for multiple bilayers of lipid, S(q,ω) is dominated by chain-chain correlations within individual bilayers. Thus IXS provides a unique probe for the collective dynamics of lipid chains in a bilayer that cannot be obtained by any other method. IXS of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine + cholesterol at two different concentrations were measured. S(q,ω) was analyzed by three-mode hydrodynamic equations, including a thermal diffusive mode and two propagating acoustic modes. We obtained the dispersion curves for the phonons that represent the collective in-plane excitations of lipid chains. The effect of cholesterol on chain dynamics was detected. Our analysis shows the importance of having a high instrument resolution as well as the requirement of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to obtain meaningful results from such an IXS experiment. The requirement on signal-to-noise also applies to molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual aquaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30 as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15 and subordinate (N = 15 fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl, glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl, triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl. However, when isolated (N = 30 and paired (N = 30 tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

  20. P2X2 Dominant Deafness Mutations Have No Negative Effect on Wild-Type Isoform: Implications for Functional Rescue and in Deafness Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The P2X2 receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel, assembled by three subunits. Recently, it has been found that heterozygous mutations of P2X2 V60L and G353R can cause autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The fact that heterozygous mutations cause deafness suggests that the mutations may have dominant-negative effect (DNE on wild-type (WT P2X2 isoforms and/or other partners leading to hearing loss. In this study, the effect of these dominant deafness P2X2 mutations on WT P2X2 was investigated. We found that sole transfection of both V60L and G353R deafness mutants could efficiently target to the plasma membrane, like WT P2X2, but exhibit a significantly reduced response to ATP stimulation. Both mutants reduced the channel conductance, but G353R mutation also altered the voltage dependency. Co-expression with WT P2X2 could restore the response to ATP. As the ratio of WT P2X2 vs. mutants increased, the response to ATP was also increased. Computer modeling confirmed that both V60L and G353R dominant-deafness mutant subunits do not have any negative effect on WT P2X2 subunit, when assembled as a heterotrimer. Improper docking or defective gating is the more likely mechanism for impaired channel function by these P2X2 deafness mutations. These results suggest that P2X2 dominant deafness mutations do not have negative effects on WT P2X2 isoforms, and that adding additional WT P2X2 could rescue the lost channel function caused by the deafness mutations. These P2X2 dominant deafness mutations may have negative-effects on other partners leading to hearing loss.

  1. On the analysis of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blostein, J.J.; Dawidowski, J.; Granada, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the different steps that must be followed for data processing in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments. Firstly we discuss to what extent multiple scattering effects can affect the measured peak shape, concluding the an accurate calculation of these effects must be performed to extract the desired effective temperature from the experimental data. We present a Monte Carlo procedure to perform these corrections. Next, we focus our attention on experiments performed on light nuclei. We examine cases in which the desired information is obtained from the observed peak areas, and we analyze the procedure to obtain an effective temperature from the experimental peaks. As a consequence of the results emerging from those cases we trace the limits of validity of the convolution formalism usually employed, and propose a different treatment of the experimental data for this kind of measurements. (author)

  2. On the analysis of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blostein, J.J.; Dawidowski, J.; Granada, J.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2001-03-01

    We analyze the different steps that must be followed for data processing in Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments. Firstly we discuss to what extent multiple scattering effects can affect the measured peak shape, concluding the an accurate calculation of these effects must be performed to extract the desired effective temperature from the experimental data. We present a Monte Carlo procedure to perform these corrections. Next, we focus our attention on experiments performed on light nuclei. We examine cases in which the desired information is obtained from the observed peak areas, and we analyze the procedure to obtain an effective temperature from the experimental peaks. As a consequence of the results emerging from those cases we trace the limits of validity of the convolution formalism usually employed, and propose a different treatment of the experimental data for this kind of measurements. (author)

  3. Effects of fuel load and moisture content on fire behaviour and heating in masticated litter-dominated fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse K. Kreye; Leda N. Kobziar; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical fuels treatments are being used in fire-prone ecosystems where fuel loading poses a hazard, yetlittle research elucidating subsequent fire behaviour exists, especially in litter-dominated fuelbeds. To address this deficiency, we burned constructed fuelbeds from masticated sites in pine flatwoods forests in northern Florida...

  4. Effects of monsoon precipitation variability on the physiological response of two dominant C₄ grasses across a semiarid ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomey, Michell L; Collins, Scott L; Friggens, Michael T; Brown, Renee F; Pockman, William T

    2014-11-01

    For the southwestern United States, climate models project an increase in extreme precipitation events and prolonged dry periods. While most studies emphasize plant functional type response to precipitation variability, it is also important to understand the physiological characteristics of dominant plant species that define plant community composition and, in part, regulate ecosystem response to climate change. We utilized rainout shelters to alter the magnitude and frequency of rainfall and measured the physiological response of the dominant C4 grasses, Bouteloua eriopoda and Bouteloua gracilis. We hypothesized that: (1) the more drought-adapted B. eriopoda would exhibit faster recovery and higher rates of leaf-level photosynthesis (A(net)) than B. gracilis, (2) A(net) would be greater under the higher average soil water content in plots receiving 30-mm rainfall events, (3) co-dominance of B. eriopoda and B. gracilis in the ecotone would lead to intra-specific differences from the performance of each species at the site where it was dominant. Throughout the study, soil moisture explained 40-70% of the variation in A(net). Consequently, differences in rainfall treatments were not evident from intra-specific physiological function without sufficient divergence in soil moisture. Under low frequency, larger rainfall events B. gracilis exhibited improved water status and longer periods of C gain than B. eriopoda. Results from this study indicate that less frequent and larger rainfall events could provide a competitive advantage to B. gracilis and influence species composition across this arid-semiarid grassland ecotone.

  5. Potential effects of climate change on streambed scour and risks to salmonid survival in snow-dominated mountain basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime R. Goode; John M. Buffington; Daniele Tonina; Daniel J. Isaak; Russell F. Thurow; Seth Wenger; David Nagel; Charlie Luce; Doerthe Tetzlaff; Chris Soulsby

    2013-01-01

    Snowmelt-dominated basins in northern latitudes provide critical habitat for salmonids. As such, these systems may be especially vulnerable to climate change because of potential shifts in the frequency, magnitude, and timing of flows that can scour incubating embryos. A general framework is presented to examine this issue, using a series of physical models that link...

  6. Bilingual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Signers: Effects of Proficiency and Language Dominance on Cross-Language Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…

  7. Statistical Inference on Stochastic Dominance Efficiency. Do Omitted Risk Factors Explain the Size and Book-to-Market Effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses statistical inference on the second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) efficiency of a given portfolio relative to all portfolios formed from a set of assets. We derive the asymptotic sampling distribution of the Post test statistic for SSD efficiency. Unfortunately, a

  8. Theory of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, B.; Robaschik, D.; Wieczorek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The description of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering in the lowest order of the electromagnetic and weak coupling constants leads to a study of virtual Compton amplitudes and their absorptive parts. Some aspects of quantum chromodynamics are discussed. Deep inelastic scattering enables a central quantity of quantum field theory, namely the light cone behaviour of the current commutator. The moments of structure functions are used for the description of deep inelastic scattering. (author)

  9. QCD coherence in deep inelastic scattering at small x at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golec-Biernat, K.

    1998-01-01

    QCD coherence effects in initial state radiation at small x in deep inelastic scattering in HERA kinematics are studied with the help of the Monte Carlo model SMALLX. Theoretical assumptions based on the CCFM evolution equation are reviewed and the basic properties of the partonic final states are investigated. The results are compared with those obtained in the conventional DGLAP evolution scheme. (orig.)

  10. Pedigree-based estimation of covariance between dominance deviations and additive genetic effects in closed rabbit lines considering inbreeding and using a computationally simpler equivalent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, E N; Legarra, A; Martínez, R; Sánchez, J P; Baselga, M

    2017-06-01

    Inbreeding generates covariances between additive and dominance effects (breeding values and dominance deviations). In this work, we developed and applied models for estimation of dominance and additive genetic variances and their covariance, a model that we call "full dominance," from pedigree and phenotypic data. Estimates with this model such as presented here are very scarce both in livestock and in wild genetics. First, we estimated pedigree-based condensed probabilities of identity using recursion. Second, we developed an equivalent linear model in which variance components can be estimated using closed-form algorithms such as REML or Gibbs sampling and existing software. Third, we present a new method to refer the estimated variance components to meaningful parameters in a particular population, i.e., final partially inbred generations as opposed to outbred base populations. We applied these developments to three closed rabbit lines (A, V and H) selected for number of weaned at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Pedigree and phenotypes are complete and span 43, 39 and 14 generations, respectively. Estimates of broad-sense heritability are 0.07, 0.07 and 0.05 at the base versus 0.07, 0.07 and 0.09 in the final generations. Narrow-sense heritability estimates are 0.06, 0.06 and 0.02 at the base versus 0.04, 0.04 and 0.01 at the final generations. There is also a reduction in the genotypic variance due to the negative additive-dominance correlation. Thus, the contribution of dominance variation is fairly large and increases with inbreeding and (over)compensates for the loss in additive variation. In addition, estimates of the additive-dominance correlation are -0.37, -0.31 and 0.00, in agreement with the few published estimates and theoretical considerations. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of Network Characteristics on Reaching the Payoff-Dominant Equilibrium in Coordination Games: A Simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, Vincent; Snijders, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We study how payoffs and network structure affect reaching the payoff-dominant equilibrium in a [Formula: see text] coordination game that actors play with their neighbors in a network. Using an extensive simulation analysis of over 100,000 networks with 2-25 actors, we show that the importance of network characteristics is restricted to a limited part of the payoff space. In this part, we conclude that the payoff-dominant equilibrium is chosen more often if network density is larger, the network is more centralized, and segmentation of the network is smaller. Moreover, it is more likely that heterogeneity in behavior persists if the network is more segmented and less centralized. Persistence of heterogeneous behavior is not related to network density.

  12. Effect of water chemistry on zooplanktonic and microbial communities across freshwater ecotones in different macrophyte-dominated shallow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Mieczan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions between zooplankton and microbial food webs are vital to the ecosystem ecology of shallow lakes. However, little is known about how horizontal changes in environmental conditions may influence microbial and metazoan communities in shallow lakes. The specific goals of the study were i to describe environmental variables responsible for the distribution of bacteria, flagellates, ciliates and crustaceans in an adjacent canal, ecotone and reservoir (littoral-pelagic zone in two different types of lakes (Ceratophyllum-dominated and Potamogeton-dominated lakes; ii to determine whether the contact zone waters differ in hydrochemical and biological terms from the waters of the canal and the open water zone; iii and to evaluate the influence of particular macro-habitats (canal, canal/reservoir, littoral and pelagic zone on the interactions between components of the planktonic food web. We studied four shallow, eutrophic lakes in Polesie Lubelskie (eastern Poland. The highest diversity and abundance of microorganisms and crustaceans were observed in the canal-reservoir contact zone, while the lowest values were noted in the pelagic zone. Hence, the contact zone in the investigated lakes could fulfil the function of an ecotone, distinguished by a significant increase in biodiversity, abundance, and species specificity of micro- and macroorganisms. Weak relations between food web components were found in the Ceratophyllum-dominated lakes, where environmental variables explained the bulk of the total variance in plankton abundance, whereas in the Potamogeton-dominated lakes, where environmental variables had a minor role in the total variance in plankton abundance, strong predator-prey relations were noted. Spatial structure of habitats proved to be another important factor for relationships between food web components, as our study indicated that habitat complexity can reduce negative correlations between food web components. Our study

  13. Lowest order in inelastic tunneling approximation : efficient scheme for simulation of inelastic electron tunneling data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, E.T.R.; Flipse, C.F.J.; Cerda, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and accurate formalism which allows the simulation at the ab initio level of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy data under a scanning tunneling microscope setup. It exploits fully the tunneling regime by carrying out the structural optimization and vibrational

  14. Dynamic buckling of inelastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegon, P.; Guelin, P.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide research engineers with a method of approach, qualitative feature and order of magnitude of the relevant parameters in the field of dynamic buckling of structures exhibiting constitutive irreversibility and geometrical, constitutive or loading imperfections. It is difficult to adjust some of the classical analysis of the quasi-static elastic case. There remain also some difficulties in justifying the choice of constitutive schemes and in dealing with general kinematic formulation. Moreover, the interpretation of dynamical experimental data is not an easy matter. Consequently, the attempts described here use a simple symbolic model including all essential physical aspects. This symbolic model, of discrete character, is an n-hinged strut with masses located at each n+1 joint. The constitutive properties of the strut and hinge are defined using the same method: a dash-pot is in parallel with a two fold element (spring and friction-slider in series). The intrinsic restrictions are: the two dimensionality assumption, however no additional hypothesis are made concerning the kinematic of the constitutive elements; the use of simple sources of intrinsic dissipation. The relevant question of the longitudinal-transverse coupling effects is studied. Then, after various validation, we verify that a Lagrange resolution of this n+1 body problem gives physical relevant qualitative results concerning rods and cylindrical shells subjected to impact loading. (orig./RW)

  15. The theory of deeply inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2012-01-01

    The nucleon structure functions probed in deep-inelastic scattering at large virtualities form an important tool to test Quantum Chromdynamics (QCD) through precision measurements of the strong coupling constant α s (M Z 2 ) and the different parton distribution functions. The exact knowledge of these quantities is also of importance for all precision measurements at hadron colliders. During the last two decades very significant progress has been made in performing precision calculations. We review the theoretical status reached for both unpolarized and polarized lepton-hadron scattering based on perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  16. Hadron final states in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1976-05-01

    Lectures are presented dealing mainly with the description and discussion of hadron final states in electroproduction, colliding beams, and neutrino reactions from the point of view of the simple parton model. Also the space-time evolution of final states in the parton model is considered. It is found that the picture of space-time evolution of hadron final states in deep inelastic processes isn't totally trivial and that it can be made consistent with the hypotheses of the parton model. 39 references

  17. Inelastic response spectra of simple degrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreaus, U.; Ceradini, G.; D'Asdia, P.; Gaudenzi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Ductility was first stated, for single-degree-of-freedom elastic-perfectly plastic systems as the ratio of maximum to yield displacements. An alternative approach, aimed to reduce design forces for ductile structures and based on the energy dissipated during earthquake allows to obtain more reliable ductility factors even when system restoring characteristics are affected by deterioration during loading history. Inelastic response of SDOF systems has been investigated under seimic excitation, assuming stable and degrading constitutive laws to model their structural behaviour. Energy spectra and ductility requirent diagrams are generated and compared with those of the corresponding elastic-perfectly plastic systems. (orig.)

  18. Radiative corrections to deep inelastic muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhundov, A.A.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Lohman, W.

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of the most recent results for the calculaion of radiative corrections to deep inelastic muon-nucleon scattering. Contributions from leptonic electromagnetic processes up to the order a 4 , vacuum polarization by leptons and hadrons, hadronic electromagnetic processes approximately a 3 and γZ interference have been taken into account. The dependence of the individual contributions on kinematical variables is studied. Contributions, not considered in earlier calculations of radiative corrections, reach in certain kinematical regions several per cent at energies above 100 GeV

  19. The theory of deeply inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2012-08-31

    The nucleon structure functions probed in deep-inelastic scattering at large virtualities form an important tool to test Quantum Chromdynamics (QCD) through precision measurements of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2}) and the different parton distribution functions. The exact knowledge of these quantities is also of importance for all precision measurements at hadron colliders. During the last two decades very significant progress has been made in performing precision calculations. We review the theoretical status reached for both unpolarized and polarized lepton-hadron scattering based on perturbative QCD. (orig.)

  20. Sport socks do not enhance calf muscle pump function but inelastic wraps do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsch, H; Mosti, G

    2014-12-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the effect of elastic and inelastic compression on calf muscle pump function in healthy male athletes. This was an experimental study which included 21 healthy male athletes. The ejection fraction (EF) of the venous calf pump was measured comparing the effects of a variety of compression materials: 1) sport compression stockings; 2) light zinc paste bandages; 3) sport compression stockings with additional Velcro® wraps over the calf. The influence of sport stocking and wraps on the venous calibre at the largest calf circumference in the lying and standing position was investigated using MRI. Inelastic compression exerting a median pressure in the standing position of 37.5 mmHg (zinc paste) and 48 mmHg (loosely applied straps over a sport stocking) achieved a significant increase of EF up to 100%. Sport stockings alone with a standing pressure of 19-24 mmHg did not show a significant change of EF. MRI demonstrated some venous narrowing in the lying but not in the standing position. By wrapping inelastic straps over the stocking an emptying of the veins in the lying and a considerable narrowing in the standing position could be observed. Venous calf pump function in athletes is not influenced by elastic sport stockings, but inelastic wraps either alone or applied over sport stockings lead to a significant enhancement.

  1. Deep inelastic muon scattering from nuclei at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    Electron scattering experiments by Friedman, Kendall, and Taylor at SLAC first showed in 1968 that the proton was composed of point-like constituents (quarks). More recently the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) found in muon scattering experiments that the structure functions of a free nucleon are different from a heavy nucleus (open-quotes EMC effectclose quotes). Fermilab experiment E665 is now studying deep inelastic scattering of 490 GeV muons from targets ranging from hydrogen to lead, including measurements of the final state hadrons in order to learn more about these effects. The author describes this experiment and presents some initial results on the effects of the nuclear environment on the quark structure of nucleons

  2. Modern racism attitudes among white students: the role of dominance and authoritarianism and the mediating effects of racial color-blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2012-01-01

    Among 342 white college students, we examined the effects of social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and racial color-blindness on modern racism attitudes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism attitudes through color-blind racial attitudes. We found strong indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism through racial color-blindness. We did not find support for an alternative model, in which we tested racial color-blindness as a moderator of the effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism. Findings suggest that highly dominant and authoritarian white students endorse color-blind racial attitudes, although likely for different reasons. In turn, this predicts their modern racism attitudes. These findings indicate racial color-blindness is important to address as part of anti-racism education.

  3. Role of atom--atom inelastic collisions in two-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunc, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic atom--atom collisions to the production of electrons and excited atoms in two-temperature (with electron temperature T/sub e/, atomic temperature T/sub a/, and atomic density N/sub a/), steady-state, nonequilibrium atomic hydrogen plasma is investigated. The results are valid for plasmas having large amounts of atomic hydrogen as one of the plasma components, so that e--H and H--H inelastic collisions and interaction of these atoms with radiation dominate the production of electrons and excited hydrogen atoms. Densities of electrons and excited atoms are calculated in low-temperature plasma, with T/sub e/ and T/sub a/≤8000 K and 10 16 cm -3 ≤N/sub a/≤10 18 cm -3 , and with different degrees of the reabsorption of radiation. The results indicate that inelastic atom--atom collisions are important for production of electrons and excited atoms in partially ionized plasmas with medium and high atomic density and temperatures below 8000 K

  4. Topics on domination

    CERN Document Server

    Hedetniemi, ST

    1991-01-01

    The contributions in this volume are divided into three sections: theoretical, new models and algorithmic. The first section focuses on properties of the standard domination number &ggr;(G), the second section is concerned with new variations on the domination theme, and the third is primarily concerned with finding classes of graphs for which the domination number (and several other domination-related parameters) can be computed in polynomial time.

  5. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  6. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  7. Effect of Exogenous _D-Alanine on _D-Alanyl-_D-alanine Content in Leaf Blades of Oryza australiensis Domin

    OpenAIRE

    Hisashi, Manabe; Aizu Junior College of Fukushima Prefecture

    1986-01-01

    In seedlings of Oryza australiensis Domin (W0008), most of the D-alanyl-D-alanine was distributed in the leaf blades. In excised leaf blades of W0008, exogenous D-alanine was incorporated into D-alanyl-D-alanine irrespective of the light condition as in Sasanishiki. With cultivation in D-alanine medium for several days, the D-alanyl-D-alanine content in W0008 leaf blades was found to increase, but no other D-alanine-containing dipeptides such as D-alanylglycine or D-alanyl-L-alanine were dete...

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review current research on minerals using inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics calculations. Inelastic neutron scattering studies in combination with first principles and atomistic calculations provide a detailed understanding of the phonon dispersion relations, density of states and their manifestations in ...

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of minerals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review current research on minerals using inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics calculations. Inelastic neutron scattering studies in combination with first principles and atomistic calculations provide a detailed understanding of the phonon dispersion relations, density of states and their ...

  10. Slow electron contribution to inelastic reflection anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podsvirov, O.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is electron contribution with low energy (up to 1 keV) to the anisotropy of electron inelastic reflection (IRE) from silicon monocrystal (111) within 12-50 keV energy range of primary electrons. Experimental data on IRE anisotropy are presented: delay curves for silicon monocrystal, permitting to separate electrons with the energy up to 1 keV, dependences of IRE anisotropy on the energy of primary electrons for the systems - monocrystalline silicon-amorphous silicon film and delay curves for such systems (film thickness varies from 20 to 2000 A). Suggested is a phenomenologic model, permitting to take into account the contribution of slow electrons to IRE anisotropy: it is supposed, that three groups of electrons take part in the formation of the latter: elastic and inelastic reflected electrons, slow electrons, excited by primary electrons and slow electrons, generated by the reverse flow of the scattered electrons. Contribution of electrons, different by origin, to IRE anisotropy is evaluated in accordance with the experimental data on the basis of this model. It is stated, that slow electrons constitute approximately one half of the IRE anisotropy value, the contribution of both groups of slow electrons being approximately equal

  11. Antinucleon-nucleus elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Millener, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ΔT = 0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 40 refs., 13 figs

  12. Structure effects in polarization and cross sections for A(p, p’)X inelastic reactions on {sup 40}Ca and {sup 12}C nuclei at 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miklukho, O. V., E-mail: miklukho-ov@pnpi.rncki.ru; Kisselev, A. Yu., E-mail: kisselev@mail.desy.de; Amalsky, G. M.; Andreev, V. A.; Gavrilov, G. E.; Izotov, A. A.; Kozlenko, N. G.; Kravchenko, P. V.; Levchenko, M. P.; Novinskiy, D. V.; Prokofiev, A. N., E-mail: prokofiev-an@pnpi.rncki.ru; Shvedchikov, A. V.; Trush, S. I.; Zhdanov, A. A. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The polarization of secondary protons in the (p, p’) inelastic reactions on {sup 40}Ca and {sup 12}C nuclei at the initial proton energy of 1 GeV was measured over a wide range of scattered-proton momenta at a laboratory angle of Θ = 21°. The reaction cross sections were also measured. Scattered protons were detected by means of magnetic spectrometer equipped with a polarimeter based on multiwire-proportional chambers. A structure in the polarization and cross-section data, which is probably related to scattering off nucleon correlations in the nuclei involved, was observed.

  13. The effect of piracetam on ataxia: clinical observations in a group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince Gunal, D; Agan, K; Afsar, N; Borucu, D; Us, O

    2008-04-01

    Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias are clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. There is no known treatment to prevent neuronal cell death in these disorders. Current treatment is purely symptomatic; ataxia is one of the most disabling symptoms and represents the main therapeutic challenge. A previous case report suggesting benefit from administration of high dose piracetam inspired the present study of the efficacy of this agent in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Piracetam is a low molecular weight derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Although little is known of its mode of action, its efficacy has been documented in a wide range of clinical indications, such as cognitive disorders, dementia, vertigo and dyslexia, as well as cortical myoclonus. The present report investigated the role of high dose piracetam in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Eight patients with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia were given intravenous piracetam 60 g/day by a structured protocol for 14 days. The baseline and end-of-the study evaluations were based on the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in the patients' total score (P = 0.018) and a subscale analysis showed statistical significance for only the posture and gait disturbances item (P = 0.018). This study is providing good clinical observation in favour of high dose piracetam infusion to reduce the disability of the patients by improving their gait ataxia.

  14. Effects of sand burial on the survival and growth of two shrubs dominant in different habitats of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Zuo, Xiao-An; Wang, Shao-Kun; Chen, Min

    2017-04-01

    Plants that grow in dune ecosystems always suffer from sand burial. Shrubs play implications on the healthy functioning of dune ecosystems due to control blowing sand. However, the survival and growth responses of shrubs to sand burial remain poorly understood. The survival rate and seedling height of two shrubs (Artemisia halodendron and Lespedeza davurica) along with the soil properties under different burial depths were examined in order to reveal the causing ecophysiological attributes of sand burial on shrubs in the desertified region. It was found that A. halodendron can survive a burial depth of 6 cm greater than its seedling height, which is a dominant shrub in mobile dunes with intense burial, whereas a burial depth equivalent to three fourths of its seedling height is detrimental to L. davurica, which is dominant in fixed dunes with less burial. The reasons for the shrub death under sand burial were associated with the physical barrier to vertical growth and the reduction in photosynthetic area. In conclusion, A. halodendron can facilitate the stabilization of mobile dunes because of their high tolerance to the frequent and intensive sand burial, while L. davurica can be beneficial for the recovery process because of their higher survival rates under shallow burial following restoration of mobile dunes.

  15. Lattice modes of hexamethylbenzene studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stride, J.A. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: stride@ill.fr; Adams, J.M. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Johnson, M.R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2005-10-31

    The combination of inelastic neutron scattering and detailed ab initio calculations has been used to arrive at accurate assignments of the low energy lattice mode region of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) across the low temperature first order phase transition at 117.5 K. This was also extended well into the mid-infrared spectral region and a good agreement was found between observed and calculated frequencies, which were also confirmed with isotopically substituted d-HMB. At low temperature, the lattice region is dominated by the methyl group torsions around 15 and 20 meV, which soften dramatically on passing into the higher temperature phase. The lowest energy methyl torsion corresponds to a coherent gear wheel motion, observed here for the first time and predicted in previous numerical studies of HMB. The three acoustic phonons lie to lower energy, centered around 6-7 meV, whilst the three optic phonons are very close in energy to the lowest methyl torsions. Other assignments are found to be in accord with literature values and so an unambiguous assignment of all spectral modes has been obtained for the first time. We conclude that due to the behaviour of the lattice modes either side of the phase transition, its nature is predominantly that of a thermally activated dynamic order-disorder transition.

  16. Lattice modes of hexamethylbenzene studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stride, J.A.; Adams, J.M.; Johnson, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of inelastic neutron scattering and detailed ab initio calculations has been used to arrive at accurate assignments of the low energy lattice mode region of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) across the low temperature first order phase transition at 117.5 K. This was also extended well into the mid-infrared spectral region and a good agreement was found between observed and calculated frequencies, which were also confirmed with isotopically substituted d-HMB. At low temperature, the lattice region is dominated by the methyl group torsions around 15 and 20 meV, which soften dramatically on passing into the higher temperature phase. The lowest energy methyl torsion corresponds to a coherent gear wheel motion, observed here for the first time and predicted in previous numerical studies of HMB. The three acoustic phonons lie to lower energy, centered around 6-7 meV, whilst the three optic phonons are very close in energy to the lowest methyl torsions. Other assignments are found to be in accord with literature values and so an unambiguous assignment of all spectral modes has been obtained for the first time. We conclude that due to the behaviour of the lattice modes either side of the phase transition, its nature is predominantly that of a thermally activated dynamic order-disorder transition

  17. Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures

  18. Microscopic description of elastic and direct inelastic nucleon scattering off spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to improve the modeling of nucleon direct inelastic scattering to the continuum using a microscopic and parameter-free approach. For the first time, direct elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete excitations and to the continuum are described within a microscopic approach without adjustable parameters. Proton scattering off {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb are the reactions used as test case examples of the calculations. The model uses the Melbourne g-matrix and the Random Phase Approximation description of nuclear states, implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The relevant optical and transition potentials in a finite nucleus are calculated within a local density approximation. As we use the nuclear matter approach we limit our study to incident energies above 40 MeV. We first checked that this model provides an accurate account of measured cross sections for elastic scattering and inelastic scattering to discrete states. It is then applied to the direct inelastic scattering to the continuum considering all one-phonon excitations predicted within the RPA approach. This accounts for a part of the direct pre-equilibrium emission, often labeled as the one-step direct process in quantum-based approaches. Our approach provides a very accurate description of angular distributions where the one-step process dominates. The impact of collective excitations is shown to be non negligible for energy transfer to the target up to 20 MeV, decreasing as the incident energy increases. For incident energies above 80 MeV, our modeling provides a good account of direct proton emission for an energy transfer to the target up to 30 MeV. However, the proton emission we predict underestimates the measured cross sections for incident energies below 80 MeV. We compare our prediction to those of the phenomenological exciton model to help interpret this result. Directions that may improve our modeling are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Microscopic description of elastic and direct inelastic nucleon scattering off spherical nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, M.

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the modeling of nucleon direct inelastic scattering to the continuum using a microscopic and parameter-free approach. For the first time, direct elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete excitations and to the continuum are described within a microscopic approach without adjustable parameters. Proton scattering off 90Zr and 208Pb are the reactions used as test case examples of the calculations. The model uses the Melbourne g-matrix and the Random Phase Approximation description of nuclear states, implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The relevant optical and transition potentials in a finite nucleus are calculated within a local density approximation. As we use the nuclear matter approach we limit our study to incident energies above 40 MeV. We first checked that this model provides an accurate account of measured cross sections for elastic scattering and inelastic scattering to discrete states. It is then applied to the direct inelastic scattering to the continuum considering all one-phonon excitations predicted within the RPA approach. This accounts for a part of the direct pre-equilibrium emission, often labeled as the one-step direct process in quantum-based approaches. Our approach provides a very accurate description of angular distributions where the one-step process dominates. The impact of collective excitations is shown to be non negligible for energy transfer to the target up to 20 MeV, decreasing as the incident energy increases. For incident energies above 80 MeV, our modeling provides a good account of direct proton emission for an energy transfer to the target up to 30 MeV. However, the proton emission we predict underestimates the measured cross sections for incident energies below 80 MeV. We compare our prediction to those of the phenomenological exciton model to help interpret this result. Directions that may improve our modeling are discussed.

  20. [Ageism: adaptation of the Fraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised to the French language and testing the effects of empathy, social dominance orientation and dogmatism on ageism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjemad, Valérian; Gana, Kamel

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACTThis article presents two studies dealing with ageism. The objective of the first study was to adapt to French language and validate the Fraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised (FSA-R) which contains 23 items, while the objective of the second study was to test a structural model containing ageism as measured by the FSA-R and the "Big Three": empathy, social dominance orientation, and dogmatism, controlled for by sex and age. The results of the first study (n = 323) generated a version of the FSA-R comprising 14 items, of which the psychometric properties were very satisfactory. Using structural equation modelling and bootstrap procedure, the results of the second study (n = 284) showed a direct negative and significant effect of empathy on agism. They also showed that this negative effect was mediated by dogmatism and social dominance orientation, which both exerted a positive effect on ageism.

  1. Power-law temperature dependence of the inelastic-scattering rate in disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereaux, T.P.; Belitz, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present a theory of the quasiparticle inelastic lifetime τ in in disordered superconducting films. We find that both the Coulomb and the electron-phonon contribution to τ in -1 are enhanced by disorder, and that for reasonably strong electron-phonon coupling the latter is dominant. In contrast to clean superconductors, the scattering rate is larger than the recombination rate at all temperatures. This leads to a power-law temperature dependence of τ in -1 , in agreement with experimental observations. The theory quantitatively accounts for the magnitude, disorder dependence, and temperature dependence of τ in measured in recent experiments

  2. Vector correlations in rotationally inelastic molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The thesis presents an analytic model that describes scalar and vector properties of molecular collisions, both field-free and in fields. The model is based on the sudden approximation and treats molecular scattering as the Fraunhofer diffraction of matter waves from the hard-core part of the interaction potential. The theory has no fitting parameters and is inherently quantum, rendering fully state- and energy-resolved scattering amplitudes and all the quantities that unfold from them in analytic form. This allows to obtain complex polarization moments inherent to quantum stereodynamics, and to account for interference and other non-classical effects. The simplicity and analyticity of the model paves a way to understanding the origin of the features observed in experiment and exact computations, such as the angular oscillations in the state-to-state differential cross sections and the polarization moments, the rotational-state dependent variation of the integral cross sections, and change of these quantities as a function of the applied field. The theory was applied to study the k - k ' vector correlation (differential cross section) for the following collision systems: Ar-NO(X 2 Π) and Ne-OCS(X 1 Σ) in an electrostatic field, Na + -N 2 (X 1 Σ) in a laser field, and He-CaH( 2 Σ), He-O 2 (X 3 Σ), and He-OH(X 2 Π) in a magnetic field. The model was able to reproduce the behavior of the differential cross sections and their variation with field strength. Combining the Fraunhofer model with the quantum theory of vector correlations made it possible to study three- and four-vector properties. The model results for the k-k ' -j ' vector correlation in Ar-NO(X 2 Π) and He-NO(X 2 Π) scattering were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations. This allowed to demonstrate that the stereodynamics of such collisions is contained solely in the diffractive part of the scattering amplitude which is governed by a single Legendre moment

  3. Vector correlations in rotationally inelastic molecular collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2011-04-13

    The thesis presents an analytic model that describes scalar and vector properties of molecular collisions, both field-free and in fields. The model is based on the sudden approximation and treats molecular scattering as the Fraunhofer diffraction of matter waves from the hard-core part of the interaction potential. The theory has no fitting parameters and is inherently quantum, rendering fully state- and energy-resolved scattering amplitudes and all the quantities that unfold from them in analytic form. This allows to obtain complex polarization moments inherent to quantum stereodynamics, and to account for interference and other non-classical effects. The simplicity and analyticity of the model paves a way to understanding the origin of the features observed in experiment and exact computations, such as the angular oscillations in the state-to-state differential cross sections and the polarization moments, the rotational-state dependent variation of the integral cross sections, and change of these quantities as a function of the applied field. The theory was applied to study the k - k{sup '} vector correlation (differential cross section) for the following collision systems: Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and Ne-OCS(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in an electrostatic field, Na{sup +}-N{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in a laser field, and He-CaH({sup 2}{sigma}), He-O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{sigma}), and He-OH(X{sup 2}{pi}) in a magnetic field. The model was able to reproduce the behavior of the differential cross sections and their variation with field strength. Combining the Fraunhofer model with the quantum theory of vector correlations made it possible to study three- and four-vector properties. The model results for the k-k{sup '}-j{sup '} vector correlation in Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and He-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) scattering were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations. This allowed to demonstrate that the stereodynamics of such collisions is contained solely in the

  4. The social dominance paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer Louise; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Heyes, Cecilia M; Cools, Roshan

    2014-12-01

    Dominant individuals report high levels of self-sufficiency, self-esteem, and authoritarianism. The lay stereotype suggests that such individuals ignore information from others, preferring to make their own choices. However, the nonhuman animal literature presents a conflicting view, suggesting that dominant individuals are avid social learners, whereas subordinates focus on learning from private experience. Whether dominant humans are best characterized by the lay stereotype or the animal view is currently unknown. Here, we present a "social dominance paradox": using self-report scales and computerized tasks, we demonstrate that socially dominant people explicitly value independence, but, paradoxically, in a complex decision-making task, they show an enhanced reliance (relative to subordinate individuals) on social learning. More specifically, socially dominant people employed a strategy of copying other agents when the agents' responses had a history of being correct. However, in humans, two subtypes of dominance have been identified: aggressive and social. Aggressively dominant individuals, who are as likely to "get their own way" as socially dominant individuals but who do so through the use of aggressive or Machiavellian tactics, did not use social information, even when it was beneficial to do so. This paper presents the first study of dominance and social learning in humans and challenges the lay stereotype in which all dominant individuals ignore others' views. The more subtle perspective we offer could have important implications for decision making in both the boardroom and the classroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relating 2-Rainbow Domination To Roman Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado José D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For a graph G, let R(G and yr2(G denote the Roman domination number of G and the 2-rainbow domination number of G, respectively. It is known that yr2(G ≤ R(G ≤ 3/2yr2(G. Fujita and Furuya [Difference between 2-rainbow domination and Roman domination in graphs, Discrete Appl. Math. 161 (2013 806-812] present some kind of characterization of the graphs G for which R(G − yr2(G = k for some integer k. Unfortunately, their result does not lead to an algorithm that allows to recognize these graphs efficiently. We show that for every fixed non-negative integer k, the recognition of the connected K4-free graphs G with yR(G − yr2(G = k is NP-hard, which implies that there is most likely no good characterization of these graphs. We characterize the graphs G such that yr2(H = yR(H for every induced subgraph H of G, and collect several properties of the graphs G with R(G = 3/2yr2(G.

  6. On selection rules and inelastic electron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuroh, K.

    1986-12-01

    Correlation effects are included in the Bethe-Born theory for the generalized oscillator strength of inelastic scattering of electrons on atoms. The formulation is such as to allow for the calculation of relative line strengths of multiplets. It is used to analyze line strengths of the 4d → 4f transition in La 3+ and Ce 4+ within LS-coupling. The analysis indicates that only singlet states of the intermediate 4d 9 4f configuration are allowed. Calculated line strengths are compared with a recent core electron energy loss spectra of metallic La and tetravalent CeO 2 and there is an overall qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Model-Free Views of Deep Inelastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Julian

    2014-11-01

    Perhaps I should point out first that my choice of topic was dictated by the injunction that the nature of this symposium should revolve around subjects that might be conceivably of interest to Viki. Viki has, along with most high energy physicists been very interested in the subject of deep inelastic electron scattering. With his characteristic attention to directly visualizable approaches to physical phenomena, he has dealt with this in terms of rather specific models, attempting then to give very elementary explanations of these fascinating phenomena. I thought he might be interested to see the other side of the coin, namely, the extent to which one can correlate and comprehend these physical effects without the use of specific models. I think this may lend a certain useful balance to the way things are looked at these days. So my remarks are directed to Viki but you're all welcome to eavesdrop...

  8. The inelastic contribution to high resolution images of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, O.L.; Ahn, C.C.; Wood, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of the contribution due to inelastically scattered electrons to unfiltered HREM images is examined, with emphasis on imaging of defects in semiconductors. Whenever the low energy loss spectrum contains sharp peaks, the contribution is not featureless. At specimen thickness of a few tens of nm, it may change the image appearance in a major way. The strongest effect occurs in high resolution, medium voltage (200 to 500 kV) electron microscope images of defects at focus values minimizing the contrast of the elastic image in low Z materials such as Al and Si. In higher Z materials or those with no sharp 'plasmons', the contribution is small. 23 refs., 8 figs

  9. Inelastic tunneling spectroscopy for magnetic atoms and the Kondo resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, E C; Flores, F

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a single magnetic atom and the metal environment (including a magnetic field) is analyzed by introducing an ionic Hamiltonian combined with an effective crystal-field term, and by using a Green-function equation of motion method. This approach describes the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy and the Kondo resonances as due to atomic spin fluctuations associated with electron co-tunneling processes between the leads and the atom. We analyze in the case of Fe on CuN the possible spin fluctuations between states with S = 2 and 3/2 or 5/2 and conclude that the experimentally found asymmetries in the conductance with respect to the applied bias, and its marked structures, are well explained by the 2↔3/2 spin fluctuations. The case of Co is also considered and shown to present, in contrast with Fe, a resonance at the Fermi energy corresponding to a Kondo temperature of 6 K. (paper)

  10. Inelastic multiple scattering of interacting bosons in weak random potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Within the present thesis we develop a diagrammatic scattering theory for interacting bosons in a three-dimensional, weakly disordered potential. Based on a microscopic N-body scattering theory, we identify the relevant diagrams including elastic and inelastic collision processes that are sufficient to describe quantum transport in the regime of weak disorder. By taking advantage of the statistical properties of the weak disorder potential, we demonstrate how the N-body dynamics can be reduced to a nonlinear integral equation of Boltzmann type for the single-particle diffusive flux. A presently available alternative description - based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation - only includes elastic collisions. In contrast, we show that far from equilibrium the presence of inelastic collisions - even for weak interaction strength - must be accounted for and can induce the full thermalization of the single-particle current. In addition, we also determine the coherent corrections to the incoherent transport, leading to the effect of coherent backscattering. For the first time, we are able to analyze the influence of inelastic collisions on the coherent backscattering signal, which lead to an enhancement of the backscattered cone in a narrow spectral window, even for increasing non-linearity. With a short recollection of the presently available experimental techniques we furthermore show how an immediate implementation of our suggested setup with confined Bose-Einstein condensates can be accomplished. Thereby, the emergence of collective and/or thermodynamic behavior from fundamental, microscopic constituents can also be assessed experimentally. In a second part of this thesis, we present first results for light scattering off strongly interacting Rydberg atoms trapped in a one-dimensional, chain-like configuration. In order to monitor the time-dependence of this interacting many-body system, we devise a weak measurement scenario for which we derive a master equation for the

  11. Role of collective effects in dominance of scattering off thermal ions over Langmuir wave decay: Analysis, simulations, and space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    2000-01-01

    Langmuir waves driven to high levels by beam instabilities are subject to nonlinear processes, including the closely related processes of scattering off thermal ions (STI) and a decay process in which the ion response is organized into a product ion acoustic wave. Calculations of the nonlinear growth rates predict that the decay process should always dominate STI, creating two paradoxes. The first is that three independent computer simulation studies show STI proceeding, with no evidence for the decay at all. The second is that observations in space of type III solar radio bursts and Earth's foreshock, which the simulations were intended to model, show evidence for the decay proceeding but no evidence for STI. Resolutions to these paradoxes follow from the realization that a nonlinear process cannot proceed when its growth rate exceeds the minimum frequency of the participating waves, since the required collective response cannot be maintained and the waves cannot respond appropriately, and that a significant number of e-foldings and wave periods must be contained in the time available. It is shown that application of these ''collective'' and ''time scale'' constraints to the simulations explains why the decay does not proceed in them, as well as why STI proceeds in specific simulations. This appears to be the first demonstration that collective constraints are important in understanding nonlinear phenomena. Furthermore, applying these constraints to space observations, it is predicted that the decay should proceed (and dominate STI) in type III sources and the high beam speed regions of Earth's foreshock for a specific range of wave levels, with a possible role for STI alone at slightly higher wave levels. Deeper in the foreshock, for slower beams and weaker wave levels, the decay and STI are predicted to become ineffective. Suggestions are given for future testing of the collective constraint and an explanation for why waves in space are usually much weaker than

  12. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of deep inelastic processes in nuclear physics: experimental and theoretical aspects of deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1979-03-01

    The collective modes excited in deep-inelastic reactions and their natural hierarchy provided by their characteristic relaxation times is described. The relaxation of the mass asymmetry mode is discussed in terms of a diffusion process. Charge distributions and angular distributions as a function of Z calculated with this model are in good agreement with experimental data. This diffusion model also treats the transfer of energy and angular momentum in terms of particle transfer, and is successfully compared with experimental γ-ray multiplicities as a function of both Q-value and mass asymmetry. The angular momentum transfer is again considered in connection with the sequential fission of heavy, deep-inelastic fragments and the excitation of collective modes in the exit channel is considered. The role of the giant E1 mode in the equilibration of the neutron-to-proton ratio is discussed. 39 references

  14. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  15. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  16. Elitism and Stochastic Dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Bazen, Stephen; Moyes, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic dominance has typically been used with a special emphasis on risk and inequality reduction something captured by the concavity of the utility function in the expected utility model. We claim that the applicability of the stochastic dominance approach goes far beyond risk and inequality measurement provided suitable adpations be made. We apply in the paper the stochastic dominance approach to the measurment of elitism which may be considered the opposite of egalitarianism. While the...

  17. Role of collective effects in dominance of scattering off thermal ions over Langmuir wave decay: Analysis, simulations, and space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    2000-12-01

    Langmuir waves driven to high levels by beam instabilities are subject to nonlinear processes, including the closely related processes of scattering off thermal ions (STI) and a decay process in which the ion response is organized into a product ion acoustic wave. Calculations of the nonlinear growth rates predict that the decay process should always dominate STI, creating two paradoxes. The first is that three independent computer simulation studies show STI proceeding, with no evidence for the decay at all. The second is that observations in space of type III solar radio bursts and Earth's foreshock, which the simulations were intended to model, show evidence for the decay proceeding but no evidence for STI. Resolutions to these paradoxes follow from the realization that a nonlinear process cannot proceed when its growth rate exceeds the minimum frequency of the participating waves, since the required collective response cannot be maintained and the waves cannot respond appropriately, and that a significant number of e-foldings and wave periods must be contained in the time available. It is shown that application of these ''collective'' and ''time scale'' constraints to the simulations explains why the decay does not proceed in them, as well as why STI proceeds in specific simulations. This appears to be the first demonstration that collective constraints are important in understanding nonlinear phenomena. Furthermore, applying these constraints to space observations, it is predicted that the decay should proceed (and dominate STI) in type III sources and the high beam speed regions of Earth's foreshock for a specific range of wave levels, with a possible role for STI alone at slightly higher wave levels. Deeper in the foreshock, for slower beams and weaker wave levels, the decay and STI are predicted to become ineffective. Suggestions are given for future testing of the collective constraint and an explanation

  18. Current fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.

    1975-04-01

    It is argued that the current fragmentation products in deep inelastic electron scattering will not be distributed in a 'one-dimensional' rapidity plateau as in the parton model picture of Feynman and Bjorken. A reaction mechanism with a multiperipheral topology, but which the above configuration might have been achieved, does not in fact populate the current fragmentation plateau; and unless partons are actually observed in the final state, it cannot lead to Bjorken scaling. The basic reason for this failure is shown to be the fact that when a particle is produced in the current fragmentation plateau, the adjacent momentum transfer in the multiperipheral chain becomes large and negative: such processes are inevitably suppressed. Instead, the current fragmentation products are likely to be generated by a fragmentation, or sequential decay process. (author)

  19. πN inelastic reaction index, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masaaki; Kichimi, Hiromichi; Oyanagi, Yoshio; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Takahashi, Kasuke.

    1977-08-01

    This report prepared by the KEK-PDG (Particle Data Group of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki, Japan) is a document compilation which covers 298 literatures dealing with πN inelastic reactions which were published in either of the following journals in the years of 1974, 1975 and 1976: Nuovo Cimento, Nuovo Cimento Letters, Nuclear Physics, Physics Letters, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Soviet Journal of Nuclear Physics and JETP Letters. Five indices are also given to facilitate the use of this compilation. Almost all the pages of this report is devoted to the listing of the five indices (accelerator, detector, reaction, beam momentum, and data description indices). In the appendix, some abbreviations for accelerators, detectors, institutions, and particles are listed. The descriptors for reaction data, and for particle properties, and beam momentum designations are also listed in the appendix. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Statistical properties of deep inelastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-08-01

    The multifaceted aspects of deep-inelastic heavy-ion collisions are discussed in terms of the statistical equilibrium limit. It is shown that a conditional statistical equilibrium, where a number of degrees of freedom are thermalized while others are still relaxing, prevails in most of these reactions. The individual degrees of freedom that have been explored experimentally are considered in their statistical equilibrium limit, and the extent to which they appear to be thermalized is discussed. The interaction between degrees of freedom on their way towards equilibrium is shown to create complex feedback phenomena that may lead to self-regulation. A possible example of self-regulation is shown for the process of energy partition between fragments promoted by particle exchange. 35 references

  1. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  2. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Y.; Sarachik, M.P.; Friedman, J.R.; Robinson, R.A.; Kelley, T.M.; Nakotte, H.; Christianson, A.C.; Trouw, F.; Aubin, S.M.J.; Hendrickson, D.N.

    1998-11-09

    The authors report zero-field inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a 14-gram deuterated sample of Mn{sub 12}-Acetate consisting of a large number of identical spin-10 magnetic clusters. Their resolution enables them to see a series of peaks corresponding to transitions between the anisotropy levels within the spin-10 manifold. A fit to the spin Hamiltonian H = {minus}DS{sub z}{sup 2} + {mu}{sub B}B{center_dot}g{center_dot}S-BS{sub z}{sup 4} + C(S{sub +}{sup 4} + S{sub {minus}}{sup 4}) yields an anisotropy constant D = (0.54 {+-} 0.02) K and a fourth-order diagonal anisotropy coefficient B = (1.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}3}K. Unlike EPR measurements, their experiments do not require a magnetic field and yield parameters that do not require knowledge of the g-value.

  3. Excitation of giant resonances through inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kailas, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years, exciting developments have taken place in the study of giant resonances (GR). In addition to the already well known gjant dipole resonance (GDR), the presence of at least two more new GRs viz. giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) and giant monopole resonance (GMR) has been experimentally established. The systematics covering these GRs is found to be consistent with the theoretical expectation. Though the existence of higher multipoles has been predjcted by theory, so far only some of these have been found to be excited experimentally. Various probe particles - electrons, protons (polarized and unpolarized), light and heavy ions and pions - at different bombarding energies have been used to excite the GR region, primarily through the inelastic scattering process. Detailed experiments, looking at the decay modes of GR region, have also been performed. These studies have contributed significantly to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nuclear collective excitation. In this report, the current status of 'GR' research is reviewed. (author)

  4. Boson structure functions from inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The even /sup 104-110/Pd isotopes and /sup 196/Pt have been investigated at NIKHEF-K by high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. A new IBA-2 calculation has been performed for the Pd isotopes, in which the ratio of the proton and neutron coupling constants is taken from pion scattering. One set of boson structure functions sufficed for the description of the first and second E2-excitations in all Pd isotopes. The data showed no sensitivity for different structure functions for proton and neutron bosons. A preliminary analysis of a number of negative parity states (3/sup -/,5/sup -/ and 7/sup -/), observed in /sup 196/Pt, was performed through the introduction of an f-boson. The first E4-excitation in the palladium isotopes can be reasonably described with a β-structure function, but all other E4-excitations require the introduction of g-boson admixtures

  5. Inelastic response of silicon to shock compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, A; Stubley, P G; Comley, A J; Eggert, J H; Foster, J M; Kalantar, D H; McGonegle, D; Patel, S; Peacock, L J; Rothman, S D; Smith, R F; Suggit, M J; Wark, J S

    2016-04-13

    The elastic and inelastic response of [001] oriented silicon to laser compression has been a topic of considerable discussion for well over a decade, yet there has been little progress in understanding the basic behaviour of this apparently simple material. We present experimental x-ray diffraction data showing complex elastic strain profiles in laser compressed samples on nanosecond timescales. We also present molecular dynamics and elasticity code modelling which suggests that a pressure induced phase transition is the cause of the previously reported 'anomalous' elastic waves. Moreover, this interpretation allows for measurement of the kinetic timescales for transition. This model is also discussed in the wider context of reported deformation of silicon to rapid compression in the literature.

  6. Comparing the Immediate Effects of a Total Motion Release Warm-up and a Dynamic Warm-up Protocol on the Dominant Shoulder in Baseball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma, Stephen C; Baker, Russell; May, James; Seegmiller, Jeff G; Nasypany, Alan; Iorio, Steven M

    2018-04-10

    Gamma, SC, Baker, R, May, J, Seegmiller, JG, Nasypany, A, and Iorio, SM. Comparing the immediate effects of a total motion release warm-up and a dynamic warm-up protocol on the dominant shoulder in baseball athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-A decrease in total range of motion (ROM) of the dominant shoulder may predispose baseball athletes to increased shoulder injury risk; the most effective technique for improving ROM is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of Total Motion Release (TMR) to a generic dynamic warm-up program in baseball athletes. Baseball athletes (n = 20) were randomly assigned to an intervention group: TMR group (TMRG; n = 10) or traditional warm-up group (TWG; n = 10). Shoulder ROM measurements were recorded for internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER), the intervention was applied, and postmeasurements were recorded. Each group then received the other intervention and postmeasurements were again recorded. The time main effect (p ≤ 0.001) and the time × group interaction effect were significant (p ≤ 0.001) for IR and ER. Post hoc analysis revealed that TMR produced significant increases in mean IR (p ≤ 0.005, d = 1.52) and ER (p ≤ 0.018, d = 1.22) of the dominant shoulder initially. When groups crossed-over, the TMRG experienced a decrease in mean IR and ER after the dynamic warm-up, whereas the TWG experienced a significant increase in mean IR (p ≤ 0.001, d = 3.08) and ER (p ≤ 0.001, d = 2.56) after TMR intervention. Total Motion Release increased IR and ER of the dominant shoulder more than a dynamic warm-up. Dynamic warm-up after TMR also resulted in decreased IR and ER; however, TMR after dynamic warm-up significantly improved IR and ER. Based on these results, TMR is more effective than a generic dynamic warm-up for improving dominant shoulder ROM in baseball players.

  7. Effects of Lacunar Infarctions on Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jay Chol; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Ji-Kang

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited microangiopathy caused by mutations in the Notch3 gene. Although previous studies have shown an association between lacunar infarction and cognitive impairment, the relationship between MRI parameters and cognition remains unclear. In this study we investigated the influence of MRI parameters on cognitive impairment in CADASIL. Methods We applied a prospective protocol to 40 patients. MRI analysis included the normalized volume of white-matter hyperintensities (nWMHs), number of lacunes, and number of cerebral microbleeds. Cognition was assessed with the aid of psychometric tests [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition (ADAS-cog), Trail-Making Test, and Stroop interference (Stroop IF)]. Results A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the total number of lacunes influenced the performance in the MMSE, ADAS-cog, and Stroop IF, while nWMHs had a strong univariate association with ADAS-cog and Stroop IF scores. However, this association disappeared in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the number of lacunes is the main predictive factor of cognitive impairment in CADASIL. PMID:22259617

  8. Refined inelastic analysis of piping systems using a beam-type program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, A.; Hoffmann, A.

    1981-08-01

    A finite element for inelastic piping analysis has been presented, which enables accounting for local effects like thermal gradients and supplies local states of stresses and strains, while keeping all the advantages of a classical beam type program (easy to use, simple boundary conditions, cost effectiveness). Thanks to the local description of the cross section, geometrical non-linearity due to inertia modification can be introduced together with material non-linearity. The element can also be degenerated into a straight pipe element

  9. Effect of repeated burning on plant and soil carbon and nitrogen in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominated ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Jones; Jeanne C. Chambers; Dale W. Johnson; Robert R. Blank; David I. Board

    2015-01-01

    Fire has profound effects on ecosystem properties, but few studies have addressed the effect of repeated burns on soil nutrients, and none have been conducted in cold desert ecosystems where invasion by exotic annual grasses is resulting in greater fire frequency. In a 5 year study, we examined effects of repeated burning, litter removal, and post-fire seeding on...

  10. A multislice theory of electron inelastic scattering in a solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.L.

    1989-01-01

    A multislice theory is proposed to solve Yoshioka's coupling equations for elastic and inelastic scattered high-energy electrons in a solid. This method is capable, in principle, of including the non-periodic crystal structures and the electron multiple scattering among all the excited states in the calculations. It is proved that the proposed theory for calculating the energy-filtered inelastic images, based on the physical optics approach, is equivalent to the quantum-mechanical theory under some approximations. The basic theory of simulating the energy-filtered inelastic image of core-shell losses and thermal diffuse scattering is outlined. (orig.)

  11. New statistical model of inelastic fast neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancicj, V.

    1975-07-01

    A new statistical model for treating the fast neutron inelastic scattering has been proposed by using the general expressions of the double differential cross section in impuls approximation. The use of the Fermi-Dirac distribution of nucleons makes it possible to derive an analytical expression of the fast neutron inelastic scattering kernel including the angular momenta coupling. The obtained values of the inelastic fast neutron cross section calculated from the derived expression of the scattering kernel are in a good agreement with the experiments. A main advantage of the derived expressions is in their simplicity for the practical calculations

  12. Average multiplications in deep inelastic processes and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Inclusive production of hadrons in deep inelastic proceseseus is considered. It is shown that at high energies the jet evolution in deep inelastic processes is mainly of nonperturbative character. With the increase of a final hadron state energy the leading contribution to an average multiplicity comes from a parton subprocess due to production of massive quark and gluon jets and their further fragmentation as diquark contribution becomes less and less essential. The ratio of the total average multiplicity in deep inelastic processes to the average multiplicity in e + e - -annihilation at high energies tends to unity

  13. Resonant inelastic scattering by use of geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Jörg; Schweiger, Gustav

    2003-02-01

    We investigate the inelastic scattering on spherical particles that contain one concentric inclusion in the case of input and output resonances, using a geometrical optics method. The excitation of resonances is included in geometrical optics by use of the concept of tunneled rays. To get a quantitative description of optical tunneling on spherical surfaces, we derive appropriate Fresnel-type reflection and transmission coefficients for the tunneled rays. We calculate the inelastic scattering cross section in the case of input and output resonances and investigate the influence of the distribution of the active material in the particle as well as the influence of the inclusion on inelastic scattering.

  14. The role of inelastic processes in the temperature dependence of hall induced resistance oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunold, Alejandro; Torres, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of magnetoresistance oscillations induced by the Hall field in order to study the temperature dependence observed in recent experiments in two dimensional electron systems. The model is based on the solution of the von Neumann equation incorporating the exact dynamics of two-dimensional damped electrons in the presence of arbitrarily strong magnetic and dc electric fields, while the effects of randomly distributed neutral and charged impurities are perturbatively added. Both the effects of elastic impurity scattering as well as those related to inelastic processes play an important role. The theoretical predictions correctly reproduce the experimentally observed oscillations amplitude, provided that the quantum inelastic scattering rate obeys a T 2 temperature dependence, consistent with electron–electron interaction effects

  15. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  16. Regeneration patterns of a long-lived dominant conifer and the effects of logging in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre F.; Forgiarini, Cristiane; Longhi, Solon Jonas; Brena, Doádi Antônio

    2008-09-01

    The regeneration ecology of the long-lived conifer Araucaria angustifolia was studied in São Francisco de Paula, southern Brazil. We evaluated the expectations that: (i) size distribution of populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a large conifer that dominates southern Brazil's mixed forests, is left-skewed in old-growth forests but right-skewed in logged forests, indicating chronic recruitment failure in the first kind of habitat as well as a recruitment pulse in the second; (ii) seedlings and juveniles are found under more open-canopy microsites than would be expected by chance; and (iii) reproductive females would be aggregated at the coarse spatial scales in which past massive recruitment events are expected to have occurred, and young plants would be spatially associated with females due to the prevalence of vertebrate and large-bird seed dispersers. Data were collected in the threatened mixed conifer-hardwood forests in southern Brazil in ten 1-ha plots and one 0.25-ha plot that was hit by a small tornado in 2003. Five of these plots corresponded to unlogged old-growth forests, three to forests where A. angustifolia was selectively logged ca. 60 years ago and two to forests selectively logged ca. 20 years ago. For the first time, ontogenetic life stages of this important conifer are identified and described. The first and second expectations were fulfilled, and the third was partially fulfilled, since seedlings and juveniles were hardly ever associated with reproductive females. These results confirm the generalization of the current conceptual model of emergent long-lived pioneer regeneration to Araucaria angustifolia and associate its regeneration niche to the occupation of large-scale disturbances with long return times.

  17. Orientation selectivity in inhibition-dominated networks of spiking neurons: effect of single neuron properties and network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Sadra; Rotter, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex of mammals are still elusive. In rodents, visual neurons show highly selective responses to oriented stimuli, but neighboring neurons do not necessarily have similar preferences. Instead of a smooth map, one observes a salt-and-pepper organization of orientation selectivity. Modeling studies have recently confirmed that balanced random networks are indeed capable of amplifying weakly tuned inputs and generating highly selective output responses, even in absence of feature-selective recurrent connectivity. Here we seek to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon by resorting to networks of integrate-and-fire neurons, which are amenable to analytic treatment. Specifically, in networks of perfect integrate-and-fire neurons, we observe that highly selective and contrast invariant output responses emerge, very similar to networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. We then demonstrate that a theory based on mean firing rates and the detailed network topology predicts the output responses, and explains the mechanisms underlying the suppression of the common-mode, amplification of modulation, and contrast invariance. Increasing inhibition dominance in our networks makes the rectifying nonlinearity more prominent, which in turn adds some distortions to the otherwise essentially linear prediction. An extension of the linear theory can account for all the distortions, enabling us to compute the exact shape of every individual tuning curve in our networks. We show that this simple form of nonlinearity adds two important properties to orientation selectivity in the network, namely sharpening of tuning curves and extra suppression of the modulation. The theory can be further extended to account for the nonlinearity of the leaky model by replacing the rectifier by the appropriate smooth input-output transfer function. These results are robust and do not

  18. Orientation selectivity in inhibition-dominated networks of spiking neurons: effect of single neuron properties and network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Sadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal mechanisms underlying the emergence of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex of mammals are still elusive. In rodents, visual neurons show highly selective responses to oriented stimuli, but neighboring neurons do not necessarily have similar preferences. Instead of a smooth map, one observes a salt-and-pepper organization of orientation selectivity. Modeling studies have recently confirmed that balanced random networks are indeed capable of amplifying weakly tuned inputs and generating highly selective output responses, even in absence of feature-selective recurrent connectivity. Here we seek to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon by resorting to networks of integrate-and-fire neurons, which are amenable to analytic treatment. Specifically, in networks of perfect integrate-and-fire neurons, we observe that highly selective and contrast invariant output responses emerge, very similar to networks of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. We then demonstrate that a theory based on mean firing rates and the detailed network topology predicts the output responses, and explains the mechanisms underlying the suppression of the common-mode, amplification of modulation, and contrast invariance. Increasing inhibition dominance in our networks makes the rectifying nonlinearity more prominent, which in turn adds some distortions to the otherwise essentially linear prediction. An extension of the linear theory can account for all the distortions, enabling us to compute the exact shape of every individual tuning curve in our networks. We show that this simple form of nonlinearity adds two important properties to orientation selectivity in the network, namely sharpening of tuning curves and extra suppression of the modulation. The theory can be further extended to account for the nonlinearity of the leaky model by replacing the rectifier by the appropriate smooth input-output transfer function. These results are

  19. Authoritarianism, dominance and assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J J

    1981-08-01

    It is shown that there are definitions of the three constructs of authoritarianism, dominance and assertiveness which read very similarly; so much so that no distinction is immediately evident. It is proposed that authoritarianism might be conceived as aggressive dominance and at least some types of assertiveness as nonaggressive dominance. A new scale of Dominance suitable for general population use was produced, and compared with the existing Ray (1976) behavior inventory of authoritarianism. Both scales showed highly significant correlations with peer rated dominance and submission (the latter being negative in sign) but only the authoritarianism scale showed significant correlations with rated aggressiveness and rigidity. It was concluded that the new definitions could be operationalized into valid scales.

  20. Effect of Pressure on Valence and Structural Properties of YbFe2Ge2 Heavy Fermion Compound A Combined Inelastic X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Theoretical Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ravhi S.; Svane, Axel; Vaitheeswaran; #8741; , Ganapathy; Kanchana, Venkatakrishnan; Antonio, Daniel; Cornelius, Andrew L.; Bauer, Eric D.; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul (Aarhus); (CIW); (Hyderabad - India); (IIT-India); (LANL); (UNLV)

    2016-06-03

    The crystal structure and the Yb valence of the YbFe2Ge2 heavy fermion compound was measured at room temperature and under high pressures using high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy via both partial fluorescence yield and resonant inelastic X-ray emission techniques. Furthermore, the measurements are complemented by first-principles density functional theoretical calculations using the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation investigating in particular the magnetic structure and the Yb valence. While the ThCr2Si2-type tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure is stable up to 53 GPa, the X-ray emission results show an increase of the Yb valence from v = 2.72(2) at ambient pressure to v = 2.93(3) at ~9 GPa, where at low temperature a pressure-induced quantum critical state was reported.

  1. Inelastic and ballistic processes resulting from CsF--Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.D.; Sindoni, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper continues the study of inelastic and ballistic collisions for the CsF--Ar system using the impulse approximation (IA). The IA expresses the atom--diatom potential as the sum of the two atom--atom potentials. The atom--atom interaction is approximated by a hard core potential, and the laboratory differential cross sections are calculated for an initial relative translational energy of 1.0 eV as a function of the laboratory recoil velocity of CsF. The calculated differential cross sections are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements for all eight laboratory scattering angles for which the data are available. While the calculated results show no significant dependence on the initial relative velocity or on the initial vibrational quantum number of CsF, they do show a systematic variation with the initial rotational quantum number---the ballistic effect is more pronounced than that observed experimentally for initial quantum rotational numbers less than 30 and is not pronounced enough for rotational quantum numbers more than 100. Two mechanisms give rise to the ballistic peak. The first one is dominant when the laboratory scattering angle is equal, or nearly equal, to the laboratory angle of the centroid velocity. This mechanism transfers almost all of the relative translational energy into the internal energy of the diatom and magnifies the center-of-mass (c.m.) differential cross section almost a million times. This is due to a singularity in the Jacobian at very small c.m. recoil velocities, which physically means that a small solid angle in the laboratory frame can collect the signal from all 4π steradians in the c.m. frame

  2. A KCNC3 mutation causes a neurodevelopmental, non-progressive SCA13 subtype associated with dominant negative effects and aberrant EGFR trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Swati; Nick, Jerelyn A; Zhang, Yalan; Galeano, Kira; Butler, Brittany; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Hathorn, Tyisha; Ranum, Laura P W; Smithson, Lisa; Golde, Todd E; Paucar, Martin; Morse, Richard; Raff, Michael; Simon, Julie; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Rincon-Limas, Diego E; Lewis, Jada; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; Nick, Harry S; Waters, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3). We detail the clinical phenotype of four SCA13 kindreds that confirm causation of the KCNC3R423H allele. The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. Targeted expression of human KCNC3R423H in Drosophila triggers aberrant wing veins, maldeveloped eyes, and fused ommatidia consistent with the neurodevelopmental presentation of patients. Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. Confirmation of the absence of plasma membrane targeting was based on the loss of current conductance in cells expressing the mutant channel. Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT) protein, which explains dominant inheritance. We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr) results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Together, these results indicate that the neurodevelopmental consequences of

  3. A KCNC3 mutation causes a neurodevelopmental, non-progressive SCA13 subtype associated with dominant negative effects and aberrant EGFR trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Khare

    Full Text Available The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3.3. We detail the clinical phenotype of four SCA13 kindreds that confirm causation of the KCNC3R423H allele. The heralding features demonstrate congenital onset with non-progressive, neurodevelopmental cerebellar hypoplasia and lifetime improvement in motor and cognitive function that implicate compensatory neural mechanisms. Targeted expression of human KCNC3R423H in Drosophila triggers aberrant wing veins, maldeveloped eyes, and fused ommatidia consistent with the neurodevelopmental presentation of patients. Furthermore, human KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in altered glycosylation and aberrant retention of the channel in anterograde and/or endosomal vesicles. Confirmation of the absence of plasma membrane targeting was based on the loss of current conductance in cells expressing the mutant channel. Mechanistically, genetic studies in Drosophila, along with cellular and biophysical studies in mammalian systems, demonstrate the dominant negative effect exerted by the mutant on the wild-type (WT protein, which explains dominant inheritance. We demonstrate that ocular co-expression of KCNC3R423H with Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEgfr results in striking rescue of the eye phenotype, whereas KCNC3R423H expression in mammalian cells results in aberrant intracellular retention of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Together, these results indicate that the neurodevelopmental

  4. Problems to be solved about inelastic behaviour of materials and inelastic analysis of structures at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, P.; Escatha, Y. d'.

    1981-01-01

    At elevated temperature, ASME CODE CASE N 47 demands, in its design and analysis part to demonstrate that none of eight damages, related to the monotonic and cyclic inelastic behaviour of the material and structure, will happen during the whole life of the reactor. However this demonstration, for strain limits and creep fatigue failure, using a purely elastic analysis as in the ASME CODE Section III, is usually impossible. Inelastic analysis is then necessary. We review some of the research work (theorical and experimental) which is being done to qualify methods for an inelastic analysis of structures at elevated temperature [fr

  5. Inelastic scattering of low-energy electrons in metals: the role of kinematics in screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.; Juaristi, J.I.; Nagy, I.; Echenique, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The inelastic scattering of low-energy electrons with the mobile part of the electron density of free-electron-like materials is investigated. Based on the dielectric theory for the homogeneous electron gas, the concept of Bohm and Pines is adopted in order to separate the single-particle and collective basic channels of the total inelastic rate. An effective screened potential is introduced to describe the separated single-particle part. The role of the relative motion of electrons, a kind of dynamical correlation effect, is modelled in this potential via a physical argument. The results obtained show that the nontrivial correlated motion of electrons may have a measurable influence on the result of dynamical probing of a degenerate electron gas. (author)

  6. Interference of Coulomb and nuclear excitation in inelastic scattering of 20Ne from 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratel, Guy.

    1976-01-01

    Angular distributions at 54 and 63MeV and excitation functions from 35 to 95MeV for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 20 Ne by 40 Ca have been measured. Experimental data for the inelastic scattering leading to the 20 Ne (2 + , 1.63MeV) state show a characteristic minimum for the angular distributions and excitation functions. This phenomenon was explained by an interference effect between Coulomb and nuclear excitation amplitudes with the DWBA and the coupled-channel formalism. The existence of this interference minimum could be explained only by assuming a nuclear deformation stronger than these obtained with light ion scattering. However a small shift between the experimental data and theoretical curves suggests that effects of a stronger complex coupling or nuclear reorientation due to the large quadrupole moment of 20 Ne must be included [fr

  7. Unified description of inelastic propensity rules for electron transport through nanoscale junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsson, Magnus; Frederiksen, Thomas; Ueba, Hiromu

    2008-01-01

    We present a method to analyze the results of first-principles based calculations of electronic currents including inelastic electron-phonon effects. This method allows us to determine the electronic and vibrational symmetries in play, and hence to obtain the so-called propensity rules for the st......We present a method to analyze the results of first-principles based calculations of electronic currents including inelastic electron-phonon effects. This method allows us to determine the electronic and vibrational symmetries in play, and hence to obtain the so-called propensity rules...... for the studied systems. We show that only a few scattering states-namely those belonging to the most transmitting eigenchannels-need to be considered for a complete description of the electron transport. We apply the method on first-principles calculations of four different systems and obtain the propensity...

  8. Electron Dynamics by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Schülke, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    The book offers the first comprehensive review of experimental methods, theory, and successful applications of synchrotron radiation based inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy, which enables the investigation of electron dynamics in condensed matter (correlated motion and excitation).

  9. Photoproduction of Inelastic and Elastic $J/\\psi$ Vector Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stundzia, Audrius Bronius [Toronto U.

    1992-06-01

    Results and analysis on the inelastic and elastic photoproduction of $J /\\psi$ vector mesons by Fermilab experiment E691 are presented. The inelastic, deep inelastic, coherent elastic and incoherent elastic cross sections were measured at ($E_{\\gamma}$) = 145 GeV. The $d\\sigma / dzdp^2_{\\tau}$} distribution and the photon energy dependence of the cross sections for these production processes were also measured. The deep inelastic $J /\\psi$ was analyzed in the colour-singlet photon-gluon-fusion model. It was found that the $d\\sigma / dzdp^2_{\\tau}$ distribution and the the rise of the cross section with $E\\gamma$ are both well described by a relatively soft gluon distribution [xG( x) $\\alpha$ ($1 - x )^{ng}$, where $n_g$ = 6.5 ± 1.1 (stat.)$^{+1.0}_{-0.6}$(syst.)].

  10. Sterman-Weinberg formula in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhaparidze, G.Sh.; Kartvelishvili, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The jet cross-section in current fragmentation region in deep inelastic scattering is obtained. It is shown that this jet produced in ep reaction is narrower, then the one from e + e - -annihilation [ru

  11. Analysis of partial and total inelasticities obtained from inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellandi, J.; Covolan, R.; Costa, C.G.; Montanha, J.; Mundim, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    An independent analysis of model for energetic dependence on inelasticity is presented, from experimental data of pp → c X (c = π +- , Κ +- , p +- ) type inclusive reactions. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Analysis of inelastic neutron scattering results on model compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vibrational spectroscopy; nitrogenous bases; inelastic neutron scattering. PACS No. ... obtain good quality, high resolution results in this region. Here the .... knowledge of the character of each molecular transition as well as the calculated.

  13. Inelastic scattering to collective states in double-magic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1979-06-01

    The paper discusses several aspects of inelastic scattering to collective states in the framework of the 'Shell Model RPA Approximation' with special emphasis on the analysis of giant resonance states. (orig./WL) [de

  14. Expansions for model-independent analyses of inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.F.; Hilton, J.M.; Roberts, A.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the commonly-used Fourier-Bessel expansion for the transition density for inelastic electron scattering depends sensitively on an arbitrary parameter and is not realistic at large distances. Alternative expansions are suggested. (author)

  15. Structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-06-26

    The phenomenological expressions for the structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering are proposed and are shown to satisfy the experimental data as well as a number of sum rules.

  16. Multiple production of hadrons in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Formulas are proposed for the description of the mean multiplicity of hadrons in deep inelastic processes. On the basis of the existing data, predictions are made for the behavior of the mean multiplicity at higher energies

  17. Dissipative phenomena in deep inelastic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.H.E.; Krappe, H.J.; Lindenberger, K.H.; Lipperheide, R.; Moehring, K.

    1978-01-01

    During this meeting the following theoretical concepts for deep-inelastic heavy ion reactions were discussed: the energy transfer and friction, direct or statistical mechanisms, dissipation and fluctuation. (WL) [de

  18. Deep inelastic lepton scattering from nucleons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.

    1986-02-01

    A pedagogical review is presented of results obtained from inclusive deep inelastic scattering of leptons from nucleons and nuclei, with particular emphasis on open questions to be explored in future experiments

  19. Generalized Power Domination

    OpenAIRE

    Omerzel, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    The power domination problem is an optimization problem that has emerged together with the development of the power networks. It is important to control the voltage and current in all the nodes and links in a power network. Measuring devices are expensive, which is why there is a tendency to place a minimum number of devices in a power network so that the network remains fully supervised. The k-power domination is a generalization of the power domination. The thesis represents the rules of th...

  20. Deeply inelastic scattering at small x in 20 min

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A status report is presented on new phenomena that are anticipated in deeply inelastic scattering in the low x→0 region. A summary of the theoretical situation in the region of small x is given, including the importance for the understanding of high energy interaction in QCD, and the low x behaviour of deep inelastic structure function. This new area of physics will be studied experimentally at HERA. (R.P.) 16 refs.; 6 figs

  1. Inelastic Boosted Dark Matter at direct detection experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Giudice, Gian F.; Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2018-01-01

    We explore a novel class of multi-particle dark sectors, called Inelastic Boosted Dark Matter (iBDM). These models are constructed by combining properties of particles that scatter off matter by making transitions to heavier states (Inelastic Dark Matter) with properties of particles that are produced with a large Lorentz boost in annihilation processes in the galactic halo (Boosted Dark Matter). This combination leads to new signals that can be observed at ordinary direct detection experimen...

  2. Inelastic dark matter at DAMA, CDMS and Future Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David R.; Weiner, Neal

    2002-01-01

    The DAMA annual modulation signature, interpreted as evidence for a spin-independent WIMP coupling, seems in conflict with null results from CDMS. However, in models of ``inelastic dark matter'', the experiments are compatible. Inelastic dark matter can arise in supersymmetric theories as the real component of a sneutrino mixed with a singlet scalar. In contrast with ordinary sneutrino dark matter, such particles can satisfy all experimental constraints while giving the appropriate relic abun...

  3. Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental...... conditions than similar, previously derived formulas, and it directly allows the application of selection rules when interpreting diffraction signals. Furthermore, we present a simple extension to systems simultaneously illuminated by x rays and a laser beam....

  4. Magnetic Dynamics of Fine Particles Studied by Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted antiferro......We give an introduction to inelastic neutron scattering and the dynamic scattering function for magnetic nanoparticles. Differences between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles are discussed and we give a review of recent results on ferromagnetic Fe nanoparticles and canted...

  5. Deep inelastic scattering in spontaneously broken gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Mikhov, S.G.; Morozov, P.T.; Stamenov, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering in the simplest spontaneously broken symmetry (the Kibble model) is analyzed. A hypothesis that the invariant coupling constant of the quartic selfinteraction for large spacelike momenta tends to a finite asymptotic value without spoiling the asymptotic freedom for the invariant coupling constant of the Yang-Mills field is used. It is shown that Biorken scaling for the moments of the structure functions of the deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering is violated by powers of logarithms

  6. Clinical proof-of-concept trial to assess the therapeutic effect of sirolimus in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: SUISSE ADPKD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wüthrich Rudolf P

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently there is no effective treatment available to retard cyst growth and to prevent the progression to end-stage renal failure in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. Evidence has recently been obtained from animal experiments that activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway plays a crucial role in cyst growth and renal volume expansion, and that the inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin (sirolimus markedly slows cyst development and renal functional deterioration. Based on these promising results in animals we have designed and initiated the first randomized controlled trial (RCT to examine the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of sirolimus to retard disease progression in ADPKD. Method/design This single center, randomised controlled, open label trial assesses the therapeutic effect, safety and tolerability of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus (Rapamune® in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and preserved renal function. The primary outcome will be the inhibition of kidney volume growth measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI volumetry. Secondary outcome parameters will be preservation of renal function, safety and tolerability of sirolimus. Discussion The results from this proof-of-concept RCT will for the first time show whether treatment with sirolimus effectively retards cyst growth in patients with ADPKD. Trial registration NCT00346918

  7. Overview of polarization in intermediate energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, T.

    1985-01-01

    The general role that polarization transfer (PT) can play in the ''dissection'' of medium-energy N-nucleus inelastic reactions is reviewed, specifically concentrating on the importance of complete sets of PT observables for the study of nuclear structure. The discussion is largely in the context of plane-wave impulse approximations, with the effects of distortions considered through comparisons between simple plane-wave predictions and DWIA computations. 31 refs., 11 figs

  8. Inelastic light scattering and the excited states of many-electron quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alain [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Calle 30 No 502, Miramar, Havana (Cuba); Gonzalez, Augusto [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Calle E 309, Vedado, Havana (Cuba)

    2003-06-25

    A consistent calculation of resonant inelastic (Raman) scattering amplitudes for relatively large quantum dots, which takes account of valence band mixing, the discrete character of the spectrum in intermediate and final states, and interference effects, is presented. Raman peaks in charge and spin channels are compared with multipole strengths and with the density of energy levels in final states. A qualitative comparison with the available experimental results is given.

  9. Inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Brünig, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book presents studies on the inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loads. It focuses on the description of new effects like purely thermal cycles or cases of non-trivial damages. The various models are based on different approaches and methods and scaling aspects are taken into account. In addition to purely phenomenological models, the book also presents mechanisms-based approaches. It includes contributions written by leading authors from a host of different countries.

  10. Inelastic light scattering and the excited states of many-electron quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Alain; Gonzalez, Augusto

    2003-01-01

    A consistent calculation of resonant inelastic (Raman) scattering amplitudes for relatively large quantum dots, which takes account of valence band mixing, the discrete character of the spectrum in intermediate and final states, and interference effects, is presented. Raman peaks in charge and spin channels are compared with multipole strengths and with the density of energy levels in final states. A qualitative comparison with the available experimental results is given

  11. On the radiative corrections of deep inelastic scattering of muon neutrino on nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So Sang Guk

    1986-01-01

    The radiative corrections of deep inelastic scattering process VΜP→ ΜN are considered. Matrix element which takes Feynman one photon exchange diagrams into account at high transfer momentum are used. Based on calculation of the matrix element one can obtain matrix element for given process. It is shown that the effective cross section which takes one photon exchange into account is obtained. (author)

  12. Alpha particles-and 3He inelastic scattering by 124Sn in the coulomb barrier region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Angular distributions for inelastic scattering of α and 3 He particles in 124 Sn at the incident energies around Coulomb barrier were measured using the 8UD Pelletron Tandem Accelerator of The University of Sao Paulo. The results were analysed by DWBA with a collective form factor including the effects due to the interference between coulomb and nuclear excitations with the code PATIWEN (Ba75). The nuclear deformation parameters for the one phonon levels (2 + and 3 - ) have been obtained. (Author) [pt

  13. Quarkonia propagation in QGP: study of elastic and inelastic scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrehrah, H; Aichelin, J; Gossiaux, P B

    2011-01-01

    We propose to study the quarkonia (φ) propagation in the QGP. We are especially interested in the elastic and inelastic scattering process of these quarkonia in the medium. We developed the Bethe-Salpeter formalism to calculate the elastic cross section (σ elas ) for φ - gluon/hadron. Results obtained in this work show that σ elas (φ - gluon/hadron) might have non negligible effects in the study of Q Q-bar propagation.

  14. A unified model for diffractive and inelastic scattering of a light atom from a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.E.; Miller, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    A simple model for gas-surface scattering is presented which permits treatment of inelastic effects in diffractive systems. The model, founded on an impulsive collision assumption, leads to an intensity distribution which is just a sum of contributions from n-phonon scattering events. Furthemore, by using a convenient form for the repulsive interaction potential, analytic expressions are obtained for the elastic and one-phonon intensities that are in qualitative agreement with experimental results. (Auth.)

  15. Downhill Domination in Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Teresa W.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A path π = (v1, v2, . . . , vk+1 in a graph G = (V,E is a downhill path if for every i, 1 ≤ i ≤ k, deg(vi ≥ deg(vi+1, where deg(vi denotes the degree of vertex vi ∈ V. The downhill domination number equals the minimum cardinality of a set S ⊆ V having the property that every vertex v ∈ V lies on a downhill path originating from some vertex in S. We investigate downhill domination numbers of graphs and give upper bounds. In particular, we show that the downhill domination number of a graph is at most half its order, and that the downhill domination number of a tree is at most one third its order. We characterize the graphs obtaining each of these bounds

  16. Modeling flow in naturally fractured reservoirs : effect of fracture aperture distribution on dominant sub-network for flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, J.; Rossen, W.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fracture network connectivity and aperture (or conductivity) distribution are two crucial features controlling flow behavior of naturally fractured reservoirs. The effect of connectivity on flow properties is well documented. In this paper, however, we focus here on the influence of fracture

  17. Effects of wildfire on catchment runoff response: a modeling approach to detect changes in snow-dominated forested catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Seibert; Jeffrey J. McDonnell; Richard D. Woodsmith

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire is an important disturbance affecting hydrological processes through alteration of vegetation cover and soil characteristics. The effects of fire on hydrological systems at the catchment scale are not well known, largely because site specific data from both before and after wildfire are rare. In this study a modelling approach was employed for change detection...

  18. Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Z. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hambach, R. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); University of Jena, Jena 07743 (Germany); Kaiser, U.; Rose, H. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering. - Highlights: • 4D problems are involved in modelling inelastic electron scattering. • By means of matrix diagonalization, the 4D problems can be simplified as 2D problems. • The number of 2D problems is minimized by using this approach.

  19. The effects of gamma radiation and electron beam on the mechanical properties of polypropylene dominant natural rubber blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar Mar Oo; Khairul Zaman; Tin Hlaing

    2001-01-01

    The effects of irradiation, with dose ranging from 20 to 100 kGy on the mechanical properties of polypropylene and natural rubber blends (PP/NR blends) were investigated. Crosslinking of the PP/NR blends proved to play a major role in the improvement of the mechanical properties of the blend. The results also revealed that the blend composition the enhancement in properties depend on the irradiation dose and on the concentration of the crosslinking agent. (author)

  20. Visual dominance in olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batic, N; Gabassi, P G

    1987-08-01

    The object of the present study was to verify the emergence of a 'visual dominance' effect in memory tests involving different sensory modes (sight and smell), brought about the preattentive mechanisms which select the visual sensory mode regardless of the recall task.