WorldWideScience

Sample records for industry test methods

  1. Nondestructive testing methods in building industry '83. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conference heard 52 papers of which 11 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these was the use of radiometric methods and instruments for nondestructive testing of building materials and ways of testing the quality of concrete during nuclear power plant construction. (J.P.)

  2. New X-ray testing methods of aerosol products for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozydar Knyziak, Adrian, E-mail: a.knyziak@gum.gov.pl; Rzodkiewicz, Witold, E-mail: w.rzodkiewicz@gum.gov.pl; Kaczorowska, Ewa, E-mail: e.kaczorowska@gum.gov.pl; Derlacinski, Michal, E-mail: m.derlacinski@gum.gov.pl

    2017-02-01

    An amount of product in e.g. an aerosol canister is not difficult to estimate by weighing a filled can and subtracting the tare of packaging. In this way, we can obtain the net weight of the ingredients present in the can. Although, this does not indicate the volumetric content. Therefore, in the paper, the fundamental (the weight method and given by FEICA) and new methods (given by authors) related to the determination of the volumetric content of canister filled with aeorosol products are presented. The new methods are based on direct digital radiography (DR) using X-ray radiation. For the needs of new methods, the X-ray CCD-DR imaging system was built and developed in our Laboratory in Department of Radiation and Vibration at the Central Office of Measures. For comparison purposes, with regard to the volumetric content, a lot of metal cans of capacities 140, 185, 450, 700 ml were inspected. In future, computed tomography (CT) for industrial radiography in our laboratory will be used. Currently, an algorithm for CT is being tested. It will give us possibility for very precise measurements to determine volumetric content of examined canisters.

  3. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  4. Corrosion and deposit evaluation in industrial plants by non destructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad; Abd Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohd Pauzi Ismail; S Saad; S Sayuti; S Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    In petrochemical plants, the detection of corrosion and evaluation of deposit in insulated pipes using a radiography method are very challenging tasks. This main degradation problem experienced by pipelines is due to water condensation. It will cause deposit and scale inside the pipe, as well as between the insulation and pipe for the cold temperature pipes. On the other hand, for the hot temperature pipes the main problem is mainly due to corrosion/erosion attack inside the pipe. In the case of corrosion study one of the most important parameters in a piping or pipeline to be monitored and measured is that the wall thickness. In general, most pipeline corrosion monitoring and evaluation for both insulated and non-insulated pipes is done by using an ultrasonic method. The most common technique for corrosion is that based on the A-Scan, using either a normal flow detector or some form of dedicated equipment. However, with recent development of ultrasonic technology, more advance method, namely B-Scan and C-scan techniques are also available. The most notable disadvantage of using this current method is that the insulation covered the pipe has to be removed before the inspection can be carried out and this is considered as not so cost effective. Due to this reason other alternative NDT method, namely radiographic testing method has been studied. The testing technique used in this studied are tangential technique and double wall radiographic technique which involve studying the changing in density of radiographic film. The result found using tangential technique is consistent with real thickness of the pipe. However for the later technique the result is only achieved with a reasonable accuracy when the changing in wall thickness is very small. The result of the studies is discussed in this paper

  5. Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed.

  6. Wood Products Consumption for Industrial Markets in the United States, Testing a New Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever

    2013-01-01

    In early 2012, APA-The Engineered Wood Association conducted studies of three industries: institutional furniture, motor homes, and travel trailers and campers. The survey procedure was the same as that used by APA for many years. Lists of individual manufacturers were purchased, a telephone interviewing company was hired to administer a questionnaire, and APA...

  7. Preliminary Development of Conductivity based Test Method for Industrial Radiography Film Developer Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin, N.S.; Manah, N.S.A.; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    The strength of industrial radiography film developer solution is one of the most important aspects in radiography film processing. The developer solution reacts with the exposed film to visualize the latent image through chemical-film reaction. As the developer is repeatedly used, the strength decreases until a point where it cannot yield the required film optical density value. This work attempts to investigate the developer solution strength through its conductivity. Obtained data are cross correlated to the required industrial radiography optical density range. Through the experiment, the conductivity of the developer solution decreased as the number of the film processed increase. Thus, the desired optical density of the film cannot be achieved. The conductivity of developer is measured and recorded at interval of six films developed. The optical density of every film is recorded to analyze the change in optical density as the conductivity decreases. Through the procedure, it is suggested that as the conductivity decreases, the optical density of film decreased. Ultimately, the strength level of the developer solution can be determined. (author)

  8. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, R.; Wever, B. de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Hill, E.; Krul, C.A.M.; Poth, A.; Roggen, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15–16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of

  9. Nondestructive testing: welding industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Subramanian, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter highlights various conventional and advanced nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques that have been used for weld evaluation. Welding Codes and Standards of International and National organisations that have been followed in India for various weld evaluation purposes are also included. The chapter also emphasises the importance of NDT by way of a few case studies that have been carried out on important critical welded components. (author). 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 appendix

  10. A Case Study Improvement of a Testing Process by Combining Lean Management, Industrial Engineering and Automation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Withers

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly competitive market environments have forced not only large manufacturing, but also smalland-medium size enterprises (SME to look for means to improve their operations in order to increase competitive strength. This paper presents an adaptation and adoption by a UK SME engineering service organisation, of lean management, industrial engineering, and automation metods developed within larger organisations. This SME sought to improve the overall performance of one of its core testing processes. An exploratory analysis, based on the lean management concept of “value added” and work measurement technique “time study”, was developed and carried out in order to understand the current performance of a testing process for gas turbine fuel flow dividers. A design for the automation of some operations of the testing process was followed as an approach to reduce non-value added activities, and improve the overall efficiency of the testing process. The overall testing time was reduced from 12.41 to 7.93 hours (36.09 percent while the man hours and non-value added time were also reduced from 23.91 to 12.94 hours (45.87 percent and from 11.08 to 6.69 (39.67 percent hours respectively. This resulted in an increase in process efficiency in terms of man hours from 51.91 to 61.28 percent. The contribution of this paper resides in presenting a case study that can be used as a guiding reference for managers and engineers to undertake improvement projects, in their organisations, similar to the one presented in this paper.

  11. Development and improvement of synthetic imaging methods for non-destructive ultrasonic testing of complex industrial components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannouf, S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was, initially, to evaluate phased array methods for ultrasonic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) in order to propose optimizations, or to develop new alternative methods. In particular, this works deals with the detection of defects in complex geometries and/or materials parts. The TFM (Total Focusing Method) algorithm provides high resolution images and several representations of a same defect thanks to different reconstruction modes. These properties have been exploited judiciously in order to propose an adaptive imaging method in immersion configuration. We showed that TFM imaging can be used to characterize more precisely the defects. However, this method presents two major drawbacks: the large amount of data to be processed and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in noisy materials. We developed solutions to these two problems. To overcome the limitation caused by the large number of signals to be processed, we propose an algorithm that defines the sparse array to activate. As for the low SNR, it can be now improved by use of virtual sources and a new filtering method based on the DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator). (author) [fr

  12. Standard guide for preparing and interpreting precision and bias statements in test method standards used in the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers terminology useful for the preparation and interpretation of precision and bias statements. 1.2 In formulating precision and bias statements, it is important to understand the statistical concepts involved and to identify the major sources of variation that affect results. Appendix X1 provides a brief summary of these concepts. 1.3 To illustrate the statistical concepts and to demonstrate some sources of variation, a hypothetical data set has been analyzed in Appendix X2. Reference to this example is made throughout this guide. 1.4 It is difficult and at times impossible to ship nuclear materials for interlaboratory testing. Thus, precision statements for test methods relating to nuclear materials will ordinarily reflect only within-laboratory variation.

  13. Experimental Evaluation for the Microvibration Performance of a Segmented PC Method Based High Technology Industrial Facility Using 1/2 Scale Test Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The precast concrete (PC method used in the construction process of high technology industrial facilities is limited when applied to those with greater span lengths, due to the transport length restriction (maximum length of 15~16 m in Korea set by traffic laws. In order to resolve this, this study introduces a structural system with a segmented PC system, and a 1/2 scale model with a width of 9000 mm (hereafter Segmented Model is manufactured to evaluate vibration performance. Since a real vibrational environment cannot be reproduced for vibration testing using a scale model, a comparative analysis of their relative performances is conducted in this study. For this purpose, a 1/2 scale model with a width of 7200 mm (hereafter Nonsegmented Model of a high technology industrial facility is additionally prepared using the conventional PC method. By applying the same experiment method for both scale models and comparing the results, the relative vibration performance of the Segmented Model is observed. Through impact testing, the natural frequencies of the two scale models are compared. Also, in order to analyze the estimated response induced by the equipment, the vibration responses due to the exciter are compared. The experimental results show that the Segmented Model exhibits similar or superior performances when compared to the Nonsegmented Model.

  14. Industrial chimney monitoring - contemporary methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszowska, Olga; Gruchlik, Piotr; Mika, Wiesław

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents knowledge acquired during the monitoring of a flue-gas stack, performed as part of technical and scientific surveillance of mining activity and its impact on industrial objects. The chimney is located in an area impacted by mining activity since the 1970s, from a coal mine which is no longer in existence. In the period of 2013-16, this area was subject to mining carried out by a mining entrepreneur who currently holds a license to excavate hard coal. Periodic measurements of the deflection of the 113-meter chimney are performed using conventional geodetic methods. The GIG used 3 methods to observe the stack: landbased 3D laser scanning, continuous deflection monitoring with a laser sensor, and drone-based visual inspections. The drone offered the possibility to closely inspect the upper sections of the flue-gas stack, which are difficult to see from the ground level.

  15. Industrial chimney monitoring - contemporary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaszowska Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents knowledge acquired during the monitoring of a flue-gas stack, performed as part of technical and scientific surveillance of mining activity and its impact on industrial objects. The chimney is located in an area impacted by mining activity since the 1970s, from a coal mine which is no longer in existence. In the period of 2013-16, this area was subject to mining carried out by a mining entrepreneur who currently holds a license to excavate hard coal. Periodic measurements of the deflection of the 113-meter chimney are performed using conventional geodetic methods. The GIG used 3 methods to observe the stack: landbased 3D laser scanning, continuous deflection monitoring with a laser sensor, and drone-based visual inspections. The drone offered the possibility to closely inspect the upper sections of the flue-gas stack, which are difficult to see from the ground level.

  16. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  17. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  18. Development of Conductivity Method as an Alternative to Titration for Hydrolytic Resistance Testing Used for Evaluation of Glass Vials Used in Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Phillips, Joseph; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    The European Pharmacopeia surface test to analyze the hydrolytic resistance is a common industrial method to understand and ensure the quality of produced glass vials. Hydrolytic resistance is evaluated by calculating the alkalinity of water extract from autoclaved vials by titration. As an alternative to this titration technique, a conductivity technique was assessed, which directly measures the ions in the water extract. A conductivity meter with a 12 mm diameter electrode was calibrated with a 100 μS/cm conductivity standard and carryover minimized by rinsing the probe in a water beaker per analysis. The limit of quantification at 1 μS/cm was determined as having a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 compared with the water blank. The conductivity method was selective for glass-composing elements (boron, sodium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, and calcium) within the vial extract. Accuracies of spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm were ±7% and had linearity with coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of ≥0.9999. Intraday precision had a relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 5) of ≤6% for spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm. Interday precision had a RSD (n = 4) of ≤6% for 10 vials from three glass vial lots. Conductivity of water extracts from nine sets of seven lots of glass vials had a precise linear relationship [R 2 = 0.9876, RSD = 1% (n = 9)] with titration volumes of the same lots. Conductivity results in μS/cm could be converted to titration volumes in milliliters by a conversion factor of 0.0275. The simplicity, sample stability, and individual vial analysis of the conductivity technique were more advantageous than the current titration technique. The quality of glass vials used as primary containers in the pharmaceutical industry is of concern due to recent observations of glass flake-like delamination, or lamellae, under specific storage conditions. The current European Pharmacopoeia method to assess

  19. Nondestructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected

  20. Methods for converting industrial zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  1. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  2. Testing of modular industrial solar retrofit industrial process steam systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Dudley, V.E.

    1984-06-13

    Under the Department of Energy's Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit project, five industrial process heat systems incorporating line-focus solar collectors were designed and hardware was installed and tested at Sandia National Laboratories and the Solar Energy Research Institute. System designers and collector manufacturers participating in the project included Acurex Solar Corporation, BDM, Inc., Custom Engineering, Inc., Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation, Solar Kinetics, Inc., and Suntec Systems, Inc. This paper describes the testing of the qualification test systems which has been under way since mid-1982. Each qualification test system includes an equipment skid sufficient to support a collector field of 2300 m/sup 2/ aperture and one delta-tempeature string of from 175 to 460 m/sup 2/ aperture. Each system is capable of producing saturated steam at 1.7 MPa and operates at maximum outlet temperatures of from 250 to 290/sup 0/C. The test series includes function and safety tests to determine that the systems operate as specified, an unattended operation test of at least two weeks duration, performance tests to allow prediction of annual system performance, and life cycle tests to evaluate component lifetime and maintenance requirements. Since the start of testing, some twenty five modifications have been made to the various systems for the purpose of improving system performance and/or reliability, and appropriate tests of these modifictions have been made or are underway. This paper presents a description of the approach to testing of the MISR systems and selected test results.

  3. A nonparametric test for industrial specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Billings, Stephen B.; Johnson, Erik B.

    2010-01-01

    Urban economists hypothesize that industrial diversity matters for urban growth and development, but metrics for empirically testing this relationship are limited to simple concentration metrics (e.g. location quotient) or summary diversity indices (e.g. Gini, Herfindahl). As shown by recent advances in how we measure localization and specialization, these measures of industrial diversity may be subject to bias under small samples or the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. Furthermore, empirically...

  4. Semiconductor testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen.

    1992-01-01

    In a method of avoiding use of nuclear radiation, eg gamma rays, X-rays, electron beams, for testing semiconductor components for resistance to hard radiation, which hard radiation causes data corruption in some memory devices and 'latch-up' in others, similar fault effects can be achieved using a xenon or other 'light' flash gun even though the penetration of light is significantly less than that of gamma rays. The method involves treating a device with gamma radiation, measuring a particular fault current at the onset of a fault event, repeating the test with light to confirm the occurrence of the fault event at the same measured fault current, and using the fault current value as a reference for future tests using light on similar devices. (author)

  5. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  6. Continuous improvement methods in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, Carolyn D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate management methods for improved safety in the nuclear power industry. Process improvement management, methods of business process reengineering, total quality management, and continued process improvement (KAIZEN) are explored. The anticipated advantages of extensive use of improved process oriented management methods in the nuclear industry are increased effectiveness and efficiency in virtually all tasks of plant operation and maintenance. Important spin off include increased plant safety and economy. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig

  7. Materials and test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide, in cooperation with ORNL and LANL, specimens required for studies to develop organic insulators having the cryogenic neutron irradiation resistance required for MFE systems utilizing superconducting magnetic confinement. To develop test methods and analytical procedures for assessing radiation damage. To stimulate and participate in international cooperation directed toward accomplishing these objectives. The system for producing uniaxially reinforced, 3-4 mm (0.125 in) diameter rod specimens has been refined and validated by production of excellent quality specimens using liquid-mix epoxy resin systems. The methodology is undergoing further modification to permit use of hot-melt epoxy and polyimide resin systems as will be required for the experimental program to be conducted in the NLTNIF reactor at ORNL. Preliminary studies indicate that short beam and torsional shear test methods will be useful in evaluating radiation degradation. Development of these and other applicable test methods are continuing. A cooperative program established with laboratories in Japan and in England has resulted in the production and testing of specimens having an identical configuration

  8. Industrial deployment of system engineering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Romanovsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A formal method is not the main engine of a development process, its contribution is to improve system dependability by motivating formalisation where useful. This book summarizes the results of the DEPLOY research project on engineering methods for dependable systems through the industrial deployment of formal methods in software development. The applications considered were in automotive, aerospace, railway, and enterprise information systems, and microprocessor design.  The project introduced a formal method, Event-B, into several industrial organisations and built on the lessons learned to

  9. Digital computed radiography in industrial X-ray testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Onel, Y.; Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U.

    2001-01-01

    Computed radiography is used for X-ray testing in many industrial applications. There are different systems depending on the application, e.g. fast systems for detection of material inhomogeneities and slower systems with higher local resolution for detection of cracks and fine details, e.g. in highly stressed areas or in welded seams. The method is more dynamic than film methods, and digital image processing is possible during testing [de

  10. Potter's Industries tests of spherical frit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.L.; Rankin, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    Potter's Industries has been collaborating with Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) concerning application of glass beads in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. Potter's has previously supplied SRL with 2000 lbs of spheroidized Frit 131 for experimental development. Representatives of Potter's Industries visited SRL recently to discuss results of blasting tests and pumpability tests comparing beads to frit. These tests were conducted at their laboratory facilities in New Jersey. Their blasting work suggested speed of cleaning was higher with frit media than with bead media; however, metal-to-oxide removal ratios were also higher with frit media. Fracture rate of beads used in dry blasting tests was excessive. Low fracture rates were found in -80 +200 mesh beads used in wet blasting tests. Blasting with bead media produced a shiny peened surface while frit media produced a dull matte surface. Some frit impregnation was noted in blasting with -20 +80 frit. Pumpability of bead/water slurries was superior to frit/water slurries at 40 wt % concentrations. 4 tables

  11. NRC methods for evaluation of industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, D.S.; Koontz, J.L.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    On March 20, 1985, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission published the Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. The Policy Statement endorsed the INPO-managed Training Accreditation Program because it encompasses the five elements of performance-based training. This paper described the multiple methods that the NRC is using to monitor industry efforts to improve training and implement the NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. The results of the evaluation of industry training improvement programs will be reviewed by the Commissioners in April 1987 to determine the nature of continuing NRC policy and programs for ensuring effective training for the US nuclear industry

  12. What makes industries believe in formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Danthine, A.S.; Leduc, G.; Wolper, P.

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of formal methods in the design and development departments of an industrial company has far reaching and long lasting consequences. In fact it changes the whole environment of methods, tools and skills that determine the design culture of that company. A decision to replace current

  13. Industrial Practice in Formal Methods : A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bicarregui, Juan C.; Fitzgerald, John; Larsen, Peter Gorm

    2009-01-01

    We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant chal...... challenges remain in providing usable tools that can be integrated into established development processes; in education and training; in taking formal methods from first use to second use, and in gathering and evidence to support informed selection of methods and tools.......We examine the the industrial application of formal methods using data gathered in a review of 62 projects taking place over the last 25 years. The review suggests that formal methods are being applied in a wide range of application domains, with increasingly strong tool support. Significant...

  14. Materials and test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The industrial specification for production of the G-10CR grade of cryogenic high-pressure laminate has been revised and accepted by US manufacturers. The objective was to make the specification as generic as possible without adversely affecting performance and to add a material performance criteria to the specification. G-10CR and G-11CR products have been produced by five US industrial laminating forms. No significant differences in cryogenic mechanical properties were found among G-10CR material produced by these manufacturers. This indicates that the specifications are fulfilling their intended purpose. An efficient system for producing research materials for systematic screening of the parameters influencing cryogenic radiation resistance was devised. Laboratories in Japan and England have agreed to actively cooperate with NBS in further development of this system

  15. Digital radiography is promising in industrial testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Fabbro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Digital radiography has recently entered the industrial world as a tool for non-destructive testing. There are 3 types of digital radiography: computed radiography (CR), direct radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT). In computed radiography, traditional silver-halide films are replaced by photostimulable phosphor imaging plates that are activated through laser scanning and digitized. Direct radiography uses a flat panel detector (FPD) composed of X-ray detectors that performs an immediate digital conversion of the image that can be read by a computer. DR is a perfect tool for industrial testing but the fragility of the FPD panels reduces its uses. Computed tomography is based on the principle of DR to get data corresponding to successive cross-section images of the object. These data are processed by a software to get a 3-dimensional image of the object. CT was first developed for medical use but requires some improvement to become more accurate, faster, particularly for big objects. In recent years DR has enjoyed the highest growth rate in digital radiography. (A.C.)

  16. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  17. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for testing and evaluating pure titanium; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Jun titan no shiken hyoka hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of submitting propositions to ISO (International Organization for Standardization)/TC79 (Light metals and their alloys) and ISO/TC135 (Non-destructive testing), studies were made relating to the standardization of methods for chemical ingredient analysis and non-destructive testing of industrial pure titanium. In the development of an ingredient analysis method for pure titanium, performance standards and analytical allowance were determined for an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrochemical analyzer for vanadium, niobium, cobalt, and boron, which were short of completion in the preceding fiscal year. As for spark discharge emission spectrochemical analysis, analysis methods were newly established for oxygen and hydrogen. In the development of optical flaw detection for pure titanium boards, the quality of test pieces were determined by use of a reference test piece, and studies were made about the kinds of artificially produced flaws and a method for sensitivity calibration. In the development of ultrasonic flaw detection for pure titanium boards, studies were made about the effects of board thickness, kinds of flaws, and of board size. Using the findings, a draft standard was prepared in Japanese for a JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) proposition and another in English for an ISO proposition. (NEDO)

  18. Experimental modeling methods in Industrial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Trebuňa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic approaches to a management system of the present industrial practice, forcing businesses to address management issues in-house continuous improvement of production and non-production processes. Experience has repeatedly demonstrated the need for a system approach not only in analysis but also in the planning and actual implementation of these processes. Therefore, the contribution is focused on the description of the modeling in industrial practice by a system approach, in order to avoid erroneous application of the decision to the implementation phase, and thus prevent any longer applying methods "attempt - fallacy".

  19. Photogrammetric methods of measurement in industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godding, R.; Groene, A.; Heinrich, G.; Schneider, C.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for 3D measurement are required for very varied applications in the industrial field. This includes tasks of quality assurance and plant monitoring, among others. It should be possible to apply the process flexibly it should require as short interruptions of production as possible and should meet the required accuracies. These requirements can be met by photogrammetric methods of measurement. The article introduces these methods and shows their capabilities from various selected examples (eg: the replacement of large components in a pressurized water reactor, and aircraft measurements (orig./DG) [de

  20. Test system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    at a second distance from the centre, the second distance being larger than the first distance, one or more sensors arranged at each fluid channel, wherein the sensors each comprise at least one optical detectable member, the test apparatus further comprising one or more optical sensing devices arranged...... larger than the first distance, one or more sensors arranged at each fluid channel, wherein the sensors each comprise at least one optical detectable member, the test apparatus further comprising one or more optical sensing devices arranged for sensing the at least one optical detectable member...

  1. Testing Okun’s Law with Swiss Industry Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Okun's Law postulates a stable relationship between quarterly output growth and changes in (un)employment. This proposition has so far been tested with macroeconomic data at the highest level of aggregation. The paper goes beyond that in extending the analysis to industry data from Switzerland, applying a method suggested by the International Monetary Fund. Another focus is on whether expansions in production have become more 'jobless' over the most recent business cycle compared to earlier o...

  2. Test Methods for Robot Agility in Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anthony; Harrison, William; Schlenoff, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to define and describe test methods and metrics to assess industrial robot system agility in both simulation and in reality. The paper describes test methods and associated quantitative and qualitative metrics for assessing robot system efficiency and effectiveness which can then be used for the assessment of system agility. The paper describes how the test methods were implemented in a simulation environment and real world environment. It also shows how the metrics are measured and assessed as they would be in a future competition. The test methods described in this paper will push forward the state of the art in software agility for manufacturing robots, allowing small and medium manufacturers to better utilize robotic systems. The paper fulfills the identified need for standard test methods to measure and allow for improvement in software agility for manufacturing robots.

  3. 75 FR 22813 - Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of Reactive Test... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred...

  4. Theoretical-methodical Fundamentals of industrial marketing research

    OpenAIRE

    Butenko, N.

    2009-01-01

    The article proves the necessity to research theoretical and methodical fundamentals of industrial marketing and defines main key aspects of relationship management with the customers on industrial market.

  5. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-11-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results is presented: The radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach tests methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transportation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance. 2 references, 2 figures

  6. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results are presented: the radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach test methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transporation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance

  7. Emerging tomographic methods within the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Geir Anton

    2013-01-01

    Since industrial process tomography was introduced as a concept almost two decades ago, the considerable progress within a large variety of sensing modalities has to a large extent been technology driven. Industrial tomography applications may be divided into three categories: 1) Laboratory systems, 2) Field equipment for diagnostics and mapping purposes, and 3) Permanently installed systems. Examples on emerging methods on all categories will be presented, either from R and D at the University of Bergen and/or our industrial partners. Most developments are within the first category, where tomographs are used to provide better understanding of various processes such as pipe flow, separators, mixers and reactors. Here tomographic data is most often used to provide better process knowledge, for reference measurements and validation and development of process models, and finally for development for instruments and process equipment. The requirement here may be either high spatial resolution or high temporal resolution, or combinations of these. Tomographic field measurements are applied to either to inspect processes or equipment on a regular base or at faulty or irregular operation, or to map multicomponent systems such petroleum reservoirs, their structure and the distribution gas, oil and water within them. The latter will only be briefly touched upon here. Tomographic methods are increasingly being used for process and equipment diagnostics. The requirements vary and solutions based on repetition of single measurements, such as in column scanning, to full tomographic systems where there is sufficiently space or access. The third category is tomographic instruments that are permanently installed in situ in a process. These need not provide full tomographic images and instruments with fewer views are often preferred to reduce complexity and increase the instrument reliability. (author)

  8. Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Ao, Q.

    1996-01-01

    Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a open-quotes black boxclose quotes mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments

  9. ASTM test methods for composite characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of the American Society for Testing and Materials is given. Under the topic of composite materials characterization and evaluation, general industry practice and test methods for textile composites are presented.

  10. Report on survey for high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. Verification work on achievements of industrial furnace development in 1999 by using theoretical method; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro kaihatsu seika no rironteki shuho ni yoru kakusho gyomu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project has been executed from fiscal 1998 through fiscal 2000. Fiscal 1999 has performed measurements, evaluations, analyses, and follow-ups on representative demonstration furnaces, subsequently from fiscal 1998. At the same time, theoretical discussions were given to understand the details of the achievements. The measurements and investigations on the representative demonstration furnaces verified remarkable enhancement in the waste heat recovery rate, and noticeable reduction in the fuel unit requirement. In order to understand in-furnace phenomena and heat conduction mechanisms, simulations were made on combustion gas flows, combustion reactions, and heat conduction by using three-dimensional and non-steady state continuous analyses. The method used is an effective method to elucidate the in-furnace gas temperature distribution in terms of space and time, and evaluate the heat conducting performance quantitatively. The result obtained in the current fiscal year on the overall heat absorption rate was found to be about the same value as for conventional furnaces. The temperature efficiency calculation value for the heat recovering device was 90 to 95%, which is much higher than that for the conventional furnaces of 30 to 60%. The calculation value for the fuel unit requirement was also reduced by 20 to 30% from that of the conventional furnaces. The simulation result is effective in understanding the heat conduction performance enhancing mechanism, having been supplemented by the measurements. (NEDO)

  11. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  12. A New Design Method for Industrial Portal Frames in Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial portal frames near to other buildings must keep their vertical walls standing in fire in order to prevent fire spread.  A recently developed analysis, implemented in the program Vulcan, using a combination of static and dynamic solvers, has shown that the strong base connections recommended by the current design method may not always lead to conservative design. A second-phase failure mechanism observed in numerical modelling, and the critical temperature at which final run-away collapse occurs, may be higher than the temperature at which the roof frame initially loses its stability, because a re-stabilisation often happens.  A new method for estimating critical temperatures of portal frames in fire, using these two failure mechanisms, is presented. Numerical tests on typical industrial frames are used to calibrate this new method

  13. Methods for Equating Mental Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    1983) compared conventional and IRT methods for equating the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ) after chaining. Three conventional and...three IRT equating methods were examined in this study; two sections of TOEFL were each (separately) equated. The IRT methods included the following: (a...group. A separate base form was established for each of the six equating methods. Instead of equating the base-form TOEFL to itself, the last (eighth

  14. Drop test facility available to private industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Box, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    In 1978, a virtually unyielding drop test impact pad was constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) for the testing of heavy shipping containers designed for transporting radioactive materials. Because of the facility's unique capability for drop-testing large, massive shipping packages, it has been identified as a facility which can be made available for non-DOE users

  15. Test equating methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers in the psychology and statistical communities have paid increasing attention to test equating as issues of using multiple test forms have arisen and in response to criticisms of traditional testing techniques This book provides a practically oriented introduction to test equating which both discusses the most frequently used equating methodologies and covers many of the practical issues involved The main themes are - the purpose of equating - distinguishing between equating and related methodologies - the importance of test equating to test development and quality control - the differences between equating properties, equating designs, and equating methods - equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating The authors are acknowledged experts in the field, and the book is based on numerous courses and seminars they have presented As a result, educators, psychometricians, professionals in measurement, statisticians, and students coming to the subject for...

  16. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1991-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made over the past year on six aspects of the work supported by this grant. As a result, we have in hand for the first time a fairly complete set of transport models and improved statistical methods for testing them against large databases. We also have initial results of such tests. These results indicate that careful application of presently available transport theories can reasonably well produce a remarkably wide variety of tokamak data

  17. Physical quality control and nondestructive testing in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akay, K. S.; Avinc, A.

    2000-01-01

    The applications of Total Quality Management which now constitute the main factor of production and industrial life, are becoming widespread each day. This study evaluates the place, and the role of the physicist in the development and the application of measuring and central method, providing information on quality, environment and especially reliability, which is me of the most significant components of these concepts, acting as a guide and known, as Nondestructive Testing Methods in technology. Basic physical principles of the techniques, employed in practical applications as well as research and development stages of different fields requiring advanced technology, are presented and their advantages and disadvantages in usage are demonstrated in a comparative way. (authors)

  18. [Inappropriate test methods in allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Herold, D A

    2010-11-01

    Inappropriate test methods are increasingly utilized to diagnose allergy. They fall into two categories: I. Tests with obscure theoretical basis, missing validity and lacking reproducibility, such as bioresonance, electroacupuncture, applied kinesiology and the ALCAT-test. These methods lack both the technical and clinical validation needed to justify their use. II. Tests with real data, but misleading interpretation: Detection of IgG or IgG4-antibodies or lymphocyte proliferation tests to foods do not allow to separate healthy from diseased subjects, neither in case of food intolerance, allergy or other diagnoses. The absence of diagnostic specificity induces many false positive findings in healthy subjects. As a result unjustified diets might limit quality of life and lead to malnutrition. Proliferation of lymphocytes in response to foods can show elevated rates in patients with allergies. These values do not allow individual diagnosis of hypersensitivity due to their broad variation. Successful internet marketing, infiltration of academic programs and superficial reporting by the media promote the popularity of unqualified diagnostic tests; also in allergy. Therefore, critical observation and quick analysis of and clear comments to unqualified methods by the scientific medical societies are more important than ever.

  19. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  20. Testing of coatings for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, G.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial scale nuclear power generating plant coatings must be able to withstand simultaneous exposure both to high humidity, and to cumulative radiation dosage, at elevated temperatures, for the design life of the plant. The coatings must be decontaminable by means other than by stripping, that is, actual physical removal, and must be of sufficient durability to withstand projected conditions of a loss of coolant accident. Tests to show that coatings are expected to do more than retard corrosion and erosion are described

  1. Catalytic arylation methods from the academic lab to industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    This "hands-on" approach to the topic of arylation consolidates the body of key research over the last ten years (and up to around 2014) on various catalytic methods which involve an arylation process. Clearly structured, the chapters in this one-stop resource are arranged according to the reaction type, and focus on novel, efficient and sustainable processes, rather than the well-known and established cross-coupling methods. The entire contents are written by two authors with academic and industrial expertise to ensure consistent coverage of the latest developments in the field, as well as industrial applications, such as C-H activation, iron and gold-catalyzed coupling reactions, cycloadditions or novel methodologies using arylboron reagents. A cross-section of relevant tried-and-tested experimental protocols is included at the end of each chapter for putting into immediate practice, along with patent literature. Due to its emphasis on efficient, "green" methods and industrial applications of the products c...

  2. Evaluation tests of industrial vacuum bearings for space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, S.; Sasaki, A.; Haraguchi, M.; Imagawa, K.; Nishimura, M.; Kawashima, N.

    2001-09-01

    Tribological performance of industrial vacuum bearings was experimentally evaluated for space use. The bearings selected for investigation were an 8 mm bore-sized deep-groove ball bearing lubricated with a sputtered MoS2 film and that lubricated with an ion-plated Ag film, commercially delivered from three Japanese domestic bearing-manufacturers. Based on survey results of tribological requirements for the existing satellite mechanisms, four types of bearing tests were defined and conducted: a vacuum test at room temperature, an atmosphere-resistant test, a thermal vacuum test and a vibration test. In addition to these tests, variation in tribological performance of the industrial bearings was also investigated. The results of more than eighty tests demonstrated that the industrial vacuum bearings had sufficient lubrication lives with low frictional torque and their data were reasonably repeatable, indicating very good potentiality for space use.

  3. Small Punch Tests applied to the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Gongora, P.; Bertolino, G; Yawny, A.

    2012-01-01

    The interest on miniaturized specimen techniques for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of materials was strongly motivated in the early eighties by the different programs associated with the development of fusion reactor technology. The importance of such developments is obvious in the case of the nuclear industry where the limited space available, the presence of fluence gradients in large specimens, the concern about gamma heating and dose to personnel in post-irradiation testing have all been motivations for reducing specimen size. Testing of miniature specimen includes a wide spectrum of techniques such as tensile, instrumented micro-hardness, small punch, bend, fracture, impact and fatigue. Small Punch Testing (SPT) techniques use a spherical penetrator which deforms to failure a miniature disc shaped flat specimen (typically, 3-10 mm in diameter and 0.25-0.50 mm in thickness) supported on its outer rim. Analysis of load-displacement data recorded along the test is performed for the determination of the property of interest. The present work focuses on the characterization of the elastoplastic response of pure Al, ADN 420 structural steel and AISI 304L using SPT and its correlation with the associated standard uniaxial testing behavior. In addition, the sensitivity of the technique to the specific material under study and to different experimental parameters, i.e. specimen diameter and thickness, clearance or clamping force and friction between disc and dies have been assessed both experimentally and by performing simulations using the finite element method (author)

  4. An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jonathan K; Yacoubian, George S

    2002-01-01

    Drug testing in the workplace has gone from virtual nonexistence to widespread employer acceptance during the past two decades. This growth is particularly significant for the construction industry. High rates of alcohol and other drug use, coupled with the high-risk, safety-sensitive nature of the industry, have prompted the development of a variety of drug surveillance and prevention strategies. Despite this growing vigilance, no scholarly works have examined the impact of drug-related policies in the construction industry. To address this limitation, we investigate the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors (MODs) within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation. Moreover, companies that drug test their employees experienced a significant reduction in their MODs. Policy implications are discussed in light of the current findings.

  5. CERN tests reveal security flaws with industrial network devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The CERN high energy particle physics facility at Geneva, Switzerland will incorporate a wide range of COTS industrial control systems within its next generation particle collider, the LHC. In particular, the Internet will be used to facilitate the remote access for accelerator and particle physicists and system experts based at several hundred locations around the globe. The integration of Industrial Ethernet and COTS PLCs within the LHC program focuses extreme attention on the industrial network cyber-security requirement. CERN's response has been to conduct operational research on the security resilience of networked industrial devices. As test team lead Stefan Lüders reports here, industrial networked devices put through the organisation's test procedures have generally shown up unexpected vulnerabilities.

  6. Methods for testing transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.; Cox, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents progress to date under a three-year contract for developing ''Methods for Testing Transport Models.'' The work described includes (1) choice of best methods for producing ''code emulators'' for analysis of very large global energy confinement databases, (2) recent applications of stratified regressions for treating individual measurement errors as well as calibration/modeling errors randomly distributed across various tokamaks, (3) Bayesian methods for utilizing prior information due to previous empirical and/or theoretical analyses, (4) extension of code emulator methodology to profile data, (5) application of nonlinear least squares estimators to simulation of profile data, (6) development of more sophisticated statistical methods for handling profile data, (7) acquisition of a much larger experimental database, and (8) extensive exploratory simulation work on a large variety of discharges using recently improved models for transport theories and boundary conditions. From all of this work, it has been possible to define a complete methodology for testing new sets of reference transport models against much larger multi-institutional databases

  7. Industrial use of formal methods formal verification

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    At present the literature gives students and researchers of the very general books on the formal technics. The purpose of this book is to present in a single book, a return of experience on the used of the "formal technics" (such proof and model-checking) on industrial examples for the transportation domain. This book is based on the experience of people which are completely involved in the realization and the evaluation of safety critical system software based.  The implication of the industrialists allows to raise the problems of confidentiality which could appear and so allow

  8. Testing laboratories, its function in ensuring industrial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Fernandez, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses and justifies the development of industrial laboratories (testing and calibration) in Spain, since its embryo, its creation and development, to the present day. Likewise, presents its interrelation with other agents, as well as the legislative and technical framework is application along to the years. Within this development of the sector, highlights the period of the conformity assessment, and consequently its relationship with Industrial safety. Finally, describes the organizational situation of the sector both nationally and internationally. (Author)

  9. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  10. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  11. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ... Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test .... test by Prism 4.0 software, and differences between ...

  12. Methods of industrial waste water cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Brehuv

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of „acid mine water“ (or AMD is well known in the world for some centuries. In the Eastern Slovakia, the most acid surface water occurs in the area of the old mine Smolník, which is closed and submerged for 15 years. The submitted contribution deals with the sulphateelimination at this locality. Recently, several methods of the sulphate-elimination from the mine water are applied. The best-known methods are the biological and physical-chemical oness and the chemical precipitation. The method described in this contribution deals with the chemical precipitation by polyaluminium chloride and calcium hydrate. By appliying of this method, very interesting results were obtained. The amount of SO42- anions decreased to almost zero-value, using optimal doses of the chemical reagents.

  13. Studies on Hepa filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Jon, K.S.; Park, W.J.; Ryoo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare testing methods of the HEPA filter adopted in other countries with each other, and to design and construct a test duct system to establish testing methods. The American D.O.P. test method, the British NaCl test method and several other independently developed methods are compared. It is considered that the D.O.P. method is most suitable for in-plant and leak tests

  14. Industrial applications of neutron physics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.

    1994-01-01

    Three areas where nuclear based techniques have significant are briefly described. These are: Nuclear material control and non-proliferation, on-line elemental analysis of coal and minerals, and non- detection of explosives and other contraband. The nuclear physics and the role of reactor physics methods are highlighted. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Designing testing service at baristand industri Medan’s liquid waste laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawaty, Dewi; Napitupulu, Humala L.; Sembiring, Meilita T.

    2018-03-01

    Baristand Industri Medan is a technical implementation unit under the Industrial and Research and Development Agency, the Ministry of Industry. One of the services often used in Baristand Industri Medan is liquid waste testing service. The company set the standard of service is nine working days for testing services. At 2015, 89.66% on testing services liquid waste does not meet the specified standard of services company because of many samples accumulated. The purpose of this research is designing online services to schedule the coming the liquid waste sample. The method used is designing an information system that consists of model design, output design, input design, database design and technology design. The results of designing information system of testing liquid waste online consist of three pages are pages to the customer, the recipient samples and laboratory. From the simulation results with scheduled samples, then the standard services a minimum of nine working days can be reached.

  16. The transformation of urban industrial land use: A quantitative method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxu Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of cities around the world today owe their land use growth to the rapid development of industrial areas. The spatial structure of industrial distribution in cities shape urban spatial morphology linking with land use, transportation, economic activities, and housing. Meanwhile, growth and expansion of city population and land use reconfigure the spatial structure of industrial distribution. Research into urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process may help urban planners and decision makers understand the land use and population dynamics of a city. Genetic algorithms are believed to be one kind of the promising methods to simulate this dynamic process. In this paper, we propose a novel method to simulate urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process in Shanghai, China. The results show that along with increasing urban land price over time, industries are going to move outward from the city center. However, the maximum profit of a firm tends to decrease, which could lead industrial factories to move beyond city boundary. The analysis of the current industrial spatial distribution in Shanghai indicates that, when land price in a city rises above a specific threshold, new government policies and other competitive advantages need to be enacted if the city wants to retain industrial firms within the city boundary.

  17. Automatic Testing with Formal Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tretmans, G.J.; Belinfante, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The use of formal system specifications makes it possible to automate the derivation of test cases from specifications. This allows to automate the whole testing process, not only the test execution part of it. This paper presents the state of the art and future perspectives in testing based on

  18. Methods for evaluation of industry training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, D.S.; Roe, M.L.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification endorses the INPO-managed Training Accreditation Program in that it encompasses the elements of effective performance-based training. Those elements are: analysis of the job, performance-based learning objectives, training design and implementation, trainee evaluation, and program evaluation. As part of the NRC independent evaluation of utilities implementation of training improvement programs, the staff developed training review criteria and procedures that address all five elements of effective performance-based training. The staff uses these criteria to perform reviews of utility training programs that have already received accreditation. Although no performance-based training program can be said to be complete unless all five elements are in place, the last two, trainee and program evaluation, are perhaps the most important because they determine how well the first three elements have been implemented and ensure the dynamic nature of training. This paper discusses the evaluation elements of the NRC training review criteria. The discussion will detail the elements of evaluation methods and techniques that the staff expects to find as integral parts of performance-based training programs at accredited utilities. Further, the review of the effectiveness of implementation of the evaluation methods is discussed. The paper also addresses some of the qualitative differences between what is minimally acceptable and what is most desirable with respect to trainee and program evaluation mechanisms and their implementation

  19. Applications of nuclear methods in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.W.; Yusuf, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    Over the years nuclear methods have proved to be a valuable asset to industry in general and to the automotive industry in particular. This paper summarizes some of the most important recent contributions of nuclear technology to the development of vehicles having high quality and long-term durability. Radiotracer methods are used to measure engine oil consumption and the wear rates of inaccessible components. Radiographic and tomographic methods are used to image fluids and structures in engines and accessory components. Tracers are used to understand combustion chemistry and quantify fluid flow. Gauging methods are used for inspection and process control. Nuclear analytical methods are used routinely for materials characterization and problem solving. Although nuclear methods are usually considered as the means of last resort, they can often be applied more easily and quickly than conventional methods when those in industrial engineering and R and D are aware of their unique capabilities. (author). 51 refs., 5 figs

  20. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A Simple Stress Test on Indonesian Islamic Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dece Kurniadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to conduct a stress test on Indonesian Islamic Banking industry in order toassess the capability of the industry to absorb the extreme risks that may happen in the future. Using data from April 2008 to September 2014, the study employs balance sheet approach in performing the stress test on profitability and capital position and the value at risk technique for liquidity stress test. The results of this study show that in term of profitability, Islamic banks in Indonesia are immune from losses if the default rate (Non-Performing Loan is less than 8.5 %. If the industry can improve the profit margin, the resistance will be higher.In term of capital position, by assuming loss given default (LGD is constant at 40%, the industry will not go bankrupt if probability of default (PD is less than 9%. If the PD is more than 9%, total expected loss is more than available capital. Using the value at risk (VaR at 99% confidence, the study finds that possible deposit flight will not exceed IDR 26 trillion and the liquid asset available is IDR 28 trillion. The study concludes that there is no liquidity threat for Islamic banks in Indonesia. The findingsalso uncover the risky condition that even though the capital adequacy ratio (CAR is on average 14%, real capital measured by Equity to total asset (ETA is only 5.4%

  2. Evaluation of snubber functional test methods: Tier 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the research is to establish technical bases in support of efforts on the part of the Snubber Utility Group (SNUG) and the Subsection ISTD Working Group of the ASME O ampersand M Code in developing guidelines and methodologies for snubber functional testing to ensure that snubbers are tested in a manner that ensures reliable and meaningful test results. The methodology used in this research includes both a review of available industry information as well as the testing of different snubber models using various test machines. Information is provided pertaining to current industry practices in regard to snubber testing including recommended test procedures, technical description of various test machines, and the number and types of snubbers used in the nuclear power industry. A review of previous test methodology research conducted by the Snubber Utility Group is also included. The effects of variations in controllable test parameters on snubber test results are discussed. Also included are the results of confirmatory tests in which various snubber models were tested using various test machines. Recommendations are provided for standard test methods to be included in Subsection ISTD of the ASME O ampersand M Code [4]. General information and recommendations are provided that may be used by utility personnel in specifying snubber test equipment that is most suited for plant-specific needs as well as information that may be effectively used in the review and interpretation of test results

  3. Drive of an industrial fan for wind testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Monteagudo, Francisco E.; Reyes Rivas, Claudia; Beltrán Telles, Aurelio; Chacón Ruiz, Alejandro; Villela Varela, Rafael; Morera Hernández, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a fan control industrial wind turbines used for test, which is used as an internal device in the development of a wind tunnel for testing wind measurement. The project consists of regulating the speed of an industrial fan used in a wind tunnel to test control systems in wind turbines, wind generating regulated signals in constant, or to follow a profile defined by a database of values actual measured with an anemometer. To implement the control system and communication devices, in this project employed a digital signal processor (DSP from Texas Instruments EZDSP2407), which acts as an interface to transmit data between the programming environments (VisSim Embedded Control Developer (ECD)). Also uses a variable speed 3HP SIEMENS Micromaster model 420. (author)

  4. Design and Test of Object Aligning Grippers for Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we will present a new concept for gripping objects in industrial applications. We assume that a priori, the object pose is only known with a relative low accuracy. Despite this, our method can lead to high accuracy gripping suitable for e.g. industrial assembly. Our concept...... is to augment a simple parallel gripper by mounting a set of object speci?c jaws. Given the right shapes these jaws enable the gripper to automatically align the object, and thereby compensate for errors in the original object pose estimation. We will introduce a couple of automatic and semi-automatic design...

  5. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, J. M.; Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Fabritius, J.; Fellows, S.; Poulson, D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Renshaw, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  6. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Durham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  7. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, J. M., E-mail: durham@lanl.gov; Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Fabritius, J.; Fellows, S.; Poulson, D.; Plaud-Ramos, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Renshaw, J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC 28262-8550 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  8. Practical aspects of mutagenicity testing strategy: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, B B; Krishna, G

    2000-11-20

    Genetic toxicology studies play a central role in the development and marketing of new chemicals for pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, and consumer use. During the discovery phase of product development, rapid screening tests that require minimal amounts of test materials are used to assist in the design and prioritization of new molecules. At this stage, a modified Salmonella reverse mutation assay and an in vitro micronucleus test with mammalian cell culture are frequently used for screening. Regulatory genetic toxicology studies are conducted with a short list of compounds using protocols that conform to various international guidelines. A set of four assays usually constitutes the minimum test battery that satisfies global requirements. This set includes a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro cytogenetic test with mammalian cell culture, an in vitro gene mutation assay in mammalian cell cultures, and an in vivo rodent bone marrow micronucleus test. Supplementary studies are conducted in certain instances either as a follow-up to the findings from this initial testing battery and/or to satisfy a regulatory requirement. Currently available genetic toxicology assays have helped the scientific and industrial community over the past several decades in evaluating the mutagenic potential of chemical agents. The emerging field of toxicogenomics has the potential to redefine our ability to study the response of cells to genetic damage and hence our ability to study threshold phenomenon.

  9. 49 CFR 383.133 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Testing methods. (a) All tests shall be constructed in... must be at least as stringent as the Federal standards. (c) States shall determine specific methods for...

  10. 40 CFR 63.547 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.547 Section 63.547... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Secondary Lead Smelting § 63.547 Test methods. (a) The following test methods...), and 63.545(e): (1) Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling port location and the number of...

  11. Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleniuk, P.; Kasampalis, V.; Cosmo, M. Di; Nisbet, D.; Todd, B.; Uznański, S.

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary scan test platform and the first results from exploitation of the test system. This paper reports on the test software, hardware design and test strategy applied for a number of devices that has resulted in maximizing test coverage and minimizing test design effort.

  12. Optimization and control methods in industrial engineering and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in optimization and control methods with applications to industrial engineering and construction management. It consists of 15 chapters authored by recognized experts in a variety of fields including control and operation research, industrial engineering, and project management. Topics include numerical methods in unconstrained optimization, robust optimal control problems, set splitting problems, optimum confidence interval analysis, a monitoring networks optimization survey, distributed fault detection, nonferrous industrial optimization approaches, neural networks in traffic flows, economic scheduling of CCHP systems, a project scheduling optimization survey, lean and agile construction project management, practical construction projects in Hong Kong, dynamic project management, production control in PC4P, and target contracts optimization.   The book offers a valuable reference work for scientists, engineers, researchers and practitioners in industrial engineering and c...

  13. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  14. Norm in Some Industries and Its Measurement Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Wahyudi

    2001-01-01

    NORM as a by product of some industries activity must be monitored and handled in such a way because this product is radioactive material. By using nuclear technology and instrumentation, NORM can be monitored and analyzed its radionuclides content qualitatively and/or quantitatively. This paper describe the measurement method and analysis used for radionuclides in NORM or in the environmental component contaminated by NORM. By monitoring and handling NORM in industries, the radiology impact of NORM to the industrial workers, the member of the public and the surrounding environment could be controlled. (author)

  15. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders Paarup; Hasle, Peter

    for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars....... With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... of health care organization in comparison with manufacturing industry....

  16. Transferability of Industrial Engineering Methods to the Healthcare Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders P.; Hasle, Peter

    2011-01-01

    for discussing the implications of transferring such industrial engineering methods to the healthcare sector. The conclusion of the review suggest that is possible to use lean as an inspiration for improvements of both efficiency, quality and working conditions provided diligent consideration of the particulars....... With no hope of getting substantial more resources healthcare managers and politicians has begun to look for alternative modes of organization. In doing so the healthcare sector is being exposed to industrial rationalization principles such as lean manufacturing. The question is whether lean opens...... of health care organization in comparison with manufacturing industry....

  17. The thin layer activation method and its applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The thin layer activation (TLA) method is one of the most effective and precise methods for the measurement and monitoring of corrosion (erosion) and wear in industry and is used for on-line remote measurement of wear and corrosion rate of central parts in machines or processing vessels under real operating conditions. This document is a comprehensive manual on TLA method in its applications for monitoring wear and corrosion in industry. It describes the theory and presents case studies on TLA method applications in industry. In addition, in annexes are given tables of nuclear data relating to TLA (decay characteristics, depth distribution of reaction products, activation data for charged-particle nuclear reactions), references from INIS database on TLA and a detailed production of the application of TLA for wear measurement of superhard turning tools

  18. The thin layer activation method and its applications in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The thin layer activation (TLA) method is one of the most effective and precise methods for the measurement and monitoring of corrosion (erosion) and wear in industry and is used for on-line remote measurement of wear and corrosion rate of central parts in machines or processing vessels under real operating conditions. This document is a comprehensive manual on TLA method in its applications for monitoring wear and corrosion in industry. It describes the theory and presents case studies on TLA method applications in industry. In addition, in annexes are given tables of nuclear data relating to TLA (decay characteristics, depth distribution of reaction products, activation data for charged-particle nuclear reactions), references from INIS database on TLA and a detailed production of the application of TLA for wear measurement of superhard turning tools.

  19. Carboy Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These training vary from web-based cyber security training for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors

  20. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  1. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  2. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  3. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  4. Methods for waste waters treatment in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Zhezhova, Silvana; Risteski, Sanja; Golomeova, Saska

    2014-01-01

    The processes of production of textiles or wet treatments and finishing processes of textile materials are huge consumers of water with high quality. As a result of these various processes, considerable amounts of polluted water are released. This paper puts emphasis on the problem of environmental protection against waste waters generated by textile industry. The methods of pretreatment or purification of waste waters in the textile industry can be: Primary (screening, sedimentation, homo...

  5. On the development of standardization methods for measuring the degree of graphitization of industrial materials, correlation of scientific characterization with the industrially relevant secondary properties of graphitic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzer, E.; Koechling, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The completed research roject comprised the development of standardization methods for measuring the degree of graphitization of industrial materials, the testing of characterization methods with regard to significance, the correlation of scientific characterization with industrially relevant material properties and the resultant modification of industrial processes for the manufacture of coke raw materials and graphitic materials. Also targeted within the scope of this project were the grouping of comparable characterization methods and the drawing up of unequivocal terminology for scientific and industrial-commercial usage, with both aims based on intensified national and international teamwork. (orig./WL) [de

  6. Testing in power plant construction as well as in the petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, N.; Schittko, H.

    1978-01-01

    In general, the upgrading of requirements for the most different fields of engineering is also characterized by a corresponding effort in testing. In this context especially nondestructive tests of materials are of outstanding importance. In the fields of power plant construction (among others, components for nuclear power plants) as well as petrochemical and chemical industry considered here, almost all nondestructive test methods are applied. This paper discusses not so much theoretical testing problems, but rather test objects as well as specifications and testing equipment. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Focus on MG Newsletter MG Quarterly Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events 2018 MG ...

  8. 30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A methane...

  9. 40 CFR 80.3 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part. [47...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods in...

  11. Gamma Ray Tomographic Scan Method for Large Scale Industrial Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Ho; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Park, Jang Geun

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray tomography systems have been used to investigate a chemical process for last decade. There have been many cases of gamma ray tomography for laboratory scale work but not many cases for industrial scale work. Non-tomographic equipment with gamma-ray sources is often used in process diagnosis. Gamma radiography, gamma column scanning and the radioisotope tracer technique are examples of gamma ray application in industries. In spite of many outdoor non-gamma ray tomographic equipment, the most of gamma ray tomographic systems still remained as indoor equipment. But, as the gamma tomography has developed, the demand on gamma tomography for real scale plants also increased. To develop the industrial scale system, we introduced the gamma-ray tomographic system with fixed detectors and rotating source. The general system configuration is similar to 4 th generation geometry. But the main effort has been made to actualize the instant installation of the system for real scale industrial plant. This work would be a first attempt to apply the 4th generation industrial gamma tomographic scanning by experimental method. The individual 0.5-inch NaI detector was used for gamma ray detection by configuring circular shape around industrial plant. This tomographic scan method can reduce mechanical complexity and require a much smaller space than a conventional CT. Those properties make it easy to get measurement data for a real scale plant

  12. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  13. Engineering models and methods for industrial cell control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the engineering, i.e. the designing and making, of industrial cell control systems. The focus is on automated robot welding cells in the shipbuilding industry. The industrial research project defines models and methods for design and implemen-tation of computer based...... SHIPYARD.It is concluded that cell control technology provides for increased performance in production systems, and that the Cell Control Engineering concept reduces the effort for providing and operating high quality and high functionality cell control solutions for the industry....... control and monitor-ing systems for production cells. The project participants are The Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, the Institute of Manufacturing Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark and ODENSE STEEL SHIPYARD Ltd.The manufacturing environment and the current practice...

  14. Method for critical current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, M.B.; Smathers, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Superconducting critical current testing software was developed with four important features not feasible with analog test equipment. First, quasi-steady-state sample current conditions are achieved by incrementing sample current, followed by holding some milliseconds until the transient voltage decays before voltage sampling. Then the self-field correction from a helically wound sample is computed and subtracted from each sampled field reading. A copper wire inductively wound shunt which is used for quench protection has a constant measured resistance from which the shunt leakage current is computed and subtracted from the sample current by measuring the shunt voltage after each sample current reading. Finally, the critical current is recomputed from a least squares curve fit to the power law: E=A*In when the correlation coefficient for the fit is high enough to ensure a better result than the raw datum. Comparison with NBS Standard Reference Material (NbTi) and current round robin Nb/sub 3/Sn testing is examined

  15. Accreditation of qualification testing organizations: the industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roby, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the industry viewpoint on the program for the Accreditation of Qualification Testing Organizations, which has been proposed for rulemaking by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The IEEE has agreed to establish the program content, and would administer its requirements in accordance with an agreement between the NRC and IEEE of September 30th, 1981. Presented in this paper is the industry perspective, developed and prepared through the AIF, identifying the serious concerns which the accreditation program has raised. Discussed are the disadvantages of the program and those present benefits which would be lost if the program was adopted. The value of greater emphasis on current regulation to improve the qualification process is presented and the paper details areas where the NRC proposals do not provide adequate justification for the accreditation program

  16. Methods for decreasing dust emission in the mining chemistry industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal' perin, V I

    1981-01-01

    Examination is made of the problems concerning the protection of the atmosphere from pollution caused by dust emission from phosphate enterprises. Presentation is made of the results of tests and industrial assimilation of devices, designed for an increase in the effectiveness of dust catching systems.

  17. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy...

  18. Methods and approaches to prediction in the meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern stage of the agro-industrial complex is characterized by an increasing complexity, intensification of technological processes of complex processing of materials of animal origin also the need for a systematic analysis of the variety of determining factors and relationships between them, complexity of the objective function of product quality and severe restrictions on technological regimes. One of the main tasks that face the employees of the enterprises of the agro-industrial complex, which are engaged in processing biotechnological raw materials, is the further organizational improvement of work at all stages of the food chain, besides an increase in the production volume. The meat industry as a part of the agro-industrial complex has to use the biological raw materials with maximum efficiency, while reducing and even eliminating losses at all stages of processing; rationally use raw material when selecting a type of processing products; steadily increase quality, biological and food value of products; broaden the assortment of manufactured products in order to satisfy increasing consumer requirements and extend the market for their realization in the conditions of uncertainty of external environment, due to the uneven receipt of raw materials, variations in its properties and parameters, limited time sales and fluctuations in demand for products. The challenges facing the meat industry cannot be solved without changes to the strategy for scientific and technological development of the industry. To achieve these tasks, it is necessary to use the prediction as a method of constant improvement of all technological processes and their performance under the rational and optimal regimes, while constantly controlling quality of raw material, semi-prepared products and finished products at all stages of the technological processing by the physico-chemical, physico-mechanical (rheological, microbiological and organoleptic methods. The paper

  19. A practical model-based statistical approach for generating functional test cases: application in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Awédikian , Roy; Yannou , Bernard

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With the growing complexity of industrial software applications, industrials are looking for efficient and practical methods to validate the software. This paper develops a model-based statistical testing approach that automatically generates online and offline test cases for embedded software. It discusses an integrated framework that combines solutions for three major software testing research questions: (i) how to select test inputs; (ii) how to predict the expected...

  20. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  1. Carboy Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, Daniel [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These training vary from web-based cyber security training for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  2. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  3. Methods and characteristics of assembly language software testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingfang

    2001-01-01

    Single chip micro-controllers are widely implemented to the controlling and testing products in industrial controlling and national defence embedded controlling systems. The invalidation of the source programs could lead to the unreliability of the whole systems, even to cause fatal results. Therefore, software testing is the necessary measures to reduce the mistakes and to improve the quality of the software. In the paper, the development of the software testing is presented. The distinctions between the assembly language testing and those of the high level languages is introduced. And the essential flow and methods of software testing are discussed in detail

  4. Pump testing in the nuclear industry: The comprehensive test and other considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Operations and Maintenance Working Group on Pumps and Valves is working on a revision to their pump testing Code, ISTB-1990. This revision will change the basic philosophy of pump testing in the nuclear industry. Currently, all pumps are required to be tested quarterly, except those installed in dry sumps. In the future standby pumps will receive only a start test quarterly to ensure the pump comes up to speed and pressure or flow. Then, on a biennial basis all pumps would receive a more extensive test. This comprehensive test would require high accuracy test gauges to be used, and the pumps would be required to be tested near pump design flow. Testing on minimum flow loops would not be permitted except in rare cases. Additionally. during the comprehensive test, measurements of vibration, flow, and pressure would all be taken. The OM-6 standard (ISTB Code) will also require that reference values of flow rate and differential pressure be taken at several points instead of just one point, which is current practice. The comprehensive test is just one step in ensuring the adequacy of pump testing in the nuclear industry. This paper also addresses other concerns and makes recommendations for increased quality of testing of certain critical pumps and recommendations for less stringent or no tests on less critical pumps

  5. Tube vibration in industrial size test heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halle, H.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1980-03-01

    Tube vibration data from tests of a specially built and instrumented, industrial-type, shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger is nominally 0.6 m (2 ft) in dia and 3.7 m (12 ft) long. Both full tube and no-tubes-in-window bundles were tested for inlet/outlet nozzles of different sizes and with the tubes supported by seven, equally-spaced, single-segmental baffles. Prior to water flow testing, natural frequencies and damping of representative tubes were measured in air and water. Flow testing was accomplished by increasing the flow rates in stepwise fashion and also by sweeping through a selected range of flow rates. The primary variables measured and reported are tube accelerations and/or displacements and pressure drop through the bundle. Tests of the full tube bundle configuration revealed tube rattling to occur at intermediate flow rates, and fluidelastic instability, with resultant tube impacting, to occur when the flow rate exceeded a threshold level; principally, the four-span tubes were involved in the regions immediately adjacent to the baffle cut. For the range of flow rates tested, fluidelastic instability was not achieved in the no-tubes-in-window bundle; in this configuration the tubes are supported by all seven baffles and are, therefore, stiffer

  6. Radon barrier: Method of testing airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2017-01-01

    The test method NBI 167/02 Radon membrane: Test of airtightness can be used for determining the airtightness of a radon barrier as a system solution. The test determines the air infiltration through the radon barrier for a number of levels of air pressure differences. The airflow through versus...... of the barrier with the low air pressure, through a well-defined opening, as a modification of the test method in general. Results, obtained using the improved test method, are shown for a number of radon barriers tested....

  7. Possibilities of implementing nonthermal processing methods in the dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Jeličić

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades a lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new, non-thermal processing methods. This article describes the most intensively investigated new processing methodsfor implementation in the dairy industry, like microfiltration, high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields. For each method an overview is given for the principle of microbial inactivation, the obtained results regarding reduction of microorganisms as well as the positive ...

  8. Highly Automated Agile Testing Process: An Industrial Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Berłowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of an agile testing process in a medium size software project that is developed using Scrum. The research methods used is the case study were as follows: surveys, quantifiable project data sources and qualitative project members opinions were used for data collection. Challenges related to the testing process regarding a complex project environment and unscheduled releases were identified. Based on the obtained results, we concluded that the described approach addresses well the aforementioned issues. Therefore, recommendations were made with regard to the employed principles of agility, specifically: continuous integration, responding to change, test automation and test driven development. Furthermore, an efficient testing environment that combines a number of test frameworks (e.g. JUnit, Selenium, Jersey Test with custom-developed simulators is presented.

  9. 30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted for...

  10. Evaluation index system of steel industry sustainable development based on entropy method and topsis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronglian, Yuan; Mingye, Ai; Qiaona, Jia; Yuxuan, Liu

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable development is the only way for the development of human society. As an important part of the national economy, the steel industry is an energy-intensive industry and needs to go further for sustainable development. In this paper, we use entropy method and Topsis method to evaluate the development of China’s steel industry during the “12th Five-Year Plan” from four aspects: resource utilization efficiency, main energy and material consumption, pollution status and resource reuse rate. And we also put forward some suggestions for the development of China’s steel industry.

  11. Analysis advanced methods of data bases of industrial experience return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Procaccia, H.

    1994-05-01

    This is a presentation, through different conceptions of data bases on industrial experience return, of the principal methods for treatments and analyses of the collected data, going from the frequency statistic and factorial analysis, to the the Bayesian statistical decision theory, which is a real decision assistance tool for responsibles, conceivers and operators. Examples in various fields are given (OREDA: Offshore REliability DAta bank for marine drilling platforms, CEDB: Component Event Data Bank for european electric power industry, RDF 93: reliability of electronic components of ''France Telecom'', EVT: failure EVenTs data bank in the french nuclear power plants by ''EDF''). (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  12. 40 CFR 63.465 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section for...

  13. submitter Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Oleniuk, P; Kasampalis, V; Nisbet, D; Todd, B; Uznański, S

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary s...

  14. New Graphical Methods and Test Statistics for Testing Composite Normality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S. Paolella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several graphical methods for testing univariate composite normality from an i.i.d. sample are presented. They are endowed with correct simultaneous error bounds and yield size-correct tests. As all are based on the empirical CDF, they are also consistent for all alternatives. For one test, called the modified stabilized probability test, or MSP, a highly simplified computational method is derived, which delivers the test statistic and also a highly accurate p-value approximation, essentially instantaneously. The MSP test is demonstrated to have higher power against asymmetric alternatives than the well-known and powerful Jarque-Bera test. A further size-correct test, based on combining two test statistics, is shown to have yet higher power. The methodology employed is fully general and can be applied to any i.i.d. univariate continuous distribution setting.

  15. Methodical bases of perceptual mapping of printing industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is to study the methodological foundations of perceptual mapping in printing industry enterprises. This research has a practice focus which affects the choice of its methodological framework. The authors use such scientific research as analysis of cause-effect relationships, synthesis, problem analysis, expert evaluation and image visualization methods. In this paper, the authors present their assessment of the competitive environment of major printing industry companies in Kirov oblast; their assessment employs perceptual mapping enables by Minitab 14. This technique can be used by experts in the field of marketing and branding to assess the competitive environment in any market. The object of research is printing industry in Kirov oblast. The most important conclusion of this study is that in perceptual mapping, all the parameters are integrated in a single system and provide a more objective view of the company’s market situation.

  16. Methodology for developing new test methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Korobko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology for developing new test methods and forming solutions for the development of new test methods. The basis of the methodology for developing new test methods is the individual elements of the system and process approaches. They contribute to the development of an effective research strategy for the object, the study of interrelations, the synthesis of an adequate model of the test method. The effectiveness of the developed test method is determined by the correct choice of the set of concepts, their interrelations and mutual influence. This allows you to solve the tasks assigned to achieve the goal. The methodology is based on the use of fuzzy cognitive maps. The question of the choice of the method on the basis of which the model for the formation of solutions is based is considered. The methodology provides for recording a model for a new test method in the form of a finite set of objects. These objects are significant for the test method characteristics. Then a causal relationship is established between the objects. Further, the values of fitness indicators and the observability of the method and metrological tolerance for the indicator are established. The work is aimed at the overall goal of ensuring the quality of tests by improving the methodology for developing the test method.

  17. Techniques for Automated Testing of Lola Industrial Robot Language Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Lutovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of parsing execution directly affects the accuracy of semantic analysis, optimization and object code generation. Therefore, parser testing represents the basis of compiler testing. It should include tests for correct and expected, but also for unexpected and invalid cases. Techniques for testing the parser, as well as algorithms and tools for test sentences generation, are discussed in this paper. The methodology for initial testing of a newly developed compiler is proposed. Generation of negative test sentences by modifying the original language grammar is described. Positive and negative test cases generated by Grow, Purdom’s algorithm with and without length control, CDRC-P algorithm and CDRC-P algorithm with length control are applied to the testing of L-IRL robot programming language. For this purpose two different tools for generation of test sentences are used. Based on the presented analysis of possible solutions, the appropriate method can be chosen for testing the parser for smaller grammars with many recursive rules.

  18. Cathodic Delamination Accelerated Life Test Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramotowski, Thomas S

    2007-01-01

    A method for conducting an accelerated life test of a polymer coated metallic sample includes placing the sample below the water surface in a test tank containing water and an oxygen containing gas...

  19. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muller, Matt T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Lin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  20. Thermal test requirements and their verification by different test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Wieser, G.; Probst, U.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the parameters influencing the thermal test conditions for type B-packages. Criteria for different test methods (by analytical as well as by experimental means) will be developed. A comparison of experimental results from fuel oil pool and LPG fire tests will be given. (J.P.N.)

  1. Stochastic Industrial Source Detection Using Lower Cost Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, E.; George, I. J.; Brantley, H.; Deshmukh, P.; Cansler, J.; Tang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) can be emitted from a variety of sources in industrial facilities, energy production, and commercial operations. Stochastic industrial sources (SISs) represent a subcategory of emissions from fugitive leaks, variable area sources, malfunctioning processes, and improperly controlled operations. From the shared perspective of industries and communities, cost-effective detection of mitigable SIS emissions can yield benefits such as safer working environments, cost saving through reduced product loss, lower air shed pollutant impacts, and improved transparency and community relations. Methods for SIS detection can be categorized by their spatial regime of operation, ranging from component-level inspection to high-sensitivity kilometer scale surveys. Methods can be temporally intensive (providing snap-shot measures) or sustained in both time-integrated and continuous forms. Each method category has demonstrated utility, however, broad adoption (or routine use) has thus far been limited by cost and implementation viability. Described here are a subset of SIS methods explored by the U.S EPA's next generation emission measurement (NGEM) program that focus on lower cost methods and models. An emerging systems approach that combines multiple forms to help compensate for reduced performance factors of lower cost systems is discussed. A case study of a multi-day HAP emission event observed by a combination of low cost sensors, open-path spectroscopy, and passive samplers is detailed. Early field results of a novel field gas chromatograph coupled with a fast HAP concentration sensor is described. Progress toward near real-time inverse source triangulation assisted by pre-modeled facility profiles using the Los Alamos Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) model is discussed.

  2. Formal methods applied to industrial complex systems implementation of the B method

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents real-world examples of formal techniques in an industrial context. It covers formal methods such as SCADE and/or the B Method, in various fields such as railways, aeronautics, and the automotive industry. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of experience on the use of "formal methods" (based on formal techniques such as proof, abstract interpretation and model-checking) in industrial examples of complex systems, based on the experience of people currently involved in the creation and assessment of safety critical system software. The involvement of people from

  3. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  4. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  5. HTTR demonstration test plan for industrial utilization of nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, Xing L.; Kubo, Shinji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting research and development with a central focus on the utilization of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the first High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, towards the realization of industrial use of nuclear heat. Several studies have made on the integration of the HTTR with thermochemical iodine-sulfur process and steam methane reforming hydrogen production plant (H 2 plant) as well as helium gas turbine power conversion system. In addition, safety standards for coupling a H 2 plant to a nuclear facility has been investigated. Based on the past design information, the present study identified test items to be validated in the HTTR demonstration test to accomplish a formulation of safety requirement and design consideration for coupling a H 2 plant to a nuclear facility as well as confirmation of overall performance of helium gas turbine system. In addition, plant concepts for the heat utilization system to be connected with the HTTR are investigated. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or importer...

  7. Automated Test Methods for XML Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-28

    8933 Com (661) 277 8933 email jon.morgan.2.ctr@us.af.mil Secretariat, Range Commanders Council ATTN: TEDT-WS-RCC 1510 Headquarters Avenue White...Sands Missile Range, New Mexico 88002-5110 Phone: DSN 258-1107 Com (575) 678-1107 Fax: DSN 258-7519 Com (575) 678-7519 email ...Method for Testing Syntax The test method is as follows. 1. Initialize the programming environment. 2. Write test application code to use the

  8. Disintegration-wave method of recovery of industrial waste iron and steel industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vasechkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of raw materials and waste is one of the most important factors determining the effectiveness of any processing enterprise. Industrial wastes of mining and metallurgical industries are a valuable source of many elements. However, little activity of the mineral and inconsistent chemical and phase composition of the waste reduce their attractiveness for use as a secondary raw material, and the presence of heavy metals and water-soluble compounds is a serious environmental threat. Fractional excretion of elements that make up the slag can be carried out with the help of their recovery by disintegration-wave method. The paper presents a machine-hardware circuits for the implementation of recovery process of slag and disintegrator design. In conducting research on the example of slag samples of the enterprises in Stavropol and Krasnoyarsk territories, it was found out that the observed enrichment of slags on the composition of iron takes place, its physical and chemical activity increases and persists for a long period of time. These facts were noted in the study of the microstructure and the results of spectral analysis of the initial slags and subjected to recovery by disintegration-wave method. The results analysis led to the conclusion about the possibility of waste recovery of mining and metallurgical industries with by disintegration-wave method. Resulting in the processing materials with enhanced activity of the mineral part and certain chemical and phase composition, can be used as raw material for the production of metallurgical, cement and other industries.

  9. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  10. Decision Support Methods for Supply Processes in the Floral Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutyba Agata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to show the application of the ABC and AHP (multi-criteria method for hierarchical analysis of decision processes as an important part of decision making in supply processes which are realized in the floral industry. The ABC analysis was performed in order to classify the product mix from the perspective of the demand values. This in consequence enabled us to identify the most important products which were then used as a variant in the AHP method.

  11. Lubricant Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2008-01-01

    appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stretch forming, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production. Application of the tests for evaluating new lubricants before introducing them in production has......Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...

  12. Reliability Analysis Of Fire System On The Industry Facility By Use Fameca Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sony T, D.T.; Situmorang, Johnny; Ismu W, Puradwi; Demon H; Mulyanto, Dwijo; Kusmono, Slamet; Santa, Sigit Asmara

    2000-01-01

    FAMECA is one of the analysis method to determine system reliability on the industry facility. Analysis is done by some procedure that is identification of component function, determination of failure mode, severity level and effect of their failure. Reliability value is determined by three combinations that is severity level, component failure value and critical component. Reliability of analysis has been done for fire system on the industry by FAMECA method. Critical component which identified is pump, air release valve, check valve, manual test valve, isolation valve, control system etc

  13. Teaching Analytical Method Transfer through Developing and Validating Then Transferring Dissolution Testing Methods for Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaru, Irene; Koether, Marina; Chichester, Kimberly; Eaton, Lafayette

    2017-01-01

    Analytical method transfer (AMT) and dissolution testing are important topics required in industry that should be taught in analytical chemistry courses. Undergraduate students in senior level analytical chemistry laboratory courses at Kennesaw State University (KSU) and St. John Fisher College (SJFC) participated in development, validation, and…

  14. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the fine bioceramics testing/evaluation methods; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Seitaiyo fine ceramics no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development of the fatigue characteristics of the bioceramics, fatigue and impact-resistance characteristics of the members of these materials, and methods of evaluating their compatibility with a living body, for proposing the international standards. The test results of alumina and zirconia as the bioceramics indicate that their bending fatigue characteristics greatly depend on environmental conditions and frequency, suggesting necessity for the evaluation in the environments which simulate the living body inside. The compression and impact tests are conducted for the artificial femoral heads with a taper. It is found that the simulated body fluid, having the dissociated ion concentration adjusted at the level in the human blood plasma, remains unchanged in the concentration at 36.5 degrees C for 4 weeks; the ion concentration is unaffected by filtration with the aid of the microfilter useful for, e.g., removal of bacteria; and the synthetic apatite has almost the same composition as that for the bones in a living body. It is also suggested that activity of the bioactive ceramics can be evaluated by their ability for forming apatite in the simulated body fluid. (NEDO)

  15. Industrial testing of modified clay powders by the ''Permneft''' organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matytsyn, V I; Kosivchenko, A M; Ryabchenko, V I; Shishov, V A

    1980-01-01

    VNIIKRneft' has developed a modified clay powder based on Cherkask bentonite with one ton of solution resulting in 20-28 cubic meters of powder per TU 39-08-123-77 formula. The modification stems from the type of bentonite treatment used. Bentonite is used in the amount of 3-5% of the total mass and the treatment involves the use of 0.3% calcium soda, copolymer methacrylic acid with M-14VV methacrylate. These reagents induce processes of change within the clay. The carbonate-nitrate activity serves to penthiatize the clay particles and the reagent solution which accompany the process of coagulation in the polymer structure, and in turn, increases the incidence of viscosity in the newly emerging systems. Tests indicate that the use of modified clay powder enhances drill bit pass-through. The large quantity of drilling solution resulting from one ton of modified clay powder further enhances the practical aspects of this system and reduces overall expenditures for solution treatment and clay powder while permitting the reduction of expenditures for other chemical reagents. Such economic benefits have been confirmed by industrial testing.

  16. Testing Header Component of Electricity Power Industry Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo, S.A; Andryansyah, B; Artahari, Dewi; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2000-01-01

    Testing of header component of Suralaya Unit II electricity power by replication method has been carried out. That header component is cross over pipe which interconnection between Primary and Superheater Outlet Header Secondary Superheater Outlet Header with the operation time over 14 years. The main composition of cross over pipe is 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo or frequently specified as ferritique steel. The replication testing shown that the damage classification on those cross over pipe in A class based on failure classification from Neubauer and Wedel. Simple calculation in favor of cross over pipe remaining lifetime is about 16.5 years moreover

  17. Research on Monte Carlo simulation method of industry CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junli; Zeng Zhi; Qui Rui; Wu Zhen; Li Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    There are a series of radiation physical problems in the design and production of industry CT system (ICTS), including limit quality index analysis; the effect of scattering, efficiency of detectors and crosstalk to the system. Usually the Monte Carlo (MC) Method is applied to resolve these problems. Most of them are of little probability, so direct simulation is very difficult, and existing MC methods and programs can't meet the needs. To resolve these difficulties, particle flux point auto-important sampling (PFPAIS) is given on the basis of auto-important sampling. Then, on the basis of PFPAIS, a particular ICTS simulation method: MCCT is realized. Compared with existing MC methods, MCCT is proved to be able to simulate the ICTS more exactly and effectively. Furthermore, the effects of all kinds of disturbances of ICTS are simulated and analyzed by MCCT. To some extent, MCCT can guide the research of the radiation physical problems in ICTS. (author)

  18. Industrial ecology: Quantitative methods for exploring a lower carbon future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Valerie M.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative methods for environmental and cost analyses of energy, industrial, and infrastructure systems are briefly introduced and surveyed, with the aim of encouraging broader utilization and development of quantitative methods in sustainable energy research. Material and energy flow analyses can provide an overall system overview. The methods of engineering economics and cost benefit analysis, such as net present values, are the most straightforward approach for evaluating investment options, with the levelized cost of energy being a widely used metric in electricity analyses. Environmental lifecycle assessment has been extensively developed, with both detailed process-based and comprehensive input-output approaches available. Optimization methods provide an opportunity to go beyond engineering economics to develop detailed least-cost or least-impact combinations of many different choices.

  19. Comparison of testing methods for particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.; Przyborowski, S.

    1983-01-01

    Four testing methods for particulate filters were compared by using the test rigs of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection: 1) Measurement of filter penetration P as a function of particle size d by using a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol and a scintillation particle counter; 2) Modified sodium flame test for measurement of total filter penetration P for various polydisperse NaC1 test aerosols; 3) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a polydisperse NaC1 test aerosol labelled with short-lived radon daughter products; 4) Measurement of total filter penetration P for a special paraffin oil test aerosol (oil fog test used in FRG according DIN 24 184, test aerosol A). The investigations were carried out on sheets of glass fibre paper (five grades of paper). Detailed information about the four testing methods and the used particle size distributions is given. The different results of the various methods are the base for the discussion of the most important parameters which influence the filter penetration P. The course of the function P=f(d) shows the great influence of the particle size. As expected there was also found a great dependence both from the test aerosol as well as from the principle and the measuring range of the aerosol-measuring device. The differences between the results of the various test methods are greater the lower the penetration. The use of NaCl test aerosol with various particle size distributions gives great differences for the respective penetration values. On the basis of these results and the values given by Dorman conclusions are made about the investigation of particulate filters both for the determination of filter penetration P as well as for the leak test of installed filters

  20. [Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method.

  1. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  2. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as...

  3. Industrial production of insulators using isostatic compaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drugoveiko, O.P.; Ermolaeva, L.V.; Koren' , M.G.; Kreimer, B.D.; Panichev, G.I.; Ponomarev, A.P.; Rutkovskii, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    The process of shaping ceramic products from powders using isostatic compaction method is finding increasing industrial application. The production of electrical-engineering porcelain using isostatic compaction method is, according to the authors, a promising direction since this method permits one to obtain large and complex shaped products having uniform density distribution. The authors introduce an automatic isostatic compaction line at the ''Proletarii'' Factory for the production of the IOS-110-20000UKhL, T1 type insulators having the described dimensions. According to the technological process developed at the ''Elektrokeramika'' Production Complex, insulators were manufactured on the isostatic compaction line from the G-33 mass. Presspowder having a moisture content of 0.3-0.6% and a particle size of 90-160 micrometers was obtained in a spray dryer using disk spraying. The authors studied saturability by moisture of the powder obtained.

  4. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  5. Possibilities of implementing nonthermal processing methods in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades a lot of research in the field of food science has focused on new, non-thermal processing methods. This article describes the most intensively investigated new processing methodsfor implementation in the dairy industry, like microfiltration, high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound and pulsed electric fields. For each method an overview is given for the principle of microbial inactivation, the obtained results regarding reduction of microorganisms as well as the positive and undesirable effects on milk composition and characteristics. Most promising methods for further implementation in the dairy industry appeared to be combination of moderate temperatures with high hydrostatic pressure, respectively, pulsed electric fields and microfiltration, since those treatments did not result in any undesirable changes in sensory properties of milk. Additionally, milk treatment with these methodsresulted in a better milk fat homogenization, faster rennet coagulation, shorter duration of milk fermentations, etc. Very good results regarding microbial inactivation were obtained by treating milkwith combination of moderate temperatures and high intensity ultrasound which is also called a process of thermosonification. However, thermosonification treatments often result in undesirablechanges in milk sensory properties, which is most probably due to ultrasonic induced milk fat oxidation. This article also shortly describes the use of natural compounds with antimicrobial effects such as bacteriocins, lactoperoxidase system and lysozime. However their implementation is limited for reasons like high costs, interaction with other food ingredients, poor solubility, narrow activity spectrum, spontaneous loss of bacteriocinogenicity, etc. In addition, principles of antimicrobial effect of microwaves and ultraviolet irradiation are described. However their implementation in the dairy industry failed mostly due to technical and commercial reasons.

  6. Application of image processing methods to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, R.; Odet, C.; Tuncer, T.; Bodson, F.; Varcin, E.

    1985-01-01

    This study was carried out with the financial support of the Commission of the European Communities as part of the CECA research program comprising of IRSID, INSA de Lyon and the Framatome and Creusot Loire companies. Its purpose was to evaluate the possibility of using digital enhancement of radiographic images to improve defect visibility in industrial radiography, thereby providing assistance in defect detection and a method for automatic analysis of radiographs. This paper provides full results obtained from work on digital processing of radiographs showing real and artificial defects. Furthermore, work on simulated automatic defect detection is also presented. 2 refs

  7. MODERN METHODS OF FOOD INTOLERANCE TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Rosensteyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Аn analytical review of modern methods of food intolerance diagnostics based on interpretation of markers used in the various tests is рresented. It is shown that tests based on observation of the reaction of specific antibodies of the immune system to food antigens tested, are the most accurate, reliable and representative for the diagnosis of food intolerance.

  8. 76 FR 9777 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Determination to 40 CFR part in lieu of of Nitrogen 60, subpart G, Method 7 with Oxide Emissions Standards of... test Standards of 30-day as specified in Performance for compliance test 60.46b(e). Industrial... Fiberglass Mat Industries. Production. [[Page 9780

  9. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  10. Method æ, the agile software development method tailored for the pharmaceutical industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajou, A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Jansen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Agile software development methods have a high adoption rate due to their proven business benefits. Its success has not yet been identified in the pharmaceutical industry, due to the industry’s incompatibility with generic agile methods. Comprehensive research has been done to engineer a tailored

  11. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site

  12. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... different vehicles. A unified method for testing the efficiency of the charger in EVs, without direct access to the component, is presented. The method is validated through extensive tests of the models Renault Zoe, Nissan LEAF and Peugeot iOn. The results show a loss between 15 % and 40 %, which is far...

  14. Applications of Nuclear Analytical Methods for High Tech Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, T.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon based semiconductor chip manufacturing is a worldwide high technology industry with numerous measurement issues. One of the major concerns in the semiconductor manufacturing is contamination such as the trace metal impurities. This concern is vividly illustrated by the fact that the manufacturing in this industry is done in ultra clean environment where the entire manufacturing facility or “Fab” is a clean room facility or each and every manufacturing tool is enclosed in a mini-environment Although semiconductor devices are fabricated on the surface of the Si wafers contamination in the bulk material is a major concern. Nuclear methods of analysis are uniquely suited for the contamination analysis in such a matrix. Many opportunities in the semiconductor manufacturing field exist for the nuclear methods to provide support services. Contamination analysis by NAA, depth profiles by NDP and prompt gamma analysis of H in thin films are a few examples. These needs are on-going and require commitment from the lab so that a manufacturing operation can rely on the delivery of these services when required

  15. Optimization of large-scale industrial systems : an emerging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammache, A.; Aube, F.; Benali, M.; Cantave, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed optimization methods of large-scale industrial production systems and presented a novel systematic multi-objective and multi-scale optimization methodology. The methodology was based on a combined local optimality search with global optimality determination, and advanced system decomposition and constraint handling. The proposed method focused on the simultaneous optimization of the energy, economy and ecology aspects of industrial systems (E{sup 3}-ISO). The aim of the methodology was to provide guidelines for decision-making strategies. The approach was based on evolutionary algorithms (EA) with specifications including hybridization of global optimality determination with a local optimality search; a self-adaptive algorithm to account for the dynamic changes of operating parameters and design variables occurring during the optimization process; interactive optimization; advanced constraint handling and decomposition strategy; and object-oriented programming and parallelization techniques. Flowcharts of the working principles of the basic EA were presented. It was concluded that the EA uses a novel decomposition and constraint handling technique to enhance the Pareto solution search procedure for multi-objective problems. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Application of Target Costing method in the Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andor Pajrok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to managing costs are based on the costs that are the result of existing capabilities and resources in the company. Adding to these costs a specified margin or profit, leads to the sales price. If the market is not ready to accept such a selling price, managers need to find opportunities for rationalization and cost reduction. Target cost management begins the process of managing the sales price and the planned profit that the market can accept, and only then is it possible to determine the cost of the product. In the planning phase of the product and the manufacturing process the approach is to finding a method to lower costs and to reduce them as much as possible. The aim this of study is to investigate the application of target (strategy cost accounting methods in the Hospitality Industry.

  17. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

    2002-01-01

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed

  18. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lumia, M E

    2002-01-01

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

  19. Testing expected and perceived service quality in the hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vujko Aleksandra; Gajić Tamara; Mladenovski Milan; Momirski Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Guest satisfaction is the key to retaining existing and attracting new guests. In order to reach this goal, managers in hotels have become aware of the fact that the quality stay is reflected in the unique experiences of the tourists in particular. Guest satisfaction with hotel services can be tested by various methods. In this study, we used a questionnaire technique, in which respondents were guests of the hotel 'Vojvodina', 'Novi Sad' and 'Park' in Novi Sad, then the guests of the hotel 'V...

  20. Wear of different PVD coatings at industrial fine-blanking field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lind

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin hard physical vapor deposited (PVD coatings play significant role on wear performance of fine-blanking punches in the presence of extremely high contact stresses. Nevertheless it seems that in blanking or fine-blanking the coatings are selected based on coincidence, trial-error-method or latest trends. There is limited information about planning and conducting the fine-blanking industrial field tests and measuring the wear of different coatings. In the present study a set of fine-blanking punches and laboratory specimens were prepared with three coatings – TiCN, nACRo and nACo. As substrate material Böhler S390 Microclean high speed steel was used. Coating mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity and nanohardness were measured and wear rate with alumina ball was determined using the reciprocating sliding test. Wear of coatings was measured from punches after industrial use. All of the tested coatings showed high variance of wear. However coatings nACo and nACRo have better average wear resistance in fine-blanking compared with the well-known TiCN. Industrial field tests show correlation to the ratio elastic strain to failure H/E.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7249

  1. Generic testability and test methods guidelines for ASIC devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, K.; Takeda, H.

    1996-04-01

    Many industries are switching from analog equipment to digital equipment. This change has become desirable because digital devices have become cost-effective, easily available, highly reliable, easy to qualify and easy to test and replace when needed. The nuclear power industry is beginning to upgrade some of its instrumentation and control equipment from an analog design to digital design. A digital application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) device can be designed to perform the same functions as performed by analog modules. However, the ASIC must be designed for cost-effective testability and qualification. This report provides generic guidelines for designing cost-effective methods for testing and characterizing ASIC devices to accomplish qualification

  2. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  3. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction.

  4. Biofilms in the Food Industry: Health Aspects and Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galié, Serena; García-Gutiérrez, Coral; Miguélez, Elisa M.; Villar, Claudio J.; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Diverse microorganisms are able to grow on food matrixes and along food industry infrastructures. This growth may give rise to biofilms. This review summarizes, on the one hand, the current knowledge regarding the main bacterial species responsible for initial colonization, maturation and dispersal of food industry biofilms, as well as their associated health issues in dairy products, ready-to-eat foods and other food matrixes. These human pathogens include Bacillus cereus (which secretes toxins that can cause diarrhea and vomiting symptoms), Escherichia coli (which may include enterotoxigenic and even enterohemorrhagic strains), Listeria monocytogenes (a ubiquitous species in soil and water that can lead to abortion in pregnant women and other serious complications in children and the elderly), Salmonella enterica (which, when contaminating a food pipeline biofilm, may induce massive outbreaks and even death in children and elderly), and Staphylococcus aureus (known for its numerous enteric toxins). On the other hand, this review describes the currently available biofilm prevention and disruption methods in food factories, including steel surface modifications (such as nanoparticles with different metal oxides, nanocomposites, antimicrobial polymers, hydrogels or liposomes), cell-signaling inhibition strategies (such as lactic and citric acids), chemical treatments (such as ozone, quaternary ammonium compounds, NaOCl and other sanitizers), enzymatic disruption strategies (such as cellulases, proteases, glycosidases and DNAses), non-thermal plasma treatments, the use of bacteriophages (such as P100), bacteriocins (such us nisin), biosurfactants (such as lichenysin or surfactin) and plant essential oils (such as citral- or carvacrol-containing oils). PMID:29867809

  5. Biofilms in the Food Industry: Health Aspects and Control Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Galié

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse microorganisms are able to grow on food matrixes and along food industry infrastructures. This growth may give rise to biofilms. This review summarizes, on the one hand, the current knowledge regarding the main bacterial species responsible for initial colonization, maturation and dispersal of food industry biofilms, as well as their associated health issues in dairy products, ready-to-eat foods and other food matrixes. These human pathogens include Bacillus cereus (which secretes toxins that can cause diarrhea and vomiting symptoms, Escherichia coli (which may include enterotoxigenic and even enterohemorrhagic strains, Listeria monocytogenes (a ubiquitous species in soil and water that can lead to abortion in pregnant women and other serious complications in children and the elderly, Salmonella enterica (which, when contaminating a food pipeline biofilm, may induce massive outbreaks and even death in children and elderly, and Staphylococcus aureus (known for its numerous enteric toxins. On the other hand, this review describes the currently available biofilm prevention and disruption methods in food factories, including steel surface modifications (such as nanoparticles with different metal oxides, nanocomposites, antimicrobial polymers, hydrogels or liposomes, cell-signaling inhibition strategies (such as lactic and citric acids, chemical treatments (such as ozone, quaternary ammonium compounds, NaOCl and other sanitizers, enzymatic disruption strategies (such as cellulases, proteases, glycosidases and DNAses, non-thermal plasma treatments, the use of bacteriophages (such as P100, bacteriocins (such us nisin, biosurfactants (such as lichenysin or surfactin and plant essential oils (such as citral- or carvacrol-containing oils.

  6. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  7. Multipath interference test method for distributed amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takahiro; Aida, Kazuo

    2005-12-01

    A method for testing distributed amplifiers is presented; the multipath interference (MPI) is detected as a beat spectrum between the multipath signal and the direct signal using a binary frequency shifted keying (FSK) test signal. The lightwave source is composed of a DFB-LD that is directly modulated by a pulse stream passing through an equalizer, and emits the FSK signal of the frequency deviation of about 430MHz at repetition rate of 80-100 kHz. The receiver consists of a photo-diode and an electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA). The base-band power spectrum peak appeared at the frequency of the FSK frequency deviation can be converted to amount of MPI using a calibration chart. The test method has improved the minimum detectable MPI as low as -70 dB, compared to that of -50 dB of the conventional test method. The detailed design and performance of the proposed method are discussed, including the MPI simulator for calibration procedure, computer simulations for evaluating the error caused by the FSK repetition rate and the fiber length under test and experiments on singlemode fibers and distributed Raman amplifier.

  8. 40 CFR 80.582 - What are the sampling and testing methods for the fuel marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the sampling and testing... commercially available diesel fuel which meets the applicable industry consensus and federal regulatory...) Qualification of test methods approved by voluntary consensus-based standards bodies. Any standard test method...

  9. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  10. ANALYSIS METHODS OF BANKRUPTCY RISK IN ROMANIAN ENERGY MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORICI MARIAN CATALIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is an analysis of bankruptcy risk and assessing the economic performance of the entity in charge of energy mining industry from southwest region. The scientific activity assesses the risk of bankruptcy using score’s method and some indicators witch reflecting the results obtained and elements from organization balance sheet involved in mining and energy which contributes to the stability of the national energy system. Analysis undertaken is focused on the application of the business organization models that allow a comprehensive assessment of the risk of bankruptcy and be an instrument of its forecast. In this study will be highlighted developments bankruptcy risk within the organization through the Altman model and Conan-Holder model in order to show a versatile image on the organization's ability to ensure business continuity

  11. Application of scl - pbl method to increase quality learning of industrial statistics course in department of industrial engineering pancasila university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, M.; Hidayah, N. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, there has been a change of new paradigm in the learning model in college, ie from Teacher Centered Learning (TCL) model to Student Centered Learing (SCL). It is generally assumed that the SCL model is better than the TCL model. The Courses of 2nd Industrial Statistics in the Department Industrial Engineering Pancasila University is the subject that belongs to the Basic Engineering group. So far, the applied learning model refers more to the TCL model, and field facts show that the learning outcomes are less satisfactory. Of the three consecutive semesters, ie even semester 2013/2014, 2014/2015, and 2015/2016 obtained grade average is equal to 56.0; 61.1, and 60.5. In the even semester of 2016/2017, Classroom Action Research (CAR) is conducted for this course through the implementation of SCL model with Problem Based Learning (PBL) methods. The hypothesis proposed is that the SCL-PBL model will be able to improve the final grade of the course. The results shows that the average grade of the course can be increased to 73.27. This value was then tested using the ANOVA and the test results concluded that the average grade was significantly different from the average grade value in the previous three semesters.

  12. Guidelines on Training, Examination and Certification in Digital Industrial Radiology Testing (RT-D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The IAEA promotes industrial applications of non-destructive testing (NDT) technologies. NDT methods are primarily used for the detection, location and sizing of surface and internal defects in, for example, welds, castings, forging, composite materials and concrete. Various NDT methods are also used in the preventive maintenance of nuclear power plants, aircraft and bridges. Thus, NDT technology contributes significantly to the improvement of the quality of industrial products and the integrity of equipment and plants. The introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on traditional, nuclear based NDT methods. During the introduction phase in digital industrial radiography (DIR), the digitization of films provided economy of storage, efficiency of communication and accuracy of dimensional measurement. NDT laboratories are progressing rapidly with the digitalization of NDT data. New radiologic imaging techniques in DIR, using image intensifier systems, computed radiography with phosphor imaging plates and digital detector arrays, have increased the capacity for visualization of defects and have revealed new potential for accurate evaluation and measurement. The development of DIR has been of continuing interest to the IAEA and national NDT societies in recent years. This has led to the formation of projects on the development and application of advanced industrial radiography and tomography techniques under the IAEA Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology. This publication is intended to provide resource material to support vocational training to NDT radiographers on digital industrial radiography and to help NDT training centres and certification bodies in Member States to establish their own courses, curricula and certification systems in this technology

  13. Application of the X-in-the-Loop Testing Method in the FCV Hybrid Degree Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of fuel cell vehicle technology, an effective testing method that can be applied to develop and verify the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system is urgently required. This paper presents the X-in-the-Loop (XiL testing method in the fuel cell vehicle (FCV hybrid degree test to resolve the first and key issues for the powertrain system design, and the test process and scenarios were designed. The hybrid degree is redefined into the static hybrid degree for system architecture design and the dynamic hybrid degree for vehicle control strategy design, and an integrated testing platform was introduced and a testing application was implemented by following the designed testing flowchart with two loops. Experimental validations show that the sizing of the FCE (Fuel Cell Engine, battery pack, and traction motor with the powertrain architecture can be determined, the control strategy can be evaluated seamlessly, and a systematic powertrain testing solution can be achieved through the whole development process. This research has developed a new testing platform and proposed a novel testing method on the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system, which will be a contribution to fuel cell vehicle technology and its industrialization.

  14. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  15. Supplementary test method for carbon filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, B.; Pettersson, S.-O.

    1980-11-01

    A test method for carbon filters using freon to detect leakage is described. The filters are used in nuclear power plants and in air-raid shelters to separate radioactive iodine.Sampling and detection limits are described and a proposal for a complete equipment is made.(G.B.)

  16. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  17. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  18. Effect of industrial dust on some test organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuck, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of industrial dust on the growth of Lepidium sativum Cress and on spore germination and germ-tube development of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum was studied. Lepidium sativum was strongly inhibited and in most cases the fungi were stimulated. The effect was related to the species of trees and the district, where the dust-samples were collected.

  19. Testing expected and perceived service quality in the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujko Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guest satisfaction is the key to retaining existing and attracting new guests. In order to reach this goal, managers in hotels have become aware of the fact that the quality stay is reflected in the unique experiences of the tourists in particular. Guest satisfaction with hotel services can be tested by various methods. In this study, we used a questionnaire technique, in which respondents were guests of the hotel 'Vojvodina', 'Novi Sad' and 'Park' in Novi Sad, then the guests of the hotel 'Vojvodina' and 'Gold Class' in Zrenjanin, as well as the guests of the hotel 'Brothers Sekulic' in Zlatibor. The respondents were asked to evaluate various aspects of the business environment, employees' attitude towards guests, taste and variety of food and beverages. Data are presented in tables with brief comments. Based on the analysis of dependent and independent variables, we concluded that the physical features of a hotel, as well as the guest-employee relationship, are primarily related to the personal experience. Guests were the least satisfied with the hotel bar. These pieces of information are crucial for the hotel enterprises and contribute to the advancement of business through the adjustment of the product to the needs of the customer.

  20. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  1. Testing the Immunity of the Firearm Industry to Tort Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Donohue, John J; Mello, Michelle M

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of congressional action to reinstate the federal ban on assault weapons, tort litigation offers an alternative strategy for regulating what have become the weapons of choice in mass shootings. However, opportunities to bring successful claims are limited. To prevail, plaintiffs must show that their suit fits within exceptions to the broad immunity from tort actions that Congress gave the firearm industry in the 2005 Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act. In one particularly high-profile lawsuit, families of victims of the school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 sued the makers and sellers of the military-style rifle used in the attack, alleging negligence and deceptive marketing. The trial court dismissed the case on October 14, 2016, but the plaintiffs plan to appeal. We review the history of tort litigation against the firearm industry, outline the Newtown families' claims, and describe the decision.

  2. Virtual Load Machine as Test Environment for Industrial Storage Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Schaab , Darian ,; Zimmermann , Fabian; Weckmann , Sebastian; Sauer , Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Part 3: Cyber-Physical (IIoT) Technology Deployments in Smart Manufacturing Systems; International audience; The market share of renewable energy is rising all over the world and leads to a more and more volatile energy supply. The challenge of keeping supply and demand constantly balanced is getting more complex and dynamic. Large scale energy consumers like industrial facilities need to take on an active role in the energy system and adapt their energy consumption to the energy availability...

  3. Quality assurance testing on video games : The importance and impact of a misunderstood industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ruuska, Essi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to provide a more holistic insight of the video game quality assurance industry to video game industry professionals and prospective employees in order to promote the importance and impact of quality assurance testing in video games. The motive for this thesis came from the author's work experience in video game quality assurance testing, and from realizing how little is known about the industry. The research question was defined as 'what is video game quality ass...

  4. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of evaluation testing method of thermal properties of polymer materials; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kobunshi zairyo no netsutokusei hyoka shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of proposing it to ISO, the R and D were conducted of a new evaluation method of thermal properties of polymer materials. The FY 1999 results were summarized. In this fiscal year, the development of the ac Joule heating equipment was proceeded with based on the study at the technical committee, and the measuring device was installed. In the comparative measurement with conventional methods, study was proceeded with of the laser flash method, AC calorimetry method and specific heat measurement. In the technical survey, the developmental state of the ac method, especially, was examined as a testing method of thermal properties of polymer materials. It is in the stage of the basic research by keyword selection, and the search for literature is to be made in full scale. As to the needs in the industrial circle, as a result of the questionnaire survey made, it was found out that there were a wide variety of the needs for general-purpose/functional film materials, forming materials, composite materials, coating, adhesives, cohesive materials, etc. Further, as the application field, construction materials, agriculture, food, packaging, etc. were cited in addition to the magnetic recording in electric/electronic relations, sensor insulation, OA equipment, wiring board, etc. (NEDO)

  5. Thermal Testing Methods for Solar Dryers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana

    2017-01-01

    Solar food drying is a complex heat and mass transfer phenomena which depend on a number of drying process-dependent parameters such as operating conditions and characteristics of the food product to be dried. The variation in these parameters significantly affects the overall performance...... of the dryer system. Since commercial growth and acceptance of any solar dryer system momentously depend on its performance guarantee, the development of a standard methodology for their thermal testing has become necessary. The standard testing method not only provides better performance management...... of the dryer system but allows the manufacturers to achieve competitive efficiency and good product quality by comparing the available designs. In this chapter, an extensive review of solar dryer performance evaluation has been carried out. Furthermore, the chapter describes the existing testing procedures...

  6. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene... for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance...

  7. Visual Narrative Research Methods as Performance in Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurel H.; McDonagh, Deana

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses teaching empathic research methodology as performance. The authors describe their collaboration in an activity to help undergraduate industrial design students learn empathy for others when designing products for use by diverse or underrepresented people. The authors propose that an industrial design curriculum would benefit…

  8. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  9. Carcinogenicity tests of certain environmental and industrial chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburger, E.K.; Ulland, B.M.; Nam, J.; Gart, J.J.; Weisburger, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen chemicals of varied uses were tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in male and female Charles River CD rats. Under the conditions of the tests, propane sultone, propylene imine, and ethylenethiourea, in addition to the positive control N-2-fluorenylacetamide, were carcinogenic. Avadex, bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, the potassium salt of bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dithiocarbamic acid, ethylene carbonate, and semicarbazide hydrochloride were not carcinogenic under the test conditions. Dithiooxamide, glycerol alpha-monochlorohydrin, and thiosemicarbazide gave somewhat ambiguous results, though administered at high enough dose levels to be toxic. An inadequate number of animals survived treatments with sodium azide, sodium bisulfide, and vinylene carbonate, or the animals may not have received sufficiently high doses of the test chemicals to provide maximum test sensitivity. However, there were no indications that these three chemicals were carcinogenic under the test conditions

  10. Validity Evaluation of the Assessment Method for Postural Loading on the Upper Body in Printing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Musculoskeletal disorders and injuries are known as a global occupational challenge. These injuries are more are concentrated in the upper limb. There are several methods to assess this kind of disorders, each of which have different efficiencies for various jobs based on their strengths and weaknesses. This study aimed to assess the validity of LUBA method in order to evaluate risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in a printing industry in Qom province, 2014. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all operational workers (n=94 were investigated in 2014. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ was used to collect data on musculoskeletal disorders. We also used LUBA method to analyze postures in four different parts of the body (neck, shoulder, elbow, and wrist. The obtained data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, and Kappa agreement tests. Results: Lumbar region of back with 35.1% prevalence had the most problems. The results of LUBA method showed that most postures were located at the second corrective action level, and need further studies. Agreement between assessment of shoulder posture and its disorders was significant (p0.05.  Conclusion: According to the results of this study on reliability and predictive validity of the LUBA method in printing industry, it can be concluded that this method is not a reliable method for posture assessment; however, further and more comprehensive studies are recommended.  

  11. Vehicle test report: Jet Industries Electra Van 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Electra Van 600, an electric vehicle, was tested. Tests were performed to characterize parameters of the Electra Van 600 and to provide baseline data to be used for comparison of improved batteries and to which will be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem, the batteries, controller, and motor; coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluation for cyclic and constant speed conditions; and qualitative performance was evaluated. It is found that the Electra Van 600 range performance is approximately equal to the majority of the vehicles tested previously.

  12. Testing techniques in nuclear, petroleum and metallurgic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The nondestructive testing techniques by ultrasonic waves, eddy currents, acoustic emission used by Intercontrole (a CEA's affiliated firm in nuclear petrochemical, and engineering site measurements) are presented [fr

  13. A method for evaluating horizontal well pumping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, David E; Smyth, Andrew H; May, James

    2004-01-01

    Predicting the future performance of horizontal wells under varying pumping conditions requires estimates of basic aquifer parameters, notably transmissivity and storativity. For vertical wells, there are well-established methods for estimating these parameters, typically based on either the recovery from induced head changes in a well or from the head response in observation wells to pumping in a test well. Comparable aquifer parameter estimation methods for horizontal wells have not been presented in the ground water literature. Formation parameter estimation methods based on measurements of pressure in horizontal wells have been presented in the petroleum industry literature, but these methods have limited applicability for ground water evaluation and are based on pressure measurements in only the horizontal well borehole, rather than in observation wells. This paper presents a simple and versatile method by which pumping test procedures developed for vertical wells can be applied to horizontal well pumping tests. The method presented here uses the principle of superposition to represent the horizontal well as a series of partially penetrating vertical wells. This concept is used to estimate a distance from an observation well at which a vertical well that has the same total pumping rate as the horizontal well will produce the same drawdown as the horizontal well. This equivalent distance may then be associated with an observation well for use in pumping test algorithms and type curves developed for vertical wells. The method is shown to produce good results for confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in the absence of delayed yield response. For unconfined aquifers, the presence of delayed yield response increases the method error.

  14. Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D; Xu, M; Foo, S; Pilacinski, W; Willeke, K

    1991-08-01

    A simplified pressure method has been developed for fit testing air-purifying respirators. In this method, the air-purifying cartridges are replaced by a pressure-sensing attachment and a valve. While wearers hold their breath, a small pump extracts air from the respirator cavity until a steady-state pressure is reached in 1 to 2 sec. The flow rate through the face seal leak is a unique function of this pressure, which is determined once for all respirators, regardless of the respirator's cavity volume or deformation because of pliability. The contaminant concentration inside the respirator depends on the degree of dilution by the flow through the cartridges. The cartridge flow varies among different brands and is measured once for each brand. The ratio of cartridge to leakflow is a measure of fit. This flow ratio has been measured on human subjects and has been compared to fit factors determined on the same subjects by means of photometric and particle count tests. The aerosol tests gave higher values of fit.

  15. Evaluation of Test-Driven Development : An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasmus, H.; Gross, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Test-driven development is a novel software development practice and part of the Extreme Programming paradigm. It is based on the principle that tests should be designed and written for a module iteratively, while the code of the module is devised. This is the opposite of what is usual in current

  16. Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation modular industrial solar retrofit qualification test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Dudley, V.E.; Lewandoski, A.A.

    1986-10-01

    Under the Department of Energy's Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit project, industrial process steam systems incorporating line-focus solar thermal collectors were designed and hardware was installed and tested. This report describes the test results for the system designed by Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation. The test series included function and safety tests to determine that the system operated as specified, an unattended operations test to demonstrate automatic operation, performance tests to provide a database for predicting system performance, and life cycle tests to evaluate component and maintenance requirements. Component-level modifications to improve system performance and reliability were also evaluated.

  17. Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Dudley, V.E.; Lewandowski, A.A.

    1987-04-01

    Under the Department of Energy's Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit project, industrial process steam systems incorporating line-focus solar thermal collectors were designed and hardware was installed and tested. This report describes the test results for the system designed by Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation. The test series included function and safety tests to determine that the system operated as specified, an unattended operations test to demonstrate automatic operation, performance tests to provide a database for predicting system performance, and life cycle tests to evaluate component and maintenance requirements. Component-level modifications to improve system performance and reliability were also evaluated.

  18. Methods and approaches to prediction in the meat industry

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Lisitsyn; M. A. Nikitina; A. N. Zakharov; E. O. Scherbinina

    2016-01-01

    The modern stage of the agro-industrial complex is characterized by an increasing complexity, intensification of technological processes of complex processing of materials of animal origin also the need for a systematic analysis of the variety of determining factors and relationships between them, complexity of the objective function of product quality and severe restrictions on technological regimes. One of the main tasks that face the employees of the enterprises of the agro-industrial comp...

  19. The ceramics industry and lead poisoning. Long-term testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, E; Rossi, A; Toffolo, D; Brighenti, F; Rosa, A; Caroldi, S

    1980-12-01

    The investigation evaluates the efficiency attributed to some measures (improvements in environment, individual health habits) in reducing the risk of lead poisoning in the ceramics industry. The evaluation of the average levels of lead in the blood of 154 exposed workers was carried out in four plants at a time interval of six to eight months. The study considers the variations in relation to possible measures brought about during the interval. A reduction of environmental risk was in effect shown by a clear improvement in the blood lead levels, which still, however, exceeded the internationally recommended limits in many of the subjects. It was concluded that further improvements can only be made by reducing the lead content of the glazes used.

  20. 2-d Simulations of Test Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    One of the main obstacles for the further development of self-compacting concrete is to relate the fresh concrete properties to the form filling ability. Therefore, simulation of the form filling ability will provide a powerful tool in obtaining this goal. In this paper, a continuum mechanical...... approach is presented by showing initial results from 2-d simulations of the empirical test methods slump flow and L-box. This method assumes a homogeneous material, which is expected to correspond to particle suspensions e.g. concrete, when it remains stable. The simulations have been carried out when...... using both a Newton and Bingham model for characterisation of the rheological properties of the concrete. From the results, it is expected that both the slump flow and L-box can be simulated quite accurately when the model is extended to 3-d and the concrete is characterised according to the Bingham...

  1. Non-destructive testing: A guidebook for industrial management and quality control personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The introduction and application of non-destructive testing (NDT) in industry is grossly misrepresented and misunderstood. It is often said that introduction of this expensive technology does not give any tangible returns or at least does not give returns proportional to the investment made. The facts, however, are exactly opposite to this notion and thinking. In fact, NDT, when appropriately applied, gives tremendous returns by way of savings in scrap by lowering the ultimate rates of rejection, saving valuable manufacturing time, increasing the overall quality and reliability of manufactured goods, providing an extension of plant life through preventive maintenance, saving unnecessary shutdowns, particularly through inservice inspection, and enhancement of a particular industry's reputation and consequent increased sales and profits. Therefore, even from a purely commercial viewpoint, NDT is of utmost importance for an industrial concern. The additional considerations of NDT's role in safety, failure and consequent accident prevention leave no doubt at all about the value and need of NDT. It is this point that needs to be fully appreciated by the industrial managers and decision makers at all levels. Management ought to understand in quite an unambiguous way that their products can only survive in the highly competitive markets of today if they have the adequate and optimum quality. This quality can be built into the manufactured goods only if suitable measures and methods of quality control are employed and that the most suitable methods in most situations are the non-destructive testing methods. Experience shows that in many cases of industrial decision making, proper knowledge of various aspects of a particular technology plays an important role. Therefore, if positive decisions are desired to be taken in favour of introducing NDT in industry in any country, its decision makers should be properly equipped with knowledge and information about this area of

  2. Non-destructive testing: A guidebook for industrial management and quality control personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The introduction and application of non-destructive testing (NDT) in industry is grossly misrepresented and misunderstood. It is often said that introduction of this expensive technology does not give any tangible returns or at least does not give returns proportional to the investment made. The facts, however, are exactly opposite to this notion and thinking. In fact, NDT, when appropriately applied, gives tremendous returns by way of savings in scrap by lowering the ultimate rates of rejection, saving valuable manufacturing time, increasing the overall quality and reliability of manufactured goods, providing an extension of plant life through preventive maintenance, saving unnecessary shutdowns, particularly through inservice inspection, and enhancement of a particular industry's reputation and consequent increased sales and profits. Therefore, even from a purely commercial viewpoint, NDT is of utmost importance for an industrial concern. The additional considerations of NDT's role in safety, failure and consequent accident prevention leave no doubt at all about the value and need of NDT. It is this point that needs to be fully appreciated by the industrial managers and decision makers at all levels. Management ought to understand in quite an unambiguous way that their products can only survive in the highly competitive markets of today if they have the adequate and optimum quality. This quality can be built into the manufactured goods only if suitable measures and methods of quality control are employed and that the most suitable methods in most situations are the non-destructive testing methods. Experience shows that in many cases of industrial decision making, proper knowledge of various aspects of a particular technology plays an important role. Therefore, if positive decisions are desired to be taken in favour of introducing NDT in industry in any country, its decision makers should be properly equipped with knowledge and information about this area of

  3. Impact Strength of Natural Fibre Composites Measured by Different Test Methods: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaranjan Namasivayam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of impact test methods have been used in recent years to measure the impact resistance of natural fibre composites (NFCs. After reviewing the literature, the impact resistance of flax, hemp, sisal, wood and jute fibre composites that were measured using different test methods have been compared and discussed. It has been learned that the test methods were selected for research interest, industry requirement or availability of test equipment. Each method had its own advantages and limitations. The result from a particular test could be compared but not with the result from other test methods. Most impact test methods were developed for testing ductile-brittle transition of metals. However, each NFC has a different morphology and cannot be comparable to metals in failure mode and energy absorption characteristic during an impact test. A post evaluation of morphology of an NFC sample after an impact test is important to characterise the material.

  4. FY 1998 survey report on the project on field tests for high-efficient industrial furnace introduction. Manual; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo mannual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The high-efficient industrial furnace is a technology with the use of ultra-high temperature air over 1,000 degrees C, which has been impossible. It has been developed since FY 1993. The technology can reduce the energy consumption amount by 30%, and there is a possibility of reducing not only CO2, but NOx by approximately 50% over the conventional method. The main technique of the technology is to preheat the air blown into the incinerator at much higher temperatures of 1,000 degrees C or more than those in the existing combustion and to blow fuel into that high-speed air flow using the short-time-change/heat-storage type heat exchanger. It was predicted that the target value set first can almost be reached, and there can be seen a possibility of its industrial application. Industrial furnaces are used in many industrial fields such as metal production industry, petrochemical industry and electric machinery industry. The energy conservation in these fields brings extremely marked effects, and therefore it is an urgent task to introduce the industrial furnace into the fields quickly. The concentrated R and D were finished in FY 1998, and the field test project for the introduction was actually started. (NEDO)

  5. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  6. 76 FR 16425 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    .... in human foods and direct-human-contact animal foods. It does not create or confer any rights for or... Animal Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... ``Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The draft guidance...

  7. Methodically finding solutions of equipments for carrying out experiments in materials testing and research. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, D.; Nachtweide, D.; Kuntze, G.

    1983-01-01

    In comparison with the development of industrial products the development of test equipments is of special kind, which is demonstrated by methodical proceeding for finding solutions and by potentialities for technical design and production of test equipment engineering. Some general principles are turned out and explained by several realized examples of design belonging to the sphere of materials testing in den Federal Institute of Materials Testing (BAM) representative of other problems. User are large scientific institutes independent of university, scientific institutes as members of university just as test stands and quality control offices of industrial works. (orig.) [de

  8. Fuzz Testing of Industrial Network Protocols in Programmable Logic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    efforts, Scapy [18], and existing Scapy- based fuzzing tools. Chapter II also presents an introduction to two AB/RA PLCs used in 4 this thesis...called ENIP Fuzz. ENIP Fuzz is an ICS fuzzing program that uses the Python -based packet manipulation tool, Scapy [18] to craft customized fuzzing...OpenRCE/sulley [31] S. Bansal and N. Bansal, “Scapy—A Python tool for security testing,” Journal of Computer Science & Systems Biology, March 31, 2015

  9. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), and by the industry organization Cosmetics Europe... products. Pesticides and other marketed chemicals, including cosmetic ingredients, are routinely tested for... sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to develop an open-source Bayesian network as an...

  10. Research and technology management in the electricity industry methods, tools and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Daim, Tugrul; Kim, Jisun

    2013-01-01

    Technologies such as renewable energy alternatives including wind, solar and biomass, storage technologies and electric engines are creating a different landscape for the  electricity industry. Using sources and ideas from technologies such as renewable energy alternatives, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry explores a different landscape for this industry and applies it to the electric industry supported by real industry cases. Divided into three sections, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry introduces a range of  methods and tools includ

  11. Building Customer Churn Prediction Models in Fitness Industry with Machine Learning Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Min

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid growth of digital systems, churn management has become a major focus within customer relationship management in many industries. Ample research has been conducted for churn prediction in different industries with various machine learning methods. This thesis aims to combine feature selection and supervised machine learning methods for defining models of churn prediction and apply them on fitness industry. Forward selection is chosen as feature selection methods. Support Vector ...

  12. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  13. Self-test Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1996-01-01

    The Self-Test Monte Carlo (STMC) method resolves the main problems in using algebraic pseudo-random numbers for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations: that they can interfere with MC algorithms and lead to erroneous results, and that such an error often cannot be detected without known exact solution. STMC is based on good randomness of about 10 10 bits available from physical noise or transcendental numbers like π = 3.14---. Various bit modifiers are available to get more bits for applications that demands more than 10 10 random bits such as lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These modifiers are designed so that a) each of them gives a bit sequence comparable in randomness as the original if used separately from each other, and b) their mutual interference when used jointly in a single MC calculation is adjustable. Intermediate data of the MC calculation itself are used to quantitatively test and adjust the mutual interference of the modifiers in respect of the MC algorithm. STMC is free of systematic error and gives reliable statistical error. Also it can be easily implemented on vector and parallel supercomputers. (author)

  14. Non-destructive testing and radiation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, C; Ashby, P.

    2001-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a little known discipline which uses non-invasive and passive techniques to investigate the condition of materials and structures. Some of these techniques employ the use of radioisotopes. The penetrating radiations produced by these materials are applied in various ways to obtain the required information. This presentation is an overview of the application of radioisotopes within the scope of NDT. Notwithstanding the well established use of traditional materials, new forms of radioisotopes are being developed which will extend their capabilities

  15. Industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Industrial Hygiene Section of the Health Protection Department provides industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. This report describes support operations and summarizes the industrial hygiene data collected from July 31, 1989 through June 30, 1991. Air quality data were collected by means of personnel sampling by active and passive techniques using various kinds of industrial hygiene instrumentation and through localized and general area monitoring. The data collected were used to evaluate underground air quality and quantity requirements; evaluate worker exposures to a variety of air contaminants; determine the applicability and effectiveness of personal protective equipment

  16. Accionamiento de un ventilador industrial para prueba de aerogeneradores; Drive of an industrial fan for wind testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eneldo López Monteagudo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se implementó el control de un ventilador industrial utilizado para prueba de aerogeneradores, el cual es empleado como un dispositivo interno en la elaboración de un túnel de viento, para realizar pruebas de medición de viento. El proyecto consistió en regular la velocidad de un ventilador industrial utilizado en un túnel de viento, para realizar pruebas de sistemas de control en aerogeneradores, generándose señales de viento reguladas en valores constantes, ó que sigan un perfil definido por una base de datos de valores reales medidos con un anemómetro. Para implementar el sistema de control y la comunicación de los dispositivos, se empleó un procesador digital de señales (PDS de Texas Instruments EZDSP2407, que actúa como interfaz para transmitir los datos entre el entorno de programación (VisSim Embedded Control Developer (ECD. Además se utilizó un variador de velocidad de 3HP de la marca SIEMENS modelo Micromaster 420. In this work, a fan control industrial wind turbines used for test, which is used as an internal device in the development of a wind tunnel for testing wind measurement. The project consists of regulating the speed of an industrial fan used in a wind tunnel to test control systems in wind turbines, wind generating regulated signals in constant, or to follow a profile defined by a database of values actual measured with an anemometer. To implement the control system and communication devices, in this project employed a digital signal processor (DSP from Texas Instruments EZDSP2407, which acts as an interface to transmit data between the programming environments (VisSim Embedded Control Developer (ECD. Also uses a variable speed 3HP SIEMENS Micromaster model 420.

  17. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature.

  18. The Health Consequences of Industrial Noise and Methods for Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Cetin Ekerbicer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss in the work-site is the most prevalent irreversible occupational disease in the industrialized or industrializing communities. Because noise-induced hearing loss is permanent, it is essential to apply any measure likely to reduce exposure. This includes reduction at the source (quieter machines and equipment or encasing them in sound-proof enclosures or the use of individual protective devices such as ear plugs and/or ear muffs. If reliance is placed on the latter, it is imperative to verify that their manufacturers' claims for effectiveness are valid and that exposed workers are using them properly at all times. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 261-264

  19. Survey of industry methods for producing highly reliable software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Persons, W.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Regulation Office of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is charged with assessing the safety of new instrument and control designs for nuclear power plants which may use computer-based reactor protection systems. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has evaluated the latest techniques in software reliability for measurement, estimation, error detection, and prediction that can be used during the software life cycle as a means of risk assessment for reactor protection systems. One aspect of this task has been a survey of the software industry to collect information to help identify the design factors used to improve the reliability and safety of software. The intent was to discover what practices really work in industry and what design factors are used by industry to achieve highly reliable software. The results of the survey are documented in this report. Three companies participated in the survey: Computer Sciences Corporation, International Business Machines (Federal Systems Company), and TRW. Discussions were also held with NASA Software Engineering Lab/University of Maryland/CSC, and the AIAA Software Reliability Project

  20. Selection of industrial robots using the Polygons area method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Honarmande Azimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection of robots from the several proposed alternatives is a very important and tedious task. Decision makers are not limited to one method and several methods have been proposed for solving this problem. This study presents Polygons Area Method (PAM as a multi attribute decision making method for robot selection problem. In this method, the maximum polygons area obtained from the attributes of an alternative robot on the radar chart is introduced as a decision-making criterion. The results of this method are compared with other typical multiple attribute decision-making methods (SAW, WPM, TOPSIS, and VIKOR by giving two examples. To find similarity in ranking given by different methods, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients are obtained for different pairs of MADM methods. It was observed that the introduced method is in good agreement with other well-known MADM methods in the robot selection problem.

  1. Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K.; Petrovski, B.

    2004-01-01

    The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elastic creep, elastic compliance measurements

  2. From Farm to Pharma: An Overview of Industrial Heparin Manufacturing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Kellenbach, Edwin; van den Bos, Leendert J

    2017-06-21

    The purification of heparin from offal is an old industrial process for which commercial recipes date back to 1922. Although chemical, chemoenzymatic, and biotechnological alternatives for this production method have been published in the academic literature, animal-tissue is still the sole source for commercial heparin production in industry. Heparin purification methods are closely guarded industrial secrets which are not available to the general (scientific) public. However by reviewing the academic and patent literature, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the general methods used in industry for the extraction of heparin from animal tissue.

  3. Industrial-Strength Model-Based Testing - State of the Art and Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peleska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As of today, model-based testing (MBT is considered as leading-edge technology in industry. We sketch the different MBT variants that - according to our experience - are currently applied in practice, with special emphasis on the avionic, railway and automotive domains. The key factors for successful industrial-scale application of MBT are described, both from a scientific and a managerial point of view. With respect to the former view, we describe the techniques for automated test case, test data and test procedure generation for concurrent reactive real-time systems which are considered as the most important enablers for MBT in practice. With respect to the latter view, our experience with introducing MBT approaches in testing teams are sketched. Finally, the most challenging open scientific problems whose solutions are bound to improve the acceptance and effectiveness of MBT in industry are discussed.

  4. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  5. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  6. The applicability of micro-filters produced by nuclear methods in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.; Ember, G.

    1982-01-01

    Problems of the applicability in the food industry of micro-filters produced by nuclear methods are dealt with. Production methods of the polymeric micro-filters, their main characteristics as well as their most important application fields (breweries, dairies, alcoholic- and soft-drink plants, wine industry) are briefly reviewed. (author)

  7. Gamma-ray scatter methods applied to industrial measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, Marie Bueie

    2004-09-01

    Throughout the work presented in this dissertation it has been confirmed that the use of scattered gamma-radiation is a complex but useful tool in industrial measurement science. Scattered radiation has shown to be useful both when traditional measurement principles cannot be used (Chapter 4) and when more information about a system is needed than what is obtained with transmission measurements (Chapter 6). All three main projects (Chapters 4, 5 and 6) confirm that the sensitivity and accuracy of systems based on scattered gamma-radiation depends strongly on the geometry of the setup and that that presence of multiple scattered radiation makes the problems complex. Chapter 4 shows that multiple scattered gamma-radiation can be used for detection of changes in density where the dimensions are too large to use transmitted radiation. There is, however, an upper limit on the thickness of the absorbing medium also when scattered radiation is utilized. As seen in Chapter 5, multiple scattered gamma-radiation can in principle also be used in level gauges with very compact measurement geometries. The main challenges are the sensitivity to interfaces between materials with similar densities and low count rate. These challenges could not be overcome for level measurements in gravitational separator tanks. The results presented in Chapter 6 show that it is feasible to combine transmission and scatter measurements to characterize produced water in the oil and gas industry. (Author)

  8. Methodical Approach to Managing Resources at an Industrial Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonets Olga O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of optimal ways of managing material resources of an industrial enterprise on the basis of economic and mathematical modelling. In the process of analysis and systematisation of works of foreign and domestic scientists the article makes a conclusion about the insufficient degree of development of such complex solutions on formation of logistic systems of resource management, which would be simple and adaptive. The article provides results of the study of specific features of resource management at enterprises, among which – surplus (deficit of resources and availability of non-liquid reserves. In order to eliminate shortcomings the article offers a situational order of management with consideration of a possible state of reserves. The article improves the model of selection of the volume of supply of material resources and identifies optimal solutions with consideration of interval uncertainty. The further direction of the study lies in integration of the proposed approach to resource management with the system of financial planning at an industrial enterprise.

  9. Sigma Level Verification of a Thermoplastic Industry with the Support of DMAIC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Queiroz Santos Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the sigma level of the production process of a thermoplastics industry with the implementation of DMAIC approach. To achieve this purpose it was conducted interviews to know the production system, analysing the non-conformities in the produced forks. It was found that the industry has a sigma level that is the reality of industries in general, however, this level still does not equal to what is presented by large industries. The paper contributed to the improvement of industrial quality control, and the proposed method it is being evaluated so that other improvements can be implemented.

  10. Sequential method for the assessment of innovations in computer assisted industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola R.

    1995-01-01

    A sequential method for the assessment of innovations in industrial processes is proposed, using suitable combinations of mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of dynamics. Some advantages and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. tabs

  11. MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING METHODS AND PRODUCTION PLAN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM SOLVING IN METAL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Tunjo Perić; Željko Mandić

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the production plan optimization in the metal industry considered as a multi-criteria programming problem. We first provided the definition of the multi-criteria programming problem and classification of the multicriteria programming methods. Then we applied two multi-criteria programming methods (the STEM method and the PROMETHEE method) in solving a problem of multi-criteria optimization production plan in a company from the metal industry. The obtained resul...

  12. 73 Industrial symbiosis software: software and method to facilitate industrial symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immanuel Geesing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bedrijven gaan tegenwoordig vooral lineair om met hun materialen. Grondstoffen komen binnen, worden verwerkt tot producten en hun afval wordt afgevoerd. Binnen één bedrijf ziet dit er logisch uit, maar in een systeem van meerdere bedrijven is te zien dat dit efficiënter kan. Als het afval van een bedrijf gebruikt zou worden als grondstof door een ander bedrijf, ontstaat er industriële symbiose. Daardoor worden er minder grondstoffen verbruikt en worden bruikbare restmaterialen niet verspild. Om bedrijven te helpen bij het zoeken naar partners voor zulke uitwisselingen, is de software InduSym ontwikkeld. Met de software kunnen bedrijven hun grondstoffen en restmateriaal invoeren in een database. Een algoritme doorzoekt deze database en presenteert in een rapport de kansen om te komen tot een symbiotische uitwisseling van reststromen.

  13. Report of minutes of government-industry meeting on filters, media, and media testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    This session, following the precedents of earlier meetings, related the operating requirements placed on the high efficiency filter and the capacity of industry to meet them. To this end, the collected talents of the assembled body were unified toward the problems of the particulate filter, its components, and its methods of test. The following seven subjects were discussed: round robin paper test program; DOP (di-octyl phthalate) carcinogenicity; DOP substitute (thermal); DOP substitute (air); filter materials in corrosive environments; fire retardant filter frames; and filter unit leakage. Highlights of the session are: results of the round robin filter exchange test program to ascertain the accuracy and reproducibility of the Q127 filter media tester indicated that the overall agreement between the widely dispersed instruments were much better than expected and previously determined; the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expected to issue in the near future an intelligence bulletin, pointing out that some carcinogenic effect was noted of DOP from bioassay data; it was recommended that polyethylene glycol 400 be accepted as a substitute for DOP in thermal generators; for the Laskin-type air-operated generators, dioctyl sebacate appeared to give the most promising results; a strong recommendation was made that all polyurethane foams be excluded from specifications and use where the filter unit will be exposed to acid environments; filter unit leakage was attributed to a lack of or insufficient adhasive and/or improper application of adhesie

  14. Enzymatic catalysis treatment method of meat industry wastewater using lacasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V

    2015-01-01

    The process of meat industry produces in a large amount of wastewater that contains high levels of colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). So they must be pretreated before their discharge into the ecological system. In this paper, enzymatic catalysis (EC) was adopted to treat the meat wastewater. Box-Behnken design (BBD), an experimental design for response surface methodology (RSM), was used to create a set of 29 experimental runs needed for optimizing of the operating conditions. Quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the colour and COD removals. The experimental results show that EC could effectively reduce colour (95 %) and COD (86 %) at the optimum conditions of enzyme dose of 110 U/L, incubation time of 100 min, pH of 7 and temperature of 40 °C. RSM could be effectively adopted to optimize the operating multifactors in complex EC process.

  15. Industry-Oriented Laboratory Development for Mixed-Signal IC Test Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Haffner, M.; Yoder, S.; Scott, M.; Reehal, G.; Ismail, M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is lacking qualified integrated circuit (IC) test engineers to serve in the field of mixed-signal electronics. The absence of mixed-signal IC test education at the collegiate level is cited as one of the main sources for this problem. In response to this situation, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at…

  16. METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE COST MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunina Iryna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper deals with the actual issues of managing the costs of industrial enterprises, because in the conditions of an unstable market environment the financial performance depends on the efficiency of the cost management system, competitiveness, financial sustainability and investment attractiveness of any subject of economic activity. Purpose of the article is analys is of approaches to cost management, theoretical substantiation and development of recommendations regarding the formation of strategic cost management. Results. The economic content of cost management in the treatment of different authors and on different approaches: functional, process-oriented and system approaches has been considered. Their essence and features, the direction for operational or strategic management of expenses of the enterprise, ways of spending management in different approaches are determined. It is stated that all considered approaches to cost management of enterprises are aimed at optimal use of resources and ensuring the growth of the efficiency of enterprises. Conclusions. Based on the review of methodological approaches to cost management, recommendations are developed for expanding the implementation of cost management at various levels of enterprise management and the formation of strategic cost management within the framework of strategic management of an enterprise. The strategic cost management is complex category aimed at achieving a rational level of costs in the long run, which allows for the consideration of competitive cost advantages and increase the competitiveness of an industrial enterprise. The implementation of cost reduction strategies should be a constant and important part of the company’s work, while the strategy of cost reduction should be integrated into the overall business strategy of the enterprise.

  17. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  18. Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the modern pregnancy test to the sandwich assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The universities are encouraged by the government nowadays to stimulate innovations and also to provide the proper machinery for assisting the protection and commercialisation of innovations. A better understanding of the innovation process may help to create an atmosphere suitable for inventions at the university. Examples can be taken from successful innovations previously made at the university. During the 1960's I made a series of inventions, which ultimately led to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry. The first, which I made as an undergraduate, was a simple and reliable test kit for diagnosis of pregnancy. This was followed by the solid phase radioimmunoassay and a solid phase assay for vitamin B12; next, the dual specific non-competitive sandwich assay and the in-vitro test for diagnosis of allergy, called RAST (Radioallergosorbent test). Organon in Holland with the pregnancy test kit, and Pharmacia in Sweden with test kits for radioimmunoassay, became pioneers among the diagnostic test kit industries. Pharmacia Diagnostics later became one of the leading diagnostic test kit companies in the world and has continued to be so in the field of allergy diagnosis. Each one of these inventions started with a few unique observations leading to a technical development. The pregnancy test as well as the allergy test emerged from the development of assay methods with unique qualities with the subsequent search for appropriate applications. The foreseeing of a commercial value on a future market was a very important step. This was followed by the search for a suitable industry interested to exploit the invention with its new business opportunity i.e. apply for a patent, produce and market the products, which in my case consisted of the necessary reagents and equipments for particular diagnostic tests. Finally, an agreement had to be settled between the entrepreneur and the inventors. This report describes these inventions and particularly discusses some

  19. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  20. Methods of supervision in the uranium industry; Les methodes de controle dans l'industrie de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prugnard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In its broad sense the supervision applied to uranium refining is not appreciably different from that found in ordinary industry. It should be noted however that the main preoccupation will be exceptional purity in the final product, and constant vigilance must be directed towards conforming with the accepted safety standards in such an organisation. The various problems at issue and the steps taken to solve them will be discussed successively. (author) [French] L'aspect general du controle dans le raffinage de l'uranium ne differe pas sensiblement de celui que l'on peut rencontrer dans les industries classiques. Il conviendra cependant de remarquer que le souci dominant visera plus a l'obtention d'un produit final de purete exceptionnelle et qu'une vigilance de tous les instants sera necessaire pour respecter les normes de securite dans une telle entreprise. On etudiera successivement les divers objectifs a atteindre et l'organisation mise en oeuvre pour les realiser. (auteur)

  1. Categorized napping, a sensometric tool for food and beverage industry. An application to a hall test session

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov, Belchin Adriyanov

    2010-01-01

    Sensory analysis is the standard analysis of foods made with the senses. Under the name of sensometrics regroup statistical methods address to this type of data. An important application area of sensory analysis is the wine industry. The companies are beginning to see the potential of sensory analysis and they are organizing more hall test sessions every passing day to learn about their products and use these results to improve their production and marketing. However, yet these m thods ...

  2. Industrial development of a simulation method for ore recovery evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deraisme; De Fouquet; Fraisse

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of downstream geostatistics is to provide to engineers, responsible for mining project studies, with a method for predicting the ore reserve recovery coming from different mining methods and for choosing the best one according to economic criteria. In the case of the BEN LOMOND uranium deposit, the metal recovery at the production stage depends on the geometry of mineralized lenses. For the first step of this study the usual technique for constructing a numerical model of deposit has been used. But this does not reproduce the geological structures very precisely. The recovered reserves have been computed for three more or less selective mining methods. This has been done inputing the outlines of stopes on a digitalizer. In the case of a cut and fill method an automatic algorithm for the optimization under constraints has been developed [fr

  3. Numerical methods in image processing for applications in jewellery industry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrla, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Presented thesis deals with a problem from the field of image processing for application in multiple scanning of jewelery stones. The aim is to develop a method for preprocessing and subsequent mathematical registration of images in order to increase the effectivity and reliability of the output quality control. For these purposes the thesis summerizes mathematical definition of digital image as well as theoretical base of image registration. It proposes a method adjusting every single image ...

  4. A novel method of freeform surface grinding with a soft wheel based on industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sheng-chun; Guo, Xiao-ling

    2011-08-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for high-quality images, optical elements of freeform surface are more and more applied to imaging system. However the fabrication of freeform surface optical elements is much more difficult than that of traditional spherical ones. Recent research on freeform surface manufacture often deals with precision machine tools which have limitations on dimensions and are always expensive. Little has been researched on industrial robots. In this paper, a new method of freeform surface grinding based on industrial robots was found. This method could be applied to both whole surface grinding as well as partial surface grinding. The diameter of lenses to be ground would not be restricted to the machine tool's size. In this method a high-speed-rotating soft wheel was used. The relation between removing amount and grinding time which could be called removing function was established and measured. The machining precision was achieved by means of controlling the grinding time instead of the machine tool or industrial robot itself. There are two main factors affecting the removing function: i).rotating speed of the soft wheel; ii).pressure between the wheel and the work piece. In this paper, two groups of experiments have been conducted. One is the removing function tested at constant rotating speed while under different pressure. The other is that tested under a certain pressure with variable speed. Tables and curves which can show the effect of speed and pressure on the removing efficiency have been obtained. Cause for inaccuracy between experiment data and calculated result according to the theory and the non-linearity in the curves was analyzed. Through these analyses the removing function could be concluded under certain condition including rotating speed and pressure. Finally several experiments were performed to verify the appropriateness of the removing function. It could also be concluded that this method was more efficient in comparison

  5. Application of thin layer activation method to industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masago; Hatakeyama, Noriko

    1996-01-01

    A thin layer activation method was reviewed for non-destructive, rapid, precise and real-time measurement of wear and corrosion. The review included wear measurement, the principle of the method, actual measurement, application, and laws and regulations. The method is to activate the material surface alone by accelerated ions like p, d and He ions produced by cyclotron, Van de Graaf apparatus or other accelerators and to utilize the yielded radioisotopes as a tracer, is widely used in the tribology field, and is more useful than the previous method with the reactor since it activated the whole material. Application of the method was reportedly resulted in saving the 80% cost and 90% time in the wear measurement of automobile parts such as engine and transmission. Actually, the activated material was combined into the part to be run and the radioactivity was to be measured externally or in the worn particles suitably collected. The activation thickness was generally in the range of 10-200 μm and the resultant radioactivity, 0.2-2 MBq. In most cases in Japan, the method would be under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc. (K.H.)

  6. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., “Determination of Hydrogen Halide and Halogen Emissions from Stationary Sources—Isokinetic Method,” to determine... shall be 60 minutes and the minimum sample volume 0.85 dry standard cubic meters (30 dry standard cubic...(mg/dscm) is concentration in milligrams per dry standard cubic meter as calculated by the procedure...

  7. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system (Separate volume); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensa system no hyoka hoho no hyojunka (bessatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The separate volume included the proceedings of the re-consignee joint meeting on the standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system, the proceedings/data of the meeting of the committee of the standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system, etc. The data of the meeting are about a plan to execute the standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system, standardization of forms for reporting the results of the genetic test, a trial guideline for standardization of the genetic testing, standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system, etc. Moreover, the volume included 11 literature papers overseas on the above-mentioned themes, 'reports on the surveys in Europe and the U.S. on the standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system,' etc. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system (Separate volume); 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensa system no hyoka hoho no hyojunka (bessatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The separate volume included the proceedings of the re-consignee joint meeting on the standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system, the proceedings/data of the meeting of the committee of the standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system, etc. The data of the meeting are about a plan to execute the standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system, standardization of forms for reporting the results of the genetic test, a trial guideline for standardization of the genetic testing, standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system, etc. Moreover, the volume included 11 literature papers overseas on the above-mentioned themes, 'reports on the surveys in Europe and the U.S. on the standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system,' etc. (NEDO)

  9. Leak test method and test device for iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Miura, Noboru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1995-01-01

    An air introduction device which can change a humidity is disposed upstream of an iodine filter to be tested, and a humidity measuring device is disposed downstream of the iodine filter respectively. At first, dried air reduced with humidity is flown from the air introduction device to the iodine filter, to remove moisture content from an iodine adsorber in the iodine filter. Next, air at an increased humidity is supplied to the iodine filter. The difference between the time starting the supply of the highly humid air and the time detecting the high humidity at the humidity measuring device is measured. When the time difference is smaller than the time difference measured previously in a normal iodine filter, it shows the presence of leak in the iodine filter to be tested. With such procedures, leakage in the iodine filter which removes radioactive iodine from off-gases discharged from the radioactive material handling facilities can be detected easily by using water (steams), namely, a naturally present material. (I.N.)

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods A Appendix A to Part 63... to Part 63—Test Methods Method 301—Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods from Various Waste Media 1. Applicability and principle 1.1Applicability. This method, as specified in the applicable...

  11. Methods and models for the construction of weakly parallel tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, J.J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1990-01-01

    Methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests, that is, tests with the same test information function. A mathematical programing model for constructing tests with a prespecified test information function and a heuristic for assigning items to tests such that their information

  12. HEURISTIC METHODS FOR TEST SEQUENCING IN TELECOMMUNICATION SATELLITES

    OpenAIRE

    Boche-Sauvan , Ludivine; Cabon , Bertrand; Huguet , Marie-José; Hébrard , Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; The increasing complexity in telecommunication satellite payload design demands new test sequencing approaches to face the induced increase of validation complexity. In such a sequencing problem, each test requires specific payload equipment states at a dedicated temperature range. The industrial objectives are both to reduce the total time of tests and to keep the thermal stability of the payload. For solving ...

  13. Methods for treating hydrocarbon recovery operations and industrial waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, N.E.S.; Asperger, R.G.

    1989-05-02

    This patent describes a method for consisting adding to the emulsion an effective demulsifying amount of a composition comprising a compound containing: an alkane triyl group of 1 to 30 carbon atoms; an alkylene group of 1 to 30 carbon atoms; and an alkali or alkaline earth metal group or an ammonium group.

  14. Possibilities of Particle Finite Element Methods in Industrial Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J.; Cante, J. C.; Weyler, R.; Hernandez, J.

    2007-04-01

    The work investigates the possibilities offered by the particle finite element method (PFEM) in the simulation of forming problems involving large deformations, multiple contacts, and new boundaries generation. The description of the most distinguishing aspects of the PFEM, and its application to simulation of representative forming processes, illustrate the proposed methodology.

  15. Disruption Management in the Airline Industry - Concepts, Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    the reality faced in operations control and the decision support offered by the commercial it-systems targeting the recovery process. Though substantial achievements have been made with respect to solution methods, and hardware has become much more powerful, even the most advanced prototype systems...

  16. A new bricklayers' method for use in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, P.A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; Vroome, E.M.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of raised bricklaying on physical workload, reported musculoskeletal disorders, sickness absence, and job satisfaction. Methods: A controlled intervention study with a follow-up period of 10 months was performed among 202 bricklayers

  17. A new bricklayers' method for use in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, P.A.; Bongers, P.M.; de Vroome, E.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of raised bricklaying on physical workload, reported musculoskeletal disorders, sickness absence, and job satisfaction. METHODS: A controlled intervention study with a follow-up period of 10 months was performed among 202 bricklayers

  18. Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.

    1981-11-01

    Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

  19. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  20. TEST OF SPEED OF ADJUSTMENT TOWARDS THE CAPITAL STRUCTURE IN INDONESIA TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Hendrawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to test whether or not the pecking order theory occurred in telecommunicationindustry in Indonesia and also in its speed of adjustment. Using the purposive sampling method and taking 7years period of data collection from 2006 up to 2012, the data were gathered from the companies’ financialstatement. The data were analyzed using the random effect model of Hausman test with interest bearing debt asits dependent variable and deficit as its independent variable. Finding from this research showed that peckingorder theory was not applied in the telecommunication industry in Indonesia and it was quite different from thefinding of Huang & Ritter (2009 that publicly traded firms in US adjusted to their target leverage at amoderate speed with a period of 3.9 years. It also discovered that the fastest growth of the speed of adjustmentwas shown by XL Axiata with -493.96% per year, and then Bakrie Telecom with -65.62%. Indosat and TelkomIndonesia showed a different behavior with a slower speed of adjustment Indosat with 13.22%, and TelkomIndonesia with 274.14% slower.

  1. Multi-frequency eddy current testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Gallet, G.

    1980-01-01

    Monitoring by multi-frequency eddy currents has been used since 1975 in French nuclear stations; this method applies perfectly to examinations in non-irradiated surroundings. The restrictions connected with operations in controlled zones (radioactivity) have led to the development of a delayed analysis device which in no way changes the principle of the method, but allows greater flexibility of use by reducing the volume of equipment needed and by limiting the intervention of personnel to a strict minimum [fr

  2. Review of Test Theory and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    literature, although some books , technical reports, and unpub- lished literature have been included where relevant. The focus of the review is on practical...1977) and Abu-Sayf (1977) developed new versions of formula scores, and Molenaar (1977) took a Bayesian approach to correcting for random guessing. The...Snow’s (1977) book on aptitude and instructional methods is a landmark review of the research on the interaction between instructional methods and

  3. Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Petrovski, B. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IFW)

    2004-07-01

    The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elasticcreep, elastic compliance measurements.

  4. A history of the early days of personality testing in American industry: an obsession with adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibby, Robert E; Zickar, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    Objective personality testing began with Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet in 1917. That test was developed to identify soldiers prone to nervous breakdowns during enemy bombardment in World War I (WWI). Soon after, many competing personality tests were developed for use in industry. Many of these tests, like Woodworth's, focused on the construct of employee maladjustment and were deemed important in screening out applicants who would create workplace disturbances. In this article, the authors review the history of these early personality tests, especially the Bernreuter Personality Inventory and the Humm-Wadsworth Temperament Scale, and discuss the implications of personality testers' obsession with the construct of employee maladjustment. In addition, the authors discuss the industry's obsession with emotional maladjustment and how this obsession coincided with a cultural shift in norms relating to cultural expression.

  5. 16 CFR 1513.4 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS..., gradually apply a 33-lbf (147-N) force in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the large end of the... Figure 2 of this part into the portion of the boundary to be tested, with the plane of the template in...

  6. 16 CFR 1213.4 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY... orientation”). Then gradually apply a 33-lbf (147-N) force in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the... Figure 2 of this part into the portion of the boundary of the opening to be tested, with the plane of the...

  7. Comparison of sine dwell and broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of modal tests for large complex spacecraft structural systems are outlined. The comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods, are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantage or disadvantage of each method is examined. The usefulness or shortcomings of the methods are given from a practical engineering viewpoint.

  8. On sine dwell or broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    For large, complex spacecraft structural systems, the objectives of the modal test are outlined. Based on these objectives, the comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantages or disadvantages of each method are examined. The usefulness or shortcoming of the methods are given from a practicing engineer's view point.

  9. On the assessment of usability testing methods for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markopoulos, P.; Bekker, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper motivates the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing. It introduces a methodological framework for delineating comparative assessments of usability testing methods for children participants. This framework consists in three

  10. Classification of solid industrial waste based on ecotoxicology tests using Daphnia magna: an alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The adequate treatment and final disposal of solid industrial wastes depends on their classification into class I or II. This classification is proposed by NBR 10.004; however, it is complex and time-consuming. With a view to facilitating this classification, the use of assays with Daphnia magna is proposed. These assays make possible the identification of toxic chemicals in the leach, which denotes the presence of one of the characteristics described by NBR 10.004, the toxicity, which is a sufficient argument to put the waste into class I. Ecotoxicological tests were carried out with ten samples of solid wastes of frequent production and, on the basis of the results from EC(I50/48h of those samples in comparison with the official classification of NBR 10.004, limits were established for the classification of wastes into class I or II. A coincidence in the classification of 50% of the analyzed samples was observed. In cases in which there is no coherence between the methods, the method proposed in this work classifies the waste into class I. These data are preliminary, but they reveal that the classification system proposed here is promising because of its quickness and economic viability.

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart... 3 Table 3 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in appendix A to part 60. 2...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods 3 Table 3 of Subpart..., Subpt. AAAAAAA, Table 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63—Test Methods For * * * You must use * * * 1. Selecting the sampling locations a and the number of traverse points EPA test method 1 or 1A in...

  13. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, D.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes two atmomospheric methods for the monitoring and detection of underground nuclear explosions: Near infrasound technique, and ionospheric monitoring. Ground motion from underground explosions cause induced air pressure perturbations. The ionospheric technique utilizes the very strong air pressure pulse which is launched straight up above an underground explosion. When the pressure disturbance reaches the ionosphere, it becomes a 10 % pressure perturbation. Detection involves sending radio waves through the ionosphere with transmitters and recievers on the ground. Radar analysis yields interpretable signals. The near infrasound method detects the signal which is projected into the side lobes of the main signal. Both of the atmospheric methods were utilized on the monitoring of the NPE underground chemical explosion experiment. Results are described.

  14. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Oehlenschläger, J.

    1997-01-01

    Current work in a European concerted action project 'Evaluation of Fish Freshness' (AIR3 CT94-2283) focuses on harmonizing research activities in the area of fish freshness evaluation in leading fish laboratories in Europe (see Box 1). The overall aim of the concerted action project is to validat...... measurements with respect to fish freshness evaluation. In this article, the different subgroups have summarized changes that occur in fish and methods to evaluate fish freshness as a first step towards the definition of criteria for fish freshness...

  15. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid testing constitutes a cost-effective experimental full scale testing method. The method was introduced in the 1960's by Japanese researchers, as an alternative to conventional full scale testing and small scale material testing, such as shake table tests. The principle of the method...... is performed on a glass fibre reinforced polymer composite box girder. The test serves as a pilot test for prospective real-time tests on a wind turbine blade. The Taylor basis is implemented in the test, used to perform the numerical simulations. Despite of a number of introduced errors in the real...... is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...

  16. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. DOE sponsored research investigating atmospheric infrasound as a means of detecting both atmospheric and underground nuclear tests. Various detection schemes were examined and were found to be effective for different situations. It has been discovered that an enhanced sensitivity is realizable for the very lowest frequency disturbances by detecting the infrasound at the top of the atmosphere using ratio sound techniques. These techniques are compared to more traditional measurement schemes

  17. The MIND method: A decision support for optimization of industrial energy systems - Principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Changes in complex industrial energy systems require adequate tools to be evaluated satisfactorily. The MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems) is a flexible method constructed as decision support for different types of analyses of industrial energy systems. It is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linkoeping University in Sweden. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modelled and analyzed using the MIND method. In this paper the principles regarding the use of the method and the creation of constraints of the modelled system are presented. Two case studies are also included, a dairy and a pulp and paper mill, that focus some measures that can be evaluated using the MIND method, e.g. load shaping, fuel conversion and introduction of energy efficiency measures. The case studies illustrate the use of the method and its strengths and weaknesses. The results from the case studies are related to the main issues stated by the European Commission, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, improvements regarding security of supply and increased use of renewable energy, and show great potential as regards both cost reductions and possible load shifting.

  18. Study on the Application of PSA Method on Non-Nuclear Industry Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Sofrany E; Anhar R Antariksawan; Sony T, D.T.; Puradwi IW; Sugiyanto; Giarno

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary study related to utilization of probabilistic method in non-nuclear industry facilities has been conducted The study has been performed by examining literature studies and results of research paper related to the topic. The objective of this study is to know how far the method, which is a standard in the nuclear industry, is applied in the non-nuclear fields. The PSA application in the non-nuclear process industry is mainly performed as risk management. The concept of risk management enables a systematic and realistic framework to be established for accident prevention as a whole process of hazard identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation, control measures establishment, its implementation. The most important part of this study is indeed the hazard identification and risk estimation in order to assess the consequences and to estimate event probability. The risk assessment methodology, which is also used in the probabilistic assessment of nuclear and non-nuclear industry, is performed both quantitatively and qualitatively approached by several technique analysis. Based on literature and research paper study, there are 3 main technique analysis, which can be applied in the risk management of non-nuclear industry, which are fault tree analysis (FTA), event tree analysis (ETA), and Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOPS). The potential hazard arise in the non-nuclear process industry are flammability hazard; toxicity hazard; reactivity hazard; and elevated pressure hazard The fault tree analysis has been practically applied in the petroleum industry, chemical industry, and also other industry for improvement of safety installation by modification in the installation design or operation procedures. The event tree analysis has been applied only limited in the chemical process industry or other process industry. On the other application, HAZOPS technique can be combined with the event tree analysis with approach of accident scenario identification

  19. Data-driven fault detection for industrial processes canonical correlation analysis and projection based methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Zhiwen Chen aims to develop advanced fault detection (FD) methods for the monitoring of industrial processes. With the ever increasing demands on reliability and safety in industrial processes, fault detection has become an important issue. Although the model-based fault detection theory has been well studied in the past decades, its applications are limited to large-scale industrial processes because it is difficult to build accurate models. Furthermore, motivated by the limitations of existing data-driven FD methods, novel canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and projection-based methods are proposed from the perspectives of process input and output data, less engineering effort and wide application scope. For performance evaluation of FD methods, a new index is also developed. Contents A New Index for Performance Evaluation of FD Methods CCA-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Stationary Processes Projection-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Dynamic Processes Benchmark Study and Real-Time Implementat...

  20. EPA Method 614: The Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 614 describes procedures for preparation and analysis of samples for determination of organophosphate pesticides in industrial and municipal discharges using a GC with a phosphorus-specific flame photometric detector (FPD).

  1. Final Rule: NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Alternative Monitoring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is extending its approval for the use of an alternative method to show compliance with hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry

  2. X-rays for industry: Non-destructive testing helps Malaysia’s competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plonsky, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial testing using nuclear technology has contributed to the competitiveness of Malaysia’s manufacturing sector, industry players have said. The country has also built itself an export niche in South-East Asia, offering non-destructive testing (NDT) with nuclear devices to manufacturers in neighbouring countries. “The fact that we can get NDT services of a good quality level at a very reasonable price allows us to spend more money on inspection, and thus improve our competitiveness as well as the level of safety of our plant,” said Zamaludin Ali, senior engineer at oil company PETRONAS. Before the development of a local NDT industry and accreditation system for testing services, PETRONAS and other companies in Malaysia had to rely on foreign NDT providers, or local companies hiring operators certified abroad, he explained. NDT using nuclear techniques involves the use of ionizing radiation to test the quality of finished products. It is based on the same principle as X-rays used in hospitals. Oil pipes, boilers, pressure vessels, aircraft equipment and ships are among the products whose quality is tested with the technique. The IAEA has played an important role in helping Malaysia to establish accredited training agencies and a certification system, and to promote NDT technologies such as radiographic testing. As a result of this longstanding partnership, over 50 companies in Malaysia, employing more than 2000 technicians, are certified to carry out NDT testing.

  3. Method of treating radioactive waste waters from uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priban, V.; Novak, L.; Zubcek, L.; Hinterholzinger, O.

    1987-01-01

    radioactive mine waters with suspended solid particles and acid salinated solutions from the process of underground leaching of radioactive ores with sulfuric acid, are discharged in a specified ratio to a common sump. The acid salinated solutions are used as a coagulation agent for the treatment of radioactive mine waters. Both solutions are mixed at simultaneous addition of lime milk suspension. In a sedimentation tank, the precipitate thus produced is sedimented and the clarified water is carried from the tank to a public water flow. The advantages of the method include the treatment of an over-balance 3 m 3 /min of acid salinated solutions from the process of underground leaching of radioactive ores with sulfuric acid, and reduction in the cost of radioactive mine water treatment. (E.S.)

  4. MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING METHODS AND PRODUCTION PLAN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM SOLVING IN METAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the production plan optimization in the metal industry considered as a multi-criteria programming problem. We first provided the definition of the multi-criteria programming problem and classification of the multicriteria programming methods. Then we applied two multi-criteria programming methods (the STEM method and the PROMETHEE method in solving a problem of multi-criteria optimization production plan in a company from the metal industry. The obtained results indicate a high efficiency of the applied methods in solving the problem.

  5. Methods for measuring the emission of dust in the air from the industrial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petsovska-Gjorgjevich, M.

    2006-01-01

    Two methods are used for measuring the emission of dust in the air from the industrial objects. The first is gravimetrical method, measuring of particular matter in flowing gases, using GRAVIMAT SHC 502 sampler, and the second is optoelectronic method working with the transmission light principle with extinction output, using OMD 41 in-situ dust monitor. Both methods are explained theoretically and the probe measurement is fulfilled for one of our industrial objects. The two methods are connected, because of the necessity of the implementation of the results from the first measurements in the second ones which are continual for long time. (Author)

  6. Systematic evaluation of nondestructive testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Y.; Notea, A.; Segal, E.

    1977-01-01

    The main task of an NDT engineer is to select the best method, considering the cost-benefit value of different available systems and taking into account the special existing constraints. The aim of the paper is to suggest a tool that will enable characterization of measuring systems. The derivation of the characterization parameters and functions has to be general, i.e., suitable for all possible measuring methods, independent of their principle of operation. Quite often the properties measured during the NDT procedure are not the wanted ones, but there must be a correlation between the measured property and the performance of the product. One has to bear in mind that the ultimate choice between systems is not, in practice, just based on the mathematical optimization approach that is presented. Factors like cost-benefit, availability of trained manpower, service, real-time information, weight, volume, etc., may be crucial problems, and they may well dictate the final selection

  7. An entrepreneurial physics method and its experimental test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert

    2012-02-01

    As faculty in a master's program for entrepreneurial physics and in an applied physics PhD program, I have advised upwards of 40 master and doctoral theses in industrial physics. I have been closely involved with four robust start-up manufacturing companies focused on physics high-technology and I have spent 30 years collaborating with industrial physicists on research and development. Thus I am in a position to reflect on many articles and advice columns centered on entrepreneurship. What about the goals, strategies, resources, skills, and the 10,000 hours needed to be an entrepreneur? What about business plans, partners, financing, patents, networking, salesmanship and regulatory affairs? What about learning new technology, how to solve problems and, in fact, learning innovation itself? At this point, I have my own method to propose to physicists in academia for incorporating entrepreneurship into their research lives. With this method, we do not start with a major invention or discovery, or even with a search for one. The method is based on the training we have, and the teaching we do (even quantum electrodynamics!), as physicists. It is based on the networking we build by 1) providing courses of continuing education for people working in industry and 2) through our undergraduate as well as graduate students who have gone on to work in industry. In fact, if we were to be limited to two words to describe the method, they are ``former students.'' Data from local and international medical imaging manufacturing industry are presented.

  8. Methods and models for the construction of weakly parallel tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, J.J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1992-01-01

    Several methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests [i.e., tests with the same test information function (TIF)]. A mathematical programming model that constructs tests containing a prespecified TIF and a heuristic that assigns items to tests with information functions that are

  9. Further comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulacsy, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1997-05-23

    The Bayesian method for belief updating proposed in Racz (1996) is examined. The interpretation of the belief function introduced therein is found, and the method is compared to the classical binary Sequential Probability Ratio Testing method (SPRT). (author).

  10. Analysis of hydrogen separation methods in low pressure industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milidoni, M.; Somoza, J.; Borzone, E.M.; Blanco, M.V.; Cestau, D.; Baruj, A.; Meyer, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present strategies for removing part of the hydrogen contained in a tank of 500 1 at a total pressure of 95 kPa. Hydrogen is mixed with other gases in a relation 95:5. The gas is generated as an end product during the production of radioisotopes. Main impurities are N 2 , humidity and activated gases. Two separation methods are proposed: one of them based on the use of a commercial Pd/Cu membrane, while the other involves the use of materials capable of forming metal hydrides (HFM). Characterization of hydrogen separation properties using a Pd/Cu membrane from pure H 2 and H 2 /Ar mixture were performed in the laboratory. We present simulations of a device containing HFM of the LaNi 5 -xSnx (0.x.0,5), using the properties of reaction with hydrogen measured in our laboratory. The performance of the different options was evaluated. Results were compared using as evaluation criteria the value of the pressure in the tank after 3 h of separation process and the time needed to separate the same amount of hydrogen generated during a batch of the process (author)

  11. TEXTILE INDUSTRY APPLICATION OF THE 5S METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca BRAD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the 5S method, developed to ensure ergonomics in the workplace, productivity growth, reducing defects and increasing cleaning. 5S is a fundamental tool to promote continuous improvement process in organizations and represents a transformation in 5 steps of a job, which is characterized by maximum efficiency at the micro level and minimum loss. The tools which can be used for implementing could be the Kaizen circles for training, analysis and implementation, as well as visual elements, posters or graphics. The 5 phases are Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke, which can be translate as Sort, Set in order, Scrub, Standardize, and Sustain, focusing on orderliness and being applied especially in Japanese factories. The stages includes inputs objectives related to the efficiency and effectiveness of the process, but also subjective, which refers to moral values, education, training, culture. For each S stage, the most important elements which are underlying the implementation and maintain the compliance are described. Any company that applied the 5S program will have quick and visible results, reducing different types of waste. The final section presents a case study and some rules in order to sustain the designed standards and implement a continuous quality improvement. The concluding remarks could be considered as work instructions in order to implement the 5S rules.

  12. Modern industrial devices of X-ray radioscopy and fluorography for nondestructive testing of welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, B.I.; Sosnin, F.R.; Luk'yanenko, Eh.A.; Veselovskij, L.N.; Kanter, B.M.; Zhdanov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Technical data on industrial X-ray television systems with new convertors are given. The convertors are characterized by high sensitivity, defect detectability, lower noise level as compared to earlier produced equipment. Flu uorographic installation for testing welded joints of thick metals is described

  13. Computer control system for sup 6 sup 0 Co industrial DR nondestructive testing system

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Hai Jun

    2002-01-01

    The author presents the application of sup 6 sup 0 Co industrial DR nondestructive testing system, which including the control of step-motor, electrical protection, computer monitor program. The computer control system has good performance, high reliability and cheap expense

  14. Industrial Arts Test Development, Book III. Resource Items for Graphics Technology, Power Technology, Production Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This booklet is designed to assist teachers in developing examinations for classroom use. It is a collection of 955 objective test questions, mostly multiple choice, for industrial arts students in the three areas of graphics technology, power technology, and production technology. Scoring keys are provided. There are no copyright restrictions,…

  15. Incremental Approach to the Technology of Test Design for Industrial Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Drobintsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to effort reduction in developing test suites for industrial software products based on the incremental technology. The main problems to be solved by the incremental technology are full automation design of test scenarios and significant reducing of test explosion. The proposed approach provides solutions to the mentioned problems through joint co-working of a designer and a customer, through the integration of symbolic verification with the automatic generation of test suites; through the usage of an efficient technology with the toolset VRS/TAT.

  16. Internal quality evolution of a large test system – an industrial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Attila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our empirical observations related to the evolution of a large automated test system. The system observed is used in the industry as a test tool for complex telecommunication systems, itself consisting of more than one million lines of source code. This study evaluates how different changes during the development have changed the number of observed Code Smells in the test system. We have monitored the development of the test scripts and measured the code quality characteristics over a five years period.

  17. Industrial applications of formal methods to model, design and analyze computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Craigen, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Formal methods are mathematically-based techniques, often supported by reasoning tools, that can offer a rigorous and effective way to model, design and analyze computer systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate international industrial experience in using formal methods. The cases selected are representative of industrial-grade projects and span a variety of application domains. The study had three main objectives: · To better inform deliberations within industry and government on standards and regulations; · To provide an authoritative record on the practical experience of formal m

  18. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  19. Reliability of non-destructive testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhoven, M.J.G.

    1988-01-01

    This contribution regards the results of an evaluation of the reliability of radiography (X-rays and gamma-rays), manual-, and mechanized/automated ultrasonic examination by generally accepted codes/rules, with respect to detection, characterization and sizing/localization of defects. The evaluation is based on the results of examinations, by a number of teams, of 30 test plates, 30 and 50 mm thickness, containing V,U, X and K-shaped welds each containing several types of imperfections (211) in total) typical for steel arc fusion welding, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of fusion or penetration and cracks. Besides, some results are presented obtained from research on advanced UT-techniques, viz. the time-of-flight-diffraction and flaw-tip deflection technique. (author)

  20. Reliability of non-destructive testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven, M J.G. [Ministry of Social Affairs, (Netherlands)

    1988-12-31

    This contribution regards the results of an evaluation of the reliability of radiography (X-rays and gamma-rays), manual-, and mechanized/automated ultrasonic examination by generally accepted codes/rules, with respect to detection, characterization and sizing/localization of defects. The evaluation is based on the results of examinations, by a number of teams, of 30 test plates, 30 and 50 mm thickness, containing V,U, X and K-shaped welds each containing several types of imperfections (211) in total) typical for steel arc fusion welding, such as porosity, inclusions, lack of fusion or penetration and cracks. Besides, some results are presented obtained from research on advanced UT-techniques, viz. the time-of-flight-diffraction and flaw-tip deflection technique. (author). 4 refs.

  1. Test equating, scaling, and linking methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling, and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals.  In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling, and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests, and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably.  Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology, and...

  2. Post-Decontamination Vapor Sampling and Analytical Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    is decontaminated that could pose an exposure hazard to unprotected personnel. The chemical contaminants may include chemical warfare agents (CWAs... decontamination process. Chemical contaminants can include chemical warfare agents (CWAs) or their simulants, nontraditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial...a range of test articles from coupons, panels, and small fielded equipment items. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vapor hazard; vapor sampling; chemical warfare

  3. Kinematic parameter calibration method for industrial robot manipulator using the relative position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, In Chul

    2008-01-01

    A new calibration method for industrial robot system calibration on a manufacturing floor is presented in this paper. To calibrate the robot system, a laser sensor to measure the distance between robot tool and measurement surface is attached to the robot end-effector and a grid is established in the floor. Given two position command pulses for a robot manipulator and using the position difference between two command pulses, the relative position measurement calibration method will find the real robot kinematic parameters. The procedures developed have been applied to an industrial robot. Finally, the effects of the models used to calibrate the robot are discussed. This calibration method represents an effective, low cost and feasible technique for the industrial robot calibration in lab. projects and industrial environments

  4. New reference object for metrological performance testing of industrial CT systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Hiller, Jochen; Cantatore, Angela

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new reference object, so called “CT ball plate”, used for metrological performance testing of industrial CT systems, and discusses both the calibration procedure using a tactile coordinate measuring machine and the first results carried out using an industrial CT scanner....... This artefact can be used to determine several characteristics of the CT system like, probing errors of spheres, length measuring errors between sphere centers, measurement errors in the whole CT volume and effects in connection with image artefacts....

  5. Results on testing pilot industrial batch of SC magnets for the UNK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, A.I.; Andreev, N.I.; Balbekov, V.I.; Chirkov, P.N.; Dolzhenkov, V.I.; Gertsev, K.F.; Gridasov, V.I.; Myznikov, K.P.; Smirnov, N.L.; Sychev, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    IHEP has developed and studied the superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles of the regular part of the UNK main ring which satisfy the requirements imposed on them. The pilot-industrial batch of the UNK SC magnets has been produced now. The reproducibility of the magnet characteristics is studied and the mass production technology is optimized with this batch. The results of the cryogenic tests and the magnetic field measurements for the UNK SC dipoles of the pilot-industrial batch are presented. (author) 5 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Research on industrialization of electric vehicles with its demand forecast using exponential smoothing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanglin Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Electric vehicles industry has gotten a rapid development in the world, especially in the developed countries, but still has a gap among different countries or regions. The advanced industrialization experiences of the EVs in the developed countries will have a great helpful for the development of EVs industrialization in the developing countries. This paper seeks to research the industrialization path & prospect of American EVs by forecasting electric vehicles demand and its proportion to the whole car sales based on the historical 37 EVs monthly sales and Cars monthly sales spanning from Dec. 2010 to Dec. 2013, and find out the key measurements to help Chinese government and automobile enterprises to promote Chinese EVs industrialization. Design/methodology: Compared with Single Exponential Smoothing method and Double Exponential Smoothing method, Triple exponential smoothing method is improved and applied in this study. Findings: The research results show that:  American EVs industry will keep a sustained growth in the next 3 months.  Price of the EVs, price of fossil oil, number of charging station, EVs technology and the government market & taxation polices have a different influence to EVs sales. So EVs manufacturers and policy-makers can adjust or reformulate some technology tactics and market measurements according to the forecast results. China can learn from American EVs polices and measurements to develop Chinese EVs industry. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is to use the triple exponential smoothing method to forecast the electric vehicles demand and its proportion to the whole automobile sales, and analyze the industrial development of Chinese electric vehicles by American EVs industry.

  7. Methods for testing of geometrical down-scaled rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    further developed since then. Structures in composite materials are generally difficult and time consuming to test for fatigue resistance. Therefore, several methods for testing of blades have been developed and exist today. Those methods are presented in [1]. Current experimental test performed on full...

  8. Testing method for ceramic armour and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    TNO developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this alternative test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armour are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  9. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  10. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - SSST Testing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Huntsville, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-03-25

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the methods used for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis during the IDCA program. These methods changed throughout the Proficiency Test and the reasons for these changes are documented in this report. The most significant modifications in standard testing methods are: 1) including one specified sandpaper in impact testing among all the participants, 2) diversifying liquid test methods for selected participants, and 3) including sealed sample holders for thermal testing by at least one participant. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study will suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. The testing performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  11. Mathematical methods for quantification and comparison of dissolution testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranić, Edina; Mehmedagić, Aida; Hadzović, Sabira

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, drug release/dissolution from solid dosage forms has been the subject of intense and profitable scientific developments. Whenever a new solid dosage form is developed or produced, it is necessary to ensure that drug dissolution occurs in an appropriate manner. The pharmaceutical industry and the registration authorities do focus, nowadays, on drug dissolution studies. The quantitative analysis of the values obtained in dissolution/release tests is easier when mathematical formulas that express the dissolution results as a function of some of the dosage forms characteristics are used. This work discusses the analysis of data obtained for dissolution profiles under different media pH conditions using mathematical methods of analysis described by Moore and Flanner. These authors have described difference factor (f1) and similarity factor (f2), which can be used to characterise drug dissolution/release profiles. In this work we have used these formulas for evaluation of dissolution profiles of the conventional tablets in different pH of dissolution medium (range of physiological variations).

  12. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of evaluation method of the genetic testing system; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojunka kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Idenshi kensa system no hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Aiming at applying standards as international standards, an experimental study was conducted on the standardization of the genetic testing system in Japan and abroad. The FY 1999 results were summarized. As to the unification of testing data processing, analysis of the present state and experimental study were made on the following: sampling method for appropriate testing, selection of anti-coagulants, method to preserve specimens, method to transport them, description of clinical observations in test request paper, method to evaluate performance of test reagents including restriction enzyme, temperature calibration method for equipment, sterilization method, incineration method of specimens, long-term storage of DNA samples, etc. The results were proposed as standard operation procedures after study/discussion at the comprehensive survey committee. Concerning the setting of criteria values in data analysis and the standardization of report form, survey/study were conducted also on ethical/legal/social problems from an aspect of privacy protection of patients. As a result, a total system from the reception of genetic testing to the report making was prepared. (NEDO)

  13. SmartUnit: Empirical Evaluations for Automated Unit Testing of Embedded Software in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chengyu; Yan, Yichen; Zhou, Hanru; Yao, Yinbo; Wu, Ke; Su, Ting; Miao, Weikai; Pu, Geguang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at the automated unit coverage-based testing for embedded software. To achieve the goal, by analyzing the industrial requirements and our previous work on automated unit testing tool CAUT, we rebuild a new tool, SmartUnit, to solve the engineering requirements that take place in our partner companies. SmartUnit is a dynamic symbolic execution implementation, which supports statement, branch, boundary value and MC/DC coverage. SmartUnit has been used to test more than one...

  14. Comparison of System Identification Methods using Ambient Bridge Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Peeters, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method, the stocha......In this paper the performance of four different system identification methods is compared using operational data obtained from an ambient vibration test of the Swiss Z24 highway bridge. The four methods are the frequency domain based peak-picking methods, the polyreference LSCE method...

  15. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Research and development project for quick-effect type international standards for creating new industries (Standardization of quality and testing methods of automobile fuels and lubricants); 1999 nendo sokkogata kokusai hyojun sosei kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Jidoshayo nenryo nado no seihin hinshitsu shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The research and development project is conducted for the method of evaluating the effects of fuel oils on automobile engines (combustion chamber deposit), testing of valve trains of diesel engines, and testing the effects of gasoline engine oil on oil seal rubber (oil seal compatibility), with the objective to propose the international standards. In the study of the combustion chamber deposit, the combustion chamber deposit method is applied to the road running mode, to clarify that this method is well correlated with the market conditions. In the study of wear of the valve train of diesel engines, the two diesel engine oils, now adopted by the European valve train wear testing method, are applied to the JASO testing method, to clarify that the JASO method is internationally applicable. It is concluded that these two methods can contribute to the international standardization. In the study of the oil seal compatibility, the effects of testing period and engine oil type are investigated, to clarify that this method should be further developed to serve as the international standard. (NEDO)

  16. Mechatronics in the mining industrie. With (development) method towards success; Mechatronik im Bergbau. Mit (Entwicklungs-) Methode zum Erfolg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Thorsten; Bruckmann, Tobias [Mercatronics GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2009-10-01

    Germany is a high-wage country. Hence the internationally competitive extraction of raw materials in Germany can only be ensured by highly efficient working processes. Tackling the associated extreme requirements on road-driving, coal winning and transport equipment has resulted in the German mining industry and its suppliers achieving the role of an international leader in technology. To safeguard this position also in the future the successful mechanisation will now be followed by the mechatronisation in the mining industry. Efficiency will be increased by (partial) automation and assistance systems. This contribution is a first step towards a series of articles, which explain the principles of mechatronic development methods in the mining industry and will make the development engineers in the mines aware of the high potential of mechatronics in the mining industry. (orig.)

  17. Standard test methods for arsenic in uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These test methods are applicable to the determination of total arsenic in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) by atomic absorption spectrometry. Two test methods are given: Test Method A—Arsine Generation-Atomic Absorption (Sections 5-10), and Test Method B—Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (Appendix X1). 1.2 The test methods are equivalent. The limit of detection for each test method is 0.1 μg As/g U when using a sample containing 0.5 to 1.0 g U. Test Method B does not have the complete collection details for precision and bias data thus the method appears as an appendix. 1.3 Test Method A covers the measurement of arsenic in uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) solutions by converting arsenic to arsine and measuring the arsine vapor by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.4 Test Method B utilizes a solvent extraction to remove the uranium from the UO2F2 solution prior to measurement of the arsenic by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. 1.5 Both insoluble and soluble arsenic are measured when UF6 is...

  18. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  19. Assessment and testing of industrial devices robustness against cyber security attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilaro, F.; Copy, B.

    2012-01-01

    CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research),like any organization, needs to achieve the conflicting objectives of connecting its operational network to Internet while at the same time keeping its industrial control systems secure from external and internal cyber attacks. Devices robustness represents a key link in the defense-in-depth concept as some attacks will inevitably penetrate security boundaries and thus require further protection measures. CERN - in collaboration with Siemens - has designed and implemented a dedicated working environment, the Test-bench for Robustness of Industrial Equipment. Such tests attempt to detect possible anomalies by exploiting corrupt communication channels and manipulating the normal behavior of the communication protocols, in the same way as a cyber attacker would proceed. Our approach consists of analyzing protocol implementations by injecting malformed PDUs (Protocol Data Unit) to corrupt the normal behaviour of the system. As a PDU typically has many fields, the number of possible syntactically faulty PDUs grows exponentially with the number of fields. In this document, we proposed a strategy to explore this huge test domain using a hybrid approach of fuzzing and syntax techniques, specifically developed to evaluate industrial device communication robustness. So far, not all the tests can be integrated into automatic tools, human analysis and management is necessary to discover and investigate specific possible failures

  20. A Teaching Method on Basic Chemistry for Freshman : Teaching Method with Pre-test and Post-test

    OpenAIRE

    立木, 次郎; 武井, 庚二

    2003-01-01

    This report deals with a teaching method on basic chemistry for freshman. This teaching method contains guidance and instruction to how to understand basic chemistry. Pre-test and post-test have been put into practice each time. Each test was returned to students at class in the following weeks.

  1. On the use of quantitative methods in the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Østergaard, Peder; Kristensen, Kai

    1997-01-01

    Executive summary 1. The paper examines the use of quantitative methods in the Danish food industry and a comparison is made between the food industry and other manufacturing industries. Data was collected in 1991 and 107 manufacturing companies filled in the questionnaire. 20 of the companies were...... orientation is expected to lead to a more intensive use of proactive methods. It will be obvious to compare results from the new investigation with the results presented in this report in order to identify any trends in the use of quantitative methods....... in this paper does not lead to any striking differences between food companies and other manufacturing companies. In both cases there is a heavy concentration on methods used to analyze internal processes. 4. The increasing focus on food products ready for consumption and the general increase in focus on market...

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field- investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans

  3. Batch Test Screening of Industrial Product/Byproduct Filter Materials for Agricultural Drainage Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J. Allred

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Filter treatment may be a viable means for removing the nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and pesticides discharged with agricultural drainage waters that cause adverse environmental impacts within the U.S. on local, regional, and national scales. Laboratory batch test screening for agricultural drainage water treatment potential was conducted on 58 industrial product/byproduct filter materials grouped into six categories: (1 high carbon content media; (2 high iron content media; (3 high aluminum content media; (4 surfactant modified clay/zeolite; (5 coal combustion residuals; and (6 spent foundry sands. Based on a percent contaminant removal criteria of 75% or greater, seven industrial products/byproducts were found to meet this standard for NO3− alone, 44 met this standard for PO43−, and 25 met this standard for the chlorinated triazine herbicide, atrazine. Using a 50% or greater contaminant removal criteria, five of the industrial product/byproduct filter materials exhibited potential for removing NO3−, PO43−, and atrazine together; eight showed capability for combined NO3− and PO43− removal; 21 showed capability for combined PO43− and atrazine removal; and nine showed capability for combined NO3− and atrazine removal. The results of this study delineated some potential industrial product/byproduct filter materials for drainage water treatment; however, a complete feasibility evaluation for drainage water treatment of any of these filter materials will require much more extensive testing.

  4. A method of beam control for NFZ-10 industrial irradiation linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Minghua

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally negative feedback coming from output beam is used to stabilize output beam by regulating filament voltage of bombarding diode electron gun. The authors analysed the shortcomings of the method in detail and put forward a new method of regulating bombarding high voltage in NFZ-10 industrial irradiation linac. Output beam with high stability and high accuracy was obtained

  5. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for testing and evaluating plastic optical fiber; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Plastic hikari fiber no shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies were made about methods for testing and evaluating plastic optical fiber (POF) for the purpose of submitting a proposition to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) for the methods to be internationally standardized. In this fiscal year, tests and analyses were conducted relative to the effects of the light source emission area size, wavelength, and axial displacement. Next, underfilled launch was studied from a practical viewpoint, and a method using a mode filter was proposed. Finally, round robin tests were conducted for each of the companies using overfilled launch and underfilled launch, and the reproducibility of measured values was grasped. In this fiscal year, a new study added, which involved a method for measuring structural parameters. Though POF was below standard as an object of IEC's gray scale method, yet it was found, thanks to the recently developed CCD (charge coupled device) cameras, that the method might also be applicable to POF. A groundwork plan was drafted on band test methods including the overfilled launch method toward international standardization. (NEDO)

  6. Integrated automatic non-destructive testing in industrial production and in the operation of technical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, P.

    1989-01-01

    The article deals with non-destructive testing (NDT) in automated manufacture and in the automated operation of industrial plant. In both areas of application, the tests are coupled to the process (real time operation) and the results are used for the control of manufacture or of the course of the process. The control process can be coupled to the process in open loop or closed loop. The subject is explained by the following examples: 1) Automated testing of sheets in a steelworks. 2) Automatic NDT on machine parts in tempering and machining by the 3MA system (3MA: micro-magnetic, multi-parameter, micro-structure and stress analysis). 3) Automated ultrasonic testing in manufacture and in the operation of plants with the ALOK data collection and processing system (ALOK: amplitude, running time, location curves). 4) Automated wheel running surface test on Intercity experimental train, and 5) automated level measurement on BWR pressure vessels. (orig./MM) [de

  7. New product testing and the utilization of user expertise: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Salomo, Søren; Schultz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    A significant and often neglected obstacle in new product development is the testing and approval process in the late stages of development. The testing process has primarily been observed as an in-house decision process, however, in many industries products undergo extensive testing before marke....... Further, with a dispersed user network a positive effect is observed on the mean to communicate directly as issues occur. The effect of virtual communication is therefore stronger than traditional face-to-face interaction patterns.......A significant and often neglected obstacle in new product development is the testing and approval process in the late stages of development. The testing process has primarily been observed as an in-house decision process, however, in many industries products undergo extensive testing before market...... the knowledge generated and shared by medical sites and Pharmaceutical producers in late stage product development. The results show, that information regarding usage patterns and product related services are more difficult to transfer between user and developer, than issues directly related to the product...

  8. Compatibility tests between Solar Salt and thermal storage ceramics from inorganic industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, Fabrice; Falcoz, Quentin; Veron, Emmanuel; Py, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESEM and XRD characterizations have been performed. • Compatibility of these ceramics with the conventional binary Solar Salt is tested at 500 °C. • Tested ceramics have relevant properties to store thermal energy up to 1000 °C. • Feasibility of using ceramics as filler materials in thermocline is demonstrated. - Abstract: This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using several post-industrial ceramics as filler materials in a direct thermocline storage configuration. The tested ceramics, coming from several industrial processes (asbestos containing waste treatment, coal fired power plants or metallurgic furnaces) demonstrate relevant properties to store thermal energy by sensible heat up to 1000 °C. Thus, they represent at low-cost a promising, efficient and sustainable approach for thermal energy storage. In the present study, the thermo-chemical compatibility of these ceramics with the conventional binary Solar Salt is tested at medium temperature (500 °C) under steady state. In order to determine the feasibility of using such ceramics as filler material, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) characterizations have been performed to check for their chemical and structural evolution during corrosion tests. The final objective is to develop a molten salt thermocline direct storage system using low-cost shaped ceramic as structured filler material. Most of the tested ceramics present an excellent corrosion resistance in molten Solar Salt and should significantly decrease the current cost of concentrated solar thermal energy storage system

  9. TESTING METHODS FOR MECHANICALLY IMPROVED SOILS: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petkovšek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of in-situ mechanical improvement for reducing the liquefaction potential of silty sands was investigated by using three different techniques: Vibratory Roller Compaction, Rapid Impact Compaction (RIC and Soil Mixing. Material properties at all test sites were investigated before and after improvement with the laboratory and the in situ tests (CPT, SDMT, DPSH B, static and dynamic load plate test, geohydraulic tests. Correlation between the results obtained by different test methods gave inconclusive answers.

  10. Non-destructive testing - Industrial X-ray and gamma-ray radiology - Vocabulary. 1. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This International Standard defines terms used in industrial radiographic testing. In addition to terms and definitions given in two of the three official ISO languages (English and French) this International Standard also gives the equivalent terms and definitions in the German language; these are published under the responsibility of the member body for Germany (DIN). Only the terms given in the official ISO languages are considered ISO terms and definitions

  11. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  12. A method for energy and exergy analyses of product transformation processes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Khalil, B.

    2008-12-01

    After a literature survey enabling the determination of the advantages and drawbacks of existing methods of assessment of the potential energy gains of an industrial site, this research report presents a newly developed method, named Energy and Exergy Analysis of Transformation Processes (or AEEP for Analyse energetique et exergetique des procedes de transformation), while dealing with actual industrial operations, in order to demonstrate the systematic character of this method. The different steps of the method are presented and detailed, one of them, the process analysis, being critical for the application of the developed method. This particular step is then applied to several industrial unitary operations in order to be a base for future energy audits in the concerned industry sectors, as well as to demonstrate its generic and systematic character. The method is the then applied in a global manner to a cheese manufacturing plant, all the different steps of the AEEP being applied. The author demonstrates that AEEP is a systematic method and can be applied to all energy audit levels, moreover to the lowest levels which have a relatively low cost

  13. Industrial Tests to Modify Molten Copper Slag for Improvement of Copper Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Congcong

    2018-04-01

    In this article, to improve the recovery of copper from copper slag by flotation process, industrial tests of the modification process involving addition of a composite additive into molten copper slag were conducted, and the modified slag was subjected to the flotation process to confirm the modification effect. The phase evolution of the slag in the modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that more copper was transformed and enriched in copper sulfide phases. The magnetite content in the modified slag decreased, and that of "FeO" increased correspondingly, leading to a better fluidity of the molten slag, which improved the aggregation and growth of fine particles of the copper sulfide minerals. Closed-circuit flotation tests of the original and modified slags were conducted, and the results show that the copper recovery increased obviously from 69.15% to 73.38%, and the copper grade of concentrates was elevated slightly from 20.24% to 21.69%, further confirming that the industrial tests of the modification process were successful. Hence, the modification process has a bright future in industrial applications for enhancing the recovery of copper from the copper slag.

  14. Generating and testing methods for consumer-oriented product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    In order to obtain a good insight into various design methods that can be used by product developers to enable them to develop and test useful domotics products (domotics: intelligent systems for the home), an inventory has been made of the methods used in the Netherlands. The inventory is directed at two categories of methods: (1) Methods of getting better acquainted with the user and/or the problem, and of generating novel solutions: generative methods; and (2) Methods of assessing solutions (through various phases of the designing process): testing methods. The first category of methods concentrates on the designing process. In other words: how can the designer realise as much as possible of the workability of (domotics) products during the designing process? The second category aims at testing a design (in whatever shape: drawing, prototype, functional computer animation, etc.) through its users. These are methods of assessing a design at various stages of the designing process [nl

  15. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with indu......This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience......’s experience with defining the scope of the system and with identifying water flow constraints and water quality constraints is discussed. It is shown, how physical constraints for the system design often set a limit for the sophistication of the water recycle network and thereby also a limit for how...... sophisticated the method for system design should be. Finally, pinch analysis and system designs for water recycling in a practical case study are shown, documenting large water saving potentials and achievements....

  16. Rfa method application for determination of heavy metals content in foods and industrial raw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of improvement of the people's lives quality is considered to be of the highest priority according to the U N classification. It is known that its solution lies with the quality of drinking water and foods, which is defined, to a great extent, by the ecological situation of a concrete living region. As a rule, the existing methods of food analysis are mostly meant for determination of one chemical substance in a certain food. The analysis methods developed by authors are versatile and allow determining the quantitative content of Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Pb, Bi in the widely used basic foods and industrial raw products according to the common analytical scheme. The methods sensitivity allows determining the MCL of the toxic substances in foods and industrial raw products, specified in 'Medical and biological requirements and health-related quality standards in regards to the industrial raw products and foods

  17. Industry's View on Using Quality Control, Biorelevant, and Clinically Relevant Dissolution Tests for Pharmaceutical Development, Registration, and Commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Haiyan; Elder, David; Webster, Gregory K; Mao, Yun; Lin, Yiqing; Flanagan, Talia; Mann, James; Blanchard, Andy; Cohen, Michael J; Lin, Judy; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Hermans, Andre; Abend, Andreas; Zhang, Limin; Curran, David

    2018-01-01

    This article intends to summarize the current views of the IQ Consortium Dissolution Working Group, which comprises various industry companies, on the roles of dissolution testing throughout pharmaceutical product development, registration, commercialization, and beyond. Over the past 3 decades, dissolution testing has evolved from a routine and straightforward test as a component of end-product release into a comprehensive set of tools that the developer can deploy at various stages of the product life cycle. The definitions of commonly used dissolution approaches, how they relate to one another and how they may be applied in modern drug development, and life cycle management is described in this article. Specifically, this article discusses the purpose, advantages, and limitations of quality control, biorelevant, and clinically relevant dissolution methods. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of test methods for mould growth in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonderup, Sirid; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Knudsen, Sofie Marie

    2016-01-01

    renovation needs. This is of importance when hidden surface testing would require destructive measures and subsequent renovation. After identifying available methods on the Danish market for assessing mould growth in dwellings, a case study was conducted to test the usefulness of the methods in four......The purpose of this work is to compare a range of test methods and kits for assessing whether a building structure is infested by mould fungi. A further purpose of this work is to evaluate whether air-based methods for sampling fungal emissions provide information qualifying decisions concerning...... methods measure different aspects relating to mould growth and vary in selectivity and precision. The two types of air samples indicated low levels of mould growth, even where the results of the other methods indicated high to moderate growth. With methods based on culture and DNA testing some differences...

  19. Transfer of Knowledge Management Methods and Tools to and from the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztory, Z.; Gyulay, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The discipline of the knowledge management was firstly introduced in Japan by the leading technology companies like Toyota, Canon, Honda, Mitsubishi, Sharp and others. It means outside the nuclear industry. The nuclear industry organizations including the IAEA started to deal with the knowledge management about ten years later and adapted those approaches, methods and tools developed and used in other industry organizations. After more than fifteen-years of its programmatic existence of the nuclear knowledge management in the IAEA, the trend is turn round in many topics. The nuclear industry organizations have more and more good practices to share with other industries. Meanwhile the world leading companies working in a quickly changing market environment are still developing and using KM practices which can be useful also in the “slowly-changing” nuclear industry environment. In this article we would like to pay attention—through some examples—to the importance of the benchmarking with companies outside the nuclear industry for the further safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities and to educate and train the next nuclear generation. (author

  20. Evaluating core technology capacity based on an improved catastrophe progression method: the case of automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijia; Liu, Zongwei; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Fuquan

    2017-01-01

    Subjectivity usually causes large fluctuations in evaluation results. Many scholars attempt to establish new mathematical methods to make evaluation results consistent with actual objective situations. An improved catastrophe progression method (ICPM) is constructed to overcome the defects of the original method. The improved method combines the merits of the principal component analysis' information coherence and the catastrophe progression method's none index weight and has the advantage of highly objective comprehensive evaluation. Through the systematic analysis of the influencing factors of the automotive industry's core technology capacity, the comprehensive evaluation model is established according to the different roles that different indices play in evaluating the overall goal with a hierarchical structure. Moreover, ICPM is developed for evaluating the automotive industry's core technology capacity for the typical seven countries in the world, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Comparative study of fracture mechanical test methods for concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Olesen, John Forbes

    2004-01-01

    and the interpretation, i.e. the analysis needed to extract the stress-crack opening relationship, the fracture energy etc. Experiments are carried out with each test configuration using mature, high performance concrete. The results show that the UTT is a highly complicated test, which only under very well controlled...... circumstances will yield the true fracture mechanical properties. It is also shown that both the three point bending test and the WST are well-suited substitutes for the uniaxial tension test.......This paper describes and compares three different fracture mechanical test methods; the uniaxial tension test (UTT), the three point bending test (TPBT) and the wedge splitting test (WST). Potentials and problems with the test methods will be described with regard to the experiment...

  2. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Interia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  3. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The...

  4. Methods of Usability Testing in Libraries Web Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Fawzy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A Study about libraries' web sites evaluation, that is the Usability, the study talking about methods of usability testing and define it, and its important in web sites evaluation, then details the methods of usability: questionnaire, core groups, testing experimental model, cards arrangement, and composed evaluation.

  5. First Industrial Tests of a Matrix Monitor Correction for the Differential Die-away Technique of Historical Waste Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, Rodolphe; Passard, Christian; Perot, Bertrand [CEA Cadarache DEN/Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, 13108 Saint-Paul lez Durance (France); Batifol, Marc; Vandamme, Jean-Christophe [Nuclear Measurement Team, AREVA NC, La Hague plant F-50444 Beaumont-Hague (France); Grassi, Gabriele [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (LMN) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor, namely a 3He proportional counter located inside the measurement cavity. After feasibility studies performed with LMN's PROMETHEE 6 laboratory measurement cell and with MCNPX simulations, this paper presents first experimental tests performed on the industrial ACC (hulls and nozzles compaction facility) measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been carried out by performing dedicated calibration measurements with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the modeling approach and the industrial feasibility of the method, which will be implemented on the industrial station for the measurement of historical wastes. (authors)

  6. First Industrial Tests of a Matrix Monitor Correction for the Differential Die-away Technique of Historical Waste Drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, Rodolphe; Passard, Christian; Perot, Bertrand; Batifol, Marc; Vandamme, Jean-Christophe; Grassi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (LMN) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor, namely a 3He proportional counter located inside the measurement cavity. After feasibility studies performed with LMN's PROMETHEE 6 laboratory measurement cell and with MCNPX simulations, this paper presents first experimental tests performed on the industrial ACC (hulls and nozzles compaction facility) measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been carried out by performing dedicated calibration measurements with a representative drum and 235 U samples. The comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the modeling approach and the industrial feasibility of the method, which will be implemented on the industrial station for the measurement of historical wastes. (authors)

  7. FY 2000 Immediate-effect type project for research and development for international standards supporting information technology industries. Standardization of the testing/evaluation methods for displays for information processing devices; 2000 nendo joho sangyo shien sokkogata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Joho shori kikiyo display no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the tests and studies for the methods of testing and evaluating the transparent electroconductive films necessary for production and product evaluation of liquid crystal displays, for their international standardization. The studies are directed to the testing/evaluation methods for internal stresses and adhesion force, surface shapes, and microstructures, and also to surveys on the market/technology trends, and preparation of the international standard drafts, among others. These result in, e.g., development of the quantitative evaluation technologies for internal stresses by the micro-sheet glass method, and surface shapes by atomic force microscopy. The local grain size and orientation are elucidated by transmission electron microscopy, to obtain new knowledge of the microstructures. Various technologies related to adhesion testing/evaluation methods are proposed for ISO/TC206, but it is found none is applicable to transparent electroconductive films. The standard drafts are prepared for standardization of the testing/evaluation methods for internal stresses, adhesion force and surface shapes. (NEDO)

  8. Industrial tests of rhodium self-powered detectors: the Golfech 2 experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourlevat, J.L.; Janvier, D.; Warren, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    In co-operation with Electricite de France (EDF), FRAMATOME has been testing two in-core strings which are equipped with rhodium self-powered detectors (SPDs) in the Golfech Unit 2 reactor (1300 MW, 4L plant) since August 1997. The rhodium SPDs and the strings which support them were designed and built by the US FRAMATOME subsidiary FRAMATOME-COGEMA-FUEL (FCF). The rhodium signals and some other plant parameters are acquired through the use of a specific device designed by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and are processed off-line by FRAMATOME. This demonstration test is planned to last until mid-2000. The following presentation is focused on the results obtained during the first demonstration cycle (from 08/97 to 12/98). The tests that have been conducted consist of checking the rhodium depletion and of comparing the rhodium signals to the movable probes. In order to compensate for the delay in the rhodium signals, a deconvolution algorithm has also been tested. Up to now, the results are very satisfactory and a future large scale industrial application is being discussed with the EDF. The main objective of the next experimentation phase is to test - under industrial conditions - a prototype of an on-line monitoring unit known as the Partial In-Core Monitoring System (PIMS). This system will include 16 rhodium in-core strings and will use an on-line 3-D core model. (authors)

  9. A Multi-Objective Optimization Method to integrate Heat Pumps in Industrial Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Helen; Spinato, Giulia; Maréchal, François

    2011-01-01

    Aim of process integration methods is to increase the efficiency of industrial processes by using pinch analysis combined with process design methods. In this context, appropriate integrated utilities offer promising opportunities to reduce energy consumption, operating costs and pollutants emissions. Energy integration methods are able to integrate any type of predefined utility, but so far there is no systematic approach to generate potential utilities models based on their technology limit...

  10. Adjust the method of the FMEA to the requirements of the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej FELLNER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a summary of current methods used in aviation and rail transport. It also contains a proposal to adjust the method of the FMEA to the latest requirements of the airline industry. The authors suggested tables of indicators Zn, Pr and Dt necessary to implement FMEA method of risk analysis taking into account current achievements aerospace and rail safety. Also proposed acceptable limits of the RPN number which allows you to classify threats.

  11. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Dong-mei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ke-feng; Zou, Tao; Wang, Dong; Qian, Xin-hua

    2016-01-01

    According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production proce...

  12. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of test/evaluation methods of telecommunication use fine ceramics; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Tsushin kikiyo fine ceramics no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to high frequency/ultra-high frequency band use fine ceramics, the R and D were conducted with the aim of establishing the evaluation method of electric characteristics such as dielectric constants and dielectric losses, and at standardizing and internationally standardizing the principle of the measuring method, preparation method of equipment and test pieces, measuring procedures, etc. The FY 1999 results were summed up. As to the measuring method of electric characteristics, enhancement of measuring accuracy was made for the millimeter wave coaxial exciting cavity resonator method and the Fabry Perot method. Further, field survey was made of the developmental trend of the measuring method in Europe and the U.S. Concerning measuring use standard test pieces, candidate materials were trially manufactured, and the shape/dimension of a part of the candidate materials were determined. As to surface basic properties, effects of surface shape and convex/concave faces of test pieces on characteristic evaluation were studied, and it was made clear that convex/concave faces were greatly influential. In the technical committee, how to proceed with the development was discussed in the first meeting, and evaluation methods and candidate standard substances were selected in the second meeting. (NEDO)

  13. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection

  14. The nuclear industry in transition: Methods and effects of cross training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrett, D.M.; Wilczek, T.A.; Armstrong, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    As DOE facilities transition from defense programs to environmental management, cross training is becoming increasingly important as an essential component of change management. When applied to those specific segments of nuclear industry undergoing transition, cross training methods can be especially effective. Use of methodologies such as team approach, change agents, strategic plans, operations plans, specific training, and formal transition techniques can generate many positive benefits to the industry. This paper explores the benefits of cross training, proposes methodology for use when developing cross training for the transition of employees from DOE defense programs to environmental projects, and provides two examples of successful implementation of cross training methods

  15. Application of radioactive methods for the measurement of physical parameters used in industrial nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignan, G.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis presents the development of non-destructive and non-intrusive assay using source of rays (neutrons or gammas) which is external to the system to characterize (activation methods). They are intended to measure physical values used in industrial nuclear plants (Fissile matter concentration, neutronic multiplicity, presence of heavy nuclei...). The presentation is as follows: - Theoretical study of the suggested methods and development of signal processing to ensure the representativeness of the measurement. - Experimental qualification. - Implantation of these techniques in an industrial context [fr

  16. Test methods for protective footwear against AP mine blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, D.S.; Williams, K.; Bass, C.R.; Magnan, P.; Dosquet, F.; Bergeron, D.M.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The testing and development of protective footwear for anti-personnel landmine blast threats is of great importance to civilian and military deminers, and peacekeepers. This study will review the wide range of test methods that have been developed by NATO countries to test footwear against the

  17. Application of Bayesian Methods for Detecting Fraudulent Behavior on Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Producers and consumers of test scores are increasingly concerned about fraudulent behavior before and during the test. There exist several statistical or psychometric methods for detecting fraudulent behavior on tests. This paper provides a review of the Bayesian approaches among them. Four hitherto-unpublished real data examples are provided to…

  18. Evaluation of methods to leak test sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeau, N.D.; Scott, C.K.

    1987-04-01

    The methods for the leak testing of sealed radiation sources were reviewed. One hundred and thirty-one equipment vendors were surveyed to identify commercially available leak test instruments. The equipment is summarized in tabular form by radiation type and detector type for easy reference. The radiation characteristics of the licensed sources were reviewed and summarized in a format that can be used to select the most suitable detection method. A test kit is proposed for use by inspectors when verifying a licensee's test procedures. The general elements of leak test procedures are discussed

  19. Industrial CO2 emissions in China based on the hypothetical extraction method: Linkage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Wenqin; Mao, Guozhu; Cai, Hua; Zuo, Jian; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel-related CO 2 emissions are regarded as the primary sources of global climate change. Unlike direct CO 2 emissions for each sector, CO 2 emissions associated with complex linkages among sectors are usually ignored. We integrated the input–output analysis with the hypothetical extraction method to uncover the in-depth characteristics of the inter-sectoral linkages of CO 2 emissions. Based on China's 2007 data, this paper compared the output and demand emissions of CO 2 among eight blocks. The difference between the demand and output emissions of a block indicates that CO 2 is transferred from one block to another. Among the sectors analyzed in this study, the Energy industry block has the greatest CO 2 emissions with the Technology industry, Construction and Service blocks as its emission's primary destinations. Low-carbon industries that have lower direct CO 2 emissions are deeply anchored to high-carbon ones. If no effective measures are taken to limit final demand emissions or adjust energy structure, shifting to an economy that is low-carbon industries oriented would entail a decrease in CO 2 emission intensity per unit GDP but an increase in overall CO 2 emissions in absolute terms. The results are discussed in the context of climate-change policy. - Highlights: • Quantitatively analyze the characteristics of inter-industrial CO 2 emission linkages. • Propose the linkage measuring method of CO 2 emissions based on the modified HEM. • Detect the energy industry is a key sector on the output of embodied carbon. • Conclude that low-carbon industries are deeply anchored to high-carbon industries

  20. THE PARTICULARITIES OF THE COST CALCULATION METHOD ON COMMANDS IN FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Sabou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the importance of the method on commands in cost calculation and the particularities of the cost calculation method on commands in the furniture industry. This paper presents a hypotetical study on the method on commands, considering the observations made during 2013-2014, on how it is organized and managed accounts management using method on commands.By presenting this hypothetical model about the accounting in management accounting using the method on commands, the paper contributes to the correct application of this method in practice, specifically in management accounting in companies from the furniture industry. In my opinion the method on commands is an appropriate method for achieving management accounting for companies that have as main activity the production of furniture. When applying the method on commands in cost calculation and in management accounting, the companies must to consider the particularities of the cost calculation, in the furniture industry, like: technical and economic factors from this sector, the technical details of each command, the codification of the commands, planning materials and labor costs for each command, monitoring and recording production costs, registration of the direct costs, distribution of the indirect costs on commands, registration of the indirect costs and registration in management accounting.

  1. Stopping test of iterative methods for solving PDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bangrong

    1991-01-01

    In order to assure the accuracy of the numerical solution of the iterative method for solving PDE (partial differential equation), the stopping test is very important. If the coefficient matrix of the system of linear algebraic equations is strictly diagonal dominant or irreducible weakly diagonal dominant, the stopping test formulas of the iterative method for solving PDE is proposed. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the applications of the stopping test formulas

  2. 40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating tanks or chromium anodizing tanks. The sampling time and sample volume for each run of Methods 306... Chromium Anodizing Tanks § 63.344 Performance test requirements and test methods. (a) Performance test... Emissions From Decorative and Hard Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Operations,” appendix A of this...

  3. FY 2000 Development of international standard supporting new industries. Standardization of the test method for performance evaluation for polymer products under critical environment; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kakoku kankyoka ni okeru kobunshi seihin no seino hyoka shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of the testing methods which can adequately predict resistance of polymer products to weather in various areas of largely different environmental conditions. Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the outdoor exposure tests, and the tests in which the samples are exposed to light from a laboratory source and to a solar light-concentrating test unit. The FY 2000 project include the exposure of the samples directly to the outdoor conditions and glass-filtered light, which are continued from the previous year; solar light-concentrating type exposure tests conducted in Arizona, USA, started in this year; and reproduction tests for the exposure to a xenon lamp light, review of short exposure time areas and spectral degradation tests, among others. The program for evaluating the reference materials includes measurement of cumulative property changes of 4 types of plastic and 10 types of rubber materials by the exposure tests. The tests of resistance of plastics to weather have been exposing the samples, stabilized and not stabilized, for 16 months. For the reference candidate samples, the data of exposure for 1 month are collected 16 times. The tests of resistance of the rubber materials to weather reveal that each sample is deteriorated by hardening and deterioration proceeds with time. (NEDO)

  4. Evaluation of Test Method for Solar Collector Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximat...... and the sky temperature. Based on the investigations, recommendations for change of the test methods and test conditions are considered. The investigations are carried out within the NEGST (New Generation of Solar Thermal Systems) project financed by EU.......The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximated...... equation where Tin is the inlet temperature to the collector and Tout is the outlet temperature from the collector. The specific heat of the solar collector fluid is in the test method as an approximation determined as a constant equal to the specific heat of the solar collector fluid at the temperature Tm...

  5. Non-invasive analysis of industrial products using the simultaneous transmission of neutrons and gamma rays (Neugat) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    This research programme is designed to develop industrial measurement systems utilising simultaneous transmission of neutrons and gamma rays (Neugat method). Descriptions of these systems have been given in reports and magazine articles, and industrial site trials have been undertaken. (author)

  6. Study of test methods for radionuclide migration in aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Guo Zede; Wang Zhiming

    1993-01-01

    Aerated zone is an important natural barrier against transport of radionuclides released from disposal facilities of LLRW. This paper introduces study methods for radionuclide migration in aerated zone, including determination of water movement, laboratory simulation test, and field tracing test. For one purpose, results obtained with different methods are compared. These methods have been used in a five-year cooperative research project between CIRP and JAERI for an establishment of methodology for safety assessment on shallow land disposal of LLRW

  7. A review of the evolution of human reliability analysis methods at nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lécio N. de; Santos, Isaac José A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of researches on the application of human reliability analysis methods at nuclear industry and its evolution along the years. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is one of the elements used in Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) and is performed as part of PSAs to quantify the likelihood that people will fail to take action, such as errors of omission and errors of commission. Although HRA may be used at lots of areas, the focus of this paper is to review the applicability of HRA methods along the years at nuclear industry, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). An electronic search on CAPES Portal of Journals (A bibliographic database) was performed. This literature review covers original papers published since the first generation of HRA methods until the ones published on March 2017. A total of 94 papers were retrieved by the initial search and 13 were selected to be fully reviewed and for data extraction after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, quality and suitability evaluation according to applicability at nuclear industry. Results point out that the methods from first generation are more used in practice than methods from second generation. This occurs because it is more concentrated towards quantification, in terms of success or failure of human action what make them useful for quantitative risk assessment to PSA. Although the second generation considers context and error of commission in human error prediction, they are not wider used in practice at nuclear industry to PSA. (author)

  8. A review of the evolution of human reliability analysis methods at nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lécio N. de; Santos, Isaac José A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: lecionoliveira@gmail.com, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews the status of researches on the application of human reliability analysis methods at nuclear industry and its evolution along the years. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is one of the elements used in Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) and is performed as part of PSAs to quantify the likelihood that people will fail to take action, such as errors of omission and errors of commission. Although HRA may be used at lots of areas, the focus of this paper is to review the applicability of HRA methods along the years at nuclear industry, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). An electronic search on CAPES Portal of Journals (A bibliographic database) was performed. This literature review covers original papers published since the first generation of HRA methods until the ones published on March 2017. A total of 94 papers were retrieved by the initial search and 13 were selected to be fully reviewed and for data extraction after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, quality and suitability evaluation according to applicability at nuclear industry. Results point out that the methods from first generation are more used in practice than methods from second generation. This occurs because it is more concentrated towards quantification, in terms of success or failure of human action what make them useful for quantitative risk assessment to PSA. Although the second generation considers context and error of commission in human error prediction, they are not wider used in practice at nuclear industry to PSA. (author)

  9. Testing laboratories, its function in ensuring industrial safety; Los laboratorios de ensayo, su funcion en el aseguramiento de la seguridad industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Fernandez, M.

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses and justifies the development of industrial laboratories (testing and calibration) in Spain, since its embryo, its creation and development, to the present day. Likewise, presents its interrelation with other agents, as well as the legislative and technical framework is application along to the years. Within this development of the sector, highlights the period of the conformity assessment, and consequently its relationship with Industrial safety. Finally, describes the organizational situation of the sector both nationally and internationally. (Author)

  10. Developing a quality by design approach to model tablet dissolution testing: an industrial case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekpe, Ketsia; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Bataille, Bernard; Gosselin, Ryan; Sharkawi, Tahmer; Simard, Jean-Sébastien; Cournoyer, Antoine

    2017-11-02

    This study applied the concept of Quality by Design (QbD) to tablet dissolution. Its goal was to propose a quality control strategy to model dissolution testing of solid oral dose products according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The methodology involved the following three steps: (1) a risk analysis to identify the material- and process-related parameters impacting the critical quality attributes of dissolution testing, (2) an experimental design to evaluate the influence of design factors (attributes and parameters selected by risk analysis) on dissolution testing, and (3) an investigation of the relationship between design factors and dissolution profiles. Results show that (a) in the case studied, the two parameters impacting dissolution kinetics are active pharmaceutical ingredient particle size distributions and tablet hardness and (b) these two parameters could be monitored with PAT tools to predict dissolution profiles. Moreover, based on the results obtained, modeling dissolution is possible. The practicality and effectiveness of the QbD approach were demonstrated through this industrial case study. Implementing such an approach systematically in industrial pharmaceutical production would reduce the need for tablet dissolution testing.

  11. Unit and integration testing of Lustre programs: a case study from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenod-Fosse, P.

    1998-01-01

    LUSTRE belongs to the class of synchronous data flow languages which have been designed for programming reactive and real-time systems having safety-critical requirements. It is implemented in the SCADE tool. SCADE is a software development environment for real-time systems which consists of a graphical and textual editor, and a C code generator. In previous work, a testing approach specific to LUSTRE programs has been defined, which may be applied at either the unit or integration testing levels of a gradual testing process. The paper reports on an industrial case study we have performed to exemplify the feasibility of the testing strategy. The software module, called SRIC (Source Range Instrumentation channel), was developed by SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC in the SCADE environment. SRIC is extracted from a monitoring software system of a nuclear reactor: it approximates 2600 lines of C code automatically generated by SCADE. Section 2 outlines the testing strategy. Then, Section 3 presents the results related to the program SRIC, for which four testing levels were defined (unit testing followed by three successive integration testing levels). First conclusions and direction for future work are proposed in Section 4. (author)

  12. A Teaching Method on Basic Chemistry for Freshman (II) : Teaching Method with Pre-test and Post-test

    OpenAIRE

    立木, 次郎; 武井, 庚二

    2004-01-01

    This report deals with review of a teaching method on basic chemistry for freshman in this first semester. We tried to review this teaching method with pre-test and post-test by means of the official and private questionnaires. Several hints and thoughts on teaching skills are obtained from this analysis.

  13. Analysis of technological innovation in Danish wind turbine industry - including the Test Station for Windturbines dual roll as research institution and certification authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannemand Andersen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to examine the interactions between the Danish wind turbine industry and the Test Station for Wind Turbines. Because these interactions are concerning technological innovation, it follows that the innovation processes within the enterprises must be analyzed and modelled. The study is carried out as an iterative model-developing process using case study methods. The findings from some less structured interviews are discussed with literature and forms a basis for models and new interviews. The thesis is based on interviews with 20 R and D engineers in the Danish wind turbine industry, 7 engineers at The Test Station and 7 people involved in wind power abroad (American and British). The theoretical frame for this thesis is sociology/organizational theory and industrial engineering. The thesis consists of five main sections, dealing with technology and knowledge, innovation processes, organizational culture, innovation and interaction between the Test Station's research activities and the companies' innovation processes, and finally interaction through the Test Stations certification activity. First a taxonomy for technology and knowledge is established in order to clarify what kind of technology the interactions are all about, and what kind of knowledge is transferred during the interactions. This part of the thesis also contains an analysis of the patents drawn by the Danish wind turbine industry. The analysis shows that the Danish wind turbine industry do not use patents. Instead the nature of the technology and the speed of innovation are used to protect the industry's knowledge. (EG) (192 refs.)

  14. 40 CFR 63.1257 - Test methods and compliance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters, or physical or chemical laws or properties... flow rate and concentration; temperature; and the reaction kinetics of the constituents with the... Method 8260 or 8270 in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA...

  15. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of a testing/evaluation method of the performance of polymer products under the severe environment; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kakoku kankyoka ni okeru kobunshi seihin no seino hyoka shiken hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D were conducted with the aim of standardizing a testing method for appropriately predicting weatherability of polymer products also in areas where environmental conditions are largely different and of proposing it to ISO. The FY 1999 results were outlined. In this fiscal year, methods to test weatherability of polymer products abroad and in Japan were surveyed mostly on JIS and ASTM, and the state of tackle with the making of standards in each country was also surveyed. In the tests on plastics and rubber, the following were conducted: selection/fabrication of test pieces, 3-year outdoor exposure tests in three places in Japan where environmental conditions are different, in the U.S. and in Indonesia, artificial light source exposure tests for about 200-1000 hours using xenon lamp, and the subsequent measurement of physical properties. As a result, about plastics, changes were confirmed in case of having no prescription of weatherable stabilizer, and changes in property values were in the range of prediction in case of having prescription. About rubber, changes in physical property after the direct exposure test were large in the U.S. and Indonesia. The effect of antioxidant was recognized. (NEDO)

  16. Experimental Investigation of Properties of Foam Concrete for Industrial Floors in Testing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Jozef; Drusa, Marian; Scherfel, Walter; Sedlar, Bronislav

    2017-12-01

    Foam concrete (FC), as a mixture of cement, water, additives and technical foam, is well known for more than 30 years. It is building material with good mechanical properties, low thermal conductivity, simple and even high technological treatment. Foam concrete contains closed void pores, what allows achieving low bulk density and spare of raw materials. Thanks to its properties, it is usable as a replacement of conventional subbase layers of the industrial floors, the transport areas or as a part of the foundation structures of the buildings. Paper presents the preparation of the testing field (physical model) which was created for experimental investigation of the foam concrete subbase layer of the industrial floor in a real scale.

  17. Review on applied foods and analyzed methods in identification testing of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Hoo Chul; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Kwan Soo; Jeong, Il Yun; Lee, Ju Woon; Yook, Hong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Identification methods of irradiated foods have been adopted as official test by EU and Codex. PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS methods were registered in Korea food code on 2009 and put in force as control system of verification for labelling of food irradiation. But most generally applicable PSL and TL methods are specified applicable foods according to domestic approved items. Unlike these specifications, foods unpermitted in Korea are included in applicable items of ESR and GC/MS methods. According to recent research data, numerous food groups are possible to effective legal control by identification and these items are demanded to permit regulations for irradiation additionally. Especially, the prohibition of irradiation for meats or seafoods is not harmonized with international standards and interacts as trade friction or industrial restrictions due to unprepared domestic regulation. Hence, extension of domestic legal permission for food irradiation can contrive to related industrial development and also can reduce trade friction and enhance international competitiveness

  18. Standard test method for galling resistance of material couples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory test that ranks the galling resistance of material couples using a quantitative measure. Bare metals, alloys, nonmetallic materials, coatings, and surface modified materials may be evaluated by this test method. 1.2 This test method is not designed for evaluating the galling resistance of material couples sliding under lubricated conditions, because galling usually will not occur under lubricated sliding conditions using this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. New methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Mokeshrayalu, G.; Balasiddamuni, P.

    2017-11-01

    This research paper discusses the method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative Nonlinear Least Squares (NLLS) estimator. Takeshi Amemiya [1] explained this method. However in the present research paper, a modified Wald test statistic due to Engle, Robert [6] is proposed to test the nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator. An alternative method for testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals has been proposed. In this research article an innovative method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative restricted NLLS estimator is derived. Pesaran and Deaton [10] explained the methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis. This paper uses asymptotic properties of nonlinear least squares estimator proposed by Jenrich [8]. The main purpose of this paper is to provide very innovative methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator, iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals and iterative restricted NLLS estimator. Eakambaram et al. [12] discussed least absolute deviation estimations versus nonlinear regression model with heteroscedastic errors and also they studied the problem of heteroscedasticity with reference to nonlinear regression models with suitable illustration. William Grene [13] examined the interaction effect in nonlinear models disused by Ai and Norton [14] and suggested ways to examine the effects that do not involve statistical testing. Peter [15] provided guidelines for identifying composite hypothesis and addressing the probability of false rejection for multiple hypotheses.

  20. Nuclear EMP: stripline test method for measuring transfer impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1975-11-01

    A method for measuring the transfer impedance of flat metal joints for frequencies to 100 MHz has been developed which makes use of striplines. The stripline method, which has similarities to the quadraxial method used for cylindrical components, is described and sets of test results are given. The transfer impedance of a simple joint is modeled as a spurious hyperbolic curve, and a close curve fit to transfer impedance test data from various samples is demonstrated for both the stripline and the quadraxial methods. Validity checks of the test data are discussed using the curve model and other criteria. The method was developed for testing riveted joints which form the avionics bays on B-1s. The joints must provide shielding from EMP currents

  1. Contribution to the improvement of the sodium chloride air filter test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaye, J.; Michel, J.

    1977-01-01

    The essential feature of the test method initially developed by the Porton Down Chemical Defence Establishment and modified subsequently by the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell have been adopted for the testing of high efficiency filters by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Equipment for Air Treatment (EUROVENT). The method has also been studied in the context of the ISO. The Heating and Ventilation Industries, Technical Centre (CETIAT), which uses this method, has drawn attention to a number of imperfections which affect reproductibility. It proposes changes which should have the effect of making the method reproducible not only in a given laboratory but also from one laboratory to another. It will then be possible to carry out studies to compare this method with other similar ones, in particular the fluorescin method (Standard NF X 44 011). The work carried out by CETIAT was concerned mainly with the following: aerosol generation, the velocity spectra in sampling sections, photometer calibration

  2. The ion exchange and its connection the industry II.- Calculation methods for installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriarte Hueda, A.; Lopez Perez, B.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.

    1960-01-01

    An exposure is made of calculation methods for ion exchange installations based on kinetic considerations and similarity with other unitary operations. Factors to be experimentally obtained as well as difficulties which may occur in its determination are also given. Calculation procedures most commonly used in industry are enclosed and explained with numerical resolution of a problem of water demineralization. (Author) 22 refs

  3. A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Denis A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

  4. New alternatives to the industrially introduced methods for the sealing of anodized aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, A.; Lizarbe, R.; Otero, E.; Lopez, V.; Gonzalez, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The results shown in this paper allow the design of new processes for the industrial sealing of anodic oxides of aluminium. Thanks to the combination of the cathalitic power of tri ethanolamine (TEA) and the beneficial effects of ageing, the proposed processes offer considerable advantages compared with boiling water sealing and cold sealing, which are the most utilized sealing methods nowadays. (Author) 17 refs

  5. Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems Volume 1: Test Methods for Vehicle Telemetry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Noise Test .......................................................................... 5-106 5.29 Transmitter Bit Error Probability ( BEP ) versus Eb/N0...modulation BC Bus controller BCD Binary coded decimal BCM Bit code modulation BEP Bit error probability BER Bit error rate BPF Band-pass filter BW...5.29 Transmitter Phase Noise Test X X 5.30 Transmitter Bit Error Probability ( BEP ) versus Eb/N0 X (5) X (5) X X X X 5.31 Software

  6. The influence of technical testing methods on perceptions of constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestberg, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    In principle, methods of testing the reliability and safety of constructions are designed with the aim of representing critical conditions for their use. Because of variations within technical systems, including the one for which a certain test was once developed, the validity of the method also varies. The adoption of a standardized test for different applications had to be based on the assumption that the test deals adequately with a real situation. As a consequence of this acceptance of a trustworthy relationship between test and reality, an imprint of the former on the latter occurs. This effect may even cause the perception of a reality to be defined by the corresponding test. Examples of such an influence may be found in the field of materials testing. Related phenomena can be dealt with by reference to current concepts of cognitive science and psychology of the perception of images

  7. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Calle, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as accurately and reliably as current long-term atmospheric exposure tests. This new accelerated test method will shorten the time needed to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of coatings for NASA's critical ground support structures. Lifetime prediction for spaceport structure coatings has a 5-year qualification cycle using atmospheric exposure. Current accelerated corrosion tests often provide false positives and negatives for coating performance, do not correlate to atmospheric corrosion exposure results, and do not correlate with atmospheric exposure timescales for lifetime prediction.

  8. Development and testing of improved statistical wind power forecasting methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.; Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-12-06

    Wind power forecasting (WPF) provides important inputs to power system operators and electricity market participants. It is therefore not surprising that WPF has attracted increasing interest within the electric power industry. In this report, we document our research on improving statistical WPF algorithms for point, uncertainty, and ramp forecasting. Below, we provide a brief introduction to the research presented in the following chapters. For a detailed overview of the state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting, we refer to [1]. Our related work on the application of WPF in operational decisions is documented in [2]. Point forecasts of wind power are highly dependent on the training criteria used in the statistical algorithms that are used to convert weather forecasts and observational data to a power forecast. In Chapter 2, we explore the application of information theoretic learning (ITL) as opposed to the classical minimum square error (MSE) criterion for point forecasting. In contrast to the MSE criterion, ITL criteria do not assume a Gaussian distribution of the forecasting errors. We investigate to what extent ITL criteria yield better results. In addition, we analyze time-adaptive training algorithms and how they enable WPF algorithms to cope with non-stationary data and, thus, to adapt to new situations without requiring additional offline training of the model. We test the new point forecasting algorithms on two wind farms located in the U.S. Midwest. Although there have been advancements in deterministic WPF, a single-valued forecast cannot provide information on the dispersion of observations around the predicted value. We argue that it is essential to generate, together with (or as an alternative to) point forecasts, a representation of the wind power uncertainty. Wind power uncertainty representation can take the form of probabilistic forecasts (e.g., probability density function, quantiles), risk indices (e.g., prediction risk index) or scenarios

  9. Implications of genetic testing for the insurance industry: the UK example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    This report summarises the controversy of genetic tests and insurance, with a focus on the UK situation during the past decade. UK experience provides insight for future strategies to help people with genetic disadvantages make insurance provision for themselves and their families. Non-disclosure of genetic test results (already carried out for clinical purposes) may not benefit people at risk of genetic disorders or with positive genetic tests. The pressure of geneticists over a decade to prevent disclosure to insurers may have masked opportunities to use insurance to provide help for people with genetic disadvantages. To seize the opportunities now, there must be collaboration, not conflict. Politicians, geneticists, social scientists and all elements of the insurance industry can contribute to wise solutions.

  10. Test Method for Spalling of Fire Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2005-01-01

    A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which...... in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the method is quick, cheap and easy to use in comparison to the alternative of testing full-scale or semi full-scale structures with correct humidity, load and boundary conditions. A number of concretes have...

  11. Practice-Oriented Formal Methods to Support the Software Development of Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088632; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Formal specification and verification methods provide ways to describe requirements precisely and to check whether the requirements are satisfied by the design or the implementation. In other words, they can prevent development faults and therefore improve the quality of the developed systems. These methods are part of the state-of-the-practice in application domains with high criticality, such as avionics, railway or nuclear industry. The situation is different in the industrial control systems domain. As the criticality of the systems is much lower, formal methods are rarely used. The two main obstacles to using formal methods in systems with low- or medium-criticality are performance and usability. Overcoming these obstacles often needs deep knowledge and high effort. Model checking, one of the main formal verification techniques, is computationally difficult, therefore the analysis of non-trivial systems requires special considerations. Furthermore, the mainly academic tools implementing different model c...

  12. The Validation of NAA Method Used as Test Method in Serpong NAA Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina-Mulyaningsih, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The Validation Of NAA Method Used As Test Method In Serpong NAA Laboratory. NAA Method is a non standard testing method. The testing laboratory shall validate its using method to ensure and confirm that it is suitable with application. The validation of NAA methods have been done with the parameters of accuracy, precision, repeatability and selectivity. The NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIES 10C Rice flour unpolished and standard elements were used in this testing program. The result of testing with NIST 1573a showed that the elements of Na, Zn, Al and Mn are met from acceptance criteria of accuracy and precision, whereas Co is rejected. The result of testing with NIES 10C showed that Na and Zn elements are met from acceptance criteria of accuracy and precision, but Mn element is rejected. The result of selectivity test showed that the value of quantity is between 0.1-2.5 μg, depend on the elements. (author)

  13. Fiscal 2000 project for development of international standards for supporting novel industries. Standardization of methods for testing and evaluating corrosion resistance of surface treated steel sheets; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo. Hyomenshori kohan no taishokusei hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With a view to presenting the result to ISO (International Organization for Standardization), studies were conducted of accelerated test and evaluation methods capable of promptly reproducing the state of corrosion generated during outdoor exposure tests of surface treated steel sheets. In the study of a wet rate evaluation test, a cycle test was carried out at a wet rate of 25-75% under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, and pH of 2.5, and it was found that a wet rate of 50% was appropriate. For comparison of a rain of pH 2.5 with a rain of pH 3.0 in an acid rain pH evaluation test, a cycle test was conducted at pH 3.0 under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, and a wet rate of 50%, and the result indicated that pH 2.5 was more realistic than pH 3.0. As a comprehensive test, a cycle test was conducted comprising 1 hour of acid rain spray, 4 hours of dry spell, and 3 hours of moist spell under the conditions of an artificial seawater concentration level of 6.0g/L, equivalence ratio of 0.2, wet rate of 50%, and pH of 2.5, and the resultant data were found to be correlative to the data obtained at Naoetsu. Based on the findings, a ground plan was drafted for an international standard relative to methods for testing and evaluating surface treated steel sheets for corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  14. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  15. An novel identification method of the environmental risk sources for surface water pollution accidents in chemical industrial parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfeng; Song, Yonghui; Yuan, Peng; Xiao, Shuhu; Han, Lu

    2013-07-01

    The chemical industry is a major source of various pollution accidents. Improving the management level of risk sources for pollution accidents has become an urgent demand for most industrialized countries. In pollution accidents, the released chemicals harm the receptors to some extent depending on their sensitivity or susceptibility. Therefore, identifying the potential risk sources from such a large number of chemical enterprises has become pressingly urgent. Based on the simulation of the whole accident process, a novel and expandable identification method for risk sources causing water pollution accidents is presented. The newly developed approach, by analyzing and stimulating the whole process of a pollution accident between sources and receptors, can be applied to identify risk sources, especially on the nationwide scale. Three major types of losses, such as social, economic and ecological losses, were normalized, analyzed and used for overall consequence modeling. A specific case study area, located in a chemical industry park (CIP) along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province, China, was selected to test the potential of the identification method. The results showed that there were four risk sources for pollution accidents in this CIP. Aniline leakage in the HS Chemical Plant would lead to the most serious impact on the surrounding water environment. This potential accident would severely damage the ecosystem up to 3.8 km downstream of Yangtze River, and lead to pollution over a distance stretching to 73.7 km downstream. The proposed method is easily extended to the nationwide identification of potential risk sources.

  16. Mechanical/structural performance test method of a spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho

    2000-06-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. In order to develop the spacer grid with the high mechanical performance, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, the mechanical/structural test methods, i.e. the characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple, static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid and dynamic impact test of them are described. The characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple is accomplished with universal tensile test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied compressive load. The characteristic test data is saved at loading and unloading event. The static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid is executed with the same universal tensile testing machine, a specimen is fixed between cross-heads and then applied the compressive load. The buckling strength is decided the maximum strength at load vs. displacement curve. The dynamic impact test of a partial or full size spacer grid is performed with pendulum type impact machine and free fall shock test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied the impact load by impact hammer. Specially, the pendulum type impact test machine is also possible under the operating temperature because a furnace is separately attached with test machine

  17. Standard Test Method for Saltwater Pressure Immersion and Temperature Testing of Photovoltaic Modules for Marine Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand repeated immersion or splash exposure by seawater as might be encountered when installed in a marine environment, such as a floating aid-to-navigation. A combined environmental cycling exposure with modules repeatedly submerged in simulated saltwater at varying temperatures and under repetitive pressurization provides an accelerated basis for evaluation of aging effects of a marine environment on module materials and construction. 1.2 This test method defines photovoltaic module test specimens and requirements for positioning modules for test, references suitable methods for determining changes in electrical performance and characteristics, and specifies parameters which must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be ...

  18. A System of Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2007-01-01

    Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...... appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stamping, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production....

  19. Evaluation of cleaner production options in dyeing and printing industry: Using combination weighting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Haochen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Qin, Chenglu

    2018-03-01

    The textile industry has a high environmental impact so that implementing cleaner production audit is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. But the evaluation method in current cleaner production audit divided the evaluation of CPOs into two parts: environment and economy. The evaluation index system was constructed from three criteria of environment benefits, economy benefits and product performance; weights of five indicators were determined by combination weights of entropy method and factor weight sorting method. Then efficiencies were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the best alkali recovery option was the nanofiltration membrane method (S=0.80).

  20. In Silico Toxicology – Non-Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunio, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    In silico toxicology in its broadest sense means “anything that we can do with a computer in toxicology.” Many different types of in silico methods have been developed to characterize and predict toxic outcomes in humans and environment. The term non-testing methods denote grouping approaches, structure–activity relationship, and expert systems. These methods are already used for regulatory purposes and it is anticipated that their role will be much more prominent in the near future. This Perspective will delineate the basic principles of non-testing methods and evaluate their role in current and future risk assessment of chemical compounds. PMID:21772821

  1. Application of radiotracer method for tightness control and leakage localization in industrial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, J; Walis, L.; Myczkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of 82 Br in the form of gaseous CH 3 Br for tightness control and leakage localization in large industrial apparatus as chemical reactors, columns, vessels, pipelines etc. has been presented. The tracer has been prepared at the place of measurements in a specially designed mobile chemical reactor. The paper presents different variants of the method convenient for: tightness control of underground pipelines, leakage control of technological objects working in chemical and petrochemical industry, tightness control of large metal vessels localized underground and on surface. The radiometric devices used in mentioned variants have ben performed as well

  2. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial heat pump water... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.106 Uniform test method for the measurement...

  3. Relative Merits of Four Methods for Scoring Cloze Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1980-01-01

    Describes study comparing merits of exact answer, acceptable answer, clozentropy and multiple choice methods for scoring tests. Results show differences among reliability, mean item facility, discrimination and usability, but not validity. (BK)

  4. A True-False Test on Methods of Typewriting Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leonard J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a true-false test on typewriting instruction to illustrate the effects of educational lag, publishing practices, and deficiencies in preservice and inservice teacher education upon teaching methods. (SK)

  5. Test Methods for Effects on Organisms:Springtails

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    NORD-UTTE er Nordisk koordineringsgrupp för utvekling av testmetoder inom toxicologi och ekotoxicology. The Nordic Co-ordination Group for the Development of Test Methods for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology

  6. Performance test of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Kim, H.M.; Baik, S.K.; Lee, E.Y.; Lee, J.D.; Kim, Y.C.; Lee, S.H.; Hong, J.P.; Jo, Y.S.; Ryu, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with development activities of high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor at DOOSAN heavy industry and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) in Korea, and is sponsored by DAPAS program which is supported by Korean government. The final aim of the project is realization of HTS motor in the field of industry such as large driving pumps, fans and compressors for utility and industrial environments. At present time, 1 MW HTS motor is developed for the purpose to fully represent the design and manufacturing issues for the larger capacity machine. The number of pole and rotating speed of machine are 2 pole and 3600 rpm. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of neon thermosyphon mechanism and the stator coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper describes status of 1 MW HTS motor development, such as design, fabrication and performance test results, which was conducted at steady state in generator mode and motor mode

  7. From the Kirsch-Kress potential method via the range test to the singular sources method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, R; Schulz, J

    2005-01-01

    We review three reconstruction methods for inverse obstacle scattering problems. We will analyse the relation between the Kirsch-Kress potential method 1986, the range test of Kusiak, Potthast and Sylvester (2003) and the singular sources method of Potthast (2000). In particular, we show that the range test is a logical extension of the Kirsch-Kress method into the category of sampling methods employing the tool of domain sampling. Then we will show how a multi-wave version of the range test can be set up and we will work out its relation to the singular sources method. Numerical examples and demonstrations will be provided

  8. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Johansen, Bjørn Budolph

    on real industrial cases. These tools have been developed in order to simulate and optimize the drying process and reduce drying time and power consumption as well as production process design time and cost of expensive drying equipment. Results show that test methods from other industries can be used...... capacity goals there is a need to understand how to design, control and optimize drying processes. The main focus of this project was on the critical parameters and properties to be controlled in production in order to achieve a stable and predictable drying process. We propose for each of these parameters...... of Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production...

  9. Two micro fatigue test methods for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunomura, Shigetomo; Noguchi, Shinji; Okamura, Yuichi; Kumai, Shinji

    1993-01-01

    This paper demonstrates two miniature fatigue test methods in response to the requirements of the fusion reactor wall materials development program. It is known that the fatigue strength evaluated by the axial loading test is independent of the specimen size, while that evaluated by the bend test or torsion test is dependent upon the size of specimen. The new type of gripping system for the axial, tension-tension, fatigue testing of TEM disk-size specimens that has been developed is described in this paper. An alignment tool assists in gripping the miniature specimen. The miniature tension-tension fatigue test method seems to provide reliable S-N curves for SUS304 and SUS316L stainless steels. An indentation method has also been developed to determine fatigue properties. A hard steel ball or ceramic ball was used for cyclically loading the specimen, and an S-N curve was subsequently obtained. The merit of this method is primarily simple handling. S-N curves obtained from four materials by this indentation method compared well with those obtained from the rotary bend fatigue test employing a standard-size specimen

  10. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  11. Identification and Evaluation of Strategic Decisions in Gas Industry Using DEMATEL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehregan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the fluctuations of oil price in international markets and its effect on global economy, it is expected that gas industry and use of gas as an alternative energy, have become more important. Therefore, identification of strategic decisions in this industry has attracted increasing attention of managers and researchers. This study aims to identify and evaluate strategic decisions in the National Iranian Gas Company, using DEMATEL method for the first time. For data collection, paired comparison questionnaire have been used. The results of the research show that expanding operations to enter a new market, opening and starting up a new plant or facility, expansion of capacity and restructuring are respectively the most important strategic decisions in the industry.

  12. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-13

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  13. Radiation purification of the chemical industry effluents and possibilities of realization of this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petryaev, E.P.; Kovalevskaya, A.M.; Shlyk, V.G.; Savushkin, I.A.; Kazazyan, V.T.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation-chemical methods for synthetic fibre industry effluents purification from cyanides, sulphides and monomers, as well as for disinfection of circulation water and improvement in sedimental and filtering properties of waste active slurry in petrochemical industry are described. Chemical plant effluents are purified by 70-90% from cyanides at the dose rate of 0,3 - 0,5 Mrad, by 60 - 70% from sulphides and monomers at the dose of 0,2 Mrad. Circulation water of petroleum processing plant is disinfected at the dose of 0,08 Mrad; the rates of filtration and sedimentation of waste active slurry increase two and three fold, correspondingly, at the dose of 0,6 Mrad. The power of radiation sources required for the industrial realization of radiation purification of liquid wastes has been calculated

  14. Methodical approaches to solving special problems of testing. Seminar papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This Seminar volume introduces concepts and applications from different areas of application of ultrasonic testing and other non-destructive test methods in 18 lectures, in order to give an idea of new trends in development and stimuli for special solutions to problems. 3 articles were recorded separately for the ENERGY data bank. (orig./MM) [de

  15. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maximum allowable 5-minute pressure increase is 130 mm H2 O (5 in. H2 O). (f) Leak detection test. The leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section... between each leak detection. The duration of the purge shall be in excess of two instrument response times...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1046 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators § 63.1046 Test methods... vapor leakage could occur) on the cover and associated closure devices shall be checked. Potential leak... test, the cover and closure devices shall be secured in the closed position. (3) The detection...

  17. Moisture distribution in sludges based on different testing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi Deng; Xiaodong Li; Jianhua Yan; Fei Wang; Yong Chi; Kefa Cen

    2011-01-01

    Moisture distributions in municipal sewage sludge, printing and dyeing sludge and paper mill sludge were experimentally studied based on four different methods, i.e., drying test, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test, thermogravimetricdifferential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) test and water activity test. The results indicated that the moistures in the mechanically dewatered sludges were interstitial water, surface water and bound water. The interstitial water accounted for more than 50% wet basis (wb) of the total moisture content. The bond strength of sludge moisture increased with decreasing moisture content, especially when the moisture content was lower than 50% wb. Furthermore, the comparison among the four different testing methods was presented.The drying test was advantaged by its ability to quantify free water, interstitial water, surface water and bound water; while TG-DSC test, TG-DTA test and water activity test were capable of determining the bond strength of moisture in sludge. It was found that the results from TG-DSC and TG-DTA test are more persuasive than water activity test.

  18. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D.; Truppa, W.; Aravena, M.; Tamayo, B.

    2015-09-01

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  19. Mirror bootstrap method for testing hypotheses of one mean

    OpenAIRE

    Varvak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The general philosophy for bootstrap or permutation methods for testing hypotheses is to simulate the variation of the test statistic by generating the sampling distribution which assumes both that the null hypothesis is true, and that the data in the sample is somehow representative of the population. This philosophy is inapplicable for testing hypotheses for a single parameter like the population mean, since the two assumptions are contradictory (e.g., how can we assume both that the mean o...

  20. The importance of optical methods for non-invasive measurements in the skin care industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, Georgios N.

    2010-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are concerned with treating skin disease, as well as maintaining and promoting skin health. They are dealing with a unique tissue that defines our body in space. As such, skin provides not only the natural boundary with the environment inhibiting body dehydration as well as penetration of exogenous aggressors to the body, it is also ideally situated for optical measurements. A plurality of spectroscopic and imaging methods is being used to understand skin physiology and pathology and document the effects of topically applied products on the skin. The obvious advantage of such methods over traditional biopsy techniques is the ability to measure the cutaneous tissue in vivo and non-invasively. In this work, we will review such applications of various spectroscopy and imaging methods in skin research that is of interest the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Examples will be given on the importance of optical techniques in acquiring new insights about acne pathogenesis and infant skin development.

  1. Overview of multi-input frequency domain modal testing methods with an emphasis on sine testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Robert W.; Brown, David L.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the current state of the art multiple-input, multiple-output modal testing technology is discussed. A very brief review of the current time domain methods is given. A detailed review of frequency and spatial domain methods is presented with an emphasis on sine testing.

  2. 40 CFR 60.1300 - What test methods must I use to stack test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Administrator for approval under § 60.8(b) to use a reference method with minor changes in... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What test methods must I use to stack test? 60.1300 Section 60.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  3. Test report for cesium powder and pellets inner container decontamination method determination test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the decontamination method determination testing that was performed on three cesium powder and pellets inner container test specimens The test specimens were provided by B and W Hanford Company (BVMC). The tests were conducted by the Numatec Hanford Company (NHC), in the 305 Building. Photographic evidence was also provided by NHC. The Test Plan and Test Report were provided by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations. Witnesses to testing included a test engineer, a BC project engineer, and a BC Quality Assurance (QA) representative. The Test Plan was modified with the mutual decision of the test engineer, the BWHC project engineer, and the BVMC QA representative. The results of this decision were written in red (permanent type) ink on the official copy of the test procedure, Due to the extent of the changes, a summary of the test results are provided in Section 3.0 of this Test Report. In addition, a copy of the official copy field documentation obtained during testing is included in Appendix A. The original Test Plan (HNF-2945) will be revised to indicate that extensive changes were required in the field during testing, however, the test documentation will stand as is (i.e., it will not be retyped, text shaded, etc.) due to the inclusion of the test parameters and results into this Test Report

  4. Satellite Vibration Testing: Angle optimisation method to Reduce Overtesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Charly; Remedia, Marcello; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Richardson, Guy

    2018-06-01

    Spacecraft overtesting is a long running problem, and the main focus of most attempts to reduce it has been to adjust the base vibration input (i.e. notching). Instead this paper examines testing alternatives for secondary structures (equipment) coupled to the main structure (satellite) when they are tested separately. Even if the vibration source is applied along one of the orthogonal axes at the base of the coupled system (satellite plus equipment), the dynamics of the system and potentially the interface configuration mean the vibration at the interface may not occur all along one axis much less the corresponding orthogonal axis of the base excitation. This paper proposes an alternative testing methodology in which the testing of a piece of equipment occurs at an offset angle. This Angle Optimisation method may have multiple tests but each with an altered input direction allowing for the best match between all specified equipment system responses with coupled system tests. An optimisation process that compares the calculated equipment RMS values for a range of inputs with the maximum coupled system RMS values, and is used to find the optimal testing configuration for the given parameters. A case study was performed to find the best testing angles to match the acceleration responses of the centre of mass and sum of interface forces for all three axes, as well as the von Mises stress for an element by a fastening point. The angle optimisation method resulted in RMS values and PSD responses that were much closer to the coupled system when compared with traditional testing. The optimum testing configuration resulted in an overall average error significantly smaller than the traditional method. Crucially, this case study shows that the optimum test campaign could be a single equipment level test opposed to the traditional three orthogonal direction tests.

  5. Standard test method for water in lint cotton by oven evaporation combined with volumetric Karl Fischer Titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The referenced test method for total water content and water regain in lint cotton was developed by USDA scientists in New Orleans at the request of the cotton industry. The method covers the determination of the total water (free and bound) in raw and lint cotton at moisture equilibrium from con...

  6. From Knowledge to Innovation and Back: Empirical Testing of Knowledge-Intensive Industries in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Radovanović

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the technology and knowledge intensive industries, innovation and knowledge use are key elements for competitiveness. Organisations are oriented towards increasing their potential for exploiting innovation and developing knowledge base internally through various techniques employed. This research aims at analysing the relationship between the dynamics of knowledge use and innovation efforts of organisations. Research Design & Methods: The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a survey, while the data of this research were analysed with the application of descriptive statistical method (variance. Findings: The results of the study suggest that realised innovation correlates with the use of knowledge in organisations and that an increase in research and development activities, as well as in patented and non-patented products or services will likely lead to an increase in the volume of internal knowledge use by employees. Implications & Recommendations: The results of this research can be useful for researchers and practitioners in technology and knowledge intensive industries. The findings can be used as a basis for adjusting organisational policies towards developing competitiveness based on the enhancement of the use of existing knowledge and by developing innovation strength. Contribution & Value Added: This paper is a valuable contribution to research fields of organisational management, innovation management, knowledge management, absorptive capacity, and especially innovation management.

  7. Investments Portfolio Optimal Planning for industrial assets management: Method and Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonchampt, Jerome; Fessart, Karine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the method and tool dedicated to optimize investments planning for industrial assets. These investments may either be preventive maintenance tasks, asset enhancement or logistic investment such as spare parts purchase. The three methodological points to investigate in such an issue are: 1. The measure of the profitability of a portfolio of investments 2. The selection and planning of an optimal set of investments 3. The measure of the risk of a portfolio of investments The measure of the profitability of a set of investments in the IPOP (registered) tool is synthesised in the Net Present Value indicator. The NPV is the sum of the differences of discounted cash flows (direct costs, forced outages...) between the situations with and without a given investment. These cash flows are calculated through a pseudo-markov reliability model representing independently the components of the industrial asset and the spare parts inventories. The component model has been widely discussed over the years but the spare part model is a new one based on some approximations that will be discussed. This model, referred as the NPV function, takes for input an investments portfolio and gives its NPV. The second issue is to optimize the NPV. If all investments were independent, this optimization would be an easy calculation, unfortunately there are two sources of dependency. The first one is introduced by the spare part model, as if components are indeed independent in their reliability model, the fact that several components use the same inventory induces a dependency. The second dependency comes from economic, technical or logistic constraints, such as a global maintenance budget limit or a precedence constraint between two investments, making the aggregation of individual optimum not necessary feasible. The algorithm used to solve such a difficult optimization problem is a genetic algorithm. After a description of the features of the software a

  8. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors

  9. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors.

  10. Competency test for selecting majors to produce competitive vocational graduates in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwa Permana Agus Aan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available President of Indonesia, Jokowi reoriented vocational school graduate toward demand driven graduates that is graduates who have certificate and skill required by industry. The initial stage of the new student on vocational school is choosing a major. At first step, students often confuse in choosing the majors they want. The mistake of choosing a department will be a set beck to the motivation of learning and skill, later will impade students future career. Thus competence test is needed to helping them in choosing the majors according to their competence. The solution to this problem is to conduct online competency tests for new students. The Results of research with 60 responden, 78% corresponds stated that the majors they were in match with their interests. Then the remaining 22% did not match. But the result of the competency assessment of students in match with the majors of is 40% and 60% of students need counseling for selection majors.

  11. Comments on the sequential probability ratio testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the classical sequential probability ratio testing method (SPRT) is reconsidered. Every individual boundary crossing event of the SPRT is regarded as a new piece of evidence about the problem under hypothesis testing. The Bayes method is applied for belief updating, i.e. integrating these individual decisions. The procedure is recommended to use when the user (1) would like to be informed about the tested hypothesis continuously and (2) would like to achieve his final conclusion with high confidence level. (Author).

  12. INTER LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-26

    data by Instrumentation for Impact  Test , SAE standard J211‐1 [4]. Although the entire curve is collected, the interest of this  project  team  solely...HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON by Tony J. Kayhart Charles A. Hewitt and Jonathan Cyganik March 2018 Final...INTER-LABORATORY COMBAT HELMET BLUNT IMPACT TEST METHOD COMPARISON 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  13. 40 CFR 63.750 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... method in production on actual production parts or assemblies for a period of time sufficient to coat an... a laboratory or pilot production area, using parts and coatings representative of the process(es) where the alternative method is to be used. The laboratory test will use the same part configuration(s...

  14. Solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method for screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the cost benefit of screening for sicklecell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Methods. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four ...

  15. 40 CFR 60.46 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... material balance over the steam generating system shall be used to confirm the rate. (d) The owner or...-Fired Steam Generators for Which Construction Is Commenced After August 17, 1971 § 60.46 Test methods... D2015, or D5865 (solid fuels), D240 (liquid fuels), or D1826 (gaseous fuels) (all of these methods are...

  16. Validation of programmable industrial automation systems for safety critical applications in NPP's dynamic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The safety assessment of programmable automation systems can not totally be based on conventional probabilistic methods because of the difficulties in quantification of the reliability of the software as well as the hardware. Additional means shall therefore be used to gain more confidence on the system dependability. One central confidence building measure is the independent dynamic testing of the completed system. An automated test harness is needed to run the required large amount of test cases in a restricted time span. The prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable digital systems developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) is described in the presentation. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  17. Validation of programmable industrial automation systems for safety critical applications in NPP's; dynamic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The safety assessment of programmable automation systems cannot be totally be based on conventional probabilistic methods because of the difficulties in quantification of the reliability of the software as well as the hardware. Additional means shall therefore be used to gain more confidence on the system dependability. One central confidence building measure is the independent dynamic testing of the completed system. An automated test harness is needed to run the required large amount of test cases in a restricted time span. This paper describes a prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable digital systems developed at VTT. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. INDUSTRIAL ROBOT REPEATABILITY TESTING WITH HIGH SPEED CAMERA PHANTOM V2511

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apart from accuracy, one of the parameters describing industrial robots is positioning accuracy. The parameter in question, which is the subject of this paper, is often the decisive factor determining whether to apply a given robot to perform certain tasks or not. Articulated robots are predominantly used in such processes as: spot weld-ing, transport of materials and other welding applications, where high positioning repeatability is required. It is therefore essential to recognise the parameter in question and to control it throughout the operation of the robot. This paper presents methodology for robot positioning accuracy measurements based on vision technique. The measurements were conducted with Phantom v2511 high-speed camera and TEMA Motion software, for motion analysis. The object of the measurements was a 6-axis Yaskawa Motoman HP20F industrial robot. The results of measurements obtained in tests provided data for the calculation of positioning accuracy of the robot, which was then juxtaposed against robot specifications. Also analysed was the impact of the direction of displacement on the value of attained pose errors. Test results are given in a graphic form.

  19. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these turbines cannot be manufactured domestically. In this circumstance, through working on the key technologies for LNG hydraulic turbine process & control system development, hydraulic model optimization design, structure design and manufacturing, the first domestic cryogenic hydraulic turbine with a flow rate of 40 m3/h was developed to recover the pressure energy from the LNG of cold box. The turbine was installed in the CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant for industrial tests under multiple working conditions, including start-stop, variable flow rates and variable rotation speeds. Test results show that the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine has satisfactory mechanical and operational performances at low temperatures as specified in design. In addition, the process & control system and frequency-conversion power-generation system of the turbine system are designed properly to automatically and smoothly replace the existing LNG J–T valve. As a result, the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine system can improve LNG production by an average of 2% and generate power of 8.3 kW.

  20. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  1. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  2. Comparative study of in-situ filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.; Stevens, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Available methods of testing high efficiency particulate aerosol (HEPA) filters in-situ have been reviewed. In order to understand the relationship between the results produced by different methods a selection has been compared. Various pieces of equipment for generating and detecting aerosols have been tested and their suitability assessed. Condensation-nuclei, DOP (di-octyl phthalate) and sodium-flame in-situ filter test methods have been studied, using the 500 cfm (9000 m 3 /h) filter test rig at Harwell and in the field. Both the sodium-flame and DOP methods measure the penetration through leaks and filter material. However the measured penetration through filtered leaks depends on the aerosol size distribution and the detection method. Condensation-nuclei test methods can only be used to measure unfiltered leaks since condensation nuclei have a very low penetration through filtered leaks. A combination of methods would enable filtered and unfiltered leaks to be measured. A condensation-nucleus counter using n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid has the advantage of being able to detect any particle up to 1 μm in diameter, including DOP, and so could be used for this purpose. A single-particle counter has not been satisfactory because of interference from particles leaking into systems under extract, particularly downstream of filters, and because the concentration of the input aerosol has to be severely limited. The sodium-flame method requires a skilled operator and may cause safety and corrosion problems. The DOP method using a total light scattering detector has so far been the most satisfactory. It is fairly easy to use, measures reasonably low values of penetration and gives rapid results. DOP has had no adverse effect on HEPA filters over a long series of tests

  3. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  4. Standard Test Method for Contamination Outgassing Characteristics of Spacecraft Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a technique for generating data to characterize the kinetics of the release of outgassing products from materials. This technique will determine both the total mass flux evolved by a material when exposed to a vacuum environment and the deposition of this flux on surfaces held at various specified temperatures. 1.2 This test method describes the test apparatus and related operating procedures for evaluating the total mass flux that is evolved from a material being subjected to temperatures that are between 298 and 398 K. Pressures external to the sample effusion cell are less than 7 × 10−3 Pa (5 × 10−5 torr). Deposition rates are measured during material outgassing tests. A test procedure for collecting data and a test method for processing and presenting the collected data are included. 1.3 This test method can be used to produce the data necessary to support mathematical models used for the prediction of molecular contaminant generation, migration, and deposition. 1.4 Al...

  5. Risk Reduction Methods for Managing the Development of Regional Electric Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kozhevnikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the regional electric power industry has come to the forefront due to the changing scale, quality, and configuration of electric power infrastructure, and the spread of distributed generation. This gives rise to more stringent requirements regarding the reliability, safety, and environmental impact of electric power supply. This article aims to justify a package of methods that make it possible to identify and minimize investment, production, financial, and environmental risks in order to ensure sustainable development of the regional electric power industry that performs anti-crisis functions, and of individual energy companies. The key method to be employed is integrated resource planning (IRP. As a part of the method, energy conservation, renewable energy sources, and combined heat and power production are considered as equally valid ways of meeting future demand. The authors have designed a methodology for taking into account uncertainty and risk when implementing IRP. The methodology includes analysis of scenarios and decision making processes by calculating past and projected values of profit indicators. When conducting the environmental and economic assessment of an investment project in the electric power industry, the authors suggest using an aggregate indicator of environmental and economic effectiveness that is calculated on the basis of a combination of locally significant positive and negative environmental and economic impacts of the project. The authors formulate conceptual provisions that serve as the foundation for a promising model of the regional electric power industry and which contain recommendations for managing the development of the industry while minimizing organizational, market, and technological risks.

  6. Test of a method for phase retrieval in HRTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeching, M.J.; Spargo, A.E.C.

    1992-01-01

    Several methods of phase retrieval from the high resolution transmission electron microscopy image intensity distributions have been proposed but no standard method has emerged. The results achieved using a technique based on a development of the focus variation method, are reported. The dependence of the retrieved wavefunction on various experimental parameters is investigated and the method tested using computer simulated images. The method is shown to be useful in finding the complex wavefield at the exit surface of the specimen but the relationship of this to the specimen structure is considered as a separate issue. 1 ref., 3 figs

  7. Testing methods of steel wi re ropes at the anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kropuch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic andthermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobilesteel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. Firstmeasurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methodsare shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widelyused magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presentsa problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enableincreased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  8. A multi-frequency fatigue testing method for wind turbine rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Belloni, Federico; Tesauro, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Rotor blades are among the most delicate components of modern wind turbines. Reliability is a crucial aspect, since blades shall ideally remain free of failure under ultra-high cycle loading conditions throughout their designated lifetime of 20–25 years. Full-scale blade tests are the most accurate...... means to experimentally simulate damage evolution under operating conditions, and are therefore used to demonstrate that a blade type fulfils the reliability requirements to an acceptable degree of confidence. The state-of-the-art testing method for rotor blades in industry is based on resonance...... higher modes contribute more significantly due to their higher cycle count. A numerical feasibility study based on a publicly available large utility rotor blade is used to demonstrate the ability of the proposed approach to outperform the state-of-the-art testing method without compromising fatigue test...

  9. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization of methods to test/evaluate plastic optical fiber; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Plastic hikari fiber no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The experimental research was conducted with the aim of developing test/evaluation methods of plastic optical fiber (POF) and proposing a draft on the standards to IEC, and the FY 1999 results were outlined. In the study of the band measuring method, the equipment designed was compared/verified in the pulse method with the frequency sweep method equipment for quartz base optical fiber use to confirm the accordance. Effects were further studied of experimental conditions including exciting conditions. Also about the frequency sweep method, the same verification was made to see the accordance with POF measured values in the pulse method. In the analysis by theoretical calculation, obtained were the results by which the experimental results can almost be explained. In the experiment on the optical transmission, the bit-error-rate was measured by transmitting digital signals to POF. As a result, it was confirmed that there were close relations between the band width of POF, bit-error-rate and changes in receiving sensitivity. As to the above-mentioned band experimental method, strategy for standardization was studied, and the making of a draft on the standards was started which is to be proposed at the meeting of TC86/SC86/WG1. (NEDO)

  10. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander W.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Fladung, William A.; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Inertia Measurement (DIM) method uses a ground vibration test setup to determine the mass properties of an object using information from frequency response functions. Most conventional mass properties testing involves using spin tables or pendulum-based swing tests, which for large aerospace vehicles becomes increasingly difficult and time-consuming, and therefore expensive, to perform. The DIM method has been validated on small test articles but has not been successfully proven on large aerospace vehicles. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) conducted mass properties testing on an "iron bird" test article that is comparable in mass and scale to a fighter-type aircraft. The simple two-I-beam design of the "iron bird" was selected to ensure accurate analytical mass properties. Traditional swing testing was also performed to compare the level of effort, amount of resources, and quality of data with the DIM method. The DIM test showed favorable results for the center of gravity and moments of inertia; however, the products of inertia showed disagreement with analytical predictions.

  11. Testing of Method for Assessing of Room Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charvátová Hana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the interim results of our research on the developing methodological procedure which could be used for assessment of a thermal stability of buildings with regards to its thermal accumulative parameters. The principle of testing is based on a combination of computer simulation of cooled room model developed in COMSOL Multiphysics software and on theoretical calculations with respect to compliance with valid European and Czech technical standards used in building industry and architecture under conditions obtained by real measurement for the room to be tested. The presented example shows the effect of the heataccumulation properties of the outside wall insulation materials on the course of the cooling room for winter conditions.

  12. Selection of the Chrome Reduction Bacteria in the Waste of Tanning Leather Industries by Ozonization Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M.; Aris Bastianudin; Widdi Usada

    2007-01-01

    Selection of the chrome reduction bacteria in the waste of tanning leather industries by ozonization method has been done. The objectives of this research was to obtain isolate bacteria from the waste with chrome contain, so that expected can be used for chrome bioremediation agent for arrange to improved the waste treatment for tanning leather industries. Selection of bacteria in the waste was carried out by ozonization method with time variation 0 to 210 minutes by time interval 15 minutes. Isolation bacteria was carried out was grown on the BHI media for 24 hours at 37°C temperature. So be inoculated by streak plate method on the TBX, MC, EA, CTM and BP media. Characterization of bacteria was done by saw the colonies morphology, sel morphology and biochemical characterization. So, identification of isolate bacteria by matching profile method. The result of this research can be obtained 5 isolate bacteria BCR1, BCR2, BCR3, BCR4 and BCR5 with the different phenotypic character. From the five isolate can be selected resistance ozon isolate until 180 minutes time ozonization were BCR 2, were identified belong to the genus of Bacillus. The examination results showed that the isolate bacteria be able to reduction of the chrome concentration in the waste of tanning leather industries by 71.03 %. Efficiency. (author)

  13. Assessment of exposure to the Penicillium glabrum complex in cork industry using complementing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Sabino, Raquel; Botelho, Daniel; dos Santos, Mateus; Gomes, Anita Quintal

    2015-09-01

    Cork oak is the second most dominant forest species in Portugal and makes this country the world leader in cork export. Occupational exposure to Chrysonilia sitophila and the Penicillium glabrum complex in cork industry is common, and the latter fungus is associated with suberosis. However, as conventional methods seem to underestimate its presence in occupational environments, the aim of our study was to see whether information obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a molecular-based method, can complement conventional findings and give a better insight into occupational exposure of cork industry workers. We assessed fungal contamination with the P. glabrum complex in three cork manufacturing plants in the outskirts of Lisbon using both conventional and molecular methods. Conventional culturing failed to detect the fungus at six sampling sites in which PCR did detect it. This confirms our assumption that the use of complementing methods can provide information for a more accurate assessment of occupational exposure to the P. glabrum complex in cork industry.

  14. NNWSI waste form test method for unsaturated disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1985-03-01

    A test method has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated NNWSI repository conditions, and to provide information concerning materials interactions that may occur in the repository. Data are presented from Unsaturated testing of simulated Savannah River Laboratory 165 glass completed through 26 weeks. The relationship between these results and those from parametric and analog testing are described. The data indicate that the waste form test is capable of producing consistent, reproducible results that will be useful in evaluating the role of the waste package in the long-term performance of the repository. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Project in fiscal 2000 of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of method for evaluating thermal properties test on polymeric materials; 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kobunshi zairyo no netsutokusei shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Targeting at proposing to ISO as an international standard, R and D has been performed on a method of the alternating current heating of the non-constant method, with regard to a method to evaluate the thermal properties test on polymeric materials in molten condition reflecting thin film polymeric materials, and the forming and processing technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. The current fiscal year has executed surveys on literatures related to thermal properties, development and commercialization of a measuring device, establishment of the measurement procedure, and putting some of the materials into database. The database was prepared mainly for heat diffusion rate and heat conductivity, wherein about 1000 items of information were collected. The temperature range of the measuring device revealed that stabilized data can be obtained from as low temperature as liquid nitrogen temperature to as high as 200 degrees C. The commercially available measuring device has no restrictions if the test sample thickness is from 1 mm to 100 mm, if the temperature range is from room temperature to 350 degrees C, if the temperature rising rate is from 0.01 to 5 K/min, and if the test sample form is film. Measurement at temperatures including those in the melting zone in the forming stage of each polymer has achieved as close result as having been called for in the initial objective. (NEDO)

  16. Valid methods: the quality assurance of test method development, validation, approval, and transfer for veterinary testing laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegers, Ann L

    2003-07-01

    Third-party accreditation is a valuable tool to demonstrate a laboratory's competence to conduct testing. Accreditation, internationally and in the United States, has been discussed previously. However, accreditation is only I part of establishing data credibility. A validated test method is the first component of a valid measurement system. Validation is defined as confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled. The international and national standard ISO/IEC 17025 recognizes the importance of validated methods and requires that laboratory-developed methods or methods adopted by the laboratory be appropriate for the intended use. Validated methods are therefore required and their use agreed to by the client (i.e., end users of the test results such as veterinarians, animal health programs, and owners). ISO/IEC 17025 also requires that the introduction of methods developed by the laboratory for its own use be a planned activity conducted by qualified personnel with adequate resources. This article discusses considerations and recommendations for the conduct of veterinary diagnostic test method development, validation, evaluation, approval, and transfer to the user laboratory in the ISO/IEC 17025 environment. These recommendations are based on those of nationally and internationally accepted standards and guidelines, as well as those of reputable and experienced technical bodies. They are also based on the author's experience in the evaluation of method development and transfer projects, validation data, and the implementation of quality management systems in the area of method development.

  17. Testing and Validation of Computational Methods for Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Laurent; Hansen, Kasper D; Hoopmann, Michael R; Hermjakob, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Beyer, Andreas

    2016-03-04

    High-throughput methods based on mass spectrometry (proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, etc.) produce a wealth of data that cannot be analyzed without computational methods. The impact of the choice of method on the overall result of a biological study is often underappreciated, but different methods can result in very different biological findings. It is thus essential to evaluate and compare the correctness and relative performance of computational methods. The volume of the data as well as the complexity of the algorithms render unbiased comparisons challenging. This paper discusses some problems and challenges in testing and validation of computational methods. We discuss the different types of data (simulated and experimental validation data) as well as different metrics to compare methods. We also introduce a new public repository for mass spectrometric reference data sets ( http://compms.org/RefData ) that contains a collection of publicly available data sets for performance evaluation for a wide range of different methods.

  18. Development of parallel implementation of adaptive numerical methods with industrial applications in fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laucoin, E.

    2008-10-01

    Numerical resolution of partial differential equations can be made reliable and efficient through the use of adaptive numerical methods.We present here the work we have done for the design, the implementation and the validation of such a method within an industrial software platform with applications in thermohydraulics. From the geometric point of view, this method can deal both with mesh refinement and mesh coarsening, while ensuring the quality of the mesh cells. Numerically, we use the mortar elements formalism in order to extend the Finite Volumes-Elements method implemented in the Trio-U platform and to deal with the non-conforming meshes arising from the adaptation procedure. Finally, we present an implementation of this method using concepts from domain decomposition methods for ensuring its efficiency while running in a parallel execution context. (author)

  19. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production processes and gives the general solving method of each kind of model according to the production data. Then the energy plan implementation effect can be evaluated and also whether the system is running normally can be determined through the baseline model. Finally, this method is used on cracked gas compressor unit of ethylene plant in some petrochemical enterprise; it can be proven that this method is correct and practical.

  20. Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed-end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.

  1. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  2. Using the Communication Methods, Tools and Support During Management of Project Communication in Industrial Manufacturing Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samáková, Jana; Babčanová, Dagmar; Hrablikchovanová, Henrieta; Mesárošová, Jana; Šujanová, Jana

    2017-09-01

    Effective communication is the most significant ability for project manager and successful project. However, during the management of projects communication, it is very often forgotten, often overlooked or taken for granted. In the management of projects, it is principally necessary to deal with communication during all project lifecycle. Within the project communication, it is very important to define the main methods, tools, support of communication and frequency of communication; these belong to the most important elements of the communication channel which is very often forgotten. Therefore, the main aim of the paper is to analyse the utilisation of the communication channel: communication methods, communication tools, communication frequency and to support project communication in industrial manufacturing enterprises in Slovakia. Based on the research, we can conclude that communication channel is not adequately elaborated in international methodologies and standards of project management as well as in industrial manufacturing enterprises. These facts are very negative, conclusion and it is therefore necessary to deal with the problem.

  3. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  4. Metals interaction tested in children’s hair originating from industrial and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapulinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Different biological samples (blood, gallstone, teeth, hair serve as a biomarker of exposure to metals for many years. This method appeared to be useful not only in clinical medicine, but also in the studies on the environment. Aim. The study is to compare the amount of selected metals in children’s hair residing in industrial and rural areas. Material and methods. Research of occurrence of 12 metals in children’s hair at the age of 7, 10 and 14 living in an industrial (Nowy Bytom town and a rural (Strumień town areas has been presented. Determination of Pb, Cd, Ni, Co Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and Ca was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS using a spectrometer PerkinElmer 400. Results. In the case of seven-year old children, regardless of gender a common mechanism of co-occurrence was noticed for manganese and calcium, manganese and magnesium, calcium and magnesium, sodium and potassium. Apart from the correlation of metals for the seven-year-old-children mentioned, in case of ten-year old children, an additional correlation between calcium and zinc appears. Conclusion: The amount of some metals in the hair with the diversified possibility of interaction between the metals themselves and their relation to gender and age of children revealed different environmental exposure.

  5. Comparative study of durability test methods for pellets and briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, Michaeel; Rabier, Fabienne [Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques (CRA-W), 146, chaussee de Namur, B-5030, Gembloux (Belgium); Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg [Forest and Landscape, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe-TFZ, Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Different methods for the determination of the mechanical durability (DU) of pellets and briquettes were compared by international round robin tests including different laboratories. The DUs of five briquette and 26 pellet types were determined. For briquettes, different rotation numbers of a prototype tumbler and a calculated DU index are compared. For pellets testing, the study compares two standard methods, a tumbling device according to ASAE S 269.4, the Lignotester according to ONORM M 7135 and a second tumbling method with a prototype tumbler. For the tested methods, the repeatability, the reproducibility and the required minimum number of replications to achieve given accuracy levels were calculated. Additionally, this study evaluates the relation between DU and particle density. The results show for both pellets and briquettes, that the measured DU values and their variability are influenced by the applied method. Moreover, the variability of the results depend on the biofuel itself. For briquettes of DU above 90%, five replications lead to an accuracy of 2%, while 39 replications are needed to achieve an accuracy of 10%, when briquettes of DU below 90% are tested. For pellets, the tumbling device described by the ASAE standard allows to reach acceptable accuracy levels (1%) with a limited number of replications. Finally, for the tested pellets and briquettes no relation between DU and particle density was found. (author)

  6. Applicability and interpretation of fracture test methods for metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, W.J.

    1978-05-01

    Fracture tests are conducted usually out of a conviction (sometimes only vaguely defined) that they will guarantee a certain level of protecton from metal failure. Qualitative tests, such as the Charpy V-notch, produce results which cannot be rigorously related to a measure of fracture tolerance: rather, they indicate metal quality so that fracture tolerance may be inferred. Quantitative tests on the other hand provide parameters which may be used directly in equations to determine the likelihood of fracture. Both types of tests have limitations which should be understood: the paper tries to provide guidance on the relative merits of either approach for a particular purpose, and gives an insight into near-future test methods which will extend the range of usefullness of quantitative tests. (author)

  7. Antifungal susceptibility testing method for resource constrained laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In resource-constrained laboratories of developing countries determination of antifungal susceptibility testing by NCCLS/CLSI method is not always feasible. We describe herein a simple yet comparable method for antifungal susceptibility testing. Methods: Reference MICs of 72 fungal isolates including two quality control strains were determined by NCCLS/CLSI methods against fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and cancidas. Dermatophytes were also tested against terbinafine. Subsequently, on selection of optimum conditions, MIC was determined for all the fungal isolates by semisolid antifungal agar susceptibility method in Brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 0.5% agar (BHIA without oil overlay and results were compared with those obtained by reference NCCLS/CLSI methods. Results: Comparable results were obtained by NCCLS/CLSI and semisolid agar susceptibility (SAAS methods against quality control strains. MICs for 72 isolates did not differ by more than one dilution for all drugs by SAAS. Conclusions: SAAS using BHIA without oil overlay provides a simple and reproducible method for obtaining MICs against yeast, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes in resource-constrained laboratories.

  8. Alternative of raw material’s suppliers using TOPSIS method in chicken slaughterhouse industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Anizar; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Chicken slaughterhouse industry is one of the fastest growing industries that depends on the freshness of raw materials. The raw materials quality arrive at the company depends heavily on the suppliers. Fresh chicken and frozen chicken meat are the main raw materials for this industry. Problems occurred by the suppliers are catering the amount of raw material needs that are not appropriate and also delay during delivery process. This condition causes disruption of the production process in the company. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the best suppliers to supply the main raw materials of fresh and frozen chicken meat on the slaughterhouse chicken industry. This study analyze the supplier’s capability by using TOPSIS method. This method use to find out the best supplier. The TOPSIS method is performed using the principle that chosen alternative must have the shortest distance from the positive solution and furthest from the ideal solution of the geometric point by using the Euclidean distance to determine the relative proximity of the optimum solution alternative. TOPSIS method found the rank of best supplier’s order is supplier A followed by supplier D, supplier B, supplier C, supplier E, supplier F, and supplier G. Based on the rank order obtained from each company, it will assist the company in prioritizing the order to the supplier with the best rank. Total supply from All suppliers are 885,994 kg per month. Based on the results of research, the top five suppliers have been sufficient to meet the needs of the company.

  9. Standard Test Methods for Determining Mechanical Integrity of Photovoltaic Modules

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand the mechanical loads, stresses and deflections used to simulate, on an accelerated basis, high wind conditions, heavy snow and ice accumulation, and non-planar installation effects. 1.1.1 A static load test to 2400 Pa is used to simulate wind loads on both module surfaces 1.1.2 A static load test to 5400 Pa is used to simulate heavy snow and ice accumulation on the module front surface. 1.1.3 A twist test is used to simulate the non-planar mounting of a photovoltaic module by subjecting it to a twist angle of 1.2°. 1.1.4 A cyclic load test of 10 000 cycles duration and peak loading to 1440 Pa is used to simulate dynamic wind or other flexural loading. Such loading might occur during shipment or after installation at a particular location. 1.2 These test methods define photovoltaic test specimens and mounting methods, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 Any individual mech...

  10. Test cases for interface tracking methods: methodology and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebaigue, O.; Jamet, D.; Lemonnier, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:In the past decade, a large number of new methods have been developed to deal with interfaces in the numerical simulation of two-phase flows. We have collected a set of 36 test cases, which can be seen as a tool to help engineers and researchers selecting the most appropriate method(s) for their specific fields of application. This set can be use: - To perform an initial evaluation of the capabilities of available methods with regard to the specificity of the final application and the most important features to be recovered from the simulation. - To measure the maximum mesh size to be used for a given physical problem in order to obtain an accurate enough solution. - To assess and quantify the performances of a selected method equipped with its set of physical models. The computation of a well-documented test case allows estimating the error due to the numerical technique by comparison with reference solutions. This process is compulsory to gain confidence and credibility on the prediction capabilities of a numerical method and its physical models. - To broaden the capabilities of a given numerical technique. The test cases may be used to identify the need for improvement of the overall numerical scheme or to determine the physical part of the model, which is responsible for the observed limitations. Each test case falls within one of the following categories: - Analytical solutions of well-known sets of equations corresponding to simple geometrical situations. - Reference numerical solutions of moderately complex problems, produced by accurate methods (e.g., boundary Fitted coordinate method) on refined meshes. - Separate effects analytical experiments. The presentation will suggest how to use the test cases for assessing the physical models and the numerical methods. The expected fallout of using test cases is indeed on the one hand to identify the merits of existing methods and on the other hand to orient further research towards

  11. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  12. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs

  14. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs.

  15. Evaluating the Level of the Export-Import Potential of Industrial Enterprises: Methodical Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Vasyl I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a detailed description of the methodical support for evaluating the level of development and use of the export-import potential of industrial enterprises. The place of evaluation in the system of management of the enterprise’s export-import potential (EIPE, as well as its conceptual content have been defined. An implementation of the proposed methodical support for evaluation of the EIPE has been displayed on the example of the major industrial enterprises of the city of Kharkiv. It has been substantiated that the objectivity and effectiveness of evaluation of the level of export-import potential of industrial enterprises is methodically ensured by: the system of partial indicators allowing for regular monitoring and diagnosing tendencies in the status and the use of the EIPE; the analytical tool – i.e. cluster, factor, and canonical analyzes to identify causal relationships in the components of potential and to determine the indicators of impact; the development and use of the EIPE, as well as the evaluation procedure itself, which is recommended for implementation in accordance with the appropriate stages.

  16. A numerical calculation method of environmental impacts for the deep sea mining industry - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenbin; van Rhee, Cees; Schott, Dingena

    2018-03-01

    Since the gradual decrease of mineral resources on-land, deep sea mining (DSM) is becoming an urgent and important emerging activity in the world. However, until now there has been no commercial scale DSM project in progress. Together with the reasons of technological feasibility and economic profitability, the environmental impact is one of the major parameters hindering its industrialization. Most of the DSM environmental impact research focuses on only one particular aspect ignoring that all the DSM environmental impacts are related to each other. The objective of this work is to propose a framework for the numerical calculation methods of the integrated DSM environmental impacts through a literature review. This paper covers three parts: (i) definition and importance description of different DSM environmental impacts; (ii) description of the existing numerical calculation methods for different environmental impacts; (iii) selection of a numerical calculation method based on the selected criteria. The research conducted in this paper provides a clear numerical calculation framework for DSM environmental impact and could be helpful to speed up the industrialization process of the DSM industry.

  17. Non-destructive testing method for determining the solvent diffusion coefficient in the porous materials products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, V. P.; Mishchenko, S. V.; Belyaev, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ensuring non-destructive testing of products in industry is an urgent task. Most of the modern methods for determining the diffusion coefficient in porous materials have been developed for bodies of a given configuration and size. This leads to the need for finished products destruction to make experimental samples from them. The purpose of this study is the development of a dynamic method that allows operatively determine the diffusion coefficient in finished products from porous materials without destroying them. The method is designed to investigate the solvents diffusion coefficient in building constructions from materials having a porous structure: brick, concrete and aerated concrete, gypsum, cement, gypsum or silicate solutions, gas silicate blocks, heat insulators, etc. A mathematical model of the method is constructed. The influence of the design and measuring device operating parameters on the method accuracy is studied. The application results of the developed method for structural porous products are presented.

  18. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Currie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  19. Bridging the Gap Between Validation and Implementation of Non-Animal Veterinary Vaccine Potency Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Samantha; Brown, Jeffrey; Currie, Alistair

    2011-11-29

    In recent years, technologically advanced high-throughput techniques have been developed that replace, reduce or refine animal use in vaccine quality control tests. Following validation, these tests are slowly being accepted for use by international regulatory authorities. Because regulatory acceptance itself has not guaranteed that approved humane methods are adopted by manufacturers, various organizations have sought to foster the preferential use of validated non-animal methods by interfacing with industry and regulatory authorities. After noticing this gap between regulation and uptake by industry, we began developing a paradigm that seeks to narrow the gap and quicken implementation of new replacement, refinement or reduction guidance. A systematic analysis of our experience in promoting the transparent implementation of validated non-animal vaccine potency assays has led to the refinement of our paradigmatic process, presented here, by which interested parties can assess the local regulatory acceptance of methods that reduce animal use and integrate them into quality control testing protocols, or ensure the elimination of peripheral barriers to their use, particularly for potency and other tests carried out on production batches.

  20. [Testing methods for seed quality of Bletilla striata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Da-Hui; Zhu, Xin-Yan; Ji, Peng-Zhang; Wang, Li; Shi, Ya-Na; Ma, Cong-Ji

    2016-06-01

    In order to provide a basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of Bletilla striata, the seed quality of B.striata from different producing area was measured referring to the Rules for Agricultural Seed Testing(GB/T 3543-1995).The results showed that the seeds of B.striata passed through 20-mesh sieve for purity analysis.The weight of seeds was measured by 1000-seed method and the water content was measured at the higher temperature (133±2) ℃ for 3 hours.The seeds were cultured on the wet filter paper at 30 ℃ for 4-20 days in light for germination testing.The method of testing seed viability was that seeds were dipped into 1% TTC solution for 7 hours at temperature of 40 ℃. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.