WorldWideScience

Sample records for industry assessment conclusions

  1. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  2. Industry and water security: overarching conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigson, B

    2001-01-01

    Fresh water is key to sustainable development. World Business Council for Sustainable Development members are addressing fresh water use "within the corporate fenceline". However, to address water issues "outside the corporate fenceline" will require creative new public-private partnerships. Government's role is to provide sound framework conditions that will encourage businesses to invest time, staff and resources to address vital fresh water issues. Industry is committed to best practice within its internal operations and is ready to enter into partnerships to address broader fresh water issues.

  3. Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    This compilation of papers in this book represents approximately half of the works discussed at the MS&T 2010 symposium entitled Tools, Models, Databases, and Simulation Tools Developed and Needed to Realize the Vision of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering at Materials Science & Technology wherein five sessions comprised of 33 presentations was organized. The goal of the symposium was two fold To provide a forum in which current state-of-the-art methods for ICME (e.g., information informatics, experimentation, and modeling) could be openly discussed and critiqued by not only materials scientist but also structural engineers/researchers, component designers, industrial leaders and government program managers. To leave the symposium and in particular the panel discussion with a clear idea of the gaps and barriers (both technical, cultural and economical) that must be addressed in order for ICME to fully succeed. The organizers felt that these goals were met, as particularly evident by the standing room only attendance during a lively panel discussion session at the end of the Symposium. However it is the firm belief of the editors of this book that this symposium was merely a start in the right direction, and that subsequent conferences/symposium (e.g., First World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering to be held July 10-14, 2011 at Seven Springs Mountain Resort in Pennsylvania) must work hard to ensure that a truly diverse, multidisciplinary, community of researchers and practitioners are present and have ample opportunity for interaction. This will ensure that a proper balance between push and pull disciplines and technologies is maintained so that this emerging focus area, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), has the greatest potential for success and impact on "system-level" payoffs. Similarly, a pro-active approach is required to reform historical modes of operation in industry, government and the academic

  4. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Mark; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of the previous chapters, we assess whether it continues to be helpful for European Parliament (EP) elections to be termed “second order” and/or “second rate”. The 2014 EP elections were indeed still second rate and also predominantly second order. Being “about Europe”, wh...... EP elections is likely to be reflected in later national elections and the circumstances in which those results could lead to substantial policy and/or membership changes in the European Union (EU)....

  5. Study on Poplar Industrialization in Jiangsu:(3)Conclusions and Recommendations on Poplar Industrialization Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wenxing; ZHOU Dingguo; XU Xinping

    2006-01-01

    This article concludes that the creation of a new industrial management,including the innovation of management institution,operation system,industrial policies and industrial technology,is a solution to the management optimization of the poplar industry.The further development of the poplar industry is beneficial to the sustainable development of the society,economy and ecological environment in Jiangsu province.

  6. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  7. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  8. Mask industry assessment: 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  9. Mask industry assessment: 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2003-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  10. Mask industry assessment: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  11. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dereje Agonafer

    2007-11-30

    The work described in this report was performed under the direction of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at University of Texas at Arlington. The IAC at The University of Texas at Arlington is managed by Rutgers University under agreement with the United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology, which financially supports the program. The objective of the IAC is to identify, evaluate, and recommend, through analysis of an industrial plant’s operations, opportunities to conserve energy and prevent pollution, thereby reducing the associated costs. IAC team members visit and survey the plant. Based upon observations made in the plant, preventive/corrective actions are recommended. At all times we try to offer specific and quantitative recommendations of cost savings, energy conservation, and pollution prevention to the plants we serve.

  12. Mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strott, Al; Bassist, Larry

    1994-12-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters in determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, very little was known about industry performance in these areas until an assessment was authored and presented at the 1993 BACUS Symposium by Larry Regis of Intel Corporation, Neil Paulsen of Intel Corporation, and James A. Reynolds of Reynolds Consulting. This data has been updated and will be published and presented at this year's BACUS Symposium. Contributor identities will again remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to compile the submittals. Participation was consistent with last year's representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reasons from 1988 through Q2, 1994, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT).

  13. Why Value Framework Assessments Arrive at Different Conclusions: A Multiple Myeloma Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Kimberly; Buelt, Lisabeth; Dubois, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    As the United States transitions from a volume-based health care system to one that rewards value, new frameworks are emerging to help patients, providers, and payers assess the value of medical services and biopharmaceutical products. These value assessment frameworks are intended to support various types of health care decision making. They have the potential to substantially affect patients, whether as tools for shared decision making with their doctors, as an input to care pathways used by providers, or through payer use of the frameworks to make coverage or reimbursement decisions. Prominent among current U.S. value assessment frameworks are those developed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. These frameworks generally reflect the interests and expertise of the organizations that developed them. The evidence, methodology, and intended use differ substantially across frameworks, which can lead to highly variable determinations of value for the same treatment therapy. To demonstrate this variability, we explored how these frameworks assess the value of treatment regimens for multiple myeloma. Cross-framework comparisons of multiple myeloma assessments were conducted, and consistency of findings was examined for 3 case studies. A discussion of the analysis explores why different frameworks arrive at different conclusions, whether those differences are cause for concern, and the resulting implications for framework readiness to support health care decision making. Funding for this project was provided by the National Pharmaceutical Council. The authors are employees of the National Pharmaceutical Council, an industry-funded health policy research group that is not involved in lobbying or advocacy. Study concept and design were contributed by Westrich and Dubois, along with Buelt. Westrich took the lead in data

  14. Industrial heat pump assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, R. N.; Priebe, S. J.; Wilfert, G. L.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes preliminary studies that assess the potential of industrial heat pumps for reduction of process heating requirements in industries receiving power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This project was initiated at the request of BPA to determine the potential of industrial heat pumps in BPA's service area. Working from known heat pump principles and from a list of BPA's industrial customers, the authors estimated the fuel savings potential for six industries. Findings indicate that the pulp and paper industry would yield the greatest fuel savings and increased electrical consumption. Assessments presented in this report represent a cooperative effort between The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Battelle-Northwest Laboratories.

  15. Industrial thermal insulation: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, R.G.; Tennery, V.J.; McElroy, D.L.; Godfrey, T.G.; Kolb, J.O.

    1976-03-01

    A large variety of thermal insulation materials is manufactured for application in various temperature ranges and environments. Additional and improved thermal insulation for steam systems is a key area with immediate energy conservation potential in several of the larger energy-consuming industries. Industrial thermal insulation technology was assessed by obtaining input from a variety of sources including insulation manufacturers, system designers, installers, users, consultants, measurement laboratories, open literature, and in-house knowledge. The assessment identified a number of factors relevant to insulation materials and usage that could contribute significantly to improved energy conservation.

  16. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance potassium iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance potassium iodide are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of potassium iodide as a fungicide on tomatoes, sweet peppers, cucumber, eggplant, strawberries and ornamental flowers in greenhouse and field applications on strawberries. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  17. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance spiromesifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance spiromesifen are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of spiromesifen as an insecticide and acaricide on cucumber, courgette, pepper, tomato, eggplant (aubergine, French bean, melon, strawberry and ornamentals in permanent greenhouses. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  18. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State The Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance sodium hypochlorite are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004 as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of sodium hypochlorite as a bactericide on mushrooms. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  19. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance pyridalyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance pyridalyl are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EUNo 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of pyridalyl as an insecticide on field and glasshouse tomato, aubergine, sweet and chilli pepper, and on field cucurbits, lettuce and cotton. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  20. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance valifenalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, Hungary, for the pesticide active substance valifenalate are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of valifenalate as a fungicide on grapes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  1. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance pyrethrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Italy, for the pesticide active substance pyrethrins are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of pyrethrins as an insecticide on tomato, pepper, cucumber, melons, strawberries, potatoes, lettuce and ornamentals. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  2. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance sulfoxaflor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Ireland and the co-rapporteur Member States Czech Republic, France and Poland for the pesticide active substance sulfoxaflor and the assessment of applications for maximum residue levels (MRLs are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of sulfoxaflor as an insecticide on fruiting vegetables (field use and glasshouse application; tomato, cherry tomato, pepper (bell and non bell, aubergine, cucurbits (field use and glasshouse application; cucumber, water melon, courgette, spring and winter cereals (wheat, rye, barley, oats, triticale and cotton. MRLs were assessed in almonds, pecans, apples, pears, cherries, peaches including nectarines, apricots, plums, wheat and barley grain, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard greens, cabbage, leaf and head lettuce, spinach, celery, cotton seed, oilseed rape seed, grapefruit, lemons, oranges, melons, squash (winter and summer, cucumbers, potatoes, sugar beet, carrots, soya bean, beans (pulses, fresh beans with and without pods, strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, wine and table grapes, and in animal commodities such as milk, eggs, muscle, fat, liver and kidney. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment and the proposed MRLs, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. With the available assessments a high risk to bees was not excluded for field uses and a high long-term risk was indicated for the small herbivorous mammal scenario for field uses in vegetables and in

  3. Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wenning, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thirumaran, Kiran [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    IAC Operations Manual describes organizational model and operations of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC), Center management activities, typical process of energy assessment, and energy assessment data for specific industry sectors.

  4. Assessment of Student Performance. Volume I: Findings and Conclusions. Studies of Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattri, Nidhi; And Others

    New to the current assessment-reform movement is an emphasis on the use of performance assessments to support systematic state-, district-, or school-wide objectives. This document presents findings of a study that sought to document and analyze the key characteristics of performance assessments, the facilitators and barriers in assessment reform,…

  5. Conclusion: Reflections on the State of the Art of Sustainability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2015-01-01

    In this concluding chapter we offer some of our reflections on the state of the art of sustainability assessment based upon the contributions to this Handbook. We do not claim that this is a definitive summary of global sustainability assessment theory and practice, as this is not possible based solely on the 17 preceding chapters, varied and interesting though they are. The focus of this Handbook is sustainability assessment research, and the chapters reflect both applied research and more c...

  6. THE FEATURES OF RISK ASSESSMENT AT THE CONCLUSION OF THE INDIVIDUAL PROPERTY INSURANCE POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kryvoshlyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of risk assessment in contracting individual insurance as well as its place in underwriting business of the insurance company. It is stated that the mechanism of assessment in contracting certain individual property insurance is to include the following stages; identification of risks, selection of risks and quantitative risk assessment. At the stage of identifying risk in contracting individual property insurance it is suggested the following steps; identification of insurance objects and disclosure of all circumstances involving risk that are relevant to these objects and which will be considered in determining payment for insurance.

  7. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  8. Assessing nitrogen dynamics in European ecosystems, integrating measurement and modelling: conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Wade

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution closes this special issue of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences concerning the assessment of nitrogen dynamics in catchments across Europe within a semi-distributed Integrated Nitrogen model for multiple source assessment in Catchments (INCA. New developments in the understanding of the factors and processes determining the concentrations and loads of nitrogen are outlined. The ability of the INCA model to simulate the hydrological and nitrogen dynamics of different European ecosystems is assessed and the results of the first scenario analyses investigating the impacts of deposition, climatic and land-use change on the nitrogen dynamics are summarised. Consideration is given as to how well the model has performed as a generic tool for describing the nitrogen dynamics of European ecosystems across Arctic, Maritime, Continental and Mediterranean climates, its role in new research initiatives and future research requirements. Keywords: nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, catchments, streams, rivers, river basins

  9. Do Different Approaches to Examining Construct Comparability in Multilanguage Assessments Lead to Similar Conclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Maria E.; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine the degree of construct comparability and possible sources of incomparability of the English and French versions of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 problem-solving measure administered in Canada. Several approaches were used to examine construct comparability at the test- (examination of…

  10. Do Different Approaches to Examining Construct Comparability in Multilanguage Assessments Lead to Similar Conclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Maria E.; Ercikan, Kadriye

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine the degree of construct comparability and possible sources of incomparability of the English and French versions of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 problem-solving measure administered in Canada. Several approaches were used to examine construct comparability at the test- (examination of…

  11. Educational experiences and preparedness in dental anesthesia: five-year outcome assessment and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Boynes, Sean G; Cuddy, Michael A; Giovannitti, Joseph A; Zovko, Jayme

    2009-12-01

    A mail survey of 2003-07 dental school graduates was undertaken by the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the predoctoral curriculum in anesthesia and to determine the preparedness of practicing dentists to provide anesthesia services for their dental patients. Subsets of the survey responses were created to specifically evaluate the effectiveness of an advanced selective program in sedation offered to approximately twenty third- and fourth-year predoctoral students. This fourteen-month Anesthesia Selective Program provides advanced didactic instruction and clinical experiences needed to establish competence in minimal to moderate sedation. Overall, graduates reported being best prepared in assessment of medical histories, physiology, and pharmacology, while being least prepared in oral sedation, intravenous sedation, and general anesthesia. For graduates currently in general practice, those who had participated in the Anesthesia Selective Program reported being better prepared in most subjects relating to anesthesia and patient care. Participants in the selective were also more likely to treat special needs patients in their private practices. Respondents' written comments indicated a desire for a greater number of clinical experiences involving sedation procedures within the predoctoral curriculum. This outcome assessment indicated that a greater emphasis should be placed on instruction and training experiences for enteral sedation within the predoctoral dental curriculum. Advanced training and increased clinical experiences in anesthesia may also be an effective means to better prepare graduates to assess medical histories, to manage medical emergencies, and to be willing to treat medically complex patients as well as patients with special health care needs.

  12. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF UNIVERSITY- INDUSTRY COLLABORATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... engineering and sciences in universities and industries within the north central, south south and western ... Research works done by either ... produced artifacts or machines which require ... (National Youth Service Corps) some youths get lucky .... and d-value with respect to each construct that has been ...

  14. Scientific Opinion updating the risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize MON 810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel compiled its previous risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize MON 810, and considered their validity in the light of new relevant scientific publications published from 2009 onwards. Following a search of the scientific literature published between 2009 and October 2012, the EFSA GMO Panel identified 165 peer-reviewed publications containing evidence specific to the risk assessment and/or management of maize MON 810, of which 68 publications were discussed and/or cited in previous EFSA GMO Panel scientific outputs. From the remaining 97 publications, eight were relevant for the molecular characterisation, 27 for food and feed safety assessment, 55 for the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management, two for the molecular characterisation and the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management and five for the food and feed safety assessment and the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management of maize MON 810. None of these publications reported new information that would invalidate the previous conclusions on the safety of maize MON 810 made by the EFSA GMO Panel. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that its previous risk assessment conclusions on maize MON 810, as well as its previous recommendations on risk mitigation measures and monitoring, remain valid and applicable.

  15. Industrial process heat market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresnick, S.

    1981-12-01

    This report is designed to be a reference resource, giving a broad perspective of the potential HTGR market for industrial process heat. It is intended to serve as a briefing document for those wishing to obtain background information and also to serve as a starting point from which more detailed and refined studies may be undertaken. In doing so, the report presents a qualitative and quantitative description of the industrial process heat market in the US, provides a summary discussion of cogeneration experience to date, and outlines the existing institutional and financial framework for cogeneration. The intent is to give the reader an understanding of the current situation and experience in this area. The cogeneration area in particular is an evolving one because of regulations and tax laws, which are still in the process of being developed and interpreted. The report presents the latest developments in regulatory and legislative activities which are associated with that technology. Finally, the report presents a brief description of the three HTGR systems under study during the current fiscal year and describes the specific market characteristics which each application is designed to serve.

  16. Assessing the industry using Porter's five forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To develop a business and plan for the future, there is a need to assess the current situation. One way of doing this is to use Porter's five forces framework. This was the brainchild of Harvard Business School's Michael Porter and developed in 1979. Looking at the competitive intensity of an industry, the model assesses internal and external factors that act together to determine the direction of the business; taken together, this gives an indication of the attractiveness of the industry.

  17. Scientific Opinion updating the risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel compiled its previous risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507, and considered their validity in the light of new relevant scientific publications published from 2005 onwards. The EFSA GMO Panel performed a search of the scientific literature published between 2005 and September 2012, and identified 61 peer-reviewed publications containing evidence specific to the risk assessment and/or management of maize 1507, of which two were relevant for the food and feed safety assessment, and 34 for the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management. None of these publications reported new information that would invalidate the previous conclusions on the safety of maize 1507 made by the EFSA GMO Panel. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that its previous risk assessment conclusions on maize 1507, as well as its previous recommendations on risk mitigation measures and monitoring, remain valid and applicable.

  18. Scientific Opinion updating the risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel compiled its previous risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11, and considered their validity in the light of new relevant scientific publications published from 2005 onwards. Following a search of the scientific literature published between 2005 and October 2012, the EFSA GMO Panel identified 287 peer-reviewed publications containing evidence specific to the risk assessment and/or management of maize Bt11, of which 270 publications were previously discussed and cited in relevant GM maize-related applications and/or the numerous EFSA GMO Panel scientific outputs. From the remaining 17 publications, three were relevant for the food and feed safety assessment, and 14 for the environmental risk assessment and/or risk management of maize Bt11. None of these publications reported new information that would invalidate the previous conclusions on the safety of maize Bt11 made by the EFSA GMO Panel. Therefore, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that its previous risk assessment conclusions on maize Bt11, as well as its previous recommendations on risk mitigation measures and monitoring, remain valid and applicable.

  19. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance fipronil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment for the active substance fipronil and provide conclusions as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA following the peer review of the risk assessment for bees for the active substance fipronil are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the currently authorised uses of fipronil applied on a variety of crops in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and scientific publications including data available at EU and national level, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  20. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance dimethoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance dimethoate are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology, residues and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of dimethoate as an insecticide on sugar beet and protected lettuce. Concerns are identified.

  1. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  2. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance L-ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance L-ascorbic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of L-ascorbic acid as a fungicide on potato, glasshouse tomato and field and glasshouse flower bulbs. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  3. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance kieselgur (diatomaceous earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Greece, for the pesticide active substance kieselgur are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004 as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of kieselgur as an insecticide, acaricide on stored grain, empty rooms, mills, stores and soil treatment in home gardening. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  4. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain FE 9901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Belgium for the pesticide active substance Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain FE 9901 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as an insecticide in glasshouses on tomatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  5. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substance imidacloprid are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of imidacloprid as an insecticide on apples, tomatoes and sugar beet. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. No concerns are identified.

  6. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance oryzalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France, for the pesticide active substance oryzalin are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of oryzalin as a herbicide on grape vines. A concern has been identified as regards the assessment of the toxicological relevance of some impurities, which could not be finalised based on the data available.

  7. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance ethoprophos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance ethoprophos are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of ethoprophos as an insecticide and nematicide on potatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Concerns are identified.

  8. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance beta-cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance beta-cypermethrin are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of beta-cypermethrin as an insecticide on oilseed rape, wheat and maize. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified as regards the risk to aquatic organisms, bees and non-target arthropods.

  9. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance S-abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance S-abscisic acid are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of S-abscisic acid as a plant growth regulator on tomato seedlings and grapes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified in the areas of residues and ecotoxicology, as the consumer risk assessment and the risk assessment for higher aquatic plants for some metabolites could not be finalised based on the data available.

  10. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including imidacloprid, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance imidacloprid are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of imidacloprid applied as a seed treatment or granules on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  11. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance thiamethoxam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance thiamethoxam are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of thiamethoxam applied as a seed treatment on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  12. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment for bees for the active substance clothianidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to perform a risk assessment of neonicotinoids, including clothianidin, as regards the risk to bees. In this context the conclusions of EFSA concerning the risk assessment for bees for the active substance clothianidin are reported. The context of the evaluation was that required by the European Commission in accordance with Article 21 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 to review the approval of active substances in light of new scientific and technical knowledge and monitoring data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the uses of clothianidin applied as a seed treatment or granules on a variety of crops currently authorised in Europe. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the submitted studies and literature data as well as the available EU evaluations and monitoring data, are presented. Missing information identified as being required to allow for a complete risk assessment is listed. Concerns are identified.

  13. Cleaner Production Assessment in Textile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-zong; LU Shu-yu

    2007-01-01

    Cleaner Production focuses on environmental improvement with economic benefits. Based on the benefit assessment home and abroad, the assessment method and wocess in textile industry is discussed, including maneuverable indicator system, mathematics model. According to corresponding principles of Cleaner Production, representative problems are mentioned. With Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Mathematics, some enterprise is collected to attain the economic, environmental and social benefit of Cleaner Production. The results show that Cleaner Production improves utilization efficiency of resources, energy sources even waste, and creates conditions of Sustainable Development in textile industry.

  14. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2012-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply among the top critical issues for lithography. A survey was designed by SEMATECH with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers to objectively assess the overall conditions of the mask industry. With the continued support of the industry, this year's assessment was the tenth in the current series of annual reports. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2011 surveys. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that ultimately produce a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. We received data from 11 companies this year, which was a record high since the beginning of the series. The responding companies represented more than 96% of the volume shipped and about 90% of the 2011 revenue for the photomask industry. These survey reports are often used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. They will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities. Results can also be used to guide future investments in critical path issues.

  15. A Manpower Assessment of the Geothermal Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-24

    The authors were asked to estimate the net employment gains in the geothermal industry from 1980 to 1985 and 1990. Method was by survey. Response rates were high, so the estimates here likely reflect industry knowledge and outlooks at the start of the most active construction decade of the U.S. geothermal industry. An untitled table following Table IV-1 is of great interest because it breaks out employment requirement estimates for different phases/aspects of project development, i.e., exploration and resource assessment, exploratory drilling, production drilling, power plant construction, feed system (field piping) construction, field operation and maintenance, power plant operation and maintenance, and transmission line construction. Estimates like these are rare in the U.S. geothermal literature. While these estimates are dated, they comprise an historical economic baseline from which improvements in labor use in the geothermal industry might be constructed. (DJE 2005)

  16. Different Teams, Same Conclusions? A Systematic Review of Existing Clinical Guidelines for the Assessment and Treatment of Tinnitus in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Thomas E.; Haider, Haula F.; Kikidis, Dimitris; Lapira, Alec; Mazurek, Birgit; Norena, Arnaud; Rabau, Sarah; Lardinois, Rachelle; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Edvall, Niklas K.; Brueggemann, Petra G.; Rosing, Susanne N.; Kapandais, Anestis; Lungaard, Dorte; Hoare, Derek J.; Cima, Rilana F. F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Though clinical guidelines for assessment and treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus do exist, a comprehensive review of those guidelines has not been performed. The objective of this review was to identify current clinical guidelines, and compare their recommendations for the assessment and treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults. Method: We systematically searched a range of sources for clinical guidelines (as defined by the Institute of Medicine, United States) for the assessment and/or treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults. No restrictions on language or year of publication were applied to guidelines. Results: Clinical guidelines from Denmark, Germany, Sweden, The Netherlands, and the United States were included in the review. There was a high level of consistency across the guidelines with regard to recommendations for audiometric assessment, physical examination, use of a validated questionnaire(s) to assess tinnitus related distress, and referral to a psychologist when required. Cognitive behavioral treatment for tinnitus related distress, use of hearing aids in instances of hearing loss and recommendations against the use of medicines were consistent across the included guidelines. Differences between the guidelines centered on the use of imaging in assessment procedures and sound therapy as a form of treatment for tinnitus distress respectively. Conclusion: Given the level of commonality across tinnitus guidelines from different countries the development of a European guideline for the assessment and treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults seems feasible. This guideline would have the potential to benefit the large number of clinicians in countries where clinical guidelines do not yet exist, and would support standardization of treatment for patients across Europe. PMID:28275357

  17. 7 CFR 900.33 - Industry assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry assessments. 900.33 Section 900.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Rules of Practice Governing Proceedings To Amend Federal Milk Marketing Agreements and Marketing...

  18. Does consideration and assessment of effects on health equity affect the conclusions of systematic reviews? A methodology study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Welch

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tackling health inequities both within and between countries remains high on the agenda of international organizations including the World Health Organization and local, regional and national governments. Systematic reviews can be a useful tool to assess effects on equity in health status because they include studies conducted in a variety of settings and populations. This study aims to describe the extent to which the impacts of health interventions on equity in health status are considered in systematic reviews, describe methods used, and assess the implications of their equity related findings for policy, practice and research. METHODS: We conducted a methodology study of equity assessment in systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers extracted information on the reporting and analysis of impacts of health interventions on equity in health status in a group of 300 systematic reviews collected from all systematic reviews indexed in one month of MEDLINE, using a pre-tested data collection form. Any differences in data extraction were resolved by discussion. RESULTS: Of the 300 systematic reviews, 224 assessed the effectiveness of interventions on health outcomes. Of these 224 reviews, 29 systematic reviews assessed effects on equity in health status using subgroup analysis or targeted analyses of vulnerable populations. Of these, seven conducted subgroup analyses related to health equity which were reported in insufficient detail to judge their credibility. Of these 29 reviews, 18 described implications for policy and practice based on assessment of effects on health equity. CONCLUSION: The quality and completeness of reporting should be enhanced as a priority, because without this policymakers and practitioners will continue lack the evidence base they need to inform decision-making about health inequity. Furthermore, there is a need to develop methods to systematically consider impacts on equity in health status that is

  19. OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR CHINA NUCLEAR POWER INDUSTRY AND COAL—FIRED POWER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少华; 潘自强; 等

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative environmental assessment method and the corresponding computer code are introduced in this paper.By the consideration of all fuel cycle steps,it gives that the public health risk of China nuclear power industry is 5.2×10-1man/(GW.a),the occupational health risk is 2.5man/(GW.a).and the total health risk is 3.0man/(GW.a0.After the health risk calculation for coal mining,transport,burning up and ash disposal,it gives that the public health risk of China cola-fired power industry is 3.6man/(GW.a).the occupational health risk is 50man/(GW.a),and the total is 54man/(GW.a),Accordingly,the conclusion that China nuclear power industry is an industry with high safety and cleanness is derived at the end.

  20. Industrial ecology in integrated assessment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Arvesen, Anders; Stadler, Konstantin; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-01-01

    Technology-rich integrated assessment models (IAMs) address possible technology mixes and future costs of climate change mitigation by generating scenarios for the future industrial system. Industrial ecology (IE) focuses on the empirical analysis of this system. We conduct an in-depth review of five major IAMs from an IE perspective and reveal differences between the two fields regarding the modelling of linkages in the industrial system, focussing on AIM/CGE, GCAM, IMAGE, MESSAGE, and REMIND. IAMs ignore material cycles and recycling, incoherently describe the life-cycle impacts of technology, and miss linkages regarding buildings and infrastructure. Adding IE system linkages to IAMs adds new constraints and allows for studying new mitigation options, both of which may lead to more robust and policy-relevant mitigation scenarios.

  1. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo M de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers. Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI and damage frequency (DF observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group ( P≤0.05. In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF were significantly greater than that for the control group ( P≤0.05. Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers.

  2. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  3. ELABORATION OF ADAPTIVE MODELS OF SPECTRAL ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATION OF METHODS OF FILTRATION WHEN PREDICTING THE DYNAMICS OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY AIC (PART 2 – FORECASTING AND CONCLUSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhmurko D. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To improve the consistency and effectiveness of strategic planning and forecasting in modern conditions it requires development of the existing classifications of types of planning, strategies, forecasts and forecast methods. This study examines the introduction to problems of spectral analysis of the macroeconomic dynamics of key world and Russian sugar subcomplex. The article is devoted to forecasting the activities of integrated manufacturing systems of sugar subcomplex in agro industrial subcomplex. As well as to the practical application of economic-mathematical methods (based on spectral analysis to control the economic parameters of the integrated industrial systems of the sugar subcomplex, oriented to meet the needs of the sugar production of the population not only of individuals, but of the regions and the country as a whole. Discussion: Procedures to identify and study the dynamics of periodic components of the development of the agriculture segment agriculture are based on methods of spectral analysis of random processes. The article describes the performed experiments with various kinds of non-stationary time series of agricultural sector and food industry sugar sub-complex. The article presents results of numerical experiments with the spectra of time series of sugar production, sown areas, gross harvest and yield of sugar beet and sugar cane country. Systematic ideas and methods underlying the spectral analysis were shown. The article also assesses the results. Results: The algorithm developed by the author for the adaptive method of spectral analysis was implemented by the author in the context of a specific software product, namely in MS Excel format. The results of the empirical research confirmed the possibility of practical use of developed models in forecasting likely scenarios for the development of sugar sub-complex in the interests of integrated production systems. The results are illustrated by numerous graphs

  4. Environmental Assessment - Gotten across to industrial designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a simplified method for environmental assessment for designers, the Oil Point Method (OPM). The paper explains characteristics of the method, such as the reduced problem with missing data, and describes how the method is used with its three steps, “FOCUS on the problem...... into an Internet-based design tool, and results and conclusions from four empirical tests with environmentally non-skilled designers are presented....

  5. Assessing Seasonality in the Marketing System of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcharenko Tetiana P.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a necessity of study of the issue of application of complex integral approaches in the system of assessing the influence of the seasonality factor upon the system of marketing management of an industrial enterprise, since formation of adequate volumes of sales of products for a planned period is a key factor of acquisition of competitive advantages under modern conditions of market development. The author studies existing methodical approaches to assessing influence of the seasonality factor upon the system of marketing communications of an industrial enterprise, systemises existing forecasting methods, which include studies of the seasonal component and generalises the Box – Jenkins models. The article makes a conclusion that the analysed methods give a possibility to reveal the seasonal component of volumes of realisation of the manufactured product and form forecast in the system of marketing of an industrial enterprise, but they need some practical examination and formation of a modern approach, which would take into consideration real conditions of functioning of domestic industrial enterprises.

  6. Plant Wide Assessment for SIFCO Industries, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Kissock, Arvind Thekdi et. al.

    2005-07-06

    Sifco Industries carreid out a plant wide energy assessment under a collaborative program with the U.S. Department of Energy during October 2004 to September 2005. During the year, personnel from EIS, E3M, DPS, BuyCastings.Com, and Sifco plant facilities and maintenance personnel, as a team collected energy use, construction, process, equipment and operational information about the plant. Based on this information, the team identified 13 energy savings opportunities. Near term savings opportunities have a total potential savings of about $1,329,000 per year and a combined simple payback of about 11 months. Implementation of these recommendations would reduce CO2 emissions by about 16,000,000 pounds per year, which would reduce overall plant CO2 emissions by about 45%. These totals do not include another $830,000 per year in potential savings with an estimated 9-month payback, from converting the forging hammers from steam to compressed air.

  7. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  8. Needs Assessment of Hospitality/Tourism Industry in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Shirley

    This report of an assessment of the hospitality/tourism industry in Kentucky begins with a history/description of the hospitality/tourism industry written from research; the hospitality/tourism training programs conducted by various institutions in the state are also described. For the assessment itself, two survey instruments were prepared and…

  9. Assessment of Quality Management Practices Within the Healthcare Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Considerable effort has been devoted over the years by many organizations to adopt quality management practices, but few studies have assessed critical factors that affect quality practices in healthcare organizations. The problem addressed in this study was to assess the critical factors influencing the quality management practices in a single important industry (i.e., healthcare. Approach: A survey instrument was adapted from business quality literature and was sent to all hospitals in a large US Southeastern state. Valid responses were received from 147 of 189 hospitals yielding a 75.6% response rate. Factor analysis using principal component analysis with an orthogonal rotation was performed to assess 58 survey items designed to measure ten dimensions of hospital quality management practices. Results: Eight factors were shown to have a statistically significant effect on quality management practices and were classified into two groups: (1 four strategic factors (role of management leadership, role of the physician, customer focus, training resources investment and (2 four operational factors (role of quality department, quality data/reporting, process management/training and employee relations. The results of this study showed that a valid and reliable instrument was developed and used to assess quality management practices in hospitals throughout a large US state. Conclusion: The implications of this study provided an understanding that management of quality required both a focus on longer-term strategic leadership, as well as day-to-day operational management. It was recommended that healthcare researchers and practitioners focus on the critical factors identified and employ this survey instrument to manage and better understand the nature of hospital quality management practices across wider geographical regions and over longer time periods. Furthermore, this study extended the scope of existing quality management

  10. 數位內容產業人才培育政策之研究及其階段性結論 The Study of Talent Development Policy for the Digital Content Industry: Its Research Structure and Preliminary Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyun Chaucer Liang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available 無The digital content is one of the most promising industries in the 21 century. In addition to introducing the various international experiences, this paper presents the status of the industry and the promotion strategies carried out by the domestic government. The author proposes a research structure for inquiring the talent development policy as well as brings out a set of preliminary conclusions for this issue based upon the lengthy industrial consulting experience. At the end of this paper, the author forecasts the next wave of convergence of related fields for developing the digital content industry, by which the industry is expected to have a further development and even come to prospering.

  11. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substance Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 are reported.  The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011.  The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 as a fungicide on table and wine grapes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented.  Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed.  The assessment of potential transfer of genetic material from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 to other organisms cannot not be finalised.  The consumer and re-entry worker risk assessment cannot be finalised as data are missing on the levels of secondary metabolites/toxins produced by the organism on plants.  Furthermore, the risk assessment for non-target organisms and the groundwater exposure assessment from secondary metabolites/toxins could not be finalised.  As the soil exposure assessments could not be finalised, also the risk to soil-dwelling organisms from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 could not be finalised.

  12. Technology assessment of automation trends in the modular home industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Mitchell; Robert Russell Hurst

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technology used in manufacturing modular homes in the United States, and that used in the German prefabricated wooden home industry. It is the first step toward identifying the research needs in automation and manufacturing methods that will facilitate mass customization in the home manufacturing industry. Within the United States...

  13. Accuracy assessment of an industrial actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Genta, Gianfranco; Barbato, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    of length measurements of grade 0 steel gauge blocks. Measurements with different values of contact force were performed to assess its influence. A statistical analysis of the experimental data was performed to support the accuracy assessment. Systematic effects were identified and corrected. An expanded...

  14. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  15. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance [Trichoderma atroviride strain I-1237

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France, for the pesticide active substance Trichoderma atroviride strain I-1237 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Trichoderma atroviride strain I-1237 as a fungicide in vineyards and grapevine nursery. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed.

  16. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Pseudomonas sp. strain DSMZ 13134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance Pseudomonas sp. strain DSMZ 13134 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Pseudomonas sp. strain DSMZ 13134 as a fungicide on seed potatoes, flowers, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplant, lettuce and cabbage. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  17. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis AM65-52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Italy, for the pesticide active substance Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis AM65-52 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis AM65-52 as an insecticide on ornamentals. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  18. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507 for cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize 1507 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Scientific Opinion updating the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on maize 1507. Here, risk managers are provided with additional evidence and further clarifications to those previous conclusions and risk management recommendations. This Scientific Opinion provides background scientific information to inform the decision-making processes; the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates that risk managers should choose risk mitigation and management measures that are proportionate to the level of identified risk according to the protection goals pertaining to their regions.

  19. Environmental Assessment - Gotten across to industrial designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a simplified method for environmental assessment for designers, the Oil Point Method (OPM). The paper explains characteristics of the method, such as the reduced problem with missing data, and describes how the method is used with its three steps, “FOCUS on the problem...

  20. Credit risk assessment: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring different risk factors such as credit risk in banking industry has been an interesting area of studies. The artificial neural network is a nonparametric method developed to succeed for measuring credit risk and this method is applied to measure the credit risk. This research’s neural network follows back propagation paradigm, which enables it to use historical data for predicting future values with very good out of sample fitting. Macroeconomic variables including GDP, exchange rate, inflation rate, stock price index, and M2 are used to forecast credit risk for two Iranian banks; namely Saderat and Sarmayeh over the period 2007-2011. Research data are being tested for ADF and Causality Granger tests before entering the ANN to achieve the best lag structure for the research model. MSE and R values for the developed ANN in this research respectively are 86×〖10〗^(-4 and 0.9885, respectively. The results showed that ANN was able to predict banks’ credit risk with low error. Sensibility analyses which has accomplished on this research’s ANN corroborates that M2 has the highest effect on the ANN’s credit risk and should be considered as an additional leading indicator by Iran’s banking authorities. These matters confirm validation of macroeconomic notions in Iran’s credit systematic risk.

  1. Lunar resource assessment: an industry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. C.; Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.

    The goals of the U.S. space program are to return to the Moon, establish a base, and continue onward to Mars. To accomplish this in a relatively short time frame and to avoid the high costs of transporting materials from the Earth, resources on the Moon will need to be mined. Oxygen will be one of the most important resources, to be used as a rocket propellant and for life support. Ilmenite and lunar regolith have both been considered as ores for the production of oxygen. Resource production on the Moon will be a very important part of the U.S. space program. To produce resources we must explore to identify the location of ore or feedback and calculate the surface and underground reserves. Preliminary resource production tests will provide the information that can be used in final plant design. Bechtel Corporation's experience in terrestrial engineering and construction has led to an interest in lunar resource assessment leading to the construction of production facilities on the Moon. There is an intimate link between adequate resource assessment to define feedstock quantity and quality, material processing requirements, and the successful production of lunar oxygen. Although lunar resource assessment is often viewed as a research process, the engineering and production aspects are very important to consider. Resource production often requires the acquisition of different types, scales, or resolutions of data than that needed for research, and it is needed early in the exploration process. An adequate assessment of the grade, areal extent, and depth distribution of the resources is a prerequisite to mining. The need for a satisfactory resource exploration program using remote sensing techniques, field sampling, and chemical and physical analysis is emphasized. These data can be used to define the ore for oxygen production and the mining, processing facilities, and equipment required.

  2. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  3. Industrial and Commercial Property and the Dispersion of Assessed Valuation per Pupil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Paul W.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the dispersion of assessed valuation per pupil in Illinois and evaluates some proposals that might reduce this dispersion. The major proposal considered by the author is removal of industrial and commercial property (I & C) from local rolls. The conclusion is drawn that removing I & C from the property tax base has little or no…

  4. Assessment of postur in an automotive industry using ISO -11228-3 technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Results: Results shown in 4 workstations include 35 task in an automotive industry. One of them is red and another’s are green.. Conclusion: This method is suitable, quickly and very easy to use for assessment of ergonomics situation in work.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RELIABILITY OF INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaryan Robert Kamoevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the procedure of identification of organizational and technological reliability is described. This methodology is applicable both to separate functional areas and to all industrial enterprises. Its objective is to assess the expediency of reorganization. The objective of this scientific research is the substantiation of reorganization of an industrial enterprise. Multivariable models, or convolutions, were used as research methods. According to the RF law, industrial enterprises are divided into four functional areas, each of which is assessed on the basis of multiple criteria. Assessment of organizational and technological reliability requires a multi-parameter model. Its axes correspond to the number of evaluation criteria. The set of criteria designated for the assessment of organizational and technological reliability is identified on the basis of the homogeneity of trend indicators designated for centripetal and centrifugal models. The axes of a multi-parameter model represent real and benchmark values. The unit serves as the benchmark value; it is the maximal value of this parameter. The formula based on average values shall be used to determine the total value of the above parameters. The authors have also generated a model of organizational and technological reliability of industrial enterprises. It is noteworthy that assessment of organizational and technological reliability of an industrial enterprise requires a concentric multi-layer model developed through the application of the convolution method.

  6. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance cerevisane (cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain LAS117

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France for the pesticide active substance cerevisane (cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain LAS117, and the assessment of the proposal for inclusion of the substance in Annex IV of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Regulation (EC No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of the active substance as a systemic resistance inducer against fungi and bacteria in lettuce and other salad crops. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. No concerns are identified.

  7. Ergonomic Risk Assessment on Oil Palm Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Mohd DEROS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was an investigation conducted at two oil palm plantations in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia on the prevalence of back pain among workers in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Many manual handling activities and tasks performed were not designed ergonomically, thus a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was found among oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs manual workers. The three main objectives of this study were to determine the level of employee awareness on health and safety of manual handling tasks; to recognize the musculoskeletal symptom on the workers body parts; and to analyze their working postures and identify the relevant risk factors.Methods: Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to collect data in 2012 at two oil palm plantations located in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia. Later, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA analysis was conducted for high risk working postures. Seventy workers participated in the study.Results: 81.4% of workers were aware on the correct methods to perform the manual handling tasks. The upper back and lower back pain were experienced by 87.1% and 94.3% of the workers respectively.Conclusion: Manual workers have high level (81.4% health and safety awareness on manual handling tasks but failed to practice it. As a result, 87.1% of them are sufferring from lower back and 94.3% from upper back pain. FFBs loading activity into the lorry is a high risk and changes needed to be done immediately. The two major risk factors identified were awkward lifting postures and repetitive lifting of FFBs. Keywords: Oil palm industry, Ergonomics, Posture, Musculoskeletal pain, workers

  8. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovdal, Nicolai, E-mail: nicolai.lovdal@iot.ntnu.n [Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Neumann, Frank, E-mail: frank@wave-energy-centre.or [Wave Energy Centre, Av. Manuel Maia, 36, r/c Dto., 1000-201 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: {yields} Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. {yields} International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. {yields} Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. {yields} Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. {yields} Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  9. Coenoses risk assessment in industry (resource specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyaglov Sergey, G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of the economic infrastructure of modern Russia is now essential, taking a natural limiter necessary momentum, which is especially important in the current conditions of global trends and taking into account the efforts taken by the State, aimed at large-scale growth of production of Russian companies. This paper discusses the direction of overcoming the problem of lack of access to financial services to business entities, due to the lack of a universal tool to identify risks in the provision of credit resources to the understanding that, despite the differences in interpretation of Russian and foreign sources, is a complex of ontological perception of researchers, proposed expanded by generally accepted phenomenon of self-organization. It is proposed to assess the risks of the enterprises on the basis of the provisions of coenoses theory, which allows using a few key parameters to determine the degree of efficiency of use of available resources, to identify the stability of the enterprise as a system and predict its dynamic changes.

  10. Respiratory hazards: clinical and functional assessment in aluminum industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa H. Shaaban

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Aluminum industry is hazardous to both the workers and the community. The pulmonary hazards are significantly higher in workers who are continuously exposed to gases and pollutants for more than 8 h/day. Moreover the free radicals of silica and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may have a direct relationship with the recorded changes in diaphragmatic and pulmonary functions and may be precancerous.

  11. Assessment of in vitro COPD models for tobacco regulatory science: Workshop proceedings, conclusions and paths forward for in vitro model use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrsing, Holger; Raabe, Hans; Manuppello, Joseph; Bombick, Betsy; Curren, Rodger; Sullivan, Kristie; Sethi, Sanjay; Phipps, Richard; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Yan, Sherwin; D'Ruiz, Carl; Tarran, Robert; Constant, Samuel; Phillips, Gary; Gaça, Marianna; Hayden, Patrick; Cao, Xuefei; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Braun, Armin; Hill, Erin

    2016-05-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 established the Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products (FDA-CTP), and gave it regulatory authority over the marketing, manufacture and distribution of tobacco products, including those termed 'modified risk'. On 8-10 December 2014, IIVS organised a workshop conference, entitled Assessment of In Vitro COPD Models for Tobacco Regulatory Science, to bring together stakeholders representing regulatory agencies, academia, industry and animal protection, to address the research priorities articulated by the FDA-CTP. Specific topics were covered to assess the status of current in vitro technologies as they are applied to understanding the adverse pulmonary events resulting from tobacco product exposure, and in particular, the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The four topics covered were: a) Inflammation and Oxidative Stress; b) Ciliary Dysfunction and Ion Transport; c) Goblet Cell Hyperplasia and Mucus Production; and d) Parenchymal/Bronchial Tissue Destruction and Remodelling. The 2.5 day workshop included 18 expert speakers, plus poster sessions, networking and breakout sessions, which identified key findings and provided recommendations to advance the in vitro technologies and assays used to evaluate tobacco-induced disease etiologies. The workshop summary was reported at the 2015 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, and the recommendations led to an IIVS-organised technical workshop in June 2015, entitled Goblet Cell Hyperplasia, Mucus Production, and Ciliary Beating Assays, to assess these assays and to conduct a proof-of-principle multi-laboratory exercise to determine their suitability for standardisation. Here, we report on the proceedings, recommendations and outcomes of the December 2014 workshop, including paths forward to continue the development of non-animal methods to evaluate tissue responses that model the disease processes that may lead to COPD, a

  12. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substances Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EC No 2229/2004, as amended by Commission Regulation (EC No 1095/2007 and Commission Regulation (EU No 114/2010. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Beauveria bassiana strains ATCC-74040 and GHA as an insecticide on tomatoes for strain ATCC-74040 and on tomatoes, cucumbers and ornamentals for strain GHA. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed. Concerns are identified.

  13. Assessment of Regional Agricultural Industrial Competitiveness in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun; YANG; Ying; PING

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the agricultural industrial competitiveness in China’s 30 provinces ( municipalities and autonomous regions) ,to provide a reference for the relevant state departments to develop the agricultural industry policy. Using factor analysis and expert consulting method,we determine the weight of each indicator,and establish the comprehensive evaluation model suitable for the assessment of agricultural industrial competitiveness. Using the comprehensive evaluation model,we assess the agricultural competitiveness of China’s 30 provinces ( municipalities and autonomous regions) . China’s 30 provinces ( municipalities and autonomous regions) can be divided into three groups ( high competitiveness,middle competitiveness and low competitiveness) . The results show that although there are subtle changes in the sequencing within high competitiveness group,the members of high competitiveness group are basically unchanged; compared with high competitiveness group,the agricultural industry in middle competitiveness group and low competitiveness group shows the characteristic of significant geographical concentration,and the competitive agricultural industrial belt is outstanding. We put forward the following recommendations: extending agricultural industry chain and increasing agricultural value added; utilizing regional resources and developing characteristic agriculture; taking the road of large-scale management to promote sustainable and healthy agricultural development in China.

  14. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    1997-11-01

    In 1987, microbiology became a part of the Swedish scientific program for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). The goal of the microbiology sub-program is to understand how subterranean microorganisms will interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. The Swedish research program on subterranean microbiology has mainly been performed at two sites in granitic rock aquifers at depths ranging from 70 m down to 1240 m; the Stripa research mine in the middle of Sweden and the Aespoe hard rock laboratory (HRL) situated on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Some work has also been performed in co-operation with other national or international research groups in Sweden, Canada and at the natural analogue sites in Oklo in Gabon and Maqarin in Jordan. The most recent report in the SKB technical report series on microbiology and performance assessment, SKB-TR--95-10, gave the state of the art regarding microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment. That report is recommended as a source of knowledge about basic microbiology, microbial ecology of subterranean environments and the nuclear waste disposal concept in a microbiological perspective. The present report summarises results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997 and is a continuation of SKB TR 95-10. The report is structured as summary which explains and analyses the obtained results and conclusions in a performance assessment perspective. The scientific basis for the summary is an enclosed series of eleven papers of which eight have gone through an international peer review process for publication in international scientific journals and reports and papers published earlier. 413 refs, 56 figs, 39 tabs.

  15. Influence of the impact assessment method on the conclusions of a LCA study. Application to the case of a part made with virgin and recycled HDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Carla L; Xará, Susana M; Bernardo, C A

    2011-10-01

    Recent legislation has stressed the need to decide the best end-of-life (EoL) option for post-consumer products considering their full life-cycle and the corresponding overall environmental impacts. The life cycle assessment (LCA) technique has become a common tool to evaluate those impacts. The present study aimed to contribute to the better understanding of the application of this technique, by evaluating the influence of the selection of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method in its results and conclusions. A specific case study was chosen, using previous information related to an anti-glare lamellae (AGL) for highway use, made with virgin and recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Five distinct LCIA methods were used: Eco-indicator 99, CML 2 (2000), EPS 2000, Eco-indicator 95 and EDIP 97. Consistent results between these methods were obtained for the Climate change, Ozone layer depletion, Acidification and Eutrophication environmental indicators. Conversely, the Summer smog indicator showed large discrepancies between impact assessment methods. The work sheds light on the advantages inherent in using various LCIA methods when doing the LCA study of a specific product, thus evidencing complementary analysis perspectives.

  16. Different Teams, Same Conclusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Thomas E; Haider, Haula F; Kikidis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Though clinical guidelines for assessment and treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus do exist, a comprehensive review of those guidelines has not been performed. The objective of this review was to identify current clinical guidelines, and compare their recommendations for the asses......Background: Though clinical guidelines for assessment and treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus do exist, a comprehensive review of those guidelines has not been performed. The objective of this review was to identify current clinical guidelines, and compare their recommendations...

  17. Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2007-04-17

    The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

  18. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  19. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATE PROVIDING WITH MANAGERIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Younesian, R. Nabizadeh, I. Hashemi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available At this study, an environmental impact assessment establishment of Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulted from establishment of the industrial estate were investigated, using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the environmental harmful impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done regarding to the amount and kind of predicted pollutions for industrial estate at the construction and operational phases. The environmental impact assessment of the investigated estate was studied at the three terms of immediate, direct and indirect impacts at the short, medium and long term. By expanding of Leopold Matrix to four parted matrix, in addition to amount, importance and extend of the impacts, the remaining duration of impact in the environment were assessed as a separate factor in environmental impact assessment. The results of the study with two alternatives, such as; No (performance of the project with no concern for environmental issue and as yes (performance of the project with application of the environmental harmful impacts were studied in construction and operation phases. The impact assessment of "NO" property resulted (-1065, therefore the execution of project was rejected, but after reducing the harmful impact performance which were resulted (+1095 has been accepted. Therefore, method of reducing harmful environmental impacts along with environmental management programs introduced and accepted in this study.

  1. Development of Systematic Sustainability Assessment (SSA) for the Malaysian Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    Sustainability assessment is recognized as a powerful and important tool to measure the performance of sustainability in a company or industry. There are various initiatives exists on tools for sustainable development. However, most of the sustainability measurement tools emphasize on environmental, economy and governance aspects. Some of the companies also implement different of sustainability indicators to evaluate the performance of economy, social and environmental separately. In this research, a new methodology for assessing sustainability in the context of Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of Green Project Management (GPM) P5 Integration Matrix, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This systematic assessment will help the engineers or project managers measure the critical element of sustainability compliance.

  2. A mathematical model for environmental risk assessment in manufacturing industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莉萍; 徐盛明; 陈大川; 党创寅

    2002-01-01

    Environmental conscious manufacturing has become an important issue in industry because of market pressure and environmental regulations. An environmental risk assessment model was developed based on the network analytic method and fuzzy set theory. The "interval analysis method" was applied to deal with the on-site monitoring data as basic information for assessment. In addition, the fuzzy set theory was employed to allow uncertain, interactive and dynamic information to be effectively incorporated into the environmental risk assessment. This model is a simple, practical and effective tool for evaluating the environmental risk of manufacturing industry and for analyzing the relative impacts of emission wastes, which are hazardous to both human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the model is considered useful for design engineers and decision-maker to design and select processes when the costs, environmental impacts and performances of a product are taken into consideration.

  3. Thermal Comfort Assessment: A Case Study at Malaysian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the productivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. The exposure to excessive heat during work may cause discomfort and contributed to low productivity among workers. Malaysia known with its hot and humid weather where in most of the survey study published indicated that workers in Malaysia automotive industries had exposed to excessive temperature while working. The study investigated the thermal comfort level experienced by workers at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: The study had been conducted at one automotive parts assembly factory in Malaysia. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at tire receiving section of the factory. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, WBGT, air temperature and radiant temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ASHRAE thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD was used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The trend of relative humidity curve from the graph also indicated the increasing level of discomfort. The radiant temperature observed seems consistent during the study while there was decreasing of WBGT start from afternoon due to the rain. The study revealed that the PPD value of 54% of the workers population at the workstation are likely to be satisfied with thermal comfort at this station while the PMV index from ASHRAE indicated the value 1

  4. Assessment on knowledge network sharing capability of industrial cluster based on dempster-shafer theory of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shengli; Zhang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    Based on Theory of Evidence and reviewing research papers concerned, a concept model of knowledge sharing network among industrial cluster firms, which can be applied to assess knowledge sharing capacity, has been built. Next, the authors create a set of assessment index systems including twelve subindexes under four principle indexes. In this study, ten experts in the same field were invited to score all the indexes of knowledge sharing capacity concerning one certain industrial cluster. The research result shows relatively high knowledge network sharing capacity among the certain industrial cluster firms. Another conclusion is that the assessment method with Theory of Evidence is feasible to conduct such a research.

  5. Assessment on Knowledge Network Sharing Capability of Industrial Cluster Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Theory of Evidence and reviewing research papers concerned, a concept model of knowledge sharing network among industrial cluster firms, which can be applied to assess knowledge sharing capacity, has been built. Next, the authors create a set of assessment index systems including twelve subindexes under four principle indexes. In this study, ten experts in the same field were invited to score all the indexes of knowledge sharing capacity concerning one certain industrial cluster. The research result shows relatively high knowledge network sharing capacity among the certain industrial cluster firms. Another conclusion is that the assessment method with Theory of Evidence is feasible to conduct such a research.

  6. Methodology for Assessment and Optimization of Industrial Eco-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zondervan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging trend in evaluating industrial activities using principles of industrial ecology because of the emphasis on sustainability initiatives by major process industries. Attention has also been targeted at developing planned industrial ecosystems (IEs across the globe. We point out the current state-of-the art in this exciting discipline and subsequently identify the challenges that have not been encountered by the scientific community yet. Ecological Input Output Analysis (EIOA may be considered as an “all-inclusive model” for the assessment of an IE because of its ability to capture the economic, environmental, and societal behavior of an IE. It could also be utilized to illustrate the detailed inter-relationships among the entities of an IE. Optimization of a fully integrated IE using conventional multi-objective optimization techniques would be too complex. For such multi-objective optimization problems, Hierarchical-Pareto optimization discussed in the literature has shown promise, but there is a need to establish a methodology to assess and/or improve the robustness of an IE using such techniques.

  7. Energy Efficiency Practices: Assessment of Ohrid Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana PETREVSKA; Cingoski, Vlatko

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides information on the extent how the hotel industry in Ohrid meets the energy efficiency practices in terms of the current level of involvement. By undertaking an online survey in three, four and five-star hotels, the study assesses the attitudes and willingness of hotel managers concerning applying energy efficiency and environmental protection concepts and practices. Moreover, it investigates various determinants of energy consumption, like: solid waste management, resource...

  8. [SENTIERI Project: discussion and conclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, Roberta; Ricci, Paolo; Comba, Pietro; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Biggeri, Annibale; Conti, Susanna; Fazzo, Lucia; Forastiere, Francesco; Iavarone, Ivano; Martuzzi, Marco; Musmeci, Loredana; Pasetto, Roberto; Zona, Amerigo; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The SENTIERI Project represents the first comprehensive analysis of the health impact of residence in National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs). For the first time, it considers three distinct health outcomes: mortality (2003-2010), cancer incidence (1996- 2005) and hospital discharges (2005-2010). The Report includes a commentary explaining methodology and approach, as well as remarks on the causal association between environmental exposures and investigated health outcomes based on the a priori assessments of the epidemiological evidence; the main implications for public health and scientific research priorities are also presented. The approach put forward by SENTIERI was among those sanctioned by the World Health Organization to conduct an initial description of the health status of residents of contaminated sites. Results relating to individual diseases that can be traced back to a single agent, such as asbestiform fibres, can be easily analysed. The Biancavilla NPCS (where the fluoro-edenite asbestiform fibre was found) displays excesses of pleural mesothelioma and its proxy, malignant pleural tumours, as does Priolo, where asbestos coexists with other pollutants. Increased risk was also recorded in NPCSs adjacent to the coast hosting harbour areas (such as Trieste, Taranto and Venice) or comprising industrial areas specialising in the production of chemicals (Laguna di Grado e Marano, Priolo and Venezia) and steel (Taranto, Terni, Trieste). Increases of pathologies, such as cancer and respiratory diseases, connected to more than one agent, in industrial sites with multiple and diverse sources of exposures, prove harder to interpret. There are also more complex cases in which results do not appear consistent in the three databases or by gender (such as lung cancer in Venice, where mortality and hospital discharges have only increased among women). In order to adequately examine these we must consider factors such as the appropriateness of the health outcome

  9. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dubasque, François

    2015-01-01

    Lorsque Jean Hennessy entre en politique, rien ne laisse présager un parcours si complexe et déroutant ! Les étapes marquantes d’un itinéraire politique Issu de la grande bourgeoisie négociante, il bénéficie d’un capital d’influence politique, économique et social légué par sa famille. Or, le processus de démocratisation du recrutement du personnel politique dans la première moitié du xxe siècle aboutit à la marginalisation progressive de ceux pour qui le moyen d’accéder aux échelons du pouvo...

  10. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Guibet-Lafaye, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    L’ensemble de ces analyses a permis de montrer que « le bonheur n’est ni une course effrénée au toujours plus et toujours tournée vers l’avenir, ni l’unique nostalgie du passé » (Proust) pas plus qu’il n’est la simple somme des plaisirs de la vie à laquelle seraient soustraits les maux subis. Le bonheur est bien plutôt un état – c’est-à-dire pas seulement un sentiment – de bien-être dépendant d’une pluralité de facteurs. Selon la perspective à partir de laquelle on l’appréhende (la psychologi...

  11. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bart, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Résumons notre démonstration : La découverte des Beatles rend possibles des expériences intimes de plongée en soi. Le passionné a le sentiment de se découvrir au contact de la musique. Cette passion, à ce stade discrète, le singularise par rapport à son environnement immédiat (famille, amis…). On parlera de stratégie de différenciation. Cette stratégie peut conduire au sentiment d’une certaine incompréhension, d’une certaine solitude. La rencontre d’autres passionnés rassure dans un premier t...

  12. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Félix, Joël

    2013-01-01

    La politique économique et financière de L’Averdy s’est fortement inspirée des réflexions de l’administration et des idées des économistes du milieu du xviiie siècle. Sa principale ambition fut d’améliorer les réformes financières de Machault d’Arnouville pour justifier, d’abord, le principe de l’imposition des rentes et doter, ensuite, la monarchie d’une structure d’amortissement de ses dettes pour greffer le financement des dépenses publiques sur la croissance économique. Les contraintes fi...

  13. Conclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ ASEAN has become one of the centers in India's foreign policies, strategic concerns and economic interest, and also an outpost for India to go east to the Asia Pacific Area.19 The first phase of India's "Look East" policy is to fully restore its engagement with ASEAN and concentrate on forging trade and investment ties with the ASEAN countries, this task has already been fulfilled.

  14. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Wallo, Andreas; Toiviainen, Hanna;

    2015-01-01

    production and knowledge-work offer growing learning opportunities to people throughout their active working life. In contrast to the stable and standardised modes of Fordist production, modern working life is characterised by rapid changes and employees interacting across globally distributed professional...... and spatial production networks. Based on continuous relationships of mutual exchange and knowledge building between customers, suppliers and producers, these kinds of learning environments are essentially different from those offered in a school setting. More research is needed to explore the opportunities...

  15. Conclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ One of the major contributions of economic integration to European unification lies in its transformation of traditional European balance concepts and structures. This unification model shows that mere economic and trade ties cannot basically change state relations.

  16. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Helge; Kristiansen, Tore

    2010-01-01

    1. Comparing empirical findings with the “mountain peak model” In the introduction to this volume, we presented a “mountain peak model” of Nordic purism based on evidence showing that language scholars and lay people are very much in agreement as to where we find the more purist languages and com...

  17. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Helge; Kristiansen, Tore

    2010-01-01

    1. Comparing empirical findings with the “mountain peak model” In the introduction to this volume, we presented a “mountain peak model” of Nordic purism based on evidence showing that language scholars and lay people are very much in agreement as to where we find the more purist languages...

  18. Conclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Strubell

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this brief document, the director of the UOC's Humanities degree, Miquel Strubell, concludes the Dossier focusing on the subject that acted as the catalyst for the 1st Conference on "Humanities Professions in the Knowledge Society", highlighting those areas for debate that, from his point of view, are most interesting and attractive in terms of setting limits and facing up to the problems the degree has at this time of the coming together to form a European university space.

  19. Assessment of Health Systems and Services Including Availability of Components for Mental Health Care in Industries of Kolar District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Sukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs and psychological hazards are increasingly observed in industries, necessitating the need to strengthen industrial health systems to control the same. District level data on level of functioning of industrial health systems and services with special focus on systems available for mental health care is lacking in India. This information is vital to plan need-based interventions for system strengthening. Objective: To assess the status of functioning of industrial health systems and services in Kolar district, India, with special focus on systems and services available for mental health care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken between October and December 2014 on a stratified random sample of 69 industries located in Kolar, which were stratified proportionately by their hazardous nature. Interview and observation checklist were used to assess and classify functioning of industrial health systems and services including those available for mental health care. Results: Occupational safety and health (OSH policy was present in 56% and health insurance in 39% of the 69 industries assessed. Pre-placement and periodical medical examination were conducted in 23% of industries. Health systems and services in hazardous industries were functioning at less than 50% level of functioning. Health systems and services for mental health care were non-existent. Conclusion: There is a need in Kolar district, India, to integrate the mental health components within existing industrial health systems, as per policy directives to implement setting based approaches in mental health programs.

  20. Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Risk in Fur Industry in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Vaitelytė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the research on the possibilities of hazardous chemicals replacement with less hazardous substances. This issue has become of special importance to industrial companies after the adoption of the REACH Regulation. The article examines fur industry and traditional chemicals used in it, namely, sodium dichromate, formaldehyde, and naphthalene. Because of their properties these chemicals are pretending to be included in the REACH Regulation lists of the authorised chemicals. The risks of quasi-materials to the workplaces and the environment have been studied. This research has also looked for the alternatives to hazardous chemicals and has conducted their risk assessment. The analyzed chemicals have been compared with their alternatives with a view of disclosing specific risk reduction.

  1. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  2. Environmental impacts assessment of industrial estate providing with managerial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A.H.; Younesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Hashemi, I. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran)

    2007-07-01

    The existence of balance, coordination and required order among natural elements is one of the key factors in the ecosystem. If this balance is disturbed under certain circumstances, it will damage the structure of living existences and more specifically human beings. Since a half century ago, factors such as important economical and industrial activites, advanced technologies together with growing population and lack of concordance among different couhntries to take optimal advantage of the existing natural resources have distrubed the balance in the ecosystem. As a result, man has caused many problems such as high death tolls and arduous diseases due to the different pollutions in water, air, land, sound, temperature, etc and factors such as erosion, desert, expansion, floods, extinction of plant and animal species, ozone layer destruction, global warming, sea level rise and greenhouse gases increase. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to recognize and assess systematic consequences of projects and programs on elements like physicochemical, biological, cultural, economical and social phenomena in th environment; in other words it is a way or method to determine the direction of predication and assessment of environmental impacts of activities on the environmental health of the ecosystem affecting human lives. In this study, and environmental impact assessment of the establishment of the Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulting from establishment of the indutrial estate were investigated using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the harmful environmental impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done in regard to the amount and kind of predicted pollution for the

  3. Assessment of Industrial Exposure to Magnetic Fields (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, P

    1999-07-01

    Magnetic field strengths produced by industrial processes can be very large, but they often exhibit a marked spatial variation. Whilst there may be the potential for exposures of workers to be high, actual exposure will be determined to a great extent by working practices. Possible metrics for epidemiological studies might be based on the temporal variability of exposure as well as maximum operator exposure or time-weighted average exposure and, whilst it might be possible to estimate these quantities from spot magnetic field strength measurements and observed working practices, this might be very difficult to achieve in practice. An alternative would be the use of a logging dosemeter: this paper describes some of the results of exposure assessments carried out in industrial environments with a modified EMDEX II magnetic field dosemeter. Magnetic fields in industrial environments often have waveforms which are not purely sinusoidal. Distortion can be introduced by the magnetic saturation of transformer and motor cores, by rectification, by poor matching between oscillator circuits and loads and when thyristors are used to control power. The resulting repetitive but non-sinusoidal magnetic field waveforms can be recorded and analysed; the spectral data may be incorporated into possible exposure metrics. It is also important to ensure that measurement instrumentation is responding appropriately in a non-sinusoidal field and this can only be done if the spectral content of the field is characterised fully. Some non-sinusoidal magnetic field waveforms cannot be expressed as a harmonic series. Specialist instrumentation and techniques are needed to assess exposure to such fields. Examples of approaches to the assessment of exposure to repetitive and non-repetitive magnetic fields are also discussed. (author)

  4. Strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in industrial effluents: IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemtsma, T.; Klinkow, N.

    2001-08-01

    The assessment of amounts and effects of hazardous substances in industrial effluents necessitates a combination of chemical and biological investigations. Therefore in this study a strategy for the investigation of hazardous substances in wastewater discharges was developed which connects the parameters persistence, bioaccumulation, and aquatic toxicity. The strategy IDA (Industrial Discharge Assessment) was elaborated based on the evaluation of existing investigation strategies and the available test systems. The strategy has a modular structure to assure a flexible investigation with regard to the particularities of a given wastewater. After the determination of acute and chronic toxicity and genotoxicity a microbial degradation test is carried out to obtain the persistent wastewater fraction. The bioaccumulating substances are determined from this fraction by solid-phase extraction. Within the strategy differences between direct and indirect discharges are taken into account and particulate matter is considered as well. By the modular linking it can be determined if a wastewater contains toxic and persistent and bioaccumulating substances, which present an important potential of hazard for the aquatic environment. The first application of the strategy on three wastewater samples of the chemical and the metal processing industry showed that the strategy can be used as planned. (orig.) [German] Die Erfassung der Gehalte und Wirkungen gefaehrlicher Stoffe in Abwassereinleitungen der Industrie erfordert eine Kombination chemischer und biologischer Untersuchungen, die ueber das bisher in der AbwV festgelegte Mass hinausgeht. In dieser Studie wurde deshalb eine Untersuchungsstrategie fuer gefaehrliche Stoffe in Abwasserleitungen entwickelt, die die Parameter Persistenz, Bioakkumulierbarkeit und Toxizitaet auch experimentell verknuepft. Die Ausarbeitung erfolgte nach Auswertung der international bestehenden Untersuchungsstrategien sowie der zur Verfuegung stehenden

  5. Mass customization and sustainability an assessment framework and industrial implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Boër, Claudio R; Bettoni, Andrea; Sorlini, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    To adapt to global competitive pressures, manufacturers must develop methods and enabling technologies towards a personalized, customer oriented and sustainable manufacturing. Mass Customization and Sustainability defines the two concepts of mass customization and sustainability and introduces a framework to establish a link between the two concepts to answer the questions: Are these two aspects empowering one another? Or are they hindering one another?   These questions investigate mass customization as one of the main driving forces to achieve effective sustainability.  A methodology to assess the contribution of mass customization to sustainability is developed, providing an assessment model composed by a set of indicators covering the three aspects of sustainability: social, economical and environmental. This is supported and further explained using ideas and new concepts compiled from recent European research.   Researchers, scientists, managers and industry professionals alike can follow a set of ...

  6. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  7. Life cycle assessment-driven selection of industrial ecology strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardente, Fulvio; Cellura, Maurizio; Lo Brano, Valerio; Mistretta, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents an application of the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the planning and environmental management of an “eco-industrial cluster.” A feasibility study of industrial symbiosis in southern Italy is carried out, where interlinked companies share subproducts and scraps, services, structures, and plants to reduce the related environmental impact. In particular, the research focuses on new recycling solutions to create open recycling loops in which plastic subproducts and scraps are transferred to external production systems. The main environmental benefits are the reduction of resource depletion, air emissions, and landfilled wastes. The proposed strategies are also economically viable and they suggest cost abatement for the involved companies. This research shows the need for a multidisciplinary approach to data processing and to complexity managing of the investigated systems. In this context, life-cycle thinking is required to be promoted throughout the economy, as well to be as a part of all decisions on products and other criteria such as functionality, health, and safety. The Life-Cycle Assessment approach can be assumed as a methodology for influencing decision makers to make sustainable choices.

  8. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran’s intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. Methods: This study assessed the factors associated with Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001–2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals. Results: The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn’t have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. Conclusions: In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26156931

  9. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  10. ARIES: System for Health effects Assessment in industrial risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, I.; Vidania, R. de; Inmaculada, S.

    1992-07-01

    . (Application lo Industrial Risk for Health Effects Assessment) (Author)

  11. Proposal of statistical analysis to support the assessment method of a Brazilian Industrial Engineering course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Helena Daroz Gaudêncio

    Full Text Available Abstract The requirement to adapt the university education to demands of society and professional market is improving the teaching methodologies that try to develop skills and prepare the students to deal with day-to-day situations of a business environment. Therefore, this research presents the assessment method utilized in an Industrial Engineering course carried out by a Brazilian public university in partnership with a multinational company. The course had 37 participants, consisting of: 28 students divided into four groups; 1 teacher; 4 university tutors; and 4 company tutors. The main objective is to assess the consistency of grades assigned to students and their work groups using agreement, variance and correlation analyses. As conclusion, the analyses indicated a possible deficiency in the assessment method application since the values of agreement and correlation coefficients were lower than expected but also provided a positive contribution to the improvement of assessment and the course as a whole.

  12. Industrial process system assessment: bridging process engineering and life cycle assessment through multiscale modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Process System Assessment (IPSA) methodology is a multiple step allocation approach for connecting information from the production line level up to the facility level and vice versa using a multiscale model of process systems. The allocation procedure assigns inpu...

  13. Industrial process system assessment: bridging process engineering and life cycle assessment through multiscale modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Process System Assessment (IPSA) methodology is a multiple step allocation approach for connecting information from the production line level up to the facility level and vice versa using a multiscale model of process systems. The allocation procedure assigns inpu...

  14. 75 FR 4400 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential... and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Assessment of Abuse Potential of Drugs.'' Under...

  15. Essentials in intraoperative indocyanine green videoangiography assessment for intracranial aneurysm surgery: conclusions from 295 consecutively clipped aneurysms and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Karl; Krawagna, Maximilian; Dörfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver

    2014-02-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography (VA) in cerebral aneurysm surgery allows confirmation of blood flow in parent, branching, and perforating vessels as well as assessment of remnant aneurysm parts after clip application. A retrospective analysis and review of the literature were conducted to determine the current essential advantages of ICG-VA in aneurysm surgery. The authors retrospectively evaluated all aneurysm cases treated with the aid of intraoperative ICG-VA at a single institution between 2007 and 2013. They also analyzed the literature published since the initial description of ICG-VA in 2003. Two hundred forty-six procedures were performed in 232 patients harboring 295 aneurysms. The patients, whose mean age was 54 years, consisted of 159 women and 73 men. One hundred twenty-four surgeries were performed after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 122 were performed for incidental aneurysms. Single aneurysms were clipped in 185 patients, and multiple aneurysms were clipped in 47 (mean aneurysm diameter 6.9 mm, range 2-40 mm). No complications associated with ICG-VA occurred. Intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasonography was performed before ICG-VA in all patients, and postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) studies were available in 121 patients (52.2%) for retrospective comparative analysis. In 22 (9%) of 246 procedures, the clip position was modified intraoperatively as a consequence of ICG-VA. Stenosis of the parent vessels (16 procedures) or occlusion of the perforators (6 procedures), not detected by micro-Doppler ultrasonography, were the most common problems demonstrated on ICG-VA. In another 11 procedures (4.5%), residual perfusion of the aneurysm was observed and one or more additional clips were applied. Vessel stenosis or a compromised perforating artery occurred independent of aneurysm location and was about equally common in middle cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery aneurysms. In 2 procedures (0.8%), aneurysm

  16. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    . Existing studies on mitigation potentials and costs for the waste sector tend to focus on landfill CH4 as the baseline. The commercial recovery of landfill CH4 as a source of renewable energy has been practised at full scale since 1975 and currently exceeds 105 Mt CO2-eq year(-1). Although landfill CH4 emissions from developed countries have been largely stabilized, emissions from developing countries are increasing as more controlled (anaerobic) landfilling practices are implemented; these emissions could be reduced by accelerating the introduction of engineered gas recovery, increasing rates of waste minimization and recycling, and implementing alternative waste management strategies provided they are affordable, effective, and sustainable. Aided by Kyoto mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI), the total global economic mitigation potential for reducing waste sector emissions in 2030 is estimated to be > 1000 Mt CO2-eq (or 70% of estimated emissions) at costs below 100 US$ t(-1) CO2-eq year(-1). An estimated 20-30% of projected emissions for 2030 can be reduced at negative cost and 30-50% at costs gas recovery in the short- to medium-term--at the present time, there are > 130 Mt waste year(-1) incinerated at more than 600 plants. Current uncertainties with respect to emissions and mitigation potentials could be reduced by more consistent national definitions, coordinated international data collection, standardized data analysis, field validation of models, and consistent application of life-cycle assessment tools inclusive of fossil fuel offsets.

  17. Retrospective exposure assessment for benzene in the Australian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, D.C. [Deakin Univ., Occupational Hygiene Unit, Geelong, VIC (Australia); Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Public Health and Community Medicine, Carlton, VIC (Australia); Adams, G.G.; Manuell, R.W.; Bisby, J.A. [Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Public Health and Community Medicine, Carlton, VIC (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    An excess of lympho-haematopoietic (LH) cancers has been identified in the Australian petroleum industry through the Health Watch surveillance programme. A nested case-control study is being conducted to investigate this excess. This paper describes the methods used to provide quantitative estimates of benzene exposure for each of the subjects in the case-control study. Job histories were compiled for each subject from interviews and company employment records. Site visits and telephone interviews were used to identify the tasks included in each job title. Details about the tasks such as their frequency, the technology in use and about changes that had taken place over the years were also gathered. Exposure dated back to the late 1940s for a few subjects. Collaborating petroleum companies provided recent benzene exposure monitoring data. These were used to generate Base Estimates of exposure for each task, augmented with data from the literature where necessary. Past exposures were estimated from the Base Estimates by means of an exposure algorithm. The modifying effects of technological changes and changes to the product were used in the algorithm. The algorithm was then computed to give, for each job, for each subject, an estimate of average benzene exposure in ppm in the workplace atmosphere (Workplace Estimate). This value was multiplied by the years for which the job was held and these values summed to give an estimate of Cumulative Estimate of benzene in ppm-years. The occupational hygienists performing the exposure assessment did so without knowledge of the case or control status of subjects. Overall exposures to benzene in the Australian petroleum industry were low, and virtually all activities and jobs were below a time-weighted average of 5 ppm. Exposures in terminals were generally higher than at refineries. Exposures in upstream areas were extremely low. Estimates of Cumulative Estimate to benzene ranged from 0.005 to 50.9 ppm-years. (Author)

  18. Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffington, Warren M.; Eggebrecht, James A.

    2007-02-24

    This project benefited the public by assisting manufacturing plants in the United States to save costly energy resources and become more profitable. Energy equivalent to over 75,000 barrels of oil was conserved. The Texas A&M University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) visited 96 manufacturing plants and spent 101 days in those plants during the contract period from August 9, 2002, through November 30, 2006. Recommended annual energy savings for manufacturers were 37,400,000 kWh (127,600 MMBtu—site basis) of electricity and 309,000 MCF (309,000 MMBtu) of natural gas. Each manufacturer subsequently was surveyed, and based on these surveys reportedly implemented 79% of the electricity savings and 36% of the natural gas savings for an overall energy savings of 48% of recommended. Almost 800 (798) projects were recommended to manufacturers, and they accomplished two-thirds of the projects. Cost savings recommended were $12.3 million and implemented savings were $5.7 million or 47%. During the contract period our average time between site visit and report submittal averaged 46 days; and decreased from 48 days in 2003 to 44 days in 2006. Serving clients well and promptly has been a priority. We visited five ESA overflow clients during FY 06. The Texas A&M University IAC pioneered the presentation of air pollution information in reports, and includes NOx and CO2 reductions due to energy savings in all reports. We also experimented with formal PowerPoint BestPractices presentations called Lunchtime/Showtime in each plant and with delivering electronic versions of the report. During the period of the contract, the director served on the Texas Industries of the Future (IOF) Refining and Chemicals Committee, which oversaw the showcases in 2003 and 2006. The assistant director was the Executive Director of the International Energy Technology Conference held annually. The director and assistant director became qualified specialists in the Process Heating Assessment Scoping

  19. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Screening of Industrial Development Policies, Plans and Programs of Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Industrial Sector of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the quality of capacity building and institutional strengthening of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA in the industrial sector as well as determining the environmental strategies for industrial sustainable development in Iran. The leading aim of this paper has been to systematize the environmental considerations in industrial development strategies, policies, plans and programs in the highest strategic decision making processes and to ensure environmental considerations and alternatives together with other economic and social considerations in the procedures, before the research processes. In order to analysis of Iran,s industrial development strategies, a matrix method was used as one of the most practical techniques of strategic programing as; SWOT (strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Eventually the result of SWOT analysis in the form of a cell 29*12 matrix, has been an indicative of the degree of need toward performing SEA in conection with the kinds of the country,s industrial strategies in a categorizing priorities system. As among all the industrial strategic policies, have been screened and evaluated 8 strategies in the first priority and 4 strategies in the second priority.The industrial strategies with the first priority require; the emphasis on new industries, supporting and encouraging of the exports, privatization, competative industrial growth, commercial discharging, attracting the foreign direct investments, developing energy oriented industries and priorities of industrial fields strategies.Industrial strategies also require SEA in the second priority including: supporting the small and medium industries,considering the indexes of industrial potentiality measurement,following demands for establishing industrial workshops from spatial development system and developing legal, institutional and physical structures strategies.The basis of the results of this study is achieving

  1. Risk assessment of welders` exposure to total fume in an automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk assessment of Toxic or hazardous chemicals enables the Industrial Hygienists to make the appropriate decision in providing healthy work place. This project was conducted in an assembling plant,(4workshop of an Automobile Industry in IRAN with 2 types of welding operations, including GMAW (CO2 welding and Spot resistance welding operations. . Method and Materials: Welders` exposures were assessed via collecting 143 breathing zone air samples based on NIOSH 0500 method. Risk assessment was carried out using Singapore recommended method. .Results: Finding showed that the mean of welders exposure in GMAW and Spot resistance welding operations 5.61 ± 5.78and 2.38± 2.15 mg/m3, respectively(p<0.05. The results showed that in GMAW welders had the highe exposure in comparison with Spot resistance welders (p<0.05. The findings also demonstrated that the risk rate of GMAW welders were high, while this rate for Spot resistance was low. .Conclusion: more hygienic attention is needed for GTAW welders. Control approaches are required including effective engineering control, conduct air monitoring, biological monitoring training, adopt respiratory protection program, develop and implement safe and correct work procedures and finally reassess the risk after all the controls have been done.

  2. Assessing Sustainability in Environmental Management: A Case Study in Malaysia Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Asmanizam, Asmadianatasha

    2017-08-01

    The scarcity in measuring the sustainability accomplishment has been restrained most of the companies in Malaysian industry. Currently, there are variety types of the measurement tools of the sustainability assessment that have been implemented. However, there are still not achieving the inclusive elements required by the worldwide claim. In fact, the contribution to the sustainability performance are only highlighted on the nature, financial along with society components. In addition, some of the companies are conducting their sustainability implementation individually. By means, this process approaching type is needed to be integrated into a systematic system approach. This paper is focussing on investigating the present sustainability tools in the environmental management system for Malaysian industry prior to the quantification of the sustainability parameters. Hence, the parameters of the sustainability have been evaluated then in order to accomplish this project. By reviewing on the methodology of this research it comprises of three phases where it starts with the analyzation of the parameters in environmental management system according to the Malaysian context of industry. Moving on to the next step is the quantification of the criterion and finally the normalisation process will be done to determine the results of this research either it is succeeded or vice versa. As a result, this research has come to the conclusion where the level of the sustainability compliance does not achieve the standard level of the targeted objectives though it has already surpassed the average level of the sustainability performance. In future, the understanding towards the sustainability assessment is acquired to be aligned unitedly in order to integrated the process approach into the systematic approach. Apart, this research will be able to help to provide a measurable framework yet finally bestowing the Malaysian industry with a continuous improvement roadmap in achieving

  3. Assessment of the impact of the European CO{sub 2} emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, R.A.F. [Artenius Sines, Zona Industrial, 7520 Sines (Portugal); Ramoa Ribeiro, F.; Bordado, J.C.M. [Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, IBB-Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, V.M.S. [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, R. do Quelhas, 6, 1200-781 Lisboa (Portugal); Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, IBB-Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro 1949-014 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    This paper describes an assessment of the impact of the enforcement of the European carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions trading scheme on the Portuguese chemical industry, based on cost structure, CO{sub 2} emissions, electricity consumption and allocated allowances data from a survey to four Portuguese representative units of the chemical industry sector, and considering scenarios that allow the estimation of increases on both direct and indirect production costs. These estimated cost increases were also compared with similar data from other European Industries, found in the references and with conclusions from simulation studies. Thus, it was possible to ascertain the impact of buying extra CO{sub 2} emission permits, which could be considered as limited. It was also found that this impact is somewhat lower than the impacts for other industrial sectors. (author)

  4. Risk Assessment Index System of Natural Gas Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a risk assessment index system for the natural gas industrial chain. China's natural gas industrial chain is entering a stage of rapid growth. In order to guarantee healthy development of the natural gas industrial chain,it is urgent to establish a risk alert system, which is based on a risk assessment index system. First of all, the risks of the natural gas industrial chain are defined in the paper; then the risk factors are analyzed according to the present status of the natural gas industrial chain, and five categories of risk factors are summarized: resource risk, transport risk, marketing risk, risk of unbalanced chain links, and environment risk. The paper presents the principles of the risk assessment index system. The natural gas industrial chain risk assessment index system is established with four levels and forty-six risk indices.

  5. Formulating Assessment Indices and Strategies for the Transition to Local Industrial Development in Taoyuan City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Local industries are crucial for enhancing urban competitiveness and are closely related to national economic performance. To sustainably develop local industries, a set of assessment indices should be formulated in addition to factors such as geographical environments, cultural history, development processes, and industrial structures for governments to promote development policies while satisfying the goal of sustainable industrial development. This study first adopted the fuzzy Delphi method to construct the indices for assessing local industrial development, referred to the action plans for the six key industries formulated by the Executive Yuan of Taiwan, and subsequently integrated the analytic hierarchy process and analytic network process to determine the order of priority for policies facilitating local industrial development for future reference. The results indicated that infrastructure, innovative research and development, and government policies are crucial bases for local industrial development. Furthermore, this study adopted Taoyuan to verify these indices and compiled expert suggestions to indicate that the government should prioritize the development of the biotechnology, green energy, and medical care industries. When developing local industries in the future, a set of assessment standards and policy analyses should be established for the government to enhance local industrial development and thus increase international competitive advantages by fully ascertaining the factors for industrial success and the characteristics of local advantages.

  6. 77 FR 48989 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment... prospectively assessing the occurrence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical...

  7. 77 FR 40893 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ....S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi-Stakeholder... (CBI), to conduct a stakeholder assessment as part of the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency... regarding options for forming a U.S. multi-stakeholder group that will be responsible for determining...

  8. 77 FR 26315 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Stakeholder Assessment and Multi-Stakeholder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ....S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Stakeholder Assessment and Multi-Stakeholder Group... conduct a stakeholder assessment as part of the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI... forming a U.S. multi- stakeholder group that will be responsible for determining how USEITI will...

  9. assessment of atmospheric metal depositions in the industrial areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    However, all these heavy metals were present in concentrations greater than the recommended limits of Federal ... waste per year (FEPA, 1996). ... 23¹ E) has about 158 industrial establishments ... pollution status of the twelve locations though.

  10. Assessment of industrial attitudes toward generic research needs in tribology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibley, L.B.; Zlotnick, M.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    Based on extended discussions during visits with 27 companies representing 13 different parts of the tribology industry (such as bearings, lubricants, coatings, powerplants), it is apparent that only a tiny fraction of the large sums publicly reported as R and D expenditures by industry are used to fund generic tribology research. For example, of the greater than $2 B expenditures reported for R and D in the lubricants sector for 1982, the estimated total for generic tribology research was $12 M. This was the largest expenditure in any sector of the tribology industry and one-third of the total of $36 M. In the automotive industry out of a reported expenditure of $4 B, the estimated generic tribology research was $3 M. In some segments of the tribology industry, for example coatings and filters, there were no expenditures on generic research. There was little tendency to improve the state of the art of the tribology industry through long-term investment in generic R and D in ways that would foster innovation and productivity of energy conservation technology. Expenditures were oriented to development of specific commercial and military products, or to basic research focused on unspecified far term results, although useful spin-off of military developments into commercial fields sometimes occurs. There was a broad consensus in the companies visited that existing research results were not always made easily accessible to potential users in industry. The implication was that industry might benefit more if a larger fraction of the funds were devoted to putting the research results into a form design and development engineers could more readily apply. The need for a more effective presentation of research results was expressed with greater urgency at the smaller companies, but there seemed to be a broad consensus on the need for improvement. Recommendations are given.

  11. Review of data mining applications for quality assessment in manufacturing industry: support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostami Hamidey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many modern manufacturing industries, data that characterize the manufacturing process are electronically collected and stored in databases. Due to advances in data collection systems and analysis tools, data mining (DM has widely been applied for quality assessment (QA in manufacturing industries. In DM, the choice of technique to be used in analyzing a dataset and assessing the quality depend on the understanding of the analyst. On the other hand, with the advent of improved and efficient prediction techniques, there is a need for an analyst to know which tool performs better for a particular type of dataset. Although a few review papers have recently been published to discuss DM applications in manufacturing for QA, this paper provides an extensive review to investigate the application of a special DM technique, namely support vector machine (SVM to deal with QA problems. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature from various points of view as DM concepts, data preprocessing, DM applications for each quality task, SVM preliminaries, and application results. Summary tables and figures are also provided besides to the analyses. Finally, conclusions and future research directions are provided.

  12. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  13. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radosavljević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Global dynamics of the technological changes creates a need for modern approaches while evaluating and analysing the risk in the mining industry. Analysing and managing technical systems in the mining industry is a key factor concerning the quality of their functioning. Dependability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can contribute substantially to the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the mining technological systems. Besides applying adequate technology, organizing and harmonizing the system links among various structures and standardization is of the great importance in achieving business goals. The choice and use of the optimal solutions in the analysis ought to recognize, anticipate, forestall, reduce, and minimize the risk and possible destructive applications. The mining industry production practice recognizes the need for the strategy of organizational and process redesigning as well as raising this issue to the level of the other managing functions of the company. A realistic view of the present state in the risk analysis shows the need for the rapid transformation in the mining industry. The study puts forward a proposal for the possible approaches and improvement relating to the following and implementing modern, standardized world trends, (models and methods concerning the analysis of the technical and occupational safety risk in some of the basic processes in the mining industry.

  14. Efficient industry configurations in downstream gas markets. An empirical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel A. [IAE Escuela de Direccion y Negocios, Universidad Austral, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-03-15

    This paper examines the production technology of the downstream gas industry in order to provide some useful insights into its efficient structure by looking at the optimal size of firms and the productive efficiency reasons for and against their vertical integration. The analysis is based on a restricted cost function model estimated using firm level data for Argentina and Great Britain. The findings provide evidence for the presence of vertical diseconomies between stages. Results indicate that a single transmitter is able to produce the industry's output at lower costs for large market sizes and that several regional firms are able to operate without sacrificing scale economies if gas distribution is integrated with supply. The findings also indicate that a gas retailer experiences constant returns to scale when it supplies a large customer base. Liberalisation could thus result in oligopolistic industry configurations. (Author)

  15. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. An Assessment of Energy-Related Career Paths of Senior Industrial Assessment Center Program Alumni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2003-10-20

    The purpose of this study was to assess the career paths of alumni from the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. IAC was originally named the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program when it began in association with four schools in 1976. The current IAC program provides funding to 26 engineering colleges, located in centers across the United States, to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small- to medium-sized manufacturing establishments within their respective regions. Through part-time employment with the university, students receive training and in turn conduct assessments for local manufacturers, under the direct supervision of engineering faculty. Annually, IAC participants conduct over 700 assessments, and each assessment generates recommendations for energy savings, energy cost savings, and waste and productivity cost savings customized for individual clients. An earlier study determined that energy savings could be attributed to alumni of the IAC program who take their IAC experiences with them to the professional workplace. During their careers, the alumni conduct additional energy assessments as well as influence energy efficiency through design, teaching and training, and other activities. Indeed, a significant level of program benefits can be attributed to the alumni. This project addressed such specific questions as: How many years after graduation are IAC alumni involved in energy-efficiency activities? What different methods do they use to influence energy-efficiency decisions? To answer these questions, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT) surveyed IAC senior alumni, defined as those who graduated in 1995 or earlier. Section 2 describes the survey used in this research. The actual survey can be found in Appendix A. Section 3 describes our approach to data collection. Section 4 presents descriptive statistics about the senior alumni who responded to the survey. Section 5

  17. Developing the Frank and Morgan technique for industrial fire risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohamadi

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Results showed that the developed Frank and Morgan method can be a suitable tool for evaluating industrial fire risk and prioritizing units in general level of an industrial complex especially chemicals company. According to the findings in this study, the investigation of likely damages to environment in the case of fire has high importance.

  18. An Assessment of Drug Testing within the Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jonathan K.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of workplace drug-testing programs in reducing injury incident rates and workers' compensation experience-rating modification factors within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programs experienced a 51 percent reduction in incident rates within two years of implementation.…

  19. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alice Teacă

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests. Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin, along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat, Secale cereale (rye, and Zea mays (corn being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length, as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

  20. Methods for assessing the energy-saving efficiency of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Cui, Zhaojie; Han, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The available energy resources are being depleted worldwide. Industrial symbiosis (IS) provides a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of energy utilization, with numerous studies reporting the superiority of this technology. However, studies quantifying the energy-saving efficiency of IS remain insufficient. This paper proposes an index system for the quantitative evaluation of the energy-saving efficiency of IS. Both energy-saving and financial indexes were selected, the former include the IS energy-saving index, the contribution rate of energy saved through IS, fractional energy savings, and cut rate of energy consumption per total output value; and the latter include the IS investment payback period, IS input-output ratio, net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR) of IS. The proposed methods were applied to a case study on the XF Industrial Park (XF IP), in the city of Liaocheng in Shandong Province of China. Three energy-saving channels using IS were found in the XF IP: (a) utilizing the energy of high-temperature materials among industrial processes, (b) recovering waste heat and steam between different processes, and (c) saving energy by sharing infrastructures. The results showed that the energy efficiency index of IS was 0.326, accounting for 34.6% of the comprehensive energy-saving index in 2011, and the fractional energy-savings were 12.42%. The index of energy consumption per total industrial output value varied from 90.9 tce/MRMB to 51.6 tce/MRMB. Thus, the cut rate of energy consumption per total industrial output value was 43.42%. The average values of the IS input-output ratio was 406.2 RMB/tce, 57.2% lower than the price of standard coal. Static investment payback period in the XF IP was 8.5 months, indicating that the XF IP began to earn profit 8.5 months after the construction of all IS modes. The NVP and IRR of each IS mode in the XF IP were greater than zero, with average values equal to 1,789.96 MRMB and 140

  1. Industrial environmental performance assessment: developing a referential methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Marize Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to the development of a methodological framework for the broadly evaluation of environmental performance in industrial companies. The methodological framework developed is composed for nine aspects of evaluation, namely: Organizational Management, Human Resources, Product, Production Process, Physical Facilities, Emissions, Social Development, Economic and Financial Aspect and Media. For each of these aspects were created evaluation indicators, a total of 35 indicators. Each indicator is accompanied by a numeric ID, a description, a generic goal, and its metric unit of measure and a scale to measure the care of each indicator. As an illustration, the proposed framework was applied to the evaluation in an industrial metal-mechanical company, the latter achieved environmental performance of 84.0%.

  2. Multimedia pollution assessment of the wood products industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, J.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents a summary and commentary on pollutants, abatement technologies, and regulations in the wood products industries. Industries included in the study are pulp, paper and paperboard, veneer/plywood, particleboard, millwork and structural members, fabricated wood products, and gum and wood chemicals, and wood preserving. Water pollution abatement legislation has established guidelines based on Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available (BPCTCA). These guidelines primarily address conventional pollutants, including five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS) and pH. In addition, guidelines based on Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BATEA) and Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology (BCPCT) are currently being established to address conventional, priority (toxic), and nonconventional (neither conventional nor toxic) pollutants. Existing external air pollution control devices, in conjunction with internal process controls, can be effective in the reduction of air pollutants, especially particulates and sulfur dioxide.

  3. A Theoretical Assessment on Optimal Asset Allocations in Insurance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Jarraya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the financial markets known a rapid development and become more and more complex. So, many regulatory requirements, focused on banks as well as insurance sector, have been developed. These regulatory are concentrated essentially on business risk control and required capital to cover risks. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. This section is interested by this issue. In first time it highlights some research works in this issue. Then we will investigate the relation between Solvency and optimal asset allocation. Finally we will explore the principal used methods in modeling asset and in choosing the optimal portfolio composition.

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  5. Assessment of cyber risk in the banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Spišiak, Michal

    2017-01-01

    There has never been more need to discuss cybersecurity related issues. We live in a world where criminals do not have to physically visit a bank to steal money from it, where elections results can be influenced by data breached from personal email accounts, where to win a war a country needs skilled cybersecurity specialists rather than powerful weapons and where patients do not get recommended treatment because a hospital is under a cyberattack. The financial industry as a backbone of any m...

  6. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  7. Assessment of Industrial VOC Gas-Scrubber Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H

    2004-02-13

    Gas scrubbers for air-pollution control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) cover a wide range of technologies. In this review, we have attempted to evaluate the single-pass scrubber destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for a range of gas-scrubber technologies. We have focused primarily on typical industrial DREs for the various technologies, typical problems, and any DRE-related experiential information available. The very limited literature citations found suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. The potentially significant role of maintenance in maintaining DREs was also investigated for those technologies. An in-depth portrayal of the entire gas scrubbing industry is elusive. Available literature sources suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. Lack of scrubber system maintenance can contribute to even larger variances. ''Typical'' industrial single-pass performance of commonly used VOC gas scrubbers generally ranged from {approx}80 to 99%. Imperfect solid and/or liquid particulates capture (possibly as low as 95% despite design for 99+% capture efficiency) can also lead to VOC releases. Changing the VOC composition in the gas stream without modifying scrubber equipment or operating conditions could also lead to significant deterioration in attainable destruction and removal efficiencies.

  8. Benchmarking and Self-Assessment in the Wine Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Radspieler, Anthony; Worrell, Ernst; Healy,Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-12-01

    Not all industrial facilities have the staff or theopportunity to perform a detailed audit of their operations. The lack ofknowledge of energy efficiency opportunities provides an importantbarrier to improving efficiency. Benchmarking programs in the U.S. andabroad have shown to improve knowledge of the energy performance ofindustrial facilities and buildings and to fuel energy managementpractices. Benchmarking provides a fair way to compare the energyintensity of plants, while accounting for structural differences (e.g.,the mix of products produced, climate conditions) between differentfacilities. In California, the winemaking industry is not only one of theeconomic pillars of the economy; it is also a large energy consumer, witha considerable potential for energy-efficiency improvement. LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory and Fetzer Vineyards developed the firstbenchmarking tool for the California wine industry called "BEST(Benchmarking and Energy and water Savings Tool) Winery". BEST Wineryenables a winery to compare its energy efficiency to a best practicereference winery. Besides overall performance, the tool enables the userto evaluate the impact of implementing efficiency measures. The toolfacilitates strategic planning of efficiency measures, based on theestimated impact of the measures, their costs and savings. The tool willraise awareness of current energy intensities and offer an efficient wayto evaluate the impact of future efficiency measures.

  9. Assessment of industrial minerals and rocks in the controlled area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Reno, NV (United States); Lock, D.E. [Mackay School of Mines, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, is a potential site for a permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste in Miocene ash flow tuff. The Yucca Mountain controlled area occupies approximately 98 km{sup 2} that includes the potential repository site. The Yucca Mountain controlled area is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, a large area of Miocene volcanism that includes at least four major calderas or cauldrons. It is sited on a remnant of a Neogene volcanic plateau that was centered around the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The Yucca Mountain region contains many occurrences of valuable or potentially valuable industrial minerals, including deposits with past or current production of construction aggregate, borate minerals, clay, building stone, fluorspar, silicate, and zeolites. The existence of these deposits in the region and the occurrence of certain mineral materials at Yucca Mountain, indicate that the controlled area may have potential for industrial mineral and rock deposits. Consideration of the industrial mineral potential within the Yucca Mountain controlled area is mainly based on petrographic and lithologic studies of samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain. Clay minerals, zeolites, fluorite, and barite, as minerals that are produced economically in Nevada, have been identified in samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain.

  10. Assessing economic reform: insights from intra-industry trade flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Groshek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Measured against its central European neighbors, Ukraine has experienced a less than successful path to the reform and integration of its economy since independence. Corruption has continued at an elevated level and annual output growth has been uneven and anemic. Given its geographic position on the edge of the former Soviet Union and the persistence of domestic political schisms, such feeble results might be expected. This paper examines the development of Ukraine’s intra-industry trade links with EU partners, in light of its established ties to Russia, as a measure and predictor of the strength of its reform efforts. Its progress is measured against that of its immediate western neighbor: Slovakia. The use of intra-industry trade, as an indicator of both demand and supply side constraints, might reveal the degree to which Ukrainian and Slovak economic considerations have compelled the adoption of reforms. A key economic consideration is the preference for reform and enhanced integration with the EU versus the protection of incumbent interests and links with traditional trading partners. An exploration of developments in Slovak and Ukraine intra-industry trade provides an indication of which factor currently dominates.

  11. Benchmarking and Self-Assessment in the Wine Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Radspieler, Anthony; Worrell, Ernst; Healy,Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-12-01

    Not all industrial facilities have the staff or theopportunity to perform a detailed audit of their operations. The lack ofknowledge of energy efficiency opportunities provides an importantbarrier to improving efficiency. Benchmarking programs in the U.S. andabroad have shown to improve knowledge of the energy performance ofindustrial facilities and buildings and to fuel energy managementpractices. Benchmarking provides a fair way to compare the energyintensity of plants, while accounting for structural differences (e.g.,the mix of products produced, climate conditions) between differentfacilities. In California, the winemaking industry is not only one of theeconomic pillars of the economy; it is also a large energy consumer, witha considerable potential for energy-efficiency improvement. LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory and Fetzer Vineyards developed the firstbenchmarking tool for the California wine industry called "BEST(Benchmarking and Energy and water Savings Tool) Winery". BEST Wineryenables a winery to compare its energy efficiency to a best practicereference winery. Besides overall performance, the tool enables the userto evaluate the impact of implementing efficiency measures. The toolfacilitates strategic planning of efficiency measures, based on theestimated impact of the measures, their costs and savings. The tool willraise awareness of current energy intensities and offer an efficient wayto evaluate the impact of future efficiency measures.

  12. 危险化学品企业安全验收评价结论量化分析%Quantitative analysis on conclusions of safety assessment upon completion for hazard chemical enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛秀坤; 邵辉; 赵庆贤; 邢志祥; 郝永梅

    2012-01-01

    为了使危险化学品企业安全验收评价结论更加准确、客观,根据安全验收评价结论编制的原则和相关导则,从法律法规符合性、外部安全条件、总平面布局及建筑结构、主要生产装置设施、主要储存装置设施、公用工程和辅助设施、安全管理及从业人员条件和应急救援等八个方面建立了安全验收评价结论定量评估指标体系.基于层次分析法确定各级指标权重,建立了安全验收评价结论定量评估模型.为方便对安全验收评价结论进行准确、快速地评估,利用EXCEL软件建立了安全验收评价结论定量评估系统.该评估模型和评估系统可以客观、快速、准确地对危险化学品企业安全验收评价结论进行定量评估.%In order to make safety assessment upon completion of hazard chemical enterprises more accurate and objective, according to compilation principles of safety assessment upon completion and related guidelines, a quantitative evaluation index system of evaluation was established from eight aspects, including laws and regulations eon-formability, foreign safety situation, general layout, main production equipments, main store equipments, public project and auxiliary facilities, safety mangement and employment conditions and-emergency rescue. The index weights were made by Analytic Hierarchy Process method and quantitative assessment models on conclusions of safety assessment upon completion were established. In order to make safety assessment upon completion conclusion more accurate and faster, a quantitative evaluation system on conclusions of safety assessment upon completion was built by EXCEL software. The assessment models and system can quantify conclusions of safety assessment upon completion for hazard chemical enterprises more objectively, quickly and accurately.

  13. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance Copper (I, copper (II variants namely copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, tribasic copper sulfate, copper (I oxide, Bordeaux mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France, for the pesticide active substance copper (I, copper (II variants (formerly referred to as copper compounds are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory environmental fate and behaviour and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of copper (I, copper (II variants as a fungicide/bactericide on grapes and tomatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Concerns are identified.

  14. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  15. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Drug Master Files Under the Generic Drug User Fee... Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled...

  16. Why Lunch Matters: Assessing Physicians' Perceptions about Industry Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman; Adriane J.; Scialli, Anthony R.; Bell, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that pharmaceutical marketing affects prescribing choices. Studies that have assessed the effects of educational interventions on perceptions of pharmaceutical promotion have found mixed results. This study assesses the short-term effects of an educational intervention about marketing tactics on the attitudes and fund of…

  17. Environmental Effect / Impact Assessment of Industrial Effulent on Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Parmod Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the aim of investigation is physical and chemical parameters of ground water and soil. By selected Physical and chemical parameters it is found that (1.Biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD are directly proportional to each other where dissolved oxygen (DO is indirectly proportional to BOD and COD. (2. Total dissolved solids, alkalinity and hardness are significantly higher in pre monsoon and winter season as compared to monsoon season.(3. High values of different parameters of ground water sources indicate the influence of industrial wastes on ground water.

  18. Assessing Instructor Performance: A Classroom Project for an Industrial/Organizational Psychology Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottke, Janet L.

    1984-01-01

    For a class project students in an industrial/organizational psychology course had to construct a performance appraisal instrument for assessing the instructor's performance. Evaluations revealed that students found the exercise useful. (RM)

  19. 78 FR 70307 - Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy... and Gene Therapies (OCTGT). The product areas covered by this guidance are cellular therapy,...

  20. Applying the Heuristic to the Risk Assessment within the Automotive Industry Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniela Marasova; Miriam Andrejiova; Anna Grincova

    2017-01-01

    .... Managing the risks is crucial for achieving the customer satisfaction and thus also a company’s success. The subject-matter of the article is the assessment of the supply chain in the automobile industry, in terms of risks...

  1. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Assessing the Effects of Significant Manufacturing Process Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Significant Manufacturing Process Changes, Including Emerging Technologies, on the Safety and Regulatory... Industry: Assessing the Effects of Significant Manufacturing Process Changes, Including Emerging... current thinking on the factors to be considered when determining whether changes in manufacturing process...

  2. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  3. Environmental assessment in an industrial area of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M A; Freitas, M C; Alves, L C; Marques, A P; Costa, C

    1999-01-01

    The region of Lisbon and south of Lisbon (Sado estuary) is densely industrialized, and, therefore, air pollution should be studied in a more detailed scale there. The topography of the Sado estuary region and the predominant wind direction from the northwest contribute to the influence in this region of the industries located in the north. The region selected includes a fuel-fired power station. Transplants of the lichen Parmelia sulcata Taylor were suspended in nylon bags within a rectangle 15 km wide and 25 km long on a grid 2.5 km x 2.5 km, centered in the power station. In each of the 47 sites, 2 sets of 4 transplants each were hung. Care was taken (1) in covering the two sets with a polyethylene roof to prevent leaching of elements in the lichen, (2) in building a hanging system that could rotate according to the wind direction, and (3) in orienting one set toward the wind and the other set opposite the wind. For a 1-yr period and every 3 mo, one transplant of each set is collected. In this work, the results of the first campaign (after 3 mo suspension) obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis and proton-induced X-ray emission are shown. Some elemental contents are mapped and discussed.

  4. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  5. Commercial Nuclear Power Industry: Assessing and Meeting the Radiation Protection Workforce Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Jerry W

    2017-02-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the process used by the commercial nuclear power industry in assessing the status of existing industry staffing and projecting future supply demand needs. The most recent Nuclear Energy Institute-developed "Pipeline Survey Results" will be reviewed with specific emphasis on the radiation protection specialty. Both radiation protection technician and health physicist specialties will be discussed. The industry-initiated Nuclear Uniform Curriculum Program will be reviewed as an example of how the industry has addressed the need for developing additional resources. Furthermore, the reality of challenges encountered in maintaining the needed number of health physicists will also be discussed.

  6. Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to assess the quality of groundwater in relation to heavy metal pollution and its implication on human health. ... Total Hardness, Iodide, Fluoride, Ferric (Fe+3), Nitrate (NO3), Manganese (Mn), Total Chlorine ...

  7. Risk assessment methodology for the forniture industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Matilde A.

    2014-01-01

    Companies need to constantly make decisions about risk. They need to decide if a certain risk level is low enough or if some measures for its reduction are still needed. In this regard, risk assessment appears as a basis for the decision-making about risks. However, risk acceptance is an important issue related to the risk assessment process, which may put into question its appropriateness. Despite the importance of risk acceptance, this subject is insufficiently discussed in the literature r...

  8. Eco-environmental Impact Assessment of the Change of Regional Industrial Structure and Regulative Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Acting as an important driving force for the change of the regional land use, the change of industrial structure also has some influences on the ecological environment. The assessment and mechanism analysis of these influences will be beneficial to the sustainable development of regional economy and the im-provement of relationships between man and earth. Taking Chuzhou City in Anhui Province as an example, on the basis of a qualitative analysis of the influence of the development of differ-ent industry on the regional ecological environment, this paper builds the influence factor of industrial structure on natural envi-ronment and the influence index of industrial structure on natural environment, makes a quantitative assessment of the change of the industrial structure and its comprehensive influences on the eco-logical environment in the Chuzhou City from 1974 to 1995. Studies show that, during the analysed period, Chuzhou City's industrial structure has changed markedly, having undergone two transformations. The influence of industrial structure on natural environment from 1974 to 1995 increased as a whole, while from 1996 to 2004, the influence of industrial structure on natural en-vironment decreased year-on-year. These changes indicate that the regional change of industrial structure results in better ecological effects. Finally, we propose appropriate regulatory measures ac-cording to our research results.

  9. Cleaner production at pharmaceutical industry: first steps assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Conceição Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cleaner Production (CP is an environmental management system effective to comply the environmental obligations and promote sustainable development of enterprises. In this study, the implementing possibilities of CP practices were evaluated to pharmaceutical industry, through prior identification procedures for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices. The study was conducted in a scientific and health care institution, which produces pharmaceutical drugs and makes assistance for public health. The production process was evaluated and made a survey of the main points of waste and sewage generations in each stage, in order to diagnose the measures of CP established and propose new actions. Thus, by using this tool, it was possible to demonstrate the reduction of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical production. The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practices also contributed to the implementation of measures CP, preserving the final product quality, and generating environmental and economic benefits.

  10. A Value Function for Assessing Sustainability: Application to Industrial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Josa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision support tools based on multi-attribute analysis involve the use of different types of variables. These variables are aimed at providing a framework that allows preferences to be quantified. This is particularly useful in the field of sustainability, where variables with different units are involved. One widely accepted framework for standardizing different units is the value function. Studies of value function are complex and frequently have limited physical meaning. In this context, this paper emphasizes the need to define a general equation that reflects the preferences of the decision maker in a clear and easily applied way. The paper proposes a new general equation that fulfils these requirements. By modifying certain parameters, this general equation represents the most commonly used relationships (linear, convex, concave and S-shaped. The proposed equation is finally applied to four variables used in the field of industrial buildings and sustainability.

  11. Environmental and industrial risk and crisis assessment: a cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, J.M.; Gatot, L. [Research Center for Crisis and Conflict Management (ReCCCoM), University of Namur (FUNDP), Faculty of Economic, Social and Management Sciences, Namur (Belgium)

    1998-07-01

    The author have tried to show that rational risk analysis exhibits some severe shortcomings in areas where the danger is new and the scientific knowledge is limited and controversial. In such contexts, the traditional dichotomy between objective and subjective risk is not of much help. Thus, traditional risk communication based on information, education, trust in institutions, is not adapted here. The first elements of analysis proposed in this tentative paper suggest that in such contexts, risk communication should be based on participatory methods such as forums for debate. The stake is therefore the democratization of assessment procedure and the development of different means which allow to couple risk and technology assessment. (authors)

  12. [Eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure: assessment and development prediction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Zhang, Si-Wei; Zhang, Pei-Qi; Xu, Min-Lun; Bian, Xin-Min

    2012-11-01

    Based on the 'three critical points' theory of eco-fitness, and by using dynamic weighting and fitting methods, an assessment system for the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was constructed, and, taking Zhangqiu of Shandong Province, East China as a case, the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was assessed and predicted. Due to the limited agro-ecological resources, the comprehensive eco-fitness index of four kinds of agricultural leading industry in Zhangqiu presented an upward trend from 2005 to 2010, but a downward trend from 2011 to 2015. The eco-fitness indices of oil crops and fruits would be negative in 2015. The applied research in Zhangqiu confirmed the validity of the assessment system constructed for the eco-fitness of county-level agriculture leading industry structure and the rationality of the prediction model.

  13. Joint Solar Power Industry and Department of Energy Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Steve; Myers, Daryl

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has embarked on a collaborative effort with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of concentrating solar thermal power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result will be high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  14. Dispersion modeling in assessing air quality of industrial projects under Indian regulatory regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Bandyopadhyay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment (EIA studies conducted over the years as a part of obtaining environmental clearance in accordance with Indian regulation have been given significant attention towards carrying out Gaussian dispersion modeling for predicting the ground level concentration (GLC of pollutants, especially for SO2. Making any adhoc decision towards recommending flue gas desulfurization (FGD system in Indian fossil fuel combustion operations is not realistic considering the usage of fuel with low sulfur content. Thus a predictive modeling is imperative prior to making any conclusive decision. In the light of this finding, dispersion modeling has been accorded in Indian environmental regulations. This article aims at providing approaches to ascertain pollution potential for proposed power plant operation either alone or in presence of other industrial operations under different conditions. In order to assess the performance of the computational work four different cases were analyzed based on worst scenario. Results obtained through predictions were compared with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS of India. One specific case found to overshoot the ambient air quality adversely in respect of SO2 and was therefore, suggested to install a FGD system with at least 80 % SO2 removal efficiency. With this recommendation, the cumulative prediction yielded a very conservative resultant value of 24 hourly maximum GLC of SO2 as against a value that exceeded well above the stipulated value without considering the FGD system. The computational algorithm developed can therefore, be gainfully utilized for the purpose of EIA analysis in Indian condition.

  15. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EDIBLE TOMATO VARIETIES INTENDED FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global production of tomatoes is used for tomato products. The fruits to be processed are evaluated on the basis of important technological quality parameters, such as the content of dry matter and organic acids. Recently, among important qualitative characteristics of fruits has been included colorant content, especially lycopene. Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of selected tomato varieties for industrial processing. Tested were varieties Uno Rosso, San Marzano 4, Brixol, Strombolino, UG. 8168, Diana and Nemarock cultivated in very hot and dry agro-climatic region. The dry matter content was determined by the gravimetric method, the content of organic acid by titration and the content of colorants spectrophotometrically. The dry matter content of the samples ranged from 4.65% (Nemarock to 5.93% (San Marzano 4. Content of organic acids ranged from 0.33% (Nemarock to 0.59% (Strombolino, content of carotenoids in tomato samples ranged from 111.288 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock to 198.365 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4. Lycopene was present in the amount of 99.438 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock to 192.687 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4. In terms of treatment the best properties showed San Marzano 4, which is characterized by high dry matter content, low organic acids and high content of colorants.

  16. Epistemological and ethical assessment of obesity bias in industrialized countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azétsop Jacquineau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bernard Lonergan's cognitive theory challenges us to raise questions about both the cognitive process through which obesity is perceived as a behaviour change issue and the objectivity of such a moral judgment. Lonergan's theory provides the theoretical tools to affirm that anti-fat discrimination, in the United States of America and in many industrialized countries, is the result of both a group bias that resists insights into the good of other groups and a general bias of anti-intellectualism that tends to set common sense against insights that require any thorough scientific analyses. While general bias diverts the public's attention away from the true aetiology of obesity, group bias sustains an anti-fat culture that subtly legitimates discriminatory practices and policies against obese people. Although anti-discrimination laws may seem to be a reasonable way of protecting obese and overweight individuals from discrimination, obesity bias can be best addressed by reframing the obesity debate from an environmental perspective from which tools and strategies to address both the social and individual determinants of obesity can be developed. Attention should not be concentrated on individuals' behaviour as it is related to lifestyle choices, without giving due consideration to the all-encompassing constraining factors which challenge the social and rational blindness of obesity bias.

  17. Scientific Opinion supplementing the conclusions of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations for the cultivation of the genetically modified insect resistant maize Bt11 and MON 810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA GMO Panel was asked by the European Commission to apply its mathematical model to simulate and assess potential adverse effects resulting from the exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to maize Bt11 or MON 810 pollen under hypothetical agricultural conditions, and to provide information on the factors affecting the insect resistance management plan, additional to that in its 2011 Statement supplementing the evaluation of the environmental risk assessment and risk management recommendations on insect resistant genetically modified maize Bt11 for cultivation. Here, risk managers are provided with additional evidence and further clarifications to those previous conclusions and risk management recommendations. This Scientific Opinion provides background scientific information to inform the decision-making process; the EFSA GMO Panel reiterates that risk managers should choose risk mitigation and management measures that are proportionate to the level of identified risk according to the protection goals pertaining to their regions.

  18. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Assessment on Uncertainy for Anline Compounds in Industrial Sewage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马经纬

    2016-01-01

    在水质监测市场化模式下,第三方检测机构在接受监管部门委托对排水户进行水质监测时,有必要对检测结果的不确定度进行说明,以提供更为充分的监测依据。苯胺是工业废水中常含的污染物之一,通过对N-(1-萘基)乙二胺偶氮分光光度法测定工业废水中苯胺的实验过程进行分析。建立数学模型,对造成检测结果不确定度的要素进行评定,从而得出标准溶液浓度、标准曲线,实验仪器,回收率等因素对测定结果造成的影响。%Under the marketization of water quality monitoring, when inspection agencies accept the commission of regulators to monitor drainage water, it’s necessary for the uncertainty of test results, to provide moreadequate monitoring basis. Aniline is one of common pollutants in industrial wastewater. The determination of aniline by spectrophotometric method using N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine was analyzed to find out the cause of uncertainty of measurement results in the process of experiment. Establishing mathematical model and calculating elements caused the uncertainty of test results, to get the impact of standard curve, capacity of the vessel, spectrophotometer, recovery rate and other factors on the determination results.

  19. Requirements for water assessment tools: An automotive industry perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry A. Mueller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is one of the greatest global sustainability challenges. Water is not available in adequate quantity and quality in many areas and water shortfalls are expected to increase. Businesses are facing water-related challenges due to inadequate water availability and poor resource management. Identifying and quantifying impacts is key to enabling companies to make effective management decisions. Several water assessment tools have been developed to help companies understand the complex nature of water challenges; however, there remain significant gaps in the datasets and inconsistencies in measurement and reporting of geographic water shortfalls. There is a need for more complete datasets containing information on water withdrawal and discharge, freshwater availability and depletion (spatially and temporally, water quality monitoring, reuse and recycling. We discuss four of the available water assessment tools (Global Water Tool, India Water Tool, Water Risk Filter and Aqueduct and highlight those elements most critical to water-related business decisions.

  20. [The application of two occupation health risk assessment models in a wooden furniture manufacturing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A H; Leng, P B; Bian, G L; Li, X H; Mao, G C; Zhang, M B

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To explore the applicability of 2 different models of occupational health risk assessment in wooden furniture manufacturing industry. Methods: American EPA inhalation risk model and ICMM model of occupational health risk assessment were conducted to assess occupational health risk in a small wooden furniture enterprises, respectively. Results: There was poor protective measure and equipment of occupational disease in the plant. The concentration of wood dust in the air of two workshops was over occupational exposure limit (OEL) , and the CTWA was 8.9 mg/m(3) and 3.6 mg/m(3), respectively. According to EPA model, the workers who exposed to benzene in this plant had high risk (9.7×10(-6) ~34.3×10(-6)) of leukemia, and who exposed to formaldehyde had high risk (11.4 × 10(-6)) of squamous cell carcinoma. There were inconsistent evaluation results using the ICMM tools of standard-based matrix and calculated risk rating. There were very high risks to be attacked by rhinocarcinoma of the workers who exposed to wood dust for the tool of calculated risk rating, while high risk for the tool of standard-based matrix. For the workers who exposed to noise, risk of noise-induced deafness was unacceptable and medium risk using two tools, respectively. Conclusion: Both EPA model and ICMM model can appropriately predict and assessthe occupational health risk in wooden furniture manufactory, ICMM due to the relatively simple operation, easy evaluation parameters, assessment of occupational- disease-inductive factors comprehensively, and more suitable for wooden furniture production enterprise.

  1. Assessment of novel power generation systems for the biomass industry

    OpenAIRE

    Codeceira Neto, Alcides

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this programme of research is to produce a method for assessing and optimising the performance of advanced gas turbine power plants for electricity generation within the Brazilian electric sector. With the privatisation of the Brazilian electric sector, interest has been given to the thermal plants and studies have been carried out along with the use of other alternative fuels rather than fossil fuels. Biomass is a fuel of increasing interest for power gener...

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Industrial Estate Development Plan with the Geographical Information System and Matrix Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghasemian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied. Data analysis was done to identify the current situation of the region, zoning vulnerable areas, and scoping the region. Quantitative evaluation was done by using matrix of Wooten and Rau. Results. The net score for impact of industrial units operation on air quality of the project area was (−3. According to the transition of industrial estate pollutants, residential places located in the radius of 2500 meters of the city were expected to be affected more. The net score for impact of construction of industrial units on plant species of the project area was (−2. Environmental protected areas were not affected by the air and soil pollutants because of their distance from industrial estate. Conclusion. Positive effects of project activities outweigh the drawbacks and the sum scores allocated to the project activities on environmental factor was (+37. Totally it does not have detrimental effects on the environment and residential neighborhood. EIA should be considered as an anticipatory, participatory environmental management tool before determining a plan application.

  3. Jumping to conclusions in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans SL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Simon L Evans,1 Bruno B Averbeck,2 Nicholas Furl31School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, UK; 2Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UKAbstract: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with a variety of symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, and cognitive dysfunction. Impairments on decision-making tasks are routinely reported: evidence points to a particular deficit in learning from and revising behavior following feedback. In addition, patients tend to make hasty decisions when probabilistic judgments are required. This is known as “jumping to conclusions” (JTC and has typically been demonstrated by presenting participants with colored beads drawn from one of two “urns” until they claim to be sure which urn the beads are being drawn from (the proportions of colors vary in each urn. Patients tend to make early decisions on this task, and there is evidence to suggest that a hasty decision-making style might be linked to delusion formation and thus be of clinical relevance. Various accounts have been proposed regarding what underlies this behavior. In this review, we briefly introduce the disorder and the decision-making deficits associated with it. We then explore the evidence for each account of JTC in the context of a wider decision-making deficit and then go on to summarize work exploring JTC in healthy controls using pharmacological manipulations and functional imaging. Finally, we assess whether JTC might have a role in therapy.Keywords: ketamine, decision making, delusions, fMRI, urn task

  4. Assessing industrial energy use and CO2 emissions : Opportunities for energy efficiency, biomass and CCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118101

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature deals with issues related to monitoring of industrial energy use and CO2 emissions, assessment of the potentials of low-carbon technologies and the development of long term scenarios. However, in these assessments knowledge gaps and large uncertainties continue to exist. M

  5. Assessment of Marketing Orientation Concept in Jordanian Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study was to explore the extent to which the concept of marketing orientation was clear and adopted by Jordanian service firms, focusing on the financial sector. Approach: Based on an empirical fieldwork. Results: The study concluded that the majority of Jordanian financial service firms had a misconception of marketing orientation concept. They believed that they exercise marketing orientation concept, while their actual practice of selling orientation. Conclusions: The study also concluded that the majority of these firms kept strategic planning at the top management level. Statistical testing showed that the length of experience in business was an important factor in the firm's clarity of the concept of marketing orientation. Several implications of the findings and recommendations were finally presented.

  6. The Assessment of Vulnerability of Industrial Parks to Climate Change in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. E.; Lee, D. K.; Jung, T. Y.; Choi, K. L.; Lee, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Many countries are developing policy and measures to adapt to climate changes at the national and local levels, but the assessment of vulnerability to climate change and the establishment of countermeasures in the industries considering industrial factors such as worker, infrastructure are insufficient due to the characteristics of diverse processes and fields. In South Korea, the national government provides infrastructures for industrial parks where various companies in manufacturing and other industries are concentrated . Because of their concentration, damages can aggravate in case of natural disasters such as typhoons. In this study, vulnerability indices for climate change were developed and evaluated using climate scenarios for the climate exposure of localized terrential downpour for eight industrial parks. The vulnerability indices were selected and reviewed through literature review and two in-depth interviews with experts in various industries, and the assessment of vulnerability to climate change was conducted by collecting relevant information including the Directory of Industrial Complexes. The vulnerability of each industrial park to climate change was assessed for four time serious such as the base line, 2020s, 2050s, and 2100s . As a result, even though the possibility of localized heavy rain was the highest in Yeosu(Southeast coast) at present, but it was predicted that Gwangyang(Southwest coast) will be higher in the future. For the influences of climate including sensitivity, Ulsan Mipo(Southeast coast) is currently under the highest influence of climate, but the Gumi(Inland area) was forecasted to be under the highest influence of climate in the future. As a result of the assessment of vulnerability to climate change including adaptive capacity, Gumi and Myongji Noksan(Southeast coast) were most vulnerable to localized heavy rain. The degree of vulnerability of all the industrial parks except Ulsan and Yeosu was forecasted to increase in the

  7. Assessing Energy Efficiency Opportunities in US Industrial and Commercial Building Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) published an energy efficiency assessment of U.S. industrial sector motor systems titled United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The assessment advanced motor system efficiency by providing a greater understanding of the energy consumption, use characteristics, and energy efficiency improvement potential of industrial sector motor systems in the U.S. Since 2002, regulations such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards, cost reductions for motor system components such as variable frequency drives, system-integrated motor-driven equipment, and awareness programs for motor system energy efficiency have changed the landscape of U.S. motor system energy consumption. To capture the new landscape, the USDOE has initiated a three-year Motor System Market Assessment (MSMA), led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The MSMA will assess the energy consumption, operational and maintenance characteristics, and efficiency improvement opportunity of U.S. industrial sector and commercial building motor systems. As part of the MSMA, a significant effort is currently underway to conduct field assessments of motor systems from a sample of facilities representative of U.S. commercial and industrial motor system energy consumption. The Field Assessment Plan used for these assessments builds on recent LBNL research presented at EEMODS 2011 and EEMODS 2013 using methods for characterizing and determining regional motor system energy efficiency opportunities. This paper provides an update on the development and progress of the MSMA, focusing on the Field Assessment Plan and the framework for assessing the global supply chain for emerging motors and drive technologies.

  8. FMEA Based Risk Assessment of Component Failure Modes in Industrial Radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Alok; Sonawane, A U; Rawat, Prashant S

    2016-01-01

    Industrial radiography has its inimitable role in non-destructive examinations. Industrial radiography devices, consisting of significantly high activity of the radioisotopes, are operated manually by remotely held control unit. Malfunctioning of these devices may cause potential exposure to the operator and nearby public, and thus should be practiced under a systematic risk control. To ensure the radiation safety, proactive risk assessment should be implemented. Risk assessment in industrial radiography using the Failure Modes & Effect Analysis (FMEA) for the design and operation of industrial radiography exposure devices has been carried out in this study. Total 56 component failure modes were identified and Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs) were assigned by the FMEA expert team, based on the field experience and reported failure data of various components. Results shows all the identified failure modes have RPN in the range of 04 to 216 and most of the higher RPN are due to low detectability and high severi...

  9. The Export Trading Company Act of 1982 and the photovoltaics industry: An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, S.; Laporta, C.

    1983-01-01

    The potential advantages of recent export promotion legislation for the U.S. photovoltaics industry were assessed. The provisions of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 were reviewed and the export trade sector was surveyed to determine what impact the Act is haviang on export company activity. The photovoltaics industry was then studied to determine whether the Act offers particular advantages for promoting its product overseas.

  10. Impact of alternate fuels on industrial refractories and refractory insulation applications. An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-09-01

    The effects of use of alternate fuels such as distillate oils, residual oils, coal, producer gas, and electricity on refractory insulation are evaluated. Sections are included on alternate fuels for 1976 to 1980, assessment by industry of fuel conversion impact on industrial refractories in the period 1976 to 1980, interactions of alternate fuel combustion products with refractories and refractory insulation, and analysis of degradation mechanisms in refractories and refractory materials. (JRD)

  11. Assessing the sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies in the petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Meerholz, A.; A C Brent, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Selecting the most suitable industrial wastewater treatment technology is not only about providing the best technical solution at the lowest cost: it is also about sustainability (including social and environmental acceptance) and institutional feasibility. This paper demonstrates and evaluates a method that may be used for wastewater treatment technology assessment and selection in an industrial context, with a specific focus on biological wastewater treatment in a petrochemical company. The...

  12. A Critical Assessment on SPC Implementation in the UK Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sarina Abdul Halim Lim; Jiju Antony; Norin Arshed

    2016-01-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is one of the most widely applied techniques to control and improve processes in manufacturing industry, but very few studies have reported on the successful application of SPC in the food industry. This paper aims to critically assess the status of SPC in the UK food manufacturing industry and suggests avenues for future research. By surveying the UK food-manufacturing companies, forty-five percent of them were identified implemented SPC, with x-R and x-S ch...

  13. Identifying and Mitigating the Impact of the Budget Control Act on High Risk Sectors and Tiers of the Defense Industrial Base: Assessment Approach to Industrial Base Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    measured by the likelihood of losing critical capabilities and the consequences of that loss High Risk Industrial Base Sectors & Tiers Likelihood...Risk Sectors and Tiers of the Defense Industrial Base : Assessment Approach to Industrial Base Risks Lirio Avilés, Engineer, MIBP, OUSD(AT&L) Sally...Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 326 - Panel 10. Assessing Industrial Base Implications of a Constrained Fiscal Climate Wednesday, May 4, 2016 3:30 p.m. – 5

  14. Mini-review: Assessing the drivers of ship biofouling management--aligning industry and biosecurity goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran's Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-03-30

    Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran's intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. This study assessed the factors associated with Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001-2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran's pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals. The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn't have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade.

  16. Competence assessment for vocational school students based on business and industry chamber to improve graduate entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudi, Widodo, Joko; Margunani

    2017-03-01

    Vocational school's skill competence assessment is an important phase to complete learning process at vocational school. For vocational school this phase should be designed and implemented not only to measure learning objective target, but also to provide entrepreneurship experience for the graduates. Therefore competence assessment implementation should be done comprehensively in cooperation with Business and Industry Chamber. The implementation of skill competence aspect covering materials, methods, strategies, tools and assessors, need to be designed and optimized with respect to vocational school together with Business and Industry Chamber. This aims to measure the learning objective target and produce improved entrepreneurship graduates. 4M-S strategy in students' skill competence assessment could be done to ensure that the material, method, tool and assessor have been well designed and implemented in both institutions: vocational school and Business and Industry Chamber to improve entrepreneurship graduates.

  17. Towards assessing the social sustainability performance of the petroleum industry in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bubou, GM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Unresolved social issues between the local community and the petroleum industry plague the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. These concerns are addressed by introducing a social sustainability assessment framework for the petroleum industry. Key...

  18. Assessment of Bioaerosol concentrations in a live stocks industrial slaughterhouse in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kasaei nasab

    2013-05-01

    .Conclusion: Bioaerosols concentration in live stocks industrial slaughterhouse is higher than the threshold limit and suggested range. Therefore, it is essential to take measures, such as improving the process and technical-engineering interventions including the use of suitable ventilation systems and also management personal monitoring measures.

  19. Assessing the impacts of industrial water use in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lévová, Tereza; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2011-01-01

    Use of freshwater gives rise to important environmental impacts to consider in the sustainability analysis of an industry or a product. Water use impacts are highly dependent on the local or regional conditions, and apart from the quantity that is extracted and used, the impact of the freshwater...... use also depends on the local sensitivity to freshwater extraction, and the change in the quality from water intake to discharge of the usedwater. A methodology is presented catering to these characteristics of the water use issue and demonstrated on an industrial case study from the biotech industry....

  20. Assessment of Copper and Zinc Contamination in Soils of Industrial Estates of Arak Region (Iran (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Solgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of the environment due to heavy metals is a major concern to human life and the environment. This study was conducted to investigate and quantify the copper and zinc concentrations in industrial estates soil in Arak, Iran. Methods: Four industrial estates were considered for the experimental design, including Arak 1, Arak 2, Arak 3, and Ghotbe Sanaati. For preliminary understanding of soil heavy metals pollution in industrial estates, the concentrations of zinc and copper in the soil are analyzed and investigated to evaluate their concentration and environmental quality based on the contamination factor. Results: The results indicated the soils had been polluted by heavy metals due to industrial processes that concentrate these metals in the soil. Copper concentrations varied from 15.69 to 49.55 mg/kg. Zinc concentrations were found to be between 23.02 and 144.17 mg/kg. The highest concentration of Zn was found in Arak 3 region which may be due to industrial activities while the highest concentration of Cu was observed in the soil of Arak 1 region that may be due to proximity of this industrial estate to Arak city. The findings of the contamination factor showed that the heavy metals are accumulated in the soil of industrial estates that are considered low risk for contamination with zinc and copper. Conclusion: The achievements of this research showed the location of the industrial estate, proximity to highways and main roads, and the area of green space of industrial estates are important factors in determining heavy metals concentration.

  1. Global regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in the registration of industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiying; Ball, Nicholas S; LeBaron, Matthew J

    2017-06-01

    Mutagenicity is an important toxicological endpoint that requires thorough evaluation during the industrial chemical registration process. Regulatory requirements for mutagenicity assessment in registration of industrial chemicals vary in geographic regions (and in some cases by intended application). Here we compile the mutagenicity testing requirements for registration of industrial chemicals from representative geographic regions (in alphabetical order), that is Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union (EU), India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and United States (US). We further discuss the challenges that industry is facing to meet global regulations, for example, different testing requirements among geographic regions, different strategies in follow-up tests to in vitro positive findings, no-observed-adverse-effect-levels in genetic toxicity testing, and human relevance of mutagenicity. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:345-353, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The assessment of functional work capacity in the South African mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tia-Mari; Kielblock, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Overall physical work fitness is a prerequisite in numerous industries. Apart from improved productivity, it remains fundamental with regards to the maintenance of good health and safety. To address worker fitness in the mining industry, AngloGold Ashanti and Anglo Platinum Mining Houses developed a Functional Work Capacity (FWC) test battery. The FWC test battery consists of 19 work simulations representing the required functional work capacity to cope with all types of physical work tasks and work environments in the mining industry. This assessment tool is not only used to evaluate injured or medically affected workers for alternative placement but also to ensure that the new employee is placed in a job matching his physical capacity. This paper reviews the design process and application of the FWC test battery in the mining industry.

  3. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  4. Impact of energy and environmental legislation on industry: problems of regulatory cost assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P; Brown, S

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of some of the problems of environmental impact assessment in the industrial sector, with particular attention to some important methodological problems frequently ignored. Some general problems of impact analysis are addressed in Section 2. This is followed in Section 3 by an overview of these major issues: the level of import substitutions, capital expenditures on pollution control, and a brief examination at how the industrial sector responded to post embargo energy price changes. Section 4 investigates marketplace responses to changes in manufacturing costs induced by regulatory requirements, from a general, theoretical microeconomics perspective. How industry responses can be estimated quantitatively for practical assessment purposes is taken up in Section 5, with a focus on the advantages and limitations of the two major modeling approaches (econometric and process models). These models allow investigations of the effects of different policies. (MCW)

  5. Soil environmental assessments on schools built on or in the vicinity of past industrial facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Leprond, Hubert; Girardeau, Ingrid; Gilbert, Dominique; Blanc, Céline

    2013-01-01

    International audience; As part of French environmental framework (law of August 3, 2009), environmental assessments on establishments accommodating children and adolescents were involved by the French Ministry of Environment. Assessments are carried out on schools built on or in the vicinity of potentially contaminated sites by past industrial activities. They are framed by the circular of May 4, 2010 co-signed by the French Ministry of Sustainable Development, the French Ministry of Educati...

  6. Managing the Process of Protection Level Assessment of the Complex Organization and Technical Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, A. P.; Averchenkov, V. I.; Rytov, M. Yu; Eryomenko, V. T.

    2017-01-01

    The article is concerned with mathematical simulation of protection level assessment of complex organizational and technical systems of industrial enterprises by creating automated system, which main functions are: information security (IS) audit, forming of the enterprise threats model, recommendations concerning creation of the information protection system, a set of organizational-administrative documentation.

  7. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  8. Jernberg Industries, Inc: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh.

  9. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: Life-cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogtlander, J.G.; Van der Lugt, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. The LCA is made for cradle-to-gate, plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. For end-of-life it is assumed that 90% of the bamboo products are incinerated in an elec

  10. An economic and legal assessment of the EU food industry's competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Bremmers, H.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the competitiveness of the European food industry from an economic and legal perspective. Knowledge of its present competitiveness and improvement opportunities are lacking. To close this knowledge gap, we measured the competitiveness of eight subsectors, b

  11. An economic and legal assessment of the EU food industry's competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Bremmers, H.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the competitiveness of the European food industry from an economic and legal perspective. Knowledge of its present competitiveness and improvement opportunities are lacking. To close this knowledge gap, we measured the competitiveness of eight subsectors,

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SHOP TOWEL USAGE IN THE AUTOMOTIVE AND PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment identifies the environmental impacts and usage trends of shop towels in the printing and automotive repair industries. The shop towels are used to clean equipment and to wipe up contaminants for a variety of operations. Four types of shop towels were evaluated; wo...

  13. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  14. [Operative guidelines for the shoe industry: risk assessment and environmental hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraluppi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Considering the most relevant factors for occupational safety and health, the Safety Check application in the footwear industry makes little and medium size factories employers able to carry out risk assessment. However, in specific cases, it is necessary to achieve an in-depth evaluation.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SHOP TOWEL USAGE IN THE AUTOMOTIVE AND PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment identifies the environmental impacts and usage trends of shop towels in the printing and automotive repair industries. The shop towels are used to clean equipment and to wipe up contaminants for a variety of operations. Four types of shop towels were evaluated; wo...

  16. Combinatorial Life Cycle Assessment to Inform Process Design of Industrial Production of Algal Biodiesel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brentner, L.B.; Eckelman, M.J.; Zimmerman, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for

  17. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  18. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  19. Investment risk analysis of China's wind power industry based on pre-assessment matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yong; Jiang Dongmei; Geng Jie; Fan Hua; Zhang Fashu

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is a clean and sustainable energy, and wind power does not rely on fossil fuels.So there is no fuel price risk, and it, of course, does not include the environmental costs, such as carbon emissions.Because of these unique advantages, wind power has gradually become an important part of the strategy of sustainable development in China.Now with the growing voices on global greenhouse gas emission reduction, and as a clean and efficient energy,wind power has huge potential in combating climate change, energy security pressures and the needs for energy Wind power in China began to develop from the 1980s.In the first 20 years, the speed of development was slow;but since 2004, it has had an extremely rapid growth.This paper, in order to study the development mechanism of China's wind power industry, investigated and analyzed the status quo of wind power industry in China, and then found that(1)the development trend of wind power industry in China appears exponential growth:(2) China's installed capactiy of wind power is still smaller than that os some other countries;(3) new subsidy policies bring developing opportunities to wind power industry in China;(4) the sectors of wind power industry are in unbalanced growing;(5) the owners of proposed wind farms are too optimistic though the built wind farm had many problems.In addition, by using the methodology of Game Theory, this paper has also constructed the matrix of pre-assessing risks of China's wind power industry to further discuss the potential risk fuctors within China's wind power industry as risk factors of wind farm construction, risk factors of production of wind turbines, risk factors of parts and components manufacturing industry under risk indicators like R&D, patents, the domestic policy, the international policy, the quality of products and the market regulation, in order to provide a scientific assessment and self-assessment tool for investors or implementers and also to promote the further

  20. Risk-based climate-change impact assessment for the water industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, O M; Fenner, R A

    2009-01-01

    In response to a rapidly changing and highly variable climate, engineers are being asked to perform climate-change impact assessments on existing water industry systems. There is currently no single method of best practice for engineers to interpret output from global climate models (GCMs) and calculate probabilistic distributions of future climate changes as required for risk-based impact assessments. The simplified climate change impact assessment tool (SCIAT) has been developed to address the specific needs of the water industry and provides a tool to translate climate change projections into 'real world' impacts or for detailed statistical analysis. Through the use of SCIAT, water system operators are provided with knowledge of potential impacts and an associated probability of occurrence, enabling them to make informed, risk-based adaptation and planning decisions. This paper demonstrates the application of SCIAT to the consideration of the impacts of climate change on reservoir water quality under future climate scenarios.

  1. The United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Key results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the US Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The Market Assessment was sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The project's principal objectives were to create a detailed portrait of the inventory of motor systems currently in use in US industrial facilities, estimate motor system energy use and potential for energy savings. The research and analysis to support these objectives consisted primarily of on-site motor system inventories of a probability sample of 354 manufacturing facilities nationwide. In addition to characterizing the motor systems in use, the research effort also gathered detailed information on motor system management and purchasing practices. This paper presents key findings from the Market Assessment in regard to patterns of motor energy use, saturation of energy efficiency measures such as efficient motors and adjustable speed drives, and motor system purchase and maintenance practices.

  2. Integration and Assessment of Multiple Mobile Manipulators in a Real-World Industrial Production Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper; Rühr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    assistive ones. In the experiment, we included tasks such as preparatory and post-processing work, e.g. pre-assembly or machine tending with inherent quality control. In the experiment, we deployed the two heterogeneous mobile manipulators Little Helper and omniRob in a production scenario at Grundfos A......This paper presents a large-scale research experiment carried out within the TAPAS project, where multiple mobile manipulators were integrated and assessed in an industrial context. We consider an industrial scenario in which mobile manipulators naturally extend automation of logistic tasks towards...

  3. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O& #x27; Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  4. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O& #x27; Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  5. Inter‐rater agreement in the assessment of exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Kromhout, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to study how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Methods Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods (1970–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005). Each rater assessed 1836 combinations based on summary documents on carcinogenic agents, which included descriptions of sources of exposure and products, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories, and monitoring data. Inter‐rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (ICC(2,1) and ICC(2,8), respectively). Differences in inter‐rater agreement for time periods, raters, International Agency for Research on Cancer groups and the amount of information provided were consequently studied. Results Overall, 18% of the combinations were denoted as possible exposure, and 14% scored probable exposure. Stratified by the 17 carcinogenic agents, the probable exposure prevalence ranged from 3.8% for refractory ceramic fibres to 30% for crude oil. Overall mean kappa was 0.42 (ICC(2,1) = 0.62 and ICC(2,8) = 0.93). Providing limited quantitative measurement data was associated with less agreement than for equally well described carcinogens without sampling data. Conclusion The overall κ and single‐score ICC indicate that the raters agree on exposure estimates well above the chance level. The levels of inter‐rater agreement were higher than in other comparable studies. The average score ICC indicates reliable mean estimates and implies that sufficient raters were involved. The raters seemed to have enough documentation on which to base their estimates, but provision of limited monitoring data leads to more incongruence among raters. Having real

  6. Mycotoxins and the pet food industry: toxicological evidence and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boermans, Herman J; Leung, Maxwell C K

    2007-10-20

    Mycotoxin contamination in pet food poses a serious health threat to pets, causing an emotional and economical concern to the pet owners. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and fusaric acid have been found in the ingredients and final products of pet food, resulting in both acute toxicity and chronic health problems in pets. Toxicological interaction among mycotoxins as a natural mixture further complicates the issue. The concepts of "risk assessment", using hazard identification, dose-response assessment, no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL), and lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), should be applied to assess the risk and safety of mycotoxins in pet food, thereby instilling public confidence in the pet food industry.

  7. Assessment of land allotment support power industry in Grati, Pasuruan Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaqqi, M. A. R.

    2017-06-01

    The industrial sector is always in need of land for factory as well as other supporting facilities, on the other side of the ability of the environment (support) the uneven terrain of every area in favor of intensive activities such as industry. Land uses that are not adapted to the support power, will cause pollution, damage, disaster and loss that generally uses the environment. The purpose of this research was to assess the resources support neighborhood Grati district associated with the existence of a plan to build an industrial area in accordance with the direction of Grati utilization of space in the spatial plan of the Pasuruan Regency area. In this study of land carrying capacity power comparison capability and land use. The Analysis technique used is the technique of overlay with analysis tools namely software using the software Arcgis 10.1. The parameters of the ability of land-adapted to the characteristics of the land for industry, namely the slope the slope ranges 0-25% on the slope of 25-45% can be developed with industry improvement area contours, and on a slope above 45% not allocated as an industrial area, the type of soil that is not easy slopes, the intensity of the rain of less than 3000 mm, potential landslide and flood-prone lowlands. Each parameter will be provided scoring between 1-5. Score of 1 was given to the condition of land the most harm, and a score of 5 is given for the condition of the land which supports most of the location industry. The result scoring is divided in 5 clases those are bad (5-9), is bad (9.1-13), medium (13.1), good (17,1-9) and good (21.1-25). The need for industrial land, calculated from the vast land of existing industries. Based on research results, obtained the ability to land on the area of research has 3 classes of 5 classes, i.e. good, moderate and bad. The results of the comparison between the broad capabilities and the needs of the farm industry, it can be concluded that the power of the land to support

  8. Sustainability Assessment of the Natural Gas Industry in China Using Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiucheng Dong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Under pressure toward carbon emission reduction and air protection, China has accelerated energy restructuring by greatly improving the supply and consumption of natural gas in recent years. However, several issues with the sustainable development of the natural gas industry in China still need in-depth discussion. Therefore, based on the fundamental ideas of sustainable development, industrial development theories and features of the natural gas industry, a sustainable development theory is proposed in this thesis. The theory consists of five parts: resource, market, enterprise, technology and policy. The five parts, which unite for mutual connection and promotion, push the gas industry’s development forward together. Furthermore, based on the theoretical structure, the Natural Gas Industry Sustainability Index in China is established and evaluated via the Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. Finally, a conclusion is reached: that the sustainability of the natural gas industry in China kept rising from 2008 to 2013, mainly benefiting from increasing supply and demand, the enhancement of enterprise profits, technological innovation, policy support and the optimization and reformation of the gas market.

  9. Integration and Assessment of Multiple Mobile Manipulators in a Real-World Industrial Production Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Simon; Schou, Casper; Rühr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale research experiment carried out within the TAPAS project, where multiple mobile manipulators were integrated and assessed in an industrial context. We consider an industrial scenario in which mobile manipulators naturally extend automation of logistic tasks towards...... assistive ones. In the experiment, we included tasks such as preparatory and post-processing work, e.g. pre-assembly or machine tending with inherent quality control. In the experiment, we deployed the two heterogeneous mobile manipulators Little Helper and omniRob in a production scenario at Grundfos A....../S, a manufacturer of water circulation pumps, in Denmark. The experiment showed that mobile manipulation is at a level of technology readiness that will allow industrial application in the near future. Despite challenges indicated later in the paper, the research efforts presented do show that research...

  10. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael AKPAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM, Furniture (Fand Wood Carving (WC, including a Control (C wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV andInternational (WHO regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA statistics was used in data analysis.Results revealed that the measured environmentalparameters (air quality, soil and noise pollutions did notdiffer significantly (P<0.05 from the 3 industrial locations,but significant differences between the various locationsand control were obtained.

  12. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes a study initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  13. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  14. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  15. TOPSICLE Towards 20 Percent mc-Si Industrial Solar Cell Efficiency. Final Environmental Assessment. Excel file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenkeit, B. [SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Russell, R. [BP Solar, Poligono Industrial s/n Zona Oeste, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Weeber, A.W.; De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-08-15

    The overall objective of the R and D project TOPSICLE was to define an industrial process to manufacture low-cost 20% mc-Si solar cells and modules. The work of TOPSICLE consisted of improving material quality of the mc-Si wafers and developing advanced processes to produce cost effective super high-efficiency m-Si solar cells and modules on an industrial scale. At the end of the project a road map towards 20% efficient industrial mc-Si PV, and a cost and environmental assessment was made for equipment, materials and processes. A comprehensive study on the developed processes was carried out with respect to the national legislation and the EC directives. For all newly developed processes a limited environmental effect is expected. All emissions will be below 10% of the limits when the exhaust of chemical and furnace processes is purified or recycled. All this can be done with state-of-the-art-technologies.

  16. 78 FR 32241 - U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment..., Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space, seeks industry views and perspectives to inform an on-going strategic National Security Space Launch Assessment. To support this effort, the Air...

  17. Tools used by the insurance industry to assess risk from hydroclimatic extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Stephanie; McMullan, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Probabilistic catastrophe models are widely used within the insurance industry to assess and price the risk of natural hazards to individual residences through to portfolios of millions of properties. Over the relatively short period that catastrophe models have been available (almost 30 years), the insurance industry has built up a financial resilience to key natural hazards in certain areas (e.g. US tropical cyclone, European extra-tropical cyclone and flood). However, due the rapidly expanding global population and increase in wealth, together with uncertainties in the behaviour of meteorological phenomena introduced by climate change, the domain in which natural hazards impact society is growing. As a result, the insurance industry faces new challenges in assessing the risk and uncertainty from natural hazards. As a catastrophe modelling company, AIR Worldwide has a toolbox of options available to help the insurance industry assess extreme climatic events and their associated uncertainty. Here we discuss several of these tools: from helping analysts understand how uncertainty is inherently built in to probabilistic catastrophe models, to understanding alternative stochastic catalogs for tropical cyclone based on climate conditioning. Through the use of stochastic extreme disaster events such as those provided through AIR's catalogs or through the Lloyds of London marketplace (RDS's) to provide useful benchmarks for the loss probability exceedence and tail-at-risk metrics outputted from catastrophe models; to the visualisation of 1000+ year event footprints and hazard intensity maps. Ultimately the increased transparency of catastrophe models and flexibility of a software platform that allows for customisation of modelled and non-modelled risks will drive a greater understanding of extreme hydroclimatic events within the insurance industry.

  18. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  19. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  20. A Critical Assessment on SPC Implementation in the UK Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Abdul Halim Lim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical process control (SPC is one of the most widely applied techniques to control and improve processes in manufacturing industry, but very few studies have reported on the successful application of SPC in the food industry. This paper aims to critically assess the status of SPC in the UK food manufacturing industry and suggests avenues for future research. By surveying the UK food-manufacturing companies, forty-five percent of them were identified implemented SPC, with x-R and x-S charts found to be the most commonly applied SPC charts in this industry. Top management commitment was identified as the most critical factor, while lack of SPC training is the most significant challenge and lack of awareness of SPC as the main reason for food manufacturing companies not implementing SPC. The paper provides information to food companies in the UK on most common practiced and useful quality tools, SPC charts and critical success factors in the food industry. Furthermore, based on the process performance parameters, SPC companies were observed to achieving better results compared to non-SPC companies.

  1. Constructivist assessment proposal a case study in a technical and industrial school environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Yohana Suescún Pinilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of the ongoing research “Constructivist AssessmentProposal” held at Institución Educativa Técnica Integral in Sogamoso. It isaimed at identifying why the assessment traditional approach is still beingapplied. Besides, it pretends to redefine new assessment practices in order toenhance students’ participation, speech and creativity. Likewise, it tends tomake teachers be aware of alternative assessment ways more relevant withthe education needs and demands. It is based on the case study researchapproach and developed in three stages: problematic description andcontextualization, analysis and comprehension of the assessment used bythe teacher in a technical and industrial setting and improvement alternativeproposals based on the problematic situation.

  2. Life cycle assessment of water reuse systems in an industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Le; Liu, Xin; Liu, Xuewei; Yuan, Zengwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-11-15

    The rapid development of industrial parks in China has resulted in large resource consumption and pollutant emissions, especially freshwater use and wastewater discharge. Water reuse has attracted much attention from governments because of its potential to conserve freshwater and reduce pollutant emissions. However, water reuse usually means adding advanced treatment which consumes chemicals, materials and energy. Is the water reuse beneficial for the environment from a life cycle perspective? To answer this question, we quantified the environmental impacts of reusing treated wastewater at industrial parks under different scenarios through a comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four scenarios are assessed: wastewater is treated and discharged, 20% and 99% of wastewater is treated and reused as industrial process water, and treated wastewater is used for horticulture. Inventory data were mainly obtained from a facility which manages the wastewater treatment and reuse system of an industrial park in Jiangsu Province. Environmental impacts were evaluated using the CML2001 method built into the GaBi version 4.3 database. The results show the water reuse is beneficial and the reuse rate significantly affects environmental performance of the system. It is also found that using the reclaimed water for higher value applications results in larger environmental credit. Decision makers in water management should consider both water quantity and quality and associated environmental impacts for different water reuse applications.

  3. A proposed model for assessing service quality in small machining and industrial maintenance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvam dos Santos Netto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Machining and industrial maintenance services include repair (corrective maintenance of equipments, activities involving the assembly-disassembly of equipments, fault diagnosis, machining operations, forming operations, welding processes, assembly and test of equipments. This article proposes a model for assessing the quality of services provided by small machining and industrial maintenance companies, since there is a gap in the literature regarding this issue and because the importance of small service companies in socio-economic development of the country. The model is an adaptation of the SERVQUAL instrument and the criteria determining the quality of services are designed according to the service cycle of a typical small machining and industrial maintenance company. In this sense, the Moments of Truth have been considered in the preparation of two separate questionnaires. The first questionnaire contains 24 statements that reflect the expectations of customers, and the second one contains 24 statements that measure perceptions of service performance. An additional item was included in each questionnaire to assess, respectively, the overall expectation about the services and the overall company performance. Therefore, it is a model that considers the interfaces of the client/supplier relationship, the peculiarities of the machining and industrial maintenance service sector and the company size.

  4. Control assessment for heat integrated systems. An industrial case study for ethanol recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    . The assessment, both on open loop and closed loop, was carried out based on an industrial case study and compared to a modified case without heat integration. Although the heat integrated system displayed a certain deterioration of controllability, the control system made possible an efficient operation....... The reduction of energy consumption achieved thanks to heat integration was considerably larger than the losses due to poor control of the process, confirming the importance of heat integration in energy intensive processes.......Heat integration is essential for reducing the energy consumption of process industries. However, it may render the dynamic operation more interactive and difficult to control. This paper assesses the implications of heat integration in controllability and performance in energy reduction...

  5. A New Approach for Assessing Dealership Performance: An Application for the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Biondi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The competitive nature of the contemporary business scenario requires productivity‐driven organizations to be aware of the efficiency level of their dealers. The recent economic and financial crisis has highlighted the need for effective evaluation methods going beyond the limits of traditional performance assessment methodologies in the retail industry. The automotive industry is no exception to this logic. In this sector, traditional methods are often based only on market share performances, ignoring the key role of input‐output ratios on the overall productivity of the parent company. Following this lead, in this paper we propose a method to evaluate the performance of dealerships taking into account both their market share performances and their efficiency. In order to assess dealership efficiency we use the DEA technique, and apply the proposed methodology to a multinational automotive company considering its Italian dealer network.

  6. Assessing Service Quality in Cyprus Mobile Telecommunication industry: A case Study of CYTA and Areeba

    OpenAIRE

    STYLIANOU, KATERINA

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT The imperative of Quality and its management are facts in modern business and have a great impact on both industrial and service sector enterprises. Moreover, these aspects have become of the most significant in pursuing business excellence, superior performance and global competitiveness. This is the reason why studies of service quality, service value and customer satisfaction have dominated the services marketing literature. The main purpose of this research paper is to assess...

  7. Assessment on Different Schemes of Industrial Structure Adjustment Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li-fang; MENG Jun

    2004-01-01

    DEA is a new research field in operations research. It has unique virtues in dealing with assessment problem with multi-inputs especially multi-outputs, In this paper, DEA model of Dεc2R has been applied to evaluate the relative efficiency of several different schemes of industrial structure adjustment of agriculture and finally select the optimal scheme. Furthermore, the inferior scheme has been improved according to some useful insights got from DEA model.

  8. GRADATION OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS ACCORDING TO RESULTS OBJECTIVITY DEGREE

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel Petrescu; Adrian Stancu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the main tendencies in which the product quality evaluation can be done, and five quality assessment methods of industrial products, namely: quality complex indicator, general point method, continuum model, subfeature model, customer satisfaction performance model and products quality deviation towards consumers’ needs model. The gradation criterion of these methods was the results objectivity degree. To gradate these methods, a research was conducted in Ploiesti city, whi...

  9. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  10. Application of predictive modelling techniques in industry: from food design up to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Lambert, Ronald J W

    2008-11-30

    In this communication, examples of applications of predictive microbiology in industrial contexts (i.e. Nestlé and Unilever) are presented which cover a range of applications in food safety from formulation and process design to consumer safety risk assessment. A tailor-made, private expert system, developed to support safe product/process design assessment is introduced as an example of how predictive models can be deployed for use by non-experts. Its use in conjunction with other tools and software available in the public domain is discussed. Specific applications of predictive microbiology techniques are presented relating to investigations of either growth or limits to growth with respect to product formulation or process conditions. An example of a probabilistic exposure assessment model for chilled food application is provided and its potential added value as a food safety management tool in an industrial context is weighed against its disadvantages. The role of predictive microbiology in the suite of tools available to food industry and some of its advantages and constraints are discussed.

  11. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  12. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  13. Health impact assessment of industrial development projects: a spatio-temporal visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko S. Winkler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Development and implementation of large-scale industrial projects in complex eco-epidemiological settings typically require combined environmental, social and health impact assessments. We present a generic, spatio-temporal health impact assessment (HIA visualization, which can be readily adapted to specific projects and key stakeholders, including poorly literate communities that might be affected by consequences of a project. We illustrate how the occurrence of a variety of complex events can be utilized for stakeholder communication, awareness creation, interactive learning as well as formulating HIA research and implementation questions. Methodological features are highlighted in the context of an iron ore development in a rural part of Africa.

  14. Assessment of fiber optic sensors for aging monitoring of industrial liquid coolants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riziotis, Christos; El Sachat, Alexandros; Markos, Christos; Velanas, Pantelis; Meristoudi, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Aggelos

    2015-03-01

    Lately the demand for in situ and real time monitoring of industrial assets and processes has been dramatically increased. Although numerous sensing techniques have been proposed, only a small fraction can operate efficiently under harsh industrial environments. In this work the operational properties of a proposed photonic based chemical sensing scheme, capable to monitor the ageing process and the quality characteristics of coolants and lubricants in industrial heavy machinery for metal finishing processes is presented. The full spectroscopic characterization of different coolant liquids revealed that the ageing process is connected closely to the acidity/ pH value of coolants, despite the fact that the ageing process is quite complicated, affected by a number of environmental parameters such as the temperature, humidity and development of hazardous biological content as for example fungi. Efficient and low cost optical fiber sensors based on pH sensitive thin overlayers, are proposed and employed for the ageing monitoring. Active sol-gel based materials produced with various pH indicators like cresol red, bromophenol blue and chorophenol red in tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were used for the production of those thin film sensitive layers deposited on polymer's and silica's large core and highly multimoded optical fibers. The optical characteristics, sensing performance and environmental robustness of those optical sensors are presented, extracting useful conclusions towards their use in industrial applications.

  15. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of the Competitiveness’ assessment of dairy industry at the Ukraine’s dairy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Shkarlet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical foundation of the assessment urgency of the competitiveness in the current market conditions. Put the competitive assessment of three enterprises of Ukraine’s dairy industry. Enterprise must clearly understand the extent in which it is competitive at the market and can compared with the competitors. The high competitiveness standard is a guarantee of high performance obtaining and ensuring of survival at the strict conditions of a market economy. The competitiveness is an abstract but not exact quantity, which greatly complicates the assessment process. Dairy is one of the leading in food industry. Dairy products are vitally important for everyone; therefore it’s necessary to pay special attention to the development of industry. The assessment of competitiveness will facilitate to the development of dairy industry in general. In the article compute the integral competitiveness index for three enterprises of dairy industry, and put the SWOT-analysis of leading company and least competitive enterprise

  16. Methodology for risk assessment and reliability applied for pipeline engineering design and industrial valves operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Dierci [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Industrial e Metalurgia. Lab. de Sistemas de Producao e Petroleo e Gas], e-mail: dsilveira@metal.eeimvr.uff.br; Batista, Fabiano [CICERO, Rio das Ostras, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Two kinds of situations may be distinguished for estimating the operating reliability when maneuvering industrial valves and the probability of undesired events in pipelines and industrial plants: situations in which the risk is identified in repetitive cycles of operations and situations in which there is a permanent hazard due to project configurations introduced by decisions during the engineering design definition stage. The estimation of reliability based on the influence of design options requires the choice of a numerical index, which may include a composite of human operating parameters based on biomechanics and ergonomics data. We first consider the design conditions under which the plant or pipeline operator reliability concepts can be applied when operating industrial valves, and then describe in details the ergonomics and biomechanics risks that would lend itself to engineering design database development and human reliability modeling and assessment. This engineering design database development and reliability modeling is based on a group of engineering design and biomechanics parameters likely to lead to over-exertion forces and working postures, which are themselves associated with the functioning of a particular plant or pipeline. This approach to construct based on ergonomics and biomechanics for a more common industrial valve positioning in the plant layout is proposed through the development of a methodology to assess physical efforts and operator reach, combining various elementary operations situations. These procedures can be combined with the genetic algorithm modeling and four elements of the man-machine systems: the individual, the task, the machinery and the environment. The proposed methodology should be viewed not as competing to traditional reliability and risk assessment bur rather as complementary, since it provides parameters related to physical efforts values for valves operation and workspace design and usability. (author)

  17. Assessment of Health Systems and Services Including Availability of Components for Mental Health Care in Industries of Kolar District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, G M; Rawat, S; V H H, S; Gururaj, G

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and psychological hazards are increasingly observed in industries, necessitating the need to strengthen industrial health systems to control the same. District level data on level of functioning of industrial health systems and services with special focus on systems available for mental health care is lacking in India. This information is vital to plan need-based interventions for system strengthening. To assess the status of functioning of industrial health systems and services in Kolar district, India, with special focus on systems and services available for mental health care. This cross-sectional study was undertaken between October and December 2014 on a stratified random sample of 69 industries located in Kolar, which were stratified proportionately by their hazardous nature. Interview and observation checklist were used to assess and classify functioning of industrial health systems and services including those available for mental health care. Occupational safety and health (OSH) policy was present in 56% and health insurance in 39% of the 69 industries assessed. Pre-placement and periodical medical examination were conducted in 23% of industries. Health systems and services in hazardous industries were functioning at less than 50% level of functioning. Health systems and services for mental health care were non-existent. There is a need in Kolar district, India, to integrate the mental health components within existing industrial health systems, as per policy directives to implement setting based approaches in mental health programs.

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Tamma Rao; V V S Gurunadha Rao; K Ranganathan

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2+), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6+ and Fe2+, which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  19. Assessment procedure for the soft skills requested by Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotet Gabriela Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasingly more performant global and informational environment, as the one found in the virtual organization, the process of selecting and evaluating the human resources holds a particular important role. The premise behind this article is that of the need to adapt the human resource performance to the requests of the industry 4.0 being supported by the organizational culture. Following the analysis of the state of the art literature we concluded that there is no clear procedure for the assessment of the constellation of skills and personal qualities – soft skills requested by industry 4.0. These capabilities should complete professional technical hard-skills; the procedure should provide a map for the constellation of capabilities necessary to adapt and perform, in specific industry 4.0 activities. Current psychological evaluation systems consider only some of such requested capabilities not always the most relevant. To solve this problem, we tried to identify and evaluate what we considered as the core of the complex various skills required. Our research was centred on the use of a psychological instrument for evaluating transversal capabilities. The capabilities map needed for the evaluation and selection of the human resource fit to work in the industry 4.0 environment was designed after the application of this complex system of evaluation on successive series of students from the University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest.

  20. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1 Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2 The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3 The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4 The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies.

  2. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Ju, Meiting

    2014-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China) as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1) Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2) The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3) The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4) The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies. PMID:25032743

  3. An assessment of the economic status of the antifriction bearing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donna J.; Kelley, Gerald T.; Myers, Myron G.

    1991-10-01

    Military equipment with moving parts requires antifriction bearings. Superprecision bearings, which are manufactured with closer tolerances under more stringent conditions, are often needed to meet high-performance characteristics such as silencing in submarines. A steady increase in imports of antifriction bearings coupled with reduced prices and profitability in the domestic industry led domestic manufacturers to seek legislative and regulatory relief from foreign competition. Since 1987, the Government has provided two types of relief to the industry. First, after a Department of Commerce investigation established that foreign producers were selling products in the U.S. market at prices below those they charged in their home markets, the Government imposed antidumping duties on several types of bearings from 12 countries. Second, the DoD restricted the purchase of antifriction bearing for use in defense end items to those of domestic manufacture. Although that restriction is due to expire on 30 Sep. 1991, the DoD may renew it for an additional 2 years if conditions warrant. This study assesses the current economic health of the U.S. antifriction bearing industry, analyzes the relative impact of the two forms of relief provided to the industry, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of DoD's policy options.

  4. Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Peter B; Krabek, Anders; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2008-01-01

    The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly and effic......The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly......&P companies and P&P researchers. The background data on energy systems, auxiliary chemicals, etc. are primarily taken from the ecoinvent database. The study shows that fossil energy consumption and potential environmental impacts (global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical smog...... and that enzymatic processes generally require less fossil energy inputs than conventional processes. Data quality  assessments and sensitivity analyses indicate that this observation is robust for all processes except deinking, although the results are subject to uncertainty and much variation. The environmental...

  5. Assessment of industrial hazardous waste practices, storage and primary batteries industries. Final report, Apr--Sep 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCandless, L.C.; Wetzel, R.; Casana, J.; Slimak, K.

    1975-01-01

    This report, which covers battery manufacturing operations, is one of a series of several studies which examine land-destined wastes from selected industries. The battery industry is divided into two groups by the Bureau of Census: Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3691 Storage Batteries (such as lead--acid automobile batteries) and SIC 3692 Primary Batteries (such as carbon--zinc flashlight batteries). The battery industry was studied because heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium, zinc, and lead are used in some of its manufacturing processes. These metals can be toxic in certain concentrations and forms. The potentially hazardous wastes destined for land disposal from the battery industry consist of industrial processing wastes, reject cells, and sludges from water pollution control devices. The amount of sludges destined for land disposal is expected to experience a large short term increase as water effluent guidelines are implemented. The impact of water effluent guidelines on land disposal of wastes is the largest single factor in determining future trends for this industry.

  6. Assessment of the Vaccine Industry in Iran in Context of Accession to WTO: a Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hashemi Meshkini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background :The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. Purpose of the study In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. Methods:This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry's key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. Results:According to the interviewees, the country's main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO, the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Major conclusions Iran's local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP, a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D, and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines. Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions.

  7. Preliminary Screening Assessment of the Potential Impact of the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The activities of the phosphate industry may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. We here perform a preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the activities of the phosphate industry (phosphate ore mining, phosphate fertilizer factories, phosphate export platforms). We evaluated the environmental impact of 5 phosphate fertilizer plants (located in Belgium, Spain, Syria, Egypt, Brazil) and one phosphate-mine and phosphate-export platforms in the harbour(both located in Syria). These sites were selected because of the enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the surrounding environments. The ERICA non-human biota assessment tool was used to predict radiation dose rates to the reference organisms and associated risks. Reference organisms were those assigned as default by the ERICA Tool. Potential impact is expressed as a risk quotient (RQ) based on a radiation screening value of 10 μGy h{sup -1}. If RQ ≤ 1, the environment is unlikely at risk and further radiological assessment is deemed not to be required. For all the cases assessed, RQ exceeded 1 for at least one of the reference organisms. {sup 226}Ra or {sup 210}Po were generally the highest contributors to the dose. The aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of the phosphate fertilizer plants in Tessenderlo (Belgium), Huelva (Spain), Goias (Brazil) and the terrestrial environment around the phosphate mine in Palmyra (Syria) are the ecosystems predicted most at risk. (authors)

  8. Assessment of exposure to the Penicillium glabrum complex in cork industry using complementing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Sabino, Raquel; Botelho, Daniel; dos Santos, Mateus; Gomes, Anita Quintal

    2015-09-01

    Cork oak is the second most dominant forest species in Portugal and makes this country the world leader in cork export. Occupational exposure to Chrysonilia sitophila and the Penicillium glabrum complex in cork industry is common, and the latter fungus is associated with suberosis. However, as conventional methods seem to underestimate its presence in occupational environments, the aim of our study was to see whether information obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a molecular-based method, can complement conventional findings and give a better insight into occupational exposure of cork industry workers. We assessed fungal contamination with the P. glabrum complex in three cork manufacturing plants in the outskirts of Lisbon using both conventional and molecular methods. Conventional culturing failed to detect the fungus at six sampling sites in which PCR did detect it. This confirms our assumption that the use of complementing methods can provide information for a more accurate assessment of occupational exposure to the P. glabrum complex in cork industry.

  9. Air quality assessment of Estarreja, an urban industrialized area, in a coastal region of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M L; Monteiro, A; Lopes, M; Ferreira, J; Borrego, C

    2013-07-01

    Despite the increasing concern given to air quality in urban and industrial areas in recent years, particular emphasis on regulation, control, and reduction of air pollutant emissions is still necessary to fully characterize the chain emissions-air quality-exposure-dose-health effects, for specific sources. The Estarreja region was selected as a case study because it has one of the largest chemical industrial complexes in Portugal that has been recently expanded, together with a growing urban area with an interesting location in the Portuguese coastland and crossed by important road traffic and rail national networks. This work presents the first air quality assessment for the region concerning pollutant emissions and meteorological and air quality monitoring data analysis, over the period 2000-2009. This assessment also includes a detailed investigation and characterization of past air pollution episodes for the most problematic pollutants: ozone and PM10. The contribution of different emission sources and meteorological conditions to these episodes is investigated. The stagnant meteorological conditions associated with local emissions, namely industrial activity and road traffic, are the major contributors to the air quality degradation over the study region. A set of measures to improve air quality--regarding ozone and PM10 levels--is proposed as an air quality management strategy for the study region.

  10. Effectiveness and efficiency assessment of industrial enterprises` marketing in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Chukhray

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Marketing role in the process of creation of industrial enterprise value is analyzed in the article. The purpose of it is to define basic directions, criteria and indexes of evaluation of industrial enterprises` marketing in the supply chain. Methodical positions are worked out. They are structured in accordance with the criteria of evaluation of industrial enterprises` marketing in the supply chain. The categories of efficiency and effectiveness are considered.The results of the analysis. Peculiarities of purpose marketing decisions` orientation on the strategic level of management are found. Conception of three fundamental aspects of modern business combination was investigated as part of a strategic approach. A concept client is exposed in the triune measuring. Two types of cost chain (traditional and modern are considered. Tasks that determine the effective functioning of enterprise in the supply chain are distinguished. The criteria of industrial enterprises` marketing evaluation are grouped. The system of indexes of effectiveness and efficiency evaluation of industrial enterprises` marketing in the process of delivery is worked out. Authors divide these indexes from position of marketing: value for a final consumer, value for partners in supplying and value for an enterprise. This approach fundamentally differs from earlier well-known ones.The use of these methodical positions will give an opportunity to estimate effectiveness and efficiency of marketing activity of industrial enterprise taking into account the multi-vectors of interests of target groups: consumers, partners and stockholders of enterprise.Conclusions and directions of further researches. The methodological approaches described in this article concerning the evaluation of marketing charges can be the base of analysis of charges according to their origin and functional measurement. It will allow making complex estimation of the marketing programs of

  11. STUDYING OF SAFETY CLIMATE ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY AT STEEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of safety climate used as a practical means has determined and assessed potential problems relevant to safety issues in an organization and can be used in individuals’ performance and work efficiency and decreasing rate of incidents ;as well as; guidance to provide safety organization policy and comparison of safety performance in different organizations. The study wants to determine and prepare safety climate profile and application of its results in improving safety situation. In this study, applied tools presented by Loughborough University are used to evaluate safety climate in one of steel industries and data is collected through questionnaire, group discussions or purposeful interviews and observations, and safety climate score was obtained in 17 scopes. Calculating the score of each safety climate domain and preparing the profile indicated there is the average rate (4.89 2 in the safety climate of the industry.

  12. Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation Assessment, Diagnosis and Improvement of Control Loop Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jelali, Mohieddine

    2013-01-01

    Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation provides a coherent and self-contained treatment of a group of methods and applications of burgeoning importance to the detection and solution of problems with control loops that are vital in maintaining product quality, operational safety, and efficiency of material and energy consumption in the process industries. The monograph deals with all aspects of control performance management (CPM), from controller assessment (minimum-variance-control-based and advanced methods), to detection and diagnosis of control loop problems (process non-linearities, oscillations, actuator faults), to the improvement of control performance (maintenance, re-design of loop components, automatic controller re-tuning). It provides a contribution towards the development and application of completely self-contained and automatic methodologies in the field. Moreover, within this work, many CPM tools have been developed that goes far beyond available CPM packages. Control Perform...

  13. A comparison of three observational techniques for assessing postural loads in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Dohyung; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to compare 3 observational techniques for assessing postural load, namely, OWAS, RULA, and REBA. The comparison was based on the evaluation results generated by the classification techniques using 301 working postures. All postures were sampled from the iron and steel, electronics, automotive, and chemical industries, and a general hospital. While only about 21% of the 301 postures were classified at the action category/level 3 or 4 by both OWAS and REBA, about 56% of the postures were classified into action level 3 or 4 by RULA. The inter-method reliability for postural load category between OWAS and RULA was just 29.2%, and the reliability between RULA and REBA was 48.2%. These results showed that compared to RULA, OWAS, and REBA generally underestimated postural loads for the analyzed postures, irrespective of industry, work type, and whether or not the body postures were in a balanced state.

  14. LABOUR SUBCONTRACTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRIES OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: AN ASSESSMENT FROM TWO PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Wells

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of employing labour through subcontractors (often referred to as the ‘outsourcing’ of labour is both long established and widespread in the construction industries of developing countries. Recent studies show that it is also increasing in both developing and developed countries. An assessment of the advantages of the practice from the viewpoint of the contractors and of the labour force, suggests it is unlikely to disappear. The paper goes on to explore the implications for the development of the construction industry, as well as for the welfare of the workers and the achievement of broader development objectives. It is concluded that interventions may be needed to deal with some of the negative repercussions, but they have to accept and build on current labour practices.

  15. Review of Individual Technology Assessment Reports (ITAR) for industrial boiler applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, T.; Bakshi, P.; Weisenberg, I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Eight Individual Technology Assessment Reports and one Background Study in Support of New Source Performance Standards for Industrial Boilers are reviewed. These ITARs were prepared for the EPA and include studies of particulate control, flue-gas desulfurization, fluidized-bed combustion, NO/sub x/ combustion modification, NO/sub x/ flue-gas treatment, coal cleaning, synthetic fuels, and oil cleaning. The ITARs provide engineering and cost data for the air pollution control technologies that will be required to meet the New Source Performance Standards for industrial boilers. The pollutants considered were SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, and particulates. Each ITAR is reviewed from the standpoint of engineering, demonstrated technology, and costing methodology. The cost review includes a comparison of the costing methodology of each ITAR with the costing methodology recommended by the EPA background document.

  16. Applying Raman spectroscopy to the assessment of the biodegradation of industrial polyurethanes wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cregut, Mickael; Bedas, Marion; Assaf, Ali; Durand-Thouand, Marie-José; Thouand, Gérald

    2014-01-01

    Polyether-based polyurethanes (PBP) are extremely problematic polymers due to their long persistence in the environment. Moreover, the assessment of PBP biodegradation remains biased due to the inability of conventional methods to determine how their diverse subunits are degraded. To improve our knowledge of PBP biodegradation, we used Raman spectroscopy to identify patterns of PBP biodegradation. Specifically, PBP biodegradation was assessed using a microbial inoculum isolated from an industrial soil in which polyurethanes have been buried for 40 years. During a 28-day biodegradation assay, the PBP biodegradation level reached 27.5% (w/w), in addition to undergoing profound alteration of the PBP composition as identified by chemical analyses. After microbial degradation, Raman analyses revealed the disappearance of the polymer's amorphous region, which contains a high polyol content, whereas the isocyanate-rich crystalline regions were preserved. The use of Raman spectroscopy appears to be a particularly useful tool to enhance our assessment of polymer biodegradation.

  17. Assessment of phthalates/phthalate alternatives in children's toys and childcare articles: Review of the report including conclusions and recommendation of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel of the Consumer Product Safety Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Hauser, Russ; Gennings, Chris; Koch, Holger M; Mirkes, Philip E; Schwetz, Bernard A; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) convened a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on Phthalates found in children's toys, and childcare products, and in products used by women of childbearing age. The CHAP conducted a risk assessment on phthalates and phthalate substitutes, and made recommendations to either ban, impose an interim ban, or allow the continued use of phthalates and phthalate substitutes in the above products. After a review of the literature, the evaluation included toxic end points of primary concern, biomonitoring results, extant exposure reconstruction, and epidemiological results. The health end points chosen were associated with the rat phthalate syndrome, which is characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), and by cryptorchidism (undescended testes), retention of nipples/areolae, and demasculinization (~incomplete masculinization) of the perineum, resulting in reduced anogenital distance. Risk assessment demonstrated that some phthalates should be permanently banned, removed from the banned list, or remain interim banned. Biomonitoring and toxicology data provided the strongest basis for a mixture risk assessment. In contrast, external exposure data were the weakest and need to be upgraded for epidemiological studies and risk assessments. Such studies would focus on routes and sources. The review presents recommendations and uncertainties.

  18. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  19. Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

    2012-12-03

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs.

  20. Assessment of TRACE Code for GE Level Swell Test to Review Industrial Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chanyi; Cheng, Ae Ju; Bang, Young Seok; Hwang, Taesuk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS) has reviewed the industrial code for safety analysis of nuclear power plant, in which TRACE and MARS-KS codes are being used to support the understanding of specific phenomena and code prediction. For this aspect, the TRACE code was assessed for the GE Level Swell Experiment. General Electric (GE) performed a series of experiments to investigate thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as critical flow, void distribution, and liquid-vapor mixture swell during blowdown conditions. These GE Level swell experiments are frequently simulated to verify safety analysis codes as a separate effect test. TRACE code calculations with version 5.0 patch 4 for GE Level Swell experiment 1004-3 have been performed to assess the applicability of the TRACE code for verification of industrial code. An Assessment analysis of the TRACE version 5.0 patch 4 code was carried out for GE Level Swell experiments 1004-3 by comparison purpose with SPACE. Overall, TRACE predicted the pressure and axial void fractions at different times reasonably well for 1004-3 blowdown test, while SPACE tends to underestimate the pressure. It was also found that results of void fraction distribution should be compared at different time to discuss the accuracy of the SPACE code against this test.

  1. Assessing environmental impacts using a comparative LCA of industrial and artisanal production processes: "Minas Cheese" case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Muller Nigri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts caused by both the artisanal and the industrial manufacturing processes of "Minas cheese". This is a traditional cheese produced in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil, and it is considered a "cultural patrimony" in the country. The high participation of artisanal producers in the market justifies this research, and this analysis can help the identification of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of several stages of the production system. The environmental impacts caused were also assessed and compared. The functional unit adopted was 1 kilogram (Kg of cheese. The system boundaries considered were the production process, conservation of product (before sale, and transport to consumer market. The milk production process was considered similar in both cases, and therefore it was not included in the assessment. The data were collected through interviews with the producers, observation, and a literature review; they were ordered and processed using the SimaPro 7 LCA software. According to the impact categories analyzed, the artisanal production exerted lower environmental impacts. This can be justified mainly because the industrial process includes the pasteurization stage, which uses dry wood as an energy source and refrigeration.

  2. A full-process chain assessment for nanoimprint technology on 200-mm industrial platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssedre, Hubert; Landis, Stefan; Thanner, Christine; Laure, Maria; Khan, Jonas; Bos, Sandra; Eibelhuber, Martin; Chouiki, Mustapha; May, Michael; Brianceau, Pierre; Pollet, Olivier; Hazart, Jerome; Laviron, Cyrille; Pain, Laurent; Wimplinger, Markus

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the maturity of the wafer-scale NanoImprint lithography (NIL) process, laboratory of electronic and communication technology (LETI) and EV Group (EVG) launched the Imprint Nanopatterning Solution Platform for Industrial Assessment program (INSPIRE), which aims at building a nanoimprint solution platform for industrial assessment and provide a unique open ecosystem for the standardization of the nanoimprint process. This program enabled to gather EVG know-how for the tool manufacturing and its long expertise in bonding activities, and the established methods and advanced microelectronic environment. Presented as an upstream phase, metrology and defectivity were performed on dedicated assessment designs to address critical dimension uniformity (CDU) at wafer scale for a large number of imprints, defectivity on imprints and masters, and alignment capabilities of the nanoimprint HERCULES® platform of EVG. We demonstrate that the critical points are the anti-sticking layer for the defectivity, the CD shrinkage for the CDU, and the stiffness of the soft stamp for the overlay uniformity. Thus, we bring to light the actual capabilities of the HERCULES® platform, and open the discussions on the opportunities for this technology with the possible improvements for the process.

  3. A quantitative risk assessment tool for the external safety of industrial plants with a dust explosion hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Klein, A.J.J.; Maaijer, M. de; Berg, A.C. van den; Deursen, J.R. van; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) tool has been developed by TNO for the external safety of industrial plants with a dust explosion hazard. As a first step an industrial plant is divided into groups of modules, defined by their size, shape, and constructional properties. Then the relevant explosi

  4. Reshaping the carcinogenic risk assessment of medicines: international harmonisation for drug safety, industry/regulator efficiency or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2003-07-01

    The most significant institutional entity involved in the harmonisation of drug testing standards worldwide is the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), which comprises the three pharmaceutical industry associations and regulatory agencies of the EU, US and Japan. It is often claimed that such harmonisation will both accelerate the development and approval of new drugs and preserve safety standards, if not strengthen safety regimes. Drawing on extensive documentary research and interviews, this paper systematically examines whether the efforts by the ICH to improve industrial and regulatory efficiency by harmonising drug testing requirements is likely to raise, maintain or compromise safety standards in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. The evidence suggests that, in the field of carcinogenicity testing, the ICH management of international harmonisation of medicines regulation is not achieving simultaneous improvements in safety standards and acceleration of drug development. Rather, the latter is being achieved at the expense of the former. Indeed, the ICH may be converting permissive regulatory practices of the past into new scientific standards for the future. These findings are significant as many expert scientific advisers to drug regulatory agencies seem to have accepted uncritically the conclusions reached by the ICH, which may affect a potential patient population of half a billion and tens of thousands of clinical trials.

  5. Assessment of the vaccine industry in Iran in context of accession to WTO: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Meshkini Amir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vaccine industry is one of the most important health-related industries. It can be affected by accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO because of probable dramatic changes in the business environment. Iran has already initiated accession negotiations. Purpose of the study In this paper, we investigate the position of, challenges to, and opportunities for vaccine manufacturing in Iran with regard to accession to the WTO. Methods This is a qualitative and cross sectional study. To collect information, we designed a questionnaire and interviewed some of the vaccine industry’s key opinion leaders in Iran. Before the interviews were conducted, the questionnaires were sent to these individuals by email. Results According to the interviewees, the country’s main challenges with regard to accession to the WTO are the lack of firm internal intellectual property (IP rules, not being recognized as pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO, the use of old equipment, and a lack of cooperation with global vaccine companies. Major conclusions Iran’s local vaccine industry, with a long history and international reputation that could be used as an advantage, is faced with several challenges, such as problems with keeping up with Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP, a lack of adequate and meaningful investment in research and development (R&D, and limitations on private sector participation in the production of vaccines. Gradual privatization of the industry, improved international relations, utilization of the R&D power of small hi-tech companies, consistent education of human resources, and modernization of infrastructures and equipment are among the suggested solutions.

  6. Industrial Cost-Benefit Assessment for Fault-tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    against failure. The paper describes the assessments needed to find the right path for new industrial designs. The economic decisions in the design phase are discussed: cost of different failures, profits associated with available benefits, investments needed for development and life-time support....... The objective of this paper is to help, in the early product development state, to find the economical most suitable scheme. A salient result is that with increased customer awareness of total cost of ownership, new products can benefit significantly from applying fault tolerant control principles....

  7. An assessment of financial audit practices in the Romanian metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boţa-Avram

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide an assessment of financial audit practices of the largest metallurgical companies trading on Romanian capital market. Metallurgical industry represents a significant sector in the Romanian economy as a whole; therefore an evaluation of audit practices used by these companies could provide relevant information. Based on a well-documented literature review, with a focus on main findings concerning audit practices, especially in the context of corporate governance, there was selected a set of certain criteria that should be taken into consideration when referring to the best practices in the audit area.

  8. Mobile robots: An assessment of business opportunities in an emerging industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The mobile robotics industry is one that is certain to reach the billion-dollar level in the early 1990s. The authors' analysis finds that at least eight areas of application have the potential of exceeding the manufacturing AGVS market by the turn of the century: service and maintenance robots, medical robots, agricultural robots, military robots, office automation, electric utilities, space robots, and construction/mining. This report describes these and other applications, and reviews the mobile robotic products of 45 companies. Leading research is also assessed, and a market forecast is presented.

  9. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENTS INTO THE ENTERPRISES OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sitnikov

    2016-01-01

    evaluating the eff ectiveness of the investment project as a whole, characterizing, from an economic point of view technical, technological and organizational design decisions.Methodology. In methodological terms, this work represents the justifi cation of the principles of modern control theory, allows to evaluate the dynamic changes in the economy of an industrial enterprise. On the basis of comparative-comparative analysis of identifi ed approaches to the regulation of the industrial production of high-tech enterprises of the military-industrial complex.Results. As a result of the execution of this work describes the economic-mathematical model of innovative development of enterprises engaged in research and development activities and having experienced the production.Conclusions / relevance. Practical application of the results of this work will allow the enterprises of the military-industrial complex to plan for sustainable and innovative development and increase the effi ciency of their activities in the following areas: ensuring independence from commercial interests by maintaining the state monopoly on the strategic aspect of the military-industrial complex; maintenance needs competition in the sphere of production, primarily high-tech civilian and military products, on the one hand, will not allow unreasonably infl ate the cost; on the other hand, will limit the growth of prices for the related enterprises (including commercial enterprises; promoting investment of enterprises at the expense of growth of own funds and of attracting additional sources of funding; expand the range and the range of produced military and civil products, including through various forms of optimization (diversifi cation activities.

  11. Assessment of Health Consequences of Steel Industry Welders’ Occupational Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Mortazavi, Saied Mohammad Javad; Asmand, Ebrahim; Nikeghbal, Kiana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Welding is among the most important frequently used processes in the industry with a wide range of applications from the food industry to aerospace and from precision tools to shipbuilding. The aim of this study was to assess the level of steel industry welders’ exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to investigate the health impacts of these exposures. Methods: In this case–control study, we measured the intensity of UV at the workers’ wrist in Fars Steel Company through manufacture of different types of heavy metal structures, using UV-meter model 666230 made by Leybold Co., from Germany. Results: The population under the study comprised 400 people including 200 welders as the exposed group and 200 nonwelders as the unexposed group. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19. The average, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of the UV at the welders’ wrist were 0.362, 0.346, 1.27, and 0.01 μW/cm2, respectively. There was a significantly (P radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures. PMID:26900437

  12. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intini, Francesca; Kuhtz, Silvana [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Basilicata (Italy); Gianluca Rospi, [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Basilicata (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  13. Life cycle assessment (LCA of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Intini, Silvana Kühtz, Gianluca Rospi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  14. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  15. Subjective risk assessment and perception in the Greek and English bakery industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Kavadi, Zafira; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

    2009-01-01

    Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards-according to 7 risk aspects-were collected and analyzed. Subjective assessment on important occupational hazards included handling heavy loads, repetitiveness, high temperatures, high rate of work, stressful deadlines, and noise. Although limited in the population involved, our findings revealed strong cross-national differences in employee risk perception of specific groups of hazards in the bakery industry. Additional interviews revealed evidence that Greek employees' risk perception depends mostly on work experience while British employees were aware of risks due to company health and safety policy, recognizing that safety is the responsibility of both the management and the worker. Cross-national (cultural) factors that influence workforce risk perception and attitudes towards safety have to be taken into account by technical experts and policy makers in the designing of prevention strategies and risk communication.

  16. Subjective Risk Assessment and Perception in the Greek and English Bakery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos C. Alexopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influencing risk perception in the area of occupational health and safety are known, but there is still lack of a full understanding of the ways in which people characterize risk. This study aimed to provide an insight of employee risk assessment and perception in the bakery industry. 87 British and 64 Greek employees in two comparable bakery companies were asked to estimate and evaluate hazards at their workplace. The participants' judgments of 12 hazards—according to 7 risk aspects—were collected and analyzed. Subjective assessment on important occupational hazards included handling heavy loads, repetitiveness, high temperatures, high rate of work, stressful deadlines, and noise. Although limited in the population involved, our findings revealed strong cross-national differences in employee risk perception of specific groups of hazards in the bakery industry. Additional interviews revealed evidence that Greek employees' risk perception depends mostly on work experience while British employees were aware of risks due to company health and safety policy, recognizing that safety is the responsibility of both the management and the worker. Cross-national (cultural factors that influence workforce risk perception and attitudes towards safety have to be taken into account by technical experts and policy makers in the designing of prevention strategies and risk communication.

  17. Assessment of combined toxicity of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters on Photobacterium phosphoreum T3S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, BibiSaima; Ping, Zheng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Lin, Qiu; Pervez, Arshid; Irshad, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shaheen, Shahida

    2017-07-01

    This research work is focusing on the toxicities of heavy metals of industrial origin to anaerobic digestion of the industrial wastewater. Photobacterium phosphoreum T3S was used as an indicator organism. The acute toxicities of heavy metals on P. phosphoreum T3S were assessed during 15-min half inhibitory concentration (IC50) as indicator at pH 5.5-6. Toxicity assays involved the assessment of multicomponent mixtures using TU and MTI approaches. The results of individual toxicity indicated that the toxicity of Cd, Cu and Pb on P. phosphoreum increased with increasing concentrations and there was a linear correlation. The 15-min IC50 values of Cd, Cu and Pb were 0.537, 1.905 and 1.231 mg/L, respectively, and their toxic order was Cd > Pb > Cu. The combined effects of Cd, Cu and Pb were assayed by equivalent concentration mixing method. The results showed that the combined effects of Cd + Cu, Cd + Pb, Cu + Pb, Cd + Cu + Pb were antagonistic, antagonistic and partly additive. The combined effect of three heavy metals was partly additive.

  18. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2011-08-15

    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways.

  19. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  20. A streamlined sustainability assessment tool for improved decision making in the urban water industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Matthias; Short, Michael D; Peters, Gregory M

    2012-01-01

    Water supply is a key consideration in sustainable urban planning. Ideally, detailed quantitative sustainability assessments are undertaken during the planning stage to inform the decision-making process. In reality, however, the significant time and cost associated with undertaking such detailed environmental and economic assessments is often cited as a barrier to wider implementation of these key decision support tools, particularly for decisions made at the local or regional government level. In an attempt to overcome this barrier of complexity, 4 water service providers in Melbourne, Australia, funded the development of a publicly available streamlined Environmental Sustainability Assessment Tool, which is aimed at a wide range of decision makers to assist them in broadening the type and number of water servicing options that can be considered for greenfield or backlog developments. The Environmental Sustainability Assessment Tool consists of a simple user interface and draws on life cycle inventory data to allow for rapid estimation of the environmental and economic performance of different water servicing scenarios. Scenario options can then be further prioritized by means of an interactive multicriteria analysis. The intent of this article is to identify the key issues to be considered in a streamlined sustainability assessment tool for the urban water industry, and to demonstrate the feasibility of generating accurate life cycle assessments and life cycle costings, using such a tool. We use a real-life case study example consisting of 3 separate scenarios for a planned urban development to show that this kind of tool can emulate life cycle assessments and life cycle costings outcomes obtained through more detailed studies. This simplified approach is aimed at supporting "sustainability thinking" early in the decision-making process, thereby encouraging more sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure solutions.

  1. Isocyanate Exposure Assessment Combining Industrial Hygiene Methods with Biomonitoring for End Users of Orthopedic Casting Products

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitori...

  2. Assessment of the Impact of Industrial Effluents on Groundwater Quality in Okhla Industrial Area, New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wequar Ahmad Siddiqui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study physicochemical parameters like pH, hardness, TDS, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride, DO, COD and conductivity of some important heavy metals such as iron, cobalt, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, selenium and arsenic were first analyzed in effluent water of Okhla industrial area phase-II and then groundwater of near by areas. Obtained values of effluent water were compared with ISI standard for effluent water discharge and groundwater values were compared with ISI and WHO drinking water standards. The result shows that discharge of untreated effluents by the industries is leading to contamination of groundwater of the surrounding areas. Lead, mercury, fluoride, TDS, sulphate was above the desirable limit in effluent water (ISI standard for effluent water discharge. Subsequent analysis of groundwater of nearby areas was rated as unacceptable for drinking because of presence of fluoride in all the samples above the desirable limit. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chloride was also detected in many samples.

  3. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  4. Analysis and Assessment of Main Economic Indicators of Activity of Agro-industrial Enterprises of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznikova Olha S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in analysis of the modern state of the level of resource availability and efficiency of functioning of agro-industrial enterprises of the Crimean region. The article studies works of scientists, considers problems of concentration of agro-industrial production and land resources, economic efficiency of agro-industrial production and factors of its increase, however, issues of analysis and assessment of activity of agro-industrial enterprises of the AR Crimea stay unstudied. The article analyses and assesses main economic indicators of activity of agro-industrial enterprises of the Crimean regions, studies the state of efficiency of production of agricultural products in agro-formations of the region and also assesses the modern state of efficiency of functioning of agro-industrial enterprises of the AR of Crimea. The article offers prospective directions of increase of efficiency of functioning of agro-industrial enterprises that include technical re-equipment of production, increase of a number of people engaged in production of agricultural products and significant increase of well-being of a rural worker.

  5. A catchment-wide assessment of bed sediment metal concentrations in the first industrial city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Rachel; Rothwell, James; Woodward, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Manchester is often heralded as the 'first industrial city'. Rapid industrialisation in the 18th and 19th centuries saw vast quantities of fine-grained sediments (e.g. boiler ash and cinders) and contaminants (e.g. dyes, bleaches, and chemicals) deposited into the river channels of the Irwell and Mersey in a manner largely unchecked until the 1970s. Although water quality has improved in recent decades, there is a paucity of information on fluvial sediment quality and the extent to which a legacy of historical contamination persists in the contemporary river network. Forty five sites were sampled across the Irwell and Mersey catchments during low flow conditions in spring/summer 2015. Fine-grained bed sediment was collected using the Lambert and Walling (1988) method. Wet sieving was used to isolate the <63 μm fraction for geochemical analysis. Heavy metal concentrations were obtained via XRF with a particular focus on As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. In order to explore controls on sediment-associated metal concentrations, additional characteristics of the bed sediment were also investigated, including particle size and organic matter content. Enrichment factors, based on mean concentrations obtained from pre-industrial floodplain deposits, were calculated. The enrichment factors reveal severe or very severe metal contamination across the whole catchment, including the headwater basins. Relationships between bed sediment quality and hotspots of historic industrial activity have been examined - these reveal complex spatial patterns associated with the high number and variety of historic contaminant inputs. These data form the first baseline assessment and will be used within a larger project investigating the impact of extreme hydrological events on bed sediment quality and transfer in these catchments.

  6. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants.

  7. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  8. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of road dusts from industrial areas of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Ramavati; Balaram, V; Satyanarayanan, M; Sawant, S S

    2016-09-01

    Road dust in industrial areas carries high levels of toxic heavy metals. Exposure to such polluted dust significantly affects the health of people residing in these areas, which is of major concern. The present study was taken up with an aim to highlight the magnitude and potential sources of accumulation of heavy metals in 32 road dust samples collected from six industrial areas of Hyderabad. Acid-digested sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-MS for Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Pb, Ni, V, Zr, Ce, Y, and Hf. The road dusts exhibit significantly high mean metal levels which are much above their crustal abundances. The relative ordering of mean metal contents is Zr > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ce > Cu > V > Ni > Y > Co > Hf. Elevated pollution indices (I geo, EF, C (i) f, and C deg) reveal that the road dusts are pollution impacted showing varying degree of heavy metal contamination. Strong positive correlations exhibited by metal pairs Cu-Zn, Cr-Ni, Ce-V, Y-Ce, and Hf-Zr imply their origin from common anthropogenic sources. Principal component analysis grouped the metals according to the sources which contributed to their accumulation. The present study confirms to an intensive anthropogenic impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in the studied road dusts attributable mainly to strong influences of vehicular and industrial activity and partly to domestic and natural processes. The results obtained imply the need for further investigations to assess their ecological implications and human health risks.

  9. Application of air pollution dispersion modeling for source-contribution assessment and model performance evaluation at integrated industrial estate-Pantnagar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, T., E-mail: tirthankaronline@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145 (India); Barman, S.C., E-mail: scbarman@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Monitoring, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow-226 001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Srivastava, R.K., E-mail: rajeevsrivastava08@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 263 145 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Source-contribution assessment of ambient NO{sub 2} concentration was performed at Pantnagar, India through simulation of two urban mathematical dispersive models namely Gaussian Finite Line Source Model (GFLSM) and Industrial Source Complex Model (ISCST-3) and model performances were evaluated. Principal approaches were development of comprehensive emission inventory, monitoring of traffic density and regional air quality and conclusively simulation of urban dispersive models. Initially, 18 industries were found responsible for emission of 39.11 kg/h of NO{sub 2} through 43 elevated stacks. Further, vehicular emission potential in terms of NO{sub 2} was computed as 7.1 kg/h. Air quality monitoring delineates an annual average NO{sub 2} concentration of 32.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Finally, GFLSM and ISCST-3 were simulated in conjunction with developed emission inventories and existing meteorological conditions. Models simulation indicated that contribution of NO{sub 2} from industrial and vehicular source was in a range of 45-70% and 9-39%, respectively. Further, statistical analysis revealed satisfactory model performance with an aggregate accuracy of 61.9%. - Research highlights: > Application of dispersion modeling for source-contribution assessment of ambient NO{sub 2}. > Inventorization revealed emission from industry and vehicles was 39.11 and 7.1 kg/h. > GFLSM revealed that vehicular pollution contributes a range of 9.0-38.6%. > Source-contribution of 45-70% was found for industrial emission through ISCST-3. > Aggregate performance of both models shows good agreement with an accuracy of 61.9%. - Development of industrial and vehicular inventory in terms of ambient NO{sub 2} for model simulation at Pantnagar, India and model validation revealed satisfactory outcome.

  10. Groundwater quality assessment of one former industrial site in Belgium using a TRIAD-like approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crevecoeur, Sophie [Aquapole, Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Ecotoxicology (LEAE), University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 15, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debacker, Virginie, E-mail: Virginie.Debacker@ulg.ac.be [Aquapole, Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Ecotoxicology (LEAE), University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 15, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Joaquim-Justo, Celia [Aquapole, Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Ecotoxicology (LEAE), University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 15, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Gobert, Sylvie [Laboratory of Oceanology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 15, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Scippo, Marie-Louise [Laboratory of Food Analysis, University of Liege, Boulevard de Colonster 20, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Dejonghe, Winnie [Separation and Conversion Technology, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Industriezone Vlasmeer 7, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Martin, Patrick [Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINSc), Rue Vautier 29, 1000 Bruxelles (Belgium); Thome, Jean-Pierre [Aquapole, Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Ecotoxicology (LEAE), University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 15, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    Contaminated industrial sites are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, aquatic and groundwater ecosystems. An effect-based approach to evaluate and assess pollution-induced degradation due to contaminated groundwater was carried out in this study. The new concept, referred to as 'Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like' (GwQT) approach, is adapted from classical TRIAD approaches. GwQT is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. These components are combined in the GwQT using qualitative and quantitative (using zero to one subindices) integration approaches. The TRIAD approach is applied for the first time on groundwater from one former industrial site located in Belgium. This approach will allow the classification of sites into categories according to the degree of contaminant-induced degradation. This new concept is a starting point for groundwater characterization and is open for improvement and adjustment. - Highlights: > This study presents the first application of the TRIAD approach on groundwater system. > Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like approach is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. > None of the three TRIAD components could reliably predict the other one. - This study presents the first application of the TRIAD approach on groundwater system. None of the TRIAD components (chemistry, physico-chemistry and ecotoxicity) could reliably predict the other one.

  11. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, aw and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  13. Review of urban and industrial air quality. Assessments at the Finnish meteorological institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, V.; Pesonen, R.; Karstastenpaeae, R.; Rantakrans, E.; Kukkonen, J.; Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Saari, H.; Hiltunen, V. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality in urban and industrial environments has been investigated at the Finnish Meteorological Institute since the early 1970`s. The studies have included emission surveys, air quality measurements, dispersion model computations and bioindicator surveys A substantial fraction of these studies has been done as commissioned work for communities, public institutions, industrial establishments and private enterprises Major resources have also been committed to the development of methods and expertise. The studies in the 1970` s were mainly dispersion model computations and air pollution measurements In the 1980`s research activities increased rapidly due to the national Clean Air Act (coming into force in 1982) and the adoption of national ambient air quality standards (1984). Since the year 1980. About 90 separate air pollution assessments have been conducted; and model computations have been made for most Finnish cities and major communities In many of the surveys in the 1980` s and the 1990`s. Integrated studies of local air quality, which contain the results obtained with emission surveys, dispersion model computations, air quality measurements and bioindicator methods have been conducted. This integrated approach provides more versatile and reliable results on the state of the environment. For instance, the reliability and accuracy of computations can be directly analysed using simultaneous air quality measurements. An overview of the experimental and computational methods used in the air quality surveys is presented here. To illustrate the application of the methods, some selected results from an air quality investigation conducted in a major city in central Finland are discussed. (author)

  14. Design and performance assessment of an underactuated hand for industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meijneke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Delft Hand 2 (DH-2 is an underactuated robot hand meant for industrial applications, having six degrees of freedom (DoF, one actuator (DoA and no sensors. It was designed to provide a cheap and robust hand to grasp a large range of objects without damaging them. The goal of this paper is to assess the design and performance of the DH-2, demonstrating how the design was optimized for its intended application area and how the hand was simplified to make it commercially attractive. Performance tests show that the DH-2 has a payload of 2 kg for an object range of 60 to 120 mm, it can close or open within 0.5 s, and it only uses open-loop control by means of the input voltage of the motor. The results demonstrate that the industrial need of a simple, cheap and effective robotic hand can be achieved with the principle of underactuation and the use of conventional components.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  15. [Microbiological assessment of the Gouda-type cheese-making process in a Venezuelan industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáivila, Jacqueline; Reyes, Genara; Corzo, Otoniel

    2006-03-01

    The adoption of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is necessary to assure the safety of the product in the cheese-making industry. The compliment of pre-requisite programs as Good Manufacture Practices (GMPs) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) are required before the implementation of the HACCP plan. GMPs are the standards related to equipments, tools, personnel, etc. SSOPs are the procedures related to hygiene and sanitation of the plant and workers. The aim of this study was to assess the compliment of the pre-requisite programs and the microbiological conditions of the Gouda type cheese-making process in a Venezuelan processing plant before designing a HACCP plan. Samples were: (a) raw milk, pasteurized milk, curd and ripened cheese, (b) water, (c) environment of the production areas and ripening premises, (d) equipments before and after sanitation, (e) food handlers. Microbiological analyses were done according to COVENIN standards. This study showed that even though pasteurization process was effective to kill pathogen bacteria of the raw milk and the water was safe, however there are deficient manufacture practices in the hygiene as well as in sanitation of the plant and food handlers. Prerequisite programs (GMP-SSOP) of this industry need to be well established, controlled and evaluated.

  16. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  17. Governance Assessment Corporate Financial Industries in the Core PEIEX POLI - USP - between 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Flávio Messias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This present article is an applied research based on micro, small and medium enterprises - SMEs, assisted by Export Industrial Extension Project - PEIEX, APEX Brazil, in partnership with the Center Vanzolini - POLI / USP - SP. In this sense, we tried to identify the adoption of corporate governance practices and financial controls as a management tool in business, since some of them had been met and trained in the previous period. We use the information obtained from the questionnaires applied in PEIEX Project participating companies, as well as information obtained specifically in the visits, trying to identify the importance attached by them to financial controls and assess improvement in the level of corporate governance gathered by these companies

  18. Supplier-purchaser relationship assessment maturity model: a study of suppliers from an automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Zanoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Operations networks are increasingly demanding in terms of enterprises’ relationships. Strategies and processes integration and capabilities generation between supply chain members become success key factors. This paper proposes a conceptual model for purchaser-supplier relationship maturity level assessment. The maturity levels were developed from a literature review of the stages of the logistics conceptual evolution, from the integration between members of supply chains and from the evolution stages of the supplier-purchaser relationship. This model integrates a measuring system based on the ‘Performance Prism’. The model is tested in enterprises of the automotive industry. The methodology used to test and validate the model is a survey. Results stated that the participant enterprises are generally found in maturity level 3, which is also confirmed by cluster analysis. Maturity level models may help companies in evolutionary trajectories stating references for their change processes.

  19. Assessment And Testing of Industrial Devices Robustness Against Cyber Security Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Tilaro, F

    2011-01-01

    CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research),like any organization, needs to achieve the conflicting objectives of connecting its operational network to Internet while at the same time keeping its industrial control systems secure from external and internal cyber attacks. With this in mind, the ISA-99[0F1] international cyber security standard has been adopted at CERN as a reference model to define a set of guidelines and security robustness criteria applicable to any network device. Devices robustness represents a key link in the defense-in-depth concept as some attacks will inevitably penetrate security boundaries and thus require further protection measures. When assessing the cyber security robustness of devices we have singled out control system-relevant attack patterns derived from the well-known CAPEC[1F2] classification. Once a vulnerability is identified, it needs to be documented, prioritized and reproduced at will in a dedicated test environment for debugging purposes. CERN - in collaboration ...

  20. Applying the Heuristic to the Risk Assessment within the Automotive Industry Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasova, Daniela; Andrejiova, Miriam; Grincova, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Risk management facilitates risk identification, evaluation, control, and by means of appropriate set of measures, risk reduction or complete elimination. Therefore, the risk management becomes a strategic factor for a company's success. Properly implemented risk management system does not represent a tool to avoid the risk; it is used to understand the risk and provide the bases for strategic decision-making. Risk management represents a key factor for the supply chain operations. Managing the risks is crucial for achieving the customer satisfaction and thus also a company's success. The subject-matter of the article is the assessment of the supply chain in the automobile industry, in terms of risks. The topicality of this problem is even higher, as after the economic crisis it is necessary to revaluate the readiness of the supply chain for prospective risk conditions. One advantage of this article is the use of the Saaty method as a tool for the risk management within the supply chain.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF DYNAMIC PRA TECHNIQUES WITH INDUSTRY AVERAGE COMPONENT PERFORMANCE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Vaibhav; Agarwal, Vivek; Gribok, Andrei V.; Smith, Curtis L.

    2017-06-01

    In the nuclear industry, risk monitors are intended to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration. Current risk monitors are limited in that they do not properly take into account the deteriorating states of plant equipment, which are unit-specific. Current approaches to computing risk monitors use probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques, but the assessment is typically a snapshot in time. Living PRA models attempt to address limitations of traditional PRA models in a limited sense by including temporary changes in plant and system configurations. However, information on plant component health are not considered. This often leaves risk monitors using living PRA models incapable of conducting evaluations with dynamic degradation scenarios evolving over time. There is a need to develop enabling approaches to solidify risk monitors to provide time and condition-dependent risk by integrating traditional PRA models with condition monitoring and prognostic techniques. This paper presents estimation of system risk evolution over time by integrating plant risk monitoring data with dynamic PRA methods incorporating aging and degradation. Several online, non-destructive approaches have been developed for diagnosing plant component conditions in nuclear industry, i.e., condition indication index, using vibration analysis, current signatures, and operational history [1]. In this work the component performance measures at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) [2] are incorporated within the various dynamic PRA methodologies [3] to provide better estimates of probability of failures. Aging and degradation is modeled within the Level-1 PRA framework and is applied to several failure modes of pumps and can be extended to a range of components, viz. valves, generators, batteries, and pipes.

  2. SYSTEM OF A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE STATE OF THE FOOD INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For rapid formation of high-quality guidelines to stimulate innovation requires highly skilled modern system of evaluation of innovative state of the food industry enterprises. The composition of the priorities and areas of operation of the business in order to develop its innovation activity is determined based on the calculated data relevant criteria and indicators for their minimum values. The basis of the developed system is the method of Delphi with a parallel assessment analyzed and the reference organization. The proposed system of evaluation of the level of innovation of the enterprise involves the formation of an expert group of professionals who are evaluating the questionnaire developed in accordance ratings. Then formed a list of practical tasks and activities that are recommended for the development of innovative activity of the enterprise in order to increase these values. Rose-solution indicator values provided by the formation of the respective functional strategies for the development of the enterprise. For example, consider two companies Dairy Company Dairy "Avida" and JSC Dairy Plant "Voronezh". Indicators and corresponding criteria are defined with a scale of assessments by experts (based on Delphi method and characterize the level of innovation and the active state of the analyzed enterprise JSC Dairy "Avida" and the reference enterprise of Dairy Plant "Voronezh". The coefficient k comparisons between parameters T and L of the enterprises of k = 53,0%, indicating a satisfactory level of innovation-active state enterprise JSC Dairy "Avida". In this regard, the result can be used to stimulate innovation in the enterprise, providing a positive impact on the criteria underlying the determination of the level of innovation and the active state of the enterprise, which is necessary for the formation and solution of actual problems of innovative development of industrial enterprises.

  3. Assessing measures of energy efficiency performance and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.

    2008-02-15

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (hereafter referred to as 'MEEP'): absolute energy consumption, energy intensity, diffusion of specific energy-saving technology and thermal efficiency. It discusses their advantages and disadvantages and their roles within policy frameworks. MEEP may be necessary at several stages during policy design: in a developing regulatory framework; during the actual application; and in evaluation after policy implementation. Policy makers should consider the suitability of MEEP at each of these stages, based on criteria such as reliability, feasibility and verifiability. The paper considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions. The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study on Japan's iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry. Depending on the boundaries set for the analysis, the energy consumption per ton of crude steel ranges from 16 to 21 GJ. Both a proper understanding of various methods to assess energy efficiency and the linkage with policy objectives and frameworks are important. Using the diffusion rates of specific energy-efficient processes is a technology-oriented approach which seeks to encourage the retrofitting or replacement of less efficient equipment. There are fewer boundary problems using diffusion rates than by calculating energy consumption. 42 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs., 1 app.

  4. Evaluating Ecological and Economic Benefits of a Low-Carbon Industrial Park Based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA framework was modified with a special focus on ecosystem service values. A case study of a typical low-carbon industrial park in Beijing was conducted to assess the ecological and economic benefits. The total economic value of this industrial park per year is estimated to be 1.37×108 RMB yuan, where the accommodating and social cultural services are the largest two contributors. Due to the construction of small grasslands or green roofs, considerable environmental regulation services are also provided by the park. However, compared with an ecoindustrial park, carbon mitigation is the most prominent service for the low-carbon industrial park. It can be concluded that low-carbon industrial park construction is an efficacious way to achieve coordinated development of society, economy, and environment, and a promising approach to achieving energy saving and carbon reduction.

  5. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  6. Assessment of TRACE Code for MIT Pressurizer Tests to Review Industrial Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chanyi; Bang, Young Seok; Shin, Andong; Woo, Sweng-Wong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has initiated to review the industrial code for safety analysis of nuclear power plant, in which MARS-KS and TRACE codes are being used to support the understanding of specific phenomena and code prediction. For this aspect, the TRACE code was assessed for the MIT pressurizer test. The TRACE code has been developed continuously, and NRC released the TRACE code version 5.0 patch 4 recently. This updated version has some improvement from version 5.0 patch 3. In this paper, TRACE code calculations with version 5.0 patch 3 and patch 4 for 3 cases of MIT pressurizer tests have been performed to assess the applicability of the TRACE code for verification of industrial codes. The MIT pressurizer test is one of the fundamental separate effect tests and frequently simulated to verify safety analysis codes. Predictability of the system code for the behavior of pressurizer in the plant is very important because it has an effect on the progress of accidents such as loss of coolant, control rod withdrawal, and loss of feedwater flow, etc. In the reactor protection system, the high pressurizer pressure trip signal provides an assurance of the integrity of the RCS boundary for AOOs that could lead to an over pressurization of the RCS. Also, the low pressurizer pressure trip signal provides an assistance for the ESF during the system pressure reduction events and a LOCA. According to the results, node effect was significantly reduced at patch 4 compared with patch 3 of TRACE version 5.0. Based on the prediction of Test ST4 and Test A, at least 20 cells are needed to predict pressurizer insurge behavior reasonably. However, the results of patch 4 show that 10 cells are enough to simulate the transient behavior of pressurizer. For outsurge case B, there was no major difference between patch 3 and patch 4 even though it was not shown in this paper. Overall, the results of the TRACE code version 5.0 patch 4 fit well with those of experiments

  7. Quantitative crystalline silica exposure assessment for a historical cohort epidemiologic study in the German porcelain industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Thomas; Guldner, Karlheinz; Mundt, Kenneth A; Dahmann, Dirk; Adams, Robert C; Parsons, William

    2010-09-01

    A time-dependent quantitative exposure assessment of silica exposure among nearly 18,000 German porcelain workers was conducted. Results will be used to evaluate exposure-response disease risks. Over 8000 historical industrial hygiene (IH) measurements with original sampling and analysis protocols from 1954-2006 were obtained from the German Berufs- genossenschaft der keramischen-und Glas-Industrie (BGGK) and used to construct a job exposure matrix (JEM). Early measurements from different devices were converted to modern gravimetric equivalent values. Conversion factors were derived from parallel historical measurements and new side-by-side measurements using historical and modern devices in laboratory dust tunnels and active workplace locations. Exposure values were summarized and smoothed using LOESS regression; estimates for early years were derived using backward extrapolation techniques. Employee work histories were merged with JEM values to determine cumulative crystalline silica exposures for cohort members. Average silica concentrations were derived for six primary similar exposure groups (SEGs) for 1938-2006. Over 40% of the cohort accumulated 1 mg/m(3)-years. Nearly 5000 workers had cumulative crystalline silica estimates >1.5 mg/m(3)-years. Similar numbers of men and women fell into each cumulative exposure category, except for 1113 women and 1567 men in the highest category. Over half of those hired before 1960 accumulated >3 mg/m(3)-years crystalline silica compared with 4.9% of those hired after 1960. Among those ever working in the materials preparation area, half accumulated >3 mg/m(3)-year compared with 12% of those never working in this area. Quantitative respirable silica exposures were estimated for each member of this cohort, including employment periods for which sampling used now obsolete technologies. Although individual cumulative exposure estimates ranged from background to about 40 mg/m(3)-years, many of these estimates reflect long

  8. Market Structure and Competition: Assessment of Malaysian Pharmaceutical Industry based on the Modified Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Hooi Ying; Chan, Tze-Haw

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the market structure and competitiveness of Malaysian pharmaceutical industry. A panel analysis of 41 pharmaceutical manufacturing firms over 2004-2012 is conducted founded on the modified Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) framework. Our study reveals that the Malaysian pharmaceutical industry is highly concentrated (oligopoly) and the major findings are threefold. First, anti-competitive practices subsist among the pharmaceutical firms. Major players may have greater co...

  9. Same Pig, Different Conclusions: Stakeholders Differ in Qualitative Behaviour Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvesteijn, N.; Benard, M.; Reimert, I.; Camerlink, I.

    2014-01-01

    Animal welfare in pig production is frequently a topic of debate and is sensitive in nature. This debate is partly due to differences in values, forms, convictions, interests and knowledge among the stakeholders that constitute differences among their frames of reference with respect to pigs and the

  10. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sen, R.K. [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  11. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Sen, R.K. (Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  12. Semi-Quantitative Assessment of the Health Risk of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Evaluation of Spirometry Indices on the Staff of Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Dazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Petrochemical industry is an important industry in the economic development of the country that causes employees have exposure with several kinds of contamination. The aim of this study was Semi-quantitative assessment of the health risk of occupational exposure to chemical materials and investigation of spirometry indices between employees of petrochemical industry. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the petrochemical industry complex in a special area of Assaluyeh in Iran in 2016. Health risk assessment of exposure to harmful chemical agents was performed in all of units and during three stages (identification of harmful material, determination of hazard rate of the chemical material, exposure rate and estimate of risk rate. Spirometry indices were measured using spirometry. Results: The results of chemical materials risk assessment showed that Raffinate in Butadiene unit has identified the highest amount of risk rank among 27 chemical materials in investigated units. In comparison with spirometry indices in Olefine unit between age with FVC parameter and history work with FVC and FEV1 parameters has observed a significant and negative correlation (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of risk assessment in all of the petrochemical units showed that 48.14% of materials were at low risk level, 29.62% medium risk, 18.51% high risk and 3.7% had very high risk level. The variables affecting on spirometry employees such as age and work experience play an important role in reducing the pulmonary function tests in exposed subjects.

  13. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  14. A National Skills Assessment of the U.S. Wind Industry in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventhal, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report examines today’s domestic wind workforce, projected workforce needs as the industry grows, and how existing and new programs can meet the wind industry's future education and training needs.

  15. An Integrated Approach to Assess Exposure and Health-Risk from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Hsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA, and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3, action level (0.1 mg/m3, and acceptable health risk (10−3, respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers’ PAH exposures.

  16. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Reports forest-industry trends, production and receipts of industrial roundwood, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products for Michigan's timber industry in 2004. Also reports logging residue generated from timber harvest operations in Michigan as well as the generation and disposition of wood and bark residue generated by...

  17. Results and conclusion; Resultados e conclusoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter shows the results and conclusions of the ordered studies by the Science and Technology Ministry from Brazil to the Center of Management and Strategic Studies (CGEE), executed by a multidisciplinary team, most of UNICAMP - State University of Campinas, SP - for evaluation of Brazilian capacity and potential in the production of fuel bioethanol.

  18. Dose assessment from chronic exposure to industrial NORM in iron ore processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Molin, Franck; Fisher, Raymond; Frost, David; Anderson, David R; Read, David

    2017-09-05

    Radiological exposures due to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) can occur during a wide range of work-related activities in the mineral processing and chemical industries. However, evaluation of such exposures in industrial settings remains a difficult exercise owing inter alia to the large number of personnel, operations and plants affected; assumptions that often have to be made concerning the actual duration and frequency of exposures; the complex chemistry and radioactive disequilibria involved and typically, the paucity of historical data. In our study, the challenges associated with assessing chronic exposure to fugitive dust enriched in 210Pb and 210Po and the determination of the associated internal dose by inhalation and ingestion are described by reference to a case study undertaken at an iron ore sintering plant between June 2013 and July 2015. The applicability of default dose coefficients and biokinetic models provided by the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) was verified by combining air and dust monitoring with information on the characteristics of the aerosols and in-vitro solubility experiments. The disparity between particulate matter 100 microns or less in diameter (PM100), particulate matter 10 microns or less in diameter (PM10) and 210Pb/210Po activity concentrations observed over the different monitoring campaigns and sampling locations confirmed that use of positional short-term monitoring surveys to extrapolate intake over a year was not appropriate and could lead to unrealistic intake and dose figures. Personal air sampling is more appropriate for estimating the dose in such situations, though it is not always practical and may collect insufficient quantities of material for radiochemical analysis; this is an important constraint when dealing with low specific activity materials. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Assessment of soil organic contamination in a typical petrochemical industry park in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing; Miao, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes (n-C8 through n-C40), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were determined to assess the level of organic contamination in soils from the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park with several big state-run enterprises, a recent rapid flourishing park in China. The results showed that the concentration of TPH in soil was high, up to 20 ng/g-12.8478%; in particular, the content in most sites ranged from 1 to 2%. Thus, it is clear that soil environment in the Da-gang Petrochemical Industry Park has been seriously polluted by TPH according to the Nemerow pollution index method. Furthermore, the average concentration of Σ(n-C>16 through n-C34) in 30 sampling sites was above the maximum limit set for F3 under all the conditions in the Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC CWS) with 43.33-93.33% soil samples exceeding F3 standards, and n-alkanes possessing higher concentrations were proved much abundant alkanes in this study. Besides, the predominance of even n-alkanes and lower carbon preference index (CPI) demonstrated that n-alkanes in surface soils were mainly caused by anthropogenic inputs, while the concentration of Σ16-PAHs was in the range of 1652.5-8217.3 ng/g and the BaA/(BaA + Chr) and Flu/(Flu + Pyr) ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs may be the dominant PAHs in most soils with the contribution of petrogenic hydrocarbons in some sites.

  20. Assessment of attractiveness of the wine-production industry in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Hejmalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on evaluation of attractiveness of the wine sector in the Czech Republic and on the competitive position assessment of company Věstonické sklepy, s. r. o. using the assessment of key factors and applying the GE matrix. Wine-production can be described as very attractive, favorably developing industry with significant potential for growth and expansion. In particular, the growing popularity of wine consumption, increasing consumption and production, increasing competitiveness, introduction of new technical innovations and introduction of innovative changes in production, storage and sales, are aspects that have a positive impact on the attractiveness of the sector.The permanent trend of development and market growth represent a well-verifiable criterion that implies there still is a significant share of the untapped potential. Assessment of the competitive position indicates relatively good strategic situation of the company in the attractive environment, but it is necessary to invest considerable financial resources with an uncertain impact on maintaining the position. Main problems of the company namely include the financial situation which is specifically addressed by utilizing short-term liabilities. The company can be described as prosperous in terms of established technologies and implementation of innovative changes, human resource management, use of production and storage capacities, marketing factors, selection of the appropriate type of promotion, and contracting reliable customers.The strategy based on the position in the GE matrix suggests that the company should focus on production of quality wines and on the offer of specialties to penetrate stronger into the market and with a better competitive advantage. The company should not forget the completion of the proper functioning of the website, which should lead to an increase of the number of potential customers.

  1. Isocyanate exposure assessment combining industrial hygiene methods with biomonitoring for end users of orthopedic casting products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald L; Logan, Perry W; Kore, Anita M; Strom, Constance M; Brosseau, Lisa M; Kingston, Richard L

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a 'dry' and 'wet' application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat.

  2. Assessing U.S. ESCO industry performance and market trends: Results from the NAESCO database project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Julie; Goldman, Chuck; Hopper, Nicole; Singer, Terry

    2002-05-15

    The U.S. Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry is often cited as the most successful model for the private sector delivery of energy-efficiency services. This study documents actual performance of the ESCO industry in order to provide policymakers and investors with objective informative and customers with a resource for benchmarking proposed projects relative to industry performance. We have assembled a database of nearly 1500 case studies of energy-efficiency projects - the most comprehensive data set of the U.S. ESCO industry available. These projects include $2.55B of work completed by 51 ESCOs and span much of the history of this industry.

  3. Risk factor scenario in an industrial set-up: Need for an effective screening tool to assess the high-risk group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Uma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial and technological revolution has resulted in nutrition transition. This calls for analyzing the risk factor scenario in the industrial population. Objective: The objective was to map the prevalence and assess the risk factors of industrial employees. Materials and Methods: The employees of a large petrochemical industry were enrolled (N=269 for the study. Risk factors were elicited through a structured questionnaire. Parameters monitored were fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Relative risk was calculated to find out significant predictor variables. Results: The employees had high prevalence of overweight (27%, obesity (22%, central obesity (48.7%, prehypertension (43.2%, hypertension (36.6%, and dyslipidemia (41.4%. They had erroneous dietary habits such as low intake of fruits and vegetables and high fat intake. Most of the employees had low physical activity levels. The prevalence of smoking (13.5%, tobacco (28.2%, and alcohol use (22.2% were also high with 15.1% having multiple habits. One-fifth of the employees had metabolic syndrome (MS. Seven predictor variables, namely, family history, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, physical inactivity, TG, and TG/H were identified and used to develop the risk score card to identify people at high risk of CVD and DM. Conclusion: Multiple risk factor scenario among the industrial population studied calls for effective intervention strategies and policy changes to combat the burden of non-communicable diseases. The risk score card can be used to screen the high-risk group in the industrial population.

  4. Millian superiorities and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2008-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority. And in a ......James Griffin has considered a form of superiority in value that is weaker than lexical priority as a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this article, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into the stronger form of superiority...... of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  5. Power and Democracy in Denmark. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does...... contemporary democracy live up to our democratic ideals? The answer is that in many ways democracy is doing better than we might have expected, considering the intense pressure on the nation state and the democratic institutions in the postwar period. The Danish population is still full of democratic life...

  6. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies.

  7. Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Chaiwat; Polyiam, Wetchasart; Sriviboon, Chutima; Sangiamdee, Duangkamon; Watthana, Santi; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Boonpragob, Kansri

    2017-05-01

    Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints.

  8. Assessment of risk of potential exposures on facilities industries; Estimativa do risco de exposicao potencial em instalacoes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leocadio, Joao Carlos

    2007-03-15

    This work develops a model to evaluate potential exposures on open facilities of industrial radiography in Brazil. This model will decisively contribute to optimize operational, radiological protection and safety procedures, to prevent radiation accidents and to reduce human errors in industrial radiography. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology was very useful to assess potential exposures. The open facilities of industrial radiography were identified as the scenario to be analyzed in what concerns the evaluation of potential exposures, due to their high accidents indices. The results of the assessment of potential exposures confirm that the industrial radiography in Brazil is a high-risk practice as classified by the IAEA. The risk of potential exposure was estimated to be 40,5 x 10{sup -2} per year in Brazil, having as main consequences injuries to the workers' hands and arms. In the world scene, the consequences are worst, leading to fatalities of people, thus emphasizing the high risk of industrial radiography. (author)

  9. Assessment of noise level in sundry processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2010-03-01

    In this work, noise level in five selected processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin are evaluated and compared. Emphasis is given to noise emitted by individual industrial machinery from the selected industries. Event L(Aeq) and L(N) cycles were studied to identify the noisy machines and to generate baseline data. Findings show that hammer mill machine from mineral-bearing rock-crushing mills produced the highest average noise [98.4 dB(A)], an electric generator 1 [95.6 dB(A)] from the soft drink bottling industry, an electric generator [97.7 dB(A)] from the beer brewing and bottling industry, a vacuum pump [93.1 dB(A)] from the tobacco making industry, and an electric generator 2 [94.1 dB(A)] from the mattress-making industry. The highest and lowest average noise exposure levels are recorded in mineral-bearing rock-crushing mills [93.16 dB(A)] and the mattress making industry [84.69 dB(A)], respectively. The study shows that, at 95% confidence level, there is significant difference (P industries surveyed. The percentages of machines that emit noise above Federal Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration recommendations [90 dB(A)] are from the soft drink bottling industry (83.3%), the beer brewing and bottling industry (42.9%), the tobacco making industry (71.4%), the mattress making industry (11.1%), and minerals crushing mills (87.5%). In the past 20 years, the noise levels in the soft drink bottling industry were reduced by 0.58 dB(A), and those of the beer brewing and bottling industry were reduced by 9.66 dB(A). However, that of the mattress making industry increased by 2.69 dB(A). On average, the noise level in these industries has been reduced by 2.52 dB(A). The results of this study show that the noise control measures put in place have significant impacts on the noise exposure level in the industries surveyed.

  10. Methodical Approach to Assessment of the Structure of Demand on the Products of the Restaurant Industry Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorna Maryna V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a methodical approach to assessment of the structure of demand on the products (services of the restaurant industry enterprises and results of its approval. A characteristic feature of this approach is clear identification of stages and their logical consequence in the process of assessment (identification of the period of assessment – day, week, holidays, seasons; formation and systematisation of the information base by cost, quantitative and qualitative indicators; calculation of relative indicators of demand and income; building a matrix; and interpretation of results and application of the “demand level / income level” matrix. Use of the proposed approach allows identification of an assortment structure of the restaurant industry enterprise by correlation of the realised demand and obtained income, which gives a possibility to form managerial decisions on its improvement and also allows assessment of efficiency of these measures.

  11. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...... superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest....

  12. Retrospective exposure assessment for carcinogenic agents in bitumen waterproofing industry in Finland and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P.; Heikkila, P.; Makela, M.; Schlunssen, V.; Priha, E. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the study was (I) to identify the carcinogenic agents that may cause confounding when studying the exposure-response relationship between bitumen fume exposure and cancer among roofing membrane-manufacturing workers and roofers and (ii) to assess exposures to the identified carcinogens and bitumen fume in roofing membrane manufacturing and roofing in Finland and Denmark from 1950 to 2005. Information on the use of carcinogenic agents and other relevant data were collected through semi-structured interviews of senior employees in the industry. Semi-quantitative exposure assessments were made on the basis of available measurement data and information obtained from the interviews and literature. Most of the production line workers in roofing membrane plants in Finland were exposed to asbestos until the mid-1970s. Also, some of the mixer operators in the plants were exposed to asbestos in Finland during the 1970s and in Denmark from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s. In both countries, coal tar pitch was used in roofing membrane manufacturing until the mid-1960s, and consequently, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the plants was high in the 1950s and still significant in the early 1960s. Exposure of production line workers to quartz dust was high until the 1980s and is still relatively high compared with current occupational exposure limit values. Bitumen roofers' exposure to coal tar-derived PAHs may have been significant in both countries until the end of 1960s. Roofers' exposure to asbestos and quartz was estimated to have been near background level.

  13. Framework of systematic sustainability assessment strategy (FSSAS) for hydroelectric power industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, Kartina; Turan, Faiz Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Hydroelectric power is an alternative power resource in Malaysia and always associated with negative impact on environmental, social and economy of the surrounding site. The dispute over environmental, societal and economic issues can be minimised if compliance to sustainability development requirement is included in the project as part of the project premises during planning phase. This paper suggests a framework targeted for decision-makers in charge of implementing the projects to produce hydropower the sustainable way in Malaysian context which can mitigate the risks in social, environment and economy. The framework is strategic in nature and based on project management methodology with objective to provide a ‘common language’ by having a project value as measureable for stakeholders to state their mutual agreement of what a sustainable hydropower project in the context of Malaysia and in line with the United Nations (UN) 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper discusses how the proposed systematic sustainability assessment strategy (FSSAS) framework support the call for Malaysia to promote meaningful public participation in ensuring land and natural resource decisions and to address citizens’ interests which is the core idea of Environmental Democracy Index established in 2014. The paper argues that, even though it is at present impossible to define precision status of sustainability development with respect to the nature of the multi stakeholders and the lack of systematic assessment the proposed FSSAS framework can be a valuable tool because it tracks the project value as a quantitative deliverable to determine the status of the journey in sustainable development towards accomplishing the SDG under a consensus in hydropower industry of any scale over time.

  14. Monitoring of cotton dust and health risk assessment in small-scale weaving industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad Wajid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Tauseef, Shanza; Sajjad, Muqadas; Nazeer, Awais; Farheen, Nazish; Iqbal, Muddsar

    2012-08-01

    The present study describes the estimation of particulate matter (cotton dust) with different sizes, i.e., PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0 μm) in small-scale weaving industry (power looms) situated in district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan, and the assessment of health problems of workers associated with these pollutants. A significant difference was found in PM(1.0), PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0) with reference to nine different sampling stations with p values 4.0), and PM(10.0), depict that PM(1.0) differs significantly from PM(2.5), PM(4.0), and PM(10.0), with p values 4.0), with a p value >0.05 in defined sampling stations on an average basis. Majority of the workers were facing several diseases due to interaction with particulate matter (cotton dust) during working hours. Flue, cough, eye, and skin infections were the most common diseases among workers caused by particulate matter (cotton dust).

  15. Integrated AHP and network DEA for assessing the efficiency of Iranian handmade carpet industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Omid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a method for measuring the efficiency of peer decision making units (DMUs. Traditional DEA models deal with measurements of relative efficiency of DMUs regarding multiple-inputs vs. multiple-outputs. One of the drawbacks of these models is the neglect of intermediate products or linking activities. Recently, DEA has been extended to examine the efficiency of network structures, where there are lots of sub-processes that are linked with intermediate parameters. These intermediate parameters can be considered as the outputs of the first stage and simultaneously as the inputs for the second stage. In contrast to the traditional DEA analysis, network DEA analysis aims to measure different sub-processes’ efficiencies in addition to the total efficiency. Lots of network DEA technique has been used recently, but none of them uses Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in network DEA for assessing a network’s efficiency. In this paper, AHP methodology is used for considering the importance of each sub-process and network DEA is used for measuring total and partial efficiencies based on the importance of each department measured from AHP methodology. In this regard, the case of Iranian Handmade Carpet Industry (IHCI is used.

  16. Stakeholders Assessment of Constraints to Project Delivery in the Nigerian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Tanko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The central goal of construction stakeholders is to successfully deliver projects to stated objective (s. However, for decades, construction projects have been plagued by perennial constraints of cost and time overruns, poor quality, and lack of sustainability. The objective of this paper is to identify and assess the constraints to construction project delivery, and to recommend solutions to enhance project performance. This paper adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods to establish the constraints in the Nigerian construction industry. A pilot survey and literature reviewed revealed a total of fifty (50 construction constraints, which were further classified into eight (8 major groups. Well-structured questionnaires were administered to construction stakeholders (client, consultant and contractor in Abuja, the federal capital city of Nigeria. Relative Importance Index (RII was used to analyze the data using Likert scale.  The results suggest that cost/time overrun related factors (inability to reduce project cost, Stakeholders interactive-related factors (inability to establish client value system, Client-related factors (Delay in interim payment and finance problem, and Labor/material-related factors (escalation of material prices and materials quality variability are the most prevalent constraints in the Nigerian construction environment.  To mitigate the effects of these challenges, it is suggested that a formal innovative approach should be used by stakeholders to address the problems of poor communication, high project cost, and delay. Clients should also take measures to provide adequate funding and should promptly honor interim certificates.

  17. Industrial Control Systems/SCADA systems risk assessment in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falodun, Babatunde

    The energy sector is one of the most critical components of our national infrastructure. It not only provides the electrical power and petroleum required to run day-to-day operations and mechanisms in society, it's also an important element that directly impacts the economy with regard to growth and stability. Industrial Control Systems (ICS) /Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) are computerized mechanisms, they are both software and hardware that are used to control real time processes and operations in power plants and oil production facilities. A significant attack on these control systems that leads to widespread disruption of energy could result in catastrophic consequences for any major city and even the nation. This research paper explores cyber threats and vulnerabilities faced by ICS/SCADA systems in the energy sector and also highlights possible outcomes of a successful breach. Furthermore, the research underscores mitigation strategies that could be used to prevent and respond to an attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, SCADA, Cyber Attacks, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Risk Assessment, Dr. Albert Orbinati.

  18. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ghotbifar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications industry to identify most important skill gaps in digital marketing and factors affecting them; also, managers and specialists of these companies were investigated to determine the role of identified factors in reducing skills gaps. Using localized questionnaire and interviewing with ten experts who were selected by Delphi snowball method, the skill gaps in marketing and factors affecting them were identified. Also, a researcher made questionnaire with 32 questions was distributed among 226 employees to investigate the identified factors role in reducing skills gap in digital marketing. The results showed that from four identified factors, the components including operational strategic factors and environmental factors had direct and positive impact on creating skill gap in digital marketing of studied companies. The environmental factors such as social and cultural conditions, religion, technology, and economy had more proactive impact on skills gap in digital marketing. Also, the results showed that among skills gaps in digital marketing of studied companies, the skills (Principles of Communication and (Predicting Future had the highest and lowest gaps, respectively.

  19. An Assessment of the Growth Opportunities and Constraints in Zambia’s Cotton Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the major opportunities and constraints in Zambia’s cotton industry. The study found that the cotton sector has considerable potential to contribute to growth and employment in Zambia as it currently accounts for direct and indirect employment of approximately 21% of the population and about 19% of agricultural Gross Domestic Product. The prominence of smallholder farmers in the sector is indicative of the income equity promotion potential of the cotton sector. However, the highly concentrated structure of the sector, with two key players currently accounting for about 80% of the total market share in ginning; the absence of regulatory mechanisms for setting of prices; the openness of the local market to global price fluctuations and the lack of support programmes as compared to competing crops like maize are major impediments to equity promotion in the sector. Overall growth of the cotton sector is also constrained by low productivity arising mostly from poor farming practices. Furthermore, increased production in major world markets due to subsidies and use of bio-technology in cotton production undermine the competitiveness of Zambia’s cotton in international markets. For Zambia to realize the potential of the cotton sector, interventions need to be targeted at raising farm level productivity. The government should also facilitate informed policy debate and development on critical issues such as biotechnology adoption as well as facilitating consensus between cotton buyers and farmers on price setting mechanisms.

  20. Assessment of management-dependent nutrient losses in tropical industrial tree plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Jens; Klinge, Rudolf; Ruhiyat, Daddy; Fölster, Horst

    2003-03-01

    Industrial tree plantations in the tropics usually follow short rotations and intensive site management including slash and burn, and the use of heavy machinery. We attempt to quantify the implied nutrient losses (harvest export, erosion, slash and burn, leaching) in order to give plantation managers a chance to understand the significance of their planning and decisions. We used the scarce globally available information and a case study plantation in East Kalimantan, Indonesia (Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus deglupta). Adaptation involves problems and is discussed in some detail. Results are approximate only. Assuming a harvest volume of 200 m3 ha(-1), we assessed a loss of 427-680 kg ha(-1) N, 12-13 kg ha(-1) P, 178-252 kg ha(-1) Ca, 276-370 kg ha(-1) K, and 45-57 kg ha(-1) Mg per rotation. Of this overall loss, stand harvest accounted for 18-29% (N), 21-30% (P), 56-26% (K), 48-64% (Ca) and 22-37% (Mg). This means that the cumulative loss by erosion, slash and burn, and leaching exceeds that of the harvest. These losses can be influenced by management.

  1. Assessing a brand equity model for fast moving consumer goods in cosmetic and hygiene industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karbasivar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of ten factors on brand equity. The study provides an assessment using a brand equity model for fast moving consumer goods in cosmetic and hygiene industry. The study has accomplished among people who purchase goods in six major cities of Iran based on an adapted questionnaire originally developed by Aaker (1992a [Aaker, D. A. (1992a. The value of brand equity. Journal of Business Strategy, 13(4, 27-32.]. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.7. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.878, 276628 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. The proposed study of this paper uses structural equation modeling to test different hypotheses of the survey. The Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA, Comparative Fit Index (CFI and Chi-Square/df are 0.067, 0.840 and 4.244 and they are within desirable levels. While the effects of seven factors on brand equity have been confirmed. However, the survey does not confirm the effects of perceived value, advertisement effectiveness and advertisement to brand on brand equity. In our survey, brand loyalty maintains the highest positive impact followed by having updated brand, trust to brand, perceived quality to brand, brand awareness, intensity of supply and perception to brand.

  2. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-02

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects.

  3. Research utilization in the building industry: decision model and preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Johnson, D.R.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1985-10-01

    The Research Utilization Program was conceived as a far-reaching means for managing the interactions of the private sector and the federal research sector as they deal with energy conservation in buildings. The program emphasizes a private-public partnership in planning a research agenda and in applying the results of ongoing and completed research. The results of this task support the hypothesis that the transfer of R and D results to the buildings industry can be accomplished more efficiently and quickly by a systematic approach to technology transfer. This systematic approach involves targeting decision makers, assessing research and information needs, properly formating information, and then transmitting the information through trusted channels. The purpose of this report is to introduce elements of a market-oriented knowledge base, which would be useful to the Building Systems Division, the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and their associated laboratories in managing a private-public research partnership on a rational systematic basis. This report presents conceptual models and data bases that can be used in formulating a technology transfer strategy and in planning technology transfer programs.

  4. Assessment of the potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Joan F.; Catterall, Peter H.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    1998-01-01

    Many technologies for the clean-up of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated sites depend on microbial degradation of the pollutant. In these technologies the site may be modified to enhance microbial activity, or may simply be monitored for naturally occurring microbial activity. In either case, an important aspect of site assessment for these technologies is to determine if the microorganisms present at the site have the potential to break down contaminants under the prevailing environmental conditions. We examined the numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in ground water collected from petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated wells at the Railroad Industrial Area near Fairbanks, Alaska. We found that the population of gasoline-degrading microorganisms in ground water was correlated to the degree of contamination by benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). We also found that these organisms could actively mineralize these types of compounds in laboratory mineralization assays. Increasing temperature and adding nutrients both enhanced the rate of mineralization in the laboratory, but measurable degradation still occurred under conditions similar to those found in the field. Dissolved oxygen in ground water at this site ranged from 0 to 3.6 milligrams per liter. Therefore, oxygen may not always be available to microorganisms as a terminal electron acceptor. Preliminary geochemical evidence from the field indicates that alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III), sulfate, or nitrate may be used, contributing to degradation of contaminants at this site.

  5. Ecological Risk Assessment of Lead (Pb after Waste Disposal from Metallurgical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Jafari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Not being available sufficient information about ERA of lead, this paper provides a brief critical review to the mentioned concept. Being presented in soils, heavy metals constitute serious environmental hazards from the point of view of polluting the soils and adjoining streams and rivers. Pb is generally the metal of great concern as well as being phytotoxic. Ecological risk assessment is a process that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors. Metallurgical waste like other waste materials consists not only of Pb, but also consists in large quantities relatively. The ubiquitous distribution and known toxicity of lead pollution in urban environment are posing great concern, in term of human health and environment. According to the importance and criticality of this issue, a holistic risk-based approach is inevitable at least for environmental health and monitoring (EHM. Reviewing literature, it is found that approximately most of the researches have been carried out in aquatic environments. From the other side, those carried out in terrestrial environment, are non-Pb focusing. Considering the researches pertaining to ERA, however few researches have been carried out in the field of metallurgical industries, none of them has addressed the Pb ERA in a holistic approach.

  6. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  7. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  8. Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II : Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within ...

  9. Measuring the sustainability of policy scenarios: Emergy-based strategic environmental assessment of the Chinese paper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren Jing-Ming,; Zhang, L.; Wang Ru-song,

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing demand for wider application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA), especially SEA of major policies, as a powerful instrument to safeguard the environment during the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. Debates on SEA are concentrated on its fea

  10. Measuring the sustainability of policy scenarios: Emergy-based strategic environmental assessment of the Chinese paper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren Jing-Ming,; Zhang, L.; Wang Ru-song,

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing demand for wider application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA), especially SEA of major policies, as a powerful instrument to safeguard the environment during the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. Debates on SEA are concentrated on its fea

  11. An Educational Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Workforce: Opportunities to Redefine Secondary Career and Technical Education to Meet Food Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleon, Larry; Freedman, Debra; Seetharaman, Koushik; Sharma, Priya

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of a needs assessment concerning current training needs and performance targets for non-degreed employees in the food industry. Focus groups were used to gather data from 5 food-processing companies: a fresh vegetable company, a canned vegetable company, 2 snack food companies, and a meat company. Focus group…

  12. Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives  Sabine Bornkessel The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2

  13. An Educational Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Workforce: Opportunities to Redefine Secondary Career and Technical Education to Meet Food Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleon, Larry; Freedman, Debra; Seetharaman, Koushik; Sharma, Priya

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the outcomes of a needs assessment concerning current training needs and performance targets for non-degreed employees in the food industry. Focus groups were used to gather data from 5 food-processing companies: a fresh vegetable company, a canned vegetable company, 2 snack food companies, and a meat company. Focus group…

  14. Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives  Sabine Bornkessel The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2

  15. Sustainability assessment criteria for projects and technologies : judgements of industry managers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available [20, 22]. Weighting values of the social, environmental and economic sub-criteria were established separately in two South African manufacturing industry sectors, as defined by the Standard Industry Classification [25]: the automobile... manufacturing sector, and process industries in the automotive value chain. These manufacturing sectors are introducing sustainable development aspects in company decision-making processes, and are evaluating projects that are potentially eligible for CDM...

  16. Factors associated with results and conclusions of trials of thiazolidinediones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Rattinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When a sponsor funds a study of two competing drugs in a head-to-head comparison, the results and conclusions are likely to favor the sponsor's drug. Thiazolidinediones, oral medications used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, are one of the most costly choices of oral anti-diabetic medications, yet they do not demonstrate clinically relevant differences in achieving lower glycosylated hemoglobin levels compared to other oral antidiabetic drugs. Our aim is to examine associations between research funding source, study design characteristics aimed at reducing bias, and other factors with the results and conclusions of randomized controlled trials (RCTs of thiazolidinediones compared to other oral hypoglycemic agents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study of 61 published RCTs comparing a thiazolidinedione (glitazone to another anti-diabetic drug or placebo for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Data on study design characteristics, funding source, author's financial ties, results for primary outcomes, and author conclusions were extracted. Univariate logistic regression identified associations between independent variables and results and conclusions that favored the glitazone. Of the RCTs, 59% (36/61 were funded by industry, 39% (24/61 did not disclose any funding. Common study design weaknesses included inadequate blinding and lack of concealment of allocation. Trials that reported favorable glycemic control results for the glitazone were more likely to have adequate blinding (OR (95% CI = 5.42 (1.46, 21.19, p = 0.008 and have a corresponding author with financial ties to the glitazone manufacturer (OR (95% CI = 4.12 (1.05, 19.53; p = 0.04. Trials with conclusions favoring the glitazone were less likely to be funded by a comparator drug company than a glitazone company (OR (95% CI = 0.026 (0, 0.40, p = 0.003 and less likely to be published in journals with higher impact factors (OR (95% CI = 0.79 (0.62, 0.97, p = 0

  17. Epistemology applied to conclusions of expert reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan

    2016-07-01

    It is believed that to build a robust reasoning logic to make probabilistic inferences in forensic science from a merely mathematical or logistical viewpoint is not enough. Mathematical logic is the positive science of reasoning and as for that it is only interested in the positive calculus of its validity, regardless any prior ontological assumption. But without a determined ontology and epistemology which imply to define the concepts that they will use, it seems difficult that the proposed scientifically correct mathematical solution be successful as a European standard for making conclusions in forensic reports because it has to be based on judicial language. Forensic experts and Courts are not interested in the development of a positive science but in a practical science: in clarifying whether certain known facts are related to a possible crime. Therefore, not only the coherence of the demonstrative logic reasoning used (logic of propositions) is important, but also the precision of the concepts used by language and consistency among them in reasoning (logic of concepts). There is a linguistic level essential for a successful communication between the forensic practitioner and the Court which is mainly related, in our opinion, to semantics and figures of speech. The first one is involved because words used in forensic conclusions often have different meanings - it is said that they are polysemic - and the second one because there is often metonymy as well. Besides, semantic differences among languages regarding words with the same etymological root add another difficulty for a better mutual understanding. The two main European judicial systems inherit a wide and deep culture related to evidence in criminal proceedings and each of them has coined their own terminology but there are other two more abstract levels such as logical and epistemological, where we can find solid arguments by which terms used at legal level on conclusions of forensic reports could be

  18. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with info

  19. Development of internal dose assessment procedure for workers in industries using raw materials containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Kyu; KIm, Yong Geon; Ji, Seung Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo [College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon Cheol; Chang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    It is necessary to assess radiation dose to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to ensure radiological safety required by the Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The objective of this study is to develop an internal dose assessment procedure for workers at industries using raw materials containing natural radionuclides. The dose assessment procedure was developed based on harmonization, accuracy, and proportionality. The procedure includes determination of dose assessment necessity, preliminary dose estimation, airborne particulate sampling and characterization, and detailed assessment of radiation dose. The developed dose assessment procedure is as follows. Radioactivity concentration criteria to determine dose assessment necessity are 10 Bq·g-1 for 40K and 1 Bq·g-1 for the other natural radionuclides. The preliminary dose estimation is performed using annual limit on intake (ALI). The estimated doses are classified into 3 groups (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, and >0.3 mSv). Air sampling methods are determined based on the dose estimates. Detailed dose assessment is performed using air sampling and particulate characterization. The final dose results are classified into 4 different levels (<0.1 mSv, 0.1-0.3 mSv, 0.3-1 mSv, and >1 mSv). Proper radiation protection measures are suggested according to the dose level. The developed dose assessment procedure was applied for NORM industries in Korea, including coal combustion, phosphate processing, and monazite handing facilities. The developed procedure provides consistent dose assessment results and contributes to the establishment of optimization of radiological protection in NORM industries.

  20. Integration of fuzzy reasoning approach (FRA and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP for risk assessment in mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Verma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mining industry has always been known for its unsafe working environment. This industry is one of the most hazard prone industries. To maintain safety in workplace timely assessment of risk associated with different operations performed to extract ore from the ore body has become necessity. To serve the said purpose, present work demonstrates a robust hybrid risk assessment approach for mining industry.Design/Methodology: Accident data from 1995 to 2012 is reviewed to identify hazards contributed to negative outcomes. The FRA approach is implemented to evaluate the risk levels associated with identified hazard factors. Thereafter AHP pairwise comparison matrix is developed to obtain priority weights for the hazard factors. Final priority of hazards based on severity of level of risk associated with them is obtained considering the outcome of FRA approach in terms of risk score for the hazards, combined with the priority weights obtained from AHP technique.Findings: Defuzzified FAHP weight of hazard factors, this weight gives priority sequence of hazards to be considered for development of plan of mitigation.Originality/Value: Risk assessment is a requirement of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000 (Section 7& 8. The data required to assess the risk is uncertain, and in such case fuzzy approach is well suited to process the data and get the crisp output. The output of fuzzy approach is made robust with its integration to AHP. In this way FAHP can be used as robust technique for risk assessment in this industry and this technique develops an efficient safety management system for the achievement of goal to develop the workplace with zero accident, which many other countries have already achieved.

  1. Comprehensive assessment of exposures to elongate mineral particles in the taconite mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2013-10-01

    Since the 1970s, concerns have been raised about elevated rates of mesothelioma in the vicinity of the taconite mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. However, insufficient quantitative exposure data have hampered investigations of the relationship between cumulative exposures to elongate mineral particles (EMP) in taconite dust and adverse health effects. Specifically, no research on exposure to taconite dust, which includes EMP, has been conducted since 1990. This article describes a comprehensive assessment of present-day exposures to total and amphibole EMP in the taconite mining industry. Similar exposure groups (SEGs) were established to assess present-day exposure levels and buttress the sparse historical data. Personal samples were collected to assess the present-day levels of worker exposures to EMP at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range. The samples were analyzed using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods 7400 and 7402. For many SEGs in several mines, the exposure levels of total EMP were higher than the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). However, the total EMP classification includes not only the asbestiform EMP and their non-asbestiform mineral analogs but also other minerals because the NIOSH 7400 cannot differentiate between these. The concentrations of amphibole EMP were well controlled across all mines and were much lower than the concentrations of total EMP, indicating that amphibole EMP are not major components of taconite EMP. The levels are also well below the NIOSH REL of 0.1 EMP cc(-1). Two different approaches were used to evaluate the variability of exposure between SEGs, between workers, and within workers. The related constructs of contrast and homogeneity were calculated to characterize the SEGs. Contrast, which is a ratio of between-SEG variability to the sum of between-SEG and between-worker variability, provides an overall measure of whether there are distinctions between the SEGs. Homogeneity, which is

  2. RAPID-N: Assessing and mapping the risk of natural-hazard impact at industrial installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazard-triggered technological accidents (so-called Natech accidents) at hazardous installations can have major consequences due to the potential for release of hazardous materials, fires and explosions. Effective Natech risk reduction requires the identification of areas where this risk is high. However, recent studies have shown that there are hardly any methodologies and tools that would allow authorities to identify these areas. To work towards closing this gap, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre has developed the rapid Natech risk assessment and mapping framework RAPID-N. The tool, which is implemented in an online web-based environment, is unique in that it contains all functionalities required for running a full Natech risk analysis simulation (natural hazards severity estimation, equipment damage probability and severity calculation, modeling of the consequences of loss of containment scenarios) and for visualizing its results. The output of RAPID-N are risk summary reports and interactive risk maps which can be used for decision making. Currently, the tool focuses on Natech risk due to earthquakes at industrial installations. However, it will be extended to also analyse and map Natech risk due to floods in the near future. RAPID-N is available at http://rapidn.jrc.ec.europa.eu. This presentation will discuss the results of case-study calculations performed for selected flammable and toxic substances to test the capabilities of RAPID-N both for single- and multi-site earthquake Natech risk assessment. For this purpose, an Istanbul earthquake scenario provided by the Turkish government was used. The results of the exercise show that RAPID-N is a valuable decision-support tool that assesses the Natech risk and maps the consequence end-point distances. These end-point distances are currently defined by 7 kPa overpressure for Vapour Cloud Explosions, 2nd degree burns for pool fire (which is equivalent to a heat radiation of 5 kW/m2 for 40s

  3. Assessment of the Incentives, Disincentives, and Alternatives for Steel Industry CO2 Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Leuchte; DR. John Stubbles; Professor Fruehan

    2002-04-16

    This report presents the results of the third element of a trilogy of studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies on the consumption of energy and the emissions of carbon dioxide in the U.S. steel industry

  4. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryson, T.

    2001-10-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of $27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33): Steel, Aluminum, and Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation.

  5. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...

  6. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for three industrial cases how a newly developed...

  7. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...

  8. A rapid assessment of bonded labour in the carpet industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mueen Nasir, Zafar

    2004-01-01

    Based on field work in four provinces of Pakistan. Examines labour arrangements and working conditions in the carpet weaving industry and identifies the main characteristics of employers and workers. Investigates the prevalence of debt bondage in the industry and makes recommendations for action and research.

  9. ASSESSING TRAINING COSTS (IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING INTERNATIONAL, 2(12)/516-522, DEC 1967).

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERBERT, NORMAN

    AS PART OF A COURSE ORGANIZED FOR SENIOR TRAINING OFFICERS OF THE ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL TRAINING BOARD, COST ANALYSES IN THREE INDUSTRIAL SITUATIONS WERE UNDERTAKEN TO SHOW POSSIBLE SAVINGS IN USING SYSTEMATIC TRAINING BASED ON SKILL ANALYSIS. THE COST OF THE PROPOSED TRAINING WAS SUBTRACTED FROM THE CURRENT COSTS OF TRAINING TO ARRIVE AT…

  10. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified...

  11. Kansas timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Kansas forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  12. University-Industry Research Collaboration: A Model to Assess University Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Di Costa, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and policy makers recognize that collaboration between industry and the public research institutions is a necessity for innovation and national economic development. This work presents an econometric model which expresses the university capability for collaboration with industry as a function of size, location and research quality. The…

  13. Mining Technology. An Assessment Study for Educational Institutions Potential Involvement in Servicing the Mining Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland County Community Coll., Youngwood, PA.

    Prepared to serve the 2-year college administrator and faculty member in becoming acquainted with the coal mining industry and in developing degree and nondegree programs in mining technology, this report provides descriptions of the mining industry, organization of labor, job descriptions, types and methods of coal mining, certification…

  14. Kansas timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H., IV Reading; David L. Bruton

    2007-01-01

    Discusses recent forest industry trends in Kansas; reports production and receipts of industrial roundwood by product, species, and county in 2003. Also reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of mill residues.

  15. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  16. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Keith. Jacobson

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2007. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  19. Wisconsin timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  20. Missouri timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  1. Nebraska timber Industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Dennis M. Adams

    2008-01-01

    Presents recent Nebraska forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  2. Minnesota timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H., IV. Reading; Keith Jacobson

    2008-01-01

    Discusses recent forest industry trends in Minnesota; reports production and receipts of industrial roundwood by product, species, and county in 2004. Also reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of mills residue.

  3. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  4. Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  5. Metric Use in the Tool Industry. A Status Report and a Test of Assessment Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-20

    and farming capability are sufficient to satisfy all but the most demand- ing customer. Some responses indicate that the much advertised metrica - tion...machine tool industry to change its ways, but industry perceptions are conflicting. Only a few detect an increasing demand for more metrica - tion in

  6. Assessing the level of integration in the offshore wind industry value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Neri, Ivan; Mikkelsen, Ole Stegmann; Stentoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    of the integration level of the offshore wind industry value chain. The work relies on a review of international peer-reviewed journals. The empirical basis of the paper is based on interviews with key players in the industry. The scope of this study covers the wind turbine generator, foundations, subsea cables...

  7. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LC...

  8. Data collection costs in industrial environments for three occupational posture exposure assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trask Catherine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Documentation of posture measurement costs is rare and cost models that do exist are generally naïve. This paper provides a comprehensive cost model for biomechanical exposure assessment in occupational studies, documents the monetary costs of three exposure assessment methods for different stakeholders in data collection, and uses simulations to evaluate the relative importance of cost components. Methods Trunk and shoulder posture variables were assessed for 27 aircraft baggage handlers for 3 full shifts each using three methods typical to ergonomic studies: self-report via questionnaire, observation via video film, and full-shift inclinometer registration. The cost model accounted for expenses related to meetings to plan the study, administration, recruitment, equipment, training of data collectors, travel, and onsite data collection. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using simulated study parameters and cost components to investigate the impact on total study cost. Results Inclinometry was the most expensive method (with a total study cost of € 66,657, followed by observation (€ 55,369 and then self report (€ 36,865. The majority of costs (90% were borne by researchers. Study design parameters such as sample size, measurement scheduling and spacing, concurrent measurements, location and travel, and equipment acquisition were shown to have wide-ranging impacts on costs. Conclusions This study provided a general cost modeling approach that can facilitate decision making and planning of data collection in future studies, as well as investigation into cost efficiency and cost efficient study design. Empirical cost data from a large field study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed models.

  9. Methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative rate designs on industrial energy use. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-11

    A task was undertaken to develop a method for analyzing industrial user responses to alternative rate designs. The method described considers the fuel switching and conservation responses of industrial users and the impact to a hypothetical utility regarding revenue stability, annual gas demand, and seasonal fluctuations. Twenty-seven hypothetical industrial plant types have been specified. For each combustor in the plant, the fuel consumption by season, initial fuel type, fuel switching costs, conservation costs, and amount of fuel conservable is provided. The decision making takes place at the plant level and is aggregated to determine the impact to the utility. Section 2 discusses the factors affecting an industrial user's response to alternative rate designs. Section 3 describes the methodology, includes an overview of the model and an example industrial user's response to a set of fuel prices. The data describing the 27 hypothetical firms is in an appendix.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND USES OF THE “QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES" FOR HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio V. Ibarra-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines and studies, analyzes and elaborates and classifies and categorizes the main qualitative techniques for hazards identification and assessment in chemical industrial processes. It specifies that these techniques base their effectiveness both, on analytical estimation processes and on the safety managers-engineers ability. It enumerates also those that present a bigger use frequency as well as the dangers that identify and the results that they give. Their use is linked, in function of the complexity level of the analysis technique, with the different stages of the life of industrial projects / processes.

  11. Only one simple conclusion about the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-07-24

    Findings concerning climate change, by a three-man team of scientists from the North Dakota Geological Survey, which were presented in a paper read at the Eight International Williston Basin Horizontal Well Workshop, are discussed. The survey by the three scientists covered more than 6,000 scholarly publications. It reported that while the rise in the Earth's temperature is beyond argument, there is anything but agreement as to the causes, or whether the trend is unusual enough to justify concerted and costly actions to change lifestyles. It is shown by direct instrumental measurements that the average temperature at the Earth's surface increased about 0.8 degree Celsius between 1866 and 1998. During that time the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increased from 280 to 353 parts per million. While it is generally assumed that the global warming was caused by human activities, new techniques of measurement such as glacier ice coring, dendrochronology (tree-growth rings), lichenometry (measuring the diameter of lichens) and counting concentrations of oxygen 18 and 16 (isotopes whose presence in marine fossils varies depending on temperature) suggest that most of the global warming took place before the increase in carbon dioxide concentration occurred, raising the possibility that the increase in average temperature had causes other than the increase in greenhouse gases. Some of the studies reviewed by the group show that in Europe between ice ages during the Eemian period, some 135,000 to 110,000 years ago, temperature variations of seven degrees Celsius took place; they dropped from two degree Celsius warmer than today to five degree Celsius colder than today. Based on these findings the group's only firm conclusion was that climate is in a continual flux.

  12. [Criteria and modalities of assessment of work fitness for jobs in food industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, L; De Metrio, R; De Francesco, G; Pirris, A; Gigante, M R

    1999-01-01

    Current legislation establishes the general methods and standards of judgement concerning fitness of workers to perform particular jobs. The object of this study was to verify particular criteria and methods that, in observance of the law, allow the physician to maintain in productive activity workers with chronic disease or permanent consequences of industrial accidents in Apulia, Southern Italy. In accordance with the law, 156 workers and their work environment are regularly under surveillance. In the last few years it was possible to accurately diagnose all diseases that may be involved in particular work fitness checks. 3 workers suffered the permanent consequences of very serious labour accidents amputation of II, III, IV fingers of the right hand; a slight post-traumatic shortening (shrinkage) of the right femur; tympanic membrane perforation). 7 workers suffered from non-work related disease (substitution of aortic valve, allergic asthma, virus B chronic hepatitis, chronic glomerulonephritis, replacement of right knee, rheumatoid arthritis, thrombosis of the retinal central vein without a vision reduction). The criteria for an "fitness judgement" are: an accurate diagnosis and evaluation of residual functional ability, analysis of the original job, with an investigation in the field, and break down into the single operations in order to assess all work-related risks (concerning health, safety and physical resources), and evaluation of work organization per job. It was thus possible to define particular adjustments to the original job, so as to be compatible with the current physical conditions the workers. Workers, factory directors and union officers accepted these particular criteria and standard of "work fitness judgement, which made it possible to apply them in practice with consequent reinstatement of workers in productive activity.

  13. Ethylene oxide sterilization in the medical-supply manufacturing industry: assessment and control of worker exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Lin, Yi-Chang; Su, Po-Chi; Li, Lien-Hsiung; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Tang, Da-Toung; Chen, Chang-Yuh

    2007-11-01

    In 2005, the Taiwan Institute of Occupational Safety and Health started an on-site consulting program for the medical supplies manufacturing industry, which use ethylene oxide (EO) as a sterilant, with the goal of enhancing occupational hygiene practices and controlling EO-related risks. This study presents EO exposure assessment results and examines the effectiveness of control measures. Detailed surveys, including exposure monitoring, were conducted at 10 factories. Airborne EO was collected using an HBr-coated charcoal tube and analyzed using GC/MS. Sterilizer operators had an average short-term EO exposure level of 27.61 ppm during unloading; mean time-weighted average workshift exposure was 7.35 ppm. High EO concentrations were also present throughout the facilities. Specifically, mean EO concentrations in the aeration area, near the sterilizer and in the warehouse were 10.19, 5.75, and 8.78 ppm, respectively. These findings indicate that immediate controls are needed, and that EO emissions from sterilized products during storage cannot be overlooked. Worker short-term exposures during unloading was inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with the numbers of poststerilization purge cycle applied. The specific controls implemented and their usefulness is discussed. Increasing the number of poststerilization purge cycles is a simple approach to eliminating extremely high exposure during unloading. Improvements to ventilation, particularly in the aeration area and warehouse, were also effective in minimizing worker exposures. Use of effective respirator is recommended until the EO exposure levels, averaging 3.41 ppm after the controls, fall below the permissible exposure limit.

  14. Assessment of Workers’ Occupational Exposure in The Context of Industrial Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călămar, Angelica; Găman, George Artur; Toth, Lorand; Pupăzan, Daniel; Simion, Sorin

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge and assessment of occupational risks in every workplace is the main objective of the prevention of occupational illnesses. The ultimate goal of safety and health at work is to protect life, integrity and health of workers against the risks of accidents and professional diseases that may occur in the workplace. This paper approaches the measurement of workplace respirable dust and microclimate parameters at a Romanian branch of a multinational company, in order to analyse the results in terms of safety and health of workers. The means of investigating the studied objective involved knowledge of the working environment, choice of pollutants, sampling, analysis and interpretation of sampled materials, as well as equipment and working methods. The research started as a result of an employee complaining about headache, respiratory discomfort and nasal congestion. The most frequent noxae measuring takes place in a working environment with developed industrial activities generating physical and chemical agents. This paper investigated the presence of noxae in workplaces located in Open Space offices where the main activity is IT. These spaces are ventilated by an air conditioning system, windows are fixed and the floor is carpeted on the entire surface. Research has led to the fact that the measured noxae (dusts, microclimate) have exceeded the maximum permissible concentration required by national legislation, this being an unexpected out coming for the company manager. These concentrations may be due to staff traffic, high number of employees and lack of natural ventilation. Following the evaluation results, a number of technical and organizational measures, aimed at improving the workplace atmosphere, was recommended.

  15. A novel strategy for retrospective exposure assessment in the Norwegian silicon carbide industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Føreland, Solveig; Bugge, Merete Drevvatne; Bakke, Berit; Bye, Erik; Eduard, Wijnand

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to construct a retrospective job-exposure matrix (JEM) for the Norwegian silicon carbide industry. More than 3300 historical total dust measurements were available (1967-2005); however, there were few measurements of other agents. Total dust measurements were therefore used as the basis for the JEM, and a novel method was developed to estimate exposure to other agents. Multiple linear regression models were developed to describe historical exposure to total dust. Exposure estimates were extrapolated backward to periods without exposure data by adjustments for process and work-hour related changes. An exposure assessment study was performed where total dust was sampled in parallel with fibers or respirable dust. The respirable dust was analyzed for the content of quartz, cristobalite, and silicon carbide. Mixed-effect models were developed to estimate the exposure to these agents from total dust exposure, plant, and job group. Exposure to asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was assigned qualitatively. Multiple linear regression models of total dust described historical exposure best in the furnace department (R(2) (adj) = 0.49-0.74). Models in the other departments explained less variance (R(2) (adj) = 0.12-0.32). Exposure determinants and total dust explained a substantial proportion of the between- (70-100%) and within-worker (8.0-54%) variance in the mixed-effect models. The relative bias between available historical measurements and the estimated exposure to dust components varied between -39% (fiber) and 40% (quartz). However, corrections were not considered necessary due to limitations in the historical data. The component-specific metrices were sufficiently different from each other (r(Pearson) silicon carbide and respirable dust from total dust exposure.].

  16. Assessment of airborne nanoparticles present in industry of aluminum surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R J; Vieira, M T

    2017-03-01

    Conventional industrial processes are emission sources of unintended nanoparticles which are potentially harmful for the environment and human health. The aim of this study is to assess airborne nanoparticle release from aluminum surface treatment processes in various workplaces. Two direct reading instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer to measure size distribution and a nanoparticle surface area monitoring to measure the surface area of particles deposited in the human lung, were employed to perform area monitoring. The lacquering paint was the process which released the highest concentration of particles from 10-487 nm (7.06 × 10(6) particles/cm(3)). The lacquering baths process emitted particles of the largest average size (76.9 nm) and the largest surface area deposited in the human lung (167.4 µm(2)/cm(3)). Conversely, the anodizing bath process generated particles of the smallest average size (44.3 nm) and the lowest human lung-deposited surface area (1.2 µm(2)/cm(3)). The total number of particles and the surface area can only be fairly correlated for environments in which the surface area presented higher values. The transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aluminum oxide particles of different dimensions near the LB and AB areas and polymeric-based particles near the LP areas. The findings of this study indicated that lacquering and anodizing surface treatments are indeed responsible for the emission of airborne nanoparticles. It also highlights the importance of control strategies as a means of protecting workers' health and environment.

  17. A comprehensive assessment of exposures to respirable dust and silica in the taconite mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jooyeon; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jeffrey H

    2017-05-01

    This study assessed the present-day levels (year 2010-2011) of exposure to respirable dust (RD) and respirable silica (RS) in taconite mines and evaluated how the mining process influences exposure concentrations. Personal samples (n = 679) were collected to assess exposure levels of workers to RD and RS at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range of Minnesota. The RD and RS concentrations were measured using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 0600 and NIOSH 7500, respectively. Between-mine, between-SEG (similar exposure groups), within-SEG, and within-worker components of variability for RD and RS exposures were estimated using a two- or three-way nested random-effects ANOVA model. The majority of RD concentrations across all mines were below the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The highest concentrations of RD were often observed in either the Pelletizing or Crushing departments, which are inherently dusty operations. With a few exceptions, the concentrations of RS in the crushing and concentrating processes were higher than those in the other mining processes, as well as higher than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for RS. The magnetic separation and flotation processes in the concentrating department reduced the levels of RS significantly, and lowered the percentage of quartz in RD in the pelletizing department. There was little variability among the six mines or between the two mineralogically distinct zones for either RD or RS exposures. The between-SEG variability for RS did not differ substantially across most of the mines and was a major component of exposure variance. The within-SEG (or between-worker) variance component was typically the smallest because in many instances one worker from a SEG within a mine was monitored multiple times. Some of these findings were affected by the degree of censoring in each SEG and mine

  18. Conclusiones y recomendaciones Conclusions and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Saquero Martínez

    2006-12-01

    following technical conclusions and recommendations.This document, which is intended to be practical and operational, has been reviewed and agreed by all speakers and by the Scientific Committee of the Conference, and is written in the key of pending tasks to be addressed by both public authorities and companies in the sector and holders hazard installations.

  19. Opinion of the IRSN on the instruction on the continuation of the GPR assessment of the safety re-examination VD3-900 - Examination of the conclusive report of the safety re-examination of the nr 1 reactor of the Fessenheim plant after the third decennial inspection; Avis de l'IRSN sur l'instruction des suites du GPR bilan du reexamen de surete VD3-900 - Examen du rapport de conclusions du reexamen de surete du reacteur n.1 du CNPE de Fessenheim a l'issue de sa troisieme visite decennale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    This report first describes the context of the safety re-examination of the nr 1 reactor of the Fessenheim nuclear power station (CNPE) and assesses the generic aspects of this re-examination, assesses additional information transmitted by EDF and concerning these generic aspects (external and internal stresses, accidents and their radiological consequences, design of systems and civil engineering works), states recommendations on various topics and issues to be considered (internal explosions, probabilistic studies, severe accidents, confinement in post-accidental situation, behaviour of containment enclosures, and son on). It assesses the content of the conclusive report of the safety re-examination

  20. Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Peter B; Krabek, Anders; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2008-01-01

    The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly...... improvements that can be achieved by application of enzymatic solutions in the P&P industry are  promising. To get a greater penetration of enzymatic solutions in the market and to harvest the environmental advantages of biotechnological inventions, it is recommended that enzymatic solutions should be given...... more attention in, for instance, 'Best Available Technology' notes within the framework of the European Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC)....

  1. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alkadi, Nasr [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ma, Ookie [USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  2. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  3. Assessment of environmental impact as a result of industrial development in the Pars special economic energy zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acbarpur Darush

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pars special economic energy zone, the rapid industrial development has been affecting the environment severely. In order to restore the environment, definite expenses are necessary. The damaging effect on the environment (natural resources caused by the industrial zone can be assessed directly or indirectly. To investigate the Pars economic zone in the province Bushehr, GIS-methods were used. Possible impact of industrial projects on different media: physical and chemical, biological, social and economic was considered. In order to estimate the ecological consequences of the changes of ecological conditions in the area investigated Leopold matrices (with some modifications were used. As a result, both positive and negative changes were revealed in the Pars zone. Taking into account all parameters, two variants were proposed and compared using lobbying tables. Variant C seemed the best, as having minimal negative and maximal positive rating

  4. Water quality assessment in piracicamirim creek upstream and downstream a sugar and ethanol industry through toxicity tests with cladocerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grossi Botelho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An environmental impact study was conducted to determine the Piracicamirim's creek water quality in order to assess the influence of effluents from a sugar industry in this water body. For this, toxicity tests were performed with a water sample upstream and downstream the industry using the microcrustaceans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii as test organisms, as well as physical and chemical analysis of water. Results showed that physical and chemical parameters did not change during the sampling period, except for the dissolved oxygen. No toxicity was observed for D. magna and reproduction of C. dubia and C. silvestrii in both sampling points. Thus, the industry was not negatively impacting the quality of this water body.

  5. Assessment of safety and health in the tea industry of Barak valley, Assam: a fuzzy logic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajat; Dey, Sanjoy Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional safety and health system measurement procedures, practiced in various industries produce qualitative results with a degree of uncertainty. This paper presents a fuzzy-logic-based approach to developing a fuzzy model for assessing the safety and health status in the tea industry. For this, the overall safety and health status at a tea estate has been considered as a function of 4 inputs: occupational safety, occupational health, behavioral safety and competency. A set of fuzzy rules based on expert human judgment has been used to correlate different fuzzy inputs and output. Fuzzy set operations are used to calculate the safety and health status of the tea industry. Application of the developed model at a tea estate showed that the safety and health status belongs to the fuzzy class of good with a crisp value of 7.2.

  6. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  7. ASSESSING STRATEGIC TYPOLOGY AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN SMALL CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafie Sidek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research investigates Miles and Snow (1978 strategic typology as the strategic choice and business performance among Class F entrepreneurs in civil construction industry in Malaysia. The result concluded thatProspector strategy is the most effective strategic typology in the small construction industry in Malaysia whereas reactors are the lowest achievers. Analyzer and defender are the moderate class F performers. The most competitive and the destructive strategic typology have been revealed from this study. This is important to serve as a guide to those who involved or intend to be involved in the small construction industry in Malaysia. It is useful for strategist and businessman, especially in the small construction industry in Malaysia to take it as a normative theory which they might practice throughout the daily activities especially during the formation of the business strategy.

  8. Biological exposure assessment to tetrachloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley David L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting biological tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE exposure assessments of dry cleaning employees in conjunction with evaluation of possible PCE health effects. Methods Eighteen women from four dry cleaning facilities in southwestern Ohio were monitored in a pilot study of workers with PCE exposure. Personal breathing zone samples were collected from each employee on two consecutive work days. Biological monitoring included a single measurement of PCE in blood and multiple measurements of pre- and post-shift PCE in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCA in urine. Results Post-shift PCE in exhaled breath gradually increased throughout the work week. Statistically significant correlations were observed among the exposure indices. Decreases in PCE in exhaled breath and TCA in urine were observed after two days without exposure to PCE. A mixed-effects model identified statistically significant associations between PCE in exhaled breath and airborne PCE time weighted average (TWA after adjusting for a random participant effect and fixed effects of time and body mass index. Conclusion Although comprehensive, our sampling strategy was challenging to implement due to fluctuating work schedules and the number (pre- and post-shift on three consecutive days and multiplicity (air, blood, exhaled breath, and urine of samples collected. PCE in blood is the preferred biological index to monitor exposures, but may make recruitment difficult. PCE TWA sampling is an appropriate surrogate, although more field intensive. Repeated measures of exposure and mixed-effects modeling may be required for future studies due to high within-subject variability. Workers should be monitored over a long enough period of time to allow the use of a lag term.

  9. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  10. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  11. A Study of Postural Loading in Malaysian Mining Industry using Rapid Entire Body Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Norhidayah M.S.; Nik Mohamed Nik Mohd Zuki; Mansor Muhamad Arifpin; Ismail Ahmad Rasdan

    2016-01-01

    The ergonomics and environment factors have been the core issue for the mining industry for many years, and its profiles are rising. To ensure an ergonomics work environment, it is possible to require specific attention especially in this industries sector. It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the essential issue in Malaysia due to lack of ergonomics knowledge and low awareness among the engineers in the mining sector. The focus of this study is to evaluate and validate the physica...

  12. Spatial Assessment of Cancer Incidences and the Risks of Industrial Wastewater Emission in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingru Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth and social transitions have deteriorated environmental conditions and caused further public health issues in last three decades. This study examines the complex mechanisms of how socioeconomic transitions and physical environmental conditions impact public health, especially with respect to increasing cancer incidences in mainland China from a spatial-temporal perspective. Specifically, (1 spatial variations of seven types of cancer incidences were analyzed in relation to heavy metal emissions from industrial wastewater at the prefecture-level city scale from 2004 to 2009. Additionally; (2 spatial statistical methods were employed to explore the associations between health outcome, heavy metal emissions from industrial wastewater (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, lead, as well as socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and physical environmental factors (hydrology and vegetation coverage. Results showed a significant increase of cancer incidences between 2004 and 2009. Consistent with the spatial pattern of heavy metal emissions, cancer patient clusters were identified in both traditional industrial bases and newly industrialized economic zones, especially in major cities located at downstream watersheds, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenyang, and Wuhan. The results also revealed the double-edged effects of industrialization, economic growth, and urbanization on natural environment and human health. The findings provide informative knowledge of heavy metal pollution and cancer outbreaks in China and therefore offer valuable reference for authorities formulating regulations.

  13. ASSESSING CHANGES IN THE U.S. HARDWOOD SAWMILL INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.

  14. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed.

  15. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  16. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be

  17. Cytotoxic and mutagenic in vitro assessment of two organosulfur compounds derived from onion to be used in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María; Maisanaba, Sara; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Prieto, Ana I; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Angeles; Moreno, F Javier; Cameán, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Edible members of the Allium family are widely used since they exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial related to the organosulphur compounds. One the most promising use of Allium species, hence, onion essential oil, could be in the packaging food industry. The present work aims to assess the safety of two organosulphur compounds present in onion essential oil; dipropyl disulphide, dipropyl sulphide and their mixture. For this purpose, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species and glutathione contents, and ultrastructural cellular damages were studied in the human intestinal cells, Caco-2, exposed to these organosulphur compounds. Moreover, their potential mutagenicity was also assessed. The results revealed no significant adverse effects. Additionally, reactive oxygen species scavenger activity was observed for both compounds. Therefore, they could be a good natural alternative to other synthetic antioxidant and antibacterial substances used in the food industry.

  18. Economic assessment of the construction industry: A construction-economics nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Herbert Marion, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an economic assessment of the construction industry. More specifically, this study addresses ambiguities within the literature that are associated with the construction-economics nexus. The researcher 1) investigated the relationships between economic indicators and stock prices of U.S. construction equipment manufacturers, 2) investigated the relationships between energy production, consumption, and corruption, and 3) determined the economic effect electricity generation and electricity consumption has on economies of scale. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics in this study and determined that economists, researchers, policy-makers, and others should have predicted the 2007-08 world economic collapse 5-6 years prior to realization of the event given that construction indices and GDP grossly regressed from statistically acceptable trends as early as 2002 and perhaps 2000. Substantiating this claim, the effect of the cost of construction materials and labor, i.e. construction index, on GDP was significant for years leading up to the collapse (1970-2007). Additionally, it was determined that energy production and consumption are predictors of governmental corruption in some countries. In the Republic of Botswana, for example, the researcher determined that energy production and consumption statistically jointly effected governmental corruption. In addition to determining statistical effect, a model for predicting governmental corruption was developed based on energy production and consumption volumes. Also, the researcher found that electricity generation in the 25 largest world economies had a statistically significant effect on GDP. Electricity consumption also had an effect on GDP, as well, but not on other economic indicators. More importantly than the quantitative findings, the researcher concluded that the construction-economics nexus is far more complex than most policy-makers realize. As such

  19. Methodical Approach to Assessment of Quality of Labour Life of Industrial Employees Using Example of Engineering Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatin Oleksandr V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article is presentation of results of study of factors of influence upon quality of labour life of industrial employees and justification of a scorecard of its assessment at the micro-economic level with the use of statistical methods of study. The article proves that the quality of labour life is based on enterprise capabilities, which depend on economic results, identified by the use of financial, material and human resources, effectiveness of the innovation and investment a...

  20. Assessment, Development and Implementation of Training Materials for Food Defense/Safety, Biosecurity, and Traceability within the Catfish Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Anna F.; Williams, J. Byron; Crist, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research and subsequent training sessions was to assess food defense in the catfish industry, promote awareness and educate catfish farmers and processors on the principles of food defense, biosecurity and traceability of agricultural commodities and ingredients used in human food production. In the catfish processing chain, preliminary investigations have indicated that there are areas throughout production, processing and distribution that are susceptible to potential ...

  1. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  2. High-temperature industrial process heat: technology assessment and introduction rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-03

    Three specific topics of interest to DOE are addressed: to establish the significance and identify the role of high-temperature process heat in the nation's energy economy; to identify the role of solar thermal power in these high-temperature industrial applications in terms of possible markets and economic potential; and to recommend programmatic approaches for these solar thermal high-temperature process heat activities, including proposed content for initial Request for Proposals (RFPs) to accomplish such activities. The scope of the work required to accomplish these three purposes included the following: review of US industrial energy requirements, survey of current DOE low-temperature Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program, examination of high-temperature solar thermal electric systems already developed or under development by DOE and industry, and coordination with the high-energy user segments of industry (i.e., cement, chemical and petroleum) to find additional markets for some or all of the systems or components being developed in the DOE solar thermal electric program. Statistical data are presented identifying energy allocations to process heat and defining DOE's involvement. Three current fossil fuel process heat system examples are provided and the corresponding solar potential is identified.

  3. Methodical Approach to Assessment of Quality of Labour Life of Industrial Employees Using Example of Engineering Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatin Oleksandr V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is presentation of results of study of factors of influence upon quality of labour life of industrial employees and justification of a scorecard of its assessment at the micro-economic level with the use of statistical methods of study. The article proves that the quality of labour life is based on enterprise capabilities, which depend on economic results, identified by the use of financial, material and human resources, effectiveness of the innovation and investment activity. The article reveals main factors that influence the quality of labour life of industrial employees using example of engineering enterprises: labour remuneration, social provisions, possibility to develop personnel, progressive state of fixed assets, financial sustainability of the enterprise, and effectiveness of investing into innovation activity. The article proves expediency of use of statistical methods of study for assessment of quality of labour life of employees, namely: multi-dimensional factor analysis, neural networks and folded additive technique. Their use helped to reveal indicators that are the most sensitive to managerial impact for ensuring quality of labour life. The article justifies stages of methodical approach to assessment of the quality of labour life of industrial employees, which was applied at engineering enterprises, which proves its significance and theoretical substantiation.

  4. Health Impact Assessments, Regulation, and the Unconventional Gas Industry in the UK: Exploiting Resources, Ideology, and Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Andrew; Dinan, William

    2016-02-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) across the globe may be used by governments and industries to secure approval for unconventional gas extraction developments. HIA is an umbrella term that covers an array of health review and assessment practices, ranging from the very general to quite specific and technical health studies. Our concern in this paper is principally with the specialist end of the HIA continuum and particularly its application to unconventional gas extraction in the UK. We outline the context within which HIAs in unconventional gas extraction may be conducted. We then explain what HIAs may do. HIAs are often commissioned from consultancy companies to assess unconventional gas extraction project risks and benefits and propose mitigation measures. Communities can rarely afford HIAs in the planning process and may consider them biased when commissioned by vested interests. The oil and gas industry uses these techniques for its own ends. Hiring experts, be they specialist consultants, researchers, lobbyists, ex-government officials, or regulators, to influence planning and regulation is a well-tried tactic and structural advantage exploited by industry in seeking license to operate. Equitable and ethical HIA principles are urgently needed in the UK in relation to unconventional gas to secure the integrity and probity of the emerging regulatory system and address concerns regarding unregulated practitioners.

  5. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  6. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  7. National Skills Assessment of the U.S. Wind Industry in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levanthal, M.; Tegen, S.

    2013-06-01

    A robust workforce is essential to developing domestic wind power projects, including manufacturing, siting, operations, maintenance, and research capabilities. The purpose of our research is to better understand today's domestic wind workforce, projected workforce needs as the industry grows, and how existing and new programs can meet the wind industry's future education and training needs. Results presented in this report provide the first published investigation into the detailed makeup of the wind energy workforce, educational infrastructure and training needs of the wind industry. Insights from this research into the domestic wind workforce will allow the private sector, educational institutions, and federal and state governmental organizations to make workforce-related decisions based on the current employment and training data and future projections in this report.

  8. Quantitative assessment of industrial VOC emissions in China: Historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenghang; Shen, Jiali; Zhang, Yongxin; Huang, Weiwei; Zhu, Xinbo; Wu, Xuecheng; Chen, Linghong; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    The temporal trends of industrial volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions was comprehensively summarized for the 2011 to 2013 period, and the projections for 2020 to 2050 for China were set. The results demonstrate that industrial VOC emissions in China increased from 15.3 Tg in 2011 to 29.4 Tg in 2013 at an annual average growth rate of 38.3%. Guangdong (3.45 Tg), Shandong (2.85 Tg), and Jiangsu (2.62 Tg) were the three largest contributors collectively accounting for 30.4% of the national total emissions in 2013. The top three average industrial VOC emissions per square kilometer were Shanghai (247.2 ton/km2), Tianjin (62.8 ton/km2), and Beijing (38.4 ton/km2), which were 12-80 times of the average level in China. The data from the inventory indicate that the use of VOC-containing products, as well as the production and use of VOCs as raw materials, as well as for storage and transportation contributed 75.4%, 10.3%, 9.1%, and 5.2% of the total emissions, respectively. ArcGIS was used to display the remarkable spatial distribution variation by allocating the emission into 1 km × 1 km grid cells with a population as surrogate indexes. Combined with future economic development and population change, as well as implementation of policy and upgrade of control technologies, three scenarios (scenarios A, B, and C) were set to project industrial VOC emissions for the years 2020, 2030, and 2050, which present the industrial VOC emissions in different scenarios and the potential of reducing emissions. Finally, the result shows that the collaborative control policies considerably influenced industrial VOC emissions.

  9. Respiratory health risk assessment of children living close to industrial areas in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Indah R S; As, Zulfikar A; Marselina, Mariana; Roosmini, Dwina

    2014-01-01

    Industrial areas are considered to have higher risk of air pollution impact especially to children living close to the industry. Two separate industrial areas in Indonesia were compared. The first location was in the area of coal transportation activity in South Kalimantan, and the second location was in the area of Bogor, West Java where used battery processing industry was often found. Fifty children (boys and girls, aged 6-15 years) were involved in South Kalimantan whereas in West Java there were 48 children (boys and girls, aged 10-12 years) involved. The control groups were also studied in both areas. Predicted average daily intake (ADD) of respirable particulate was estimated and respiratory function was measured using spirometer. The study showed that the PM2.5 concentration in industrial area was 3 times higher than those found in the control location. As a result, the predicted ADD of particulate of children living close to industry in South Kalimantan was 25.45±10.55 µg/kg.day whereas in West Java, the ADD was 1.5 times higher. For both studied area, boys' respirable particulate intake was shown to have higher intake than those in girls. Lung function of children revealed that more than 68% of children in the coal transportation area had decreased pulmonary function. The study also noted that some children in West Java had indicated an obstructive and restrictive respiratory condition. The risk of girls having mild lung disease was found to be 1.3 times greater than those in the control group whereas in boys, the risk was 1.9 times than those in control area. Respiratory function of children in West Java study area was considered to worsen by the higher Pb emission from used battery processing activity.

  10. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

  11. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan, E-mail: wangjuan_tju@163.com [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Tao [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Xiaohu [College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016 (China)

    2016-09-15

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and

  12. A conceptual framework and practical guide for assessing fitness-to-operate in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Mark A; Hodkiewicz, Melinda R; Dunster, Jeremy; Kanse, Lisette; Parkes, Katharine R; Finnerty, Dannielle; Cordery, John L; Unsworth, Kerrie L

    2014-07-01

    The paper outlines a systemic approach to understanding and assessing safety capability in the offshore oil and gas industry. We present a conceptual framework and assessment guide for understanding fitness-to-operate (FTO) that builds a more comprehensive picture of safety capability for regulators and operators of offshore facilities. The FTO framework defines three enabling capitals that create safety capability: organizational capital, social capital, and human capital. For each type of capital we identify more specific dimensions based on current theories of safety, management, and organizational processes. The assessment guide matches specific characteristics to each element of the framework to support assessment of safety capability. The content and scope of the FTO framework enable a more comprehensive coverage of factors that influence short-term and long-term safety outcomes.

  13. Using industry ROV videos to assess fish associations with subsea pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D. L.; Partridge, J. C.; Bond, T.; Birt, M. J.; Bornt, K. R.; Langlois, T. J.

    2017-06-01

    Remote Operated Vehicles are routinely used to undertake inspection and maintenance activities of underwater pipelines in north-west Australia. In doing so, many terabytes of geo-referenced underwater video are collected at depths, and on a scale usually unobtainable for ecological research. We assessed fish diversity and abundance from existing ROV videos collected along 2-3 km sections of two pipelines in north-west Australia, one at 60-80 m water depth and the other at 120-130 m. A total of 5962 individual fish from 92 species and 42 families were observed. Both pipelines were characterised by a high abundance of commercially important fishes including: snappers (Lutjanidae) and groupers (Epinephelidae). The presence of thousands of unidentifiable larval fish, in addition to juveniles, sub-adults and adults suggests that the pipelines may be enhancing, rather than simply attracting, fish stocks. The prevalence and high complexity of sponges on the shallower pipeline and of deepwater corals on the deeper pipeline had a strong positive correlation with the fish abundance. These habitats likely offer a significant food source and refuge for fish, but also for invertebrates upon which fish feed. A greater diversity on the shallower pipeline, and a higher abundance of fishes on both pipelines, were associated with unsupported pipeline sections (spans) and many species appeared to be utilising pipeline spans as refuges. This study is a first look at the potential value of subsea pipelines for fishes on the north-west shelf. While the results suggest that these sections of pipeline appear to offer significant habitat that supports diverse and important commercially fished species, further work, including off-pipeline surveys on the natural seafloor, are required to determine conclusively the ecological value of pipelines and thereby inform discussions regarding the ecological implications of pipeline decommissioning.

  14. Greening industry without enforcement? An assessment of the World Bank's pollution regulation model for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, B.

    2010-01-01

    The best comparative and overview source now available for knowledge about pollution regulation in developing countries is the 2000 World Bank policy research report called Greening Industry. The World Bank finds that there is a new model for pollution regulation in lower- and middle-level income

  15. A Controlled Experiment for the Assessment of Aspects: Tracing in an Industrial Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durr, Pascal; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    For years, the Aspect Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community has promoted aspects as a solution to the complexities of implementing crosscutting concerns. But while a lot of research focuses on advancing the state of the art of AOSD, there are few reports on the industrial adoption of AOSD p

  16. Louisiana's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, industrial roundwood output from Louisiana's forests totaled 802 million cubic feet, 28 percent more than in 1996. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 50 percent to 285 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 349 million cubic...

  17. Application of elements of microbiological risk assessment in the food industry via a tiered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, van S.J.C.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Food safety control is a matter for concern for all parts of the food supply chain, including governments that develop food safety policy, food industries that must control potential hazards, and consumers who need to keep to the intended use of the food. In the future, food safety policy may be set

  18. Feed Efficiency: An Assessment of Current Knowledge from a Voluntary Subsample of the Swine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Josh R.; Tokach, Mike D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steve S.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Patience, John F.

    2014-01-01

    A voluntary sample of pork producers and advisers to the swine industry were surveyed about feed efficiency. The questionnaire was designed to accomplish three objectives: (a) determine the level of knowledge related to feed efficiency topics, (b) identify production practices used that influence feed efficiency, and (c) identify information gaps…

  19. Mississippi's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Mississippi's forests totaled 1.03 billion cubic feet, 11 percent more than in 2002. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 1 percent to 385 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 543 million cubic...

  20. Florida's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida's forests totaled 445 million cubic feet, 13 percent less than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined to 146 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 214 million cubic feet;...

  1. Greening industry without enforcement? An assessment of the World Bank's pollution regulation model for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, B.

    2010-01-01

    The best comparative and overview source now available for knowledge about pollution regulation in developing countries is the 2000 World Bank policy research report called Greening Industry. The World Bank finds that there is a new model for pollution regulation in lower- and middle-level income co

  2. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  3. Assessing traffic and industrial contributions to ambient nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds in a low pollution urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiamo, Tor H; Johnson, Markey; Tang, Kathy; Luginaah, Isaac N

    2015-10-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is an effective method for estimating fine-scale distributions of ambient air pollutants. The objectives of this study are to advance the methodology for use in urban environments with relatively low levels of industrial activity and provide exposure assessments for research on health effects of air pollution. Intraurban distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene and m- and p-xylene were characterized based on spatial monitoring and LUR modeling in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Passive samplers were deployed at 50 locations throughout Ottawa for two consecutive weeks in October 2008 and May 2009. Land use variables representing point, area and line sources were tested as predictors of pooled pollutant distributions. LUR models explained 96% of the spatial variability in NO2 and 75-79% of the variability in the VOC species. Proximity to highways, green space, industrial and residential land uses were significant in the final models. More notably, proximity to industrial point sources and road network intersections were significant predictors for all pollutants. The strong contribution of industrial point sources to VOC distributions in Ottawa suggests that facility emission data should be considered whenever possible. The study also suggests that proximity to road network intersections may be an effective proxy in areas where reliable traffic data are not available.

  4. An application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA to assess risks in petrochemical industry in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kangavari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries have a high rate of accidents. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a systematic method and thus is capable of analyzing the risks of systems from concept phase to system disposal, detecting the failures in design stage, and determining the control measures and corrective actions for failures to reduce their impacts. The objectives of this research were to perform FMEA to identify risks in an Iranian petrochemical industry and determine the decrease of the risk priority number (RPN after implementation of intervention programs. This interventional study was performed at one petrochemical plant in Tehran, Iran in 2014. Relevant information about job categories and plant process was gathered using brainstorming techniques, fishbone diagram, and group decision making. The data were collected through interviews, observation, and documents investigations and was recorded in FMEA worksheets. The necessary corrective measures were performed on the basis of the results of initial FMEA. Forty eight failures were identified in welding unit by application of FMEA to assess risks. Welding processes especially working at height got the highest RPN. Obtained RPN for working at height before performing the corrective actions was 120 and the score was reduced to 96 after performing corrective measures. Calculated RPN for all processes was significantly reduced (p≤0.001 by implementing the corrective actions. Scores of RPN in all studied processes effectively decreased after performing corrective actions in a petrochemical industry. FMEA method is a useful tool for identifying risk intervention priorities and effectiveness in a studied petrochemical industry.

  5. The Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Soils in the Vicinity of Industrial Sites in Dongguan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Lu, Liwen; Huang, Ting; Huang, Yalin; Ding, Lei; Zhao, Weituo

    2016-01-01

    Exponential industrialization and rapid urbanization have resulted in contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Dongguan, China. The aims of this research were to determine the concentration and distribution of various metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) in soils and identify their potential health risks for local residents. A total of 106 soil samples were collected from the vicinity of industrial sites in Dongguan. Two types of samples were collected from each site: topsoil (0–20 cm, TS) and shallow soil (20–50 cm, SS). Results showed that the soils were contaminated by metals and pollution was mainly focused on TS. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution indexes (PI) implied that there was a slight increase in the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb, but the metal pollution caused by industrial activities was less severe, and elements of As and Cr exhibited non-pollution level. The risk assessment results suggested that there was a potential health risk associated with As and Cr exposure for residents because the carcinogenic risks of As and Cr via corresponding exposure pathways exceeded the safety limit of 10−6 (the acceptable level of carcinogenic risk for humans). Furthermore, oral ingestion and inhalation of soil particles are the main exposure pathways for As and Cr to enter the human body. This study may provide basic information of metal pollution control and human health protection in the vicinity of industrial regions. PMID:27548198

  6. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  7. Technical and cost assessment of energy efficiency improvement and greenhouse gas emission reduction potentials in Thai cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, A. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-uthit Rd, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand); Menke, C. [Department of Building Engineering Services, Energy Technology Division, University of Applied Sciences, Schneidershof, 54293 Trier (Germany); Therdyothin, A. [The School of Energy, Environment, and Material, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-01-15

    The cement industry is one of the most energy-consuming industries in Thailand, with high associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The cement sector accounted for about 20.6 million tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2005. The fuel intensity of the Thai cement industry was about 3.11 gigajoules (GJ)/tonne cement; the electricity intensity was about 94.3 kWh/tonne cement, and the total primary energy intensity was about 4.09 GJ/tonne cement in 2005 with the clinker to cement ratio of around 82%. In this study, the potential application of 47 energy-efficiency measures is assessed for the Thai cement industry. Using a bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency improvement potential for the Thai cement industry is estimated to be about 265 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 8% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 1,697 GWh, which accounts for 51% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. The CO2 emission reduction potential associated with the cost-effective electricity savings is 159 kilotonne (kt) CO2, while the total technical potential for CO2 emission reductions is 902 ktonne CO2. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows a cost-effective fuel-efficiency improvement potential of 17,214 terajoules (TJ) and a total technical fuel efficiency improvement potential equal to 21,202 TJ, accounting for 16% and 19% of the total fuel use in the cement industry in 2005, respectively. CO2 emission reduction potentials associated with cost-effective and technical fuel-saving measures are 2,229 ktonne and 2,603 ktonne, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for discount rate, electricity and fuel prices, and exchange rate that showed the significant influence of these parameters on the results. Hence, the results of the study should be interpreted with caution.

  8. Importance of environmental impact assessment and monitoring studies in industrial development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    Environmental assessment is taken up in this exercise as a rapid assessment technique for determining the current status of the environment and identifying impact of critical activities on environmental parameters. EIA is a relatively new planning...

  9. A Fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS Framework for the Risk Assessment of Green Supply Chain Implementation in the Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nazam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging supply chain environment, green supply chain risk management plays a significant role than ever. Risk is an inherent uncertainty and has tendency to disrupt the typical green supply chain management (GSCM operations and eventually reduce the success rate of industries. In order to mitigate the consequences, a fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making modeling (FMCGDM which could evaluate the potential risks in the context of (GSCM is needed from the industrial point of view. Therefore, this research proposes a combined fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP to calculate the weight of each risk criterion and sub-criterion and technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS methodology to rank and assess the risks associated with implementation of (GSCM practices under the fuzzy environment. The proposed fuzzy risk-oriented evaluation model is applied to a practical case of textile manufacturing industry. Finally, the proposed model helps the researchers and practitioners to understand the importance of conducting appropriate risk assessment when implementing green supply chain initiatives.

  10. Environmental risk assessment of the Moroccan Atlantic continental shelf: the role of the industrial and urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maanan, Mohamed; Zourarah, Bendahhou; Sahabi, Mohamed; Maanan, Mehdi; Le Roy, Pascal; Mehdi, Khalid; Salhi, Fouad

    2015-04-01

    The present research presents the first large-scale analysis of heavy metal assessment in the Moroccan Atlantic shelf. This work provides scientific basis for future studies on environmental research and fills the gap in knowledge on the worldwide continental platforms. Metal distributions identified three different zones, mainly influenced by industrial and urban sewer (northern areas), agriculture runoffs (central zone), and estuarine discharges (southern areas), respectively. In the north part of the shelf, metal enrichments are observed near industrial and urban sewer mouths (Casablanca and Mohammedia cities). In the south and central areas, the probable absence of human impact on sediments is attributed to effective trapping in the estuary (Oum Er Rbia) and coastal zones, as well as dilution with less contaminated sediments and shelf sediments and removal with fine fractions due to estuary discharges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p food.

  12. Assessment of the energy requirements and selected options facing major consumers within the Egyptian industrial and agricultural sectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-31

    The objectives of the energy assessment study of Egypt are to develop an understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future: and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. Study results are presented for the iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and textile industries and automotive manufacturers. Study results for drainage, irrigation, and mechanization procedures in the agricultural sector and food processing sector are also presented. (MCW)

  13. Assessment of heavy metals leaching from (biochar obtained from industrial sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Pečkytė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar can be produced from many various feedstock including biomass residues such as straw, branches, sawdust and other agricultural and forestry waste. One of the alternatives is to obtain biochar from industrial sewage sludge, however, the use of such a product could be limited due to high quantities of heavy metals in the biochar as a product. Total concentration of heavy metals provides only limited information on the behavior of heavy metals, therefore, batch leaching and up-flow percolation leaching tests were applied to study the leaching of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu from (biochar produced from two types of sewage sludge: from paper mill and leather industries.

  14. Innovator Organizations in New Drug Development: Assessing the Sustainability of the Biopharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S; Moore, Ryan

    2016-06-23

    The way new medicines are discovered and brought to market has fundamentally changed over the last 30 years. Our previous analysis showed that biotechnology companies had contributed significantly to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of new molecular entities up to the mid-1980s, when the trends started to decline. Although intriguing, the focus on biotechnology necessarily precluded the wider question of how the biopharmaceutical industry has been delivering on its goals to develop new drugs. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of all biopharmaceutical innovators and uncover unexpected findings. The present biopharmaceutical industry grew steadily from 1800 to 1950 and then stagnated for two decades, before a burst of growth attributable to the biotechnology revolution took place; but consolidation has reduced the number of active and independent innovators to a level not experienced since 1945. The trajectories and trends we observe raise fundamental questions about biopharmaceutical innovators and the sustainability of the drug-development enterprise.

  15. Assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting : experimental design document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2007-09-01

    An experiment is proposed which will compare the effectiveness of individual versus group brainstorming in addressing difficult, real world challenges. Previous research into electronic brainstorming has largely been limited to laboratory experiments using small groups of students answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The proposed experiment attempts to extend current findings to real-world employees and organization-relevant challenges. Our employees will brainstorm ideas over the course of several days, echoing the real-world scenario in an industrial setting. The methodology and hypotheses to be tested are presented along with two questions for the experimental brainstorming sessions. One question has been used in prior work and will allow calibration of the new results with existing work. The second question qualifies as a complicated, perhaps even wickedly hard, question, with relevance to modern management practices.

  16. Industrial Cost-Benefit Assessment for Fault-tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Blanke, M.

    1998-01-01

    Economic aspects are decisive for industrial acceptance of research concepts including the promising ideas in fault tolerant control. Fault tolerance is the ability of a system to detect, isolate and accommodate a fault, such that simple faults in a sub-system do not develop into failures...... at a system level. In a design phase for an industrial system, possibilities span from fail safe design where any single point failure is accommodated by hardware, over fault-tolerant design where selected faults are handled without extra hardware, to fault-ignorant design where no extra precaution is taken....... The objective of this paper is to help, in the early product development state, to find the economical most suitable scheme. A salient result is that with increased customer awareness of total cost of ownership, new products can benefit significantly from applying fault tolerant control principles....

  17. The Policy Objectives of a Biofuel Industry in Canada: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny G. Le Roy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada has a huge stock of biomass resources, which provides a basis (and a temptation for development of a major bio-fuels industry. Both federal and provincial governments have engaged in a wide array of subsidies, mandates, and other measures to stimulate production and consumption of biofuels. As a result, biofuels has become a growth industry in Canada with production of ethanol almost 10 times higher than it was ten years earlier. However, this has come at considerable cost to taxpayers. Increased biofuel production has resulted in minimal reduction in greenhouse gases, short run (but not long run increases in net farm income (that benefited grain and oilseed producers but hurt livestock producers, large increases in the prices of farm land due to the higher grain and oilseed prices, and minimal impacts on rural economic diversification.

  18. Assessment criteria and approaches for rapid detection methods to be used in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Martin; Wang, Siyun; Post, Laurie; Nightingale, Kendra

    2014-04-01

    The number of commercially available kits and methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens continues to increase at a considerable pace, and the diversity of methods and assay formats is reaching a point where it is very difficult even for experts to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different methods and to decide which methods to choose for a certain testing need. Although a number of documents outline quantitative criteria that can be used to evaluate different detection methods (e.g., exclusivity and inclusivity), a diversity of criteria is typically used by industry to select specific methods that are used for pathogen detection. This article is intended to provide an overall outline of criteria that the food industry can use to evaluate new rapid detection methods, with a specific focus on nucleic acid-based detection methods.

  19. Value added assessment toolkit in the bakery industry of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Anatol'evna Ermakova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes content, structure and importance of value added of enterprises — participants of the value chain of the product in the food industry. The analysis of the value added is made on the example of bakeries in Orenburg region. A new concept of «quality value» is presented and indicators for its evaluation are developed. Quality is understood as value-added content and structure of the value added nature of its formation, modification and distribution between the main actors in the value chain of the product under the influence of various factors. The conducted research confirmed the hypothesis that the implementation of a larger number of activities to create the final product in a controlled set of economic agents improves their performance. It is established that the structure of the value depends not only on the performance of individual enterprises, but also on the industry in general.

  20. Assessment of biomethanation potential of selected industrial organic effluents in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata, Kusum; Kansal, Arun; Balakrishnan, Malini; Rajeshwari, K.V.; Kishore, V.V.N. [Tata Energy Research Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, 110 003 New Delhi (India)

    2002-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion is gaining wider acceptance in the present scenario over aerobic treatment due to production of biogas, which can be further used for meeting a part of energy demand. On the basis of primary and secondary data, the energy potential by the anaerobic digestion of the effluent from some of the polluting industries has been estimated in this paper. The pulp and paper industry has been found to have the maximum potential among others of the order of 1131 GWh{sub e}/a followed by distillery with a contribution of 830 GWh{sub e}/a to a total potential of 2963 GWh{sub e}/a equivalent electric energy. A total potential of 565 MW plant installation with anaerobic digestion technology has been estimated. The paper also describes the nature of wastewater generated by each sector, status of technologies for that sector in India and policy measures, which should be adopted for their large-scale adoption.